Sample records for velocity field measurement

  1. Measuring Oscillatory Velocity Fields Due to Swimming Algae

    CERN Document Server

    Guasto, Jeffrey S; Gollub, J P


    In this fluid dynamics video, we present the first time-resolved measurements of the oscillatory velocity field induced by swimming unicellular microorganisms. Confinement of the green alga C. reinhardtii in stabilized thin liquid films allows simultaneous tracking of cells and tracer particles. The measured velocity field reveals complex time-dependent flow structures, and scales inversely with distance. The instantaneous mechanical power generated by the cells is measured from the velocity fields and peaks at 15 fW. The dissipation per cycle is more than four times what steady swimming would require.

  2. Measuring average angular velocity with a smartphone magnetic field sensor (United States)

    Pili, Unofre; Violanda, Renante


    The angular velocity of a spinning object is, by standard, measured using a device called a tachometer. However, by directly using it in a classroom setting, the activity is likely to appear as less instructive and less engaging. Indeed, some alternative classroom-suitable methods for measuring angular velocity have been presented. In this paper, we present a further alternative that is smartphone-based, making use of the real-time magnetic field (simply called B-field in what follows) data gathering capability of the B-field sensor of the smartphone device as the timer for measuring average rotational period and average angular velocity. The in-built B-field sensor in smartphones has already found a number of uses in undergraduate experimental physics. For instance, in elementary electrodynamics, it has been used to explore the well-known Bio-Savart law and in a measurement of the permeability of air.

  3. Patch near field acoustic holography based on particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yong-Bin; Jacobsen, Finn; Bi, Chuan-Xing


    Patch near field acoustic holography (PNAH) based on sound pressure measurements makes it possible to reconstruct the source field near a source by measuring the sound pressure at positions on a surface. that is comparable in size to the source region of concern. Particle velocity is an alternative...... input quantity for NAH, and the advantage of using the normal component of the particle velocity rather than the sound pressure as the input of conventional spatial Fourier transform based NAH and as the input of the statistically optimized variant of NAH has recently been demonstrated. This paper......, PNAH based on particle velocity measurements can give better results than the pressure-based PNAH with a reduced number of iterations. A simulation study, as well as an experiment carried out with a pressure-velocity sound intensity probe, demonstrates these findings....

  4. Sound field separation with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Leclère, Quentin


    and the velocity in a single layer are proposed. The two methods use an equivalent source formulation with separate transfer matrices for the outgoing and incoming waves, so that the sound from the two sides of the array can be modeled independently. A weighting scheme is proposed to account for the distance......In conventional near-field acoustic holography (NAH) it is not possible to distinguish between sound from the two sides of the array, thus, it is a requirement that all the sources are confined to only one side and radiate into a free field. When this requirement cannot be fulfilled, sound field...... separation techniques make it possible to distinguish between outgoing and incoming waves from the two sides, and thus NAH can be applied. In this paper, a separation method based on the measurement of the particle velocity in two layers and another method based on the measurement of the pressure...

  5. Full field gas phase velocity measurements in microgravity (United States)

    Griffin, Devon W.; Yanis, William


    Measurement of full-field velocities via Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) is common in research efforts involving fluid motion. While such measurements have been successfully performed in the liquid phase in a microgravity environment, gas-phase measurements have been beset by difficulties with seeding and laser strength. A synthesis of techniques developed at NASA LeRC exhibits promise in overcoming these difficulties. Typical implementation of PIV involves forming the light from a pulsed laser into a sheet that is some fraction of a millimeter thick and 50 or more millimeters wide. When a particle enters this sheet during a pulse, light scattered from the particle is recorded by a detector, which may be a film plane or a CCD array. Assuming that the particle remains within the boundaries of the sheet for the second pulse and can be distinguished from neighboring particles, comparison of the two images produces an average velocity vector for the time between the pulses. If the concentration of particles in the sampling volume is sufficiently large but the particles remain discrete, a full field map may be generated.

  6. Three-dimensional instantaneous velocity field measurement using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Feb 13, 2014 ... In the present study, a digital holography microscope has been developed to study instantaneous 3D velocity field in a square channel of 1000 × 1000 2 cross-section. The flow field is seeded with polystyrene microspheres of size d p = 2.1 m. The volumetric flow rate is set equal to 20 l/min.

  7. Velocity field measurements of electrokinetic flow past a conductive cylinder (United States)

    Canpolat, Cetin; Beskok, Ali


    Using the micro particle-image-velocimetry technique, electrokinetic (EK) flow past a conductive circular cylinder (D=0.67 mm) is measured in a rectangular cross-section PDMS/glass microchannel (H=0.1 mm, W=1.0 mm and L=5.3 mm). EK transport in such a system experiences electrophoresis (EP) of the PIV particles, electroosmotic flow (EOF) due to the channel walls, and induced charge electroosmotic (ICEO) flow due to the conductive cylinder. Experiments are conducted using 1xPBS buffer diluted in DI water, and the buffer pH is fixed at 2.05 using HCl solution. This pH value is shown to nearly eliminate the electrophoresis of 0.5 micron carboxylate modified spherical micro-particles used in the PIV studies. Suppression of EP enabled direct measurements of local ICEO flow and its interaction with the global EOF in the channel. By systematically varying the applied electric field from 5 V to 40 V, changes in the velocity field are recorded and correlated with the theoretical trends of EOF and ICEO flow. C.C. acknowledges the support of TUBITAK for this study.

  8. Three-dimensional instantaneous velocity field measurement using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Feb 13, 2014 ... Abstract. In the present study, a digital holography microscope has been developed to study instantaneous 3D velocity field in a square channel of 1000 × 1000 μm2 cross-section. The flow field is seeded with polystyrene microspheres of size dp = 2.1 μm. The volumetric flow rate is set equal to 20 μl/min.

  9. An algorithm to estimate unsteady and quasi-steady pressure fields from velocity field measurements. (United States)

    Dabiri, John O; Bose, Sanjeeb; Gemmell, Brad J; Colin, Sean P; Costello, John H


    We describe and characterize a method for estimating the pressure field corresponding to velocity field measurements such as those obtained by using particle image velocimetry. The pressure gradient is estimated from a time series of velocity fields for unsteady calculations or from a single velocity field for quasi-steady calculations. The corresponding pressure field is determined based on median polling of several integration paths through the pressure gradient field in order to reduce the effect of measurement errors that accumulate along individual integration paths. Integration paths are restricted to the nodes of the measured velocity field, thereby eliminating the need for measurement interpolation during this step and significantly reducing the computational cost of the algorithm relative to previous approaches. The method is validated by using numerically simulated flow past a stationary, two-dimensional bluff body and a computational model of a three-dimensional, self-propelled anguilliform swimmer to study the effects of spatial and temporal resolution, domain size, signal-to-noise ratio and out-of-plane effects. Particle image velocimetry measurements of a freely swimming jellyfish medusa and a freely swimming lamprey are analyzed using the method to demonstrate the efficacy of the approach when applied to empirical data.

  10. A simple algorithm to estimate pressure fields from velocity field measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Dabiri, John O


    This note briefly describes and characterizes a method for estimating the pressure field corresponding to instantaneous velocity field measurements. The algorithm is based on median polling of several integration paths through the measurement domain in order to reduce the effect of measurement errors that accumulate along individual integration paths. Integration paths are restricted to the nodes of the measured velocity field, thereby eliminating the need for measurement interpolation during integration of the pressure gradient field and significantly reducing the computational cost of the algorithm relative to previous approaches. The algorithm is validated using a numerically-simulated bluff-body flow to study the effects of spatial resolution, domain size, and signal-to-noise ratio.

  11. Near-field acoustic holography with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren

    Near-field acoustic holography (NAH) is a powerful sound source identification technique that makes it possible to reconstruct and extract all the information of the sound field radiated by a source in a very efficient manner, readily providing a complete representation of the acoustic field under...... examination. This is crucial in many areas of acoustics where such a thorough insight into the sound radiated by a source can be essential. This study examines novel acoustic array technology in near-field acoustic holography and sound source identification. The study focuses on three aspects, namely the use...... of particle velocity measurements and combined pressure-velocity measurements in NAH, the relation between the near-field and the far-field radiation from sound sources via the supersonic acoustic intensity, and finally, the reconstruction of sound fields using rigid spherical microphone arrays. Measurement...

  12. A sound field separation technique based on measurements with pressure-velocity probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yong-Bin; Chen, Xin-Zhao; Jacobsen, Finn


    It has recently been shown that statistically optimized near field acoustic holography based on measurement with an array of pressure-velocity transducers makes it possible to distinguish between sources on the two sides of the array and thus suppress the influence of a disturbing source [F...

  13. A simple measuring technique of surface flow velocity to analyze the behavior of velocity fields in hydraulic engineering applications. (United States)

    Tellez, Jackson; Gomez, Manuel; Russo, Beniamino; Redondo, Jose M.


    An important achievement in hydraulic engineering is the proposal and development of new techniques for the measurement of field velocities in hydraulic problems. The technological advances in digital cameras with high resolution and high speed found in the market, and the advances in digital image processing techniques now provides a tremendous potential to measure and study the behavior of the water surface flows. This technique was applied at the Laboratory of Hydraulics at the Technical University of Catalonia - Barcelona Tech to study the 2D velocity fields in the vicinity of a grate inlet. We used a platform to test grate inlets capacity with dimensions of 5.5 m long and 4 m wide allowing a zone of useful study of 5.5m x 3m, where the width is similar of the urban road lane. The platform allows you to modify the longitudinal slopes from 0% to 10% and transversal slope from 0% to 4%. Flow rates can arrive to 200 l/s. In addition a high resolution camera with 1280 x 1024 pixels resolution with maximum speed of 488 frames per second was used. A novel technique using particle image velocimetry to measure surface flow velocities has been developed and validated with the experimental data from the grate inlets capacity. In this case, the proposed methodology can become a useful tools to understand the velocity fields of the flow approaching the inlet where the traditional measuring equipment have serious problems and limitations. References DigiFlow User Guide. (2012), (June). Russo, B., Gómez, M., & Tellez, J. (2013). Methodology to Estimate the Hydraulic Efficiency of Nontested Continuous Transverse Grates. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 139(10), 864-871. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000625 Teresa Vila (1), Jackson Tellez (1), Jesus Maria Sanchez (2), Laura Sotillos (1), Margarita Diez (3, 1), and J., & (1), M. R. (2014). Diffusion in fractal wakes and convective thermoelectric flows. Geophysical Research Abstracts - EGU General Assembly 2014

  14. High-speed non-intrusive measurements of fuel velocity fields at high-pressure injectors (United States)

    Gürtler, Johannes; Schlüßler, Raimund; Fischer, Andreas; Czarske, Jürgen


    Using a single high-speed camera and a frequency modulated laser, a novel approach is presented for fast velocity field measurements in unsteady spray flows. The velocity range is from zero up to several 100 m/s, which requires a high measurement rate and a large dynamic. Typically, flow measurements require to seed tracer particles to the fluid. A paradigm shift to seeding-free measurements is presented. The light scattered at the phase boundaries of the fluid droplets is evaluated. In order to validate the high-speed measurement system, a detailed uncertainty analysis is performed by means of measurements as well as simulations. Thereby, variations of the scattered light intensity, which are based on the high temporal velocity gradients, are found to be the main contribution to the uncertainty. The eventually measurement results, obtained at a measurement rate of 500 kHz, exhibit spray velocities ranging from 0 m/s up to 400 m/s in less than 1 ms, and the detection of unsteady and irregular flow phenomena with a characteristic time of several μs is achieved. This demonstrates the high measurement rate, the high temporal resolution and the large measurement range of the proposed high-speed measurement system.

  15. Interpretation of the electric fields measured in an ionospheric critical ionization velocity experiment (United States)

    Brenning, N.; Faelthammar, C.-G.; Marklund, G.; Haerendel, G.; Kelley, M. C.; Pfaff, R.


    The quasi-dc electric fields measured in the CRIT I ionospheric release experiment are studied. In the experiment, two identical barium shaped charges were fired toward a main payload, and three-dimensional measurements of the electric field inside the streams were made. The relevance of proposed mechanisms for electron heating in the critical ionization velocity (CIV) mechanism is addressed. It is concluded that both the 'homogeneous' and the 'ionizing front' models probably are valid, but in different parts of the streams. It is also possible that electrons are directly accelerated by a magnetic field-aligned component of the electric field. The coupling between the ambient ionosphere and the ionized barium stream is more complicated that is usually assumed in CIV theories, with strong magnetic-field-aligned electric fields and probably current limitation as important processes.

  16. Measurement of electroosmotic and electrophoretic velocities using pulsed and sinusoidal electric fields. (United States)

    Sadek, Samir H; Pimenta, Francisco; Pinho, Fernando T; Alves, Manuel A


    In this work, we explore two methods to simultaneously measure the electroosmotic mobility in microchannels and the electrophoretic mobility of micron-sized tracer particles. The first method is based on imposing a pulsed electric field, which allows to isolate electrophoresis and electroosmosis at the startup and shutdown of the pulse, respectively. In the second method, a sinusoidal electric field is generated and the mobilities are found by minimizing the difference between the measured velocity of tracer particles and the velocity computed from an analytical expression. Both methods produced consistent results using polydimethylsiloxane microchannels and polystyrene micro-particles, provided that the temporal resolution of the particle tracking velocimetry technique used to compute the velocity of the tracer particles is fast enough to resolve the diffusion time-scale based on the characteristic channel length scale. Additionally, we present results with the pulse method for viscoelastic fluids, which show a more complex transient response with significant velocity overshoots and undershoots after the start and the end of the applied electric pulse, respectively. © 2016 The Authors. Electrophoresis published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Velocity and magnetic field measurements of Taylor plumes in SSX under different boundary conditions (United States)

    Kaur, Manjit; Brown, M. R.; Han, J.; Shrock, J. E.; Schaffner, D. A.


    The SSX device has been modified by the addition of a 1 m long glass extension for accommodating pulsed theta pinch coils. The Taylor plumes are launched from a magnetized plasma gun and flow to an expansion volume downstream. The time of flight (TOF) measurements of these plumes are carried out using a linear array of Ḃ probes (separated by 10cm). TOF of the plasma plumes from one probe location to the next is determined by direct comparison of the magnetic field structures as well as by carrying out a cross-correlation analysis. With the glass boundary, the typical velocity of the Taylor plumes is found to be 25km /s , accompanied by a fast plasma (>= 50km /s) at the leading edge. Magnetic field embedded in the Taylor plumes is measured in the expansion chamber using a three-dimensional array of Ḃ probes and is found to be 700G . Some flux conservation of the Taylor plumes is provided by using a resistive (soak time 3 μs) and a mesh (soak time 170 μs > discharge time) liner around the glass tube for improving the downstream Taylor state velocity as well as the magnetic field. The results from these different boundary conditions will be presented. Work supported by DOE OFES and ARPA-E ALPHA programs.

  18. Capabilities of optical SIV technique in measurements of flow velocity vector field dynamics (United States)

    Mikheev, N. I.; Dushin, N. S.; Saushin, I. I.


    The main difference between Smoke Image Velocimetry (SIV) technique and the conventional PIV is that higher concentration of tracer particles typical of smoke visualization techniques is used in SIV. Not separate particles but smoke structures with continuous pixel intensity are visible in the recorded images. Owing to better smoke reflectivity, higher spatial and temporal resolution is obtained in the case when relatively simple equipment (camera and laser) is used. It is simple enough to perform SIV measurements of velocity vector field dynamics at the frequency exceeding 15000 Hz, which offers new opportunities in unsteady flow examination. The paper describes fundamentals of SIV technique and gives some new results obtained using this method for the measurements that require high spatial and temporal resolution. The latter include frequency spectra of turbulent velocity fluctuations, turbulence dissipation profiles in the boundary layer and higher-order moments of velocity fluctuations. It has been shown that SIV technique considerably extends the potential of experimental studies of turbulence and flow structure in high-speed processes.

  19. Measuring curvature and velocity vector fields for waves of cardiac excitation in 2-D media. (United States)

    Kay, Matthew W; Gray, Richard A


    Excitable media theory predicts the effect of electrical wavefront morphology on the dynamics of propagation in cardiac tissue. It specifies that a convex wavefront propagates slower and a concave wavefront propagates faster than a planar wavefront. Because of this, wavefront curvature is thought to be an important functional mechanism of cardiac arrhythmias. However, the curvature of wavefronts during an arrhythmia are generally unknown. We introduce a robust, automated method to measure the curvature vector field of discretely characterized, arbitrarily shaped, two-dimensional (2-D) wavefronts. The method relies on generating a smooth, continuous parameterization of the shape of a wave using cubic smoothing splines fitted to an isopotential at a specified level, which we choose to be -30 mV. Twice differentiating the parametric form provides local curvature vectors along the wavefront and waveback. Local conduction velocities are computed as the wave speed along lines normal to the parametric form. In this way, the curvature and velocity vector field for wavefronts and wavebacks can be measured. We applied the method to data sampled from a 2-D numerical model and several examples are provided to illustrate its usefulness for studying the dynamics of cardiac propagation in 2-D media.

  20. Technique for velocity vector field dynamics measurement on the basis of smoke visualization of flow (United States)

    Mikheev, N. I.; Dushin, N. S.; Saushin, I. I.


    The main difference between Smoke Image Velocimetry (SIV) technique and traditional PIV is that the smoke with continuous intensity in the image is seeded into the flow instead of separate particles. Owing to better smoke reflectivity, relatively primitive equipment is enough to measure the dynamics of velocity vector fields with the frequency of 25 kHz and higher. The image processing algorithm is adapted to high tracer concentration and relatively large displacement of smoke patches between two consecutive frames. The results of SIV testing are presented, including the estimations of the most measurement noise sensitive characteristics of turbulence calculated from spatial derivatives of fluctuations of small-scale turbulence. The measurement results have been shown to agree well with the data obtained by other methods. Application of SIV technique opens new possibilities in the research of flow pattern and turbulence in unsteady and fast processes.

  1. Clear and Measurable Signature of Modified Gravity in the Galaxy Velocity Field (United States)

    Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Barreira, Alexandre; Frenk, Carlos S.; Li, Baojiu; Cole, Shaun


    The velocity field of dark matter and galaxies reflects the continued action of gravity throughout cosmic history. We show that the low-order moments of the pairwise velocity distribution v12 are a powerful diagnostic of the laws of gravity on cosmological scales. In particular, the projected line-of-sight galaxy pairwise velocity dispersion σ12(r) is very sensitive to the presence of modified gravity. Using a set of high-resolution N-body simulations, we compute the pairwise velocity distribution and its projected line-of-sight dispersion for a class of modified gravity theories: the chameleon f(R) gravity and Galileon gravity (cubic and quartic). The velocities of dark matter halos with a wide range of masses would exhibit deviations from general relativity at the (5-10)σ level. We examine strategies for detecting these deviations in galaxy redshift and peculiar velocity surveys. If detected, this signature would be a "smoking gun" for modified gravity.

  2. Comparison of pressure reconstruction approaches based on measured and simulated velocity fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manthey Samuel


    Full Text Available The pressure drop over a pathological vessel section can be used as an important diagnostic indicator. However, it cannot be measured non-invasively. Multiple approaches for pressure reconstruction based on velocity information are available. Regarding in-vivo data introducing uncertainty these approaches may not be robust and therefore validation is required. Within this study, three independent methods to calculate pressure losses from velocity fields were implemented and compared: A three dimensional and a one dimensional method based on the Pressure Poisson Equation (PPE as well as an approach based on the work-energy equation for incompressible fluids (WERP. In order to evaluate the different approaches, phantoms from pure Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations and in-vivo PC-MRI measurements were used. The comparison of all three methods reveals a good agreement with respect to the CFD pressure solutions for simple geometries. However, for more complex geometries all approaches lose accuracy. Hence, this study demonstrates the need for a careful selection of an appropriate pressure reconstruction algorithm.

  3. Ion velocity distribution function and electric field measurements in a dual-frequency rf sheath (United States)

    Moore, Nathaniel; Gekelman, Walter; Prybil, Patrick; Zhang, Yiting; Kushner, Mark


    Ion dynamics are investigated in a dual-frequency rf sheath above a 300 mm diameter biased silicon wafer in an industrial inductively coupled (440 kHz, 500 W) plasma etch tool. Ion velocity distribution (IVD) function measurements in the argon plasma are taken using laser induced fluorescence (LIF). Planar sheets of laser light enter the chamber both parallel and perpendicular to the surface of the wafer in order to measure both parallel and perpendicular IVDs at thousands of spatial positions. A fast (30 ns exposure) CCD camera measures the resulting fluorescence with a spatial resolution of 0.4 mm. The dual-frequency bias on the wafer is comprised of a 2 MHz low frequency bias and an adjustable 10-20 MHz high frequency bias. The bias voltages may be switched on and off (frep up to 1 kHz, duty cycle 10-90%). IVDs are measured with several different bias and timing combinations. For the 2 MHz bias, it was found that the IVD is uniform to within 5% across the wafer. IVDs as a function of phase of the bias were also measured. The electric field in the sheath was measured volumetrically over the wafer at thousands of positions using an emissive probe. The experimental results are compared with a simulation specifically designed for this particular plasma tool. Work supported by the NSF and DOE.

  4. Simultaneous measurement of 3D zooplankton trajectories and surrounding fluid velocity field in complex flows. (United States)

    Adhikari, Deepak; Gemmell, Brad J; Hallberg, Michael P; Longmire, Ellen K; Buskey, Edward J


    We describe an automated, volumetric particle image velocimetry (PIV) and tracking method that measures time-resolved, 3D zooplankton trajectories and surrounding volumetric fluid velocity fields simultaneously and non-intrusively. The method is demonstrated for groups of copepods flowing past a wall-mounted cylinder. We show that copepods execute escape responses when subjected to a strain rate threshold upstream of a cylinder, but the same threshold range elicits no escape responses in the turbulent wake downstream. The method was also used to document the instantaneous slip velocity of zooplankton and the resulting differences in trajectory between zooplankton and non-inertial fluid particles in the unsteady wake flow, showing the method's capability to quantify drift for both passive and motile organisms in turbulent environments. Applications of the method extend to any group of organisms interacting with the surrounding fluid environment, where organism location, larger-scale eddies and smaller-scale fluid deformation rates can all be tracked and analyzed. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Simultaneous volume-velocity measurements in the near field of atomizing sprays (United States)

    Pham, Phuong X.; Kourmatzis, Agisilaos; Masri, Assaad R.


    Direct visualization of atomizing sprays using backlight imaging is commonly used to obtain both qualitative and quantitative information on spray morphology. Recently, the standard backlight technique was extended to ‘dual-angle’ imaging by the authors (Kourmatzis et al 2017 Meas. Sci. Technol. 28 035302), to enable quantification of the volume of arbitrarily shaped fragments to accuracies of the order of 10% . In this contribution, dual-angle particle-tracking velocimetry (PTV) has been developed, hence extending our capability to measure volume, velocity, and flow rate of atomizing fragments simultaneously, regardless of their shapes. The experimental layout consists of two time-shifted lasers, where each beam is split in two, two long-distance microscope lenses and two cameras oriented 90 degrees towards each other, operating in particle image velocimetry mode. The accuracy of the joint volume-velocity measurements has been carefully assessed using mono-dispersed droplets and microspheres of known size. The technique has also been examined for different air-assisted sprays covering regimes from Rayleigh to multi-mode breakup. By introducing terminologies such as ‘fragment residence time’ and ‘fragment-specific volume flow rate’, the overall volume flow rate of both the mono-dispersed drops as well as low Weber number air-assisted sprays may be recovered. This PTV method is a powerful diagnostic tool to simultaneously track and size arbitrarily shaped liquid fragments. It also provides a viable technique to measure liquid mass flux in the near field of sprays.

  6. A 5-min running field test as a measurement of maximal aerobic velocity. (United States)

    Berthon, P; Fellmann, N; Bedu, M; Beaune, B; Dabonneville, M; Coudert, J; Chamoux, A


    Based on a theoretical approach from world record running data, we have previously calculated that the most suitable duration for measuring maximal aerobic velocity (Vamax) by a field test was 5 min (Vamax(5)). The aim of this study was, therefore, to check this hypothesis on 48 men of various levels of physical fitness by comparing (Vmax(5)) with (Vamax) determined at the last step of a progressive treadmill exercise test when the subject felt exhausted (Vamax(t)) and during a test on a running track, behind a cyclist (following an established protocol) (Vamax(c)). For each test, (VO2max) was also measured by a direct method on a treadmill (VO2max(1)) and calculated by an equation for field tests (VO2max(5) and VO2max(c)). The Vamax(5) [17.1 (SD 2.2) km.h-1] and (Vamax(c)) [(18.2 (SD 2.4) km.h-1] were significantly higher than (Vamax(t)) [16.9 (SD 2.6) km.h-1; P < 0.001]. The (Vamax(t)) was strongly correlated with (Vamax(5)) (r = 0.94) and (Vamax(c)) (r = 0.95) (P < 0.001). The best identity and correlation between (Vamax(5)) and track performances were found in the runners (n = 9) with experience over a distance of 3,000 m. The VO2max(5) and (VO2max(c)) were higher than VO2max(t) (+ 5.0% and + 13.7%, respectively; P < 0.001) and VO2max(t) was highly correlated with Vamax(5) (r = 0.90; P < 0.001). These results suggest that the 5-min field test, easy to apply, provided precise information on Vamax and to a lesser degree on VO2max.

  7. Velocity flow field and water level measurements in shoaling and breaking water waves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mukaro, R


    Full Text Available In this paper we report on the laboratory investigations of breaking water waves. Measurements of the water levels and instantaneous fluid velocities were conducted in water waves breaking on a sloping beach within a glass flume. Instantaneous water...

  8. Kriging interpolating cosmic velocity field (United States)

    Yu, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Jing, Yipeng; Zhang, Pengjie


    Volume-weighted statistics of large-scale peculiar velocity is preferred by peculiar velocity cosmology, since it is free of the uncertainties of galaxy density bias entangled in observed number density-weighted statistics. However, measuring the volume-weighted velocity statistics from galaxy (halo/simulation particle) velocity data is challenging. Therefore, the exploration of velocity assignment methods with well-controlled sampling artifacts is of great importance. For the first time, we apply the Kriging interpolation to obtain the volume-weighted velocity field. Kriging is a minimum variance estimator. It predicts the most likely velocity for each place based on the velocity at other places. We test the performance of Kriging quantified by the E-mode velocity power spectrum from simulations. Dependences on the variogram prior used in Kriging, the number nk of the nearby particles to interpolate, and the density nP of the observed sample are investigated. First, we find that Kriging induces 1% and 3% systematics at k ˜0.1 h Mpc-1 when nP˜6 ×1 0-2(h-1 Mpc )-3 and nP˜6 ×1 0-3(h-1 Mpc )-3 , respectively. The deviation increases for decreasing nP and increasing k . When nP≲6 ×1 0-4(h-1 Mpc )-3 , a smoothing effect dominates small scales, causing significant underestimation of the velocity power spectrum. Second, increasing nk helps to recover small-scale power. However, for nP≲6 ×1 0-4(h-1 Mpc )-3 cases, the recovery is limited. Finally, Kriging is more sensitive to the variogram prior for a lower sample density. The most straightforward application of Kriging on the cosmic velocity field does not show obvious advantages over the nearest-particle method [Y. Zheng, P. Zhang, Y. Jing, W. Lin, and J. Pan, Phys. Rev. D 88, 103510 (2013)] and could not be directly applied to cosmology so far. However, whether potential improvements may be achieved by more delicate versions of Kriging is worth further investigation.

  9. Experimental measurements on a powder avalanche impacting an obstacle: 3D velocity field and exerted pressures (United States)

    Caccamo, P.; Naaim-Bouvet, F.; Bellot, H.; Ousset, F.; Faug, T.


    In the framework of the Alcotra DYNAVAL Interreg project, this experimental study aims at investigating the dynamical behaviour of a powder snow avalanche impacting an obstacle. Tests have been realised in a water tank where a salty water solution (rho=1.2kg m-3) flows down in a channel and impacts an obstacle at a distance d=1m from the releasing gate. The set-up geometry reproduces a simplified small-scale model of the real avalanche site of Taconnaz (Chamonix, France). A high-resolution acoustic velocimeter allows measurements on the 3D flow velocity. By measuring the velocity just upstream and downstream of the obstacle, it is possible to determine the influence of the obstacle on the flow. In a lack of suitable sensors, the pressure exerted on the obstacle is calculated using the classical formula P=1/2rhoU2. Then, density values are required. A new method to measure the flow density is advanced and preliminary results are presented.

  10. Characteristics of the Taylor microscale in the solar wind/foreshock. Magnetic field and electron velocity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurgiolo, C. [Bitterroot Basic Research, Hamilton, MT (United States); Goldstein, M.L.; Vinas, A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Heliospheric Physics Lab.; Matthaeus, W.H. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Bartol Research Foundation; Fazakerley, A.N. [University College London, Dorking (United Kingdom). Mullard Space Science Lab.


    The Taylor microscale is one of the fundamental turbulence scales. Not easily estimated in the interplanetary medium employing single spacecraft data, it has generally been studied through two point correlations. In this paper we present an alternative, albeit mathematically equivalent, method for estimating the Taylor microscale ({lambda}{sub T}). We make two independent determinations employing multi-spacecraft data sets from the Cluster mission, one using magnetic field data and a second using electron velocity data. Our results using the magnetic field data set yields a scale length of 1538{+-}550 km, slightly less than, but within the same range as, values found in previous magnetic-field-based studies. During time periods where both magnetic field and electron velocity data can be used, the two values can be compared. Relative comparisons show {lambda}{sub T} computed from the velocity is often significantly smaller than that from the magnetic field data. Due to a lack of events where both measurements are available, the absolute {lambda}{sub T} based on the electron fluid velocity is not able to be determined.

  11. Quantitative Velocity Field Measurements in Reduced-Gravity Combustion Science and Fluid Physics Experiments (United States)

    Greenberg, Paul S.; Wernet, Mark P.


    Systems have been developed and demonstrated for performing quantitative velocity measurements in reduced gravity combustion science and fluid physics investigations. The unique constraints and operational environments inherent to reduced-gravity experimental facilities pose special challenges to the development of hardware and software systems. Both point and planar velocimetric capabilities are described, with particular attention being given to the development of systems to support the International Space Station laboratory. Emphasis has been placed on optical methods, primarily arising from the sensitivity of the phenomena of interest to intrusive probes. Limitations on available power, volume, data storage, and attendant expertise have motivated the use of solid-state sources and detectors, as well as efficient analysis capabilities emphasizing interactive data display and parameter control.

  12. Personal Exposure to Contaminant Sources in a Uniform Velocity Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The objective of this study has been to determine the personal exposure to a contaminant source in a uniform velocity field. This was done by full-scale measurements and computer simulations. The results showed a significant dependence on the velocity field both regarding the direction and the ma...... the usual operation range. Guidelines for personal exposure reduction in a uniform velocity field are discussed.......The objective of this study has been to determine the personal exposure to a contaminant source in a uniform velocity field. This was done by full-scale measurements and computer simulations. The results showed a significant dependence on the velocity field both regarding the direction...

  13. Maximal aerobic velocity measured by the 5-min running field test on two different fitness level groups. (United States)

    Berthon, P; Dabonneville, M; Fellmann, N; Bedu, M; Chamoux, A


    The aim of the study was to verify the validity and the accuracy of the 5-min running field test (5RFT) relatively to the classical treadmill test. Two groups of subjects were tested, the first one being made of sub-elite runners (G1, n = 18) and the second one of athletes of other individual or collective disciplines (G2, n = 23). To check the field technique, maximal aerobic velocity (vamax) and an approached VO2max calculated from vamax during the 5RFT were compared with the corresponding values directly determined during a treadmill test. vamax obtained on treadmill (vamax(t)) or during a 5RFT (vamax(5)) were significantly higher in G1 than in G2 (+3.7 km.h-1 and +3.6 km.h-1 among the test). In each group, the difference between vamax(t) and vamax(5) was not significant (19.4 +/- 1.0 vs 19.5 +/- 0.9 km.h-1 in G1; 15.7 +/- 2.2 vs 15.9 +/- 1.2 km.h-1 in G2). A significant correlation was found between vamax(t) and vamax(5) (slope = 0.92; r = 0.86 in G1; slope = 0.71; r = 0.84 in G2). In each group, the approached VO2max(5) was significantly higher than VO2max(t) (respectively 67.8 +/- 2.9 vs 63.7 +/- 3.5 in G1; 54.8 +/- 3.9 vs 52.0 +/- 3.2 in G2. Weak but significant correlations were found between VO2(t) and vamax(5) (r = 0.69 and r = 0.56 respectively in G1 and G2). In conclusion, the 5RFT allows to measure vamax accurately whatever the physical fitness of the subjects but more closely in runners than in non-runners. The low correlation between VO2max(t) and vamax(5) for both groups indicates that a vamax running field test is specific and cannot evaluate VO2max with reasonable accuracy whatever the group, runners or non-runners.

  14. Solenoidal filtering of volumetric velocity measurements using Gaussian process regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azijli, I.; Dwight, R.P.


    Volumetric velocity measurements of incompressible flows contain spurious divergence due to measurement noise, despite mass conservation dictating that the velocity field must be divergence-free (solenoidal). We investigate the use of Gaussian process regression to filter spurious divergence,

  15. Measurement of flow velocity fields in small vessel-mimic phantoms and vessels of small animals using micro ultrasonic particle image velocimetry (micro-EPIV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Ming; Niu Lili; Jiang Bo; Jin Qiaofeng; Jiang Chunxiang; Zheng Hairong [Paul C. Lauterbur Research Center for Biomedical Imaging, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen (China); Wang Yanping, E-mail: [Medical School of Jinan University, Guangzhou (China)


    Determining a multidimensional velocity field within microscale opaque fluid flows is needed in areas such as microfluidic devices, biofluid mechanics and hemodynamics research in animal studies. The ultrasonic particle image velocimetry (EchoPIV) technique is appropriate for measuring opaque flows by taking advantage of PIV and B-mode ultrasound contrast imaging. However, the use of clinical ultrasound systems for imaging flows in small structures or animals has limitations associated with spatial resolution. This paper reports on the development of a high-resolution EchoPIV technique (termed as micro-EPIV) and its application in measuring flows in small vessel-mimic phantoms and vessels of small animals. Phantom experiments demonstrate the validity of the technique, providing velocity estimates within 4.1% of the analytically derived values with regard to the flows in a small straight vessel-mimic phantom, and velocity estimates within 5.9% of the computationally simulated values with regard to the flows in a small stenotic vessel-mimic phantom. Animal studies concerning arterial and venous flows of living rats and rabbits show that the micro-EPIV-measured peak velocities within several cardiac cycles are about 25% below the values measured by the ultrasonic spectral Doppler technique. The micro-EPIV technique is able to effectively measure the flow fields within microscale opaque fluid flows.

  16. Phase-Contrast MRI measurements in intra-cranial aneurysms in-vivo of flow patterns, velocity fields and wall shear stress: A comparison with CFD (United States)

    Boussel, Loic; Rayz, Vitaliy; Martin, Alastair; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Lawton, Michael T.; Higashida, Randall; Smith, Wade S.; Young, William L.; Saloner, David


    Evolution of intracranial aneurysms is known to be related to hemodynamic forces such as Wall Shear Stress (WSS) and Maximum Shear Stress (MSS). Estimation of these parameters can be performed using numerical simulations (computational fluid dynamics - CFD) but can also be directly measured with MRI using a time-dependent 3D phase-contrast sequence with encoding of each of the three components of the velocity vectors (7D-MRV). In order to study the accuracy of 7D-MRV in estimating these parameters in–vivo, in comparison with CFD, 7D-MRV and patient-specific CFD modeling was performed for three patients who had intracranial aneurysms. A visual and a quantitative analysis of the flow pattern and the distribution of velocities, MSS, and WSS were performed between the two techniques. Spearman's coefficients of correlation between the two techniques were 0.56 for the velocity field, 0.48 for MSS and 0.59 for WSS. Visual analysis and Bland-Altman plots showed a good agreement for flow pattern and velocities but large discrepancies for MSS and WSS. In conclusion, these results indicate that in-vivo 7D-MRV can be used to measure velocity flow fields and to estimate MSS and WSS but is not currently able to provide accurate quantification of these two last parameters. PMID:19161132

  17. Field measurements of the atmospheric dry deposition fluxes and velocities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the global oceans. (United States)

    González-Gaya, Belén; Zúñiga-Rival, Javier; Ojeda, María-José; Jiménez, Begoña; Dachs, Jordi


    The atmospheric dry deposition fluxes of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been measured, for the first time, in the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Depositional fluxes for fine (0.7-2.7 μm) and coarse (>2.7 μm) aerosol fractions were simultaneously determined with the suspended aerosol phase concentrations, allowing the determination of PAH deposition velocities (vD). PAH dry deposition fluxes (FDD) bound to coarse aerosols were higher than those of fine aerosols for 83% of the measurements. Average FDD for total (fine + coarse) Σ16PAHs (sum of 16 individual PAHs) ranged from 8.33 ng m(-2)d(-1) to 52.38 ng m(-2)d(-1). Mean FDD for coarse aerosol's individual PAHs ranged between 0.13 ng m(-2)d(-1) (Perylene) and 1.96 ng m(-2)d(-1) (Methyl Pyrene), and for the fine aerosol fraction these ranged between 0.06 ng m(-2)d(-1) (Dimethyl Pyrene) and 1.25 ng m(-2)d(-1) (Methyl Chrysene). The estimated deposition velocities went from the highest mean vD for Methyl Chrysene (0.17-13.30 cm s(-1)), followed by Dibenzo(ah)Anthracene (0.29-1.38 cm s(-1)), and other high MW PAHs to minimum values of vD for Dimethyl Pyrene (oceans.

  18. New GNSS velocity field and preliminary velocity model for Ecuador (United States)

    Luna-Ludeña, Marco P.; Staller, Alejandra; Gaspar-Escribano, Jorge M.; Belén Benito, M.


    In this work, we present a new preliminary velocity model of Ecuador based on the GNSS data of the REGME network (continuous monitoring GNSS network). To date, there is no velocity model available for the country. The only existing model in the zone is the regional model VEMOS2009 for South America and Caribbean (Drewes and Heidbach, 2012). This model was developed from the SIRGAS station positions, the velocities of the SIRGAS-CON stations, and several geodynamics projects performed in the region. Just two continuous GNSS (cGNSS) stations of Ecuador were taking into account in the VEMOS2009 model. The first continuous station of the REGME network was established in 2008. At present, it is composed by 32 continuous GNSS stations, covering the country. All the stations provided data during at least two years. We processed the data of the 32 GNSS stations of REGME for the 2008-2014 period, as well as 20 IGS stations in order to link to the global reference frame IGb08 (ITRF2008). GPS data were processed using Bernese 5.0 software (Dach et al., 2007). We obtained and analyzed the GNSS coordinate time series of the 32 REGME stations and we calculated the GPS-derived horizontal velocity field of the country. Velocities in ITRF2008 were transformed into a South American fixed reference frame, using the Euler pole calculated from 8 cGNSS stations throughout this plate. Our velocity field is consistent with the tectonics of the country and contributes to a better understanding of it. From the horizontal velocity field, we determined a preliminary model using the kriging geostatistical technique. To check the results we use the cross-validation method. The differences between the observed and estimated values range from ± 5 mm. This is a new velocity model obtained from GNSS data for Ecuador.

  19. Time-Synchronized Continuous Wave Laser-Induced Fluorescence Velocity Measurements of a Diverging Cusped Field Thruster (United States)


    comparator signal and raw emission plus fluorescence signal from the PMT are then fed into an SRS SR-250 Boxcar Averager Time-Sync CW-LIF Velocity...the comparator signal, the boxcar averager samples the PMT signal for a period of time defined by the gate width. The last sampled value of the PMT...signal is held until the next comparator trigger, at which point the boxcar averager re-samples and holds the PMT signal. Fig. 5 provides an example of

  20. Velocity measurement by vibro-acoustic Doppler. (United States)

    Nabavizadeh, Alireza; Urban, Matthew W; Kinnick, Randall R; Fatemi, Mostafa


    We describe the theoretical principles of a new Doppler method, which uses the acoustic response of a moving object to a highly localized dynamic radiation force of the ultrasound field to calculate the velocity of the moving object according to Doppler frequency shift. This method, named vibro-acoustic Doppler (VAD), employs two ultrasound beams separated by a slight frequency difference, Δf, transmitting in an X-focal configuration. Both ultrasound beams experience a frequency shift because of the moving objects and their interaction at the joint focal zone produces an acoustic frequency shift occurring around the low-frequency (Δf) acoustic emission signal. The acoustic emission field resulting from the vibration of the moving object is detected and used to calculate its velocity. We report the formula that describes the relation between Doppler frequency shift of the emitted acoustic field and the velocity of the moving object. To verify the theory, we used a string phantom. We also tested our method by measuring fluid velocity in a tube. The results show that the error calculated for both string and fluid velocities is less than 9.1%. Our theory shows that in the worst case, the error is 0.54% for a 25° angle variation for the VAD method compared with an error of -82.6% for a 25° angle variation for a conventional continuous wave Doppler method. An advantage of this method is that, unlike conventional Doppler, it is not sensitive to angles between the ultrasound beams and direction of motion.


    The poster shows comparisons of wind velocities and sand fluxes between field measurements and a computer model, called QUIC (Quick Urban & Industrial Complex). The comparisons were made for a small desert region in New Mexico.

  2. Demonstration of synchronised scanning Lidar measurements of 2D velocity fields in a boundary-layer wind tunnel (United States)

    van Dooren, M. F.; Kühn, M.; PetroviĆ, V.; Bottasso, C. L.; Campagnolo, F.; Sjöholm, M.; Angelou, N.; Mikkelsen, T.; Croce, A.; Zasso, A.


    This paper combines the currently relevant research methodologies of scaled wind turbine model experiments in wind tunnels with remote-sensing short-range WindScanner Lidar measurement technology. The wind tunnel of the Politecnico di Milano was equipped with three wind turbine models and two short-range WindScanner Lidars to demonstrate the benefits of synchronised scanning Lidars in such experimental surroundings for the first time. The dual- Lidar system can provide fully synchronised trajectory scans with sampling time scales ranging from seconds to minutes. First, staring mode measurements were compared to hot wire probe measurements commonly used in wind tunnels. This yielded goodness of fit coefficients of 0.969 and 0.902 for the 1 Hz averaged u- and v-components of the wind speed, respectively, validating the 2D measurement capability of the Lidar scanners. Subsequently, the measurement of wake profiles on a line as well as wake area scans were executed to illustrate the applicability of Lidar scanning to measuring small scale wind flow effects. The downsides of Lidar with respect to the hot wire probes are the larger measurement probe volume and the loss of some measurements due to moving blades. In contrast, the benefits are the high flexibility in conducting both point measurements and area scanning, and the fact that remote sensing techniques do not disturb the flow while measuring. The research campaign revealed a high potential for using short-range WindScanner Lidar for accurately measuring small scale flow structures in a wind tunnel.

  3. Demonstration of synchronised scanning Lidar measurements of 2D velocity fields in a boundary-layer wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dooren, M F; Kühn, M.; Petrovic, V.


    compared to hot wire probe measurements commonly used in wind tunnels. This yielded goodness of fit coefficients of 0.969 and 0.902 for the 1 Hz averaged u- and v-components of the wind speed, respectively, validating the 2D measurement capability of the Lidar scanners. Subsequently, the measurement......This paper combines the currently relevant research methodologies of scaled wind turbine model experiments in wind tunnels with remote-sensing short-range WindScanner Lidar measurement technology. The wind tunnel of the Politecnico di Milano was equipped with three wind turbine models and two short......-range WindScanner Lidars to demonstrate the benefits of synchronised scanning Lidars in such experimental surroundings for the first time. The dualLidar system can provide fully synchronised trajectory scans with sampling time scales ranging from seconds to minutes. First, staring mode measurements were...

  4. Drag and Lift Estimation from 3-D Velocity Field Data Measured by Multi-Plane Stereo PIV


    加藤, 裕之; 松島, 紀佐; 上野, 真; 小池, 俊輔; 渡辺, 重哉; Kato, Hiroyuki; Matsushima, Kisa; Ueno, Makoto; Koike, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Shigeya


    For airplane design, it is crucial to have tools that can accurately predict airplane drag and lift. Usually drag and lift prediction methods are force measurement using wind tunnel balance. Unfortunately, balance data do not provide information contribution of airplane to components to drag and lift for more precise and competitive airplane design. To obtain such information, a wake integration method for use drag and lift estimation was developed for use in wake survey data analysis. Wake s...

  5. Radial Velocity Variability of Field Brown Dwarfs (United States)

    Prato, L.; Mace, G. N.; Rice, E. L.; McLean, I. S.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Burgasser, A. J.; Kim, Sungsoo S.


    We present paper six of the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey, an analysis of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R ˜ 20,000) spectra of 25 field dwarf systems (3 late-type M dwarfs, 16 L dwarfs, and 6 T dwarfs) taken with the NIRSPEC infrared spectrograph at the W. M. Keck Observatory. With a radial velocity (RV) precision of ˜2 km s-1, we are sensitive to brown dwarf companions in orbits with periods of a few years or less given a mass ratio of 0.5 or greater. We do not detect any spectroscopic binary brown dwarfs in the sample. Given our target properties, and the frequency and cadence of observations, we use a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the detection probability of our sample. Even with a null detection result, our 1σ upper limit for very low mass binary frequency is 18%. Our targets included seven known, wide brown dwarf binary systems. No significant RV variability was measured in our multi-epoch observations of these systems, even for those pairs for which our data spanned a significant fraction of the orbital period. Specialized techniques are required to reach the high precisions sensitive to motion in orbits of very low-mass systems. For eight objects, including six T dwarfs, we present the first published high-resolution spectra, many with high signal to noise, that will provide valuable comparison data for models of brown dwarf atmospheres.

  6. Near field acoustic holography with particle velocity transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Liu, Yang


    Near field acoustic holography is usually based on measurement of the pressure. This paper describes an investigation of an alternative technique that involves measuring the normal component of the acoustic particle velocity. A simulation study shows that there is no appreciable difference between...... by an experimental investigation made with a p-u sound intensity probe produced by Microflown....

  7. Note: Development of a compact x-ray particle image velocimetry for measuring opaque flows. II. Three-dimensional velocity field reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sung Yong [Center for Biofluid and Biomimic Research, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyojadong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Joon [Center for Biofluid and Biomimic Research, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Integrative Biosciences and Biotechnology, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyojadong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)


    An x-ray particle image velocimetry (PIV) system using a cone-beam type x-ray was developed. The field of view and the spatial resolution are 36 x 24.05 mm{sup 2} and 20 {mu}m, respectively. The three-dimensional velocity field was reconstructed by adopting the least squares minimum residue and simultaneous multiplicative algebraic reconstruction techniques. According to a simulation study with synthetic images, the reconstructions were acceptable with 7 projections and 50 iterations. The reconstructed and supplied flow rates differed by only about 6.49% in experimental verification. The x-ray tomographic PIV system would be useful for 3D velocity field information of opaque flows.

  8. The OPERA neutrino velocity measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wonsak, Bjoern [Universitaet Hamburg (Germany)


    OPERA is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to find tau neutrinos appearing in a pure muon neutrino beam. Recently, a measurement of the flight time of the neutrinos between the CNGS at CERN and the OPERA detector at the LNGS has been performed. It was found that the neutrinos arrive at the detector significantly earlier in time than expected if travelling at the speed of light. In this talk, the main aspects of this measurement are presented, including timing and geodesy issues and the analysis procedure. An update concerning results with a fine structured time distribution of the beam is given, as well as latest information on some additional cross checks.

  9. Measurement of velocity and velocity derivatives based on pattern tracking in 3D LIF images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deusch, S.; Merava, H.; Rys, P. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technol., Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Chem. Eng.; Dracos, T. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Untergasse 14, 8126 Zumikon (Switzerland)


    Pattern tracking in consecutive 3D LIF images based on least squares matching (LSM) of grey levels has been developed recently for velocity and velocity gradient measurements. The shortcomings of this method are clearly shown. The present article presents an improvement on this method by introducing a local multi-patch (LMP) technique through the LSM approach. The method is validated using the flow field of a turbulent channel flow obtained by direct numerical simulation (DNS) and a synthetic image with grey-level patterns. The results show that LMP matching allows the determination of the velocity and the velocity gradient fields with high accuracy including the second derivatives. Measurements of a round non-buoyant jet are presented which demonstrate the good performance of the method when applied under laboratory conditions. This method can also be applied on two-dimensional images provided that the flow is strictly two-dimensional. (orig.)

  10. Measurement of velocity and velocity derivatives based on pattern tracking in 3D LIF images (United States)

    Deusch, S.; Merava, H.; Dracos, T.; Rys, P.

    Pattern tracking in consecutive 3D LIF images based on least squares matching (LSM) of grey levels has been developed recently for velocity and velocity gradient measurements. The shortcomings of this method are clearly shown. The present article presents an improvement on this method by introducing a local multi-patch (LMP) technique through the LSM approach. The method is validated using the flow field of a turbulent channel flow obtained by direct numerical simulation (DNS) and a synthetic image with grey-level patterns. The results show that LMP matching allows the determination of the velocity and the velocity gradient fields with high accuracy including the second derivatives. Measurements of a round non-buoyant jet are presented which demonstrate the good performance of the method when applied under laboratory conditions. This method can also be applied on two-dimensional images provided that the flow is strictly two-dimensional.

  11. Wave measurements using GPS velocity signals. (United States)

    Doong, Dong-Jiing; Lee, Beng-Chun; Kao, Chia Chuen


    This study presents the idea of using GPS-output velocity signals to obtain wave measurement data. The application of the transformation from a velocity spectrum to a displacement spectrum in conjunction with the directional wave spectral theory are the core concepts in this study. Laboratory experiments were conducted to verify the accuracy of the inversed displacement of the surface of the sea. A GPS device was installed on a moored accelerometer buoy to verify the GPS-derived wave parameters. It was determined that loss or drifting of the GPS signal, as well as energy spikes occurring in the low frequency band led to erroneous measurements. Through the application of moving average skill and a process of frequency cut-off to the GPS output velocity, correlations between GPS-derived, and accelerometer buoy-measured significant wave heights and periods were both improved to 0.95. The GPS-derived one-dimensional and directional wave spectra were in agreement with the measurements. Despite the direction verification showing a 10° bias, this exercise still provided useful information with sufficient accuracy for a number of specific purposes. The results presented in this study indicate that using GPS output velocity is a reasonable alternative for the measurement of ocean waves.

  12. Measurement of Poloidal Velocity on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald E. Bell and Russell Feder


    A diagnostic suite has been developed to measure impurity poloidal flow using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Toroidal and poloidal viewing systems measure all quantities required to determine the radial electric field. Two sets of up/down symmetric poloidal views are used to measure both active emission in the plane of the neutral heating beams and background emission in a radial plane away from the neutral beams. Differential velocity measurements isolate the line-integrated poloidal velocity from apparent flows due to the energy-dependent chargeexchange cross section. Six f/1.8 spectrometers measure 276 spectra to obtain 75 active and 63 background channels every 10 ms. Local measurements from a similar midplane toroidal viewing system are mapped into two dimensions to allow the inversion of poloidal line-integrated measurements to obtain local poloidal velocity profiles. Radial resolution after inversion is 0.6-1.8 cm from the plasma edge to the center.

  13. A dissipative random velocity field for fully developed fluid turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Rodrigo M; Chevillard, Laurent


    We investigate the statistical properties, based on numerical simulations and analytical calculations, of a recently proposed stochastic model for the velocity field of an incompressible, homogeneous, isotropic and fully developed turbulent flow. A key step in the construction of this model is the introduction of some aspects of the vorticity stretching mechanism that governs the dynamics of fluid particles along their trajectory. An additional further phenomenological step aimed at including the long range correlated nature of turbulence makes this model depending on a single free parameter $\\gamma$ that can be estimated from experimental measurements. We confirm the realism of the model regarding the geometry of the velocity gradient tensor, the power-law behaviour of the moments of velocity increments (i.e. the structure functions), including the intermittent corrections, and the existence of energy transfers across scales. We quantify the dependence of these basic properties of turbulent flows on the free...

  14. Effective diffusion equation in a random velocity field (United States)

    Vinals, Jorge; Sekerka, Robert F.


    The effects are studied of assumed random velocity fields on diffusion in a binary fluid. Random velocity fields can result, for example, from the high-frequency components of residual accelerations onboard spacecraft (often called g-jitter). An effective diffusion equation is derived for an average concentration which includes spatial and temporal correlations induced by the fluctuating velocity fields assumed to be Gaussianly distributed. The resulting equation becomes nonlocal, and if correlations between different components of the velocity field exist, it is also anisotropic. The simple limiting case of short correlation times is discussed and an effective diffusivity is obtained which reflects the enhanced mixing caused by the velocity fields. The results obtained in the limit of short correlation times are valid even if the probability distribution of the velocity field is not Gaussian.

  15. Simultaneous three-dimensional temperature and velocity field measurements using astigmatic imaging of non-encapsulated thermo-liquid crystal (TLC) particles. (United States)

    Segura, Rodrigo; Rossi, Massimiliano; Cierpka, Christian; Kähler, Christian J


    A combination of cutting edge developments is presented to characterize three-dimensional (3D) temperature and velocity fields in microscopic flows. An emulsion of non-encapsulated thermo-liquid crystal (TLC) micro spheres, with a narrow size distribution is used to track the flow's motion and temperature distribution. A state-of-the-art light engine, which combines the spectrum of six light pipes, provides a balanced illumination which allows for strong and detectable color patterns across the TLC's temperature response range. Lastly, the ability of the TLC material to reflect select wavelength bands with an unchanging and independent circular polarization chirality is exploited by a filter that blocks background noise, while exclusively transmitting the color signal of the TLC particles. This approach takes advantage of the peculiar physical properties of TLCs to allow the estimation of individual TLC particle's 3D position, for the first time, using Astigmatism Particle Tracking Velocimetry (APTV).

  16. Evaluation of a Magneto-optical Filter and a Fabry-perot Interferometer for the Measurement of Solar Velocity Fields from Space (United States)

    Rhodes, E. J., Jr.; Cacciani, A.; Blamont, J.; Tomczyk, S.; Ulrich, R. K.; Howard, R. F.


    A program was developed to evaluate the performance of three different devices as possible space-borne solar velocity field imagers. Two of these three devices, a magneto-optical filter and a molecular adherence Fabry-Perot interferometer were installed in a newly-constructed observing system located at the 60-foot tower telescope at the Mt. Wilson Observatory. Time series of solar filtergrams and Dopplergrams lasting up to 10 hours per day were obtained with the filter while shorter runs were obtained with the Fabry-Perot. Two-dimensional k (sub h)-omega power spectra which show clearly the well-known p-mode ridges were computed from the time series obtained with the magneto-optical filter. These power spectra were compared with similar power spectra obtained recently with the 13.7-m McMath spectrograph at Kitt Peak.

  17. Measuring the equatorial plasma bubble drift velocities over Morroco (United States)

    Lagheryeb, Amine; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Makela, Jonathan J.; Harding, Brian; Kaab, Mohamed; Lazrek, Mohamed; Fisher, Daniel J.; Duly, Timothy M.; Bounhir, Aziza; Daassou, Ahmed


    In this work, we present a method to measure the drift velocities of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) in the low latitude ionosphere. To calculate the EPB drift velocity, we use 630.0-nm airglow images collected by the Portable Ionospheric Camera and Small Scale Observatory (PICASSO) system deployed at the Oukkaimden observatory in Morocco. To extract the drift velocity, the individual images were processed by first spatially registering the images using the star field. After this, the stars were removed from the images using a point suppression methodology, the images were projected into geographic coordinates assuming an airglow emission altitude of 250 km. Once the images were projected into geographic coordinates, the intensities of the airglow along a line of constant geomagnetic latitude (31°) are used to detect the presence of an EPB, which shows up as a depletion in airglow intensity. To calculate the EPB drift velocity, we divide the spatial lag between depletions found in two images (found by the application of correlation analysis) by the time difference between these two images. With multiple images, we will have several velocity values and consequently we can draw the EPB drift velocity curve. Future analysis will compare the estimates of the plasma drift velocity with the thermospheric neutral wind velocity estimated by a collocated Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) at the observatory.

  18. Simultaneous Velocity and Vorticity Measurement in Turbulence (United States)

    Wu, Huixuan; Xu, Haitao; Bodenschatz, Eberhard


    A new paradigm of simultaneous velocity and vorticity measurement is developed to study turbulence. Instead of deducing vorticity from velocities measured at neighboring points, this innovative approach detects the translations and rotations of micro-sized particles directly. These hydrogel particles are spherical, transparent, and encapsulate micro-mirrors. This method outstands conventional ones, e.g., hotwire arrays or PIV because its spatial resolution is much higher. It does not require a non-zero mean flow, and it can provide all three vorticity components, which is not available from planar PIV data. Its principle is to illuminate the mirror and utilize the variation of the reflection directions to deduce the local flow vorticity. Meanwhile, the particle position is recorded as in normal particle tracking. Therefore, the velocity and vorticity of a particle can be obtained simultaneously in Lagrangian framework. The authors have made benchmark experiments to evaluate this novel method in Taylor Couette flows. The results show that the instantaneous vorticity measurement is as accurate as 3%. We are now setting up a von Karman disk pair device to study the turbulent flow. This novel technique will provide unprecedented information of high Reynolds number turbulence. The first author thanks the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

  19. Newly velocity field of Sulawesi Island from GPS observation (United States)

    Sarsito, D. A.; Susilo, Simons, W. J. F.; Abidin, H. Z.; Sapiie, B.; Triyoso, W.; Andreas, H.


    Sulawesi microplate Island is located at famous triple junction area of the Eurasian, India-Australian, and Philippine Sea plates. Under the influence of the northward moving Australian plate and the westward motion of the Philippine plate, the island at Eastern part of Indonesia is collide and with the Eurasian plate and Sunda Block. Those recent microplate tectonic motions can be quantitatively determine by GNSS-GPS measurement. We use combine GNSS-GPS observation types (campaign type and continuous type) from 1997 to 2015 to derive newly velocity field of the area. Several strategies are applied and tested to get the optimum result, and finally we choose regional strategy to reduce error propagation contribution from global multi baseline processing using GAMIT/GLOBK 10.5. Velocity field are analyzed in global reference frame ITRF 2008 and local reference frame by fixing with respect alternatively to Eurasian plate - Sunda block, India-Australian plate and Philippine Sea plates. Newly results show dense distribution of velocity field. This information is useful for tectonic deformation studying in geospatial era.

  20. Measurement of the velocity of a quantum object: A role of phase and group velocities (United States)

    Lapinski, Mikaila; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.


    We consider the motion of a quantum particle in a free space. Introducing an explicit measurement procedure for velocity, we demonstrate that the measured velocity is related to the group and phase velocities of the corresponding matter waves. We show that for long distances the measured velocity coincides with the matter wave group velocity. We discuss the possibilities to demonstrate these effects for the optical pulses in coherently driven media or for radiation propagating in waveguides.

  1. Detonation Velocity Measurement with Chirped Fiber Bragg Grating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wei


    Full Text Available Detonation velocity is an important parameter for explosive, and it is crucial for many fields such as dynamic chemistry burn models, detonation propagation prediction, explosive performance estimation, and so on. Dual-channel detonation velocity measurement method and system are described. The CFBG sensors are pasted both on the surface and in the center of the explosive cylinder. The length of CFBG sensors is measured via the hot-tip probe method. The light intensity reflected from the CFBG sensors attached to the explosive is transformed to voltage, and the voltage–time is then measured with the oscilloscope. According to the five experiments results, the relative standard uncertainty of detonation velocity is below 1%.

  2. Defining the Velocity Field of Root Cells in Arabidopsis Seedlings Using Open Source Image Processing Tools (United States)

    Craig, Amy E.; Higgins, Brad R.; Guy, Tracy; Durham Brooks, Tessa; Wentworth, Christopher D.


    The velocity field for cells in a growing root is a function of a cell's position with respect to the root apex and time. For many species of plant this function has the same general sigmoid shape described by a modified logistics curve. In this investigation we obtain microscopic images of Arabidopsis seedling roots over a 20 minute period of time, measure the velocity field for root cells using an application developed with the open source mathematics application Octave, and test whether the velocity field can be described by the modified logistics function. We find support for describing the velocity field by the modified logistics function.

  3. Continuous model of the regional velocity field for Poland (United States)

    Bogusz, J.; Figurski, M.; Kontny, B.; Grzempowski, P.; Klos, A.


    The poster presents modern determinations of the regional velocity field for Poland. The research is based on the ASG-EUPOS, Polish multifunctional GNNS network and performed within the developmental project of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. The network of the satellite-based sites consisted of above 130 Polish sites together with the selected number of European sites operating within EPN (EUREF Permanent Network). Data came from three-year period, which is the minimum number for the horizontal velocity determinations. The velocities were calculated within the discrete network related to the GNSS sites' distribution and then interpolated to the regular grid. The discussion on the interpolation methods is also included. To the interpolation of the velocity field kriging, spline and other functions were used. Assessment of the accuracy of the velocity on the interpolated points and tests of significance were also described. Developed models of the velocities field could indicate geodynamical activity on the area of Poland.

  4. A dissipative random velocity field for fully developed fluid turbulence (United States)

    Chevillard, Laurent; Pereira, Rodrigo; Garban, Christophe


    We investigate the statistical properties, based on numerical simulations and analytical calculations, of a recently proposed stochastic model for the velocity field of an incompressible, homogeneous, isotropic and fully developed turbulent flow. A key step in the construction of this model is the introduction of some aspects of the vorticity stretching mechanism that governs the dynamics of fluid particles along their trajectory. An additional further phenomenological step aimed at including the long range correlated nature of turbulence makes this model depending on a single free parameter that can be estimated from experimental measurements. We confirm the realism of the model regarding the geometry of the velocity gradient tensor, the power-law behaviour of the moments of velocity increments, including the intermittent corrections, and the existence of energy transfers across scales. We quantify the dependence of these basic properties of turbulent flows on the free parameter and derive analytically the spectrum of exponents of the structure functions in a simplified non dissipative case. A perturbative expansion shows that energy transfers indeed take place, justifying the dissipative nature of this random field.

  5. Wind Velocity Decreasing Effects of Windbreak Fence for Snowfall Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Pyo You


    Full Text Available Meteorological observatories use measuring boards on even ground in open areas to measure the amount of snowfall. In order to measure the amount of snowfall, areas unaffected by wind should be found. This study tried to determine the internal wind flow inside a windbreak fence, identifying an area unaffected by wind in order to measure the snowfall. We performed a computational fluid dynamics analysis and wind tunnel test, conducted field measurements of the type and height of the windbreak fence, and analyzed the wind flow inside the fence. The results showed that a double windbreak fence was better than a single windbreak fence for decreasing wind velocity. The double fence (width 4 m, height 60 cm, and fixed on the bottom has the greatest wind velocity decrease rate at the central part of octagonal windbreak.

  6. Measurement of the shock front velocity produced in a T-tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djurović, S.; Mijatović, Z.; Vujičić, B.; Kobilarov, R.; Savić, I.; Gavanski, L. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 4, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia)


    A set of shock front velocity measurements is described in this paper. The shock waves were produced in a small electromagnetically driven shock T-tube. Most of the measurements were performed in hydrogen. The shock front velocity measurements in other gases and the velocity of the gas behind the shock front were also analyzed, as well as the velocity dependence on applied input energy. Some measurements with an applied external magnetic field were also performed. The used method of shock front velocity is simple and was shown to be very reliable. Measured values were compared with the calculated ones for the incident and reflected shock waves.

  7. Velocity and strain-rate analyses of the SCEC 3.0 velocity field (United States)

    Wdowinski, S.; Bock, Y.


    The pre-released SCEC 3.0 velocity field consists of 845 velocity vectors, covering the entire Southern California region. It is about 3 times larger than the SCEC 2.0 field, which was released in 1998 and contains 343 velocity vectors. We analyze the new SCEC 3.0 velocity field following and improving the quasi-two-dimensional analyses developed by Wdowinski et al. [2001] for the 2.0 velocity field. The new analyses include the following steps: (1) Pole of Deformation (PoD) calculation; the PoD is a point on the Earth’s surface, in which small circles about this point are best, aligned with the velocity vectors of the deforming zone. (2) Transforming the velocity field into the PoD reference frame. (3) Characterization of the velocity field by segments of similar velocity transition between the Pacific and North American plates and orthogonal profiles along the plate boundary region. (4) Calculating velocity and velocity gradient for all segments and profiles using zero-phase digital filters and numerical derivation, respectively. (5) Calculation of regional strain-rate maps, and (6) back-transformation of the strain-rate maps into the regular north-pole reference frame. The results of our analyses show that shear deformation with high strain-rate is detected along a dozen narrow belts, which coincide with active geologic fault segments and high level of seismicity along the San Andreas Fault System. In the highly populated Los Angeles area, our analyses detected high strain-rate localization along the Newport-Inglewood fault and across the Ventura Basin. In the regional scale, our analyses show that the interseismic deformation of the wide diffused deforming NA-PA plate boundary region is localized along a finite number of narrow belts. Because no prior assumptions were made regarding the geology, tectonics, or seismicity of the region, our analysis demonstrates that geodetic observations alone can be used to detect active fault segments.

  8. Automated topology classification method for instantaneous velocity fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depardon, S. [Direction de la Recherche et de l' Innovation Automobile, PSA Peugeot Citroen, Velizy-Villacoublay Cedex (France); Laboratoire d' Etudes Aerodynamiques, Teleport 2, 1 Av. Clement Ader, BP 40109, Futuroscope Chasseneuil (France); Lasserre, J.J. [Direction de la Recherche et de l' Innovation Automobile, PSA Peugeot Citroen, Velizy-Villacoublay Cedex (France); Brizzi, L.E.; Boree, J. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Aerodynamiques, Teleport 2, 1 Av. Clement Ader, BP 40109, Futuroscope Chasseneuil (France)


    Topological concepts provide highly comprehensible representations of the main features of a flow with a limited number of elements. This paper presents an automated classification method of instantaneous velocity fields based on the analysis of their critical points distribution and feature flow fields. It uses the fact that topological changes of a velocity field are continuous in time to extract large scale periodic phenomena from insufficiently time-resolved datasets. This method is applied to two test-cases: an analytical flow field and PIV planes acquired downstream a wall-mounted cube. (orig.)

  9. Rapid measurement of transient velocity evolution using GERVAIS. (United States)

    Davies, Colin J; Sederman, Andrew J; Pipe, Chris J; McKinley, Gareth H; Gladden, Lynn F; Johns, Mike L


    Rapid velocity measurements using GERVAIS (Gradient Echo Rapid Velocity and Acceleration Imaging Sequence), an EPI (Echo Planar Imaging) based technique capable of measuring velocity over an observation time of several milliseconds, are performed on a wide-gap Couette Rheo-NMR cell for the first time. A variable delay time between a control signal to initiate a transition in flow and the start of the measurement sequence is incorporated to allow investigation of the transient evolution of the velocity field following a step change in rotation rate. Both the commencement and the cessation of imposed shear stress are investigated for (i) a shear banding micellar solution of CPyCl (cetylpyridiniumchloride)/NaSal (sodium salicylate) in brine and (ii) a low molecular weight PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) oil. With respect to the micellar solution, an elastic shear wave is seen to propagate across the cell following the commencement of shear stress whilst an oscillatory 'recoil' is observed following the cessation of shear stress; neither of these phenomena were observed for the PDMS oil which exhibited a purely viscous response as expected for an incompressible Newtonian fluid. This technique has potential applications across a wide range of transient rheological investigations, particularly with respect to optically opaque materials. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Out-of-plane ultrasonic velocity measurement (United States)

    Hall, Maclin S.; Brodeur, Pierre H.; Jackson, Theodore G.


    A method for improving the accuracy of measuring the velocity and time of flight of ultrasonic signals through moving web-like materials such as paper, paperboard and the like, includes a pair of ultrasonic transducers disposed on opposing sides of a moving web-like material. In order to provide acoustical coupling between the transducers and the web-like material, the transducers are disposed in fluid-filled wheels. Errors due to variances in the wheel thicknesses about their circumference which can affect time of flight measurements and ultimately the mechanical property being tested are compensated by averaging the ultrasonic signals for a predetermined number of revolutions. The invention further includes a method for compensating for errors resulting from the digitization of the ultrasonic signals. More particularly, the invention includes a method for eliminating errors known as trigger jitter inherent with digitizing oscilloscopes used to digitize the signals for manipulation by a digital computer. In particular, rather than cross-correlate ultrasonic signals taken during different sample periods as is known in the art in order to determine the time of flight of the ultrasonic signal through the moving web, a pulse echo box is provided to enable cross-correlation of predetermined transmitted ultrasonic signals with predetermined reflected ultrasonic or echo signals during the sample period. By cross-correlating ultrasonic signals in the same sample period, the error associated with trigger jitter is eliminated.

  11. Sound field separation with a double layer velocity transducer array (L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn


    In near-field acoustic holography sound field separation techniques make it possible to distinguish between sound coming from the two sides of the array. This is useful in cases where the sources are not confined to only one side of the array, e.g., in the presence of additional sources...... or reflections from the other side. This paper examines a separation technique based on measurement of the particle velocity in two closely spaced parallel planes. The purpose of the technique is to recover the particle velocity radiated by a source in the presence of disturbing sound from the opposite side...... of the array. The technique has been examined and compared with direct velocity based reconstruction, as well as with a technique based on the measurement of the sound pressure and particle velocity. The double layer velocity method circumvents some of the drawbacks of the pressure-velocity based...

  12. Estimating the accuracy of the technique of reconstructing the rotational motion of a satellite based on the measurements of its angular velocity and the magnetic field of the Earth (United States)

    Belyaev, M. Yu.; Volkov, O. N.; Monakhov, M. I.; Sazonov, V. V.


    The paper has studied the accuracy of the technique that allows the rotational motion of the Earth artificial satellites (AES) to be reconstructed based on the data of onboard measurements of angular velocity vectors and the strength of the Earth magnetic field (EMF). The technique is based on kinematic equations of the rotational motion of a rigid body. Both types of measurement data collected over some time interval have been processed jointly. The angular velocity measurements have been approximated using convenient formulas, which are substituted into the kinematic differential equations for the quaternion that specifies the transition from the body-fixed coordinate system of a satellite to the inertial coordinate system. Thus obtained equations represent a kinematic model of the rotational motion of a satellite. The solution of these equations, which approximate real motion, has been found by the least-square method from the condition of best fitting between the data of measurements of the EMF strength vector and its calculated values. The accuracy of the technique has been estimated by processing the data obtained from the board of the service module of the International Space Station ( ISS). The reconstruction of station motion using the aforementioned technique has been compared with the telemetry data on the actual motion of the station. The technique has allowed us to reconstruct the station motion in the orbital orientation mode with a maximum error less than 0.6° and the turns with a maximal error of less than 1.2°.

  13. The statistical properties of sea ice velocity fields (United States)

    Agarwal, S.; Wettlaufer, J. S.


    Thorndike and Colony (1982) showed that more than 70% of the variance of the ice motion can be explained by the geostrophic winds. This conclusion was reached by analyzing only 2 years of data. Due to the importance of ice motion in Arctic climate we ask how persistent is such a prediction. In so doing, we study and develop a stochastic model for the Arctic sea ice velocity fields based on the observed sea ice velocity fields from satellites and buoys for the period 1978 - 2012. Having previously found that the Arctic Sea Equivalent Ice Extent (EIE) has a white noise structure on annual to bi-annual time scales (Agarwal et. al. 2012), we assess the connection to ice motion. We divide the Arctic into dynamic and thermodynamic components, with focus on the dynamic part i.e. the velocity fields of sea ice driven by the geostrophic winds over the Arctic. We show (1) the stationarity of the spatial correlation structure of the velocity fields, and (2) the robustness of white noise structure present in the velocity fields on annual to bi-annual time scales, which combine to explain the white noise characteristics of the EIE on these time scales. S. Agarwal, W. Moon and J.S. Wettlaufer, Trends, noise and reentrant long-term persistence in Arctic sea ice, Proc. R. Soc. A, 468, 2416 (2012). A.S. Thorndike and R. Colony, Sea ice motion in response to geostrophic winds, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 5845 (1982).

  14. Flow velocity measurement with the nonlinear acoustic wave scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didenkulov, Igor, E-mail: [Institute of Applied Physics, 46 Ulyanov str., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin ave., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation); Pronchatov-Rubtsov, Nikolay, E-mail: [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin ave., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation)


    A problem of noninvasive measurement of liquid flow velocity arises in many practical applications. To this end the most often approach is the use of the linear Doppler technique. The Doppler frequency shift of signal scattered from the inhomogeneities distributed in a liquid relatively to the emitted frequency is proportional to the sound frequency and velocities of inhomogeneities. In the case of very slow flow one needs to use very high frequency sound. This approach fails in media with strong sound attenuation because acoustic wave attenuation increases with frequency and there is limit in increasing sound intensity, i.e. the cavitation threshold. Another approach which is considered in this paper is based on the method using the difference frequency Doppler Effect for flows with bubbles. This method is based on simultaneous action of two high-frequency primary acoustic waves with closed frequencies on bubbles and registration of the scattered by bubbles acoustic field at the difference frequency. The use of this method is interesting since the scattered difference frequency wave has much lower attenuation in a liquid. The theoretical consideration of the method is given in the paper. The experimental examples confirming the theoretical equations, as well as the ability of the method to be applied in medical diagnostics and in technical applications on measurement of flow velocities in liquids with strong sound attenuation is described. It is shown that the Doppler spectrum form depends on bubble concentration velocity distribution in the primary acoustic beams crossing zone that allows one to measure the flow velocity distribution.

  15. Measurement of viscous flow velocity and flow visualization using two magnetic resonance imagers (United States)

    Boiko, A. V.; Akulov, A. E.; Chupakhin, A. P.; Cherevko, A. A.; Denisenko, N. S.; Savelov, A. A.; Stankevich, Yu. A.; Khe, A. K.; Yanchenko, A. A.; Tulupov, A. A.


    The accuracies of measuring the velocity field using clinical and research magnetic resonance imagers are compared. The flow velocity of a fluid simulating blood in a carotid artery model connected to a programmable pump was measured. Using phase-contrast magnetic resonance tomography, the velocity distributions in the carotid artery model were obtained and compared with the analytical solution for viscous liquid flow in a cylindrical tube (Poiseuille flow). It is found that the accuracy of the velocity measurement does not depend on the field induction and spatial resolution of the imagers.

  16. Some numerical calculations of the vertical velocity field in hurricanes


    Krishnamurti, T. N.


    The commonly observed crescent-shaped geometry of the tangential wind field in hurricanes is imposed on the primitive equations of atmospheric motion, and solutions for the vertical velocity field are obtained. It is shown that the numerically computed vertical motion field exhibits a spiral form, very similar to what is observed in radar pictures in individual hurricanes. Aircraft flight data from the National Hurricane Research Project are utilized to carry out the numerical calculations i...

  17. Relations between Lagrangian models and synthetic random velocity fields. (United States)

    Olla, Piero; Paradisi, Paolo


    The authors propose an alternative interpretation of Markovian transport models based on the well-mixed condition, in terms of the properties of a random velocity field with second order structure functions scaling linearly in the space-time increments. This interpretation allows direct association of the drift and noise terms entering the model, with the geometry of the turbulent fluctuations. In particular, the well-known nonuniqueness problem in the well-mixed approach is solved in terms of the antisymmetric part of the velocity correlations; its relation with the presence of nonzero mean helicity and other geometrical properties of the flow is elucidated. The well-mixed condition appears to be a special case of the relation between conditional velocity increments of the random field and the one-point Eulerian velocity distribution, allowing generalization of the approach to the transport of nontracer quantities. Application to solid particle transport leads to a model satisfying, in the homogeneous isotropic turbulence case, all the conditions on the behavior of the correlation times for the fluid velocity sampled by the particles. In particular, correlation times in the gravity and in the inertia dominated case, respectively, longer and shorter than in the passive tracer case; in the gravity dominated case, correlation times longer for velocity components along gravity, than for the perpendicular ones. The model produces, in channel flow geometry, particle deposition rates in agreement with experiments.

  18. Image registration using stationary velocity fields parameterized by norm-minimizing Wendland kernel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru; Sommer, Stefan Horst; Sørensen, Lauge

    Interpolating kernels are crucial to solving a stationary velocity field (SVF) based image registration problem. This is because, velocity fields need to be computed in non-integer locations during integration. The regularity in the solution to the SVF registration problem is controlled by the re...... that Wendland SVF based measures separate (Alzheimer's disease v/s normal controls) better than both B-Spline SVFs (pamygdala) and B-Spline freeform deformation (pamygdala and cortical gray matter)....

  19. Velocity field calculation for non-orthogonal numerical grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Computational grids containing cell faces that do not align with an orthogonal (e.g. Cartesian, cylindrical) coordinate system are routinely encountered in porous-medium numerical simulations. Such grids are referred to in this study as non-orthogonal grids because some cell faces are not orthogonal to a coordinate system plane (e.g. xy, yz or xz plane in Cartesian coordinates). Non-orthogonal grids are routinely encountered at the Savannah River Site in porous-medium flow simulations for Performance Assessments and groundwater flow modeling. Examples include grid lines that conform to the sloping roof of a waste tank or disposal unit in a 2D Performance Assessment simulation, and grid surfaces that conform to undulating stratigraphic surfaces in a 3D groundwater flow model. Particle tracking is routinely performed after a porous-medium numerical flow simulation to better understand the dynamics of the flow field and/or as an approximate indication of the trajectory and timing of advective solute transport. Particle tracks are computed by integrating the velocity field from cell to cell starting from designated seed (starting) positions. An accurate velocity field is required to attain accurate particle tracks. However, many numerical simulation codes report only the volumetric flowrate (e.g. PORFLOW) and/or flux (flowrate divided by area) crossing cell faces. For an orthogonal grid, the normal flux at a cell face is a component of the Darcy velocity vector in the coordinate system, and the pore velocity for particle tracking is attained by dividing by water content. For a non-orthogonal grid, the flux normal to a cell face that lies outside a coordinate plane is not a true component of velocity with respect to the coordinate system. Nonetheless, normal fluxes are often taken as Darcy velocity components, either naively or with accepted approximation. To enable accurate particle tracking or otherwise present an accurate depiction of the velocity field for a non

  20. Ion Velocity Measurements for the Ionospheric Connections Explorer (United States)

    Heelis, R. A.; Stoneback, R. A.; Perdue, M. D.; Depew, M. D.; Morgan, W. A.; Mankey, M. W.; Lippincott, C. R.; Harmon, L. L.; Holt, B. J.


    The Ionospheric Connections Explorer (ICON) payload includes an Ion Velocity Meter (IVM) to provide measurements of the ion drift motions, density, temperature and major ion composition at the satellite altitude near 575 km. The primary measurement goal for the IVM is to provide the meridional ion drift perpendicular to the magnetic field with an accuracy of 7.5 m s-1 for all daytime conditions encountered by the spacecraft within 15° of the magnetic equator. The IVM will derive this parameter utilizing two sensors, a retarding potential analyzer (RPA) and an ion drift meter (IDM) that have a robust and successful flight heritage. The IVM described here incorporates improvements in the design and operation to produce the most sensitive device that has been fielded to date. It will specify the ion drift vector, from which the component perpendicular to the magnetic field will be derived. In addition it will specify the total ion density, the ion temperature and the fractional ion composition. These data will be used in conjunction with measurements from the other ICON instruments to uncover the important connections between the dynamics of the neutral atmosphere and the ionosphere through the generation of dynamo currents perpendicular to the magnetic field and collisional forces parallel to the magnetic field. Here the configuration and operation of the IVM instrument are described, as well as the procedures by which the ion drift velocity is determined. A description of the subsystem characteristics, which allow a determination of the expected uncertainties in the derived parameters, is also given.

  1. The velocity field induced by a helical vortex tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukumoto, Y.; Okulov, Valery


    The influence of finite-core thickness on the velocity field around a vortex tube is addressed. An asymptotic expansion of the Biot-Savart law is made to a higher order in a small parameter, the ratio of core radius to curvature radius, which consists of the velocity field due to lines of monopoles...... and dipoles arranged on the centerline of the tube. The former is associated with an infinitely thin core and is featured by the circulation alone. The distribution of vorticity in the core reflects on the strength of dipole. This result is applied to a helical vortex tube, and the induced velocity due...... to a helical filament of the dipoles is obtained in the form of the Kapteyn series, which augments Hardin's [Phys. Fluids 25, 1949 (1982)] solution for the monopoles. Using a singularity-separation technique, a substantial part of the series is represented in a closed form for both the mono- and the dipoles...

  2. Ultrasonic velocity and amplitude characterization of magnetorheological fluids under magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Lopez, J., E-mail: [Centro de Acustica Aplicada y Ensayos No Destructivos, UPM-CSIC, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Elvira Segura, L.; Montero de Espinosa Freijo, F. [Centro de Acustica Aplicada y Ensayos No Destructivos, UPM-CSIC, 28006 Madrid (Spain)


    Variations in velocity of sound and amplitude of the signal of a commercial magnetorheological fluid under different magnetic fields are studied experimentally. Different factors such as orientation, uniformity, geometry and intensity of the magnetic field are investigated. An increase in the change of MR fluid acoustical properties is obtained when the magnetic field intensity is risen. In addition, these properties show an opposite behavior when a magnetic field is applied parallel or perpendicular to the ultrasound propagation. Experiments using an electromagnet and permanent magnets as the source of magnetic field are also compared. Properties such as anisotropy in sound velocity and amplitude make these materials interesting regarding applications. - Highlights: > First sound attenuation measurements as function of the magnetic field in MR fluids. > Sound velocity and attenuation anisotropy due to the microstructure is detected. > Geometry, intensity and uniformity of the magnetic field affect sound propagation.

  3. Multi Point Velocity, Density and Temperature Measurements using LITA Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Laser induced thermal acoustics (LITA) is a nonintrusive, transient-grating optical technique that provides simultaneous high-accuracy measurements of velocity,...

  4. Transformations Based on Continuous Piecewise-Affine Velocity Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freifeld, Oren; Hauberg, Søren; Batmanghelich, Kayhan


    We propose novel finite-dimensional spaces of well-behaved transformations. The latter are obtained by (fast and highly-accurate) integration of continuous piecewise-affine velocity fields. The proposed method is simple yet highly expressive, effortlessly handles optional constraints (e.g., volume...

  5. A non-parametric model for the cosmic velocity field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branchini, E; Teodoro, L; Frenk, CS; Schmoldt, [No Value; Efstathiou, G; White, SDM; Saunders, W; Sutherland, W; Rowan-Robinson, M; Keeble, O; Tadros, H; Maddox, S; Oliver, S


    We present a self-consistent non-parametric model of the local cosmic velocity field derived from the distribution of IRAS galaxies in the PSCz redshift survey. The survey has been analysed using two independent methods, both based on the assumptions of gravitational instability and linear biasing.

  6. Reconstructing the velocity field beyond the local universe

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnston, R


    Full Text Available an estimate of the velocity field derived from the galaxy over-density d(sub g) and the second makes use of the matter linear density power spectrum P(sub k). Using N-body simulations we find, with an SDSS-like sample (N(sub gal) 33 per deg(sup 2...

  7. Channel flow analysis. [velocity distribution throughout blade flow field (United States)

    Katsanis, T.


    The design of a proper blade profile requires calculation of the blade row flow field in order to determine the velocities on the blade surfaces. An analysis theory is presented for several methods used for this calculation and associated computer programs that were developed are discussed.

  8. Near field acoustic holography based on the equivalent source method and pressure-velocity transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y.-B.; Chen, X.-Z.; Jacobsen, Finn


    The advantage of using the normal component of the particle velocity rather than the sound pressure in the hologram plane as the input of conventional spatial Fourier transform based near field acoustic holography (NAH) and also as the input of the statistically optimized variant of NAH has...... on particle velocity input data than when it is based on measurements of sound pressure data, and this is confirmed by a simulation study and by experimental results. A method that combines pressure- and particle velocity-based reconstructions in order to distinguish between contributions to the sound field...

  9. Facility Measures Magnetic Fields (United States)

    Honess, Shawn B.; Narvaez, Pablo; Mcauley, James M.


    Partly automated facility measures and computes steady near magnetic field produced by object. Designed to determine magnetic fields of equipment to be installed on spacecraft including sensitive magnetometers, with view toward application of compensating fields to reduce interfernece with spacecraft-magnetometer readings. Because of its convenient operating features and sensitivity of its measurements, facility serves as prototype for similar facilities devoted to magnetic characterization of medical equipment, magnets for high-energy particle accelerators, and magnetic materials.

  10. Spatial resolution and velocity field improvement of 4D-flow MRI. (United States)

    Callaghan, Fraser M; Grieve, Stuart M


    4D-flow MRI obtains a time-dependent 3D velocity field; however, its use for the calculation of higher-order parameters is limited by noise. We present an algorithm for denoising 4D-flow data. By integrating a velocity field and eliminating streamlines in noisy flow, depicted by high curvature, a denoised dataset may be extracted. This method, defined as the velocity field improvement (VFIT) algorithm, was validated in an analytical dataset and using in vivo data in comparison with a computation fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. As a proof of principal, wall shear stress (WSS) measurements in the descending aorta were compared with those defined by CFD. The VFIT algorithm achieved a >100% noise reduction of a corrupted analytical dataset. In addition, 4D-flow data were cleaned to show improved spatial resolution and near wall velocity representation. WSS measures compared well with CFD data and bulk flow dynamics were retained (flow measurements). This study presents a method for denoising 4D-flow datasets with improved spatial resolution. Bulk flow dynamics are accurately conserved while velocity and velocity gradient fields are improved; this is important in the calculation of higher-order parameters such as WSS, which are shown to be more comparable to CFD measures. Magn Reson Med 78:1959-1968, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. On the measurement of vertical velocity by MST radar (United States)

    Gage, K. S.


    An overview is presented of the measurement of atmospheric vertical motion utilizing the MST radar technique. Vertical motion in the atmosphere is briefly discussed as a function of scale. Vertical velocity measurement by MST radars is then considered from within the context of the expected magnitudes to be observed. Examples are drawn from published vertical velocity observations.

  12. Fat mass measured by DXA varies with scan velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, Eva; Petersen, Liselotte; Kreutzer, Martin


    To study the influence of scan velocities of DXA on the measured size of fat mass, lean body mass, bone mineral content and density, and total body weight.......To study the influence of scan velocities of DXA on the measured size of fat mass, lean body mass, bone mineral content and density, and total body weight....

  13. Detonation Velocity Measurement with Chirped Fiber Bragg Grating

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peng Wei; Hao Lang; Taolin Liu; Dong Xia


    Detonation velocity is an important parameter for explosive, and it is crucial for many fields such as dynamic chemistry burn models, detonation propagation prediction, explosive performance estimation, and so on...

  14. The Local Stellar Velocity Field via Vector Spherical Harmonics (United States)

    Makarov, V. V.; Murphy, D. W.


    We analyze the local field of stellar tangential velocities for a sample of 42,339 nonbinary Hipparcos stars with accurate parallaxes, using a vector spherical harmonic formalism.We derive simple relations between the parameters of the classical linear model (Ogorodnikov-Milne) of the local systemic field and low-degree terms of the general vector harmonic decomposition. Taking advantage of these relationships, we determine the solar velocity with respect to the local stars of (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) = (10.5, 18.5, 7.3) +/- 0.1 km s(exp -1) not for the asymmetric drift with respect to the local standard of rest. If only stars more distant than 100 pc are considered, the peculiar solar motion is (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) = (9.9, 15.6, 6.9) +/- 0.2 km s(exp -1). The adverse effects of harmonic leakage, which occurs between the reflex solar motion represented by the three electric vector harmonics in the velocity space and higher degree harmonics in the proper-motion space, are eliminated in our analysis by direct subtraction of the reflex solar velocity in its tangential components for each star...

  15. Volumetric velocity measurements on flows through heart valves (United States)

    Troolin, Daniel; Amatya, Devesh; Longmire, Ellen


    Volumetric velocity fields inside two types of artificial heart valves were obtained experimentally through the use of volumetric 3-component velocimetry (V3V). Index matching was used to mitigate the effects of optical distortions due to interfaces between the fluid and curved walls. The steady flow downstream of a mechanical valve was measured and the results matched well with previously obtained 2D PIV results, such as those of Shipkowitz et al. (2002). Measurements upstream and downstream of a deformable silicone valve in a pulsatile flow were obtained and reveal significant three-dimensional features of the flow. Plots and movies will be shown, and a detailed discussion of the flow and various experimental considerations will be included. Reference: Shipkowitz, T, Ambrus J, Kurk J, Wickramasinghe K (2002) Evaluation technique for bileaflet mechanical valves. J. Heart Valve Disease. 11(2) pp. 275-282.

  16. Evaluation of StereoPIV Measurement of Droplet Velocity in an Effervescent Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ghaemi


    Full Text Available Particle image velocimetry (PIV is a well known technique for measuring the instantaneous velocity field of flows. However, error may be introduced when measuring the velocity field of sprays using this technique when the spray droplets are used as the seed particles. In this study, the effect of droplet number density, droplet velocity profile, and droplet size distribution of a spray produced by an effervescent atomizer on velocity measurement using a StereoPIV has been investigated. A shadowgraph-particle tracking velocimetry (S-PTV system provided measurement of droplet size and velocity for comparison. This investigation demonstrated that the StereoPIV under-estimates velocity at near-field dense spray region where measurement accuracy is limited by multi-scattering of the laser sheet. In the dilute far-field region of the spray, StereoPIV measurement is mostly in agreement with velocity of the droplet size-class which is close to the mean diameter based on droplet number frequency times droplet cross sectional area.

  17. Interferometric measurement of the angular velocity of moving humans (United States)

    Nanzer, Jeffrey A.


    This paper presents an analysis of the measurement of the angular velocity of walking humans using a millimeter-wave correlation interferometer. Measurement of the angular velocity of moving objects is a desirable function in remote sensing applications. Doppler radar sensors are able to measure the signature of moving humans based on micro-Doppler analysis; however, a person moving with little to no radial velocity produces negligible Doppler returns. Measurement of the angular movement of humans can be done with traditional radar techniques, however the process involves either continuous tracking with narrow beamwidth or angle-of-arrival estimation algorithms. A new method of measuring the angular velocity of moving objects using interferometry has recently been developed which measures the angular velocity of an object without tracking or complex processing. The frequency of the interferometer signal response is proportional to the angular velocity of the object as it passes through the interferometer beam pattern. In this paper, the theory of the interferometric measurement of angular velocity is covered and simulations of the response of a walking human are presented. Simulations are produced using a model of a walking human to show the significant features associated with the interferometer response, which may be used in classification algorithms.

  18. Photon Doppler Velocimetry Measurements of Transverse Surface Velocities (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher R.; Lajeunesse, Jeff; Sable, Peter; Hatzenbihler, Ashley; Borg, John P.


    Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) is a prominent optical diagnostic used for measuring displacement or velocity in dynamic experiments. A table-top experiment consisting of a 31mm diameter metal wheel mounted in a hand tool was setup to make steady state transverse surface velocity measurements using PDV for a range of velocities and surface preparations. The experiment consisted of PDV collimators positioned with respect to either the side or bottom face of the wheel at various angles to resolve transverse velocity components. Different preparations for the surface of the wheel were explored such as polishing, laser etching, chemical etching, mechanical milling, and retroreflective microspheres. Light return and transverse surface velocity were recorded for each surface preparation as a function of angle. Polished aluminum allowed adequate light return for only one degree from the normal of the wheel, while the retroreflective microspheres exhibited usable light for upwards of 30 degrees. Velocity measurements were performed over a range of 0 to 45 degrees from the surface normal of the rotating wheel for each surface preparation. Velocity measurements from the PDV experiments show good accuracy with theoretical wheel velocities between 0 and 10 m/s.

  19. Measurement of gas flow velocities by laser-induced gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmerling, B.; Stampanoni-Panariello, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Kozlov, A.D.N. [General Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Time resolved light scattering from laser-induced electrostrictive gratings was used for the determination of flow velocities in air at room temperature. By measuring the velocity profile across the width of a slit nozzle we demonstrated the high spatial resolution (about 200 mm) of this novel technique. (author) 3 figs., 1 ref.

  20. Measuring the Velocity of Cosmic Photons (United States)

    Vazquez, Gerardo Arturo


    The position of the JWST in space—close to the L2 point at a distance of 1.5 million kilometers from Earth—allows us a unique chance to measure the speed of cosmic photons through a double detection in two different telescopes. The speed of cosmic photons has been considered constant as a matter of principle, but in the same way, the energy lost by these photons could have a contribution due to a different nature such as dark matter. In this work, an experiment to measure the speed of photons is proposed based on the detection on two different telescopes located at a considerable distance. Some of the most important results of this experiment could be variations of the speed of light as it passes through dark matter and, as a consequence, the ability to map dark matter in the universe. Although JWST is not in the direction to measure the difference in time of 5 seconds, the fact that it can move up to a 50 arc degree angle will allow us to measure a difference in detection between 3 to 4.5 seconds. The observations needed to do this experiment should come from the detection of gamma ray bursts and then, the simultaneous detection by the sudden pointing of JWST plus a secondary telescope—on ground or in space—to catch the afterglow of the GRB in longer wavelengths. The new technology in telescopes will allow us to catch a difference in magnitude between both telescopes or even to measure single photon detection in time in order to accomplish the purpose of the experiment.

  1. Shear velocity of the Rotokawa geothermal field using ambient noise (United States)

    Civilini, F.; Savage, M. K.; Townend, J.


    Ambient noise correlation is an increasingly popular seismological technique that uses the ambient seismic noise recorded at two stations to construct an empirical Green's function. Applications of this technique include determining shear velocity structure and attenuation. An advantage of ambient noise is that it does not rely on external sources of seismic energy such as local or teleseismic earthquakes. This method has been used in the geothermal industry to determine the depths at which magmatic processes occur, to distinguish between production and non-production areas, and to observe seismic velocity perturbations associated with fluid extraction. We will present a velocity model for the Rotokawa geothermal field near Taupo, New Zealand, produced from ambient noise cross correlations. Production at Rotokawa is based on the "Rotokawa A" combined cycle power station established in 1997 and the "Nga Awa Purua" triple flash power plant established in 2010. Rotokawa Joint Venture, a partnership between Mighty River Power and Tauhara North No. 2 Trust currently operates 174 MW of generation at Rotokawa. An array of short period seismometers was installed in 2008 and occupies an area of roughly 5 square kilometers around the site. Although both cultural and natural noise sources are recorded at the stations, the instrument separation distance provides a unique challenge for analyzing cross correlations produced by both signal types. The inter-station spacing is on the order of a few kilometers, so waves from cultural sources generally are not coherent from one station to the other, while the wavelength produced by natural noise is greater than the station separation. Velocity models produced from these two source types will be compared to known geological models of the site. Depending on the amount of data needed to adequately construct cross-correlations, a time-dependent model of velocity will be established and compared with geothermal production processes.

  2. Laser Doppler velocity measurements of swirling flows with upstream influence (United States)

    Rloff, K. L.; Bossel, H. H.


    Swirling flow in a rotating tube is studied by flow visualization at a moderate Reynolds number, and its velocity field is measured by laser-Doppler anemometry. The tube has constant diameter, and approximately uniform initial rigid rotation of the flow is assured by passing the flow through a rotating plug of porous metal before it enters the test section. At moderate swirl values, an object mounted on the tube centerline causes a closed bubble to form upstream of the obstacle, with a clearly defined stagnation point on the axis, and recirculating flow inside the bubble. The bubble length grows upstream as the swirl is increased, until it breaks up into a Taylor column reaching all the way upstream and downstream at swirl values above a certain critical value. A vortex jump (in the sense of Benjamin) occurs downstream of the obstacle except when the Taylor column is present. Using a laser-Doppler anemometer, axial and swirl velocity profiles are obtained at several stations upstream and downstream of the bubble, and in and around the bubble.

  3. Force-velocity measurements of a few growing actin filaments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraline Brangbour


    Full Text Available The polymerization of actin in filaments generates forces that play a pivotal role in many cellular processes. We introduce a novel technique to determine the force-velocity relation when a few independent anchored filaments grow between magnetic colloidal particles. When a magnetic field is applied, the colloidal particles assemble into chains under controlled loading or spacing. As the filaments elongate, the beads separate, allowing the force-velocity curve to be precisely measured. In the widely accepted Brownian ratchet model, the transduced force is associated with the slowing down of the on-rate polymerization. Unexpectedly, in our experiments, filaments are shown to grow at the same rate as when they are free in solution. However, as they elongate, filaments are more confined in the interspace between beads. Higher repulsive forces result from this higher confinement, which is associated with a lower entropy. In this mechanism, the production of force is not controlled by the polymerization rate, but is a consequence of the restriction of filaments' orientational fluctuations at their attachment point.

  4. Radar velocity determination using direction of arrival measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Bickel, Douglas L.; Naething, Richard M.; Horndt, Volker


    The various technologies presented herein relate to utilizing direction of arrival (DOA) data to determine various flight parameters for an aircraft A plurality of radar images (e.g., SAR images) can be analyzed to identify a plurality of pixels in the radar images relating to one or more ground targets. In an embodiment, the plurality of pixels can be selected based upon the pixels exceeding a SNR threshold. The DOA data in conjunction with a measurable Doppler frequency for each pixel can be obtained. Multi-aperture technology enables derivation of an independent measure of DOA to each pixel based on interferometric analysis. This independent measure of DOA enables decoupling of the aircraft velocity from the DOA in a range-Doppler map, thereby enabling determination of a radar velocity. The determined aircraft velocity can be utilized to update an onboard INS, and to keep it aligned, without the need for additional velocity-measuring instrumentation.

  5. Near-wall velocity profile measurement for nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Kanjirakat


    Full Text Available We perform near-wall velocity measurements of a SiO2–water nanofluid inside a microchannel. Nanoparticle image velocimetry measurements at three visible depths within 500 nm of the wall are conducted. We evaluate the optical properties of the nanofluid and their effect on the measurement technique. The results indicate that the small effect of the nanoparticles on the optical properties of the suspension have a negligible effect on the measurement technique. Our measurements show an increase in nanofluid velocity gradients near the walls, with no measurable slip, relative to the equivalent basefluid flow. We conjecture that particle migration induced by shear may have caused this increase. The effect of this increase in the measured near wall velocity gradient has implications on the viscosity measurement for these fluids.

  6. Global Neuromagnetic Cortical Fields Have Non-Zero Velocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Alexander

    Full Text Available Globally coherent patterns of phase can be obscured by analysis techniques that aggregate brain activity measures across-trials, whether prior to source localization or for estimating inter-areal coherence. We analyzed, at single-trial level, whole head MEG recorded during an observer-triggered apparent motion task. Episodes of globally coherent activity occurred in the delta, theta, alpha and beta bands of the signal in the form of large-scale waves, which propagated with a variety of velocities. Their mean speed at each frequency band was proportional to temporal frequency, giving a range of 0.06 to 4.0 m/s, from delta to beta. The wave peaks moved over the entire measurement array, during both ongoing activity and task-relevant intervals; direction of motion was more predictable during the latter. A large proportion of the cortical signal, measurable at the scalp, exists as large-scale coherent motion. We argue that the distribution of observable phase velocities in MEG is dominated by spatial filtering considerations in combination with group velocity of cortical activity. Traveling waves may index processes involved in global coordination of cortical activity.

  7. Development of ultrasonic pulse-train Doppler method for velocity profile and flowrate measurement (United States)

    Wada, Sanehiro; Furuichi, Noriyuki; Shimada, Takashi


    We present a novel technique for measuring the velocity profile and flowrate in a pipe. This method, named the ultrasonic pulse-train Doppler method (UPTD), has the advantages of expanding the velocity range and setting the smaller measurement volume with low calculation and instrument costs in comparison with the conventional ultrasonic pulse Doppler method. The conventional method has limited measurement of the velocity range due to the Nyquist sampling theorem. In addition, previous reports indicate that a smaller measurement volume increases the accuracy of the measurement. In consideration of the application of the conventional method to actual flow fields, such as industrial facilities and power plants, the issues of velocity range and measurement volume are important. The UPTD algorithm, which exploits two pulses of ultrasound with a short interval and envelope detection, is proposed. Velocity profiles calculated by this algorithm were examined through simulations and excellent agreement was found in all cases. The influence of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the algorithm was also estimated. The result indicates that UPTD can measure velocity profiles with high accuracy, even under a small SNR. Experimental measurements were conducted and the results were evaluated at the national standard calibration facility of water flowrate in Japan. Every detected signal forms a set of two pulses and the enveloped line can be observed clearly. The results show that UPTD can measure the velocity profiles over the pipe diameter, even if the velocities exceed the measurable velocity range. The measured flowrates were under 0.6% and the standard deviations for all flowrate conditions were within  ±0.38%, which is the uncertainty of the flowrate measurement estimated in the previous report. In conclusion, UPTD provides superior accuracy and expansion of the velocity range.

  8. Comparison of the ENEAR peculiar velocities with the PSCz gravity field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nusser, A; da Costa, LN; Branchini, E; Bernardi, M; Alonso, MV; Wegner, G; Willmer, CNA; Pellegrini, PS


    We present a comparison between the peculiar velocity field measured from the ENEAR all-sky D-n-sigma catalogue and that derived from the galaxy distribution of the IRAS Point Source Catalog Redshift Survey (PSCz). The analysis is based on a modal expansion of these data in redshift space by means

  9. Velocity measurement by coherent x-ray heterodyning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhermitte, Julien R. M.; Rogers, Michael C.; Manet, Sabine; Sutton, Mark


    We present a small-angle coherent x-ray scattering technique used for measuring flow velocities in slow moving materials. The technique is an extension of X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS): It involves mixing the scattering from moving tracer particles with a static reference that heterodynes the signal. This acts to elongate temporal effects caused by flow in homodyne measurements, allowing for a more robust measurement of flow properties. Using coherent x-ray heterodyning, velocities ranging from 0.1 to 10 μm/s were measured for a viscous fluid pushed through a rectangular channel. We describe experimental protocols and theory for making these Poiseuille flow profile measurements and also develop the relevant theory for using heterodyne XPCS to measure velocities in uniform and Couette flows.

  10. A Method of Initial Velocity Measurement for Rocket Projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiancheng


    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel method is proposed to measure the initial velocity of the rocket based on STFT (the short-time Fourier transform and the WT (wavelet transform. The radar echo signal processing procedure involves the following steps: sampling process, overlapping windows, wavelet decomposition and reconstruction, computing FFT (Fast Fourier Transform and spectrum analysis, power spectrum peak detection. Then, according to the peak of the detection power spectrum, the corresponding Doppler frequency is obtained. Finally, on the basis of the relationship between Doppler frequency and instantaneous velocity, the V-T curve is drawn in MATLAB to obtain the initial velocity of the rocket muzzle.

  11. Numerical Investigation of Viscous Flow Velocity Field around a Marine Cavitating Propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Zhu


    Full Text Available Velocity field around a ship cavitating propeller is investigated based on the viscous multiphase flow theory. Using a hybrid grid, the unsteady Navier-stokes (N-S and the bubble dynamics equations are solved in this paper to predict the velocity in a propeller wake and the vapor volume fraction on the back side of propeller blade for a uniform inflow. Compared with experimental results, the numerical predictions of cavitation and axial velocity coincide with the measured data. The evolution of tip vortex is shown, and the interaction between the tip vortex of the current blade and the wake of the next one occurs in the far propeller wake. The frequency of velocity signals changes from shaft rate to blade rate. The phenomena reflect the instability of propeller wake.

  12. Full-field velocity imaging of red blood cells in capillaries with spatiotemporal demodulation autocorrelation. (United States)

    Wang, Mingyi; Zeng, Yaguang; Dong, Nannan; Liao, Riwei; Yang, Guojian


    We propose a full-field optical method for the label-free and quantitative mapping of the velocities of red blood cells (RBCs) in capillaries. It integrates spatiotemporal demodulation and an autocorrelation algorithm, and measures RBC velocity according to the ratio of RBC length to lag time. Conventionally, RBC length is assumed to be a constant and lag time is taken as a variable, while our method treats both of them as variables. We use temporal demodulation and the Butterworth spatial filter to separate RBC signal from background signal, based on which we obtain the RBC length by image segmentation and lag time by autocorrelation analysis. The RBC velocity calculated now is more accurate. The validity of our method is verified by an in vivo experiment on a mouse ear. Owing to its higher image signal-to-noise ratio, our method can be used for mapping RBC velocity in the turbid tissue case.

  13. A multi-time-step noise reduction method for measuring velocity statistics from particle tracking velocimetry (United States)

    Machicoane, Nathanaël; López-Caballero, Miguel; Bourgoin, Mickael; Aliseda, Alberto; Volk, Romain


    We present a method to improve the accuracy of velocity measurements for fluid flow or particles immersed in it, based on a multi-time-step approach that allows for cancellation of noise in the velocity measurements. Improved velocity statistics, a critical element in turbulent flow measurements, can be computed from the combination of the velocity moments computed using standard particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) or particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques for data sets that have been collected over different values of time intervals between images. This method produces Eulerian velocity fields and Lagrangian velocity statistics with much lower noise levels compared to standard PIV or PTV measurements, without the need of filtering and/or windowing. Particle displacement between two frames is computed for multiple different time-step values between frames in a canonical experiment of homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The second order velocity structure function of the flow is computed with the new method and compared to results from traditional measurement techniques in the literature. Increased accuracy is also demonstrated by comparing the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy measured from this function against previously validated measurements.

  14. Estimating Radar Velocity using Direction of Arrival Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Horndt, Volker [General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bickel, Douglas Lloyd [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Naething, Richard M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Direction of Arrival (DOA) measurements, as with a monopulse antenna, can be compared against Doppler measurements in a Synthetic Aperture Radar ( SAR ) image to determine an aircraft's forward velocity as well as its crab angle, to assist the aircraft's navigation as well as improving high - performance SAR image formation and spatial calibration.

  15. Measuring Velocity and Acceleration Using Doppler Shift of a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... Abstract. We describe here as to how the Doppler shift of a source needs to be used to measure its velocity and acceleration. We also apply this method, as an example here, to spectral lines of the blue-shifted jet in micro-quasar SS433 and discuss the intricacies of these measurements.

  16. Measurement of lithium target surface velocity in the IFMIF/EVEDA lithium test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemura, Takuji, E-mail: [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, O-arai, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Kondo, Hiroo; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, O-arai, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Hoashi, Eiji [Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshihashi, Sachiko; Horiike, Hiroshi [Fukui University of Technology, Gakuen 3-6-1, Fukui-shi, Fukui 910-8505 (Japan); Wakai, Eiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, O-arai, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)


    Highlights: • The objective is to measure the free-surface velocity field of the IFMIF Li target. • The Li target has an important role to remove 10 MW heat input from a deuteron beam. • The free-surface of the Li target is under the most severe heat load condition. • Measured surface velocities are almost equal to cross-sectional average velocities. • It was confirmed that the IFMIF Li target has adequate heat removal performance. - Abstract: In the framework of the Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) project of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), we measured surface velocity fields of a lithium (Li) target at the EVEDA Li test loop under specifically-designated IFMIF conditions (target speeds of 10, 15, and 20 m/s, vacuum pressure of 10{sup −3} Pa, and Li temperature of 250 °C). In the current design of the IFMIF, the free surface of the Li target is under a most severe heat load condition with respect to Li boiling. The objective of this study is to measure the actual free-surface velocity under these IFMIF conditions to evaluate the heat removal performance of the Li target. The measured results (using the surface-wave tracking method that our team developed) showed two-dimensional time-averaged velocity distributions around the IFMIF beam footprint being virtually uniform, and close to the cross-sectional average velocity. The uniformity of the velocity distributions was less than 1 m/s. The comparison between the measured and analyzed surface velocity at the beam center showed that the analysis accurately predicts the measurement results within a margin of 3%. Finally, it was confirmed that the Li target delivers adequate heat removal performance in the IFMIF as designed.

  17. Electric Probe Measurements of the Poloidal Velocity in the Scrape-Off Layer of ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlmann, F.; Costea, S.; Schrittwieser, R..


    A reciprocating probe head with six pins was used for localized measurements of electric fields and densities in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) up to the edge shear layer (SL) near the Last Closed Flux Surface (LCFS). The edge SL is characterized by a strong sudden change...... in the poloidal velocity v close to the separatrix. The probes were used to determine this velocity by different methods which are critically compared to each other concerning their reliability. By the first method the poloidal velocity was deduced from the radial electric field E-r measured by two radially...... correlation were used to determine the poloidal velocity and its jump, yielding comparable results to the first method. Also the method of conditional averaging was applied to the latter signals. ((c) 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)....

  18. Measurement of the superluminal group velocity of an ultrashort Bessel beam pulse. (United States)

    Alexeev, I; Kim, K Y; Milchberg, H M


    The superluminal group velocity of an ultrashort optical Bessel beam pulse is measured over its entire depth of field, corresponding to approximately 2x10(4) optical wavelengths. The method used is to measure the traveling ionization front induced by the pulse.

  19. Field test and theoretical analysis of electromagnetic pulse propagation velocity on crossbonded cable systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Flytkjær; Bak, Claus Leth; Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella


    In this paper, the electromagnetic pulse propagation velocity on a three-phase cable system, consisting of three single core (SC) cables in flat formation with an earth continuity conductor is under study. The propagation velocity is an important parameter for most travelling wave off- and online...... fault location methods and needs to be exactly known for optimal performance of these algorithm types. Field measurements are carried out on a 6.9 km and a 31.4 km 245 kV crossbonded cable system, and the results are analysed using the modal decomposition theory. Several ways for determining...

  20. Two time and two point shifted velocity measurements in decaying homogeneous turbulence (United States)

    Lenoir, Jean-Michel; Gence, Jean-Noël; Simoëns, Serge


    Obtention of some characteristics as Eulerian 2 times 2 points shifted velocity correlations for isotropic homogeneous turbulence is still difficult to obtain. Nevertheless, it is necessary, particularly for 2 points and 2 times or Lagrangian turbulence modelling, to improve our knowledge of the deduced characteristic turbulent time scales. In the present work the flow is a water decaying turbulence. We use particle image velocimetry (PIV) to obtain velocity field measurements in a first fixed point x and in a second moving point x+Δx. The velocity field at x is obtained at time t and at x+Δx at time t+T (where Δt=Δx/U¯ ( U¯ being the mean velocity at x)). Our turbulence is the same as Comte-Bellot and Corrsin (1971) [1] (GCBC) but in water. They used two hot-wire anemometers to obtain velocity field x and x+Δx along their tunnel axis, whereas we used two PIV systems. This allows us to have measurement points closer each together, compare to GCBC. We present our PIV measurements that will be compared with the ones of GCBC (Comte-Bellot and Corrsin, 1971) [1] and Schlien and Corrsin (1974) [2] (SC). We first demonstrate the validity of our water experiment then the use of the synchronised two PIV systems. We further present the velocity correlation results and the deduced turbulent time scale.

  1. Measurement of radiofrequency fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonowich, J.A.


    We are literally surrounded by radiofrequency (RFR) and microwave radiation, from both natural and man-made sources. The identification and control of man-made sources of RFR has become a high priority of radiation safety professionals in recent years. For the purposes of this paper, we will consider RFR to cover the frequencies from 3 kHz to 300 MHz, and microwaves from 300 MHz to 300 GHz, and will use the term RFR interchangeably to describe both. Electromagnetic radiation and field below 3 kHz is considered Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and will not be discussed in this paper. Unlike x- and gamma radiation, RFR is non-ionizing. The energy of any RFR photon is insufficient to produce ionizations in matter. The measurement and control of RFR hazards is therefore fundamentally different from ionizing radiation. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the reader with the fundamental issues involved in measuring and safely using RFR fields. 23 refs.

  2. Particle velocity measurements in HVOF and APS systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.; Smith, R.W.; Xiao, Z. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hoffman, T.T. [Control Vision, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Production of reliable, repeatable coatings requires precise control of the process used to deposit them. Significant advances have recently been made in controlling the inputs to thermal spray processes, however, much work remains to be done to control process outputs and to correlate these with coatings characteristics. Thermal spray processes comprise the heating/melting, acceleration, impact, rapid solidification and incremental build-up of a large number of individual particles. Particle velocity is a key process parameter in determining coating properties such as density/porosity, bond strength and residual stress. Laser Stroboscopy and optical image analysis techniques have been used to image particles traveling in high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and air plasma spray (APS) jets. Results indicate that these techniques can be used to measure particle velocity, trajectory and velocity distribution(s) in thermal spray jets. mean particle velocities of {approximately}400 m/s and {approximately}100 m/s have been measured for HVOF and APS respectively.

  3. Hybrid method for determining the parameters of condenser microphones from measured membrane velocities and numerical calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Rasmussen, Knud; Jacobsen, Finn


    Typically, numerical calculations of the pressure, free-field, and random-incidence response of a condenser microphone are carried out on the basis of an assumed displacement distribution of the diaphragm of the microphone; the conventional assumption is that the displacement follows a Bessel...... to this problem is to measure the velocity distribution of the membrane by means of a non-contact method, such as laser vibrometry. The measured velocity distribution can be used together with a numerical formulation such as the boundary element method for estimating the microphone response and other parameters......, e.g., the acoustic center. In this work, such a hybrid method is presented and examined. The velocity distributions of a number of condenser microphones have been determined using a laser vibrometer, and these measured velocity distributions have been used for estimating microphone responses...

  4. Rayleigh Wave Velocity Measurements Using Broad Band Frequency Sources. (United States)


    Heukelom 4I and Foster 1960, Chang and Ballard 1973, Ballard and McLean 1975). The procedure for measuring the Rayleigh wave velocity has consisted... Heukelom , W., and Foster, C. R. 1960. "Dynamic Testing of Pavements," Journal, Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, American Society of Civil Engineers

  5. Improved Measurement of Ejection Velocities From Craters Formed in Sand (United States)

    Cintala, Mark J.; Byers, Terry; Cardenas, Francisco; Montes, Roland; Potter, Elliot E.


    A typical impact crater is formed by two major processes: compression of the target (essentially equivalent to a footprint in soil) and ejection of material. The Ejection-Velocity Measurement System (EVMS) in the Experimental Impact Laboratory has been used to study ejection velocities from impact craters formed in sand since the late 1990s. The original system used an early-generation Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera; custom-written software; and a complex, multicomponent optical system to direct laser light for illumination. Unfortunately, the electronic equipment was overtaken by age, and the software became obsolete in light of improved computer hardware.

  6. Measurements and modelling of dendritic growth velocities of pure Fe with thermoelectric magnetohydrodynamics convection (United States)

    Zhao, Rijie; Gao, Jianrong; Kao, Andrew; Pericleous, Koulis


    Dendritic growth velocities of pure Fe under static magnetic fields of intensity ranging from B = 0 T to B = 6 T were measured using a high speed camera. The data measured at undercoolings up to ΔT = 190 K show a depression followed by a recovery of the growth velocities as the magnetic field intensity increased from a low range, B = 1-3 T to a high range, B = 4-6 T. These magnetic field effects are similar to those previously observed for pure Ni and can be attributed to competing thermoelectric magnetohydrodynamic (TEMHD) convection patterns in the local liquid. The experimental measurements for the two metals were modelled using a three-dimensional dendritic growth theory taking into account convection to estimate the effective flow velocities in the tip growth direction. The calculated effective flow velocities identify two undercooling dependences and a distinct type of magnetic field intensity dependence in common for the two metals. In comparison, the calculated effective flow velocities for pure Fe are generally smaller in magnitude. This difference between the two metals can be related to their differences in material-dependent properties as is revealed by a simple model proposed for a transverse TEMHD flow.

  7. Variable Field Analytical Ultracentrifugation: II. Gravitational Sweep Sedimentation Velocity. (United States)

    Ma, Jia; Zhao, Huaying; Sandmaier, Julia; Alexander Liddle, J; Schuck, Peter


    Sedimentation velocity (SV) analytical ultracentrifugation is a classical biophysical technique for the determination of the size-distribution of macromolecules, macromolecular complexes, and nanoparticles. SV has traditionally been carried out at a constant rotor speed, which limits the range of sedimentation coefficients that can be detected in a single experiment. Recently we have introduced methods to implement experiments with variable rotor speeds, in combination with variable field solutions to the Lamm equation, with the application to expedite the approach to sedimentation equilibrium. Here, we describe the use of variable-field sedimentation analysis to increase the size-range covered in SV experiments by ∼100-fold with a quasi-continuous increase of rotor speed during the experiment. Such a gravitational-sweep sedimentation approach has previously been shown to be very effective in the study of nanoparticles with large size ranges. In the past, diffusion processes were not accounted for, thereby posing a lower limit of particle sizes and limiting the accuracy of the size distribution. In this work, we combine variable field solutions to the Lamm equation with diffusion-deconvoluted sedimentation coefficient distributions c(s), which further extend the macromolecular size range that can be observed in a single SV experiment while maintaining accuracy and resolution. In this way, approximately five orders of magnitude of sedimentation coefficients, or eight orders of magnitude of particle mass, can be probed in a single experiment. This can be useful, for example, in the study of proteins forming large assemblies, as in fibrillation process or capsid self-assembly, in studies of the interaction between very dissimilar-sized macromolecular species, or in the study of broadly distributed nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Velocity-space sensitivity of neutron spectrometry measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Salewski, Mirko; Eriksson, J.


    Neutron emission spectrometry (NES) measures the energies of neutrons produced in fusion reactions. Here we present velocity-space weight functions for NES and neutron yield measurements. Weight functions show the sensitivity as well as the accessible regions in velocity space for a given range...... of the neutron energy spectrum. Combined with a calculated fast-ion distribution function, they determine the part of the distribution function producing detectable neutrons in a given neutron energy range. Furthermore, we construct a forward model based on weight functions capable of rapidly calculating neutron...... energy spectra. This forward model can be inverted and could thereby be used to directly measure the fast-ion phase-space distribution functions, possibly in combination with other fast-ion diagnostics. The presented methods and results can be applied to neutron energy spectra measured by any kind...

  9. 39 GHz Interferometer System for Measuring Detonation Velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Patrick W. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Livermore, CA (United States); Tran, Vu [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Livermore, CA (United States); Waltman, Thomas B. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Livermore, CA (United States); Tringe, Joe [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); May, Chadd [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cradick, Jerry [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hodgin, Ralph [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Ron [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    A new 39 GHz RF interferometer system is presented for use in velocity measurements of high explosives (HE) detonations. The frequency was chosen to compliment the currently available suite, and provide more spatial information. An RF signal is generated and coupled to a waveguide adapter serving as an antenna. The HE is initially transparent to the RF. When the HE detonates, the detonation front becomes reflective to the RF. This reflection is picked up by the waveguide adapter and mixed with an unperturbed RF signal to give a low frequency signal which can be digitized with an oscilloscope. By comparing the signal with a reference signal, velocity information can be obtained using Fourier Transforms and wavelet models. Bench test results using a “slapper” are shown. The 39 GHz microwave interferometer is used in Deflagration to Detonation shots. The signal is reflected off a moving surface, and the Doppler shift of the reflected signal is used to calculate the velocity.

  10. Potential, velocity, and density fields from sparse and noisy redshift-distance samples - Method (United States)

    Dekel, Avishai; Bertschinger, Edmund; Faber, Sandra M.


    A method for recovering the three-dimensional potential, velocity, and density fields from large-scale redshift-distance samples is described. Galaxies are taken as tracers of the velocity field, not of the mass. The density field and the initial conditions are calculated using an iterative procedure that applies the no-vorticity assumption at an initial time and uses the Zel'dovich approximation to relate initial and final positions of particles on a grid. The method is tested using a cosmological N-body simulation 'observed' at the positions of real galaxies in a redshift-distance sample, taking into account their distance measurement errors. Malmquist bias and other systematic and statistical errors are extensively explored using both analytical techniques and Monte Carlo simulations.

  11. Investigation of Horizontal Velocity Fields in Stirred Vessels with Helical Coils by PIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Bliem


    Full Text Available Horizontal velocity flow fields were measured by particle image velocimetry for a stirred vessel with baffles and two helical coils for enlargement of heat transfer area. The investigation was carried out in a cylindrical vessel with flat base and two different stirrers (radial-flow Rushton turbine and axial-flow propeller stirrer. Combined velocity plots for flow fields at different locations are presented. It was found that helical coils change the flow pattern significantly. Measurements for the axial-flow Rushton turbine showed a strong deflection by the coils, leading to a mainly tangential flow pattern. Behind baffles large areas of unused heat transfer area were found. First results for the axial-flow propeller reveal an extensive absence of fluid movement in the horizontal plane. Improved design considerations for enhanced heat transfer by more compatible equipment compilation are proposed.

  12. Vorticity field measurement using digital inline holography (United States)

    Mallery, Kevin; Hong, Jiarong


    We demonstrate the direct measurement of a 3D vorticity field using digital inline holographic microscopy. Microfiber tracer particles are illuminated with a 532 nm continuous diode laser and imaged using a single CCD camera. The recorded holographic images are processed using a GPU-accelerated inverse problem approach to reconstruct the 3D structure of each microfiber in the imaged volume. The translation and rotation of each microfiber are measured using a time-resolved image sequence - yielding velocity and vorticity point measurements. The accuracy and limitations of this method are investigated using synthetic holograms. Measurements of solid body rotational flow are used to validate the accuracy of the technique under known flow conditions. The technique is further applied to a practical turbulent flow case for investigating its 3D velocity field and vorticity distribution.

  13. Doppler-shifted fluorescence imaging of velocity fields in supersonic reacting flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, M.G.; Davis, S.J.; Kessler, W.J.; Sonnenfroh, D.M. (Physical Sciences, Inc., Andover, MA (United States))


    The application of Doppler-shifted fluorescence imaging of velocity fields in supersonic reacting flows is analyzed. Focussing on fluorescence of the OH molecule in typical H2-air Scramjet flows, the effects of uncharacterized variations in temperature, pressure, and collisional partner composition across the measurement plane are examined. Detailed measurements of the (1,0) band OH lineshape variations in H2-air combustions are used, along with single-pulse and time-averaged measurements of an excimer-pumped dye laser, to predict the performance of a model velocimeter with typical Scramjet flow properties. The analysis demonstrates the need for modification and control of the laser bandshape in order to permit accurate velocity measurements in the presence of multivariant flow properties. 13 refs.

  14. Particle Velocity Distributions and Large-Scale Electric Field in Solar Wind (United States)

    Pavan, J.; Vinas, A. F.


    Velocity distributions of particles are key elements in the study of solar wind. The physical mechanisms that regulate their many features are a matter of debate. The present work addresses the subject with a fully analytical method in order to establish the shape of particle velocity distributions in solar wind. The method consists in solving the steady-state kinetic equation for particles and the related fluid equations, assigning spatial profiles for density and temperature matching observational data. The model is one-dimensional in configuration-space and two-dimensional in velocity-space, and accounts for large-scale processes, namely, advection, gravity, magnetic mirroring and the large-scale ambipolar electric field, without the aid of wave-particle interactions or collisions. The findings reported add to the general understanding of regulation of particle distributions in solar wind and to the predictions of their shape in regions restricted for in situ measurements.

  15. Determination of the Ion Velocity Distribution in a Rotating Plasma from Measurements of Doppler Broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L. W.; Sillesen, Alfred Hegaard


    The Doppler-broadened profile of the He II 4685.75 AA line was measured along a chord in a rotating plasma, transverse to the magnetic field. Using a single-particle orbit picture, the corresponding velocity spectrum of ions confirm the measurements, so it can be concluded that the single......-particle orbit picture is valid for the discharge period under investigation, except for the first few microseconds during breakdown when a strong interaction between plasma and remaining neutral gas takes place by Alfvens critical velocity mechanism. A simple relation is given between the measured half...

  16. Velocity-pressure correlation measurements in complex free shear flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naka, Yoshitsugu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-city 223-8522 (Japan)], E-mail:; Obi, Shinnosuke [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-city 223-8522 (Japan)], E-mail:


    Simultaneous measurements of fluctuating velocity and pressure were performed in various turbulent free shear flows including a turbulent mixing layer and the wing-tip vortex trailing from a NACA0012 half-wing. Two different methods for fluctuating static pressure measurement were considered: a direct method using a miniature Pitot tube and an indirect method where static pressure was calculated from total pressure. The pressure obtained by either of these methods was correlated with the velocity measured by an X-type hot-wire probe. The results from these two techniques agreed with each other in the turbulent mixing layer. In the wing-tip vortex case, however, some discrepancies were found, although overall characteristics of the pressure-related statistics were adequately captured by both methods.

  17. The Measurement of Ion Drift Velocities in Presheaths in Ar and He-Ar Plasmas (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Ko, Eunsuk; Hershkowitz, Noah


    The presheath is a region of weak electric field that accelerates ions into the sheath at the plasma boundary. Presheath measurements were carried out near a plate 15cm in diameter mounted in a multi-dipole DC plasma with pure Ar and He-Ar gas mixtures (P_total >= 1.0mTorr, ne >= 1E9cm-3, Te boxcar averager, ion drift velocity profiles were obtained in pure Ar plasma with different neutral pressures and the relationship between Ar and He ion drift velocities was determined in He-Ar plasma respectively. Using Ar ion drift velocities from LIF data ^[1], the He ion drift velocities were determined. Measurements by launching a continuous sinusoidal wave and a pulse are compared. ** Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-97ER54437 [1] G. D. Severn, Xu Wang, Eunsuk Ko and N. Hershkowitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 145001 (2003).

  18. Measurement of Plasma Rotation Velocities in the STOR-M Tokamak (United States)

    Morelli, Jordan; Xiao, Chijin; McColl, David; Hirose, Akira; Mitarai, Osamu


    Measurements of the plasma rotation velocities in the edge region of the Saskatchewan Torus-Modified (STOR-M) tokamak during one full cycle of alternating current operation and CT injection will be presented. In these experiments, a four sided Mach probe is used to measure the radial profile of the plasma poloidal and toroidal rotation velocities in the edge region. It has long been suspected that changes in the plasma edge region of both the velocity structure, and the radial electric field and its gradient are responsible for the transition to the ohmic high-confinement mode (H-mode). Furthermore, the results will help to check a recent theoretical model in which the confinement improvement is based on the toroidal velocity CURVATURE, consistent with the expectation that the tangential CT injection speeds up the toroidal flow.

  19. Investigation of gravity waves using horizontally resolved radial velocity measurements (United States)

    Stober, G.; Sommer, S.; Rapp, M.; Latteck, R.


    The Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) on the island of Andøya in Northern Norway (69.3° N, 16.0° E) observes polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE). These echoes are used as tracers of atmospheric dynamics to investigate the horizontal wind variability at high temporal and spatial resolution. MAARSY has the capability of pulse-to-pulse beam steering allowing for systematic scanning experiments to study the horizontal structure of the backscatterers as well as to measure the radial velocities for each beam direction. Here we present a method to retrieve gravity wave parameters from these horizontally resolved radial wind variations by applying velocity azimuth display and volume velocity processing. Based on the observations a detailed comparison of the two wind analysis techniques is carried out in order to determine the zonal and meridional wind as well as to measure first-order inhomogeneities. Further, we demonstrate the possibility to resolve the horizontal wave properties, e.g., horizontal wavelength, phase velocity and propagation direction. The robustness of the estimated gravity wave parameters is tested by a simple atmospheric model.

  20. Investigation of gravity waves using horizontally resolved radial velocity measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Stober


    Full Text Available The Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY on the island of Andøya in Northern Norway (69.3° N, 16.0° E observes polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE. These echoes are used as tracers of atmospheric dynamics to investigate the horizontal wind variability at high temporal and spatial resolution. MAARSY has the capability of pulse-to-pulse beam steering allowing for systematic scanning experiments to study the horizontal structure of the backscatterers as well as to measure the radial velocities for each beam direction. Here we present a method to retrieve gravity wave parameters from these horizontally resolved radial wind variations by applying velocity azimuth display and volume velocity processing. Based on the observations a detailed comparison of the two wind analysis techniques is carried out in order to determine the zonal and meridional wind as well as to measure first-order inhomogeneities. Further, we demonstrate the possibility to resolve the horizontal wave properties, e.g., horizontal wavelength, phase velocity and propagation direction. The robustness of the estimated gravity wave parameters is tested by a simple atmospheric model.

  1. 2MTF - VI. Measuring the velocity power spectrum (United States)

    Howlett, Cullan; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Elahi, Pascal J.; Hong, Tao; Jarrett, Tom H.; Jones, D. Heath; Koribalski, Bärbel S.; Macri, Lucas M.; Masters, Karen L.; Springob, Christopher M.


    We present measurements of the velocity power spectrum and constraints on the growth rate of structure fσ8, at redshift zero, using the peculiar motions of 2062 galaxies in the completed 2MASS Tully-Fisher survey (2MTF). To accomplish this we introduce a model for fitting the velocity power spectrum including the effects of non-linear redshift space distortions (RSD), allowing us to recover unbiased fits down to scales k = 0.2 h Mpc-1 without the need to smooth or grid the data. Our fitting methods are validated using a set of simulated 2MTF surveys. Using these simulations we also identify that the Gaussian distributed estimator for peculiar velocities of Watkins & Feldman is suitable for measuring the velocity power spectrum, but sub-optimal for the 2MTF data compared to using magnitude fluctuations δm, and that, whilst our fits are robust to a change in fiducial cosmology, future peculiar velocity surveys with more constraining power may have to marginalize over this. We obtain scale-dependent constraints on the growth rate of structure in two bins, finding fσ 8 = [0.55^{+0.16}_{-0.13},0.40^{+0.16}_{-0.17}] in the ranges k = [0.007-0.055, 0.55-0.150] h Mpc-1. We also find consistent results using four bins. Assuming scale-independence we find a value fσ 8 = 0.51^{+0.09}_{-0.08}, a ˜16 per cent measurement of the growth rate. Performing a consistency check of general relativity (GR) and combining our results with cosmic microwave background data only we find γ = 0.45^{+0.10}_{-0.11}, a remarkable constraint considering the small number of galaxies. All of our results are completely independent of the effects of galaxy bias, and fully consistent with the predictions of GR (scale-independent fσ8 and γ ≈ 0.55).

  2. On the evaluation of vorticity using cardiovascular magnetic resonance velocity measurements. (United States)

    Garcia, J; Larose, E; Pibarot, P; Kadem, L


    Vorticity and vortical structures play a fundamental role affecting the evaluation of energetic aspects (mainly left ventricle work) of cardiovascular function. Vorticity can be derived from cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging velocity measurements. However, several numerical schemes can be used to evaluate the vorticity field. The main objective of this work is to assess different numerical schemes used to evaluate the vorticity field derived from CMR velocity measurements. We compared the vorticity field obtained using direct differentiation schemes (eight-point circulation and Chapra) and derivate differentiation schemes (Richardson 4* and compact Richardson 4*) from a theoretical velocity field and in vivo CMR velocity measurements. In all cases, the effect of artificial spatial resolution up-sampling and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on vorticity computation was evaluated. Theoretical and in vivo results showed that the eight-point circulation method underestimated vorticity. Up-sampling evaluation showed that the artificial improvement of spatial resolution had no effect on mean absolute vorticity estimation but it affected SNR for all methods. The Richardson 4* method and its compact version were the most accurate and stable methods for vorticity magnitude evaluation. Vorticity field determination using the eight-point circulation method, the most common method used in CMR, has reduced accuracy compared to other vorticity schemes. Richardson 4* and its compact version showed stable SNR using both theoretical and in vivo data.

  3. Measurement uncertainty budget of an interferometric flow velocity sensor (United States)

    Bermuske, Mike; Büttner, Lars; Czarske, Jürgen


    Flow rate measurements are a common topic for process monitoring in chemical engineering and food industry. To achieve the requested low uncertainties of 0:1% for flow rate measurements, a precise measurement of the shear layers of such flows is necessary. The Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) is an established method for measuring local flow velocities. For exact estimation of the flow rate, the flow profile in the shear layer is of importance. For standard LDV the axial resolution and therefore the number of measurement points in the shear layer is defined by the length of the measurement volume. A decrease of this length is accompanied by a larger fringe distance variation along the measurement axis which results in a rise of the measurement uncertainty for the flow velocity (uncertainty relation between spatial resolution and velocity uncertainty). As a unique advantage, the laser Doppler profile sensor (LDV-PS) overcomes this problem by using two fan-like fringe systems to obtain the position of the measured particles along the measurement axis and therefore achieve a high spatial resolution while it still offers a low velocity uncertainty. With this technique, the flow rate can be estimated with one order of magnitude lower uncertainty, down to 0:05% statistical uncertainty.1 And flow profiles especially in film flows can be measured more accurately. The problem for this technique is, in contrast to laboratory setups where the system is quite stable, that for industrial applications the sensor needs a reliable and robust traceability to the SI units, meter and second. Small deviations in the calibration can, because of the highly position depending calibration function, cause large systematic errors in the measurement result. Therefore, a simple, stable and accurate tool is needed, that can easily be used in industrial surroundings to check or recalibrate the sensor. In this work, different calibration methods are presented and their influences to the

  4. Subnanosecond velocity interferometer measurements of detonating PBX-9502

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, S.A.; Bloomquist, D.D.


    A velocity interferometer system was recently assembled which includes a high speed electronic streak camera to measure the particle velocity-time history of a diffusely reflecting surface. It has been named ORVIS for Optically Recorded Velocity Interferometer System. Measurements were made on detonating PBX-9502 (95/5 mixture of TATB and Kel-F) to determine the structure of the detonation front to see how the results compare with the measurements of Hayes, et al., using electromagnetic gauges embedded in superfine TATB. Measurements were made by reflecting laser light off a copper foil surface and then routing it through a velocity interferometer with a glass etalon in one leg to delay the light by 250 or 500 picoseconds, depending on the setup. The interferometer was tuned such that a pattern of straight fringes was obtained rather than the normal bull's-eye pattern. a cylindrical lens was used to focus each fringe to a dot to concentrate the light. This made the fringe pattern a line of dots which was focused on the slit of an Imacon 790 streak camera capable of streak rates up to 1 mm/ns. With this setup a time resolution of 300 to 500 picoseconds could be attained at the maximum streak rate. These experiments demonstrate that shock-front rise time measurements are now possible to a time resolution of several hundred picoseconds and we feel this approach can be used to attain about 50 picosecond time resolution. It is a powerful method to probe the structure of both shock and detonation waves.

  5. Entanglement-enhanced lidars for simultaneous range and velocity measurements (United States)

    Zhuang, Quntao; Zhang, Zheshen; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.


    Lidar is a well-known optical technology for measuring a target's range and radial velocity. We describe two lidar systems that use entanglement between transmitted signals and retained idlers to obtain significant quantum enhancements in simultaneous measurements of these parameters. The first entanglement-enhanced lidar circumvents the Arthurs-Kelly uncertainty relation for simultaneous measurements of range and radial velocity from the detection of a single photon returned from the target. This performance presumes there is no extraneous (background) light, but is robust to the round-trip loss incurred by the signal photons. The second entanglement-enhanced lidar—which requires a lossless, noiseless environment—realizes Heisenberg-limited accuracies for both its range and radial-velocity measurements, i.e., their root-mean-square estimation errors are both proportional to 1 /M when M signal photons are transmitted. These two lidars derive their entanglement-based enhancements from the use of a unitary transformation that takes a signal-idler photon pair with frequencies ωS and ωI and converts it to a signal-idler photon pair whose frequencies are (ωS+ωI)/2 and (ωS-ωI)/2 . Insight into how this transformation provides its benefits is provided through an analogy to continuous-variable superdense coding.

  6. Device for measuring electric fields (United States)

    Levine, S. H.; Harrison, S. R.


    Measurement of low-intensity electric fields in space and in presence of weak magnetic fields is accomplished by utilizing a device which permits determination of the extent a beam of cesium ions is deflected by an electric field.

  7. High-speed velocity measurements on an EFI-system (United States)

    Prinse, W. C.; van't Hof, P. G.; Cheng, L. K.; Scholtes, J. H. G.


    For the development of an Exploding Foil Initiator for Insensitive Munitions applications the following topics are of interest: the electrical circuit, the exploding foil, the velocity of the flyer, the driver explosive, the secondary flyer and the acceptor explosive. Several parameters of the EFI have influences on the velocity of the flyer. To investigate these parameters a Fabry-Perot Velocity Interferometer System (F-PVIS) has been used. The light to and from the flyer is transported by a multimode fibre terminated with a GRIN-lens. By this method the velocity of very tiny objects (0.1 mm), can be measured. The velocity of flyer can be recorded with nanosecond resolution, depending on the Fabry-Perot etalon and the streak camera. With this equipment the influence of the dimensions of the exploding foil and the flyer on the velocity and the acceleration of the flyer are investigated. Also the integrity of the flyer during flight can be analyzed. To characterize the explosive material, to be used as driver explosive in EFI's, the initiation behaviour of the explosive has been investigated by taking pictures of the explosion with a high speed framing and streak camera. From these pictures the initiation distance and the detonation behaviour of the explosive has been analyzed. Normally, the driver explosive initiates the acceptor explosive (booster) by direct contact. This booster explosive is embedded in the main charge of the munitions. The combination of initiator, booster explosive and main charge explosive is called the detonation train. In this research the possibility of initiation of the booster by an intermediate flyer is investigated. This secondary flyer can be made of different materials, like aluminium, steel and polyester with different sizes. With the aid of the F-PVIS the acceleration of the secondary flyer is investigated. This reveals the influence of the thickness and density of the flyer on the acceleration and final velocity. Under certain

  8. Spacecraft Angular Velocity Estimation Algorithm Based on Orientation Quaternion Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Li


    Full Text Available The spacecraft (SC mission involves providing the appropriate orientation and stabilization of the associated axes in space. One of the main sources of information for the attitude control system is the angular rate sensor blocks. One way to improve a reliability of the system is to provide a back up of the control algorithms in case of failure of these blocks. To solve the problem of estimation of SP angular velocity vector in the inertial system of coordinates with a lack of information from the angular rate sensors is supposed the use of orientation data from the star sensors; in this case at each clock of the onboard digital computer. The equations in quaternions are used to describe the kinematics of rotary motion. Their approximate solution is used to estimate the angular velocity vector. Methods of modal control and multi-dimensional decomposition of a control object are used to solve the problem of observation and identification of the angular rates. These methods enabled us to synthesize the SP angular velocity vector estimation algorithm and obtain the equations, which relate the error quaternion with the calculated estimate of the angular velocity. Mathematical modeling was carried out to test the algorithm. Cases of different initial conditions were simulated. Time between orientation quaternion measurements and angular velocity of the model was varied. The algorithm was compared with a more accurate algorithm, built on more complete equations. Graphs of difference in angular velocity estimation depending on the number of iterations are presented. The difference in angular velocity estimation is calculated from results of the synthesized algorithm and the algorithm for more accurate equations. Graphs of error distribution for angular velocity estimation with initial conditions being changed are also presented, and standard deviations of estimation errors are calculated. The synthesized algorithm is inferior in accuracy assessment to

  9. Coda wave interferometry for the measurement of thermally induced ultrasonic velocity variations in CFRP laminates (United States)

    Livings, Richard; Dayal, Vinay; Barnard, Dan


    Ultrasonic velocity measurement is a well-established method to measure properties and estimate strength as well as detect and locate damage. Determination of accurate and repeatable ultrasonic wave velocities can be difficult due to the influence of environmental and experimental factors. Diffuse fields created by a multiple scattering environment have been shown to be sensitive to homogeneous strain fields such as those caused by temperature variations, and Coda Wave Interferometry has been used to measure the thermally induced ultrasonic velocity variation in concrete, aluminum, and the Earth's crust. In this work, we analyzed the influence of several parameters of the experimental configuration on the measurement of thermally induced ultrasonic velocity variations in a carbon-fiber reinforced polymer plate. Coda Wave Interferometry was used to determine the relative velocity change between a baseline signal taken at room temperature and the signal taken at various temperatures. The influence of several parameters of the experimental configuration, such as the material type, the receiver aperture size, and fiber orientation on the results of the processing algorithm was evaluated in order to determine the optimal experimental configuration.---This work is supported by the NSF Industry/University Cooperative Research Program of the Center for Nondestructive Evaluation at Iowa State University.

  10. Planar near-nozzle velocity measurements during a single high-pressure fuel injection (United States)

    Schlüßler, Raimund; Gürtler, Johannes; Czarske, Jürgen; Fischer, Andreas


    In order to reduce the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of modern Diesel engines, the high-pressure fuel injections have to be optimized. This requires continuous, time-resolved measurements of the fuel velocity distribution during multiple complete injection cycles, which can provide a deeper understanding of the injection process. However, fuel velocity measurements at high-pressure injection nozzles are a challenging task due to the high velocities of up to 300 m/s, the short injection durations in the range and the high fuel droplet density especially near the nozzle exit. In order to solve these challenges, a fast imaging Doppler global velocimeter with laser frequency modulation (2D-FM-DGV) incorporating a high-speed camera is presented. As a result, continuous planar velocity field measurements are performed with a measurement rate of 200 kHz in the near-nozzle region of a high-pressure Diesel injection. The injection system is operated under atmospheric surrounding conditions with injection pressures up to 1400 bar thereby reaching fuel velocities up to 380 m/s. The measurements over multiple entire injection cycles resolved the spatio-temporal fluctuations of the fuel velocity, which occur especially for low injection pressures. Furthermore, a sudden setback of the velocity at the beginning of the injection is identified for various injection pressures. In conclusion, the fast measurement system enables the investigation of the complete temporal behavior of single injection cycles or a series of it. Since this eliminates the necessity of phase-locked measurements, the proposed measurement approach provides new insights for the analysis of high-pressure injections regarding unsteady phenomena.

  11. On the measurement of lateral velocity derivatives in turbulent flows (United States)

    Antonia, R. A.; Zhu, Y.; Kim, J.


    Direct numerical simulation data for the lateral velocity derivative delta(u)/delta(y) at the centerline of a fully developed turbulent channel flow provide reasonable support for Wyngaard's analysis of the error involved in measuring this quantity using parallel hot wires. Numerical data in the wall region of the channel flow also provide a useful indication of how to select the separation between the wires. Justification for this choice is obtained by comparing several measured statistics of delta(u)/delta(y) with the corresponding numerical data.

  12. Microcomputer measurement of the velocity of sound in air (United States)

    Bates, P. A.


    The velocity of sound in air can be measured in a general physics laboratory using many well known methods such as Hebb's method, Kundt's tube, etc. The experiment described allows the velocity of sound in air to be determined relatively easily but it has really been developed to enable a student to use a microcomputer in a physical experiment. The intention has been for the student to become familiar with an Apple II microcomputer that is being used for data collection and to realise that data collected in this manner may be processed manually as well as with the aid of a computer. It is hoped that by using such techniques students may be instructed in the best use of computers in both the collection and handling of experimental results.

  13. A comparison of velocity measurements from the CUTLASS Finland radar and the EISCAT UHF system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Davies

    Full Text Available The CUTLASS Finland radar, which comprises an integral part of the SuperDARN system of HF coherent radars, provides near continuous observations of high-latitude plasma irregularities within a field-of-view which extends over some four million square kilometres. Within the Finland radar field-of-view lie both the EISCAT mainland and EISCAT Svalbard incoherent scatter radar facilities. Since the CUTLASS Finland radar commenced operation, in February 1995, the mainland EISCAT UHF radar has been run in common programme 1 and 2 modes for a total duration exceeding 1000 h. Simultaneous and spatially coincident returns from these two radars over this period provide the basis for a comparison of irregularity drift velocity and F-region ion velocity. Initial comparison is limited to velocities from four intervals of simultaneous radar returns; intervals are selected such that they exhibit a variety of velocity signatures including that characteristic of the convection reversal and a rapidly fluctuating velocity feature. Subsequent comparison is on a statistical basis. The velocities measured by the two systems demonstrate reasonable correspondence over the velocity regime encountered during the simultaneous occurrence of coherent and incoherent scatter; differences between the EISCAT UHF measurements of F-region ion drift and the irregularity drift velocities from the Finland radar are explained in terms of a number of contributing factors including contamination of the latter by E-region echoes, a factor which is investigated further, and the potentially deleterious effect of discrepant volume and time sampling intervals.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities; plasma convection

  14. Measurement of the sound velocity in fluids using the echo signals from scattering particles. (United States)

    Lenz, Michael; Bock, Martin; Kühnicke, Elfgard; Pal, Josef; Cramer, Andreas


    With conventional methods the sound velocity c in fluids can be determined using the back wall echo. This paper proposes a novel technique, in which the signals reflected by scattering particles suspended in a fluid are analysed instead. The basic idea is that the particles generate the strongest echo signal when being located in the sound field maximum. Therefore the position of the echo signal maximum is a measure for the propagation time to the sound field maximum. Provided that calibration data or sound field simulations for the ultrasonic transducer are available, this propagation time suffices to determine both sound velocity and the location of the sound field maximum. The feasibility of the new approach is demonstrated by different kinds of experiments: (i) Measurements of the sound velocity c in four fluids covering the wide range between 1116 and 2740m/s. The results show good agreement with values published elsewhere. (ii) Using the dependence of the sound velocity on temperature, it is possible to vary c over the comparatively small range between 1431 and 1555m/s with increments of less than 10m/s. The measured statistical variation of 1.4m/s corresponds to a relative uncertainty not worse than 0.1%. (iii) The focus position, i.e. the distance of the maximum of the sound field from the transducer, was varied by time-shifted superposition of the receive signals belonging to the different elements of an annular array. The results indicate that the novel method is even capable of measuring profiles of the sound velocity along the ultrasonic beam non-invasively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Temperature and velocity fields in natural convection by PIV and LIF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Westergaard, C. H.


    Natural convection in a cubical cavity (L = 250 mm) filled with water is created by heating a square plate (0.5 L) centred in the bottom wall and by cooling the sidewalls, while the remaining walls are insulated. The Rayleigh number based on cavity side length and temperature difference between...... plate and cooled walls is 1.4×10^10. The flow is turbulent and is similar to some indoor room flows. Combined Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Planar Light Induced Fluorescence (LIF) are used to measure local velocities and temperatures. Data measured in a symmetry plane parallel to a sidewall...... are presented in terms of mean velocities and temperature and in terms turbulent quantities including Reynolds fluxes. The flow consists a plume rising above the heated plate into an almost stagnant fluid with a weakly stratified temperature field, as well as thin buoyancy driven boundary layers down...

  16. Topside equatorial zonal ion velocities measured by C/NOFS during rising solar activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Coley


    Full Text Available The Ion Velocity Meter (IVM, a part of the Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamic Investigation (CINDI instrument package on the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS spacecraft, has made over 5 yr of in situ measurements of plasma temperatures, composition, densities, and velocities in the 400–850 km altitude range of the equatorial ionosphere. These measured ion velocities are then transformed into a coordinate system with components parallel and perpendicular to the geomagnetic field allowing us to examine the zonal (horizontal and perpendicular to the geomagnetic field component of plasma motion over the 2009–2012 interval. The general pattern of local time variation of the equatorial zonal ion velocity is well established as westward during the day and eastward during the night, with the larger nighttime velocities leading to a net ionospheric superrotation. Since the C/NOFS launch in April 2008, F10.7 cm radio fluxes have gradually increased from around 70 sfu to levels in the 130–150 sfu range. The comprehensive coverage of C/NOFS over the low-latitude ionosphere allows us to examine variations of the topside zonal ion velocity over a wide level of solar activity as well as the dependence of the zonal velocity on apex altitude (magnetic latitude, longitude, and solar local time. It was found that the zonal ion drifts show longitude dependence with the largest net eastward values in the American sector. The pre-midnight zonal drifts show definite solar activity (F10.7 dependence. The daytime drifts have a lower dependence on F10.7. The apex altitude (magnetic latitude variations indicate a more westerly flow at higher altitudes. There is often a net topside subrotation at low F10.7 levels, perhaps indicative of a suppressed F region dynamo due to low field line-integrated conductivity and a low F region altitude at solar minimum.

  17. Migration velocity analysis using pre-stack wave fields

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Using both image and data domains to perform velocity inversion can help us resolve the long and short wavelength components of the velocity model, usually in that order. This translates to integrating migration velocity analysis into full waveform inversion. The migration velocity analysis part of the inversion often requires computing extended images, which is expensive when using conventional methods. As a result, we use pre-stack wavefield (the double-square-root formulation) extrapolation, which includes the extended information (subsurface offsets) naturally, to make the process far more efficient and stable. The combination of the forward and adjoint pre-stack wavefields provides us with update options that can be easily conditioned to improve convergence. We specifically use a modified differential semblance operator to split the extended image into a residual part for classic differential semblance operator updates and the image (Born) modelling part, which provides reflections for higher resolution information. In our implementation, we invert for the velocity and the image simultaneously through a dual objective function. Applications to synthetic examples demonstrate the features of the approach.

  18. Ice Velocity Measurement from SAR: Comparison of Sentinel-1A and RADARSAT-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Anders; Dall, Jørgen

    Mapping the velocity fields of the continental ice sheets and their outlet glaciers is important in order to monitor and model the response of the cryosphere to global climate change. Since the mid 1990s, space-based SAR data have enabled measurement of ice velocities on a continental scale. Comp...... that observed differences lies in the data products/sensors rather than being due to different processing techniques. [1] T.Nagler et. al, ” The Sentinel-1 Mission: New Opportunities for IceSheet Observations”, Journal of Remote Sensing, 2015, 7, 9371-9389......Mapping the velocity fields of the continental ice sheets and their outlet glaciers is important in order to monitor and model the response of the cryosphere to global climate change. Since the mid 1990s, space-based SAR data have enabled measurement of ice velocities on a continental scale....... Compared to interferometry, Offset Tracking techniques excel in terms of robustness and ease of automation. With the launch of Sentinel-1A in 2014 and Sentinel-1B in 2016, the potential coverage and revisit frequency have greatly improved, allowing monitoring of temporal changes in the ices sheet velocity...

  19. Blood pulse wave velocity measured by photoacoustic microscopy (United States)

    Yeh, Chenghung; Hu, Song; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.


    Blood pulse wave velocity (PWV) is an important indicator for vascular stiffness. In this letter, we present electrocardiogram-synchronized photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo noninvasive quantification of the PWV in the peripheral vessels of mice. Interestingly, strong correlation between blood flow speed and ECG were clearly observed in arteries but not in veins. PWV is measured by the pulse travel time and the distance between two spot of a chose vessel, where simultaneously recorded electrocardiograms served as references. Statistical analysis shows a linear correlation between the PWV and the vessel diameter, which agrees with known physiology. Keywords: photoacoustic microscopy, photoacoustic spectroscopy, bilirubin, scattering medium.

  20. Measuring liquid meniscus velocity to determine size of nanopipette aperture. (United States)

    Salançon, Evelyne; Tinland, Bernard


    Nanopipette aperture sizes up to 25 nm are determined here using a method based on the Poiseuille law. Pressure is applied to the backside of a liquid plug placed in the widest end of the nanopipette, resulting in an air pressure tank with an aperture at the very tip of the nanopipette. Measuring the velocity of the liquid meniscus gives the air flow and thus the aperture size. Aperture determinations are in good agreement with SEM estimations and the proposed method is simple, relatively fast, and cheap. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Antarctic Glaciological Data at NSIDC: field data, temperature, and ice velocity (United States)

    Bauer, R.; Bohlander, J.; Scambos, T.; Berthier, E.; Raup, B.; Scharfen, G.


    An extensive collection of many Antarctic glaciological parameters is available for the polar science community upon request. The National Science Foundation's Office of Polar Programs funds the Antarctic Glaciological Data Center (AGDC) at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) to archive and distribute Antarctic glaciological and cryospheric system data collected by the U.S. Antarctic Program. AGDC facilitates data exchange among Principal Investigators, preserves recently collected data useful to future research, gathers data sets from past research, and compiles continent-wide information useful for modeling and field work planning. Data sets are available via our web site, From here, users can access extensive documentation, citation information, locator maps, derived images and references, and the numerical data. More than 50 Antarctic scientists have contributed data to the archive. Among the compiled products distributed by AGDC are VELMAP and THERMAP. THERMAP is a compilation of over 600 shallow firn temperature measurements ('10-meter temperatures') collected since 1950. These data provide a record of mean annual temperature, and potentially hold a record of climate change on the continent. The data are represented with maps showing the traverse route, and include data sources, measurement technique, and additional measurements made at each site, i.e., snow density and accumulation. VELMAP is an archive of surface ice velocity measurements for the Antarctic Ice Sheet. The primary objective of VELMAP is to assemble a historic record of outlet glaciers and ice shelf ice motion over the Antarctic. The collection includes both PI-contributed measurements and data generated at NSIDC using Landsat and SPOT satellite imagery. Tabular data contain position, speed, bearing, and data quality information, and related references. Two new VELMAP data sets are highlighted: the Mertz Glacier and the Institute Ice Stream. Mertz Glacier ice

  2. Velocity field and coherent structures in the near wake of a utility-scale wind turbine (United States)

    Hong, Jiarong; Dasari, Teja; Wu, Yue; Liu, Yun


    Super-large-scale particle image velocity (SLPIV) and the associated flow visualization technique using natural snowfall have been shown as an effective tool to probe turbulent velocity field and coherent structures around utility-scale wind turbines (Hong et al. Nature Comm. 2014). Here we present a follow-up study using the data collected during multiple deployments from 2014 to 2016 around the 2.5 MW turbine at EOLOS field station. The data include SLPIV measurements in the near wake of the turbine in a field of view of 120 m (height) x 60 m (width), and the visualization of tip vortex behavior near the bottom blade tip over a broad range of turbine operational conditions. SLPIV results indicate a highly intermittent flow field in the near wake, consisting of both intense wake expansion and contraction events. Such intermittent states of the near wake are shown to be influenced by both the incoming wind conditions and the turbine operation. The visualization of tip vortex behavior demonstrates the presence of the state of consistent vortex formation as well as various types of disturbed vortex states. The occurrence of these states is statistically analyzed and is shown to be correlated with turbine operational and response parameters under different field conditions. National Science Foundation Fluid Dynamics Program.

  3. Direct measurement of superluminal group velocity and signal velocity in an optical fiber. (United States)

    Brunner, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio; Wegmüller, Mark; Legré, Matthieu; Gisin, Nicolas


    We present an easy way of observing superluminal group velocities using a birefringent optical fiber and other standard devices. In the theoretical analysis, we show that the optical properties of the setup can be described using the notion of "weak value." The experiment shows that the group velocity can indeed exceed c in the fiber; and we report the first direct observation of the so-called "signal velocity," the speed at which information propagates and that cannot exceed c.

  4. Temperature Field-Wind Velocity Field Optimum Control of Greenhouse Environment Based on CFD Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbo Li


    Full Text Available The computational fluid dynamics technology is applied as the environmental control model, which can include the greenhouse space. Basic environmental factors are set to be the control objects, the field information is achieved via the division of layers by height, and numerical characteristics of each layer are used to describe the field information. Under the natural ventilation condition, real-time requirements, energy consumption, and distribution difference are selected as index functions. The optimization algorithm of adaptive simulated annealing is used to obtain optimal control outputs. A comparison with full-open ventilation shows that the whole index can be reduced at 44.21% and found that a certain mutual exclusiveness exists between the temperature and velocity field in the optimal course. All the results indicate that the application of CFD model has great advantages to improve the control accuracy of greenhouse.

  5. ac transmission line field measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotter, F.R.; Misakian, M.


    The concern in recent years over the environmental effects of electric and magnetic fields from high voltage transmission lines has also focused attention on the accuracy of measurements of these fields. Electric field meters are discussed in terms of theory of operation, parameters affecting performance, meter performance under field and laboratory conditions, and calibration procedures. The performance and calibration of magnetic field meters is described. (LCL)

  6. Mean-field theory for a passive scalar advected by a turbulent velocity field with a random renewal time. (United States)

    Elperin, T; Kleeorin, N; Rogachevskii, I; Sokoloff, D


    Mean-field theory for turbulent transport of a passive scalar (e.g., particles and gases) is discussed. Equations for the mean number density of particles advected by a random velocity field, with a finite correlation time, are derived. Mean-field equations for a passive scalar comprise spatial derivatives of high orders due to the nonlocal nature of passive scalar transport in a random velocity field with a finite correlation time. A turbulent velocity field with a random renewal time is considered. This model is more realistic than that with a constant renewal time used by Elperin et al. [Phys. Rev. E 61, 2617 (2000)], and employs two characteristic times: the correlation time of a random velocity field tau(c), and a mean renewal time tau. It is demonstrated that the turbulent diffusion coefficient is determined by the minimum of the times tau(c) and tau. The mean-field equation for a passive scalar was derived for different ratios of tau/tau(c). The important role of the statistics of the field of Lagrangian trajectories in turbulent transport of a passive scalar, in a random velocity field with a finite correlation time, is demonstrated. It is shown that in the case tau(c)field equation for a passive scalar is independent of the statistics of the velocity field, where tau(N) is the characteristic time of variations of a mean passive scalar field.

  7. Measurements of debris flow velocity through cross-correlation of instrumentation data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arattano


    Full Text Available Detection of debris flow occurrence can be efficiently obtained through different types of sensors. A pair of ultrasonic sensors placed at a known distance from each other along a torrent have been used as a method to obtain mean front velocity of debris-flows, in addition to their use as detectors of debris flow occurrence. Also seismic and acoustic sensors have been employed to measure debris-flow front velocity and discharge in the same manner. In order to obtain velocity measurements, however, these methods require the presence of a well identifiable and defined main front in the debris flow wave. The time lag between the recordings of the front of the wave at two consecutive stations allows an estimation of its mean velocity. When a well-defined front is not present and no recurrent feature can be found along the wave, the measurement of velocity may prove difficult. The cross-correlation technique may help identifying the mean velocity of the flow in such cases. In fact, cross correlation allows to determine the mean time lag elapsed between the recording of two sets of data of the same event at different positions. This technique may be also used to measure velocity using signals coming from different types of sensors, for instance where a ground vibration detector has been placed along a torrent where an ultrasonic sensor was already present or viceversa. An application has been made using field data recorded through seismic and ultrasonic sensors in a small instrumented catchment in the Italian Alps (Moscardo Torrent.

  8. Thermal stability effects on the structure of the velocity field above an air-water interface (United States)

    Papadimitrakis, Y. A.; Hsu, Y.-H. L.; Wu, J.


    Mean velocity and turbulence measurements are described for turbulent flows above laboratory water waves, under various wind and thermal stratification conditions. Experimental results, when presented in the framework of Monin-Obukhov (1954) similarity theory, support local scaling based on evaluation of stratification effects at the same nondimensional distance from the mean water surface. Such scaling allows an extension of application of the above theory to the outer region of the boundary layer. Throughout the fully turbulent region, ratios of mean velocity gradients, eddy viscosities, and turbulence intensities under nonneutral and neutral conditions correlate well with the parameter z/Lambda (Lambda being a local Obukhov length and z the vertical coordinate of the mean air flow) and show good agreement with established field correlations. The influence of stratification on the wind-stress coefficient can be estimated from an empirical relationship in terms of its value under neutral conditions and a bulk Richardson number.

  9. The Continuous Monitoring of Flash Flood Velocity Field based on an Automated LSPIV System (United States)

    Li, W.; Ran, Q.; Liao, Q.


    Large-scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) is a non-intrusive tool for flow velocity field measurement and has more advantages against traditional techniques, with its applications on river, lake and ocean, especially under extreme conditions. An automated LSPIV system is presented in this study, which can be easily set up and executed for continuous monitoring of flash flood. The experiment site is Longchi village, Sichuan Province, where 8.0 magnitude earthquake occurred in 2008 and debris flow happens every year since then. The interest of area is about 30m*40m of the channel which has been heavily destroyed by debris flow. Series of videos obtained during the flood season indicates that flood outbreaks after rainstorm just for several hours. Measurement is complete without being influenced by this extreme weather condition and results are more reliable and accurate due to high soil concentration. Compared with direct measurement by impellor flow meter, we validated that LSPIV works well at mountain stream, with index of 6.7% (Average Relative Error) and 95% (Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient). On Jun 26, the maximum flood surface velocity reached 4.26 m/s, and the discharge based on velocity-area method was also decided. Overall, this system is safe, non-contact and can be adjusted according to our requirement flexibly. We can get valuable data of flood which is scarce before, which will make a great contribution to the analysis of flood and debris flow mechanism.

  10. Intraglottal geometry and velocity measurements in canine larynges. (United States)

    Oren, Liran; Khosla, Sid; Gutmark, Ephraim


    Previous flow velocity measurements during phonation in canine larynges were done above the glottal exit. These studies found that vortical structures are present in the flow above the glottis at different phases of the glottal cycle. Some vortices were observed to leave the glottis during the closing phase and assumptions were proposed regarding their formation mechanism. In the current study, intraglottal velocity measurements are performed using PIV, and the intraglottal flow characteristics are determined. Results from five canine larynges show that at low subglottal pressure the glottis assumes a minimal divergence angle during closing and the flow separates at the glottal exit. Vortical structures are observed above the glottis but not inside. As the subglottal pressure is increased, the divergence angle between the folds during closing increases and the location of the flow separation moves upstream into the glottis. Entrainment flow enters the glottis to fill the void that is formed between the glottal jet and the fold. Vortical structures develop near the superior edge at medium and high subglottal pressures from the flow separation. The magnitude of their swirling strength changes as a function of the wall dynamics.

  11. Turbulent velocity and concentration measurements in a macro-scale multi-inlet vortex nanoprecipitation reactor (United States)

    Liu, Zhenping; Fox, Rodney; Hill, James; Olsen, Michael


    Flash Nanoprecipitation (FNP) is a technique to produce monodisperse functional nanoparticles. Microscale multi-inlet vortex reactors (MIVR) have been effectively applied to FNP due to their ability to provide rapid mixing and flexibility of inlet flow conditions. A scaled-up MIVR could potentially generate large quantities of functional nanoparticles, giving FNP wider applicability in industry. In the presented research, the turbulent velocity field inside a scaled-up, macroscale MIVR is measured by particle image velocimetry (PIV). Within the reactor, velocity is measured using both two-dimensional and stereoscopic PIV at two Reynolds numbers (3500 and 8750) based on the flow at each inlet. Data have been collected at numerous locations in the inlet channels, the reaction chamber, and the reactor outlet. Mean velocity and Reynolds stresses have been obtained based on 5000 instantaneous velocity realizations at each measurement location. The turbulent mixing process has also been investigated with passive scalar planar laser-induced fluorescence and simultaneous PIV/PLIF. Velocity and concentration results are compared to results from previous experiments in a microscale MIVR. Scaled profiles of turbulent quantities are similar to those previously found in the microscale MIVR.

  12. River-ice and sea-ice velocity fields from near-simultaneous satellite imagery (United States)

    Kaeaeb, A.; Leprince, S.; Prowse, T. D.; Beltaos, S.; Lamare, M.; Abrams, M.


    Satellite stereo and satellites that follow each other on similar orbits within short time periods produce near-simultaneous space imagery, a kind of data that is little exploited. In this study, we track river-ice and sea-ice motion over time periods of tens of seconds to several minutes, which is the typical time lag between the two or more images of such near-simultaneous acquisition constellations. Using this novel approach, we measure and visualize for the first time the almost complete two-dimensional minute-scale velocity fields over several thousand square-kilometers of sea ice cover or over up to several hundred kilometers long river reaches. We present the types of near-simultaneous imagery and constellations suitable for the measurements and discuss application examples, using a range of high and medium resolution imagery such as from ASTER, ALOS PRISM, Ikonos, WorldView-2, Landsat and EO-1. The river ice velocities obtained provide new insights into ice dynamics, river flow and river morphology, in particular during ice breakup. River-ice breakup and the associated downstream transport of ice debris is often the most important hydrological event of the year, producing flood levels that commonly exceed those for the open-water period and dramatic consequences for river infrastructure and ecology. We also estimate river discharge from ice/water surface velocities using near-simultaneous satellite imagery. Our results for sea ice complement velocity fields typically obtained over time-scales of days and can thus contribute to better understanding of a number of processes involved in sea ice drift, such as wind impact, tidal currents and interaction of ice floes with each other and with obstacles.

  13. Velocity and Temperature Measurement in Supersonic Free Jets Using Spectrally Resolved Rayleigh Scattering (United States)

    Panda, J.; Seasholtz, R. G.


    The flow fields of unheated, supersonic free jets from convergent and convergent-divergent nozzles operating at M = 0.99, 1.4, and 1.6 were measured using spectrally resolved Rayleigh scattering technique. The axial component of velocity and temperature data as well as density data obtained from a previous experiment are presented in a systematic way with the goal of producing a database useful for validating computational fluid dynamics codes. The Rayleigh scattering process from air molecules provides a fundamental means of measuring flow properties in a non-intrusive, particle free manner. In the spectrally resolved application, laser light scattered by the air molecules is collected and analyzed using a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI). The difference between the incident laser frequency and the peak of the Rayleigh spectrum provides a measure of gas velocity. The temperature is measured from the spectral broadening caused by the random thermal motion and density is measured from the total light intensity. The present point measurement technique uses a CW laser, a scanning FPI and photon counting electronics. The 1 mm long probe volume is moved from point to point to survey the flow fields. Additional arrangements were made to remove particles from the main as well as the entrained flow and to isolate FPI from the high sound and vibration levels produced by the supersonic jets. In general, velocity is measured within +/- 10 m/s accuracy and temperature within +/- 10 K accuracy.

  14. Velocity Mapping Toolbox (VMT): a processing and visualization suite for moving-vessel ADCP measurements (United States)

    Jackson, R.; Parsons, D. R.; Czuba, J. A.; Mueller, D. S.; Rhoads, B. L.; Engel, F.; Oberg, K. A.; Best, J. L.; Johnson, K. K.; Riley, J. D.


    In addition to their common application to measurement of discharge in rivers, acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) provide valuable hydrodynamic data required for understanding geomorphic and fluvial processes. The increasing use of ADCPs to explore the characteristics of complex natural flows has led to a need for standardized post-processing methods for managing, analyzing, and displaying three-dimensional velocity data. Thus far, no standard analytical technique exists for averaging velocity data from multiple ADCP transects to produce a composite depiction of three-dimensional velocity fields. A new software tool, the Velocity Mapping Toolbox (VMT), is presented herein to address this important need. VMT is a Matlab-based toolbox for processing, analyzing, and displaying velocity data collected along multiple ADCP transects. The software can be used to explore patterns of three-dimensional fluid motion through several methods for calculation of secondary flows and includes capabilities for analyzing the acoustic backscatter and bathymetric data from the ADCP. A user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) enhances program functionality and provides ready access to two- and three- dimensional plotting functions, allowing rapid display and interrogation of velocity, backscatter, and bathymetry data. This presentation describes the basic processing methods employed by VMT and highlights the capabilities of the toolbox through some example applications.

  15. Ultrasound Velocity Measurement in a Liquid Metal Electrode. (United States)

    Perez, Adalberto; Kelley, Douglas H


    A growing number of electrochemical technologies depend on fluid flow, and often that fluid is opaque. Measuring the flow of an opaque fluid is inherently more difficult than measuring the flow of a transparent fluid, since optical methods are not applicable. Ultrasound can be used to measure the velocity of an opaque fluid, not only at isolated points, but at hundreds or thousands of points arrayed along lines, with good temporal resolution. When applied to a liquid metal electrode, ultrasound velocimetry involves additional challenges: high temperature, chemical activity, and electrical conductivity. Here we describe the experimental apparatus and methods that overcome these challenges and allow the measurement of flow in a liquid metal electrode, as it conducts current, at operating temperature. Temperature is regulated within ±2 °C using a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller that powers a custom-built furnace. Chemical activity is managed by choosing vessel materials carefully and enclosing the experimental setup in an argon-filled glovebox. Finally, unintended electrical paths are carefully prevented. An automated system logs control settings and experimental measurements, using hardware trigger signals to synchronize devices. This apparatus and these methods can produce measurements that are impossible with other techniques, and allow optimization and control of electrochemical technologies like liquid metal batteries.

  16. Relativistic derivations of the electric and magnetic fields generated by an electric point charge moving with constant velocity


    Rothenstein, Bernhard; Popescu, Stefan; Spix, George J.


    We propose a simple relativistic derivation of the electric and the magnetic fields generated by an electric point charge moving with constant velocity. Our approach is based on the radar detection of the point space coordinates where the fields are measured. The same equations were previously derived in a relatively complicated way2 based exclusively on general electromagnetic field equations and without making use of retarded potentials or relativistic equations

  17. Upper Mississippi embayment shallow seismic velocities measured in situ (United States)

    Liu, Huaibao P.; Hu, Y.; Dorman, J.; Chang, T.-S.; Chiu, J.-M.


    Vertical seismic compressional- and shear-wave (P- and S-wave) profiles were collected from three shallow boreholes in sediment of the upper Mississippi embayment. The site of the 60-m hole at Shelby Forest, Tennessee, is on bluffs forming the eastern edge of the Mississippi alluvial plain. The bluffs are composed of Pleistocene loess, Pliocene-Pleistocene alluvial clay and sand deposits, and Tertiary deltaic-marine sediment. The 36-m hole at Marked Tree, Arkansas, and the 27-m hole at Risco, Missouri, are in Holocene Mississippi river floodplain sand, silt, and gravel deposits. At each site, impulsive P- and S-waves were generated by man-made sources at the surface while a three-component geophone was locked downhole at 0.91-m intervals. Consistent with their very similar geology, the two floodplain locations have nearly identical S-wave velocity (VS) profiles. The lowest VS values are about 130 m s-1, and the highest values are about 300 m s-1 at these sites. The shear-wave velocity profile at Shelby Forest is very similar within the Pleistocene loess (12m thick); in deeper, older material, VS exceeds 400 m s-1. At Marked Tree, and at Risco, the compressional-wave velocity (VP) values above the water table are as low as about 230 m s-1, and rise to about 1.9 km s-1 below the water table. At Shelby Forest, VP values in the unsaturated loess are as low as 302 m s-1. VP values below the water table are about 1.8 km s-1. For the two floodplain sites, the VP/VS ratio increases rapidly across the water table depth. For the Shelby Forest site, the largest increase in the VP/VS ratio occurs at ???20-m depth, the boundary between the Pliocene-Pleistocene clay and sand deposits and the Eocene shallow-marine clay and silt deposits. Until recently, seismic velocity data for the embayment basin came from earthquake studies, crustal-scale seismic refraction and reflection profiles, sonic logs, and from analysis of dispersed earthquake surface waves. Since 1991, seismic data

  18. Magnetic domain-wall velocity enhancement induced by a transverse magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jusang, E-mail: [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1081 (United States); Beach, Geoffrey S.D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Knutson, Carl; Erskine, James L. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1081 (United States)


    Spin dynamics of field-driven domain walls (DWs) guided by permalloy nanowires are studied by high-speed magneto-optic polarimetry and numerical simulations. DW velocities and spin configurations are determined as functions of longitudinal drive field, transverse bias field, and nanowire width. Nanowires having cross-sectional dimensions large enough to support vortex wall structures exhibit regions of drive-field strength (at zero bias field) that have enhanced DW velocity resulting from coupled vortex structures that suppress oscillatory motion. Factor of 10 enhancements of the DW velocity are observed above the critical longitudinal drive-field (that marks the onset of oscillatory DW motion) when a transverse bias field is applied. Nanowires having smaller cross-sectional dimensions that support transverse wall structures also exhibit a region of higher mobility above the critical field, and similar transverse-field induced velocity enhancement but with a smaller enhancement factor. The bias-field enhancement of DW velocity is explained by numerical simulations of the spin distribution and dynamics within the propagating DW that reveal dynamic stabilization of coupled vortex structures and suppression of oscillatory motion in the nanowire conduit resulting in uniform DW motion at high speed. The enhanced velocity and drive field range are achieved at the expense of a less compact DW spin distribution. - Highlights: • The transverse magnetic fields can dramatically enhance the domain wall velocity. • The numerical simulation exhibits the four distinct dynamic modes. • Coupled multiple vortex structures within the domain wall become dynamically stable. • The enhanced domain wall velocity is explained by numerical simulations.

  19. Velocity measurements in the wake of laboratory-scale vertical axis turbines and rotating circular cylinders (United States)

    Araya, Daniel; Dabiri, John


    We present experimental data to compare the wake characteristics of a laboratory-scale vertical-axis turbine with that of a rotating circular cylinder. The cylinder is constructed to have the same diameter and height as the turbine in order to provide a comparison that is independent of the tunnel boundary conditions. Both the turbine and cylinder are motor-driven to tip-speed ratios based on previous experiments. An analysis of the effect of the motor-driven flow is also presented. These measurements are relevant for exploring the complex structure of the vertical axis turbine wake relative to the canonical wake of a circular cylinder. 2D particle image velocimetry is used to measure the velocity field in a two-dimensional plane normal to the axis of rotation. This velocity field is then used to compare time-averaged streamwise velocity, phase-averaged vorticity, and the velocity power spectrum in the wake of the two configurations. The results give insight into the extent to which solid cylinders could be used as a simplified model of the flow around vertical axis turbines in computational simulations, especially for turbine array optimization.

  20. Simultaneous Temperature and Velocity Measurements in a Large-Scale, Supersonic, Heated Jet (United States)

    Danehy, P. M.; Magnotti, G.; Bivolaru, D.; Tedder, S.; Cutler, A. D.


    Two laser-based measurement techniques have been used to characterize an axisymmetric, combustion-heated supersonic jet issuing into static room air. The dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurement technique measured temperature and concentration while the interferometric Rayleigh scattering (IRS) method simultaneously measured two components of velocity. This paper reports a preliminary analysis of CARS-IRS temperature and velocity measurements from selected measurement locations. The temperature measurements show that the temperature along the jet axis remains constant while dropping off radially. The velocity measurements show that the nozzle exit velocity fluctuations are about 3% of the maximum velocity in the flow.

  1. Dynamic Measurement of Temperature, Velocity, and Density in Hot Jets Using Rayleigh Scattering (United States)

    Mielke, Amy F.; Elam, Kristie A.


    A molecular Rayleigh scattering technique is utilized to measure gas temperature, velocity, and density in unseeded gas flows at sampling rates up to 10 kHz, providing fluctuation information up to 5 kHz based on the Nyquist theorem. A high-power continuous-wave laser beam is focused at a point in an air flow field and Rayleigh scattered light is collected and fiber-optically transmitted to a Fabry-Perot interferometer for spectral analysis. Photomultiplier tubes operated in the photon counting mode allow high-frequency sampling of the total signal level and the circular interference pattern to provide dynamic density, temperature, and velocity measurements. Mean and root mean square velocity, temperature, and density, as well as power spectral density calculations, are presented for measurements in a hydrogen-combustor heated jet facility with a 50.8-mm diameter nozzle at NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The Rayleigh measurements are compared with particle image velocimetry data and computational fluid dynamics predictions. This technique is aimed at aeronautics research related to identifying noise sources in free jets, as well as applications in supersonic and hypersonic flows where measurement of flow properties, including mass flux, is required in the presence of shocks and ionization occurrence.

  2. Peak velocity measurements in tortuous arteries with phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging: the effect of multidirectional velocity encoding. (United States)

    Schubert, Tilman; Bieri, Oliver; Pansini, Michele; Stippich, Christoph; Santini, Francesco


    Blood flow velocity measurement with phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) is widely applied in clinical routine imaging. Usually, velocity and volumetric flow measurements are performed using unidirectional encoding of the through-plane velocity with a 2-dimensional (2D) acquisition. Single-slice acquisitions and measurements with unidirectional encoding, however, may lead to significant errors, especially in tortuous vessels, but might benefit from higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). To evaluate the impact of volumetric acquisition and multidirectional velocity encoding, blood velocity measurements were performed at 3 locations in the distal internal carotid artery with a 3-dimensional, 3-directional time-resolved phase contrast (PC) sequence (4-dimensional [4D]) and a 2D acquisition with 3-directional (2D-3dir) and through-plane velocity encoding (2D-tp) derived from the same sequence. Twenty carotid arteries of 10 healthy volunteers (24-37 years) were evaluated. For each volunteer, 1 4D acquisition and 3 2D 3-directional PC measurements were placed according to a time-of-flight angiography. Unidirectionally encoded through-plane velocities were derived from the multidirectionally encoded 2D scan by discarding the in-plane components. Regions of interest were identified on the slab after postprocessing and visualization for the 4D data set as well as directly on the digital imaging and communications in medicine images for the 2D measurement. Blood flow velocity, volumetric flow, and SNRs were measured at carotid segments C4, C5, and C7 on both sides obtaining 20 values per vessel location. The quantities were tested for significant differences between each modality at all 3 locations with paired t tests. At the segments C5 and C7, the highest peak velocities (PVs) were measured with the 4D sequence, followed by 2D-3dir and 2D tp. The PV differences between the sequences were significant (P measured with 2D-tp. The mean PV value of the 4D sequence

  3. Far field velocity potential induced by a rapidly decaying vorticity distribution (United States)

    Klein, Rupert; Ting, LU


    The velocity field induced by a vorticity distribution decaying rapidly in the distance from the origin is investigated. It is shown that the sum of vector potentials for the velocity field can be expressed as a linear combination of Mn values, where Mn denotes the number of linearly independent vector functions of nth order. It is then shown that only the linear combinations 2n + 1 of these Mn vector functions contribute to the far field velocity which is irrotational, and that the corresponding scalar potential is then represented by a linear combination of 2n + 1 spherical harmonics of nth order whose coefficients are linear combinations of nth moments of vorticity.

  4. In vivo lateral blood flow velocity measurement using speckle size estimation. (United States)

    Xu, Tiantian; Hozan, Mohsen; Bashford, Gregory R


    In previous studies, we proposed blood measurement using speckle size estimation, which estimates the lateral component of blood flow within a single image frame based on the observation that the speckle pattern corresponding to blood reflectors (typically red blood cells) stretches (i.e., is "smeared") if blood flow is in the same direction as the electronically controlled transducer line selection in a 2-D image. In this observational study, the clinical viability of ultrasound blood flow velocity measurement using speckle size estimation was investigated and compared with that of conventional spectral Doppler of carotid artery blood flow data collected from human patients in vivo. Ten patients (six male, four female) were recruited. Right carotid artery blood flow data were collected in an interleaved fashion (alternating Doppler and B-mode A-lines) with an Antares Ultrasound Imaging System and transferred to a PC via the Axius Ultrasound Research Interface. The scanning velocity was 77 cm/s, and a 4-s interval of flow data were collected from each subject to cover three to five complete cardiac cycles. Conventional spectral Doppler data were collected simultaneously to compare with estimates made by speckle size estimation. The results indicate that the peak systolic velocities measured with the two methods are comparable (within ±10%) if the scan velocity is greater than or equal to the flow velocity. When scan velocity is slower than peak systolic velocity, the speckle stretch method asymptotes to the scan velocity. Thus, the speckle stretch method is able to accurately measure pure lateral flow, which conventional Doppler cannot do. In addition, an initial comparison of the speckle size estimation and color Doppler methods with respect to computational complexity and data acquisition time indicated potential time savings in blood flow velocity estimation using speckle size estimation. Further studies are needed for calculation of the speckle stretch method

  5. Effects of frequency-dependent attenuation and velocity dispersion on in vitro ultrasound velocity measurements in intact human femur specimens. (United States)

    Haïat, Guillaume; Padilla, Frédéric; Cleveland, Robin O; Laugier, Pascal


    Numerous studies have shown that ultrasonic velocity measured in bone provides a good assessment of osteoporotic fracture risk. However, a lack of standardization of signal processing techniques used to compute the speed of sound (SOS) complicates the comparison between data obtained with different commercial devices. In this study, 38 intact femurs were tested using a through-transmission technique and SOS determined using different techniques. The resulting difference in measured SOS was determined as functions of the attenuation and the velocity dispersion. A numerical simulation was used to explain how attenuation and dispersion impact two different SOS measurements (group velocity, velocity based on the first zero crossing of the signal). A new method aimed at compensating for attenuation was devised and led to a significant reduction in the difference between SOS obtained with both signal processing techniques. A comparison between SOS and X-ray density measurements indicated that the best correlation was reached for SOS based on the first zero crossing apparently because it used a marker located in the early part of the signal and was less sensitive to multipath interference. The conclusion is that first zero crossing velocity may be preferred to group velocity for ultrasonic assessment at this potential fracture site.

  6. HF Radar Observation of Velocity Fields Induced by Tsunami Waves in the Kii Channel, Japan


    日向, 博文; 藤, 良太郎; 藤井, 智史; 藤田, 裕一; 花土, 弘; 片岡, 智哉; 水谷, 雅裕; 高橋, 智幸


    High frequency ocean surface radar observation reveals the velocity fields of propagating tsunami waves and subsequent 30-40 minute period natural oscillation in the Kii Channel, Japan induced by the March 11, 2011 moment magnitude 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Technical issues of the ocean surface radar sysytem concerning the detection of tsunami waves and natural oscillation velocities are also discussed.

  7. Application of acoustic tomography to reconstruct the horizontal flow velocity field in a shallow river (United States)

    Razaz, Mahdi; Kawanisi, Kiyosi; Kaneko, Arata; Nistor, Ioan


    A novel acoustic tomographic measurement system capable of resolving sound travel time in extremely shallow rivers is introduced and the results of an extensive field measurements campaign are presented and further discussed. Acoustic pulses were transmitted over a wide frequency band of 20-35 kHz between eight transducers for about a week in a meandering reach of theBāsen River, Hiroshima, Japan. The purpose of the field experiment was validating the concept of acoustic tomography in rivers for visualizing current fields. The particular novelty of the experiment resides in its unusual tomographic features: subbasin scale (100 m × 270 m) and shallowness (0.5-3.0 m) of the physical domain, frequency of the transmitted acoustic signals (central frequency of 30 kHz), and the use of small sampling intervals (105 s). Inverse techniques with no a priori statistical information were used to estimate the depth-average current velocity components from differential travel times. Zeroth-order Tikhonov regularization, in conjunction with L-curve method deployed to stabilize the solution and to determine the weighting factor appearing in the inverse analysis. Concurrent direct environmental measurements were provided in the form of ADCP readings close to the right and left bank. Very good agreement found between along-channel velocities larger than 0.2 m/s obtained from the two techniques. Inverted quantities were, however, underestimated, perhaps due to vicinity of the ADCPs to the banks and strong effect of river geometry on the readings. In general, comparing the visualized currents with direct nodal measurements illustrate the plausibility of the tomographically reconstructed flow structures.

  8. Measurement of the velocity of neutral fragments by the "correlated ion and neutral time of flight" method combined with "velocity-map imaging" (United States)

    Berthias, F.; Feketeová, L.; Della Negra, R.; Dupasquier, T.; Fillol, R.; Abdoul-Carime, H.; Farizon, B.; Farizon, M.; Märk, T. D.


    In the challenging field of imaging molecular dynamics, a novel method has been developed and implemented that allows the measurement of the velocity of neutral fragments produced in collision induced dissociation experiments on an event-by-event basis. This has been made possible by combining a correlated ion and neutral time of flight method with a velocity map imaging technique. This new method relies on a multiparametric correlated detection of the neutral and charged fragments from collision induced dissociation on one single detector. Its implementation on the DIAM device (Device for irradiation of biomolecular clusters) (Dispositif d'Irradiation d'Agrégats bioMoléculaires) allowed us to measure the velocity distribution of water molecules evaporated from collision induced dissociation of mass- and energy-selected protonated water clusters.

  9. Simultaneous measurements of velocity gradients and tumbling motion of rods in 3D turbulence (United States)

    Kramel, Stefan; Voth, Greg; Ni, Rui; Ouellette, Nicholas


    The tumbling motion of anisotropic particles, advected in a fluid flow, is governed by the velocity gradient tensor. We have simultaneously measured the orientation of neutrally buoyant, rod-shaped particles and the velocity gradient tensor surrounding them in a 3D turbulent flow. We have built a scanning particle tracking velocimetry (SPTV) system, in which we illuminate a narrow slab of the detection volume and scan the illuminated slab through the entire detection volume, taking sequential images with four stereoscopic high speed cameras. The advantage of this technique over other PTV systems is that it enables us to increase the tracer particle concentration, because it removes many stereo-matching ambiguities, resulting in a high spatial resolution of the fluid velocity field. A trade-off is the decrease in temporal resolution. Our measurements of the tumbling rate of rods is in good agreement with Jeffery's equation, and this provides a good way to quantify the accuracy of the velocity gradient measurements. Reconstructed individual rod trajectories show the complex way that alignment with the vorticity and eigenvectors of the strain-rate tensor affect the tumbling rate. NSF Grant DMR-1208990.

  10. H0, q0 and the local velocity field. [Hubble and deceleration constants in Big Bang expansion (United States)

    Sandage, A.; Tammann, G. A.


    An attempt is made to find a systematic deviation from linearity for distances that are under the control of the Virgo cluster, and to determine the value of the mean random motion about the systematic flow, in order to improve the measurement of the Hubble and the deceleration constants. The velocity-distance relation for large and intermediate distances is studied, and type I supernovae are calibrated relatively as distance indicators and absolutely to obtain a new value for the Hubble constant. Methods of determining the deceleration constant are assessed, including determination from direct measurement, mean luminosity density, virgocentric motion, and the time scale test. The very local velocity field is investigated, and a solution is preferred with a random peculiar radial velocity of very nearby field galaxies of 90-100 km/s, and a Virgocentric motion of the local group of 220 km/s, leading to an underlying expansion rate of 55, in satisfactory agreement with the global value.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuridze, D.; Mathioudakis, M.; Kennedy, M.; Keenan, F. P. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Simões, P. J. A.; Voort, L. Rouppe van der; Fletcher, L. [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Carlsson, M.; Jafarzadeh, S. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Allred, J. C.; Kowalski, A. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Graham, D. [INAF-Ossevatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)


    The asymmetries observed in the line profiles of solar flares can provide important diagnostics of the properties and dynamics of the flaring atmosphere. In this paper the evolution of the Hα and Ca ii λ8542 lines are studied using high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution ground-based observations of an M1.1 flare obtained with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope. The temporal evolution of the Hα line profiles from the flare kernel shows excess emission in the red wing (red asymmetry) before flare maximum and excess in the blue wing (blue asymmetry) after maximum. However, the Ca ii λ8542 line does not follow the same pattern, showing only a weak red asymmetry during the flare. RADYN simulations are used to synthesize spectral line profiles for the flaring atmosphere, and good agreement is found with the observations. We show that the red asymmetry observed in Hα is not necessarily associated with plasma downflows, and the blue asymmetry may not be related to plasma upflows. Indeed, we conclude that the steep velocity gradients in the flaring chromosphere modify the wavelength of the central reversal in the Hα line profile. The shift in the wavelength of maximum opacity to shorter and longer wavelengths generates the red and blue asymmetries, respectively.

  12. Rotation and strain rate of Sulawesi from geometrical velocity field (United States)

    Sarsito, D. A.; Susilo, Simons, W. J. F.; Abidin, H. Z.; Sapiie, B.; Triyoso, W.; Andreas, H.


    One of methods that can be used to determine the tectonic deformation status is rate estimation from geometric rotation and strain using quantitative velocity data from GPS observations. Microplate Sulawesi region located in the zone of triple junction (Eurasia, Australia and Philippine Sea Plates) has very complex tectonic and seismic condition, which is why become very important to know its recent deformation status in order to study neo-tectonic and disaster mitigation. Deformation rate quantification is estimated in two parameters: rotation and geodetic strain rate of each GPS station Delaunay triangle in the study area. The analysis in this study is not done using the grids since there is no rheological information at location that can be used as the interpolation-extrapolation constraints. Our analysis reveals that Sulawesi is characterized by rapid rotation in several different domains and compression-strain pattern that varies depending on the type and boundary conditions of microplate. This information is useful for studying neo tectonic deformation status and earthquake disaster mitigation.

  13. Magnetic and velocity fields MHD flow of a stretched vertical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analytical solutions for heat and mass transfer by laminar flow of Newtonian, viscous, electrically conducting and heat generation/absorbing fluid on a continuously moving vertical permeable surface with buoyancy in the presence of a magnetic field and a first order chemical reaction are reported. The solutions for magnetic ...

  14. Shock wave velocity measuring system based on vernier VISAR-type interferometers (United States)

    Gubskii, K. L.; Koshkin, D. S.; Antonov, A. S.; Mikhailuk, A. V.; Pirog, V. A.; Kuznetsov, A. P.


    The paper presents a multi-line diagnostic system for measuring the surface velocity in shock physics experiments. This system is designed for simultaneous measurement of surface velocity at multiple points. It is free from ambiguity caused by harmonic dependence of interference signals on the velocity and has a time resolution of 0.8 ns.

  15. Radiography by selective detection of scatter field velocity components (United States)

    Jacobs, Alan M. (Inventor); Dugan, Edward T. (Inventor); Shedlock, Daniel (Inventor)


    A reconfigurable collimated radiation detector, system and related method includes at least one collimated radiation detector. The detector has an adjustable collimator assembly including at least one feature, such as a fin, optically coupled thereto. Adjustments to the adjustable collimator selects particular directions of travel of scattered radiation emitted from an irradiated object which reach the detector. The collimated detector is preferably a collimated detector array, where the collimators are independently adjustable. The independent motion capability provides the capability to focus the image by selection of the desired scatter field components. When an array of reconfigurable collimated detectors is provided, separate image data can be obtained from each of the detectors and the respective images cross-correlated and combined to form an enhanced image.

  16. Non-invasive and Locally Resolved Measurement of Sound Velocity by Ultrasound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mario Wolf; Elfgard Kühnicke


      A new method to measure sound velocity and distance simultaneously and locally resolved by an ultrasound annular array is developed in media with constant sound velocity and then applied in media...

  17. A study of the river velocity measurement techniques and analysis methods (United States)

    Chung Yang, Han; Lun Chiang, Jie


    Velocity measurement technology can be traced back to the pitot tube velocity measurement method in the 18th century and today's velocity measurement technology use the acoustic and radar technology, with the Doppler principle developed technology advances, in order to develop the measurement method is more suitable for the measurement of velocity, the purpose is to get a more accurate measurement data and with the surface velocity theory, the maximum velocity theory and the indicator theory to obtain the mean velocity. As the main research direction of this article is to review the literature of the velocity measurement techniques and analysis methods, and to explore the applicability of the measurement method of the velocity measurement instruments, and then to describe the advantages and disadvantages of the different mean velocity profiles analysis method. Adequate review of the references of this study will be able to provide a reference for follow-up study of the velocity measurement. Review velocity measurement literature that different velocity measurement is required to follow the different flow conditions measured be upgraded its accuracy, because each flow rate measurement method has its advantages and disadvantages. Traditional velocity instrument can be used at low flow and RiverRAD microwave radar or imaging technology measurement method may be applied in high flow. In the tidal river can use the ADCP to quickly measure river vertical velocity distribution. In addition, urban rivers may be used the CW radar to set up on the bridge, and wide rivers can be used RiverRAD microwave radar to measure the velocities. Review the relevant literature also found that using Ultrasonic Doppler Current Profiler with the Chiu's theory to the velocity of observing automation work can save manpower and resources to improve measurement accuracy, reduce the risk of measurement, but the great variability of river characteristics in Taiwan and a lot of drifting floating

  18. Magnetic and velocity fluctuations from nonlinearly coupled tearing modes in the reversed field pinch with and without the reversal surface (United States)

    Craig, D.; Martin, D.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Reusch, J. A.


    We investigate the role of poloidal mode number m = 0 fluctuations on m = 1 velocity and magnetic field fluctuations in the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP). Removing the m = 0 resonant surface in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST), results in suppressed m = 0 activity without a reduction in m = 1 magnetic activity. However, the m = 1 velocity fluctuations and fluctuation-induced mean emf are reduced as m = 0 modes are suppressed. Velocity fluctuations are measured directly using fast Doppler spectroscopy. Similar results are seen in visco-resistive MHD simulation with the DEBS code. An artificial line-averaged velocity diagnostic is developed for DEBS simulations to facilitate direct comparisons with experimental measurements. The sensitivity of the m = 1 velocity fluctuations and corresponding emf to changes in m = 0 mode activity is a feature of tearing modes in the nonlinear regime with a spectrum of interacting modes. These results have implications for RFP sustainment strategies and inform our understanding of the role of magnetic turbulence in astrophysical contexts.

  19. Measurements of electrical impedance and elastic wave velocity of reservoir rock under fluid-flow test (United States)

    Sawayama, Kazuki; Kitamura, Keigo; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro


    The estimation of water saturation under the ground is essential in geothermal fields, particularly for EGS (enhanced geothermal system). To estimate water saturation, recently, electromagnetic exploration using Magnetotelluric (MT) method has been applied in the geothermal fields. However, the relationship between electrical impedance obtained from this method and water saturation in the reservoir rock has not been well known. Our goal is to elucidate this basic relationship by fluid-flow experiments. As our first step to this goal, we developed the technique to measure and analyze the electrical impedance of the cracked rock in the geothermal reservoir. The fluid-flow test has been conducted as following procedures. At first, reservoir rock sample (pyroxene andesite, Makizono lava formation, Japan) was filled with nitrogen gas (Pp = 10 MPa) under 20 MPa of confining pressure. This nitrogen gas imitates the overheated steam in the geothermal fields. Then, brine (1wt.%-KCl, 1.75 S/m) which imitates the artificial recharge to the reservoir was injected to the samples. After flow rate of drainage fluid becomes stable, injection pressure was increased (11, 12, 14, 16, 18 MPa) and decreased (18, 16, 14, 12, 11 MPa) to vary the water saturation in the samples. During the test, water saturation, permeability, electrical impedance (10-2-105 Hz of frequency) and elastic wave velocity were measured. As a result of andesite, electrical impedance dramatically decreased from 105 to 103 Ω and P-wave velocity increased by 2% due to the brine injection. This remarkable change of the electrical impedance could be due to the replacement of pre-filled nitrogen gas to the brine. After the brine injection, electrical impedance decreased with injection pressure (small change of water saturation) by up to 40% while P-wave velocity was almost constant (less than 1%). This decrease of electrical impedance with injection pressure could be related to the flow to the narrow path (microcrack

  20. Propagation of a squeezed optical field in a medium with superluminal group velocity. (United States)

    Romanov, Gleb; Horrom, Travis; Novikova, Irina; Mikhailov, Eugeniy E


    We investigated the propagation of a squeezed optical field, generated via the polarization self-rotation effect, with a sinusoidally modulated degree of squeezing through an atomic medium with anomalous dispersion. We observed the advancement of the signal propagating through a resonant Rb vapor compared to the reference signal, propagating in air. The measured advancement time grew linearly with atomic density, reaching a maximum of 11±1  μs, which corresponded to a negative group velocity of v(g)≈-7,000  m/s. We also confirmed that the increasing advancement was accompanied by a reduction of output squeezing levels due to optical losses, in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  1. Creating analytically divergence-free velocity fields from grid-based data (United States)

    Ravu, Bharath; Rudman, Murray; Metcalfe, Guy; Lester, Daniel R.; Khakhar, Devang V.


    We present a method, based on B-splines, to calculate a C2 continuous analytic vector potential from discrete 3D velocity data on a regular grid. A continuous analytically divergence-free velocity field can then be obtained from the curl of the potential. This field can be used to robustly and accurately integrate particle trajectories in incompressible flow fields. Based on the method of Finn and Chacon (2005) [10] this new method ensures that the analytic velocity field matches the grid values almost everywhere, with errors that are two to four orders of magnitude lower than those of existing methods. We demonstrate its application to three different problems (each in a different coordinate system) and provide details of the specifics required in each case. We show how the additional accuracy of the method results in qualitatively and quantitatively superior trajectories that results in more accurate identification of Lagrangian coherent structures.

  2. Exploiting LSPIV to assess debris-flow velocities in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Theule


    Full Text Available The assessment of flow velocity has a central role in quantitative analysis of debris flows, both for the characterization of the phenomenology of these processes and for the assessment of related hazards. Large-scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV can contribute to the assessment of surface velocity of debris flows, provided that the specific features of these processes (e.g. fast stage variations and particles up to boulder size on the flow surface are taken into account. Three debris-flow events, each of them consisting of several surges featuring different sediment concentrations, flow stages, and velocities, have been analysed at the inlet of a sediment trap in a stream in the eastern Italian Alps (Gadria Creek. Free software has been employed for preliminary treatment (orthorectification and format conversion of video-recorded images as well as for LSPIV application. Results show that LSPIV velocities are consistent with manual measurements of the orthorectified imagery and with front velocity measured from the hydrographs in a channel recorded approximately 70 m upstream of the sediment trap. Horizontal turbulence, computed as the standard deviation of the flow directions at a given cross section for a given surge, proved to be correlated with surface velocity and with visually estimated sediment concentration. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of LSPIV in the assessment of surface velocity of debris flows and permit the most crucial aspects to be identified in order to improve the accuracy of debris-flow velocity measurements.

  3. Exploiting LSPIV to assess debris-flow velocities in the field (United States)

    Theule, Joshua I.; Crema, Stefano; Marchi, Lorenzo; Cavalli, Marco; Comiti, Francesco


    The assessment of flow velocity has a central role in quantitative analysis of debris flows, both for the characterization of the phenomenology of these processes and for the assessment of related hazards. Large-scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) can contribute to the assessment of surface velocity of debris flows, provided that the specific features of these processes (e.g. fast stage variations and particles up to boulder size on the flow surface) are taken into account. Three debris-flow events, each of them consisting of several surges featuring different sediment concentrations, flow stages, and velocities, have been analysed at the inlet of a sediment trap in a stream in the eastern Italian Alps (Gadria Creek). Free software has been employed for preliminary treatment (orthorectification and format conversion) of video-recorded images as well as for LSPIV application. Results show that LSPIV velocities are consistent with manual measurements of the orthorectified imagery and with front velocity measured from the hydrographs in a channel recorded approximately 70 m upstream of the sediment trap. Horizontal turbulence, computed as the standard deviation of the flow directions at a given cross section for a given surge, proved to be correlated with surface velocity and with visually estimated sediment concentration. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of LSPIV in the assessment of surface velocity of debris flows and permit the most crucial aspects to be identified in order to improve the accuracy of debris-flow velocity measurements.

  4. Instantaneous ballistic velocity of suspended Brownian nanocrystals measured by upconversion nanothermometry (United States)

    Brites, Carlos D. S.; Xie, Xiaoji; Debasu, Mengistie L.; Qin, Xian; Chen, Runfeng; Huang, Wei; Rocha, João; Liu, Xiaogang; Carlos, Luís D.


    Brownian motion is one of the most fascinating phenomena in nature. Its conceptual implications have a profound impact in almost every field of science and even economics, from dissipative processes in thermodynamic systems, gene therapy in biomedical research, artificial motors and galaxy formation to the behaviour of stock prices. However, despite extensive experimental investigations, the basic microscopic knowledge of prototypical systems such as colloidal particles in a fluid is still far from being complete. This is particularly the case for the measurement of the particles' instantaneous velocities, elusive due to the rapid random movements on extremely short timescales. Here, we report the measurement of the instantaneous ballistic velocity of Brownian nanocrystals suspended in both aqueous and organic solvents. To achieve this, we develop a technique based on upconversion nanothermometry. We find that the population of excited electronic states in NaYF4:Yb/Er nanocrystals at thermal equilibrium can be used for temperature mapping of the nanofluid with great thermal sensitivity (1.15% K-1 at 296 K) and a high spatial resolution (<1 μm). A distinct correlation between the heat flux in the nanofluid and the temporal evolution of Er3+ emission allows us to measure the instantaneous velocity of nanocrystals with different sizes and shapes.

  5. Evaluation and accuracy of the local velocity data measurements in an agitated vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kysela Bohuš


    Full Text Available Velocity measurements of the flow field in an agitated vessel are necessary for the improvement and better understanding of the mixing processes. The obtained results are used for the calculations of the impeller pumping capacity, comparison of the power consumption etc. We performed various measurements of the local velocities in an agitated vessel final results of which should be processed for several purposes so it was necessary to make an analysis of the obtained data suitability and their quality. Analysed velocity data were obtained from the LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometry and PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry measurements performed on a standard equipment where the flat bottomed vessel with four baffles was agitated by the six-blade Rushton turbine. The results from both used methods were compared. The frequency analyses were examined as well as the dependency of the data rates, time series lengths etc. The demands for the data processed in the form of the ensemble-averaged results were also established.

  6. Quantum sensing of rotation velocity based on transverse field Ising model (United States)

    Ma, Yu-Han; Sun, Chang-Pu


    We study a transverse-field Ising model (TFIM) in a rotational reference frame. We find that the effective Hamiltonian of the TFIM of this system depends on the system's rotation velocity. Since the rotation contributes an additional transverse field, the dynamics of TFIM sensitively responses to the rotation velocity at the critical point of quantum phase transition. This observation means that the TFIM can be used for quantum sensing of rotation velocity that can sensitively detect rotation velocity of the total system at the critical point. It is found that the resolution of the quantum sensing scheme we proposed is characterized by the half-width of Loschmidt echo of the dynamics of TFIM when it couples to a quantum system S. And the resolution of this quantum sensing scheme is proportional to the coupling strength δ between the quantum system S and the TFIM, and to the square root of the number of spins N belonging the TFIM.

  7. Three-Dimensional Velocity Field of the Yellowstone Deformation from Ascending and Descending ENVISAT Observations (United States)

    Aly, M. H.; Cochran, E. S.


    The complex Yellowstone volcanic system is characterized by episodic crustal deformation that occurs on a decadal scale. Previous geodetic studies indicated that the 640 k year-old Yellowstone Caldera was recently subsiding until mid 2004, and then a new episode of uplift has occurred with rapid rates up to 7 cm/yr. However, Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) from either ascending or descending orbits permits measurements only in the line-of-sight (LOS) direction; and the Global Positioning System (GPS) provides point measurements and thus a limited spatial view of the ongoing deformation. In this study, we present the three-dimensional velocity field of Yellowstone deformation constructed from ascending and descending ENVISAT LOS components. Based on the ENVISAT satellite imaging and the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) geometries, we calculated the look vector, the elevation angle (the angle between the look vector and the horizontal surface plane), and the orientation angle (the angle between the projection of the look vector on the horizontal surface plane and the East direction) for each InSAR image pixel. The outputs indicate that the majority of observed deformation across the Yellowstone Caldera (approximately 7 cm/yr) and near the Norris Geyser Basin (approximately 4 cm/yr) occurred in the vertical direction during July 2005 - August 2006; however, significant horizontal deformation in the East-West direction occurred at the southeastern rim of the caldera and around Hebgen Lake, and slight deformation in the North-South direction occurred across the caldera during the same time period. The constructed three-dimensional velocity field provides new constraints on the depth and geometry of the Yellowstone magma chamber.

  8. Transient field generation and measurement (United States)

    Parkes, D. M.; Smith, P. D.

    The mathematical modeling and numerical computation of the elecromagnetic field radiated by a biconic antenna excited by a transient waveform such as a pulse are outlined. Very good agreement between the model and experiment is achieved for the time history of the radiated pulse. Amplitudes of calculated field strengths are within engineering tolerances. The type of field and its amplitude which result when any variant of biconic antenna is excited by a given input pulse can be predicted, since the time marching method of solving integral equations is shown to be successfully implemented on a computer. Because the system is not limited to single shot events, measurement of induced currents inside target equipments when illuminated by the radiation field is simplified, since sampling technology can be employed. Current waveforms which occur in antennas can also be predicted.

  9. Relationships between aggregates size classes and SOC content using aggregate settling velocity measurements in interrill areas (United States)

    Quijano, Laura; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Navas, Ana


    Soil aggregate stability is one of the main factors of soil physics and structure. Formation and stabilization of soil aggregates facilitates soil carbon sequestration and reduces the susceptibility of soil to erosion. The gain or loss of C in agricultural systems is largely influenced by aggregate-associated soil organic carbon that affects the settling velocity and C content of soils. Settling velocity measurements are useful to provide direct information on soil aggregate size distribution that can be used as indicators of the potential soil erodibility. This study aims to analyze the effect of settling velocity on soil aggregate dynamics and the relationships between the particle size distributions and the associated carbon in a cultivated field of typical Mediterranean agroecosystems in mountain landscapes. Calcisol topsoil samples (n=10) were collected in an interrill area within the field at two contrasting slope positions (i.e. upslope and downslope). Furthermore, a total of ten Calcisol soil samples were collected in an adjacent area under forest vegetation cover and stable conditions. According to Stokes's Law, the fine soil fraction 0.045, 0.045-0.015, 0.015-0.003, 0.003-0.001 and soil aggregation by the lower proportion of macroaggregates compared to forest soils. Moreover, it was found a preferential transport of fine particles from upslope to downslope during interrill erosion processes. In this study, settling velocity measurements provide a useful tool for assessing changes in soil aggregation under different land uses and for identifying the relationship between aggregates size classes and SOC content in Mediterranean agroecosystems.

  10. Kinematics of the Suez-Sinai area from combined GPS velocity field (United States)

    Pietrantonio, G.; Devoti, R.; Mahmoud, S.; Riguzzi, F.


    A combined GPS velocity solution covering a wide area from Egypt to Middle East allowed us to infer the current rates across the main, already well known, tectonic features. We have estimated 126 velocities from time series of 90 permanent and 36 non permanent GPS sites located in Africa (Egypt), Eurasia and Arabia plates in the time span 1996-2015, the largest available for the Egyptian sites. We have combined our velocity solution in a least-squares sense with two other recent velocity solutions of networks located around the eastern Mediterranean, obtaining a final IGb08 velocity field of about 450 sites. Then, we have estimated the IGb08 Euler poles of Africa, Sinai and Arabia, analyzing the kinematics of the Sinai area, particular velocity profiles, and estimating the 2D strain rate field. We show that it is possible to reliably model the rigid motion of Sinai block only including some GPS sites located south of the Carmel Fault. The estimated relative motion with respect to Africa is of the order of 2-3 mm/yr, however there is a clear mismatch between the modeled and the observed velocities in the southern Sinai sites. We have also assessed the NNE left shear motion along the Dead Sea Transform Fault, estimating a relative motion between Arabia and Africa of about 6 mm/yr in the direction of the Red Sea opening.

  11. Frequency, delay and velocity analysis for intrinsic channel region of carbon nanotube field effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Geetha


    Full Text Available Gate wrap around field effect transistor is preferred for its good channel control. To study the high frequency behaviour of the device, parameters like cut-off frequency, transit or delay time, velocity are calculated and plotted. Double-walled and array of channels are considered in this work for enhanced output and impedance matching of the device with the measuring equipment terminal respectively. The perfomance of double-walledcarbon nanotube is compared with single-walled carbon nanotube and found that the device with double-wall shows appreciable improvement in its characteristics. Analysis of these parameters are done with various values of source/drain length, gate length, tube diameters and channel densities. The maximum cut-off frequency is found to be 72.3 THz with corresponding velocity as 5x106 m/s for channel density as 3 and gate length as 11nm. The number of channel is varied from 3 to 21 and found that the perfromance of the device containing double-walled carbon nano tube is better for channel number lesser than or equal to 12. The proposed modelling can be used for designing devices to handle high speed applications of future generation.

  12. Quantum mechanical grad-B drift velocity operator in a weakly non-uniform magnetic field (United States)

    Chan, Poh Kam; Oikawa, Shun-ichi; Kosaka, Wataru


    This paper presents the analytical solution for quantum mechanical grad-B drift velocity operator by solving the Heisenberg equation of motion. Using the time dependent operators, it is shown the analytical solution of the position operators in x ̂(t ) and y ̂(t ) of the particle in the presence of a weakly non-uniform magnetic field. It is also shown numerically that the grad-B drift velocity operator agrees with the classical counterpart.

  13. PIV measurements of velocities and accelerations under breaking waves on a slope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vested, Malene Hovgaard; Carstensen, Stefan; Christensen, Erik Damgaard


    Understanding the physics of breaking waves is an ongoing research topic, not only due to human curiosity, but also due to the influence breaking waves have on offshore structures. In recent years, the development in experimental methods has facilitated a new insight into the physics of breaking...... waves. In this study, we have investigated the wave kinematics under steep and breaking waves on a laboratory beach with a slope of 1/25. The velocity field was measured by use of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) at a sample rate of 96Hz. The high sample rate allowed for the accelerations...

  14. Measurement of Plasma Ion Temperature and Flow Velocity from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The distinction between Doppler broadening and Doppler shift has been analysed, the differences between Gaussian fitting and the distribution of chord-integral line shape have also been discussed. Local ion temperature and flow velocity have been derived from the chord-averaged emission line profile by a ...

  15. High speed velocity measurements on an EFI-system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinse, W.C.; Hof, P.G. van 't; Cheng, L.K.; Scholtes, J.H.G.


    For the development of an Exploding Foil Initiator for Insensitive Munitions applications the following topics are of interest: the electrical circuit, the exploding foil, the velocity of the flyer, the driver explosive, the secondary flyer and the acceptor explosive. Several parameters of the EFI

  16. Aortic pulse wave velocity measurement in systemic sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sebastiani


    Full Text Available Background. Systemic sclerosis (SSc is characterized by endothelial dysfunction and widespread microangiopathy. However, a macrovascular damage could be also associated. Aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV is known to be a reliable indicator of arterial stiffness and a useful prognostic predictor of cardiovascular events. Moreover, aPWV may be easily measured by non-invasive, user-friendly tool. Aim of our study was to evaluate aPWV alterations in a series of SSc patients. Methods. The aPWV was evaluated in 35 consecutive female SSc patients and 26 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. aPWV alterations were correlated with cardiopulmonary involvement. Results. A significant increase of aPWV was observed in SSc patients compared to controls (9.4±3.2 m/s vs 7.3±1 m/s; P=0.002. In particular, 14/35 (40% SSc patients and only 1/26 (4% controls (P=0.0009 showed increased aPWV (>9 m/s cut-off value. Moreover, echocardiography evaluation showed an increased prevalence of right atrial and ventricular dilatation (atrial volume: 23.6±6.2 mL vs 20.3±4.3 mL, P=0.026; ventricular diameter 19.5±4.9 mm vs 15.9±1.6 mm; P=0.001 associated to higher values of pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PAPs in SSc patients (31.5±10.4 mmHg vs 21.6±2.9 mmHg; P50 years old. Furthermore, altered aPWV was more frequently associated with limited cutaneous pattern, longer disease duration (≥5 years, and/or presence of anticentromere antibody (ACA. Conclusions. A significantly higher prevalence of abnormally increased aPWV was evidenced in SSc patients compared to healthy controls. The possibility of more pronounced and diffuse vascular damage in a particular SSc subset (ACA-positive subjects with limited cutaneous scleroderma and longer disease duration might be raised.

  17. Steady and Unsteady Velocity Measurements in a Small Turbocharger Turbine with Computational Validation (United States)

    Karamanis, N.; Palfreyman, D.; Arcoumanis, C.; Martinez-Botas, R. F.


    experiment performance and LDV measurements. With the steady inlet boundary condition, a high level of accuracy was achieved when compared to the experimental performance and velocity field. The velocity along the leading edge showed the same discrepancy as the single passage analysis that is with the radial and axial component from mid span to the blade tip. At the trailing edge features identified in the experimental data are identified in the numerical results; the velocity field appears more 'diffused' across the plane as per the experimental data than from the single passage analysis. With the pulsating inlet boundary, the predicted velocity traces in the volute and close to the turbine lead and trailing edge show excellent agreement in both form (against time) and magnitude.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Dynamic Wetting Models: Interface Shapes and Velocity Fields Near the Moving Contact Line. (United States)

    Chen, Qun

    Dynamic wetting is the displacement of one fluid by another immiscible fluid across a solid surface as it spreads. Such processes control many natural phenomena and technological applications. The spreading dynamics of macroscopic fluid bodies are dictated by the hydrodynamics in a microscopic region near the moving contact line. Analytical models have been developed to describe the interface shape and velocity field near the contact line. Using videomicroscopy, particle image velocimetry, and digital image analysis, we make simultaneous measurements of the fluid/fluid interface shape and fluid flow field within the first few hundred microns near a moving contact line. Our experiments establish the validity and limitations of these analytical models. This work extensively tests assumptions embedded in the models and sets up bounds on the parameter space in which the models are valid. The models successfully describe the hydrodynamics near the contact line up to a capillary number ~0.10 but break down at higher capillary number. We determine the origins of this breakdown. We also carefully probe those regions near the contact line where the interface shape and flow field are independent of the macroscopic geometry. Our experimental technique provides a means of obtaining such material-dependent,, geometry-independent information about the system. Such information serves as boundary conditions transferable among different macroscopic geometries. It is an essential ingredient for numerical calculations of the spreading dynamics. The work reported in this thesis sets the stage for predictive modeling of dynamic wetting.

  19. Spectroscopic measurement of ion temperature and ion velocity distributions in the flux-coil generated FRC. (United States)

    Gupta, D; Bolte, N; Gota, H; Hayashi, R; Kiyashko, V; Marsili, P; Morehouse, M; Primavera, S; Roche, T; Wessel, F


    One aim of the flux-coil generated field reversed configuration at Tri Alpha Energy (TAE) is to establish the plasma where the ion rotational energy is greater than the ion thermal energy. To verify this, an optical diagnostic was developed to simultaneously measure the Doppler velocity-shift and line-broadening using a 0.75 m, 1800 groves/mm, spectrometer. The output spectrum is magnified and imaged onto a 16-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) array. The individual PMT outputs are coupled to high-gain, high-frequency, transimpedance amplifiers, providing fast-time response. The Doppler spectroscopy measurements, along with a survey spectrometer and photodiode-light detector, form a suite of diagnostics that provide insights into the time evolution of the plasma-ion distribution and current when accelerated by an azimuthal-electric field.

  20. Spectroscopic measurement of ion temperature and ion velocity distributions in the flux-coil generated FRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, D.; Gota, H.; Hayashi, R.; Kiyashko, V.; Morehouse, M.; Primavera, S. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Bolte, N. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Marsili, P. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Roche, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Wessel, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)


    One aim of the flux-coil generated field reversed configuration at Tri Alpha Energy (TAE) is to establish the plasma where the ion rotational energy is greater than the ion thermal energy. To verify this, an optical diagnostic was developed to simultaneously measure the Doppler velocity-shift and line-broadening using a 0.75 m, 1800 groves/mm, spectrometer. The output spectrum is magnified and imaged onto a 16-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) array. The individual PMT outputs are coupled to high-gain, high-frequency, transimpedance amplifiers, providing fast-time response. The Doppler spectroscopy measurements, along with a survey spectrometer and photodiode-light detector, form a suite of diagnostics that provide insights into the time evolution of the plasma-ion distribution and current when accelerated by an azimuthal-electric field.

  1. In vitro particle image velocity measurements in a model root canal: flow around a polymer rotary finishing file. (United States)

    Koch, Jon D; Smith, Nicholas A; Garces, Daniel; Gao, Luyang; Olsen, F Kris


    Root canal irrigation is vital to thorough debridement and disinfection, but the mechanisms that contribute to its effectiveness are complex and uncertain. Traditionally, studies in this area have relied on before-and-after static comparisons to assess effectiveness, but new in situ tools are being developed to provide real-time assessments of irrigation. The aim in this work was to measure a cross section of the velocity field in the fluid flow around a polymer rotary finishing file in a model root canal. Fluorescent microparticles were seeded into an optically accessible acrylic root canal model. A polymer rotary finishing file was activated in a static position. After laser excitation, fluorescence from the microparticles was imaged onto a frame-transfer camera. Two consecutive images were cross-correlated to provide a measurement of a projected, 2-dimensional velocity field. The method reveals that fluid velocities can be much higher than the velocity of the file because of the shape of the file. Furthermore, these high velocities are in the axial direction of the canal rather than only in the direct of motion of the file. Particle image velocimetry indicates that fluid velocities induced by the rotating file can be much larger than the speed of the file. Particle image velocimetry can provide qualitative insight and quantitative measurements that may be useful for validating computational fluid dynamic models and connecting clinical observations to physical explanations in dental research. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Speckle-based three-dimensional velocity measurement using spatial filtering velocimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Theis Faber Quist; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    We present an optical method for measuring the real-time three-dimensional (3D) translational velocity of a diffusely scattering rigid object observed through an imaging system. The method is based on a combination of the motion of random speckle patterns and regular fringe patterns. The speckle...... spatial filters designed to measure the three components of the object’s translational velocity. Furthermore, experimental data are presented that demonstrate full 3D velocity measurement....

  3. Depression storage and infiltration effects on overland flow depth-velocity-friction at desert conditions: field plot results and model (United States)

    Rossi, M. J.; Ares, J. O.


    Water infiltration and overland flow are relevant in considering water partition among plant life forms, the sustainability of vegetation and the design of sustainable hydrological models and management. In arid and semi-arid regions, these processes present characteristic trends imposed by the prevailing physical conditions of the upper soil as evolved under water-limited climate. A set of plot-scale field experiments at the semi-arid Patagonian Monte (Argentina) were performed in order to estimate the effect of depression storage areas and infiltration rates on depths, velocities and friction of overland flows. The micro-relief of undisturbed field plots was characterized at z-scale 1 mm through close-range stereo-photogrammetry and geo-statistical tools. The overland flow areas produced by controlled water inflows were video-recorded and the flow velocities were measured with image processing software. Antecedent and post-inflow moisture were measured, and texture, bulk density and physical properties of the upper soil were estimated based on soil core analyses. Field data were used to calibrate a physically-based, mass balanced, time explicit model of infiltration and overland flows. Modelling results reproduced the time series of observed flow areas, velocities and infiltration depths. Estimates of hydrodynamic parameters of overland flow (Reynolds-Froude numbers) are informed. To our knowledge, the study here presented is novel in combining several aspects that previous studies do not address simultaneously: (1) overland flow and infiltration parameters were obtained in undisturbed field conditions; (2) field measurements of overland flow movement were coupled to a detailed analysis of soil microtopography at 1 mm depth scale; (3) the effect of depression storage areas in infiltration rates and depth-velocity friction of overland flows is addressed. Relevance of the results to other similar desert areas is justified by the accompanying biogeography analysis

  4. Retinal hemodynamic oxygen reactivity assessed by perfusion velocity, blood oximetry and vessel diameter measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefter, Oliver Niels; Lauritsen, Anne Øberg; Larsen, Michael


    PURPOSE: To test the oxygen reactivity of a fundus photographic method of measuring macular perfusion velocity and to integrate macular perfusion velocities with measurements of retinal vessel diameters and blood oxygen saturation. METHODS: Sixteen eyes in 16 healthy volunteers were studied at two...... measurements may provide comprehensive information about retinal metabolism....

  5. KISAP: New in situ seafloor velocity measurement tool (United States)

    Kim, Gil Young; Park, Ki Ju; Kyo Seo, Young; Lee, Gwang Soo; Kim, Seong Pil


    The KISAP (KIGAM Seafloor Acoustic Prober) is an instrument developed to obtain in situ compressional wave velocity and attenuation profiles for upper several meters of sedimentary layer at the sediment-seawater interface. This instrument consists of independent recording channels (NI cDAQ-9132, National Instruments) with a linear array of receivers (5 Hz-20 kHz, GeoSpectrum Technologies Inc) with depth below acoustic source (acoustic pinger, 1-50 kHz frequency, GeoSpectrum Technologies Inc). It provides in situ recording of full waveforms to determine interval velocity and attenuation. The system can be attached to a corer (gravity and/or piston corer) or to a specially designed prober. The experiments for in situ test were carried out in east coast of Korea and Songjeong beach, Pusan, Korea. We collected good waveform data to be calculated in situ velocity from KISAP test. Therefore KISAP can be used to collect in situ acoustic data. In addition, it can be effectively used to calibrate previous laboratory data to in situ data.

  6. Group velocity effect on resonant, long-range wake-fields in slow wave structures

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, A V


    Synchronous wake-fields in a dispersive waveguide are derived in a general explicit form on the basis of a rigorous electro-dynamical approach using Fourier transformations. The fundamental role of group velocity in wake-field propagation, calculation of attenuation, amplitudes, form-factors and loss-factors is analyzed for single bunch radiation. Adiabatic tapering of the waveguide and bunch density variation is taken into account analytically for the time-domain fields. Effects of field 'compression/expansion' and group delays are demonstrated. The role of these effects is discussed for single bunch wake-fields, transient beam loading, BBU and HOMs. A novel waveguide structure with central rf coupling and both positive and negative velocities is proposed. It can be used effectively in both high-energy accelerators and single-section linacs.

  7. Methods to quantify the velocity dependence of common gait measurements from automated rodent gait analysis devices. (United States)

    Neckel, Nathan D


    Walking slowly is a different biomechanical task than walking quickly, thus measures of gait will be different at different velocities, such as pre/post injury. It is necessary to determine if the difference in gait measures are from the experimental changes, or simply from traveling at different speeds. Instead of limiting this effect, we have developed techniques to embrace the velocity dependence of gait measures. By translating the pawprints into a body coordinate frame we are able to measure location of paw placement in addition to the standard gait measures. At higher velocities rats have greater consistency of steps, place their forelimb initial contact more medially and anteriorly, and place their hindlimb toe off more medially and posteriorly. Interlimb phasing also becomes more consistent at higher velocities. Following a cervical spinal cord injury consistency is reduced and the velocity dependent behaviors are significantly different. Translating the coordinate frame improves the ability to measure changes in base of support following spinal cord injury. Employing a treadmill, or limiting analysis to a narrow velocity window does address the effects of velocity. We feel that measuring across all velocities is more appropriate than dictating that the animals match speeds. Quantifying locomotion with automated gait analysis devices is a great way to evaluate the changes that experimental treatments provide. These new methods allow for a more appropriate way to address the confound of many gait measures being velocity dependent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. MEaSUREs Greenland Ice Velocity: Selected Glacier Site Velocity Maps from InSAR (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program. This data set provides maps of glacier outlet...

  9. Pressure-driven flow of a micro-polar fluid: measurement of the velocity profile

    CERN Document Server

    François, Peters; Lemaire, Elisabeth


    The pressure-driven flow of a suspension of spinning particles in a rectangular channel is studied using an acoustic method. The suspension is made of insulating particles (PMMA) dispersed in a slightly conducting oil (Ugilec + Dielec) and is subjected to a DC electric field. In such a case, the particles are polarized in the direction opposite to that of the electric field and begin to rotate in order to flip their dipoles in the field direction. Such a rotation of the particles is known as Quincke rotation and is responsible for an important decrease of the effective viscosity of the suspension. Indeed, due to the electric torque exerted on the particles, the stress tensor in the suspension is not symmetric anymore and a driving effect arises from the anti-symmetric part. When such a suspension flows through a rectangular channel, the velocity profile is expected to deviate from the usual Poiseuille flow. In this paper, the velocity profiles are measured using Pulsed Ultrasound Doppler Velocimetry technique...

  10. A Mobile System for Measuring Water Surface Velocities Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Large-Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (United States)

    Chen, Y. L.


    Measurement technologies for velocity of river flow are divided into intrusive and nonintrusive methods. Intrusive method requires infield operations. The measuring process of intrusive methods are time consuming, and likely to cause damages of operator and instrument. Nonintrusive methods require fewer operators and can reduce instrument damages from directly attaching to the flow. Nonintrusive measurements may use radar or image velocimetry to measure the velocities at the surface of water flow. The image velocimetry, such as large scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) accesses not only the point velocity but the flow velocities in an area simultaneously. Flow properties of an area hold the promise of providing spatially information of flow fields. This study attempts to construct a mobile system UAV-LSPIV by using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with LSPIV to measure flows in fields. The mobile system consists of a six-rotor UAV helicopter, a Sony nex5T camera, a gimbal, an image transfer device, a ground station and a remote control device. The activate gimbal helps maintain the camera lens orthogonal to the water surface and reduce the extent of images being distorted. The image transfer device can monitor the captured image instantly. The operator controls the UAV by remote control device through ground station and can achieve the flying data such as flying height and GPS coordinate of UAV. The mobile system was then applied to field experiments. The deviation of velocities measured by UAV-LSPIV of field experiments and handhold Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) is under 8%. The results of the field experiments suggests that the application of UAV-LSPIV can be effectively applied to surface flow studies.

  11. Near Source Acoustical Particle Velocity Measurements with Ambient Noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Jelmer; Philippens, D.R.; de Boer, Andries


    An acoustical measurement very near a structure can be a cheap alternative to other contactless vibration measurement techniques such as laser vibrometry. However, measurements of the acoustical pressure suffer greatly from ambient noise, making these measurements unsuitable for many industrial

  12. Remote Sensing Data in Wind Velocity Field Modelling: a Case Study from the Sudetes (SW Poland) (United States)

    Jancewicz, Kacper


    The phenomena of wind-field deformation above complex (mountainous) terrain is a popular subject of research related to numerical modelling using GIS techniques. This type of modelling requires, as input data, information on terrain roughness and a digital terrain/elevation model. This information may be provided by remote sensing data. Consequently, its accuracy and spatial resolution may affect the results of modelling. This paper represents an attempt to conduct wind-field modelling in the area of the Śnieżnik Massif (Eastern Sudetes). The modelling process was conducted in WindStation 2.0.10 software (using the computable fluid dynamics solver Canyon). Two different elevation models were used: the Global Land Survey Digital Elevation Model (GLS DEM) and Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) Level 2. The terrain roughness raster was generated on the basis of Corine Land Cover 2006 (CLC 2006) data. The output data were post-processed in ArcInfo 9.3.1 software to achieve a high-quality cartographic presentation. Experimental modelling was conducted for situations from 26 November 2011, 25 May 2012, and 26 May 2012, based on a limited number of field measurements and using parameters of the atmosphere boundary layer derived from the aerological surveys provided by the closest meteorological stations. The model was run in a 100-m and 250-m spatial resolution. In order to verify the model's performance, leave-one-out cross-validation was used. The calculated indices allowed for a comparison with results of former studies pertaining to WindStation's performance. The experiment demonstrated very subtle differences between results in using DTED or GLS DEM elevation data. Additionally, CLC 2006 roughness data provided more noticeable improvements in the model's performance, but only in the resolution corresponding to the original roughness data. The best input data configuration resulted in the following mean values of error measure: root mean squared error of velocity

  13. Quantum mechanical E × B drift velocity in a weakly inhomogeneous electromagnetic field (United States)

    Chan, Poh Kam; Oikawa, Shun-ichi; Kosaka, Wataru


    The analytical solution for the quantum mechanical drift velocity for a non-relativistic spinless charged particle of E × B drift in the presence of a weakly inhomogeneous electric and magnetic field for the magnetized plasma is presented. Using the Heisenberg equation of motion, the time evolution of the position and momentum operators for the charged particle is solved. From the time dependent operators, the analytical solution of the time dependent momenta operators and position operators is derived. The quantum mechanical expansion rates of variances are shown to agree with the numerical results. Most importantly, the quantum mechanical E × B drift velocity coincides perfectly with the classical drift velocity in the limit of Planck's constant being zero. With higher order electric field inhomogeneity, low energy particles would drift faster than what the classical drift theory predicts.

  14. PIV measurements of velocities and accelerations under breaking waves on a slope (United States)

    Vested, Malene; Carstensen, Stefan; Damgaard Christensen, Erik


    Understanding the physics of breaking waves is an ongoing research topic, not only due to human curiosity, but also due to the influence breaking waves have on offshore structures. In recent years, the development in experimental methods has facilitated a new insight into the physics of breaking waves. In this study, we have investigated the wave kinematics under steep and breaking waves on a laboratory beach with a slope of 1/25. The velocity field was measured by use of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) at a sample rate of 96Hz. The high sample rate allowed for the accelerations to be determined directly from the sampled velocities. It was found that both velocities and accelerations differ from the ones predicted from common wave theories such as streamfunction theory. This was especially evident at the top part of the wave close to the surface. This was not surprising, since the breaking event is a highly non-linear process. The results presented here may facilitate computations of the impact force on offshore structures and furthermore be used for validation of CFD models while altogether shedding light on the mechanisms behind breaking waves.

  15. Filament formation in wind-cloud interactions- II. Clouds with turbulent density, velocity, and magnetic fields (United States)

    Banda-Barragán, W. E.; Federrath, C.; Crocker, R. M.; Bicknell, G. V.


    We present a set of numerical experiments designed to systematically investigate how turbulence and magnetic fields influence the morphology, energetics, and dynamics of filaments produced in wind-cloud interactions. We cover 3D, magnetohydrodynamic systems of supersonic winds impacting clouds with turbulent density, velocity, and magnetic fields. We find that lognormal density distributions aid shock propagation through clouds, increasing their velocity dispersion and producing filaments with expanded cross-sections and highly magnetized knots and subfilaments. In self-consistently turbulent scenarios, the ratio of filament to initial cloud magnetic energy densities is ∼1. The effect of Gaussian velocity fields is bound to the turbulence Mach number: Supersonic velocities trigger a rapid cloud expansion; subsonic velocities only have a minor impact. The role of turbulent magnetic fields depends on their tension and is similar to the effect of radiative losses: the stronger the magnetic field or the softer the gas equation of state, the greater the magnetic shielding at wind-filament interfaces and the suppression of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Overall, we show that including turbulence and magnetic fields is crucial to understanding cold gas entrainment in multiphase winds. While cloud porosity and supersonic turbulence enhance the acceleration of clouds, magnetic shielding protects them from ablation and causes Rayleigh-Taylor-driven subfilamentation. Wind-swept clouds in turbulent models reach distances ∼15-20 times their core radius and acquire bulk speeds ∼0.3-0.4 of the wind speed in one cloud-crushing time, which are three times larger than in non-turbulent models. In all simulations, the ratio of turbulent magnetic to kinetic energy densities asymptotes at ∼0.1-0.4, and convergence of all relevant dynamical properties requires at least 64 cells per cloud radius.

  16. Volumetric velocity measurements of vortex rings from inclined exits (United States)

    Troolin, Daniel R.; Longmire, Ellen K.


    Vortex rings were generated by driving pistons within circular cylinders of inner diameter D = 72.8 mm at a constant velocity U 0 over a distance L = D. The Reynolds number, U 0 L/(2ν), was 2500. The flow downstream of circular and inclined exits was examined using volumetric 3-component velocimetry (V3V). The circular exit yields a standard primary vortex ring that propagates downstream at a constant velocity and a lingering trailing ring of opposite sign associated with the stopping of the piston. By contrast, the inclined nozzle yields a much more complicated structure. The data suggest that a tilted primary vortex ring interacts with two trailing rings; one associated with the stopping of the piston, and the other associated with the asymmetry of the cylinder exit. The two trailing ring structures, which initially have circulation of opposite sign, intertwine and are distorted and drawn through the center of the primary ring. This behavior was observed for two inclination angles. Increased inclination was associated with stronger interactions between the primary and trailing vortices as well as earlier breakdown.

  17. Volumetric velocity measurements of vortex rings from inclined exits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troolin, Daniel R. [TSI Incorporated, Fluid Mechanics Division, St. Paul, MN (United States); Longmire, Ellen K. [University of Minnesota, Department of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    Vortex rings were generated by driving pistons within circular cylinders of inner diameter D=72.8 mm at a constant velocity U{sub 0} over a distance L=D. The Reynolds number, U{sub 0}L/(2{nu}), was 2500. The flow downstream of circular and inclined exits was examined using volumetric 3-component velocimetry (V3V). The circular exit yields a standard primary vortex ring that propagates downstream at a constant velocity and a lingering trailing ring of opposite sign associated with the stopping of the piston. By contrast, the inclined nozzle yields a much more complicated structure. The data suggest that a tilted primary vortex ring interacts with two trailing rings; one associated with the stopping of the piston, and the other associated with the asymmetry of the cylinder exit. The two trailing ring structures, which initially have circulation of opposite sign, intertwine and are distorted and drawn through the center of the primary ring. This behavior was observed for two inclination angles. Increased inclination was associated with stronger interactions between the primary and trailing vortices as well as earlier breakdown. (orig.)

  18. Wet and gassy zones in a municipal landfill from P- and S-wave velocity fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantaki, L.A.; Ghose, R.; Draganov, D.S.; Heimovaara, T.J.


    The knowledge of the distribution of leachate and gas in a municipal landfill is of vital importance to the landfill operators performing improved landfill treatments and for environmental protection and efficient biogas extraction. We have explored the potential of using the velocity fields of

  19. An integrated shear-wave velocity model for the Groningen gas field, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruiver, Pauline P.; van Dedem, Ewoud; Romijn, Remco; de Lange, Ger; Korff, M.; Stafleu, Jan; Gunnink, Jan L.; Rodriguez-Marek, Adrian; Bommer, Julian J.; van Elk, Jan; Doornhof, Dirk


    A regional shear-wave velocity (VS) model has been developed for the Groningen gas field in the Netherlands as the basis for seismic microzonation of an area of more than 1000 km2. The VS model, extending to a depth of almost 1 km, is an essential input to the

  20. Ion Velocity Measurements in a Linear Hall Thruster

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gascon, Nicolas; Cappelli, Mark A; Hargus, William A., Jr


    ... of wall material, or magnetic field intensity. When operated with a low background pressure, the particular Hall discharge studied here creates an ion accelerating electrostatic field mainly outside of the channel, in a narrow zone located 5-20 mm away from the exit plane.

  1. A Raman anemometer for component-selective velocity measurements of particles in a flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florisson, O.; de Mul, F.F.M.; de Winter, H.G.


    An anemometer for the measurement of the velocity of particles of different components in a flow, separate and apart from that of the flow itself, is described. As a component-selective mechanism Raman scattering is used. The velocity is measured by relating the autocorrelated scattering signal to

  2. Simultaneous measurement of size and velocity of small particles in laminar flows (United States)

    Es-Satte, M.; Pellat-Finet, P.; Schmied, L.; Lesage, A.; Richou, J.


    A new laser anemometer gauge is presented here. The velocity and the size of spherical particles are simultaneously measured without uniform illumination and preliminary calibration. The used method is based on Mie's scattering light theory. The device is able to measure the velocity and size of hydrogen bubbles electrolytically produced by a platinum wire immersed in the water flow.

  3. MRI temperature and velocity measurements in a fluid layer with heat transfer (United States)

    Leclerc, S.; Métivier, C.


    Magnetic resonance thermometry (MRT) is an innovative technique which can provide 2D and 3D temperature measurements using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Despite the powerful advantages of MRT, this technique is sparcely developed and used in the engineering sciences. In this paper, we investigate the possibility to measure temperatures with MRI in a fluid layer submitted to heat transfer. By imposing a vertical temperature gradient, we study the temperature fields in both conductive and convective regimes. The temperature fields are obtained by measuring the transverse relaxation time T_2 in glycerol, a Newtonian fluid. The MRT protocol is described in detail and the results are presented. We show that for a conductive regime, temperature measurements are in very good agreement with the theoretical profile. In the convective regime, when comparing the temperature and velocity fields obtained by MRI, we get an excellent agreement in terms of flow structure. Temperature uncertainties are found to be less than 1°C for all our results.

  4. Kinematics of the Suez-Sinai area from an updated combined GPS velocity field (United States)

    Pietrantonio, Grazia; Devoti, Roberto; Mahmoud, Salah; Riguzzi, Federica


    Many studies based on GPS data, have been carried out to shed light on the current kinematics of the Suez-Sinai area, where the interaction of the African and Arabian plates is active. A combined GPS velocity solution covering a wide area from Egypt to Middle East allowed us to infer the current rates across the plate margins. We have estimated 126 velocities from time series of 90 permanent and 36 non permanent GPS sites located in Africa (Egypt), Eurasia and Arabia plates in the time span 1996-2015, the largest available for the Egyptian sites. We have combined our velocity solution in a least-squares sense with two other recent velocity solutions of networks located around the eastern Mediterranean, obtaining a final IGb08 velocity field of about 450 sites. Then, we have estimated the IGb08 Euler poles of Africa, Sinai and Arabia, analyzing the kinematics of the Sinai area, particular velocity profiles, and estimating the 2D strain rate field. We show that it is possible to reliably model the rigid motion of Sinai block only including some GPS sites located south of the Carmel Fault. The estimated relative motion with respect to Africa is of the order of 2-3 mm/yr, however there is a clear mismatch between the modeled and the observed velocities in the southern Sinai sites. We have also assessed the NNE left shear motion along the Dead Sea Transform Fault, estimating a relative motion between Arabia and Africa of about 6 mm/yr in the direction of the Red Sea opening.

  5. Study of Estimation Method for Unsteady Inflow Velocity in Two-Dimensional Ultrasonic-Measurement-Integrated Blood Flow Simulation. (United States)

    Kadowaki, Hiroko; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Funamoto, Kenichi; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki


    Information on hemodynamics is essential for elucidation of mechanisms and development of novel diagnostic methods for circulatory diseases. Two-dimensional ultrasonic-measurement-integrated (2D-UMI) simulation can correctly reproduce an intravascular blood flow field and hemodynamics by feeding back an ultrasonic measurement to the numerical blood flow simulation. In this method, it is critically important to give the correct cross-sectional average inflow velocity (inflow velocity) as the boundary condition. However, systematic study has not been done on the relative validity and effectiveness of existing inflow velocity estimation methods for various target flow fields. The aim of this study was to examine the existing methods systematically and to establish a method to accurately estimate inflow velocities for various vessel geometries and flow conditions in 2D-UMI simulations. A numerical experiment was performed for 2D-UMI simulation of blood flow models in a straight vessel with inflow velocity profiles symmetric and asymmetric to the vessel axis using existing evaluation functions based on Doppler velocity error for the inflow velocity estimation. As a result, it was clarified that a significantly large estimation error occurs in the asymmetric flow due to a nonfeedback domain near the downstream end of the calculation domain. Hence, a new inflow velocity estimation method of 2D-UMI simulation is proposed in which the feedback and evaluation domains are extended to the downstream end. Further numerical experiments of 2D-UMI simulation for two realistic vessel geometries of a healthy blood vessel and a stenosed one confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Measuring low levels of protein aggregation by sedimentation velocity. (United States)

    Gabrielson, John P; Arthur, Kelly K


    The required performance of an analytical method depends on the purpose for which it will be used. As a methodology matures, it may find new application, and the performance demands placed on the method can increase. Sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation (SV-AUC) has a long and distinguished history with important contributions to molecular biology. Now the technique is transitioning into industrial settings, and among them, SV-AUC is now used to quantify the amount of protein aggregation in biopharmaceutical protein products, often at levels less than 1% of the total protein mass. In this paper, we review recent advances to SV methodology which have been shown to improve quantitation of protein aggregation. Then we discuss the performance of the SV method in its current state, with emphasis on the precision and quantitation limit of the method, in the context of existing industrial guidance on analytical method performance targets for quantitative methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Navarrete


    Full Text Available The present work describes the development of a photoacoustic flowmeter with probe-beam deflection. A pulsedlaser beam produces an acoustic pulse, whose propagation is registered by its deflection effects on two cw probebeams. The acoustic pulse in a flowing fluid is produced by absorption of a laser pulse (30 ns, 1.1 mJ focused overa path flow line. The acoustic propagations, along and against the flow, are monitored by two cw probe beams. Inthe interaction, the probe beam undergoes a transient deflection that is detected by a fast response photodiode.The velocity distribution data profile of a square pipe is obtained by means of the acoustic pulse arrival timemeasured through its cross section applying the cylindrical shockwave model developed by Vlasses. The profilesdetermined with this experimental technique are compared with two turbulent pipe flow models.

  8. A Measuring Method About the Bullet Velocity in Electromagnetic Rail Gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming LIU


    Full Text Available The operating principle of electromagnetic rail gun by store capacitor was analyzed. A simulation model about the bullet velocity in the electromagnetic rail gun was built. The results of computer simulation experiment showed the relationships between the bullet velocity and the capacitor charging voltage and the pellet mass. By ten coil targets, a new kind of measuring method for the bullet velocity in electromagnetic rail gun was presented. The results of the actual experiment were analyzed. The improving method for measuring bullet velocity was put forward.

  9. Domain wall velocity measurement in permalloy nanowires with X-ray magnetic circular dichroism imaging and single shot Kerr microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, T.A., E-mail: t.a.moore@physics.or [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Konstanz, Universitaetsstrasse 10, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Klaeui, M.; Heyne, L.; Moehrke, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Konstanz, Universitaetsstrasse 10, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Backes, D.; Rhensius, J. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Konstanz, Universitaetsstrasse 10, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ruediger, U. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Konstanz, Universitaetsstrasse 10, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Heyderman, L.J. [Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Mentes, T.O.; Nino, M.A.; Locatelli, A. [Sincrotrone Trieste, 34012 Basovizza-Trieste (Italy); Potenza, A.; Marchetto, H.; Cavill, S.; Dhesi, S.S. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)


    Domain walls (DWs) propagated along nanoscale magnetic wires by current or field pulses could potentially be used for data storage or logic applications, but the understanding of the DW dynamics, particularly under the influence of spin-polarized current, is incomplete. Measuring the velocity can give insights into the physics of the DW motion. Here we demonstrate DW velocity measurements in permalloy (Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) nanowires (1500 nm width and 20 nm thickness) using the techniques of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism photoemission electron microscopy (XMCD-PEEM) to image the magnetic contrast in the nanowires, and single shot Kerr microscopy, which allows for dynamic measurements. The magnetic imaging yields the average velocity as well as information on the DW spin structure, whereas the single shot method highlights the stochastic nature of the DW motion.

  10. Domain wall velocity measurement in permalloy nanowires with X-ray magnetic circular dichroism imaging and single shot Kerr microscopy (United States)

    Moore, T. A.; Kläui, M.; Heyne, L.; Möhrke, P.; Backes, D.; Rhensius, J.; Rüdiger, U.; Heyderman, L. J.; Mentes, T. O.; Niño, M. Á.; Locatelli, A.; Potenza, A.; Marchetto, H.; Cavill, S.; Dhesi, S. S.


    Domain walls (DWs) propagated along nanoscale magnetic wires by current or field pulses could potentially be used for data storage or logic applications, but the understanding of the DW dynamics, particularly under the influence of spin-polarized current, is incomplete. Measuring the velocity can give insights into the physics of the DW motion. Here we demonstrate DW velocity measurements in permalloy ( Ni80Fe20) nanowires (1500 nm width and 20 nm thickness) using the techniques of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism photoemission electron microscopy (XMCD-PEEM) to image the magnetic contrast in the nanowires, and single shot Kerr microscopy, which allows for dynamic measurements. The magnetic imaging yields the average velocity as well as information on the DW spin structure, whereas the single shot method highlights the stochastic nature of the DW motion.

  11. Investigation of laser Doppler anemometry in developing a velocity-based measurement technique (United States)

    Jung, Ki Won


    Acoustic properties, such as the characteristic impedance and the complex propagation constant, of porous materials have been traditionally characterized based on pressure-based measurement techniques using microphones. Although the microphone techniques have evolved since their introduction, the most general form of the microphone technique employs two microphones in characterizing the acoustic field for one continuous medium. The shortcomings of determining the acoustic field based on only two microphones can be overcome by using numerous microphones. However, the use of a number of microphones requires a careful and intricate calibration procedure. This dissertation uses laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) to establish a new measurement technique which can resolve issues that microphone techniques have: First, it is based on a single sensor, thus the calibration is unnecessary when only overall ratio of the acoustic field is required for the characterization of a system. This includes the measurements of the characteristic impedance and the complex propagation constant of a system. Second, it can handle multiple positional measurements without calibrating the signal at each position. Third, it can measure three dimensional components of velocity even in a system with a complex geometry. Fourth, it has a flexible adaptability which is not restricted to a certain type of apparatus only if the apparatus is transparent. LDA is known to possess several disadvantages, such as the requirement of a transparent apparatus, high cost, and necessity of seeding particles. The technique based on LDA combined with a curvefitting algorithm is validated through measurements on three systems. First, the complex propagation constant of the air is measured in a rigidly terminated cylindrical pipe which has very low dissipation. Second, the radiation impedance of an open-ended pipe is measured. These two parameters can be characterized by the ratio of acoustic field measured at multiple

  12. Data assimilation of mean velocity from 2D PIV measurements of flow over an idealized airfoil (United States)

    Symon, Sean; Dovetta, Nicolas; McKeon, Beverley J.; Sipp, Denis; Schmid, Peter J.


    Data assimilation can be used to combine experimental and numerical realizations of the same flow to produce hybrid flow fields. These have the advantages of less noise contamination and higher resolution while simultaneously reproducing the main physical features of the measured flow. This study investigates data assimilation of the mean flow around an idealized airfoil ( Re = 13,500) obtained from time-averaged two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV) data. The experimental data, which constitute a low-dimensional representation of the full flow field due to resolution and field-of-view limitations, are incorporated into a simulation governed by the two-dimensional, incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with an unknown momentum forcing. This forcing, which corresponds to the divergence of the Reynolds stress tensor, is calculated from a direct-adjoint optimization procedure to match the experimental and numerical mean velocity fields. The simulation is projected onto the low-dimensional subspace of the experiment to calculate the discrepancy and a smoothing procedure is used to recover adjoint solutions on the higher dimensional subspace of the simulation. The study quantifies how well data assimilation can reconstruct the mean flow and the minimum experimental measurements needed by altering the resolution and domain size of the time-averaged PIV.

  13. The effect of spatially varying velocity field on the transport of radioactivity in a porous medium. (United States)

    Sen, Soubhadra; Srinivas, C V; Baskaran, R; Venkatraman, B


    In the event of an accidental leak of the immobilized nuclear waste from an underground repository, it may come in contact of the flow of underground water and start migrating. Depending on the nature of the geological medium, the flow velocity of water may vary spatially. Here, we report a numerical study on the migration of radioactivity due to a space dependent flow field. For a detailed analysis, seven different types of velocity profiles are considered and the corresponding concentrations are compared. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Expanding aliasing limit in measurement of tissue velocity using autocorrelation method. (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi


    Autocorrelation using in-phase and quadrature (IQ) signals suffers from aliasing when the velocity of rapidly moving tissue, such as the heart wall, is measured. In the present study, a simple method was proposed to expand the aliasing limit. In the proposed method, the velocity difference between two successive frames (corresponding to acceleration) of tissue was also estimated directly from IQ signals. When aliasing occurs in the velocity in the current frame, which was estimated from IQ signals, the velocity in the current frame was corrected by adding the velocity difference to the velocity in the previous frame. Using this procedure, the velocity can be estimated if the difference between velocities in the current and previous frames is less than the aliasing limit. The velocity of the posterior heart wall in the longitudinal-axis view of about 0.08 m/s could be estimated under the aliasing limit of the conventional autocorrelation method of 0.047 m/s. Myocardial velocity over the conventional aliasing limit could be measured by the proposed method.

  15. Ultrasonic Measurement of Velocity Profile on Bubbly Flow Using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Technique (United States)

    Wongsaroj, W.; Hamdani, A.; Thong-un, N.; Takahashi, H.; Kikura, H.


    In two-phase bubbly flow, measurement of liquid and bubble velocity is a necessity to understand fluid characteristic. The conventional ultrasonic velocity profiler (UVP), which has been known as a nonintrusive measurement technique, can measure velocity profile of liquid and bubble simultaneously by applying a separation technique for both phases (liquid and bubble) and transparent test section is unnecessary. The aim of this study was to develop a new technique for separating liquid and bubble velocity data in UVP method to measure liquid and bubble velocity profiles separately. The technique employs only single resonant frequency transducer and a simple UVP system. An extra equipment is not required. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based frequency estimator paralleled with other signal processing techniques, which is called as proposed technique, was proposed to measure liquid and bubble velocity separately. The experimental facility of two-phase bubbly flow in the vertical pipe was constructed. Firstly, the Doppler frequency estimation by using the FFT technique was evaluated in single-phase liquid flow. Results showed that FFT technique showed a good agreement with autocorrelation and maximum likelihood estimator. Then, separation of liquid and bubble velocity was demonstrated experimentally in the two-phase bubbly flow. The proposed technique confirmed that liquid and bubble velocity could be measured efficiently.

  16. Transition of equilibrium stochastic to unidirectional velocity vectors in a nanowire subjected to a towering electric field (United States)

    Arora, Vijay K.; Chek, Desmond C. Y.; Tan, Michael L. P.; Hashim, Abdul Manaf


    The equilibrium Fermi-Dirac distribution is revealed to transform to an asymmetric distribution in a very high electric field where the energy gained (or lost) in a mean free path is of paramount importance. The equilibrium stochastic velocity vectors randomly oriented in and opposite to the quasifree direction of a nanowire are shown to streamline in the presence of an extremely high electric field. The complete velocity-field characteristics are acquired. The ultimate directed drift velocity in a towering field is shown to be limited to the appropriately averaged Fermi velocity in the strongly degenerate limit where only half of the quantum states are accessible to electrons. This unidirectional velocity does not sensitively depend on the low-field Ohmic mobility. The emission of a quantum in the form of a phonon or photon lowers the saturation velocity from its ultimate unidirectional limit.

  17. High Precision UTDR Measurements by Sonic Velocity Compensation with Reference Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Stade


    Full Text Available An ultrasonic sensor design with sonic velocity compensation is developed to improve the accuracy of distance measurement in membrane modules. High accuracy real-time distance measurements are needed in membrane fouling and compaction studies. The benefits of the sonic velocity compensation with a reference transducer are compared to the sonic velocity calculated with the measured temperature and pressure using the model by Belogol’skii, Sekoyan et al. In the experiments the temperature was changed from 25 to 60 °C at pressures of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 MPa. The set measurement distance was 17.8 mm. Distance measurements with sonic velocity compensation were over ten times more accurate than the ones calculated based on the model. Using the reference transducer measured sonic velocity, the standard deviations for the distance measurements varied from 0.6 to 2.0 µm, while using the calculated sonic velocity the standard deviations were 21–39 µm. In industrial liquors, not only the temperature and the pressure, which were studied in this paper, but also the properties of the filtered solution, such as solute concentration, density, viscosity, etc., may vary greatly, leading to inaccuracy in the use of the Belogol’skii, Sekoyan et al. model. Therefore, calibration of the sonic velocity with reference transducers is needed for accurate distance measurements.

  18. Absolute measurement of the Hugoniot and sound velocity of liquid copper at multimegabar pressures (United States)

    McCoy, Chad A.; Knudson, Marcus D.; Root, Seth


    Measurement of the Hugoniot and sound velocity provides information on the bulk modulus and Grüneisen parameter of a material at extreme conditions. The capability to launch multilayered (copper/aluminum) flyer plates at velocities in excess of 20 km/s with the Sandia Z accelerator has enabled high-precision sound-velocity measurements at previously inaccessible pressures. For these experiments, the sound velocity of the copper flyer must be accurately known in the multi-Mbar regime. Here we describe the development of copper as an absolutely calibrated sound-velocity standard for high-precision measurements at pressures in excess of 400 GPa. Using multilayered flyer plates, we performed absolute measurements of the Hugoniot and sound velocity of copper for pressures from 500 to 1200 GPa. These measurements enabled the determination of the Grüneisen parameter for dense liquid copper, clearly showing a density dependence above the melt transition. Combined with earlier data at lower pressures, these results constrain the sound velocity as a function of pressure, enabling the use of copper as a Hugoniot and sound-velocity standard for pressures up to 1200 GPa.

  19. 2011 Japan tsunami survivor video based hydrograph and flow velocity measurements using LiDAR (United States)

    Fritz, H. M.; Phillips, D. A.; Okayasu, A.; Shimozono, T.; Liu, H.; Mohammed, F.; Skanavis, V.; Synolakis, C. E.; Takahashi, T.


    On March 11, 2011, a magnitude Mw 9.0 earthquake occurred off the coast of Japan's Tohoku region causing catastrophic damage and loss of life. Numerous tsunami reconnaissance trips were conducted in Japan (Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami Joint Survey Group). This report focuses on the surveys at 9 tsunami eyewitness video recording locations in Yoriisohama, Kesennuma, Kamaishi and Miyako along Japan's Sanriku coast and the subsequent video image calibration, processing, tsunami hydrograph and flow velocity analysis. Selected tsunami video recording sites were visited, eyewitnesses interviewed and some ground control points recorded during the initial tsunami reconnaissance from April 9 to 25. A follow-up survey from June 9 to 15, 2011 focused on terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) at locations with previously identified high quality eyewitness videos. We acquired precise topographic data using TLS at nine video sites with multiple scans acquired from different instrument positions at each site. These ground-based LiDAR measurements produce a 3-dimensional "point cloud" dataset. Digital photography from a scanner-mounted camera yields photorealistic 3D images. Integrated GPS measurements allow accurate georeferencing of the TLS data in an absolute reference frame such as WGS84. We deployed a Riegl VZ-400 scanner (1550 nm wavelength laser, 42,000 measurements/second, requires the calibration of the sector of view present in the eyewitness video recording based on visually identifiable ground control points measured in the LiDAR point cloud data. In a second step the video image motion induced by the panning of the video camera was determined from subsequent raw color images by means of planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) applied to fixed objects in the field of view. The third step involves the transformation of the raw tsunami video images from image coordinates to world coordinates. The mapping from video frame to real world coordinates follows the direct linear

  20. 2011 Japan tsunami current and flow velocity measurements from survivor videos using LiDAR (United States)

    Fritz, H. M.; Phillips, D. A.; Okayasu, A.; Shimozono, T.; Liu, H.; Mohammed, F.; Skanavis, V.; Synolakis, C.; Takahashi, T.


    On March 11, 2011, a magnitude Mw 9.0 earthquake occurred off the coast of Japan's Tohoku region causing catastrophic damage and loss of life. Numerous tsunami reconnaissance trips were conducted in Japan (Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami Joint Survey Group). This report focuses on the surveys at 9 tsunami eyewitness video recording locations in Yoriisohama, Kesennuma, Kamaishi and Miyako along Japan's Sanriku coast and the subsequent video image calibration, processing and tsunami flow velocity analysis. Selected tsunami video recording sites were visited, eyewitnesses interviewed and some ground control points recorded during the initial tsunami reconnaissance from April 9 to 25. A follow-up survey from June 9 to 15, 2011 focused on terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) at locations with previously identified high quality eyewitness videos. We acquired precise topographic data using TLS at nine video sites with multiple scans acquired from different instrument positions at each site. These ground-based LiDAR measurements produce a 3-dimensional "point cloud" dataset. Digital photography from a scanner-mounted camera yields photorealistic 3D images. Integrated GPS measurements allow accurate georeferencing of the TLS data in an absolute reference frame such as WGS84. We deployed a Riegl VZ-400 scanner (1550 nm wavelength laser, 42,000 measurements/second, requires the calibration of the sector of view present in the eyewitness video recording based on visually identifiable ground control points measured in the LiDAR point cloud data. In a second step the video image motion induced by the panning of the video camera was determined from subsequent raw color images by means of planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) applied to fixed objects in the field of view. The third step involves the transformation of the raw tsunami video images from image coordinates to world coordinates. The mapping from video frame to real world coordinates follows the direct linear transformation

  1. From Surface Flow Velocity Measurements to Discharge Assessment by the Entropy Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Moramarco


    Full Text Available A new methodology for estimating the discharge starting from the monitoring of surface flow velocity, usurf, is proposed. The approach, based on the entropy theory, involves the actual location of maximum flow velocity, umax, which may occur below the water surface (dip phenomena, affecting the shape of velocity profile. The method identifies the two-dimensional velocity distribution in the cross-sectional flow area, just sampling usurf and applying an iterative procedure to estimate both the dip and umax. Five gage sites, for which a large velocity dataset is available, are used as a case study. Results show that the method is accurate in simulating the depth-averaged velocities along the verticals and the mean flow velocity with an error, on average, lower than 12% and 6%, respectively. The comparison with the velocity index method for the estimation of the mean flow velocity using the measured usurf, demonstrates that the method proposed here is more accurate mainly for rivers with a lower aspect ratio where secondary currents are expected. Moreover, the dip assessment is found more representative of the actual location of maximum flow velocity with respect to the one estimated by a different entropy approach. In terms of discharge, the errors do not exceed 3% for high floods, showing the good potentiality of the method to be used for the monitoring of these events.

  2. A Fabry-Perot interferometer system for high-speed velocity measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Bruinsma, A.J.A.; Prinse, W.C.; Smorenburg, C.


    The Fabry-Perot Velocity Interferometer System (F-PVIS) is designed and built for measuring the Doppler shift of light by recording positional changes in the interferometric pattern behind the Fabry-Perot interferometer. The velocity of a surface can be deduced from the Doppler shift which is caused

  3. Validation of Doppler ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging velocity measurements by means of a test object

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostayen, J.A. van; Bezemer, R.A.; Wasser, M.N.J.M.; Teirlinck, C.J.P.M.


    Objective: To validate Doppler ultrasound and MRI mean velocity measurements in a test object in which mean velocities are known and can be chosen within a range of 10-100 cm/s in tubes of 4 and 8 mm. This validation was carried out to check the performance of a duplex Doppler ultrasound system that

  4. Using Smartphone Pressure Sensors to Measure Vertical Velocities of Elevators, Stairways, and Drones (United States)

    Monteiro, Martín; Martí, Arturo C.


    We measure the vertical velocities of elevators, pedestrians climbing stairs, and drones (flying unmanned aerial vehicles), by means of smartphone pressure sensors. The barometric pressure obtained with the smartphone is related to the altitude of the device via the hydrostatic approximation. From the altitude values, vertical velocities are…

  5. Non-collinear wave mixing for a bulk wave phase velocity measurement in an isotropic solid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demcenko, A.


    A measurement method is presented to estimate the bulk wave phase velocity in an isotropic solid when longitudinal or shear wave velocity is known. This method is based on the non-collinear plane wave interaction theory and it does not need to estimate the phase time-of-flight and wave propagation

  6. Smart Laser Interferometer with Electrically Tunable Lenses for Flow Velocity Measurements through Disturbing Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen W. Czarske


    Full Text Available Interferometric velocity measurements are of great importance at flow investigations. However, the laser beams can be distorted at the interfaces between optical media of different refractive indices. Temporal fluctuations of these distortions will cause a deterioration of the laser interferometer signals. We have harnessed the power of programmable photonics devices to eliminate this signal deterioration. Non-invasive flow velocity measurements through a rapidly fluctuating media interface with large strokes of about 100 microns are presented. Our work represents a paradigm shift for interferometric velocity measurement techniques from using static to dynamic optical elements.

  7. Ultrasonic measurements of the bulk flow field in foams (United States)

    Nauber, Richard; Büttner, Lars; Eckert, Kerstin; Fröhlich, Jochen; Czarske, Jürgen; Heitkam, Sascha


    The flow field of moving foams is relevant for basic research and for the optimization of industrial processes such as froth flotation. However, no adequate measurement technique exists for the local velocity distribution inside the foam bulk. We have investigated the ultrasound Doppler velocimetry (UDV), providing the first two-dimensional, non-invasive velocity measurement technique with an adequate spatial (10 mm ) and temporal resolution (2.5 Hz ) that is applicable to medium scale foam flows. The measurement object is dry aqueous foam flowing upward in a rectangular channel. An array of ultrasound transducers is mounted within the channel, sending pulses along the main flow axis, and receiving echoes from the foam bulk. This results in a temporally and spatially resolved, planar velocity field up to a measurement depth of 200 mm , which is approximately one order of magnitude larger than those of optical techniques. A comparison with optical reference measurements of the surface velocity of the foam allows to validate the UDV results. At 2.5 Hz frame rate an uncertainty below 15 percent and an axial spatial resolution better than 10 mm is found. Therefore, UDV is a suitable tool for monitoring of industrial processes as well as the scientific investigation of three-dimensional foam flows on medium scales.

  8. Mathematical Modeling of Temperature and Velocity Fields in a Closed-Type Sloped Greenhouse


    関, 平和; 木村, 達郎; 宮本, 暁人; 菅谷, 博; 佐々木, 華織; 猪之奥, 康治


    A mathematical model was developed for predicting air temperature, humidity and velocity fields in a closed-type sloped greenhouse. Calculated results of air temperature profile along the slope agreed well with the experimental results except in the daytime when the air temperature was high, and it seemed that the model would be useful for environment analysis in the sloped greenhouse. This model would be better if three-dimensional heat flow had been taken into account in the daytime. Both t...

  9. Laser induced fluorescence measurements of axial velocity, velocity shear, and parallel ion temperature profiles during the route to plasma turbulence in a linear magnetized plasma device (United States)

    Chakraborty Thakur, S.; Adriany, K.; Gosselin, J. J.; McKee, J.; Scime, E. E.; Sears, S. H.; Tynan, G. R.


    We report experimental measurements of the axial plasma flow and the parallel ion temperature in a magnetized linear plasma device. We used laser induced fluorescence to measure Doppler resolved ion velocity distribution functions in argon plasma to obtain spatially resolved axial velocities and parallel ion temperatures. We also show changes in the parallel velocity profiles during the transition from resistive drift wave dominated plasma to a state of weak turbulence driven by multiple plasma instabilities.

  10. Improved flow velocity estmates from oving-boat ADCO measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Sassi, M.G.; Hoitink, A.J.F.


    Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) are the current standard for flow measurements in large-scale open water systems. Existing techniques to process vessel-mounted ADCP data assume homogeneous or linearly changing flow between the acoustic beams. This assumption is likely to fail but is

  11. Improved flow velocity estimates from moving-boat ADCP measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Sassi, M.G.


    Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) are the current standard for flow measurements in large-scale open water systems. Existing techniques to process vessel-mounted ADCP data assume homogeneous or linearly changing flow between the acoustic beams. This assumption is likely to fail but is

  12. Velocity and Vorticity Fields of a Turbulent Plume under different experimental conditions (United States)

    Matulka, A. M.; Gonzalez-Nieto, P. L.; Redondo, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.


    The geophysical and practical importance and the applications of turbulent plumes as generators of strong dispersion processes are clearly recognized. In geophysics and astrophysics, it is usual to model as a jet or plume the generation mechanism of turbulent mixing as a part of a dispersion process [1-3]. An interesting geophysical problem is the study of volcanic plumes [2], which are columns of hot volcanic ash and gas emitted into the atmosphere during an explosive volcanic eruption. Another interesting like-plume phenomenon can be observed where a stream, usually a river, empties into a lake, sea or ocean, generating a river plume [3,4]. Turbulent plumes are fluid motions whose primary source of kinetic energy and momentum flux is due to body forces that arise from density inhomogeneities. The plume boundary acts as an interface across which ambient fluid is entrained, and the plume boundary moves at the velocity of the plume fluid. The difference between the plume-fluid radial velocity and the total fluid velocity quantifies in a natural way the purely horizontal entrainment flux of ambient fluid into the plume across the phase boundary at the plume edge [5,6]. We show some results of research on a single turbulent plume as well as on the structure of the interaction between different plumes and jets, We measure and compare velocity and vorticity fields occurring in different experimental configurations (Parametrized by the Atwood number and the initial potential energy as well as the Plume-Jet length scale). This work is based on experiments that have been performed in GFD laboratories (IPD and UPC) using visualizations methods (LIF,PIV) and advanced multiscaling techniques. We calculate velocity and vorticity PDFs and the evolution of the structure of stratified decaying, with DigFlow and Imacalc programs (Matulka 2010)[7], where video sequence processing provides a range of global and local descriptor features designed specifically for analysing fluid

  13. Steady and Unsteady Velocity Measurements in a Small Turbocharger Turbine with Computational Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamanis, N [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London SW7 2BX (United Kingdom); Palfreyman, D [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London SW7 2BX (United Kingdom); Arcoumanis, C [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Martinez-Botas, R F [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London SW7 2BX (United Kingdom)


    comparison was made to experiment performance and LDV measurements. With the steady inlet boundary condition, a high level of accuracy was achieved when compared to the experimental performance and velocity field. The velocity along the leading edge showed the same discrepancy as the single passage analysis that is with the radial and axial component from mid span to the blade tip. At the trailing edge features identified in the experimental data are identified in the numerical results; the velocity field appears more 'diffused' across the plane as per the experimental data than from the single passage analysis. With the pulsating inlet boundary, the predicted velocity traces in the volute and close to the turbine lead and trailing edge show excellent agreement in both form (against time) and magnitude.

  14. An elutriation device to measure particle settling velocity in urban runoff. (United States)

    Hettler, Eric N; Gulliver, John S; Kayhanian, Masoud


    Urban runoff is primarily treated by settling particles. One important parameter in the design of these settling basins is particle settling velocity. Yet, this parameter is rarely measured. A modified elutriation device is developed to measure particle settling velocity distribution for use in stormwater runoff treatment design and performance evaluation. The elutriation device has distinct advantages over settling column measurement, including (1) less time requirement to make measurements, and (2) flexibility to operate at various flow rates to cover wide ranges of particle settling velocity. Major modifications of the existing elutriation devices include using a variable speed pump, changing the glass column to plastic, and adding screens at the flow inlet for more uniform velocity distribution while making the column shorter. The results of the experiments showed that the particles retained in each column of the modified elutriation device could be predicted by assuming a fully-developed, laminar velocity profile across the cross-section of each column. Operation of the device under two flow rates and multiple columns increased the range of settling velocities measured. The information presented in this paper may be used to develop standard protocols for the evaluation of particle settling velocity in stormwater. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors controlling the field settling velocity of cohesive sediment in estuaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejrup, Morten; Mikkelsen, Ole


    this paper expressed as the root mean square [rms] velocity gradient, [G]) in the water on the W-50 in situ. There is a strong need to establish algorithms based on in situ measurements describing the dual impact of both SSC and G on the flocculation process, and hence, W-50. The present paper addresses......It has long been recognized that the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is one of the major determinants for the flocculation of cohesive particles into sediment flocs in estuaries. It is furthermore well known that the turbulent shear of the water significantly influences the flocculation...... process and the equilibrium settling velocity of flocculated sediment in a turbulent flow. A vast number of authors have reported algorithms relating the median settling velocity (W-50) to suspended sediment concentration. However, only a few studies have dealt with the impact of the turbulent shear (in...

  16. Non-Gaussian Statistics and Stellar Rotational Velocities of Main-Sequence Field Stars (United States)

    Carvalho, J. C.; do Nascimento, J. D.; Silva, R.; DeMedeiros, J. R.


    In this Letter, we study the observed distributions of rotational velocity in a sample of more than 16,000 nearby F and G dwarf stars, magnitude complete, and presenting high-precision Vsin i measurements. We show that the velocity distributions cannot be fitted by a Maxwellian. In addition, an analysis based on both Tsallis and Kaniadakis power-law statistics is by far the most appropriate statistics and gives a very good fit. It is also shown that single and binary stars have similar rotational distributions. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that these two new statistics have been tested for the rotation of such a large sample of stars, pointing solidly to a solution of the puzzling problem of the function governing the distribution of stellar rotational velocity.

  17. A photoelectric technique for measuring lightning-channel propagation velocities from a mobile laboratory (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Rust, W. David


    The present device for lightning channel propagation-velocity determination employs eight photodetectors mounted behind precision horizontal slits in the focal plane of a photographic camera lens. The eight photodetector pulses, IRIG-B time, and slow and fast electric field-change waveforms are recorded on a 14-track analog tape recorder. A comparison of the present results with those obtained by a streaking camera shows no significant differences between the velocities obtained from the same strokes with the two systems; neither is there any difference in pulse characteristics or in the velocities calculated from them.

  18. MEaSUREs Greenland Ice Sheet Velocity Map from InSAR Data V001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program, provides annual ice-sheet-wide velocity maps...

  19. MEaSUREs Multi-year Greenland Ice Sheet Velocity Mosaic, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program, contains a multi-year ice-sheet-wide velocity...

  20. MEaSUREs Greenland Annual Ice Sheet Velocity Mosaics from SAR and Landsat, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program, contains annual ice velocity mosaics for the...

  1. MEaSUREs Greenland Ice Sheet Velocity Map from InSAR Data (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, part of the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program, provides annual ice-sheet-wide velocity maps...

  2. Repeating firing fields of CA1 neurons shift forward in response to increasing angular velocity. (United States)

    Cowen, Stephen L; Nitz, Douglas A


    Self-motion information influences spatially-specific firing patterns exhibited by hippocampal neurons. Moreover, these firing patterns can repeat across similar subsegments of an environment, provided that there is similarity of path shape and head orientations across subsegments. The influence of self-motion variables on repeating fields remains to be determined. To investigate the role of path shape and angular rotation on hippocampal activity, we recorded the activity of CA1 neurons from rats trained to run on spiral-shaped tracks. During inbound traversals of circular-spiral tracks, angular velocity increases continuously. Under this condition, most neurons (74%) exhibited repeating fields across at least three adjacent loops. Of these neurons, 86% exhibited forward shifts in the angles of field centers relative to centers on preceding loops. Shifts were absent on squared-spiral tracks, minimal and less reliable on concentric-circle tracks, and absent on outward-bound runs on circular-spiral tracks. However, outward-bound runs on the circular-spiral track in the dark were associated with backward shifts. Together, the most parsimonious interpretation of the results is that continuous increases or decreases in angular velocity are particularly effective at shifting the center of mass of repeating fields, although it is also possible that a nonlinear integration of step counts contributes to the shift. Furthermore, the unexpected absence of field shifts during outward journeys in light (but not darkness) suggests visual cues around the goal location anchored the map of space to an allocentric reference frame.

  3. Water Velocity Measurements on a Vertical Barrier Screen at the Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, James S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark A.; Martinez, Jayson J.; Yuan, Yong


    Fish screens at hydroelectric dams help to protect rearing and migrating fish by preventing them from passing through the turbines and directing them towards the bypass channels by providing a sweeping flow parallel to the screen. However, fish screens may actually be harmful to fish if they become impinged on the surface of the screen or become disoriented due to poor flow conditions near the screen. Recent modifications to the vertical barrier screens (VBS) at the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse (B2) intended to increase the guidance of juvenile salmonids into the juvenile bypass system (JBS) have resulted in high mortality and descaling rates of hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon during the 2008 juvenile salmonid passage season. To investigate the potential cause of the high mortality and descaling rates, an in situ water velocity measurement study was conducted using acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADV) in the gatewell slot at Units 12A and 14A of B2. From the measurements collected the average approach velocity, sweep velocity, and the root mean square (RMS) value of the velocity fluctuations were calculated. The approach velocities measured across the face of the VBS varied but were mostly less than 0.3 m/s. The sweep velocities also showed large variances across the face of the VBS with most measurements being less than 1.5 m/s. This study revealed that the approach velocities exceeded criteria recommended by NOAA Fisheries and Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife intended to improve fish passage conditions.

  4. Coherent Doppler Lidar for Measuring Velocity and Altitude of Space and Arial Vehicles (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Pierrottet, Diego; Hines, Glenn D.; Petway, Larry; Barnes, Bruce W.


    A coherent Doppler lidar has been developed to support future NASA missions to planetary bodies. The lidar transmits three laser beams and measures line-of-sight range and velocity along each beam using a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) technique. Accurate altitude and velocity vector data, derived from the line-of-sight measurements, enables the landing vehicle to precisely navigate from several kilometers above the ground to the designated location and execute a gentle touchdown. The same lidar sensor can also benefit terrestrial applications that cannot rely on GPS or require surface-relative altitude and velocity data.

  5. Measuring Ultrasonic Acoustic Velocity in a Thin Sheet of Graphite Epoxy Composite (United States)


    A method for measuring the acoustic velocity in a thin sheet of a graphite epoxy composite (GEC) material was investigated. This method uses two identical acoustic-emission (AE) sensors, one to transmit and one to receive. The delay time as a function of distance between sensors determines a bulk velocity. A lightweight fixture (balsa wood in the current implementation) provides a consistent method of positioning the sensors, thus providing multiple measurements of the time delay between sensors at different known distances. A linear fit to separation, x, versus delay time, t, will yield an estimate of the velocity from the slope of the line.

  6. Integration of Dense Velocity Fields in the ITRF: Quantification and Mitigation of Inconsistencies Between Individual Solutions (United States)

    Legrand, Juliette; Bruyninx, Carine; Saria, Elifuraha; Griffiths, Jake; Craymer, Michael; Dawson, John; Kenyeres, Ambrus; Santamaría-Gómez, Alvaro; Sanchez, Laura; Altamimi, Zuheir


    The objective of the IAG Working Group "Integration of Dense Velocity Fields in the ITRF" is to provide a GNSS-based dense, unified and reliable velocity field globally referenced in the ITRF (International Terrestrial Reference Frame) and useful for geodynamical and geophysical interpretations. The WG is embedded in IAG Sub-Commission 1.3 "Regional Reference Frames" where it coexists with the Regional Reference Frame Sub-Commissions AFREF (Africa), APREF (Asia & Pacific), EUREF (Europe), NAREF (North America), SCAR (Antarctica), SIRGAS (Latin America & Caribbean). These IAG Regional Reference Frame sub-commissions are responsible for providing GNSS-based densified weekly solutions for their region. In addition, the ULR consortium is also a contributor to the WG. To obtain such a densified velocity field, the WG will combine the individual weekly solutions from different contributors and then stack these weekly combined solutions in order to derive a cumulative position and velocity solution as well as the associated residual position time series. The preliminary weekly combinations include 8 individual solutions (AFREF, APREF, EUREF, NAREF (NGS, GSB), SIRGAS, IGS, ULR) and contain about two thousand stations in addition to the ITRF2008. The agreement between the solutions is promising and leads to weekly RMS ranging from 2 to 8 mm. However, this agreement is presently limited by inconsistencies at the modeling and meta data level: 1) the meta data need to be verified as systematic biases occur, probably due to wrong antenna eccentricities and 2) different antenna calibration models have been used by the contributors: some solutions use igs08.atx, while others use igs05.atx or even individual calibrations. In addition, an optimal rescaling of the covariance matrices during the weekly combination is still under investigation. This poster will focus on the quantification and, if possible, the mitigation of these inconsistencies and on the improvement of the

  7. IGS Working Group "Regional Dense Velocity Fields": Objectives and Work Plan (United States)

    Bruyninx, C.; Altamimi, Z.; Becker, M.; Craymer, M.; Combrinck, L.; Combrink, A.; Fernandes, R.; Govind, R.; Herring, T.; Kenyeres, A.; King, B.; Kreemer, C.; Lavallee, D.; Legrand, J.; Moore, M.; Sanchez, L.; Sella, G.; Woppelmann, G.


    The IAG Working Group (WG) on "Regional Dense Velocity Fields" was created within IAG sub-commission 1.3 "Regional Reference Frames" at the IUGG General Assembly in Perugia in 2007. The goal of the Working Group is to densify the latest realization of the ITRS and provide regional dense velocity information in a common global reference frame. For that purpose, working group members join efforts with the regional sub-commissions (AFREF, NAREF, SIRGAS, EUREF, ·s ) and analysis groups processing data from local/regional continuous and episodic GNSS stations. In a first step, dedicated region coordinators will gather as many as possible velocity solutions for their region (in accordance with the WG requirements) and combine these solutions with the sub-commission regional solutions to produce a regional cumulative combined solution in the SINEX format. In a second step, combination coordinators will perform combinations of the regional SINEX submissions and SINEX solutions from global GNSS networks like e.g. TIGA. The purpose of multiple combination coordinators is to evaluate both the results and different approaches. To assist in this task regional coordinators will solicit discontinuity tables in addition to the weekly SINEX solutions. At the same time, the WG will also study the strengths and shortcomings of local/regional and continuous/episodic GNSS solutions to determine site velocities, and define optimal strategies for the combination of regional and global SINEX solutions.

  8. Measurement of Flow Velocity and Inference of Liquid Viscosity in a Microfluidic Channel by Fluorescence Photobleaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Nick J.; Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Parsa, Shima


    We present a simple, noninvasive method for simultaneous measurement of flow velocity and inference of liquid viscosity in a microfluidic channel. We track the dynamics of a sharp front of photobleached fluorescent dye using a confocal microscope and measure the intensity at a single point...... theological properties of the liquid. This technique provides a simple method for simultaneous elucidation of flow velocity and liquid viscosity in microchannels....

  9. Precise measurement of velocity dependent friction in rotational motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Junaid; Hassan, Hafsa; Shamim, Sohaib; Mahmood, Waqas; Anwar, Muhammad Sabieh, E-mail: [School of Science and Engineering, Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS), Opposite Sector U, D.H.A, Lahore 54792 (Pakistan)


    Frictional losses are experimentally determined for a uniform circular disc exhibiting rotational motion. The clockwise and anticlockwise rotations of the disc, that result when a hanger tied to a thread is released from a certain height, give rise to vertical oscillations of the hanger as the thread winds and unwinds over a pulley attached to the disc. It is thus observed how the maximum height is achieved by the hanger decrements in every bounce. From the decrements, the rotational frictional losses are measured. The precision is enhanced by correlating vertical motion with the angular motion. This method leads to a substantial improvement in precision. Furthermore, the frictional torque is shown to be proportional to the angular speed. The experiment has been successfully employed in the undergraduate lab setting.

  10. Volumetric Velocity Measurements of Pulsating Flow through a Model Aneurysm (United States)

    Troolin, Daniel; Amatya, Devesh; Longmire, Ellen


    Volumetric 3-component velocimetry (V3V) was used to examine the flow structure inside of a scaled-up transparent urethane model of a saccular aneurysm. The model was fabricated to match the geometry of an in vivo case. Index matching was used to minimize optical distortions caused by the curved walls of the model. The model and a surrounding visualization box were integrated into a custom-built pulse duplicator system with in-line flow meter and pressure transducers. The pulsing frequency and amplitude were controlled independently to generate two flow conditions each having a non-dimensional peak Reynolds (Re) and Womersley (Wo) Number: Re = 250, Wo = 10.4 and Re = 125, Wo = 7.4. Phase-locked and instantaneous measurements of the pulsatile flow upstream, downstream, and within the aneurysm reveal significant three-dimensional features including zones of separation, recirculation, impingement, and relative inactivity. Plots and movies will be shown, and a detailed discussion of the flow and various experimental considerations will be included.

  11. Penetrative convection in stratified fluids: velocity and temperature measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moroni


    Full Text Available The flux through the interface between a mixing layer and a stable layer plays a fundamental role in characterizing and forecasting the quality of water in stratified lakes and in the oceans, and the quality of air in the atmosphere. The evolution of the mixing layer in a stably stratified fluid body is simulated in the laboratory when "Penetrative Convection" occurs. The laboratory model consists of a tank filled with water and subjected to heating from below. The methods employed to detect the mixing layer growth were thermocouples for temperature data and two image analysis techniques, namely Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF and Feature Tracking (FT. LIF allows the mixing layer evolution to be visualized. Feature Tracking is used to detect tracer particle trajectories moving within the measurement volume. Pollutant dispersion phenomena are naturally described in the Lagrangian approach as the pollutant acts as a tag of the fluid particles. The transilient matrix represents one of the possible tools available for quantifying particle dispersion during the evolution of the phenomenon.

  12. NGS2008-beta: A preliminary estimate of an update to the North America CORS velocity field (United States)

    Rohde, J. R.; Griffiths, J.; Cline, M.; Dulaney, R. L.; Hilla, S.; Kass, W. G.; Ray, J.; Sella, G.; Snay, R. A.


    The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) has reanalyzed the history of Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected by the North America network of about 1,625 Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS). The RINEX data have been reduced using the latest version of the PAGES software, resulting in a fully consistent, long-term set of station coordinates in a global framework. Station coordinate estimates are presented in weekly SINEX files, along with the full variance-covariance information. The goal for this paper is to assess the quality of the reprocessed time series and to present a preliminary estimate of the velocity field obtained by stacking the weekly SINEX files using the CATREF software from the Institut Géographique National. The stacking software works by aligning each weekly solution to the current IGS terrestrial frame, resulting in regularized coordinates and secular velocities for each CORS, and a time series of station coordinate residuals and Helmert transformation parameters. Analysis of the residuals and transformation parameters can yield useful information about the quality and consistency of the stacked solution. The completed velocity field from this reanalysis will provide the foundation for an update of the geometric component of the U.S. National Spatial Reference System (i.e., NAD83).

  13. Front-Crawl Instantaneous Velocity Estimation Using a Wearable Inertial Measurement Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiar Aminian


    Full Text Available Monitoring the performance is a crucial task for elite sports during both training and competition. Velocity is the key parameter of performance in swimming, but swimming performance evaluation remains immature due to the complexities of measurements in water. The purpose of this study is to use a single inertial measurement unit (IMU to estimate front crawl velocity. Thirty swimmers, equipped with an IMU on the sacrum, each performed four different velocity trials of 25 m in ascending order. A tethered speedometer was used as the velocity measurement reference. Deployment of biomechanical constraints of front crawl locomotion and change detection framework on acceleration signal paved the way for a drift-free integration of forward acceleration using IMU to estimate the swimmers velocity. A difference of 0.6 ± 5.4 cm·s−1 on mean cycle velocity and an RMS difference of 11.3 cm·s−1 in instantaneous velocity estimation were observed between IMU and the reference. The most important contribution of the study is a new practical tool for objective evaluation of swimming performance. A single body-worn IMU provides timely feedback for coaches and sport scientists without any complicated setup or restraining the swimmer’s natural technique.

  14. Front-crawl instantaneous velocity estimation using a wearable inertial measurement unit. (United States)

    Dadashi, Farzin; Crettenand, Florent; Millet, Grégoire P; Aminian, Kamiar


    Monitoring the performance is a crucial task for elite sports during both training and competition. Velocity is the key parameter of performance in swimming, but swimming performance evaluation remains immature due to the complexities of measurements in water. The purpose of this study is to use a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) to estimate front crawl velocity. Thirty swimmers, equipped with an IMU on the sacrum, each performed four different velocity trials of 25 m in ascending order. A tethered speedometer was used as the velocity measurement reference. Deployment of biomechanical constraints of front crawl locomotion and change detection framework on acceleration signal paved the way for a drift-free integration of forward acceleration using IMU to estimate the swimmers velocity. A difference of 0.6 ± 5.4 cm · s(-1) on mean cycle velocity and an RMS difference of 11.3 cm · s(-1) in instantaneous velocity estimation were observed between IMU and the reference. The most important contribution of the study is a new practical tool for objective evaluation of swimming performance. A single body-worn IMU provides timely feedback for coaches and sport scientists without any complicated setup or restraining the swimmer's natural technique.

  15. Diode Laser Velocity Measurements by Modulated Filtered Rayleigh Scattering (United States)

    Mach, J. J.; Varghese, P. L.; Jagodzinski, J. J.


    The ability of solid-state lasers to be tuned in operating frequency at MHz rates by input current modulation, while maintaining a relatively narrow line-width, has made them useful for spectroscopic measurements. Their other advantages include low cost, reliability, durability, compact size, and modest power requirements, making them a good choice for a laser source in micro-gravity experiments in drop-towers and in flight. For their size, they are also very bright. In a filtered Rayleigh scattering (FRS) experiment, a diode laser can be used to scan across an atomic or molecular absorption line, generating large changes in transmission at the resonances for very small changes in frequency. The hyperfine structure components of atomic lines of alkali metal vapors are closely spaced and very strong, which makes such atomic filters excellent candidates for sensitive Doppler shift detection and therefore for high-resolution velocimetry. In the work we describe here we use a Rubidium vapor filter, and work with the strong D(sub 2) transitions at 780 nm that are conveniently accessed by near infrared diode lasers. The low power output of infrared laser diodes is their primary drawback relative to other laser systems commonly used for velocimetry. However, the capability to modulate the laser frequency rapidly and continuously helps mitigate this. Using modulation spectroscopy and a heterodyne detection scheme with a lock-in amplifier, one can extract sub-microvolt signals occurring at a specific frequency from a background that is orders of magnitude stronger. The diode laser modulation is simply achieved by adding a small current modulation to the laser bias current. It may also be swept repetitively in wavelength using an additional lower frequency current ramp.

  16. Validity of a Simple Method for Measuring Force-Velocity-Power Profile in Countermovement Jump. (United States)

    Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Samozino, Pierre; Pareja-Blanco, Fernando; Conceição, Filipe; Cuadrado-Peñafiel, Víctor; González-Badillo, Juan José; Morin, Jean-Benoît


    To analyze the reliability and validity of a simple computation method to evaluate force (F), velocity (v), and power (P) output during a countermovement jump (CMJ) suitable for use in field conditions and to verify the validity of this computation method to compute the CMJ force-velocity (F-v) profile (including unloaded and loaded jumps) in trained athletes. Sixteen high-level male sprinters and jumpers performed maximal CMJs under 6 different load conditions (0-87 kg). A force plate sampling at 1000 Hz was used to record vertical ground-reaction force and derive vertical-displacement data during CMJ trials. For each condition, mean F, v, and P of the push-off phase were determined from both force-plate data (reference method) and simple computation measures based on body mass, jump height (from flight time), and push-off distance and used to establish the linear F-v relationship for each individual. Mean absolute bias values were 0.9% (± 1.6%), 4.7% (± 6.2%), 3.7% (± 4.8%), and 5% (± 6.8%) for F, v, P, and slope of the F-v relationship (SFv), respectively. Both methods showed high correlations for F-v-profile-related variables (r = .985-.991). Finally, all variables computed from the simple method showed high reliability, with ICC >.980 and CV power, and F-v profiles in athletes and could be used in practice under field conditions when body mass, push-off distance, and jump height are known.

  17. Numerical simulation of velocity and temperature fields in natural circulation loop (United States)

    Sukomel, L. A.; Kaban’kov, O. N.


    Low flow natural circulation regimes are realized in many practical applications and the existence of the reliable engineering and design calculation methods of flows driven exclusively by buoyancy forces is an actual problem. In particular it is important for the analysis of start up regimes of passive safety systems of nuclear power plants. In spite of a long year investigations of natural circulation loops no suitable predicting recommendations for heat transfer and friction for the above regimes have been proposed for engineering practice and correlations for forced flow are commonly used which considerably overpredicts the real flow velocities. The 2D numerical simulation of velocity and temperature fields in circular tubes for laminar flow natural circulation with reference to the laboratory experimental loop has been carried out. The results were compared with the 1D modified model and experimental data obtained on the above loop. The 1D modified model was still based on forced flow correlations, but in these correlations the physical properties variability and the existence of thermal and hydrodynamic entrance regions are taken into account. The comparison of 2D simulation, 1D model calculations and the experimental data showed that even subject to influence of liquid properties variability and entrance regions on heat transfer and friction the use of 1D model with forced flow correlations do not improve the accuracy of calculations. In general, according to 2D numerical simulation the wall shear stresses are mainly affected by the change of wall velocity gradient due to practically continuous velocity profiles deformation along the whole heated zone. The form of velocity profiles and the extent of their deformation in its turn depend upon the wall heat flux density and the hydraulic diameter.

  18. Design and implementation of a hot-wire probe for simultaneous velocity and vorticity vector measurements in boundary layers (United States)

    Zimmerman, S.; Morrill-Winter, C.; Klewicki, J.


    A multi-sensor hot-wire probe for simultaneously measuring all three components of velocity and vorticity in boundary layers has been designed, fabricated and implemented in experiments up to large Reynolds numbers. The probe consists of eight hot-wires, compactly arranged in two pairs of orthogonal ×-wire arrays. The ×-wire sub-arrays are symmetrically configured such that the full velocity and vorticity vectors are resolved about a single central location. During its design phase, the capacity of this sensor to accurately measure each component of velocity and vorticity was first evaluated via a synthetic experiment in a set of well-resolved DNS fields. The synthetic experiments clarified probe geometry effects, allowed assessment of various processing schemes, and predicted the effects of finite wire length and wire separation on turbulence statistics. The probe was subsequently fabricated and employed in large Reynolds number experiments in the Flow Physics Facility wind tunnel at the University of New Hampshire. Comparisons of statistics from the actual probe with those from the simulated sensor exhibit very good agreement in trend, but with some differences in magnitude. These comparisons also reveal that the use of gradient information in processing the probe data can significantly improve the accuracy of the spanwise velocity measurement near the wall. To the authors' knowledge, the present are the largest Reynolds number laboratory-based measurements of all three vorticity components in boundary layers.

  19. Electromagnetic measurements in the near field

    CERN Document Server

    Bienkowski, Pawel


    This book is devoted to the specific problems of electromagnetic field (EMF) measurements in the near field and to the analysis of the main factors which impede accuracy in these measurements. It focuses on careful and accurate design of systems to measure in the near field based on a thorough understanding of the fundamental engineering principles and on an analysis of the likely system errors. Beginning with a short introduction to electromagnetic fields with an emphasis on the near field, it them presents methods of EMF measurements in near field conditions. It details the factors limiting

  20. Resolution potential of surface wave phase velocity measurements at small arrays (United States)

    Bodin, Thomas; Maupin, Valérie


    The deployment of temporary arrays of broadband seismological stations over dedicated targets is common practice. Measurement of surface wave phase velocity across a small array and its depth-inversion gives us information about the structure below the array which is complementary to the information obtained from body-wave analysis. The question is however: what do we actually measure when the array is much smaller than the wave length, and how does the measured phase velocity relates to the real structure below the array? We quantify this relationship by performing a series of numerical simulations of surface wave propagation in 3-D structures and by measuring the apparent phase velocity across the array on the synthetics. A principal conclusion is that heterogeneities located outside the array can map in a complex way onto the phase velocities measured by the array. In order to minimize this effect, it is necessary to have a large number of events and to average measurements from events well-distributed in backazimuth. A second observation is that the period of the wave has a remarkably small influence on the lateral resolution of the measurement, which is dominantly controlled by the size of the array. We analyse if the artefacts created by heterogeneities can be mistaken for azimuthal variations caused by anisotropy. We also show that if the amplitude of the surface waves can be measured precisely enough, phase velocities can be corrected and the artefacts which occur due to reflections and diffractions in 3-D structures greatly reduced.

  1. Measurements of solids concentration and axial solids velocity in gas-solid two-phase flows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwland, J.J.; Nieuwland, J.J.; Meijer, R.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria


    Several techniques reported in the literature for measuring solids concentration and solids velocity in (dense) gas-solid two-phase flow have been briefly reviewed. An optical measuring system, based on detection of light reflected by the suspended particles, has been developed to measure local

  2. Visual search tasks: measurement of dynamic visual lobe and relationship with display movement velocity. (United States)

    Yang, Lin-Dong; Yu, Rui-Feng; Lin, Xue-Lian; Xie, Ya-Qing; Ma, Liang


    Visual lobe is a useful tool for predicting visual search performance. Up till now, no study has focused on dynamic visual lobe. This study developed a dynamic visual lobe measurement system (DVLMS) that could effectively map dynamic visual lobe and calculate visual lobe shape indices. The effects of display movement velocity on lobe shape indices were examined under four velocity conditions: 0, 4, 8 and 16 deg/s. In general, with the increase of display movement velocity, visual lobe area and perimeter became smaller, whereas lobe shape roundness, boundary smoothness, symmetry and regularity deteriorated. The elongation index was not affected by velocity. Regression analyses indicated that display movement velocity was important in determining dynamic visual lobe shape indices. Dynamic visual lobe provides another option for better understanding dynamic vision, in addition to dynamic visual acuity. Findings of this study can provide guidelines for analysing and designing dynamic visual tasks. Practitioner Summary: Dynamic visual lobe is important in reflecting the visual ability of searching for a moving target. We developed a dynamic visual lobe measurement system (DVLMS) and examined display movement velocity's effects on lobe shape. Findings revealed that velocity was a key factor affecting dynamic visual lobe shape indices.

  3. Measurements of Terminal Velocities of Cirrus Clouds in the Upper Trosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nee Jan Bai


    Full Text Available Cirrus clouds are composed of ice crystals condensed from humidity due to low temperature condition in the upper atmosphere. The microphysics of cirrus clouds including sizes and shapes of ice particles are not well understood but are important in climate modeling. Ice crystal will fall under gravitational sedimentation to reach terminal velocities which depend on the size, mass, and ice habit. We studied here the terminal velocity of cirrus clouds by using lidar observations at Chungli (25N, 121E. The terminal velocities for a few cases of stable cirrus clouds are measured to determine the ice particle sizes and processes in the upper atmosphere.

  4. Measurement of velocity deficit at the downstream of a 1:10 axial hydrokinetic turbine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunawan, Budi [ORNL; Neary, Vincent S [ORNL; Hill, Craig [St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, 2 Third Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414; Chamorro, Leonardo [St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, 2 Third Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414


    Wake recovery constrains the downstream spacing and density of turbines that can be deployed in turbine farms and limits the amount of energy that can be produced at a hydrokinetic energy site. This study investigates the wake recovery at the downstream of a 1:10 axial flow turbine model using a pulse-to-pulse coherent Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP). In addition, turbine inflow and outflow velocities were measured for calculating the thrust on the turbine. The result shows that the depth-averaged longitudinal velocity recovers to 97% of the inflow velocity at 35 turbine diameter (D) downstream of the turbine.

  5. An experiment to measure the one-way velocity of propagation of electromagnetic radiation (United States)

    Kolen, P.; Torr, D. G.


    An experiment involving commercially available instrumentation to measure the velocity of the earth with respect to absolute space is described. The experiment involves the measurement of the one-way propagation velocity of electromagnetic radiation down a high-quality coaxial cable. It is demonstrated that the experiment is both physically meaningful and exceedingly simple in concept and in implementation. It is shown that with currently available commercial equipment one might expect to detect a threshold value for the component of velocity of the earth's motion with respect to absolute space in the equatorial plane of approximately 10 km/s, which greatly exceeds the velocity resolution required to detect the motion of the solar system with respect to the center of the galaxy.

  6. The Study on Flow Velocity Measurement of Antarctic Krill Trawl Model Experiment in North Bay of South China Sea (United States)

    Chen, Shuai; Wang, Lumin; Huang, Hongliang; Zhang, Xun


    From August 25 to 29, 2014, the project team carried out the experiment of Antarctic krill trawl in the Beihai Bay of the South China Sea. In order to understand the flow field of the network model in the course of the experiment, it is necessary to record the speed of the ship and to grasp the flow field of the ocean. Therefore, the ocean velocity is measured during the experiment. The flow rate in this experiment was measured using an acoustic Doppler flow meter (Vectoring Plus, Nortek, Norway). In order to compensate for the flow rate error caused by ship drift, the drift condition of the ship was also measured by the positioning device (Snapdragon MSM8274AB, Qualcomm, USA) used in the flow rate measurement. The results show that the actual velocity of the target sea area is in the range of 0.06-0.49 m / s and the direction is 216.17-351.70. And compared with the previous research, the influencing factors were analysed. This study proves that it is feasible to use point Doppler flow meter for velocity study in trawl model experiment.

  7. Adaptive flow-field measurements using digital holography (United States)

    Czarske, Jürgen W.; Koukourakis, Nektarios; Fregin, Bob; König, Jörg; Büttner, Lars


    Variations of the optical detection path-length in image correlation based flow-field measurements result in strong errors in position allocation and thus lead to a strong enhancement of the measurement uncertainty of the velocity. In this contribution we use digital holography to measure the wavefront distortion induced by fluctuating phase boundary, employing spatially extended guide stars. The measured phase information is used to correct the influence of the phase boundary in the detection path employing a spatial light modulator. We analyze the potential of guide stars that are reflected by the phase boundary, i.e. the Fresnel reflex, and transmitted. Our results show, that the usage of wavefront shaping enables to strongly reduce the measurement uncertainty and to strongly improve the quality of image correlation based flow-field measurements. The approaches presented here are not limited to application in flow measurement, but could be useful for a variety of applications.

  8. A new car-following model for autonomous vehicles flow with mean expected velocity field (United States)

    Wen-Xing, Zhu; Li-Dong, Zhang


    Due to the development of the modern scientific technology, autonomous vehicles may realize to connect with each other and share the information collected from each vehicle. An improved forward considering car-following model was proposed with mean expected velocity field to describe the autonomous vehicles flow behavior. The new model has three key parameters: adjustable sensitivity, strength factor and mean expected velocity field size. Two lemmas and one theorem were proven as criteria for judging the stability of homogeneousautonomous vehicles flow. Theoretical results show that the greater parameters means larger stability regions. A series of numerical simulations were carried out to check the stability and fundamental diagram of autonomous flow. From the numerical simulation results, the profiles, hysteresis loop and density waves of the autonomous vehicles flow were exhibited. The results show that with increased sensitivity, strength factor or field size the traffic jam was suppressed effectively which are well in accordance with the theoretical results. Moreover, the fundamental diagrams corresponding to three parameters respectively were obtained. It demonstrates that these parameters play almost the same role on traffic flux: i.e. before the critical density the bigger parameter is, the greater flux is and after the critical density, the opposite tendency is. In general, the three parameters have a great influence on the stability and jam state of the autonomous vehicles flow.

  9. The interseismic velocity field of the central Apennines from a dense GPS network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Galvani


    Full Text Available Since 1999, we have repeatedly surveyed the central Apennines through a dense survey-style geodetic network, the Central Apennines Geodetic Network (CAGeoNet. CAGeoNet consists of 123 benchmarks distributed over an area of ca. 180 km × 130 km, from the Tyrrhenian coast to the Adriatic coast, with an average inter-site distance of 3 km to 5 km. The network is positioned across the main seismogenic structures of the region that are capable of generating destructive earthquakes. Here, we show the horizontal GPS velocity field of both CAGeoNet and continuous GPS stations in this region, as estimated from the position–time series in the time span from 1999 to 2007. We analyzed the data using both the Bernese and GAMIT software, rigorously combining the two solutions to obtain a validated result. Then, we analyzed the strain-rate field, which shows a region of extension along the axis of the Apennine chain, with values from 2 × 10–9 yr–1 to 66·× 10–9 yr–1, and a relative minimum of ca. 20 × 10–9 yr–1 located in the L'Aquila basin area. Our velocity field represents an improved estimation of the ongoing elastic interseismic deformation of the central Apennines, and in particular relating to the area of the L'Aquila earthquake of April 6, 2009.

  10. Galaxy Transformation as probed by Morphology and Velocity Fields of Distant Cluster Galaxies (United States)

    Ziegler, Bodo


    We seek to obtain ACS imaging of four distant {0.3images. The velocity field and the morphology in restframe-UV light will reveal possible transformation mechanisms affecting not only the stellar populations but also the mass distribution of the galaxies. Additionally, it will be possible to pin down the nature of the interaction {e.g. tidally or ram-pressure induced}. This assessment gets supported by our N-body/SPH simulations {including star formation} of different interaction processes that allow the direct comparison of structural and kinematical characteristics at each time step with the observations on an individual basis taking into account all observational constraints for a given galaxy. All together, we will be able to explore the relative efficiency of the various proposed transformation phenomena. In the case of non-disturbed spirals, a rotation curve can be extracted from the full 2D velocity field with unprecedented quality, from which the maximum rotation speed can be derived with high confidence. In combination with accurate size and luminosity determinations from the ACS images, we will be able to establish the Tully-Fisher and Fundamental Plane relations of cluster spiral members at cosmological epochs. At these distances cluster assembly is predicted to peak and we can probe the galaxies' luminosity, size and mass evolution with robust methods. Together with our already existing sample of 200 distant {z<=1} spiral galaxies in the field, we will put strong constraints on current theories of galaxy formation and evolution in different environments.

  11. Measured Deformation Enhancement in Western Greenland Shows the Importance of Viscosity Reduction for Elevated Melt Season Velocities (United States)

    Maier, N. T.; Humphrey, N. F.; Harper, J. T.; Meierbachtol, T. W.


    There is increasing evidence that much of the bed on the Western Margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is hydrologically isolated during the melt season, making it necessary to understand how ice dynamics regulates basal flow between active and inactive regions of the bed. We present measurements of englacial shear strain rates collected by tilt sensors embedded in a boreholes approximately 670 m deep during the 2015 melt season at a field site on the Western Margin of the GrIS. The measurements demonstrate that shear strain rates during the melt season can increase by a factor of three. The increase in shear strain rates and deformation velocity is well correlated to the surface and basal sliding velocity measured at the field site. Coincident with the enhanced deformation, the effective stress calculated from the surficial strain rate tensor increases from approximately 70-160 kPa. During this period each stress component shows a high degree of variability. The magnitude and range of the effective stress is in agreement with the change in the effective stress necessary to produce the elevated strain rates observed englacially. This result demonstrates that spatially variable flow at the onset of the melt season can result in a significant decrease in the effective ice viscosity. The decrease in the effective ice viscosity is sufficient to increase the deformation velocity from approximately 20 to 40 ma-1. The increase in the deformation velocity is well correlated to the observed increase in basal sliding suggesting that ice softening may be an important mechanism to enhance basal flow in isolated regions of the bed. For a glacier on a hard bed, the rate of basal sliding is controlled by the rate at which the basal ice can deform around bedrock obstacles. In this context, a reduction in the effective viscosity can enhance the basal sliding velocity without a basal friction reduction through local changes in basal water pressure or water storage.

  12. Simultaneous Measurement of Ultrasonic Velocity and Thickness of Isotropic and Homogeneous Solids Using Two Transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Ki; Kwon, Jin O; Kim, Young H. [Korea Inspection and Engineering Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Ultrasonic pulse-echo methods measuring the transit time through specimens have been widely used in determination of ultrasonic velocity and thickness of specimens. Usually, to determine the velocity of the ultrasonic. Tthe transit time of the ultrasonic pulse through specimen is measured by using the ultrasonic measuring equipment such as the oscilloscope including ultrasonic pulser/receiver and the thickness of the specimen is measured by using the length measuring instrument such as micrometer or vernier calipers etc., i. e. each parameter is measured by using each measuring method. In the case of the measuring the thickness of a specimen by using the ultrasonics. the ultrasonic equipment, which measure the thickness, such as the ultrasonic thickness gauge must be calibrated by using the reference block of which the ultrasonic velocity is known beforehand. In the present work, we proposed a new method for simultaneous measurement of ultrasonic velocity and thickness without reference blocks. Experimental results for several specimens show that proposed method have good agreements with those by traditional ultrasonic method

  13. Green's function of a massless scalar field in curved space-time and superluminal phase velocity of the retarded potential (United States)

    Dai, De-Chang; Stojkovic, Dejan


    We study a retarded potential solution of a massless scalar field in curved space-time. In a special ansatz for a particle at rest whose magnitude of the (scalar) charge is changing with time, we found an exact analytic solution. The solution indicates that the phase velocity of the retarded potential of a nonmoving scalar charge is position-dependent and may easily be greater than the speed of light at a given point. In the case of the Schwarzschild space-time, at the horizon, the phase velocity becomes infinitely faster than the coordinate speed of light at that point. Superluminal phase velocity is a relatively common phenomenon, with the phase velocity of the massive Klein-Gordon field as the best known example. We discuss why it is possible to have modes with superluminal phase velocity even for a massless field.

  14. Velocity measurements using a single transmitted linear frequency-modulated chirp. (United States)

    Levy, Yoav; Azhari, Haim


    Velocity measurement is a challenge for a variety of remote sensing systems such as ultrasonic and radar scanners. However, current Doppler-based techniques require a comparatively long data acquisition time. It has been suggested to use coded signals, such as linear frequency-modulated signals (chirp), for ultrasonic velocity estimation by extracting the needed information from a set of several sequential coded pulses. In this study, a method for velocity estimation using a single linear frequency-modulated chirp transmission is presented and implemented for ultrasonic measurements. The complex cross-correlation function between the transmitted and reflected signals is initially calculated. The velocity is then calculated from the phase of the peak of the envelope of this cross-correlation function. The suggested method was verified using computer simulations and experimental measurements in an ultrasonic system. Applying linear regression to the data has yielded very good correlation (r = 0.989). With the suggested technique, higher frame rates of velocity mapping can be potentially achieved relative to current techniques. Also, the same data can be utilized for both velocity mapping and image reconstruction.

  15. Tuning the Fermi velocity in Dirac materials with an electric field. (United States)

    Díaz-Fernández, A; Chico, Leonor; González, J W; Domínguez-Adame, F


    Dirac materials are characterized by energy-momentum relations that resemble those of relativistic massless particles. Commonly denominated Dirac cones, these dispersion relations are considered to be their essential feature. These materials comprise quite diverse examples, such as graphene and topological insulators. Band-engineering techniques should aim to a full control of the parameter that characterizes the Dirac cones: the Fermi velocity. We propose a general mechanism that enables the fine-tuning of the Fermi velocity in Dirac materials in a readily accessible way for experiments. By embedding the sample in a uniform electric field, the Fermi velocity is substantially modified. We first prove this result analytically, for the surface states of a topological insulator/semiconductor interface, and postulate its universality in other Dirac materials. Then we check its correctness in carbon-based Dirac materials, namely graphene nanoribbons and nanotubes, thus showing the validity of our hypothesis in different Dirac systems by means of continuum, tight-binding and ab-initio calculations.

  16. Dilution and Mixing in transient velocity fields: a first-order analysis (United States)

    Di Dato, Mariaines; de Barros, Felipe, P. J.; Fiori, Aldo; Bellin, Alberto


    An appealing remediation technique is in situ oxidation, which effectiveness is hampered by difficulties in obtaining good mixing of the injected oxidant with the contaminant, particularly when the contaminant plume is contained and therefore its deformation is physically constrained. Under such conditions (i.e. containment), mixing may be augmented by inducing temporal fluctuations of the velocity field. The temporal variability of the flow field may increase the deformation of the plume such that diffusive mass flux becomes more effective. A transient periodic velocity field can be obtained by an engineered sequence of injections and extractions from wells, which may serve also as a hydraulic barrier to confine the plume. Assessing the effectiveness of periodic flows to maximize solute mixing is a difficult task given the need to use a 3D setup and the large number of possible flow configurations that should be analyzed in order to identify the optimal one. This is the typical situation in which analytical solutions, though approximated, may assist modelers in screening possible alternative flow configurations such that solute dilution is maximized. To quantify dilution (i.e. a precondition that enables reactive mixing) we utilize the concept of the dilution index [1]. In this presentation, the periodic flow takes place in an aquifer with spatially variable hydraulic conductivity field which is modeled as a Stationary Spatial Random Function. We developed a novel first-order analytical solution of the dilution index under the hypothesis that the flow can be approximated as a sequence of steady state configurations with the mean velocity changing with time in intensity and direction. This is equivalent to assume that the characteristic time of the transient behavior is small compared to the period characterizing the change in time of the mean velocity. A few closed paths have been analyzed quantifying their effectiveness in enhancing dilution and thereby mixing

  17. India plate angular velocity and contemporary deformation rates from continuous GPS measurements from 1996 to 2015. (United States)

    Jade, Sridevi; Shrungeshwara, T S; Kumar, Kireet; Choudhury, Pallabee; Dumka, Rakesh K; Bhu, Harsh


    We estimate a new angular velocity for the India plate and contemporary deformation rates in the plate interior and along its seismically active margins from Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from 1996 to 2015 at 70 continuous and 3 episodic stations. A new India-ITRF2008 angular velocity is estimated from 30 GPS sites, which include stations from western and eastern regions of the plate interior that were unrepresented or only sparsely sampled in previous studies. Our newly estimated India-ITRF2008 Euler pole is located significantly closer to the plate with ~3% higher angular velocity than all previous estimates and thus predicts more rapid variations in rates and directions along the plate boundaries. The 30 India plate GPS site velocities are well fit by the new angular velocity, with north and east RMS misfits of only 0.8 and 0.9 mm/yr, respectively. India fixed velocities suggest an approximate of 1-2 mm/yr intra-plate deformation that might be concentrated along regional dislocations, faults in Peninsular India, Kachchh and Indo-Gangetic plain. Relative to our newly-defined India plate frame of reference, the newly estimated velocities for 43 other GPS sites along the plate margins give insights into active deformation along India's seismically active northern and eastern boundaries.

  18. Bayesian Integrated Data Analysis of Fast-Ion Measurements by Velocity-Space Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, M.; Nocente, M.; Jacobsen, A.S.


    an overview and current status of this emerging technique at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak and the JET toamak based on fast-ion D-alpha spectroscopy, collective Thomson scattering, gamma-ray and neutron emission spectrometry, and neutral particle analyzers. We discuss Tikhonov regularization within the Bayesian......Bayesian integrated data analysis combines measurements from different diagnostics to jointly measure plasma parameters of interest such as temperatures, densities, and drift velocities. Integrated data analysis of fast-ion measurements has long been hampered by the complexity of the strongly non......-Maxwellian fast-ion distribution functions. This has recently been overcome by velocity-space tomography. In this method two-dimensional images of the velocity distribution functions consisting of a few hundreds or thousands of pixels are reconstructed using the available fast-ion measurements. Here we present...

  19. Velocity of sound measurements in gaseous per-fluorocarbons and their custom mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Vacek, V; Lindsay, S


    An inexpensive sonar instrument was prepared for measurements of sound velocity in two fluorocarbon vapors; per-fluoro-n-propane (C3F8), per-fluoro-n-butane (C4F10), and their custom mixtures. The apparatus, measurement principle and instrument software are described. All sound velocity measurements in per-fluorocarbons were made in the low pressure range between 0.01 and 0.4 MPa, and at temperatures between 253 and 303 K. The purity of the C3F8 and C4F10 samples was checked using gas chromatography. Uncertainties in the speed of sound measurements were better than ± 0.1 %. Comparisons were made with theoretical predictions of sound velocity for the two individual components. The instrument was then used for concentration monitoring of custom C3F8/C4F10 mixtures.

  20. Estimating a continuous p-wave velocity profile with constant squared-slowness gradient models from seismic field data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponomarenko, A.V.; Kashtan, B.M.; Troyan, V.N.; Mulder, W.A.


    We inverted seismic field data for a continuous, laterally invariant P-wave velocity profile. Instead of the usual approach that involves horizontal layers with piecewise constant densities and velocities, we consider models of one or two layers with a constant gradient of the squared slowness above

  1. Measurement of elastic modulus and ultrasonic wave velocity by piezoelectric resonator (United States)

    Erhart, Jiří


    A piezoelectric ceramic resonator is used for the ‘electrical’ measurement of elastic properties, i.e. Young’s modulus and ultrasonic wave velocity in metallic materials. Piezoelectric response is precisely calculated for the piezoelectric ceramic ring fixed at the end of a metallic rod. The piezoelectric ring serves as both an actuator as well as a sensor. The experimental setup and method of measurement using higher overtones is explained in detail and practically demonstrated for a set of different metallic materials. Young’s moduli and ultrasonic wave velocities are measured within 3% relative error. The presented method is suitable for an advanced engineering class or physics laboratory training.

  2. Measurement of the airflow velocity upstream and downstream a wire mesh using constant temperature anemometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizal Frantisek


    Full Text Available Measurement of velocity upstream and downstream a special wire mesh was performed to ascertain the effect of the mesh on the flow. The mesh consisted of two components, a basic rectangular mesh with mesh width 1.22 mm and wire diameter 0.2 mm, and a top steel wool with random position of wires and wire diameter 0.05 mm. The velocity was measured by Constant Temperature Anemometry using single wire probe in a Plexiglas channel of rectangular cross-section. As a first step, measurement of one horizontal and one vertical measuring line was performed 10 mm upstream and 6 mm downstream the wire mesh. A spatial velocity profile upstream of the wire mesh was smooth, while the downstream velocity profile was highly disturbed. However, velocity fluctuations expressed in terms of turbulence intensity downstream of the wire mesh were attenuated down to 1%. Further measurements of the area downstream the wire mesh will be performed to describe the development of the flow.

  3. Water Velocity Measurements on a Vertical Barrier Screen at the Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yuan


    Full Text Available Fish screens at hydroelectric dams help to protect rearing and migrating fish by preventing them from passing through the turbines and directing them towards the bypass channels by means of a sweeping flow parallel to the screen. However, fish screens may actually be harmful to fish if the fish become impinged on the surface of the screen or become disoriented due to poor flow conditions near the screen. Recent modifications to the vertical barrier screens (VBS in the gate wells at the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse (B2 were intended to increase the guidance of juvenile salmonids into the juvenile bypass system but have resulted in higher mortality and descaling rates of hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon during the 2008 juvenile salmonid passage season. To investigate the potential cause of the high mortality and descaling rates, an in situ water velocity measurement study was conducted using acoustic Doppler velocimeters in the gate well slots at turbine units 12A and 14A of B2. From the measurements collected, the average approach velocity, sweep velocity, and the root mean square value of the velocity fluctuations were calculated. The approach velocities measured across the face of the VBS were variable and typically less than 0.3 m/s, but fewer than 50% were less than or equal to 0.12 m/s. There was also large variance in sweep velocities across the face of the VBS with most measurements recorded at less than 1.5 m/s. Results of this study revealed that the approach velocities in the gate wells exceeded criteria intended to improve fish passage conditions that were recommended by National Marine Fisheries Service and the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife. The turbulence measured in the gate well may also result in suboptimal fish passage conditions but no established guidelines to contrast those results have been published.

  4. Field-effect transistor having a superlattice channel and high carrier velocities at high applied fields (United States)

    Chaffin, deceased, Roger J.; Dawson, Ralph; Fritz, Ian J.; Osbourn, Gordon C.; Zipperian, Thomas E.


    A field effect transistor comprises a semiconductor having a source, a drain, a channel and a gate in operational relationship. The semiconductor is a strained layer superlattice comprising alternating quantum well and barrier layers, the quantum well layers and barrier layers being selected from the group of layer pairs consisting of InGaAs/AlGaAs, InAs/InAlGaAs, and InAs/InAlAsP. The layer thicknesses of the quantum well and barrier layers are sufficiently thin that the alternating layers constitute a superlattice which has a superlattice conduction band energy level structure in k-vector space which includes a lowest energy .GAMMA.-valley and a next lowest energy L-valley, each k-vector corresponding to one of the orthogonal directions defined by the planes of said layers and the directions perpendicular thereto. The layer thicknesses of the quantum well layers are selected to provide a superlattice L.sub.2D -valley which has a shape which is substantially more two-dimensional than that of said bulk L-valley.

  5. Generation and measurement of velocity bunched ultrashort bunch of pC charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. H. Lu


    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the velocity compression in a short rf linac of an electron bunch from a rf photoinjector operated in the blowout regime. Particle tracking simulations shows that with a beam charge of 2 pC an ultrashort bunch duration of 16 fs can be obtained at a tight longitudinal focus downstream of the linac. A simplified coherent transition radiation (CTR spectrum method is developed to enable the measurement of ultrashort (sub-50 fs bunches at low bunch energy (5 MeV and low bunch charges (<10  pC. In this method, the ratio of the radiation energy selected by two narrow bandwidth filters is used to estimate the bunch length. The contribution to the coherent form factor of the large transverse size of the bunch suppresses the radiation signal significantly and is included in the analysis. The experiment was performed at the UCLA Pegasus photoinjector laboratory. The measurement results show bunches of sub-40 fs with 2 pC of charge well consistent with the simulation using actual experimental conditions. These results open the way to the generation of ultrashort bunches with time-duration below 10 fs once some of the limitations of the setup (rf phase jitter, amplitude instability and low field in the gun limited by breakdown are corrected.

  6. Three-dimensional sound intensity measurements using microflown particle velocity sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bree, H.E.; Druyvesteyn, W.F.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    This paper reports on a novel method to measure three-dimensional sound intensity and the fabrication of a miniature three-dimensional sound intensity probe. Verifying measurements where performed with three separate micro-machined particle velocity probes and one pressure microphone. A

  7. Simultaneous measurement of the species concentration, flow velocity, and temperature in a gas jet (United States)

    He, Q.; Glosemeyer, D.; Bennis, G. L.; Soltanolkotabi, M.; Gupta, R.


    Photothermal deflection spectroscopy has the potential of serving as an important diagnostic technique in combustion environments for measurements of species concentration, temperature, and flow velocity. We demonstrate, by application to a jet of N2 seeded with 0.5% NO2, that these three important parameters can be measured simultaneously, that is, in a single pulse.

  8. Total uncertainty of low velocity thermal anemometers for measurement of indoor air movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, F.; Popiolek, Z.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor


    developed mathematical model of the anemometer in combination with a large database of representative room flows measured with a 3-D Laser Doppler anemometer (LDA). A direct comparison between measurements with a thermal anemometer and a 3-D LDA in flows of varying velocity and turbulence intensity shows...

  9. Estimation of aortic compliance using magnetic resonance pulse wave velocity measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boese, J.M.; Bock, M.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Schad, L.R. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Radiologische Diagnostik und Therapie, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)


    A method for compliance estimation employing magnetic resonance pulse wave velocity measurement is presented. Time-resolved flow waves are recorded at several positions along the vessel using a phase contrast sequence, and pulse wave velocity is calculated from the delay of the wave onsets. Using retrospective cardiac gating in combination with an optically decoupled electrocardiogram acquisition, a high temporal resolution of 3 ms can be achieved. A phantom set-up for the simulation of pulsatile flow in a compliant vessel is described. In the phantom, relative errors of pulse wave velocity estimation were found to be about 15%, whereas in a volunteer, larger errors were found that might be caused by vessel branches. Results of pulse wave velocity estimation agree with directaortic distension measurements which rely on a peripheral estimate of aortic pressure and are therefore less accurate. Studies in 12 volunteers show values of pulse wave velocity consistent with the literature; in particular the well-known increase in pulse wave velocity with age was observed. Preliminary results show that the method can be applied to aortic aneurysms. (author)

  10. Measurements of blade aerodynamics on a rotor in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, J.M.R. [Imperical College, Dept. of Aeronautics, London (United Kingdom)


    This contribution describes the field test measurements undertaken on an instrumented rotor at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire, UK, during the period 1994 - 97. The programme was directed at improving the prediction of the steady and unsteady rotor blade loading, particularly the loads arising from the stalling of the blade. The measured data consisted of blade surface pressure distributions sampled at 50Hz at 6 sections along the span of one blade of the 17m diameter, 3 bladed, fixed pitch, upwind H.A.W.T., together with measurements of the incident velocity. (au)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Kobayashi, Chiaki [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Kunder, Andrea; De Propris, Roberto [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Pilachowski, Catherine A. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Swain West 319, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405-7105 (United States); Koch, Andreas, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Koenigstuhl 12, Heidelberg (Germany)


    We present radial velocities and chemical abundance ratios of [Fe/H], [O/Fe], [Si/Fe], and [Ca/Fe] for 264 red giant branch stars in three Galactic bulge off-axis fields located near (l, b) = (-5.5, -7), (-4, -9), and (+8.5, +9). The results are based on equivalent width and spectrum synthesis analyses of moderate resolution (R Almost-Equal-To 18,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N {approx} 75-300 pixel{sup -1}) spectra obtained with the Hydra spectrographs on the Blanco 4 m and WIYN 3.5 m telescopes. The targets were selected from the blue side of the giant branch to avoid cool stars that would be strongly affected by CN and TiO; however, a comparison of the color-metallicity distribution in literature samples suggests that our selection of bluer targets should not present a significant bias against metal-rich stars. We find a full range in metallicity that spans [Fe/H] Almost-Equal-To -1.5 to +0.5, and that, in accordance with the previously observed minor-axis vertical metallicity gradient, the median [Fe/H] also declines with increasing Galactic latitude in off-axis fields. The off-axis vertical [Fe/H] gradient in the southern bulge is estimated to be {approx}0.4 dex kpc{sup -1}; however, comparison with the minor-axis data suggests that a strong radial gradient does not exist. The (+8.5, +9) field exhibits a higher than expected metallicity, with a median [Fe/H] = -0.23, that might be related to a stronger presence of the X-shaped bulge structure along that line-of-sight. This could also be the cause of an anomalous increase in the median radial velocity for intermediate metallicity stars in the (+8.5, +9) field. However, the overall radial velocity and dispersion for each field are in good agreement with recent surveys and bulge models. All fields exhibit an identical, strong decrease in velocity dispersion with increasing metallicity that is consistent with observations in similar minor-axis outer bulge fields. Additionally, the [O/Fe], [Si/Fe], and [Ca


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Debayle


    Full Text Available An image analysis method has been developed in order to compute the velocity field of a granular medium (sand grains, mean diameter 600 μm submitted to different kinds of mechanical stresses. The differential method based on optical flow conservation consists in describing a dense motion field with vectors associated to each pixel. A multiscale, coarse-to-fine, analytical approach through tailor sized windows yields the best compromise between accuracy and robustness of the results, while enabling an acceptable computation time. The corresponding algorithmis presented and its validation discussed through different tests. The results of the validation tests of the proposed approach show that the method is satisfactory when attributing specific values to parameters in association with the size of the image analysis window. An application in the case of vibrated sand has been studied. An instrumented laboratory device provides sinusoidal vibrations and enables external optical observations of sand motion in 3D transparent boxes. At 50 Hz, by increasing the relative acceleration G, the onset and development of two convective rolls can be observed. An ultra fast camera records the grain avalanches, and several pairs of images are analysed by the proposed method. The vertical velocity profiles are deduced and allow to precisely quantify the dimensions of the fluidized region as a function of G.

  13. System identification of velocity mechanomyogram measured with a capacitor microphone for muscle stiffness estimation. (United States)

    Uchiyama, Takanori; Tomoshige, Taiki


    A mechanomyogram (MMG) measured with a displacement sensor (displacement MMG) can provide a better estimation of longitudinal muscle stiffness than that measured with an acceleration sensor (acceleration MMG), but the displacement MMG cannot provide transverse muscle stiffness. We propose a method to estimate both longitudinal and transverse muscle stiffness from a velocity MMG using a system identification technique. The aims of this study are to show the advantages of the proposed method. The velocity MMG was measured using a capacitor microphone and a differential circuit, and the MMG, evoked by electrical stimulation, of the tibialis anterior muscle was measured five times in seven healthy young male volunteers. The evoked MMG system was identified using the singular value decomposition method and was approximated with a fourth-order model, which provides two undamped natural frequencies corresponding to the longitudinal and transverse muscle stiffness. The fluctuation of the undamped natural frequencies estimated from the velocity MMG was significantly smaller than that from the acceleration MMG. There was no significant difference between the fluctuations of the undamped natural frequencies estimated from the velocity MMG and that from the displacement MMG. The proposed method using the velocity MMG is thus more advantageous for muscle stiffness estimation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Radial Velocity and Wind Measurement with NIMA-NWCA: Comparisons with Human Estimation and Aircraft Measurements. (United States)

    Cohn, Stephen A.; Goodrich, Robert K.; Morse, Corinne S.; Karplus, Eli; Mueller, Steven W.; Cornman, Larry B.; Weekley, R. Andrew


    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Improved Moments Algorithm (NIMA) calculates the first and second moments (radial velocity and spectral width) of wind-profiler Doppler spectra and provides an evaluation of confidence in these calculations. The first moments and their confidences are used by the NCAR Winds And Confidence Algorithm (NWCA), to estimate the horizontal wind. NIMA-NWCA has been used for several years in a real-time application for three wind profilers in Juneau, Alaska. This paper presents results of an effort to evaluate the first moments produced by NIMA and horizontal winds produced by NIMA-NWCA through comparison with estimates from `human experts' and also presents a comparison of NIMA-NWCA winds with in situ aircraft measurements. NIMA uses fuzzy logic to separate the atmospheric component of Doppler spectra from ground clutter and other sources of interference. The fuzzy logic rules are based on similar features humans consider when identifying atmospheric and contamination signals in Doppler spectra. Furthermore, NIMA attempts to mimic the human experts' assignment of confidence to the moments. A Human Moment Analysis (HMA) tool was developed to assist the human experts in quantifying moments. This tool is described and a methodology of tuning NIMA rules based on human truth specification is presented. NIMA performed well on a dataset specifically chosen to be difficult. The average absolute error between the HMA estimate and NIMA-derived radial wind estimate was slightly more than 0.3 m s1 when data with low NIMA confidence were excluded, which is comparable to the Doppler spectrum resolution. The correlation between winds derived from NIMA-NWCA and from HMA first-moment estimates exceeded 0.96 when the data with low NWCA confidence were excluded. The correlation coefficient between NIMA winds and in situ measurements by aircraft was 0.93 when aircraft winds that were believed to be accurate were used.

  15. Measuring Velocities in the Early Stage of an Eruption: Using “Overlappogram” Data from Hinode EIS (United States)

    Harra, Louise K.; Hara, Hirohisa; Doschek, George A.; Matthews, Sarah; Warren, Harry; Culhane, J. Leonard; Woods, Magnus M.


    In order to understand the onset phase of a solar eruption, plasma parameter measurements in the early phases are key to constraining models. There are two current instrument types that allow us to make such measurements: narrow-band imagers and spectrometers. In the former case, even narrow-band filters contain multiple emission lines, creating some temperature confusion. With imagers, however, rapid cadences are achievable and the field of view can be large. Velocities of the erupting structures can be measured by feature tracking. In the spectrometer case, slit spectrometers can provide spectrally pure images by “rastering” the slit to build up an image. This method provides limited temporal resolution, but the plasma parameters can be accurately measured, including velocities along the line of sight. Both methods have benefits and are often used in tandem. In this paper we demonstrate for the first time that data from the wide slot on the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer, along with imaging data from AIA, can be used to deconvolve velocity information at the start of an eruption, providing line-of-sight velocities across an extended field of view. Using He II 256 Å slot data at flare onset, we observe broadening or shift(s) of the emission line of up to ±280 km s-1. These are seen at different locations—the redshifted plasma is seen where the hard X-ray source is later seen (energy deposition site). In addition, blueshifted plasma shows the very early onset of the fast rise of the filament.

  16. Ultrasonic velocity measurement using phase-slope cross-correlation methods (United States)

    Hull, D. R.; Kautz, H. E.; Vary, A.


    Computer implemented phase-slope and cross-correlation methods are introduced for measuring time delays between pairs of broadband ultrasonic pulse-echo signals for determining velocity in engineering materials. The phase-slope and cross-correlation methods are compared with the overlap method which is currently in wide use. Comparison of digital versions of the three methods shows similar results for most materials having low ultrasonic attenuation. However, the cross-correlation method is preferred for highly attenuating materials. An analytical basis for the cross-correlation method is presented. Examples are given for the three methods investigated to measure velocity in representative materials in the megahertz range.

  17. Measurement of ultrasonic velocity using phase-slope and cross-correlation methods (United States)

    Hull, D. R.; Kautz, H. E.; Vary, A.


    Computer implemented phase-slope and cross-correlation methods are introduced for measuring time delays between pairs of broadband ultrasonic pulse-echo signals for determining velocity in engineering materials. The phase-slope and cross-correlation methods are compared with the overlap method which is currently in wide use. Comparison of digital versions of the three methods shows similar results for most materials having low ultrasonic attenuation. However, the cross-correlation method is preferred for highly attenuating materials. An analytical basis for the cross-correlation method is presented. Examples are given for the three methods investigated to measure velocity in representative materials in the magahertz range.

  18. A technique for measuring velocity and attenuation of ultrasound in liquid foams. (United States)

    Pierre, J; Elias, F; Leroy, V


    We describe an experimental setup specifically designed for measuring the ultrasonic transmission through liquid foams, over a broad range of frequencies (60-600kHz). The question of determining the ultrasonic properties of the foam (density, phase velocity and attenuation) from the transmission measurements is addressed. An inversion method is proposed, tested on synthetic data, and applied to a liquid foam at different times during the coarsening. The ultrasonic velocity and attenuation are found to be very sensitive to the foam bubble sizes, suggesting that a spectroscopy technique could be developed for liquid foams. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. MR velocity mapping measurement of renal artery blood flow in patients with impaired kidney function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, M; Petersen, L.J.; Stahlberg, F


    . MR velocity mapping was performed in both renal arteries using an ECG-triggered gradient echo pulse sequence previously validated in normal volunteers. Effective renal plasma flow was calculated from the clearance rate of PAH during constant infusion and the split of renal function was evaluated......Renal blood flow (RBF) was measured in 9 patients with chronic impaired kidney function using MR velocity mapping and compared to PAH clearance and 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy. An image plane suitable for flow measurement perpendicular to the renal arteries was chosen from 2-dimensional MR angiography...

  20. Comprehensive spatiotemporal glacier and ice sheet velocity measurements from Landsat 8 (United States)

    Moon, Twila; Fahnestock, Mark; Scambos, Ted; Klinger, Marin; Haran, Terry


    Combining newly developed software with Landsat 8 image returns, we are now producing broad-coverage ice velocity measurements on weekly to monthly scales across ice sheets and glaciers. Using new image-to-image cross correlation software, named PyCorr, we take advantage of the improved radiometric resolution of the Landsat 8 panchromatic band to create velocity maps with sub-pixel accuracy. Landsat 8's 12-bit radiometric resolution supports measurement of ice flow in uncrevassed regions based on persistent sastrugi patterns lasting weeks to a few months. We also leverage these improvements to allow for ice sheet surface roughness measurements. Landsat 8's 16-day repeat orbit and increased image acquisition across the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets supports development of seasonal to annual ice sheet velocity mosaics with full coverage of coastal regions. We also create time series for examining sub-seasonal change with near real time processing in areas such as the Amundsen Sea Embayment and fast flowing Greenland outlet glaciers. In addition, excellent geolocation accuracy enables velocity mapping of smaller ice caps and glaciers, which we have already applied in Alaska and Patagonia. Finally, PyCorr can be used for velocity mapping with other remote sensing imagery, including high resolution WorldView satellite data.

  1. Measurements of the laminar burning velocity of hydrogen-air premixed flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareja, Jhon; Burbano, Hugo J. [Science and Technology of Gases and Rational Use of Energy Group, Faculty of Engineering, University of Antioquia, Calle 67 N 53, 108 Bloque 20, 447 Medellin (Colombia); Ogami, Yasuhiro [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)


    Experimental and numerical studies on laminar burning velocities of hydrogen-air mixtures were performed at standard pressure and room temperature varying the equivalence ratio from 0.8 to 3.0. The flames were generated using a contoured slot-type nozzle burner (4 mm x 10 mm). Measurements of laminar burning velocity were conducted using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) combined with Schlieren photography. This technique provides the information of instantaneous local burning velocities in the whole region of the flame front, and laminar burning velocities were determined using the mean value of local burning velocities in the region of non-stretch. Additionally, average laminar burning velocities were determined using the angle method and compared with the data obtained with the PTV method. Numerical calculations were also conducted using detailed reaction mechanisms and transport properties. The experimental results from the PTV method are in good agreement with the numerical results at every equivalence ratio of the range of study. Differences between the results obtained with the angle method and those with the PTV method are reasonably small when the effects of flame stretch and curvature are reduced by using a contoured slot-type nozzle. (author)

  2. Investigation of Ultrasound-Measured Flow Velocity, Flow Rate and Wall Shear Rate in Radial and Ulnar Arteries Using Simulation. (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaowei; Xia, Chunming; Stephen, Gandy; Khan, Faisel; Corner, George A; Hoskins, Peter R; Huang, Zhihong


    Parameters of blood flow measured by ultrasound in radial and ulnar arteries, such as flow velocity, flow rate and wall shear rate, are widely used in clinical practice and clinical research. Investigation of these measurements is useful for evaluating accuracy and providing knowledge of error sources. A method for simulating the spectral Doppler ultrasound measurement process was developed with computational fluid dynamics providing flow-field data. Specific scanning factors were adjusted to investigate their influence on estimation of the maximum velocity waveform, and flow rate and wall shear rate were derived using the Womersley equation. The overestimation in maximum velocity increases greatly (peak systolic from about 10% to 30%, time-averaged from about 30% to 50%) when the beam-vessel angle is changed from 30° to 70°. The Womersley equation was able to estimate flow rate in both arteries with less than 3% error, but performed better in the radial artery (2.3% overestimation) than the ulnar artery (15.4% underestimation) in estimating wall shear rate. It is concluded that measurements of flow parameters in the radial and ulnar arteries with clinical ultrasound scanners are prone to clinically significant errors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Assimilation of Sonic Velocity and Thin-Section Measurements from the NEEM Ice-Core (United States)

    Hay, M.; Pettit, E. C.; Waddington, E. D.


    We examine the measurement of crystal orientation fabric (COF) in ice cores using thin sections and sound-wave velocities, focusing on the NEEM core in Greenland. Ice crystals have substantial plastic anisotropy, with shear orthogonal to the crystallographic c-axis occurring far more easily than deformation in other orientations. Due to strain-induced grain-rotation, COFs can become highly anisotropic, resulting in bulk anisotropic flow. Thin-section measurements taken from ice cores allow sampling of the crystal fabric distribution. Thin-section measurements, however, suffer from sampling error, as they sample a small amount of ice, usually on the order of a hundred grans. They are typically only taken at intervals of several meters, which means that meter-scale variations in crystal fabric are difficult to capture. Measuring sonic velocities in ice cores provides an alternate method of determining crystal fabric. The speed of vertical compression waves is affected by the vertical clustering of c-axes, but is insensitive to azimuthal fabric anisotropy. By measuring splitting between the fast and slow shear-wave directions, information on the azimuthal distribution of orientations can be captured. Sonic-velocity measurements cannot capture detailed information on the orientation distribution of the COF, but they complement thin-section measurements with several advantages. Sonic-logging measurements can be taken at very short intervals, eliminating spatial gaps. In addition, sonic logging samples a large volume of ice with each measurement, reducing sampling error. Our logging tool has a depth resolution of around 3m/s, and can measure velocity features on the order of 1m/s. Here, we show the results of compression-wave measurements at NEEM. We also assimilate the sonic measurements with the thin-section data using a Bayesian inference procedure. This procedure allows us to combine the respective strengths of the two fabric measurement methods, to produce a more

  4. Critical velocity as a measure of aerobic fitness in women's rugby sevens. (United States)

    Clarke, Anthea C; Presland, Jarrod; Rattray, Ben; Pyne, David B


    To compare a field-based critical velocity running test to routine laboratory (treadmill VO₂ max test) and field-based (Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, Yo-Yo IR1) aerobic fitness tests in women's rugby sevens (7's) players. To quantify the degree of association between field-based fitness test scores and GPS-derived analysis of performance data in competition. Single cohort, cross-sectional study involving 22 female Australian Rugby 7's National team players. Players underwent fitness testing comparing the critical velocity test (100 m, 400 m, 1500 m runs) to the Yo-Yo IR1 and a treadmill VO₂ max test. GPS data was obtained during the National Championships using a subgroup of 12 players and compared with each player's fitness test scores. The critical velocity test was highly correlated with the Yo-Yo IR1 test (r=0.86, 0.69-0.94; 90% confidence interval) and all variables of the VO₂ max test, however mean values were substantially different between tests (Yo-Yo IR1: 4.3 ± 0.1 ms(-1), vVO₂ max: 3.7 ± 0.3 ms(-1), critical velocity: 3.2 ± 0.3 ms(-1)). Average speed, obtained from GPS data, was largely correlated with both the Yo-Yo IR1 (r=0.62, 0.10-0.87) and critical velocity (r=0.51, -0.06-0.83) tests. Total game distance correlated moderately with the Yo-Yo IR1 (r=0.49, -0.09-0.82) and critical velocity (r=0.36, -0.25-0.76). The critical velocity test is an appropriate aerobic fitness test, yields results similar to the Yo-Yo IR1, and correlates moderately with rugby 7's game data. However the Yo-Yo IR1 and critical velocity test scores cannot be used interchangeably. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Temperature, Pressure and Velocity measurements on the Ranque-Hilsch Vortex Tube (United States)

    Liew, R.; Zeegers, J. C. H.; Kuerten, J. G. M.; Michałek, W. R.


    Temperatures, pressures and velocities were measured in a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube. Results show that the cooling power is larger than the heating power due to a heat loss to the surroundings. This heat loss became the more dominant thermodynamic process at large cold fractions (the ratio of cold mass flow over total mass flow). The velocities were obtained by means of Laser Doppler Anemometry. By this method, the three dimensional velocities of the gas and their standard deviations in the vortex tube are revealed by an non-intrusive measurement method. The turbulent fluctuations, characterized by the standard deviations, show that the turbulence is isotropic in the core region of the vortex tube.

  6. Efficiency of the WFIRST Coronagraphic Survey based on Precursory Radial Velocity Measurements (United States)

    Dulz, Shannon D.; Crepp, Justin; Plavchan, Peter; Newman, Patrick; Stark, Christopher


    We present our results and ongoing work studying how ground-based radial velocity systems can improve WFIRST planet detection and characterization efficiency. NASA's WFIRST mission will have the ability to characterize exoplanets via direct detection from space. By the time the mission is readied for launch in the mid 2020s, there will exist extensive data sets that provide precursory ground-based radial velocity measurements from a multitude of instruments. Such observations could presumably impact the efficiency of the high-contrast imaging system's ability to detect the signal of faint exoplanets, by providing time series measurements that both identify promising targets and establish orbital constraints for known planets. We are developing a suite of simulation tools to quantify the impact that such data sets will have on the mission. Populating nearby stars with synthetic planets based on the observed demographics of planetary systems, we simulate a ground-based radial velocity survey and WFIRST imaging follow-up.

  7. Relative position finite-time coordinated tracking control of spacecraft formation without velocity measurements. (United States)

    Hu, Qinglei; Zhang, Jian


    This paper investigates finite-time relative position coordinated tracking problem by output feedback for spacecraft formation flying without velocity measurement. By employing homogeneous system theory, a finite-time relative position coordinated tracking controller by state feedback is firstly developed, where the desired time-varying trajectory given in advance can be tracked by the formation. Then, to address the problem of lack of velocity measurements, a finite-time output feedback controller is proposed by involving a novel filter to recover unknown velocity information in a finite time. Rigorous proof shows that the proposed control law ensures global stability and guarantees the position of spacecraft formation to track a time-varying reference in finite time. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed controller. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Feasibility of Velocity Measurements by a Drifter in the Yangon River


    Janssen, M.P.J.; De Koning, R.J.


    Myanmar is dealing with a large data deficit, which is in contrast with the substantial need for it. The implementation of measuring techniques to obtain hydro- and morphodynamic data is an upcoming process. Measuring velocities can be valuable for calibrating models or giving estimates of sedimentation and erosion. An example of a measuring method is the use of a drifter, which is common for nearshore applications, but less for rivers. Therefore the feasibility of a drifter is tested in the ...

  9. SAR-based Estimation of Glacial Extent and Velocity Fields on Isanotski Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (United States)

    Sousa, D.; Lee, A.; Parker, O. P.; Pressler, Y.; Guo, S.; Osmanoglu, B.; Schmidt, C.


    Global studies show that Earth's glaciers are losing mass at increasing rates, creating a challenge for communities that rely on them as natural resources. Field observation of glacial environments is limited by cost and inaccessibility. Optical remote sensing is often precluded by cloud cover and seasonal darkness. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) overcomes these obstacles by using microwave-frequency electromagnetic radiation to provide high resolution information on large spatial scales and in remote, atmospherically obscured environments. SAR is capable of penetrating clouds, operating in darkness, and discriminating between targets with ambiguous spectral signatures. This study evaluated the efficacy of two SAR Earth observation methods on small (Unimak Island, Aleutian Archipelago, USA. The local community on the island, the City of False Pass, relies on glacial melt for drinking water and hydropower. Two methods were used: (1) velocity field estimation based on Repeat Image Feature Tracking (RIFT) and (2) glacial boundary delineation based on interferometric coherence mapping. NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle SAR (UAVSAR) single-polarized power images and JAXA Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array type L-band SAR (ALOS PALSAR) single-look complex images were analyzed over the period 2008-2011. UAVSAR image pairs were coregistered to sub-pixel accuracy and processed with the Coregistration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation (COSI-Corr) feature tracking module to derive glacial velocity field estimates. Maximum glacier velocities ranged from 28.9 meters/year to 58.3 meters/year. Glacial boundaries were determined from interferometric coherence of ALOS PALSAR data and subsequently refined with masking operations based on terrain slope and segment size. Accuracy was assessed against hand-digitized outlines from high resolution UAVSAR power images, yielding 83.0% producer's accuracy (errors of omission) and 86.1% user's accuracy (errors of

  10. Fluctuating wall shear stress and velocity measurements in a turbulent boundary layer (United States)

    Pabon, Rommel; Ukeiley, Lawrence; Barnard, Casey; Sheplak, Mark


    Knowledge of mean wall shear stress on a surface can shed light on important performance parameters, but the fluctuating shear, even in simple flows, has not been as easily measured, and can be of interest in fundamental boundary layer research. Experiments on a flat plate model were performed to investigate the relationship between the wall shear stress and large scale events in the turbulent boundary layer. A MEMS based differential capacitance shear stress system with 1 mm × 1 mm floating element which can measure the fluctuating and static components of shear simultaneously, coupled with a hot wire anemometer were used for characterizing the turbulent boundary layer. Velocity profiles and turbulence statistics approaching the wall characterized the two dimensionality of the flat plate, and a trailing edge flap was used to impose a zero pressure gradient. The mean streamwise velocity profile was scaled by the friction velocity using the measured shear stress and independently compared to classical fits. Correlations between the fluctuating shear and measured velocities were used to elucidate the large scale events and to compare with previous fluctuating shear measurements for validation.

  11. Bubble velocity, diameter, and void fraction measurements in a multiphase flow using fiber optic reflectometer. (United States)

    Lim, Ho-Joon; Chang, Kuang-An; Su, Chin B; Chen, Chi-Yueh


    A fiber optic reflectometer (FOR) technique featuring a single fiber probe is investigated for its feasibility of measuring the bubble velocity, diameter, and void fraction in a multiphase flow. The method is based on the interference of the scattered signal from the bubble surface with the Fresnel reflection signal from the tip of the optical fiber. Void fraction is obtained with a high accuracy if an appropriate correction is applied to compensate the underestimated measurement value. Velocity information is accurately obtained from the reflected signals before the fiber tip touches the bubble surface so that several factors affecting the traditional dual-tip probes such as blinding, crawling, and drifting effects due to the interaction between the probe and bubbles can be prevented. The coherent signals reflected from both the front and rear ends of a bubble can provide velocity information. Deceleration of rising bubbles and particles due to the presence of the fiber probe is observed when they are very close to the fiber tip. With the residence time obtained, the bubble chord length can be determined by analyzing the coherent signal for velocity determination before the deceleration starts. The bubble diameters are directly obtained from analyzing the signals of the bubbles that contain velocity information. The chord lengths of these bubbles measured by FOR represent the bubble diameters when the bubble shape is spherical or represent the minor axes when the bubble shape is ellipsoidal. The velocity and size of bubbles obtained from the FOR measurements are compared with those obtained simultaneously using a high speed camera.

  12. Inertial Navigation System/Doppler Velocity Log (INS/DVL Fusion with Partial DVL Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaf Tal


    Full Text Available The Technion autonomous underwater vehicle (TAUV is an ongoing project aiming to develop and produce a small AUV to carry on research missions, including payload dropping, and to demonstrate acoustic communication. Its navigation system is based on an inertial navigation system (INS aided by a Doppler velocity log (DVL, magnetometer, and pressure sensor (PS. In many INSs, such as the one used in TAUV, only the velocity vector (provided by the DVL can be used for aiding the INS, i.e., enabling only a loosely coupled integration approach. In cases of partial DVL measurements, such as failure to maintain bottom lock, the DVL cannot estimate the vehicle velocity. Thus, in partial DVL situations no velocity data can be integrated into the TAUV INS, and as a result its navigation solution will drift in time. To circumvent that problem, we propose a DVL-based vehicle velocity solution using the measured partial raw data of the DVL and additional information, thereby deriving an extended loosely coupled (ELC approach. The implementation of the ELC approach requires only software modification. In addition, we present the TAUV six degrees of freedom (6DOF simulation that includes all functional subsystems. Using this simulation, the proposed approach is evaluated and the benefit of using it is shown.

  13. Carbon-depleted outer core revealed by sound velocity measurements of liquid iron-carbon alloy (United States)

    Nakajima, Yoichi; Imada, Saori; Hirose, Kei; Komabayashi, Tetsuya; Ozawa, Haruka; Tateno, Shigehiko; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Kuwayama, Yasuhiro; Baron, Alfred Q. R.


    The relative abundance of light elements in the Earth's core has long been controversial. Recently, the presence of carbon in the core has been emphasized, because the density and sound velocities of the inner core may be consistent with solid Fe7C3. Here we report the longitudinal wave velocity of liquid Fe84C16 up to 70 GPa based on inelastic X-ray scattering measurements. We find the velocity to be substantially slower than that of solid iron and Fe3C and to be faster than that of liquid iron. The thermodynamic equation of state for liquid Fe84C16 is also obtained from the velocity data combined with previous density measurements at 1 bar. The longitudinal velocity of the outer core, about 4% faster than that of liquid iron, is consistent with the presence of 4-5 at.% carbon. However, that amount of carbon is too small to account for the outer core density deficit, suggesting that carbon cannot be a predominant light element in the core.

  14. Laboratory measurements of seismic velocity anisotropy of salt diapirs: Implications for wellbore stability and seismic processing (United States)

    Vargas-Meleza, Liliana; Healy, David


    A set of ten evaporite samples collected from outcrops in a single diapiric province in Cape Breton Island (Canada) have been tested for seismic velocity anisotropy using three methods: 1) conventional ultrasonic pulse transmission method, where velocities are found from the travel times and the known dimensions of the samples. In order to obtain the entire suite of elastic constants, both P- and S-wave velocity measurements were taken in three different directions of cuboid rock samples. Velocities have been measured under dry, ambient conditions of temperature and pressure in halite-, gypsum- and anhydrite-dominated samples; 2) optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy on thin sections to define the spatial distribution of minerals, their crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO); and 3) a numerical 'rock-recipe' approach based on Tatham et al. (2008) to calculate seismic velocity anisotropy using arbitrary composites of evaporite minerals and different CPOs. These three methods are then compared to understand the controlling factors of the anisotropic elastic properties. The elasticity data are used to guide geomechanical modeling for wellbore stability and to provide insights for the seismic data processing and seismic imaging of salt diapirs. Reference Tatham, D.J., Lloyd, G.E., Butler, R.W.H. and Casey, M, 2008, Amphibole and lower crustal seismic properties: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 267, 118-128.

  15. InSAR, GPS, triangulation and EDM combination in a 3D velocity field: Insight from Arenal volcano (United States)

    Muller, Cyril; del Potro, Rodrigo; Biggs, Juliet; Gottsmann, Joachim; Ebmeier, Susanna; Van der Laat, Rodolfo


    Geodetic techniques provide useful information to detect and assess geophysical processes occurring at volcanoes. When the deformation signal is large, standard analyses and modelling can be carried out. However, when surface movements are subtle and several processes occur simultaneously, stochastic and multi-techniques assessment is required. Here we present a methodology that combines GPS, triangulation, trilateration and InSAR in a 3D velocity surface without any prior specific source assumption. The methodology is in 5 steps: design of the geodetic monitoring network, acquisition and post-processing of deformation observations, spatial integration, time series computation and finally spatial and temporal measurement integration. We apply this methodology to Arenal volcano in Costa Rica and provide an unprecedented insight of the volcano's deformation. The most significant improvements of this method are the reduction of campaign logistics, the unambiguous detection of the outliers, an increase in accuracy, a 3D velocity field accounting for all techniques and measurements. Although, the methodology is applied to GPS, triangulation, trilateration and INSAR geodetic networks with a steady motion, it has the potential to be extended to other geodetic techniques and where transient deformations are ongoing. The described methodology can be applied in volcano monitoring worldwide.

  16. Filaments from the galaxy distribution and from the velocity field in the local universe (United States)

    Libeskind, Noam I.; Tempel, Elmo; Hoffman, Yehuda; Tully, R. Brent; Courtois, Hélène


    The cosmic web that characterizes the large-scale structure of the Universe can be quantified by a variety of methods. For example, large redshift surveys can be used in combination with point process algorithms to extract long curvilinear filaments in the galaxy distribution. Alternatively, given a full 3D reconstruction of the velocity field, kinematic techniques can be used to decompose the web into voids, sheets, filaments and knots. In this Letter, we look at how two such algorithms - the Bisous model and the velocity shear web - compare with each other in the local Universe (within 100 Mpc), finding good agreement. This is both remarkable and comforting, given that the two methods are radically different in ideology and applied to completely independent and different data sets. Unsurprisingly, the methods are in better agreement when applied to unbiased and complete data sets, like cosmological simulations, than when applied to observational samples. We conclude that more observational data is needed to improve on these methods, but that both methods are most likely properly tracing the underlying distribution of matter in the Universe.

  17. Field-programmable gate array-controlled sweep velocity-locked laser pulse generator (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Hefferman, Gerald; Wei, Tao


    A field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-controlled sweep velocity-locked laser pulse generator (SV-LLPG) design based on an all-digital phase-locked loop (ADPLL) is proposed. A distributed feedback laser with modulated injection current was used as a swept-frequency laser source. An open-loop predistortion modulation waveform was calibrated using a feedback iteration method to initially improve frequency sweep linearity. An ADPLL control system was then implemented using an FPGA to lock the output of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer that was directly proportional to laser sweep velocity to an on-board system clock. Using this system, linearly chirped laser pulses with a sweep bandwidth of 111.16 GHz were demonstrated. Further testing evaluating the sensing utility of the system was conducted. In this test, the SV-LLPG served as the swept laser source of an optical frequency-domain reflectometry system used to interrogate a subterahertz range fiber structure (sub-THz-FS) array. A static strain test was then conducted and linear sensor results were observed.

  18. A new method to disentangle the rotational velocities of stars: Application to main-sequence field Stars (United States)

    Curé, M.; Rial, D. F.; Cassetti, J.; Christen, A.


    The projected rotational velocity v sin i is a fundamental observable quantity. In order to obtain the rotational velocity distribution of a sample of v sin i, Chandrasekhar & Münch (1950) developed a formalism to obtain this distribution under the assumption that rotational axes are uniformly distributed, but this method is not usually applied due to an intrinsic numerical problem associated to the derivative of an Abel's integral. An alternative iterative method was developed by Lucy (1974) to disentangle the distribution function of this kind of inverse problem, but this method has no convergence criteria. Here we present a new method to disentangle the distribution of rotational velocities, based on Chandrasekhar & Münch (1950) formalism. We obtain the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the rotational velocities from projected velocities (v sin i) under the standard assumption of uniform distributed rotational axes. Through simulations the method is tested using a) theoretical Maxwellian distribution functions for the rotational velocity distribution and b) with a sample of about 12.500 main-sequence field stars. Our main results are: The method is robust and in just one step gives the cumulative distribution function of rotational velocities. When applied to theoretical distributions it recovers the CDF with very high confidence. When applied to real data, we recover the results from Carvalho et al. (2009) proving that the velocity distribution function of main-sequence field stars is non-Maxwellian and are better described by Tsallis or Kaniadakis distribution functions.

  19. Extraction of 3D velocity and porosity fields from GeoPET data sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann-Pipke, Johanna; Kulenkampff, Johannes [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Reactive Transport; Eichelbaum, S. [Nemtics Visualization, Leipzig (Germany)


    Geoscientific process monitoring with positron emission tomography (GeoPET) is proven to be applicable for quantitative tomographic transport process monitoring in natural geological materials. We benchmarked GeoPET by inversely fitting a numerical finite element model to a diffusive transport experiment in Opalinus clay. The obtained effective diffusion coefficients, D{sub e}, parallel and D{sub e}, perpendicular to, are well in line with data from literature. But more complex, heterogeneous migration, and flow patterns cannot be similarly evaluated by inverse fitting using optimization tools. Alternatively, we started developing an algorithm that allows the quantitative extraction of velocity and porosity fields, v{sub i=x,y,z} (x,y,z) and n(x,y,z) from GeoPET time series, c{sub PET}(x,y,z,t). They may serve as constituent data sets for reactive transport modelling.

  20. Optimization of Transverse Oscillating Fields for Vector Velocity Estimation with Convex Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    from 90 to 45 degrees in steps of 15 degrees. The optimization routine changes the lateral oscillation period lx to yield the best possible estimates based on the energy ratio between positive and negative spatial frequencies in the ultrasound field. The basic equation for lx gives 1.14 mm at 40 mm......, and 1.51 mm from the simulated point spread function. This results in a bias of 35% as lx directly scales the estimated velocities. Optimizing the focusing yields a lx of 1.61 mm. The energy ratio is reduced from -12.8 dB to -20.1 dB and the spectral bandwidth from 115.1 m􀀀1 to 96.5 m􀀀...

  1. Ionic drift velocity measurement on hot-pressed Ag ion conducting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ionic drift velocity (vd) measurements of a new Ag+ ion conducting glass-polymer electrolytes (GPEs): ... Among the known superionic solids, solid polymer elec- .... device applications. The ionic mobility (μ) and mobile ion concentration (n) also vary with the temperature akin to conductivity, as men- tioned in equation (1).

  2. Agreement among three examiners of colour Doppler imaging retrobulbar blood flow velocity measurements. (United States)

    Founti, Panayiota; Harris, Alon; Papadopoulou, Domniki; Emmanouilidis, Petros; Siesky, Brent; Kilintzis, Vassilis; Anastasopoulos, Eleftherios; Salonikiou, Angeliki; Pappas, Theofanis; Topouzis, Fotis


    To assess the agreement among three masked examiners on central retinal artery (CRA) and ophthalmic artery (OA) blood flow velocity measurements performed with colour Doppler imaging (CDI) in healthy volunteers. The study included 30 eyes of 15 healthy volunteers. Prior to the study, all examiners underwent intensive CDI training by an expert to facilitate uniformity in performing measurements according to a specific protocol. Following the eligibility visit, three masked examiners performed CDI measurements assessing the CRA and OA in both eyes of all subjects. All CDI images were analysed by a masked grader. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end diastolic velocity (EDV) in the CRA and OA among the examiners. p-values 0.9, both in the CRA and the OA. All p-values calculated for ICCs were statistically significant. Expert training and execution of a specific protocol for CDI of ocular blood flow velocity measurements provide highly reproducible results in healthy volunteers. This is important for long-term studies assessing ocular hemodynamics, where multiple examiners may be involved. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  3. Development of instrumentation for measurements of two components of velocity with a single sensing element (United States)

    Byers, C. P.; Fu, M. K.; Fan, Y.; Hultmark, M.


    A novel method of obtaining two orthogonal velocity components with high spatial and temporal resolution is investigated. Both components are obtained utilizing a single sensing nanoribbon by combining the two independent operating modes of classic hot wire anemometry and the newly discovered elastic filament velocimetry (EFV). In contrast to hot wire anemometry, EFV measures fluid velocity through correlating the fluid forcing with the internal strain of the wire. In order to utilize both modes of operation, a system that switches between the two operating modes is built and characterized, and the theoretically predicted sensing response time in water is compared to experimental results. The sensing system is capable of switching between the two modes of operation at a frequency of 100 kHz with minimal attenuation with an uncompensated repetition rate up to 3 kHz or up to 10 kHz utilizing modest signal compensation. While further characterization of the sensor performance in air is needed, this methodology enables a technique for obtaining well-resolved yet cost-efficient directional measurements of flow velocities which, for example, can be used for distributed measurements of velocity or measurements of turbulent stresses with excellent spatial resolution.

  4. The determination of the acoustic parameters of volcanic rocks from compressional velocity measurements (United States)

    Carroll, R.D.


    A statistical analysis was made of the relationship of various acoustic parameters of volcanic rocks to compressional wave velocities for data obtained in a volcanic region in Nevada. Some additional samples, chiefly granitic rocks, were also included in the study to extend the range of parameters and the variety of siliceous rock types sampled. Laboratory acoustic measurements obtained on 62 dry core samples were grouped with similar measurements obtained from geophysical logging devices at several depth intervals in a hole from which 15 of the core samples had been obtained. The effects of lithostatic and hydrostatic load on changing the rock acoustic parameters measured in the hole were noticeable when compared with the laboratory measurements on the same core. The results of the analyses determined by grouping all of the data, however, indicate that dynamic Young's, shear and bulk modulus, shear velocity, shear and compressional characteristic impedance, as well as amplitude and energy reflection coefficients may be reliably estimated on the basis of the compressional wave velocities of the rocks investigated. Less precise estimates can be made of density based on the rock compressional velocity. The possible extension of these relationships to include many siliceous rocks is suggested. ?? 1969.

  5. Evaluation of the heat pulse velocity method for measuring sap flow in Pinus patula

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dye, PJ


    Full Text Available Information on the water use of Pinus patula plantations is required to predict the impact of forest plantations on water resources in South Africa, The heat pulse velocity (HPV) method is a promising technique for measuring water use by trees...

  6. "Ghost transients" in the southern California GPS velocity field: An investigation using finite-fault earthquake cycle models (United States)

    Hearn, E. H.; Pollitz, F. F.; Thatcher, W. R.; Onishi, C. T.


    Elastic block models are generally used to infer slip rates on fault segments in tectonically complex areas, such as southern California (e.g. McCaffrey, 2005; Meade et al., 2005). These models implicitly assume steady-state deformation. However, owing to viscoelastic effects of past large earthquakes, deformation rates and patterns around major faults are expected to vary with time. Where viscoelasticity has been incorporated into block models, differences in inferred slip rates have resulted (Johnson et al., 2007). Here, we investigate the extent to which viscoelastic velocity perturbations (or "ghost transients") from individual earthquakes can affect elastic block model-based inferences of fault slip rates from GPS velocity fields. We focus on the southern California GPS velocity field, exploring the effects of known, large earthquakes for end-member rheological structures. For selected faults, an idealized earthquake history is constructed, consisting of a sequence of periodic, identical repeating slip events. For each earthquake, we first calculate average velocities and time-dependent perturbations relative to this average at all GPS sites in the neighborhood of an earthquake. (We deal with perturbations because to recover the velocities, we would have to compute and sum cycle-average velocities and perturbations for all fault segments in the region.) Next, we invert two GPS velocity fields for slip rates using a block modeling approach: one field that has been corrected for the perturbation, and one which has not, and we compare the resulting slip rates. For now, the viscoelastic models are simple (layers with linear rheologies), and locking depth is fixed in the block models. We find that if asthenosphere viscosities are low enough (3 x 10**18 Pa-s) the current GPS velocity field is significantly perturbed by the 1857 M 7.9 San Andreas Fault (SAF) earthquake sequence; that is, current strain rates around the SAF are lower than their average values

  7. Galileo, measurement of the velocity of light, and the reaction times. (United States)

    Foschi, Renato; Leone, Matteo


    According to the commonly accepted view, Galileo Galilei devised in 1638 an experiment that seemed able to show that the velocity of light is finite. An analysis of archival material shows that two decades later members of the Florence scientific society Accademia del Cimento followed Galileo guidelines by actually attempting to measure the velocity of light and suggesting improvements. This analysis also reveals a fundamental difference between Galileo's and Florence academy's methodologies and that Galileo's experiment was, in some respects, a pioneering work affecting also the history of the psychology of perception.

  8. Ice velocity measurements at Jakobshavn Isbrae using 2011 ERS-2 SAR imagery (United States)

    Sundal, A. V.; Shepherd, A.; Park, J.


    Jakobshavn Isbrae is Greenland's largest outlet glacier, draining about 6.5 per cent of the total ice-sheet area. Large variability of the velocity over time has been detected, including a slowing down from 6,700 m/y in 1985 to 5,700 m/y in 1992, and a subsequent speeding up to 12,600 m/y in 2003 (Joughin et al., 2004; Luckman and Murray, 2005). These changes are consistent with evidence for thickening of the glacier in the early 1990s and rapid thinning thereafter (Thomas et al., 2003). In March 2011, the ERS-2 satellite was moved from a 35-day to a 3-day repeat cycle allowing more frequent SAR data acquisitions suitable for ice velocity analysis. The 3-day repeat campaign lasted until the beginning of July 2011. Here we apply InSAR and offset tracking techniques to available 2011 ERS-2 SAR data to measure ice velocities at Jakobshavn Isbrae and the land-terminating sector immediately south of this glacier. We detect surface ice velocities near the Jakobshavn glacier front of ~13,000 m/y which are similar to those observed in 2003 (Joughin et al., 2004). The velocity time-series from the 3-day repeat campaign will be analysed to search for potential short term ice velocity fluctuations in the Jakobshavn region. References Joughin, I., Abdalati, W. and Fahnestock, M. (2004): Large fluctuations in speed on Greenland's Jakobshavn Isbræ glacier. Nature, 432, 608-610. Luckman, A., and Murray, T. (2005): Seasonal variation in velocity before retreat of Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland, Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L08501. Thomas, R., Abdalati, W., Frederick, E., Krabill, W., Manizade, S., Steffen, K. (2003): Investigation of surface melting and dynamic thinning on Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland. Journal of Glaciology 49, 231-239.

  9. Field estimates of floc dynamics and settling velocities in a tidal creek with significant along-channel gradients in velocity and SPM (United States)

    Schwarz, C.; Cox, T.; van Engeland, T.; van Oevelen, D.; van Belzen, J.; van de Koppel, J.; Soetaert, K.; Bouma, T. J.; Meire, P.; Temmerman, S.


    A short-term intensive measurement campaign focused on flow, turbulence, suspended particle concentration, floc dynamics and settling velocities were carried out in a brackish intertidal creek draining into the main channel of the Scheldt estuary. We compare in situ estimates of settling velocities between a laser diffraction (LISST) and an acoustic Doppler technique (ADV) at 20 and 40 cm above bottom (cmab). The temporal variation in settling velocity estimated were compared over one tidal cycle, with a maximum flood velocity of 0.46 m s-1, a maximum horizontal ebb velocity of 0.35 m s-1 and a maximum water depth at high water slack of 2.41 m. Results suggest that flocculation processes play an important role in controlling sediment transport processes in the measured intertidal creek. During high-water slack, particles flocculated to sizes up to 190 μm, whereas at maximum flood and maximum ebb tidal stage floc sizes only reached up to 55 μm and 71 μm respectively. These large differences indicate that flocculation processes are mainly governed by turbulence-induced shear rate. In this study, we specifically recognize the importance of along-channel gradients that places constraints on the application of the acoustic Doppler technique due to conflicts with the underlying assumptions. Along-channel gradients were assessed by additional measurements at a second location and scaling arguments which could be used as an indication whether the Reynolds-flux method is applicable. We further show the potential impact of along-channel advection of flocs out of equilibrium with local hydrodynamics influencing overall floc sizes.

  10. Measuring the Bed Load velocity in Laboratory flumes using ADCP and Digital Cameras (United States)

    Conevski, Slaven; Guerrero, Massimo; Rennie, Colin; Bombardier, Josselin


    Measuring the transport rate and apparent velocity of the bedload is notoriously hard and there is not a certain technique that would obtain continues data. There are many empirical models, based on the estimation of the shear stress, but only few involve direct measurement of the bed load velocity. The bottom tracking (BT) mode of an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) has been used many times to estimate the apparent velocity of the bed load. Herein is the basic idea, to exploit the bias of the BT signal towards the bed load movement and to calibrate this signal with traditional measuring techniques. These measurements are quite scarce and seldom reliable since there are not taken in controlled conditions. So far, no clear confirmation has been conducted in laboratory-controlled conditions that would attest the assumptions made in the estimation of the apparent bed load velocity, nor in the calibration of the empirical equations. Therefore, this study explores several experiments under stationary conditions, where the signal of the ADCP BT mode is recorded and compared to the bed load motion recorded by digital camera videography. The experiments have been performed in the hydraulic laboratories of Ottawa and Bologna, using two different ADCPs and two different high resolution cameras. In total, more then 30 experiments were performed for different sediment mixtures and different hydraulic conditions. In general, a good match is documented between the apparent bed load velocity measured by the ADCP and the videography. The slight deviation in single experiments can be explained by gravel particles inhomogeneity, difficult in reproducing the same hydro-sedimentological conditions and the randomness of the backscattering strength.

  11. In vivo noninvasive method for measuring local wave velocity in femoral arteries of pig (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Kinnick, Randall; Pislaru, Cristina; Fatemi, Mostafa; Greenleaf, James


    We have proposed generating a bending wave in the arterial wall using ultrasound radiation force and measuring the wave velocity along the arterial wall [Zhang et al., IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 52, 642-652 (2005)]. Here, we report the results of in vivo studies on pigs. The pig was anesthetized, and a micromanometer tip catheter was inserted into the femoral artery to measure luminal pressure. A water bath was created on the animal's groin to allow unimpeded access of the ultrasound beams to the femoral artery. The femoral artery was first located using a 13-MHz linear-array transducer. Then, a vibro-acoustography image was obtained to ensure precise positioning of the excitation force relative to the artery. The artery was excited by the force transducer and the resulting vibration of the arterial wall was measured by a sensing Doppler transceiver. Measured wave velocity was 3.1 m/s at 300 Hz. With this new method wave velocity over a distance of 5 mm, and therefore stiffness of arteries, can be measured locally and non-invasively. Measurement time is short in a few tens of milliseconds, which allows pressure dependence and pharmacological effect on the wall properties to be measured at different cardiac times.

  12. Tomography of fast-ion velocity-space distributions from synthetic CTS and FIDA measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh


    We compute tomographies of 2D fast-ion velocity distribution functions from synthetic collective Thomson scattering (CTS) and fast-ion D (FIDA) 1D measurements using a new reconstruction prescription. Contradicting conventional wisdom we demonstrate that one single 1D CTS or FIDA view suffices...... simultaneous views on the same measurement volume, the resemblance improves with the number of available views, even if the resolution in each view is varied inversely proportional to the number of views, so that the total number of measurements in all views is the same. With a realistic four-view system......, tomographies of a beam ion velocity distribution function at ASDEX Upgrade reproduce the general shape of the function and the location of the maxima at full and half injection energy of the beam ions. By applying our method to real many-view CTS or FIDA measurements, one could determine tomographies of 2D...

  13. Using smartphones' pressure sensors to measure vertical velocities in elevators, stairways and drones

    CERN Document Server

    Monteiro, Martin


    By means of smartphones' pressure sensors we measure vertical velocities of elevators, pedestrians climbing stairways and flying unmanned aerial vehicles (or \\textit{drones}). The barometric pressure obtained with the smartphone is related, thanks to the hydrostatic approximation, to the altitude of the device. From the altitude values, the vertical velocity is accordingly derived. The approximation considered is valid in the first hundreds meters of the inner layers of the atmosphere. Simultaneously to the pressure, the acceleration values, reported by the buit-in accelerometers, are also recorded. Integrating numerically the acceleration, vertical velocity and altitude are also obtained. We show that data obtained with the pressure sensor is considerable less noisy than that obtained with the accelerometer in the experiments proposed here. Accumulatioin of errors are also evident in the numerical integration of the acceleration values. The comparison with reference values taken from the architectural plans ...

  14. Measurement of the Radial Velocity of Vega and SAO 104807 by high resolution spectrometry (United States)

    Rosas, F.; Ordoñez, J.; Suarez, W.; Quijano, A.


    The radial velocity is the component of the velocity with which a celestial object approaches (blueshift) or go away (redshift) of the observer. The precise measurement of the redshift allowed to Humason and Hubble discover the expansion of the Universe. In 1998 two research teams simultaneously discovered that this expansion is accelerated, for that reason the hypothesis of the dark energy has been raised to explain the existing repulsion. The present work shows the measurement of the radial velocity of Vega and SAO104807 by high resolution spectrometry. Using the instruments of the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Nariño, located in the south of Colombia, was measured the displacement that the spectral lines of both celestial objects suffer due to the Doppler effect. The results obtained were quite close to those recorded in databases such as SIMBAD, according to the used equipment. The instruments used were: Celestron CGE Pro 1400 Telescope, Shelyak LHIRES III High Resolution Spectrometer and SBIG ST-8300 CCD Camera. The characteristics of the spectrometer are: Diffraction grating: 2400 lines/mm, Spectral dispersion (H alpha): 0:012 nm/pixel, Radial velocity resolution: 5 km/s.

  15. Anomalous field-induced effects in the sound velocity in lead magnesium niobate probed by micro-Brillouin scattering


    Lushnikov, S. G.; Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Kojima, Seiji


    Field-induced changes in Brillouin scattering spectra of the PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 relaxor ferroelectric have been examined in the vicinity of a diffuse phase transition under a dc electric field oriented along the [111] direction. It has been established that the transition into an electric-field-induced ferroelectric phase is accompanied by a step-like anomaly in the sound velocity of the quasilongitudinal acoustic phonon (QLA) propagating along the [110] direction. The changes in QLA phonon veloc...

  16. Influence of coupling substances in the measurement of ultrasound velocity in stone materials (United States)

    Giuzio, Beatrice; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Fort, Rafael; Masini, Nicola


    Ultrasonic (US) testing is widely applied in many fields (i.e. aviation, petrochemical, power engineering, construction and metallurgical industries). In the field of built cultural heritage and science conservation, US testing can provide the quality of the historic building materials (physic-mechanical properties), their heterogeneity/homogeinity and anisotropy, in terms of materials characterization, but also how deterioration processes can affect their quality (either after natural decay or simulation ageing tests in the laboratory). Moreover, US testing is a useful technique in evaluating the effectiveness of conservation and restoration techniques such as assessing the compatibility among original and restoration materials, identification of original quarries, and the success or not in the increase of a material cohesion when applying consolidating products. In order to obtain precise, real and reliable measurements, coupling substances between the material surface and the ultrasonic sensors are frequently used, to provide a proper contact between the transducer and the material, to assure the perfect transmission of the ultrasonic wave. Various coupling agents can be applied for this purpose. According to Wesolowski (2012), the choice of the coupling agent significantly affects the measurement of propagation velocity in material samples and, as a consequence, the US test results. In this paper, the effect of six coupling agents (medical gel used for ultrasonography, gel + parafilm, plasticine, honey, glicerine and a plastic material provided for ultrasound measurement by Panametrics) on ultrasonic measurements conducted on specific building materials is investigated on two different types of building stones (granite and dolostone from the area of Madrid, traditionally used in the construction of the built heritage, 4 stone specimens for each rock variety, 20 x 6 x 8 cm). Direct and indirect modes measuring were performed, the first one with the transducers

  17. Attracting Students to the Field of Measurement (United States)

    Finney, Sara J.; Pastor, Dena A.


    To address the shortage of professionals in measurement, it is essential that we make young career-seekers aware that measurement is an option as a profession. In this paper, we discuss how creating a strong pipeline of students into our field involves personal interactions between faculty representing the graduate programs in measurement and…

  18. Evolution of Mass and Velocity Field in the Cosmic Web: Comparison between Baryonic and Dark Matter (United States)

    Zhu, Weishan; Feng, Long-Long


    We investigate the evolution of the cosmic web since z = 5 in grid-based cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, focusing on the mass and velocity fields of both baryonic and cold dark matter. The tidal tensor of density is used as the main method for web identification, with λ th = 0.2-1.2. The evolution trends in baryonic and dark matter are similar, although moderate differences are observed. Sheets appear early, and their large-scale pattern may have been set up by z = 3. In terms of mass, filaments supersede sheets as the primary collapsing structures from z ˜ 2-3. Tenuous filaments assembled with each other to form prominent ones at z dark matter field, and is even moderately stronger between {\\boldsymbol{ω }} and {{\\boldsymbol{e}}}1, and ω and {{\\boldsymbol{e}}}3. Compared with dark matter, there is slightly less baryonic matter found residing in filaments and clusters, and its vorticity developed more significantly below 2-3 Mpc. These differences may be underestimated because of the limited resolution and lack of star formation in our simulation. The impact of the change of dominant structures in overdense regions at z ˜ 2-3 on galaxy formation and evolution is shortly discussed.

  19. Measurement of the velocity of neutrinos from the CNGS beam with the Large Volume Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Agafonova, N.Yu.; Antonioli, P.; Ashikhmin, V.V.; Bari, G.; Bertoni, R.; Bressan, E.; Bruno, G.; Dadykin, V.L.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Garbini, M.; Ghia, P.L.; Giusti, P.; Kemp, E.; Mal'gin, A.S.; Miguez, B.; Molinario, A.; Persiani, R.; Pless, I.A.; Ryasny, V.G.; Ryazhskaya, O.G.; Saavedra, O.; Sartorelli, G.; Shakyrianova, I.R.; Selvi, M.; Trinchero, G.C.; Vigorito, C.; Yakushev, V.F.; Zichichi, A.; Razeto, A.


    We report the measurement of the time-of-flight of ~17 GeV muon neutrinos on the CNGS baseline (732 km) with the Large Volume Detector (LVD) at the Gran Sasso Laboratory. The CERN-SPS accelerator has been operated from May 10th to May 24th 2012, with a tightly bunched-beam structure to allow the velocity of neutrinos to be accurately measured on an event-by-event basis. LVD has detected 48 neutrino events, associated to the beam, with a high absolute time accuracy. These events allow to establish the following limit on the difference between the neutrino speed and the light velocity: -3.8 x 10-6 < (v-c)/c < 3.1 x 10-6 (at 99% C.L.). This value is an order of magnitude lower than previous direct measurements.

  20. Measurements of ammonia concentrations, fluxes and dry deposition velocities to a spruce forest 1991-1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.V.; Hovmand, M.F.; Hummelshøj, P.


    The dry deposition velocities and fluxes of ammonia have been estimated from measurements of the vertical gradient of ammonia and micrometeorology above a spruce forest in western Jutland, Denmark. Measurements have been made in seven periods, each lasting about one week and covering all seasons......, i.e. an ammonia concentration below which the trees and/or the surface emit ammonia due to an equilibrium with the ammonia inside the needles or on the surface. Emission of ammonia was also observed at relatively high ammonia concentration levels (above 2 mu g NH3-N m(-3)), mainly during one...... measuring period characterized by easterly winds with dry conditions and high ammonia concentrations, and the emissions might relate to evaporation from ammonia saturated surfaces or emission from mineralization in the forest soil. In general, relatively high net deposition velocities were observed during...

  1. Measurement and Numerical Simulation of Air Velocity in a Tunnel-Ventilated Broiler House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseo Bustamante


    Full Text Available A building needs to be designed for the whole period of its useful life according to its requirements. However, future climate predictions involve some uncertainty. Thus, several sustainable strategies of adaptation need to be incorporated after the initial design. In this sense, tunnel ventilation in broiler houses provides high air velocity values (2–3 m·s−1 at animal level to diminish their thermal stress and associated mortality. This ventilation system was experimentally incorporated into a Mediterranean climate. The aim was to resolve these thermal problems in hot seasons, as (traditional cross-mechanical ventilation does not provide enough air velocity values. Surprisingly, very little information on tunnel ventilation systems is available, especially in terms of air velocity. Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD and a multi-sensor system, the average results are similar (at animal level: 1.59 ± 0.68 m·s−1 for CFD and 1.55 ± 0.66 m·s−1 for measurements. The ANOVA for validation concluded that the use of CFD or measurements is not significant (p-value = 0.1155. Nevertheless, some problems with air velocity distribution were found and need to be solved. To this end, CFD techniques can help by means of virtual designs and scenarios providing information for the whole indoor space.

  2. Near-surface shear-wave velocity measurements in unlithified sediment (United States)

    Richards, B.T.; Steeples, D.; Miller, R.; Ivanov, J.; Peterie, S.; Sloan, S.D.; McKenna, J.R.


    S-wave velocity can be directly correlated to material stiffness and lithology making it a valuable physical property that has found uses in construction, engineering, and environmental projects. This study compares different methods for measuring S-wave velocities, investigating and identifying the differences among the methods' results, and prioritizing the different methods for optimal S-wave use at the U. S. Army's Yuma Proving Grounds YPG. Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves MASW and S-wave tomography were used to generate S-wave velocity profiles. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. A strong signal-to-noise ratio at the study site gives the MASW method promising resolution. S-wave first arrivals are picked on impulsive sledgehammer data which were then used for the tomography process. Three-component downhole seismic data were collected in-line with a locking geophone, providing ground truth to compare the data and to draw conclusions about the validity of each data set. Results from these S-wave measurement techniques are compared with borehole seismic data and with lithology data from continuous samples to help ascertain the accuracy, and therefore applicability, of each method. This study helps to select the best methods for obtaining S-wave velocities for media much like those found in unconsolidated sediments at YPG. ?? 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  3. A New Velocity Field from a Dense GPS Array in the Southernmost Longitudinal Valley, Southeastern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horng-Yue Chen


    Full Text Available In the southernmost Longitudinal Valley (LV, Taiwan, we analyzed a dense GPS array composed of 10 continuous stations and 86 campaign-mode stations. By removing the effects of the four major earthquakes (one regional and three local occurred during the 1992 - 2010 observation period, we derived a new horizontal velocity field in this area, which then allows better locating the surface traces of the major active faults, including the Longitudinal Valley Fault (LVF system and the Central Range Fault, and characterizing the slip behaviors along the faults. Note that LVF reveals two sub-parallel strands in the study area: the Luyeh Fault to the west and the Lichi Fault to the east. Based on the results of strain analyses, including dilatation and shear strain, and projected vectors of station velocities across the major faults, we came to the following geological interpretations. During the inter-seismic periods, the surface deformation of the southernmost LV is mainly accommodated by the faulting on the two branches of the LVF; there is very little surface deformation on the Central Range Fault. The Luyeh River appears to act as a boundary to divide the LVF to behave differently to its northern and southern sides. The Lichi Fault reveals a change of slip kinematics from an oblique shearing/thrusting in the north to a nearly pure shearing with minor extension to the south. Regarding the slip behavior of the Luyeh Fault, it exhibits a creeping behavior in the north and a partially near-surface-locked faulting behavior in the south. We interpret that the two strands of the LVF merge together in the northern Taitung alluvial plain and turns to E-W trend toward the offshore area.

  4. Measuring the seismic velocity in the top 15 km of Earth's inner core (United States)

    Godwin, Harriet; Waszek, Lauren; Deuss, Arwen


    We present seismic observations of the uppermost layer of the inner core. This was formed most recently, thus its seismic features are related to current solidification processes. Previous studies have only constrained the east-west hemispherical seismic velocity structure in the Earth's inner core at depths greater than 15 km below the inner core boundary. The properties of shallower structure have not yet been determined, because the seismic waves PKIKP and PKiKP used for differential travel time analysis arrive close together and start to interfere. Here, we present a method to make differential travel time measurements for waves that turn in the top 15 km of the inner core, and measure the corresponding seismic velocity anomalies. We achieve this by generating synthetic seismograms to model the overlapping signals of the inner core phase PKIKP and the inner core boundary phase PKiKP. We then use a waveform comparison to attribute different parts of the signal to each phase. By measuring the same parts of the signal in both observed and synthetic data, we are able to calculate differential travel time residuals. We apply our method to data with ray paths which traverse the Pacific hemisphere boundary. We generate a velocity model for this region, finding lower velocity for deeper, more easterly ray paths. Forward modelling suggests that this region contains either a high velocity upper layer, or variation in the location of the hemisphere boundary with depth and/or latitude. Our study presents the first direct seismic observation of the uppermost 15 km of the inner core, opening new possibilities for further investigating the inner core boundary region.

  5. Measurements and correlations of turbulent burning velocities over wide ranges of fuels and elevated pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Bradley, Derek


    The implosion technique has been used to extend measurements of turbulent burning velocities over greater ranges of fuels and pressures. Measurements have been made up to 3.5 MPa and at strain rate Markstein numbers as low as 23. The implosion technique, with spark ignition at two opposite wall positions within a fan-stirred spherical bomb is capable of measuring turbulent burning velocities, at higher pressures than is possible with central ignition. Pressure records and schlieren high speed photography define the rate of burning and the smoothed area of the flame front. The first aim of the study was to extend the previous measurements with ethanol and propane-air, with further measurements over wider ranges of fuels and equivalence ratios with mixtures of hydrogen, methane, 10% hydrogen-90% methane, toluene, and i-octane, with air. The second aim was to study further the low turbulence regime in which turbulent burning co-exists with laminar flame instabilities. Correlations are presented of turbulent burning velocity normalised by the effective rms turbulent velocity acting on the flame front, ut=u0k , with the Karlovitz stretch factor, K, for different strain rate Markstein numbers, a decrease in which increases ut=u0k . Experimental correlations are presented for the present measurements, combined with previous ones. Different burning regimes are also identified, extending from that of mixed turbulence/laminar instability at low values of K to that at high values of K, in which ut=u0k is gradually reduced due to increasing localised flame extinctions. © 2012 The Combustion Institute.

  6. A Tall-Tower Instrument for Mean and Fluctuating Velocity, Fluctuating Temperature and Sensible Heat Flux Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Thomson, D. W.


    For an ongoing elevated-source, urban-scale tracer experiment, an instrument system to measure the three-dimensional wind velocity and the turbulent sensible heat flux was developed. The wind velocity was measured with a combination of cup anemometer, propeller (vertical) and vane sensor. The tem......For an ongoing elevated-source, urban-scale tracer experiment, an instrument system to measure the three-dimensional wind velocity and the turbulent sensible heat flux was developed. The wind velocity was measured with a combination of cup anemometer, propeller (vertical) and vane sensor...

  7. Comparison of index velocity measurements made with a horizontal acoustic Doppler current profiler (United States)

    Jackson, P. Ryan; Johnson, Kevin K.; Duncker, James J.


    The State of Illinois' annual withdrawal from Lake Michigan is limited by a U.S. Supreme Court decree, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is responsible for monitoring flows in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) near Lemont, Illinois as a part of the Lake Michigan Diversion Accounting overseen by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago District. Every 5 years, a technical review committee consisting of practicing engineers and academics is convened to review the U.S. Geological Survey's streamgage practices in the CSSC near Lemont, Illinois. The sixth technical review committee raised a number of questions concerning the flows and streamgage practices in the CSSC near Lemont and this report provides answers to many of those questions. In addition, it is the purpose of this report to examine the index velocity meters in use at Lemont and determine whether the acoustic velocity meter (AVM), which is now the primary index velocity meter, can be replaced by the horizontal acoustic Doppler current profiler (H-ADCP), which is currently the backup meter. Application of the AVM and H-ADCP to index velocity measurements in the CSSC near Lemont, Illinois, has produced good ratings to date. The site is well suited to index velocity measurements in spite of the large range of velocities and highly unsteady flows at the site. Flow variability arises from a range of sources: operation of the waterway through control structures, lockage-generated disturbances, commercial and recreational traffic, industrial withdrawals and discharges, natural inflows, seiches, and storm events. The influences of these factors on the index velocity measurements at Lemont is examined in detail in this report. Results of detailed data comparisons and flow analyses show that use of bank-mounted instrumentation such as the AVM and H-ADCP appears to be the best option for index velocity measurement in the CSSC near Lemont. Comparison of the rating curves for the AVM and H-ADCP demonstrates

  8. Impact of acoustic velocity structure to measurement of ocean bottom crustal deformation (United States)

    Ikuta, R.; Tadokoro, K.; Okuda, T.; Sugimoto, S.; Watanabe, T.; Eto, S.; Ando, M.


    We are developing a geodetic method of monitoring crustal deformation under the ocean using kinematic GPS and acoustic ranging. The goal of our research is to achieve sub-centimeter accuracy in measuring oceanic crustal deformation by a very short-time measurement like 10 hours. In this study, we focused on lateral variation of acoustic velocity structure in seawater and introduced an inclined acoustic velocity structure model to improve accuracy of the measurement. We have a few measurement sites along Nankai trough, Japan. In each sites, we deployed a trio of transponders on ocean floor (seafloor benchmark units) within distance comparable with the depth. An ultrasonic signal is generated from a surface vessel drifting over the benchmark unit, which is received and replied by the benchmark unit. In this system, both acoustic velocity structure and the benchmark unit positions were determined simultaneously for the each measurement using a tomographic technique. This tomographic technique was adopted on an assumption that the acoustic velocity structure is horizontally layered and changes only in time, not in space. Ikuta et al., (AGU fall meeting 2009) reported an approach to improve accuracy of benchmark positioning using a new additional assumption. The additional assumption was that the configuration of the transponders trio constituting one benchmark unit does not change. They determined the time evolution of weight center for the fixed transponder triangle between different measurements using all repetitively obtained data sets at once. This is contrasting to the previous method in which each data set for different measurement was solved independently. This assumption worked well in reducing number of unknown parameters. As a result, repeatability of benchmark positioning improved from 5 cm to 3 cm. We conducted numerical experiments synthesizing acoustic travel-time data to evaluate the robustness of this new approach. When acoustic travel-time data is

  9. MICE Spectrometer Solenoid Magnetic Field Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonova, M. [Fermilab


    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate ionization cooling in a muon beam. Its goal is to measure a 10% change in transverse emittance of a muon beam going through a prototype Neutrino Factory cooling channel section with an absolute measurement accuracy of 0.1%. To measure emittances, MICE uses two solenoidal spectrometers, with Solenoid magnets designed to have 4 T fields, uniform at 3 per mil level in the tracking volumes. Magnetic field measurements of the Spectrometer Solenoid magnet SS2, and analysis of coil parameters for input into magnet models will be discussed.

  10. Measurement of focused ultrasonic fields using a scanning laser vibrometer. (United States)

    Wang, Yuebing; Tyrer, John; Zhihong, Ping; Shiquan, Wang


    With the development of optical techniques, scanning laser vibrometers have been applied successfully in measuring particle velocities and distributions in ultrasonic fields. In this paper, to develop the optical interferometry in measuring focused fields with small amplitude, the "effective" refractive index used for plane waves and extended for spherical waves is presented, the piezo-optic effect as a function of the incident angle of the laser beam is simulated, and the ultrasonic field produced by a concave spherical transducer is calculated numerically around its focal region. To verify the feasibility of the optical method in detecting focused ultrasonic fields, a measurement system was set up that utilized both a scanning laser vibrometer and a membrane hydrophone. Measurements were made in different zones of a focusing transducer, and good results were acquired from the optical interferometry in regions where acoustic waves travel in plane form or spherical form. The data obtained from the optical method are used to reconstruct acoustic fields, and it is found that the focal plane, the maximum pressure, and the beamwidth of the transducer can be forecasted accurately.

  11. Measurements of drift-wave-induced density and velocity fluctuations using high-speed passive impurity spectroscopy (United States)

    Nishizawa, Takashi; Craig, D.; den Hartog, D. J.; Nornberg, M. D.


    Passive impurity spectroscopy is used to study high frequency ( 100 kHz) electron density and ion velocity fluctuations in the edge of MST reversed field pinch plasmas. When tearing modes are suppressed, stochastic transport is greatly reduced and microturbulence is anticipated to become important. Gyrokinetic simulations predict unstable trapped electron modes (TEM) in the edge region of these improved-confinement MST plasmas. Interferometry measurements reveal electron density fluctuations with wavenumbers, propagation direction, and a density-gradient threshold in good agreement with predictions for TEMs. These density fluctuations are also observed as emission fluctuations using a recently upgraded Ion Dynamics Spectrometer (IDS II) through edge passive C +2 measurements. The particle transport associated with TEMs will be evaluated directly by correlating the IDS-measured ion velocity and density fluctuations. The measurement is localized to the C +2 emission shell in the edge of the plasma, which is determined by a coronal charge-state balance model using ADAS. We used a large-throughput spectrometer originally developed for fast CHERS measurements and PMTs for light detection to achieve high time resolution. This work is supported by the US DOE.

  12. Radar speed gun true velocity measurements of sports-balls in flight: application to tennis (United States)

    Robinson, Garry; Robinson, Ian


    Spectators of ball-games often seem to be fascinated by the speed of delivery of the ball. They appear to be less interested in or even oblivious to the mechanism and accuracy of the measurement or where in the flight path of the ball the measurement is actually made. Radar speed guns using the Doppler effect are often employed for such speed measurements. It is well known that such guns virtually always measure the line-of-sight or radial velocity of the ball and as such will return a reading less than or equal to the true speed of the ball. In this paper, using only basic physics principles we investigate such measurements, in particular those associated with the service stroke in tennis. For the service trajectories employed here, a single radar gun located in line with the centre-line of the court in fact under-estimates the speed of a wide serve by about 3.4% at the point of delivery, and by about 14.3% on impact with the court. However, we demonstrate that both the magnitude and direction of the true velocity of the ball throughout its entire flight path may be obtained, at least in principle, by the use of four suitably placed radar speed guns. These four guns must be able to measure the ‘range’ to the ball, enabling its position in flight to be determined, and three of them must be able to measure the radial velocity of the ball. Restrictions on the locations of the speed guns are discussed. Such restrictions are quite liberal, although there are certain configurations of the radar gun positions which cannot be used. Importantly, with the one proviso that no speed gun can be directly in the path of the ball (not only for the obvious reasons), we find that if the speed of the ball can be determined for one point in the trajectory, it can also be determined for all points. The accuracy of the range and radial velocity measurements required to give meaningful results for the true velocity are also briefly discussed. It is found that the accuracy required

  13. Measurements of 3D slip velocities and plasma column lengths of a gliding arc discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Ehn, Andreas


    A non-thermal gliding arc discharge was generated at atmospheric pressure in an air flow. The dynamics of the plasma column and tracer particles were recorded using two synchronized high-speed cameras. Whereas the data analysis for such systems has previously been performed in 2D (analyzing...... the single camera image), we provide here a 3D data analysis that includes 3D reconstructions of the plasma column and 3D particle tracking velocimetry based on discrete tomography methods. The 3D analysis, in particular, the determination of the 3D slip velocity between the plasma column and the gas flow......, gives more realistic insight into the convection cooling process. Additionally, with the determination of the 3D slip velocity and the 3D length of the plasma column, we give more accurate estimates for the drag force, the electric field strength, the power per unit length, and the radius...

  14. Accuracy limitations for low velocity measurements and draft assessment in rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Popiolek, Zbigniew J.; Silva, M.G.


    gradients in the flow of measurement, etc. The impact of these factors can be minimized substantially by improvement of the anemometer design, proper use of the instrument during measurement, and correction of the measured data. However, the extent to which the measuring accuracy can be improved is limited......The measurement of air temperature, mean air speed, and turbulence intensity is required in order to assess air distribution and draft discomfort in ventilated rooms. The measurements are also used for validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions. The uncertainty of the measurements...... must be known in order to perform reliable assessment and validation. At present, a low-velocity thermal anemometer (LVTA) with an omnidirectional (spherical) sensor is most often used in practice for measuring air speed due to its low price and easy and convenient operation. The accuracy of the speed...

  15. New observations from MR velocity-encoded flow measurements concerning diastolic function in constrictive pericarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauner, Kerstin; Horng, A.; Reiser, M.; Huber, A. [Ludwig-Maximilian University, Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals-Campus Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Schmitz, Ch. [Ludwig-Maximilian University, Department of Cardiac Surgery, University Hospitals-Campus Grosshadern, Munich (Germany)


    To assess diastolic function in patients with constrictive pericarditis (CP) by using velocity-encoded flow measurements at the atrioventricular valves and to evaluate whether conclusions regarding increased ventricular pressure can be drawn. Twenty-two patients with CP and 20 healthy subjects were examined on a 1.5-T MR system. In addition to evaluation of pericardial thickness, ventricular volumes and septal movement, velocity-encoded flow measurements were performed at the level of the atrioventricular valves for assessment of diastolic function. Amplitudes of the e- and a-waves were measured and e- to a-wave ratios were calculated. The correlation of transtricuspid e- to a-wave ratios and right ventricular end-diastolic pressures (RVEDP) was calculated. Right ventricular volumes were significantly smaller in patients with CP (p < 0.001). Abnormal septal movement was detected in all patients except one with CP and in none of the healthy subjects. In patients with CP mean transtricuspid e- to a-wave ratios were significantly smaller compared with healthy subjects. Individual transtricuspid e- to a-wave ratios were highly correlated with RVEDP (r = 0.6, p = 0.01). An elaborate MR examination can identify patients with CP. Velocity-encoded flow measurements with calculation of transtricuspid e- to a-wave ratios are a valuable tool for detection of diastolic dysfunction in patients with CP. The value of e- to a-wave ratios may indicate elevated RVEDP. (orig.)

  16. Kinematic modeling of Neotectonic velocity field of the Persia-Tibet-Burma Orogen (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Bird, P.


    New kinematic finite-element program NeoKinema has been applied to compute the long-term-average velocity field and fault slip rates in the Persia-Tibet-Burma orogen using the Maximum-likelihood criterion. The orogen extends from east Turkey on the west, to Burma and Laos on the south, to east and southeast China on the east, and to Mongolia on the north. We use three data sets in our modeling: 1497 GPS benchmark solutions compiled from published sources, 366 geologic slip rates with standard deviations, 876 most compressive horizontal principal stress directions from the World Stress Map 2003 [Mueller et al., 2003]. Faults and potentially active faults are included. But faults of less constrained slip rates, e.g., faults in Iran, are assigned with large uncertainty. An iterative procedure is used to correct for transient fault locking effects on geodetic data. We use an updated plate model PB2002 to approximate the velocity boundary conditions from surrounding rigid plates (Anatolia, Arabia, India, Burma, Sunda, Yangtze, Amur) and the rigid part of the Eurasia plate in a Eurasia-fixed reference frame [Bird, 2003]. We also test various Sunda-Eurasia Euler poles and their effects on our modeling results. The F-E grid has 1564 nodes and 1964 triangular elements. So far 26 models have been computed with various background strain rates and weighting of GPS data. Initial results show a good correspondence between predicted strain rate and Harvard CMT earthquake catalogue with m>5.5. The preferred fault slip rates in central and southeast Asia are generally less than the geologic estimates but within +/-2σ error bounds. The strain rate field and optimal fault slip rate estimates suggest that crustal deformation in the Persia-Tibet-Burma orogen is a mixture of distributed and quasi-rigid block deformation. A few such blocks are central Iran and southern Caspian basin, Tarim basin and Gobi platform, Qaidam basin, Ordos block and north of Tienshan in central Asia.

  17. Magnetic field measurements and mapping techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    These lectures will present an overview of the most common techniques used for the measurement of magnetic field in accelerator magnets. The formalism for a harmonic description of the magnetic field will be presented, including a discussion of harmonics allowed under various types of symmetries in the magnet. The harmonic coil technique for measurement of field harmonics will be covered in depth. Using examples from recent projects, magnetic measurements will be shown to be a powerful tool for monitoring magnet production. Measurements of magnetic axis using extensions of the harmonic coil technique, as well as other techniques, such as the colloidal cell and stretched wire, will be covered. Topics of interest in superconducting magnets, such as time decay and snapback, requiring relatively fast measurements of the harmonics, will also be described.

  18. Laser velocimetry measurements of oscillating airfoil dynamic stall flow field (United States)

    Chandrasekhara, M. S.; Ahmed, S.


    Ensemble-averaged two-component velocity measurements over an airfoil experiencing oscillatory dynamic stall under compressibility conditions were obtained. The measurements show the formation of a separation bubble over the airfoil that persists till angles of attack close to when the dynamic stall vortex forms and convects. The fluid attains mean velocities as large as 1.6 times the free stream velocity with instantaneous values of 1.8 times the free stream velocity. The airfoil motion induces these large velocities in regions that are far removed from the surface.

  19. Velocity measurements of the liquid - gas flow using gamma absorption and modified conditional averaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanus Robert


    Full Text Available The paper presents idea and an exemplary application of gamma-absorption in the measurement of gas bubbles transportation in a gas-liquid mixture flow through a horizontal pipeline. In the tests on laboratory installation two 241Am radioactive sources and probes with NaI(Tl scintillation crystals have been used. For analysis of electrical signals obtained from detectors the modified conditional averaging of the absolute value of delayed signal (CAAV is proposed. The proposed method is based on the quotient of classical cross-correlation (CCF and CAAV. Results of the time delay estimation and gas-phase velocity measurements are compared with one obtained using CCF. The combined uncertainties of the mean velocity of air bubbles evaluation in the presented experiment did not exceed 2.1% (CCF and 1.7% (CCF/CAAV, which is a satisfactory result in industrial applications.

  20. Measurement method of reverberation field reciprocity parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Jundong


    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for measuring the reciprocity parameter based on the free field. It is able to achieve accurate measurement of the reverberation constant in a narrow band. The method uses the same transmitting and receiving system, and keeps the same set of parameters to measure the open circuit voltage output under different frequencies in a free field. The open circuit output voltage is measured through average technology in the reverberation control region, then the reverberation radius is calculated and the reciprocity constant obtained. This method uses a single frequency signal and the spatial averaging technique. It is simple, convenient and not suitable for complex measuring instruments. The validity of the method is verified by comparing the measured results with the reverberation time measurement.

  1. Simultaneous measurements of velocity gradients and rod rotation in 3D turbulence (United States)

    Kramel, Stefan; Ni, Rui; Voth, Greg; Ouellette, Nicholas


    When anisotropic particles are advected in a fluid flow, they rotate in response to the velocity gradient tensor. In 3D turbulent flows, it has previously not been possible to experimentally measure both the motion of anisotropic particles and the velocity gradients simultaneously. We have built a scanning particle tracking velocimetry system in which we illuminate a narrow slab of the volume of interest and scan the illuminated slab through the entire volume, taking sequential images with four high speed cameras. Compared to full volume illumination, this technique enables us to greatly increase the particle concentration because it removes many stereo-matching ambiguities, resulting in a high spatial resolution of the fluid velocity. The trade-off is that the temporal resolution is decreased. We image a low concentration of rods in addition to a high concentration of tracer particles in order to allow extraction of the velocity gradient tensor at the positions of the rods. Rods are found to preferentially align with the direction of the vorticity vector and the intermediate strain-rate eigenvector. Support from NSF grant DMR-1208990.

  2. Study of velocity of sand disintegration in Sigena's cloister by in situ measures.


    Marín Chaves, Cristina; Gisbert Aguilar, Josep; Andaluz Morillo, Natalia; Martín - Bueno, Manuel


    Sigena's cloister (Huesca, Spain)is built on a marsh zone located in one of the most arid zones in Europe, the Monegros. Preliminary studies -including petrographic characteritation and study of alteration forms- showed that both sand disintegration and salts, by means of moisture from capilarity water, were the main alteration mechanisms. In this work we make a cuantitative study of the very hight disintegration velocity by empiric measures. Seven experimental stations were situated under th...

  3. Advancement of an Interferometric Flow Velocity Measurement Technique by Adaptive Optics (United States)

    Büttner, Lars; Leithold, Christoph; Czarske, Jürgen


    Flow measurements often take place under difficult conditions. Optical flow measurement techniques are affected by variations of the refractive index, caused e.g., by temperature, concentration, or pressure gradients. This will give rise to an increased measurement uncertainty or cause the measurement to fail. To overcome these limitations, we propose the employment of adaptive optics. In this contribution we present interferometric flow velocity measurements through a fluctuating air-water interface by the use of adaptive optics. Using the adaptive optics, the rate of valid measurement signals can be improved from 28% to 83%. The results are promising to enable measurements in difficult environments affected by refractive index variations which were not accessible so far.

  4. Influence of initial velocity on trajectories of a charged particle in uniform crossed electric and magnetic fields (United States)

    Nurul Khotimah, Siti; Viridi, Sparisoma; Widayani


    Magnetic and electric fields can cause a charged particle to form interesting trajectories. In general, each trajectory is discussed separately in university physics textbooks for undergraduate students. In this work, a solution of a charged particle moving in a uniform electric field at right angles to a uniform magnetic field (uniform crossed electric and magnetic fields) is reported; it is limited to particle motion in a plane. Specific solutions and their trajectories are obtained only by varying the initial particle velocity. The result shows five basic trajectory patterns, i.e., straight line, sinusoid-like, cycloid, cycloid-like with oscillation, and circle-like. The region of each trajectory is also mapped in the initial velocity space of the particle. This paper is intended for undergraduate students and describes further the trajectories of a charged particle through the regions of electric and magnetic fields influenced by initial condition of the particle, where electromagnetic radiation of an accelerated particle is not considered.

  5. Measuring sound absorption using local field assumptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, E.R.


    To more effectively apply acoustically absorbing materials, it is desirable to measure angle-dependent sound absorption coefficients, preferably in situ. Existing measurement methods are based on an overall model of the acoustic field in front of the absorber, and are therefore sensitive to


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grier, C. J.; Martini, P.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; Zu, Y. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Watson, L. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Dasyra, K. M. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA (CNRS:UMR8112), 61 Avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75014, Paris (France); Dietrich, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45601 (United States); Ferrarese, L. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria BV V9E 2E7 (Canada)


    We present new stellar velocity dispersion measurements for four luminous quasars with the Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrometer instrument and the ALTAIR laser guide star adaptive optics system on the Gemini North 8 m telescope. Stellar velocity dispersion measurements and measurements of the supermassive black hole (BH) masses in luminous quasars are necessary to investigate the coevolution of BHs and galaxies, trace the details of accretion, and probe the nature of feedback. We find that higher-luminosity quasars with higher-mass BHs are not offset with respect to the M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation exhibited by lower-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with lower-mass BHs, nor do we see correlations with galaxy morphology. As part of this analysis, we have recalculated the virial products for the entire sample of reverberation-mapped AGNs and used these data to redetermine the mean virial factor (f) that places the reverberation data on the quiescent M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation. With our updated measurements and new additions to the AGN sample, we obtain (f) = 4.31 {+-} 1.05, which is slightly lower than, but consistent with, most previous determinations.

  7. Noncontact methods for measuring water-surface elevations and velocities in rivers: Implications for depth and discharge extraction (United States)

    Nelson, Jonathan M.; Kinzel, Paul J.; McDonald, Richard R.; Schmeeckle, Mark


    Recently developed optical and videographic methods for measuring water-surface properties in a noninvasive manner hold great promise for extracting river hydraulic and bathymetric information. This paper describes such a technique, concentrating on the method of infrared videog- raphy for measuring surface velocities and both acoustic (laboratory-based) and laser-scanning (field-based) techniques for measuring water-surface elevations. In ideal laboratory situations with simple flows, appropriate spatial and temporal averaging results in accurate water-surface elevations and water-surface velocities. In test cases, this accuracy is sufficient to allow direct inversion of the governing equations of motion to produce estimates of depth and discharge. Unlike other optical techniques for determining local depth that rely on transmissivity of the water column (bathymetric lidar, multi/hyperspectral correlation), this method uses only water-surface information, so even deep and/or turbid flows can be investigated. However, significant errors arise in areas of nonhydrostatic spatial accelerations, such as those associated with flow over bedforms or other relatively steep obstacles. Using laboratory measurements for test cases, the cause of these errors is examined and both a simple semi-empirical method and computational results are presented that can potentially reduce bathymetric inversion errors.

  8. On the Disambiguation of Passively Measured In-home Gait Velocities from Multi-person Smart Homes. (United States)

    Austin, Daniel; Hayes, Tamara L; Kaye, Jeffrey; Mattek, Nora; Pavel, Misha


    In-home monitoring of gait velocity with passive PIR sensors in a smart home has been shown to be an effective method of continuously and unobtrusively measuring this important predictor of cognitive function and mobility. However, passive measurements of velocity are nonspecific with regard to who generated each measurement or walking event. As a result, this method is not suitable for multi-person homes without additional information to aid in the disambiguation of gait velocities. In this paper we propose a method based on Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) combined with infrequent clinical assessments of gait velocity to model in-home walking speeds of two or more residents. Modeling the gait parameters directly allows us to avoid the more difficult problem of assigning each measured velocity individually to the correct resident. We show that if the clinically measured gait velocities of residents are separated by at least 15 cm/s a GMM can be accurately fit to the in-home gait velocity data. We demonstrate the accuracy of this method by showing that the correlation between the means of the GMMs and the clinically measured gait velocities is 0.877 (p value homes. Example applications of using this method to track in-home mean velocities over time are also given.

  9. A System for Acoustic Field Measurement Employing Cartesian Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczodrak Maciej


    Full Text Available A system setup for measurements of acoustic field, together with the results of 3D visualisations of acoustic energy flow are presented in the paper. Spatial sampling of the field is performed by a Cartesian robot. Automatization of the measurement process is achieved with the use of a specialized control system. The method is based on measuring the sound pressure (scalar and particle velocity(vector quantities. The aim of the system is to collect data with a high precision and repeatability. The system is employed for measurements of acoustic energy flow in the proximity of an artificial head in an anechoic chamber. In the measurement setup an algorithm for generation of the probe movement path is included. The algorithm finds the optimum path of the robot movement, taking into account a given 3D object shape present in the measurement space. The results are presented for two cases, first without any obstacle and the other - with an artificial head in the sound field.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A turbulent  boundary layer with large density variations has been generated by tangential injection of air or helium Into a boundary layer of air-helium mixture. Instrumentation based on thermo- anemometry has been successfully developed for the investigation of this flow  Analysis or the mean and fluctuating density fields shows that the flow is mainly governed by the ratio of the injection to the external velocity and that the density ratio plays a secondary role in the mixing processes. However, a sight enhancement of turbulent activity is observed when helium is injected.

  11. Magnetic field measuring system for remapping the ORIC magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosko, S.W.; Hudson, E.D.; Lord, R.S.; Hensley, D.C.; Biggerstaff, J.A.


    The Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility will integrate a new 25 MV tandem electrostatic acccelerator into the existing cyclotron laboratory which includes the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). Computations of ion paths for beam injection from the new tandem into ORIC require field mapping in the regions traversed by the beam. Additional field data is also desired for the higher levels (approx.19 kG) now used for most heavy ion beams. The magnetic field measurement system uses 39 flip coil/current integrator sets with computer controlled data scanning. The coils are spaced radially at 1 inch intervals in an arm which can be rotated azimuthally in 2 degree increments. The entire flip coil assembly can be shifted to larger radii to measure fields beyond the pole boundary. Temperature stabilization of electronic circuitry permits a measurement resolution of +-1 gauss over a dynamic range of +-25,000 gauss. The system will process a scan of 8000 points in about one hour.

  12. MeV-range velocity-space tomography from gamma-ray and neutron emission spectrometry measurements at JET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Nocente, M.; Jacobsen, Asger Schou


    We demonstrate the measurement of a 2D MeV-range ion velocity distribution function by velocity-space tomography at JET. Deuterium ions were accelerated into the MeV-range by third harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating. We made measurements with three neutron emission spectrometers and a high-...

  13. Ultrasonic measurements of the elastic wave velocities of peridotite KLB-1 at mantle P and T (United States)

    Wang, X.; Liu, W.; Herzberg, C. T.; Li, B.


    In situ measurements of sound velocities and densities on individual phases of Earth minerals at high pressure and temperature have provided important data to interpret the seismic structure at depths. When using these data to test compositional models of the mantle (e.g., pyrolite and piclogite), seismic properties of the mineralogical aggregates have to be calculated by using averaging schemes based on the proportion and elasticity of each phase. More importantly, the chemical interactions among various mantle phases are difficult to be accurately included. Since the composition of peridotite KLB-1 closely matches the composition of pyrolite, measurement of it's velocities at relevant mantle conditions will provide the most direct comparison with seismic data. In this study, well-sintered KLB-1 aggregates suitable for ultrasonic measurements were hot-pressed at various P-T conditions up to those of the transition zone. The recovered samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and found to be uniform in grain size (around 10 micron), free of macrocracks and to have bulk densities close to theoretical values (small amount of pores/microcracks observable in SEM scale). P and S wave velocities have been accurately measured up to 7 GPa and 800°C using a combined ultrasonic and X-radiation technique with direct measurement of sample length at high P and T. The success of this experiment makes it possible to extend these measurements to the conditions of the transition zone on aggregate samples to directly discriminate the composition of the Earth's mantle.

  14. Study of flow field of burning particles in a pyrotechnic flame based on particle image and particle velocity (United States)

    Xue, R.; Xu, H. Q.; Li, Y.; Zhu, C. G.


    Studying the burning particles in the pyrotechnic flame is important to acquire the decomposition mechanism and spectral radiance of pyrotechnics. The high speed video (HSV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were used in this paper to analyze the flow field and velocity of burning particles in the flame of pyrotechnics. The binary image was obtained through gray scale treatment and adaptive threshold segmentation from HSV and PIV data, by which the coordinate of each particle was marked. On the basis, the movement trajectory of each particle during combustion was pursued by the most recent guidelines algorithm of cancroids matching. Through the method proposed in this study, the velocity variation of each particle was obtained, the approximate distribution of particle quantity at each zone was visualized and the mathematical model of pyrotechnic particle velocity flow field was established.

  15. Quantitative flow and velocity measurements of pulsatile blood flow with 4D-DSA (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Gabe; Hoffman, Carson; Schafer, Sebastian; Mistretta, Charles A.; Strother, Charles M.


    Time resolved 3D angiographic data from 4D DSA provides a unique environment to explore physical properties of blood flow. Utilizing the pulsatility of the contrast waveform, the Fourier components can be used to track the waveform motion through vessels. Areas of strong pulsatility are determined through the FFT power spectrum. Using this method, we find an accuracy from 4D-DSA flow measurements within 7.6% and 6.8% RMSE of ICA PCVIPR and phantom flow probe validation measurements, respectively. The availability of velocity and flow information with fast acquisition could provide a more quantitative approach to treatment planning and evaluation in interventional radiology.

  16. LETTER: Radial electric field measurement in a tokamak with magnetic field ripple (United States)

    Trier, E.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Hennequin, P.; Fenzi, C.; Bourdelle, C.; Falchetto, G.; Garbet, X.; Aniel, T.; Clairet, F.; Sabot, R.


    In the regions of the Tore Supra tokamak with significant ripple it is expected that a radial electric field (Er) ensures the ambipolarity of fluxes of thermal particles trapped in ripple wells. A neoclassical calculation (Connor and Hastie 1973 Nucl. Fusion 13 221, Stringer 1972 Nucl. Fusion 12 689) shows that Er is related to ion temperature and density gradients. The validity of this relation is investigated in a series of Tore Supra L-mode discharges without external momentum input. Doppler reflectometry measurements of fluctuations perpendicular velocity, which is dominated by the Er × B drift, are found to be in good agreement with the predicted neoclassical Er.

  17. High-field measurements on YBCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.L.; Fowler, C.M.; Freeman, B.L.; Goettee, J.D.; Hults, W.L.; King, J.C.; Rickel, D.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Brooks, J.S.; Mankiewich, P.M.; De Obaldia, E.I.; Skocpol, W.J. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); O`Malley, M.L. [AT& T Bell Labs., Holmdel, NJ (United States)


    The authors have performed resistance measurements on thin films of the high-temperature superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) in applied magnetic fields to above 200 T (2 MegaOersted) at temperatures as low as 2.5 K. The fields are produced by an explosively driven flux-compression system. The authors can see a particularly clear onset, without replotting the data, of the {open_quotes}hydrodynamic{close_quotes} flow of vortices probably because of the very fast increasing field. The low-temperature {open_quotes}critical field{close_quotes} for the field parallel to the c-axis of the sample is 135 T. The data in the other direction are still preliminary. The authors discuss possible interpretation of the results.

  18. Scintillation measurements of the millisecond pulsar PSR J0030+0451 and pulsar space velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Nicastro, L; D'Amico, N; Lumiella, V; Johnston, S


    Scintillation observations of the nearby single millisecond pulsar (MSP) PSR J0030+0451 were carried out with the Parkes 64m radiotelescope at three different epochs in 1999. From analysis of the dynamic spectrum we obtained the amplitude of the electron density power spectrum log C_N^2 ~= -3.33$ and a scintillation velocity V_iss <~ 15 km s^-1. This result shows that the Shklovskii effect on the spin-down rate \\dot P is negligible. We also performed a correlation analysis between pulsar proper motions (V_pm) and scintillation velocities (V_iss) using updated measurements for a sample of 77 objects, 17 of which are MSPs. The full sample shows a correlation coefficient r_s ~= 80% at an extremely high significance level, while for the MSP sub-sample (excluding 2 outliers) we obtain r_s ~= 90%.

  19. Pulse wave velocity 24-hour monitoring with one-site measurements by oscillometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posokhov IN


    Full Text Available Igor N PosokhovHemodynamic Laboratory Ltd, Nizhniy Novgorod, RussiaAbstract: This review describes issues for the estimation of pulse wave velocity (PWV under ambulatory conditions using oscillometric systems. The difference between the principles of measuring the PWV by the standard method and by oscillometry is shown, and information on device validation studies is summarized. It was concluded that currently oscillometry is a method that is very convenient to use in the 24-hour monitoring of the PWV, is relatively accurate, and is reasonably comfortable for the patient. Several indices with the same principles as those in the analysis of blood pressure in ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure, namely the assessment of load, variability, and circadian rhythm, are proposed.Keywords: pulse wave velocity, 24-hour monitoring, oscillometry

  20. Characterization of guided wave velocity and attenuation in anisotropic materials from wavefield measurements (United States)

    Williams, Westin B.; Michaels, Thomas E.; Michaels, Jennifer E.


    The behavior of guided waves propagating in anisotropic composite panels can be substantially more complicated than for isotropic, metallic plates. The angular dependency of wave propagation characteristics need to be understood and quantified before applying methods for damage detection and characterization. This study experimentally investigates the anisotropy of wave speed and attenuation for the fundamental A0-like guided wave mode propagating in a solid laminate composite panel. A piezoelectric transducer is the wave source and a laser Doppler vibrometer is used to measure the outward propagating waves along radial lines originating at the source transducer. Group velocity, phase velocity and attenuation are characterized as a function of angle for a single center frequency. The methods shown in this paper serve as a framework for future adaptation to damage imaging methods using guided waves for structural health monitoring.

  1. On measuring surface wave phase velocity from station–station cross-correlation of ambient signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boschi, Lapo; Weemstra, Cornelis; Verbeke, Julie


    We apply two different algorithms to measure surface wave phase velocity, as a function of frequency, from seismic ambient noise recorded at pairs of stations from a large European network. The two methods are based on consistent theoretical formulations, but differ in the implementation: one...... method involves the time-domain cross-correlation of signal recorded at different stations; the other is based on frequency-domain cross-correlation, and requires finding the zero-crossings of the real part of the cross-correlation spectrum. Furthermore, the time-domain method, as implemented here......, writing out explicitly the relationships between the surface wave Green’s function, ambient-noise cross-correlation and phase and group velocities....

  2. Physical properties of quantum field theory measures (United States)

    Mourão, J. M.; Thiemann, T.; Velhinho, J. M.


    Well known methods of measure theory on infinite dimensional spaces are used to study physical properties of measures relevant to quantum field theory. The difference of typical configurations of free massive scalar field theories with different masses is studied. We apply the same methods to study the Ashtekar-Lewandowski (AL) measure on spaces of connections. In particular we prove that the diffeomorphism group acts ergodically, with respect to the AL measure, on the Ashtekar-Isham space of quantum connections modulo gauge transformations. We also prove that a typical, with respect to the AL measure, quantum connection restricted to a (piecewise analytic) curve leads to a parallel transport discontinuous at every point of the curve.

  3. Crustal composition in the Hidaka Metamorphic Belt estimated from seismic velocity by laboratory measurements (United States)

    Yamauchi, K.; Ishikawa, M.; Sato, H.; Iwasaki, T.; Toyoshima, T.


    To understand the dynamics of the lithosphere in subduction systems, the knowledge of rock composition is significant. However, rock composition of the overriding plate is still poorly understood. To estimate rock composition of the lithosphere, it is an effective method to compare the elastic wave velocities measured under the high pressure and temperature condition with the seismic velocities obtained by active source experiment and earthquake observation. Due to an arc-arc collision in central Hokkaido, middle to lower crust is exposed along the Hidaka Metamorphic Belt (HMB), providing exceptional opportunities to study crust composition of an island arc. Across the HMB, P-wave velocity model has been constructed by refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic profiling (Iwasaki et al., 2004). Furthermore, because of the interpretation of the crustal structure (Ito, 2000), we can follow a continuous pass from the surface to the middle-lower crust. We corrected representative rock samples from HMB and measured ultrasonic P-wave (Vp) and S-wave velocities (Vs) under the pressure up to 1.0 GPa in a temperature range from 25 to 400 °C. For example, the Vp values measured at 25 °C and 0.5 GPa are 5.88 km/s for the granite (74.29 wt.% SiO2), 6.02-6.34 km/s for the tonalites (66.31-68.92 wt.% SiO2), 6.34 km/s for the gneiss (64.69 wt.% SiO2), 6.41-7.05 km/s for the amphibolites (50.06-51.13 wt.% SiO2), and 7.42 km/s for the mafic granulite (50.94 wt.% SiO2). And, Vp of tonalites showed a correlation with SiO2 (wt.%). Comparing with the velocity profiles across the HMB (Iwasaki et al., 2004), we estimate that the lower to middle crust consists of amphibolite and tonalite, and the estimated acoustic impedance contrast between them suggests an existence of a clear reflective boundary, which accords well to the obtained seismic reflection profile (Iwasaki et al., 2014). And, we can obtain the same tendency from comparing measured Vp/Vs ratio and Vp/Vs ratio structure model

  4. Imaging interferometry to measure surface rotation field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travaillot, Thomas; Dohn, Søren; Boisen, Anja


    This paper describes a polarized-light imaging interferometer to measure the rotation field of reflecting surfaces. This setup is based on a homemade prism featuring a birefringence gradient. The arrangement is presented before focusing on the homemade prism and its manufacturing process. The dep....... The dependence of the measured optical phase on the rotation of the surface is derived, thus highlighting the key parameters driving the sensitivity. The system’s capabilities are illustrated by imaging the rotation field at the surface of a tip-loaded polymer specimen.......This paper describes a polarized-light imaging interferometer to measure the rotation field of reflecting surfaces. This setup is based on a homemade prism featuring a birefringence gradient. The arrangement is presented before focusing on the homemade prism and its manufacturing process...

  5. Sampling Criterion for EMC Near Field Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Sørensen, Morten; Ebert, Hans


    An alternative, quasi-empirical sampling criterion for EMC near field measurements intended for close coupling investigations is proposed. The criterion is based on maximum error caused by sub-optimal sampling of near fields in the vicinity of an elementary dipole, which is suggested as a worst......-case representative of a signal trace on a typical printed circuit board. It has been found that the sampling density derived in this way is in fact very similar to that given by the antenna near field sampling theorem, if an error less than 1 dB is required. The principal advantage of the proposed formulation is its...

  6. Electric Field Double Probe Measurements for Ionospheric Space Plasma Experiments (United States)

    Pfaff, R.


    Double probes represent a well-proven technique for gathering high quality DC and AC electric field measurements in a variety of space plasma regimes including the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and mesosphere. Such experiments have been successfully flown on a variety of spacecraft including sounding rockets and satellites. Typical instrument designs involve a series of trades, depending on the science objectives, type of platform (e.g., spinning or 3-axis stabilized), expected plasma regime where the measurements will be made, available telemetry, budget, etc. In general, ionospheric DC electric field instruments that achieve accuracies of 0.1 mV/m or better, place spherical sensors at large distances (10m or more) from the spacecraft body in order to extend well beyond the spacecraft wake and sheath and to achieve large signal-to-noise ratios for DC and long wavelength measurements. Additional sets of sensors inboard of the primary, outermost sensors provide useful additional information, both for diagnostics of the plasma contact potentials, which particularly enhance the DC electric field measurements on non-spinning spacecraft, and for wavelength and phase velocity measurements that use the spaced receiver or "interferometer" technique. Accurate attitude knowledge enables B times V contributions to be subtracted from the measured potentials, and permits the measured components to be rotated into meaningful geophysical reference frames. We review the measurement technique for both DC and wave electric field measurements in the ionosphere discussing recent advances involving high resolution burst memories, multiple baseline double probes, new sensor surface materials, biasing techniques, and other considerations.

  7. The determination of field usability of method measuring temperature fields in the air using an infrared camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešek Martin


    Full Text Available The article deals with the field usability determination of the method for measuring temperature fields in the air using an infrared camera. This method is based on the visualization of temperature fields on an auxiliary material, which is inserted into the non-isothermal air flow. In this article the field usability is determined from time constants of this method, which define borders of usability for low temperature differences (between air flow temperature and surrounding temperature and for low air flow velocities. The field usability determination for measuring temperature fields in the air can be used in many various applications such as air-heating and air-conditioning where the method of measuring temperature fields in the air by infrared camera can be used.

  8. On-chip laser Doppler vibrometer for arterial pulse wave velocity measurement. (United States)

    Li, Yanlu; Segers, Patrick; Dirckx, Joris; Baets, Roel


    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is an important marker for cardiovascular risk. The Laser Doppler vibrometry has been suggested as a potential technique to measure the local carotid PWV by measuring the transit time of the pulse wave between two locations along the common carotid artery (CCA) from skin surface vibrations. However, the present LDV setups are still bulky and difficult to handle. We present in this paper a more compact LDV system integrated on a CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator substrate. In this system, a chip with two homodyne LDVs is utilized to simultaneously measure the pulse wave at two different locations along the CCA. Measurement results show that the dual-LDV chip can successfully conduct the PWV measurement.

  9. Electric Field Quantitative Measurement System and Method (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)


    A method and system are provided for making a quantitative measurement of an electric field. A plurality of antennas separated from one another by known distances are arrayed in a region that extends in at least one dimension. A voltage difference between at least one selected pair of antennas is measured. Each voltage difference is divided by the known distance associated with the selected pair of antennas corresponding thereto to generate a resulting quantity. The plurality of resulting quantities defined over the region quantitatively describe an electric field therein.

  10. Remote query measurement of pressure, fluid-flow velocity, and humidity using magnetoelastic thick-film sensors (United States)

    Grimes, C. A.; Kouzoudis, D.


    Free-standing magnetoelastic thick-film sensors have a characteristic resonant frequency that can be determined by monitoring the magnetic flux emitted from the sensor in response to a time varying magnetic field. This property allows the sensors to be monitored remotely without the use of direct physical connections, such as wires, enabling measurement of environmental parameters from within sealed, opaque containers. In this work, we report on application of magnetoelastic sensors to measurement of atmospheric pressure, fluid-flow velocity, temperature, and mass load. Mass loading effects are demonstrated by fabrication of a remote query humidity sensor, made by coating the magnetoelastic thick film with a thin layer of solgel deposited Al2O3 that reversibly changes mass in response to humidity. c2000 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Leading edge velocity field of an oscillating airfoil in compressible dynamic stall (United States)

    Vandyken, R. D.; Chandrasekhara, M. S.


    Phase-averaged mean-velocity and turbulence data are obtained and analyzed for the leading-edge region of an oscillating airfoil under compressibility conditions. A two-component laser-Doppler velocimetry system was used to make the measurements. Results are compared for the two Mach numbers 0.3 and 0.4 at a reduced frequency of 0.05 with varying airfoil angles of attack. For a Mach number of 0.3, a separation bubble is present on the airfoil throughout the oscillation cycle and no dynamic stall occurs as the peak angle of attack is below the static stall angle. However, a slight imprint of vortical structures is seen in the shear layer enveloping the bubble at the top of the cycle, a result confirmed also by the vorticity contours and in agreement with the earlier stroboscopic schlieren studies. When the Mach number is 0.4, dynamic stall occurs with its origin in the break-up of the separation bubble. Turbulence intensities in the bubble were found to be very large.

  12. 3D velocity field characterization of prosthetic heart valve with two different valve testers by means of stereo-PIV. (United States)

    D'Avenio, Giuseppe; Grigioni, Mauro; Daniele, Carla; Morbiducci, Umberto; Hamilton, Kathrin


    Prosthetic heart valves can be associated to mechanical loading of blood, potentially linked to complications (hemolysis and thrombogenicity) which can be clinically relevant. In order to test such devices in pulsatile mode, pulse duplicators (PDs) have been designed and built according to different concepts. This study was carried out to compare anemometric measurements made on the same prosthetic device, with two widely used PDs. The valve (a 27-mm bileaflet valve) was mounted in the aortic section of the PD. The Sheffield University PD and the RWTH Aachen PD were selected as physical models of the circulation. These two PDs differ mainly in the vertical vs horizontal realization, and in the ventricular section, which in the RWTH PD allows for storage of potential energy in the elastic walls of the ventricle. A glassblown aorta, realized according to the geometric data of the same anatomical district in healthy individuals, was positioned downstream of the valve, obtaining 1:1 geometric similarity conditions. A NaI-glycerol-water solution of suitable kinematic viscosity and, at the same time, the proper refractive index, was selected. The flow field downstream of the valve was measured by means of the stereo-PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) technique, capable of providing the complete 3D velocity field as well as the entire Reynolds stress tensor. The measurements were carried out at the plane intersecting the valve axis. A three-jet profile was clearly found in the plane crossing the leaflets, with both PDs. The extent of the typical recirculation zone in the Valsalva sinus was much larger in the RWTH PD, on account of the different duration of the swirling motion in the ventricular chamber, caused by the elasticity of the ventricle and its geometry. The comparison of the hemodynamical behaviour of the same bileaflet valve tested in two PDs demonstrated the role of the mock loop in affecting the valve performance.

  13. Velocity-measurement bias of the ambient noise method due to source directivity: a case study for the Swedish National Seismic Network (United States)

    Sadeghisorkhani, Hamzeh; Gudmundsson, Ólafur; Roberts, Roland; Tryggvason, Ari


    The bias of velocity measurements from ambient-noise covariograms due to an anisotropic distribution of noise sources is studied assuming that the noise field consists of planar surface waves from large distance. First, general characteristics of the bias are described in terms of their dependence on wavelength, source-anomaly amplitude and width. Second, the expected bias of measurements in Sweden based on a noise-source model for the adjacent regions is analysed. The bias is conceptually explained and described in terms of two regimes, namely a high-frequency and a finite-frequency regime and their parameter domains quantified. Basic scaling laws are established for the bias. It is generally found to be small compared to lateral heterogeneity, except in the finite-frequency regime when interstation distance is small compared to a wavelength and in regions of low levels of heterogeneity. The potential bias, that is, its peak-to-peak variation, is generally higher for group-velocity than phase-velocity measurements. The strongly varying noise-source distribution as seen from Sweden results in predictions of relatively strong bias in the area at relevant frequencies and interstation distances. Levels of heterogeneity in the Baltic shield are relatively low, rendering the potential bias significant. This highlights the need for detailed studies of source anisotropy before application of ambient-noise tomography, particularly in regions with weak velocity heterogeneity. Predicted bias only partially explains deviations of phase-velocity measurements from a regional average for individual station pairs. Restricting measurements to station pairs with interstation distance exceeding five wavelengths limits the potential velocity bias in the area to within 1 per cent. This rather dramatic restriction can be relaxed by directional analysis of the noise-source field and application of azimuthal restrictions to the selected station pairs for measurement.

  14. Measuring Collisionless Damping in Heliospheric Plasmas using Field-Particle Correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Kristopher G


    An innovative field-particle correlation technique is proposed that uses single-point measurements of the electromagnetic fields and particle velocity distribution functions to investigate the net transfer of energy from fields to particles associated with the collisionless damping of turbulent fluctuations in weakly collisional plasmas, such as the solar wind. In addition to providing a direct estimate of the local rate of energy transfer between fields and particles, it provides vital new information about the distribution of that energy transfer in velocity space. This velocity-space signature can potentially be used to identify the dominant collisionless mechanism responsible for the damping of turbulent fluctuations in the solar wind. The application of this novel field-particle correlation technique is illustrated using the simplified case of the Landau damping of Langmuir waves in an electrostatic 1D-1V Vlasov-Poisson plasma, showing that the procedure both estimates the local rate of energy transfer f...

  15. Search for auroral belt E-parallel fields with high-velocity barium ion injections (United States)

    Heppner, J. P.; Ledley, B. G.; Miller, M. L.; Marionni, P. A.; Pongratz, M. B.


    In April 1984, four high-velocity shaped-charge Ba(+) injections were conducted from two sounding rockets at 770-975 km over northern Alaska under conditions of active auroral and magnetic disturbance. Spatial ionization (brightness) profiles of high-velocity Ba(+) clouds from photometric scans following each release were found to be consistent with the 28-sec theoretical time constant for Ba photoionization determined by Carlsten (1975). These observations therefore revealed no evidence of anomalous fast ionization predicted by the Alfven critical velocity hypothesis.

  16. Residence time measurement of an isothermal combustor flow field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Liangta; Spencer, Adrian [Loughborough University, Department of Aero and Auto Engineering, Loughborough (United Kingdom)


    Residence times of combustors have commonly been used to help understand NO{sub x} emissions and flame blowout. Both the time mean velocity and turbulence fields are important to the residence time, but determining the residence time via analysis of a measured velocity field is difficult due to the inherent unsteadiness and the three-dimensional nature of a high-Re swirling flow. A more direct approach to measure residence time is reported here that examines the dynamic response of fuel concentration to a sudden cutoff in the fuel injection. Residence time measurement was mainly taken using a time-resolved planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique, but a second camera for particle image velocimetry (PIV) was added to check that the step change does not alter the velocity field and the spectral content of the coherent structures. Characteristic timescales evaluated from the measurements are referred to as convection and half-life times: The former describes the time delay from a fuel injector exit reference point to a downstream point of interest, and the latter describes the rate of decay once the effect of the reduced scalar concentration at the injection source has been transported to the point of interest. Residence time is often defined as the time taken for a conserved scalar to reduce to half its initial value after injection is stopped: this equivalent to the sum of the convection time and the half-life values. The technique was applied to a high-swirl fuel injector typical of that found in combustor applications. Two test cases have been studied: with central jet (with-jet) and without central jet (no-jet). It was found that the relatively unstable central recirculation zone of the no-jet case resulted in increased transport of fuel into the central region that is dominated by a precessing vortex core, where long half-life times are also found. Based on this, it was inferred that the no-jet case may be more prone to NO{sub x} production. The

  17. Development and validation of a measurement technique for interfacial velocity in liquid-gas separated flow using IR-PTV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Geun; Kim, Hyung Dae [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    A measurement technique of interfacial velocity in air-water separated flow by particle tracking velocimetry using an infrared camera (IR-PTV) was developed. As infrared light with wavelength in the range of 3-5 um could hardly penetrate water, IR-PTV can selectively visualize only the tracer particles existing in depths less than 20 um underneath the air-water interface. To validate the measurement accuracy of the IR-PTV technique, a measurement of the interfacial velocity of the air-water separated flow using Styrofoam particles floating in water was conducted. The interfacial velocity values obtained with the two different measurement techniques showed good agreement with errors less than 5%. It was found from the experimental results obtained using the developed technique that with increasing air velocity, the interfacial velocity proportionally increases, likely because of the increased interfacial stress.

  18. Field measurements of cloud droplet dynamics (United States)

    Molacek, Jan; Bagheri, Gholamhossein; Bertens, Augustinus; Xu, Haitao; Bodenschatz, Eberhard


    We present an in-situ experiment investigating the dynamics of cloud droplets and its dependence on the turbulent flow properties. This dynamics plays a major role in the rate of growth of cloud particles by coalescence and the resulting precipitation rate. The experiment takes place at a mountain research station at an altitude of 2650m, and will make use of a movable platform that can travel with the mean wind velocity. Here we present preliminary results using a stationary setup. Simultaneous measurements of other variables such as droplet size distribution and humidity fluctuations are done in order to develop a more complete picture of the microphysical conditions within clouds. We thank the Bavarian State Ministry of the Environment and Consumer Protection for their generous financial support. We also acknowledge funding from European Union Horizon 2020 Programme via the COMPLETE project.

  19. Quantifying energy and mass transfer in crop canopies: sensors for measurement of temperature and air velocity (United States)

    Bugbee, B.; Monje, O.; Tanner, B.


    Here we report on the in situ performance of inexpensive, miniature sensors that have increased our ability to measure mass and energy fluxes from plant canopies in controlled environments: 1. Surface temperature. Canopy temperature measurements indicate changes in stomatal aperture and thus latent and sensible heat fluxes. Infrared transducers from two manufacturers (Exergen Corporation, Newton, MA; and Everest Interscience, Tucson, AZ, USA) have recently become available. Transducer accuracy matched that of a more expensive hand-held infrared thermometer. 2. Air velocity varies above and within plant canopies and is an important component in mass and energy transfer models. We tested commercially-available needle, heat-transfer anemometers (1 x 50 mm cylinder) that consist of a fine-wire thermocouple and a heater inside a hypodermic needle. The needle is heated and wind speed determined from the temperature rise above ambient. These sensors are particularly useful in measuring the low wind speeds found within plant canopies. 3. Accurate measurements of air temperature adjacent to plant leaves facilitates transport phenomena modeling. We quantified the effect of radiation and air velocity on temperature rise in thermocouples from 10 to 500 micrometers. At high radiation loads and low wind speeds, temperature errors were as large as 7 degrees C above air temperature.

  20. Neutrino velocity measurement with the OPERA experiment in the CNGS beam

    CERN Document Server

    Brunetti, Giulia; Sioli, Maximiliano

    The thesis concerns the measurement of the neutrino velocity with the OPERA experiment in the CNGS beam. There are different theoretical models that allow for Lorentz violating effects which can be investigated with measurements on terrestrial neutrino beams. The MINOS experiment published in 2007 a measure on the muon neutrinos over a distance of 730 km finding a deviation with respect to the expected time of flight of 126 ns with a statistical error of 32 ns and a systematic error of 64 ns. The OPERA experiment observes as well muon neutrinos 730 km away from the source, with a sensitivity significantly better than MINOS thanks to the higher number of interactions in the detector due to the higher energy beam and the much more sophisticated timing system explicitly upgraded in view of the neutrino velocity measurement. This system is composed by atomic cesium clocks and GPS receivers operating in "common view mode". Thanks to this system a time-transfer between the two sites with a precision at the level of...

  1. Measurement of the neutrino velocity with the OPERA detector in the CNGS beam

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, T.; Aleksandrov, A.; Altinok, O.; Alvarez Sanchez, P.; Anokhina, A.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Dhahbi, A.Ben; Bertolin, A.; Bozza, C.; Brugiere, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunet, F.; Brunetti, G.; Buontempo, S.; Carlus, B.; Cavanna, F.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chukanov, A.; Colosimo, G.; Crespi, M.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; De Serio, M.; Declais, Y.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Di Capua, F.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Marco, N.; Dmitrievsky, S.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Ebert, J.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Egorov, O.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Favier, J.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R.A.; Fukuda, T.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Giovannozzi, M.; Girerd, C.; Goldberg, J.; Gollnitz, C.; Golubkov, D.; Goncharova, L.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Gschwendtner, E.; Guerin, C.; Guler, A.M.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, C.; Hamada, K.; Hara, T.; Enikeev, R.; Hierholzer, M.; Hollnagel, A.; Ieva, M.; Ishida, H.; Ishiguro, K.; Jakovcic, K.; Jollet, C.; Jones, M.; Juget, F.; Kamiscioglu, M.; Kawada, J.; Kim, S.H.; Kimura, M.; Kiritsis, E.; Kitagawa, N.; Klicek, B.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Lazzaro, C.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Malgin, A.; Mandrioli, G.; Marteau, J.; Matsuo, T.; Matveev, V.; Mauri, N.; Mazzoni, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Meisel, F.; Meregaglia, A.; Migliozzi, P.; Mikado, S.; Missiaen, D.; Monacelli, P.; Morishima, K.; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Naumov, D.; Nikitina, V.; Nitti, F.; Ogawa, S.; Okateva, N.; Olchevsky, A.; Palamara, O.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B.D.; Park, I.G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, Laura; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pistillo, C.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pretzl, K.; Pupilli, F.; Rescigno, R.; Riguzzi, F.; Roganova, T.; Rokujo, H.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo, A.; Ryasny, V.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Sato, O.; Sato, Y.; Sahnoun, Z.; Schembri, A.; Schuler, J.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Serrano, J.; Shakiryanova, I.; Sheshukov, A.; Shibuya, H.; Shoziyoev, G.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J.S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stellacci, S.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tezuka, I.; Tioukov, V.; Tolun, P.; N.T. Tran,i; Tufanli, S.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Wurtz, J.; Yakushev, V.; Yoon, C.S.; Yoshida, J.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, A.


    The OPERA neutrino experiment at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory has measured the velocity of neutrinos from the CERN CNGS beam over a baseline of about 730 km with much higher accuracy than previous studies conducted with accelerator neutrinos. The measurement is based on high-statistics data taken by OPERA in the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. Dedicated upgrades of the CNGS timing system and of the OPERA detector, as well as a high precision geodesy campaign for the measurement of the neutrino baseline, allowed reaching comparable systematic and statistical accuracies. An early arrival time of CNGS muon neutrinos with respect to the one computed assuming the speed of light in vacuum of (60.7 \\pm 6.9 (stat.) \\pm 7.4 (sys.)) ns was measured. This anomaly corresponds to a relative difference of the muon neutrino velocity with respect to the speed of light (v-c)/c = (2.48 \\pm 0.28 (stat.) \\pm 0.30 (sys.)) \\times 10-5.

  2. Velocity and pressure measurements in guide vane clearance gap of a low specific speed Francis turbine (United States)

    Thapa, B. S.; Dahlhaug, O. G.; Thapa, B.


    In Francis turbine, a small clearance gap between the guide vanes and the cover plates is usually required to pivot guide vanes as a part of governing system. Deflection of cover plates and erosion of mating surfaces causes this gap to increase from its design value. The clearance gap induces the secondary flow in the distributor system. This effects the main flow at the runner inlet, which causes losses in efficiency and instability. A guide vane cascade of a low specific speed Francis turbine has been developed for experimental investigations. The test setup is able to produce similar velocity distributions at the runner inlet as that of a reference prototype turbine. The setup is designed for particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements from the position of stay vane outlet to the position of runner inlet. In this study, velocity and pressure measurements are conducted with 2 mm clearance gap on one side of guide vane. Leakage flow is observed and measured together with pressure measurements. It is concluded that the leakage flow behaves as a jet and mixes with the main flow in cross-wise direction and forms a vortex filament. This causes non-uniform inlet flow conditions at runner blades.

  3. Using smartphone pressure sensors to measure vertical velocities of elevators, stairways, and drones (United States)

    Monteiro, Martín; Martí, Arturo C.


    We measure the vertical velocities of elevators, pedestrians climbing stairs, and drones (flying unmanned aerial vehicles), by means of smartphone pressure sensors. The barometric pressure obtained with the smartphone is related to the altitude of the device via the hydrostatic approximation. From the altitude values, vertical velocities are derived. The approximation considered is valid in the first hundred meters of the inner layers of the atmosphere. In addition to pressure, acceleration values were also recorded using the built-in accelerometer. Numerical integration was performed, obtaining both vertical velocity and altitude. We show that data obtained using the pressure sensor is significantly less noisy than that obtained using the accelerometer. Error accumulation is also evident in the numerical integration of the acceleration values. In the proposed experiments, the pressure sensor also outperforms GPS, because this sensor does not receive satellite signals indoors and, in general, the operating frequency is considerably lower than that of the pressure sensor. In the cases in which it is possible, comparison with reference values taken from the architectural plans of buildings validates the results obtained using the pressure sensor. This proposal is ideally performed as an external or outreach activity with students to gain insight about fundamental questions in mechanics, fluids, and thermodynamics.

  4. Non-uniform velocity of homogeneous DNA in a uniform electric field: consequence of electric-field-induced slow dissociation of highly stable DNA-counterion complexes. (United States)

    Musheev, Michael U; Kanoatov, Mirzo; Krylov, Sergey N


    Identical molecules move with identical velocities when placed in a uniform electric field within a uniform electrolyte. Here we report that homogeneous DNA does not obey this fundamental rule. While most DNA moves with similar velocities, a fraction of DNA moves with velocities that vary within a multiple-fold range. The size of this irregular fraction increases several orders of magnitude when exogenous counterions are added to DNA. The irregular fraction decreases several orders of magnitude when DNA counterions are removed by dialysis against deionized water in the presence of a strong electric field (0.6 kV/cm). Dialysis without the field is ineffective in decreasing the size of irregular fraction. These results suggest that (i) DNA can form very stable complexes with counterions, (ii) these complexes can be dissociated by an electric field, and (iii) the observed non-uniform velocity of DNA is caused by electric-field-induced slow dissociation of these stable complexes. Our findings help to better understand a fundamental property of DNA: its interaction with counterions. In addition, these findings suggest a practical way of making electromigration of DNA more uniform: removal of strongly bound DNA counterions by electro-dialysis against deionized water.

  5. Ambulatory Assessment of Instantaneous Velocity during Walking Using Inertial Sensor Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Maria Sabatini


    Full Text Available A novel approach for estimating the instantaneous velocity of the pelvis during walking was developed based on Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs. The instantaneous velocity was modeled by the sum of a cyclical component, decomposed in the Medio-Lateral (ML, VerTical (VT and Antero-Posterior (AP directions, and the Average Progression Velocity (APV over each gait cycle. The proposed method required the availability of two IMUs, attached to the pelvis and one shank. Gait cycles were identified from the shank angular velocity; for each cycle, the Fourier series coefficients of the pelvis and shank acceleration signals were computed. The cyclical component was estimated by Fourier-based time-integration of the pelvis acceleration. A Bayesian Linear Regression (BLR with Automatic Relevance Determination (ARD predicted the APV from the stride time, the stance duration, and the Fourier series coefficients of the shank acceleration. Healthy subjects performed tasks of Treadmill Walking (TW and Overground Walking (OW, and an optical motion capture system (OMCS was used as reference for algorithm performance assessment. The widths of the limits of agreements (±1.96 standard deviation were computed between the proposed method and the reference OMCS, yielding, for the cyclical component in the different directions: ML: ±0.07 m/s (±0.10 m/s; VT: ±0.03 m/s (±0.05 m/s; AP: ±0.06 m/s (±0.10 m/s, in TW (OW conditions. The ARD-BLR achieved an APV root mean square error of 0.06 m/s (0.07 m/s in the same conditions.

  6. Stress-Release Seismic Source for Seismic Velocity Measurement in Mines (United States)

    Swanson, P. L.; Clark, C.; Richardson, J.; Martin, L.; Zahl, E.; Etter, A.


    Accurate seismic event locations are needed to delineate roles of mine geometry, stress and geologic structures in developing rockburst conditions. Accurate absolute locations are challenging in mine environments with rapid changes in seismic velocity due to sharp contrasts between individual layers and large time-dependent velocity gradients attending excavations. Periodic use of controlled seismic sources can help constrain the velocity in this continually evolving propagation medium comprising the miners' workplace. With a view to constructing realistic velocity models in environments in which use of explosives is problematic, a seismic source was developed subject to the following design constraints: (i) suitable for use in highly disturbed zones surrounding mine openings, (ii) able to produce usable signals over km-scale distances in the frequency range of typical coal mine seismic events (~10-100 Hz), (iii) repeatable, (iv) portable, (v) non-disruptive to mining operations, and (vi) safe for use in potentially explosive gaseous environments. Designs of the compressed load column seismic source (CLCSS), which generates a stress, or load, drop normal to the surface of mine openings, and the fiber-optic based source-initiation timer are presented. Tests were conducted in a coal mine at a depth of 500 m (1700 ft) and signals were recorded on the surface with a 72-ch (14 Hz) exploration seismograph for load drops of 150-470 kN (16-48 tons). Signal-to-noise ratios of unfiltered signals ranged from ~200 immediately above the source (500 m (1700 ft)) to ~8 at the farthest extent of the array (slant distance of ~800 m (2600 ft)), suggesting the potential for use over longer range. Results are compared with signals produced by weight drop and sledge hammer sources, indicating the superior waveform quality for first-arrival measurements with the CLCSS seismic source.

  7. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)


    Magnetic field response sensors designed as passive inductor- capacit or circuits produce magnetic field responses whose harmonic frequenci es correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. Power to the sensing element is acquired using Faraday induc tion. A radio frequency antenna produces the time varying magnetic fi eld used for powering the sensor, as well as receiving the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation architecture for disce rning changes in sensor's response frequency, resistance and amplitud e is integral to the method thus enabling a variety of measurements. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method, thus eliminat ing the need to have a data acquisition channel dedicated to each se nsor. The method does not require the sensors to be in proximity to a ny form of acquisition hardware. A vast array of sensors can be used as interchangeable parts in an overall sensing system.

  8. Measurement of the CMS Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00096921; Bergsma, F.; Campi, D.; Cure, B.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Herve, A.; Korienek, J.; Linde, F.; Lindenmeyer, C.; Loveless, R.; Mulders, M.; Nebel, T.; Smith, R.P.; Stickland, D.; Teafoe, G.; Veillet, L.; Zimmerman, J.K.


    The measurement of the magnetic field in the tracking volume inside the superconducting coil of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector under construction at CERN is done with a fieldmapper designed and produced at Fermilab. The fieldmapper uses 10 3-D B-sensors (Hall probes) developed at NIKHEF and calibrated at CERN to precision 0.05% for a nominal 4 T field. The precise fieldmapper measurements are done in 33840 points inside a cylinder of 1.724 m radius and 7 m long at central fields of 2, 3, 3.5, 3.8, and 4 T. Three components of the magnetic flux density at the CMS coil maximum excitation and the remanent fields on the steel-air interface after discharge of the coil are measured in check-points with 95 3-D B-sensors located near the magnetic flux return yoke elements. Voltages induced in 22 flux-loops made of 405-turn installed on selected segments of the yoke are sampled online during the entire fast discharge (190 s time-constant) of the CMS coil and integrated offline to provide a measurement of the...

  9. GSpecDisp: A matlab GUI package for phase-velocity dispersion measurements from ambient-noise correlations (United States)

    Sadeghisorkhani, Hamzeh; Gudmundsson, Ólafur; Tryggvason, Ari


    We present a graphical user interface (GUI) package to facilitate phase-velocity dispersion measurements of surface waves in noise-correlation traces. The package, called GSpecDisp, provides an interactive environment for the measurements and presentation of the results. The selection of a dispersion curve can be done automatically or manually within the package. The data are time-domain cross-correlations in SAC format, but GSpecDisp measures phase velocity in the spectral domain. Two types of phase-velocity dispersion measurements can be carried out with GSpecDisp; (1) average velocity of a region, and (2) single-pair phase velocity. Both measurements are done by matching the real part of the cross-correlation spectrum with the appropriate Bessel function. Advantages of these two types of measurements are that no prior knowledge about surface-wave dispersion in the region is needed, and that phase velocity can be measured up to that period for which the inter-station distance corresponds to one wavelength. GSpecDisp can measure the phase velocity of Rayleigh and Love waves from all possible components of the noise correlation tensor. First, we briefly present the theory behind the methods that are used, and then describe different modules of the package. Finally, we validate the developed algorithms by applying them to synthetic and real data, and by comparison with other methods. The source code of GSpecDisp can be downloaded from:

  10. Velocity-Aided Attitude Estimation for Helicopter Aircraft Using Microelectromechanical System Inertial-Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Cheol Lee


    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm for velocity-aided attitude estimation for helicopter aircraft using a microelectromechanical system inertial-measurement unit. In general, high- performance gyroscopes are used for estimating the attitude of a helicopter, but this type of sensor is very expensive. When designing a cost-effective attitude system, attitude can be estimated by fusing a low cost accelerometer and a gyro, but the disadvantage of this method is its relatively low accuracy. The accelerometer output includes a component that occurs primarily as the aircraft turns, as well as the gravitational acceleration. When estimating attitude, the accelerometer measurement terms other than gravitational ones can be considered as disturbances. Therefore, errors increase in accordance with the flight dynamics. The proposed algorithm is designed for using velocity as an aid for high accuracy at low cost. It effectively eliminates the disturbances of accelerometer measurements using the airspeed. The algorithm was verified using helicopter experimental data. The algorithm performance was confirmed through a comparison with an attitude estimate obtained from an attitude heading reference system based on a high accuracy optic gyro, which was employed as core attitude equipment in the helicopter.

  11. Strip velocity measurements for gated x-ray imagers using short pulse lasers (United States)

    Ross, P. W.; Cardenas, M.; Griffin, M.; Mead, A.; Silbernagel, C. T.; Bell, P.; Haque, S.


    Strip velocity measurements of gated X-ray imagers are presented using an ultra-short pulse laser. Obtaining time- resolved X-ray images of inertial confinement fusion shots presents a difficult challenge. One diagnostic developed to address this challenge is the gated X-ray imagers. The gated X-ray detectors (GXDs) developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory use a microchannel plate (MCP) coated with a gold strip line, which serves as a photocathode. GXDs are used with an array of pinholes, which image onto various parts of the GXD image plane. As the pulse sweeps over the strip lines, it creates a time history of the event with consecutive images. In order to accurately interpret the timing of the images obtained using the GXDs, it is necessary to measure the propagation of the pulse over the strip line. The strip velocity was measured using a short pulse laser with a pulse duration of approximately 1-2 ps. The 200nm light from the laser is used to illuminate the GXD MCP. The laser pulse is split and a retroreflective mirror is used to delay one of the legs. By adjusting the distance to the mirror, one leg is temporally delayed compared to the reference leg. The retroreflective setup is calibrated using a streak camera with a 1 ns full sweep. Resolution of 0.5 mm is accomplished to achieve a temporal resolution of ~5 ps on the GXD strip line.

  12. Velocity-Aided Attitude Estimation for Helicopter Aircraft Using Microelectromechanical System Inertial-Measurement Units. (United States)

    Lee, Sang Cheol; Hong, Sung Kyung


    This paper presents an algorithm for velocity-aided attitude estimation for helicopter aircraft using a microelectromechanical system inertial-measurement unit. In general, high- performance gyroscopes are used for estimating the attitude of a helicopter, but this type of sensor is very expensive. When designing a cost-effective attitude system, attitude can be estimated by fusing a low cost accelerometer and a gyro, but the disadvantage of this method is its relatively low accuracy. The accelerometer output includes a component that occurs primarily as the aircraft turns, as well as the gravitational acceleration. When estimating attitude, the accelerometer measurement terms other than gravitational ones can be considered as disturbances. Therefore, errors increase in accordance with the flight dynamics. The proposed algorithm is designed for using velocity as an aid for high accuracy at low cost. It effectively eliminates the disturbances of accelerometer measurements using the airspeed. The algorithm was verified using helicopter experimental data. The algorithm performance was confirmed through a comparison with an attitude estimate obtained from an attitude heading reference system based on a high accuracy optic gyro, which was employed as core attitude equipment in the helicopter.

  13. Digital signal processing for velocity measurements in dynamical material's behaviour studies. (United States)

    Devlaminck, Julien; Luc, Jérôme; Chanal, Pierre-Yves


    In this work, we describe different configurations of optical fiber interferometers (types Michelson and Mach-Zehnder) used to measure velocities during dynamical material's behaviour studies. We detail the algorithms of processing developed and optimized to improve the performance of these interferometers especially in terms of time and frequency resolutions. Three methods of analysis of interferometric signals were studied. For Michelson interferometers, the time-frequency analysis of signals by Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) is compared to a time-frequency analysis by Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT). The results have shown that the CWT was more suitable than the STFT for signals with low signal-to-noise, and low velocity and high acceleration areas. For Mach-Zehnder interferometers, the measurement is carried out by analyzing the phase shift between three interferometric signals (Triature processing). These three methods of digital signal processing were evaluated, their measurement uncertainties estimated, and their restrictions or operational limitations specified from experimental results performed on a pulsed power machine.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, David R. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 W Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Bershady, Matthew A., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 N Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)


    Using the integral field unit DensePak on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope we have obtained H{alpha} velocity fields of 39 nearly face-on disks at echelle resolutions. High-quality, uniform kinematic data and a new modeling technique enabled us to derive accurate and precise kinematic inclinations with mean i{sub kin} = 23 Degree-Sign for 90% of these galaxies. Modeling the kinematic data as single, inclined disks in circular rotation improves upon the traditional tilted-ring method. We measure kinematic inclinations with a precision in sin i of 25% at 20 Degree-Sign and 6% at 30 Degree-Sign . Kinematic inclinations are consistent with photometric and inverse Tully-Fisher inclinations when the sample is culled of galaxies with kinematic asymmetries, for which we give two specific prescriptions. Kinematic inclinations can therefore be used in statistical ''face-on'' Tully-Fisher studies. A weighted combination of multiple, independent inclination measurements yield the most precise and accurate inclination. Combining inverse Tully-Fisher inclinations with kinematic inclinations yields joint probability inclinations with a precision in sin i of 10% at 15 Degree-Sign and 5% at 30 Degree-Sign . This level of precision makes accurate mass decompositions of galaxies possible even at low inclination. We find scaling relations between rotation speed and disk-scale length identical to results from more inclined samples. We also observe the trend of more steeply rising rotation curves with increased rotation speed and light concentration. This trend appears to be uncorrelated with disk surface brightness.

  15. Adaptive Task-Space Cooperative Tracking Control of Networked Robotic Manipulators Without Task-Space Velocity Measurements. (United States)

    Liang, Xinwu; Wang, Hesheng; Liu, Yun-Hui; Chen, Weidong; Hu, Guoqiang; Zhao, Jie


    In this paper, the task-space cooperative tracking control problem of networked robotic manipulators without task-space velocity measurements is addressed. To overcome the problem without task-space velocity measurements, a novel task-space position observer is designed to update the estimated task-space position and to simultaneously provide the estimated task-space velocity, based on which an adaptive cooperative tracking controller without task-space velocity measurements is presented by introducing new estimated task-space reference velocity and acceleration. Furthermore, adaptive laws are provided to cope with uncertain kinematics and dynamics and rigorous stability analysis is given to show asymptotical convergence of the task-space tracking and synchronization errors in the presence of communication delays under strongly connected directed graphs. Simulation results are given to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach.

  16. Design of generated axial force measurement tester for tripod constant velocity joints under shudder condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Hee; Lee, Deuk Won; Chung, Jin Ho; Lee, Chul Hee [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Won Oh [ChangAm LS, Asan (Korea, Republic of)


    Generated axial force (GAF) induced by internal friction in a tripod constant velocity (CV) joint causes shudder, which is related to lateral vibration in a vehicle. GAF is produced by tripod dynamics in the CV joint, and its magnitude is related to an applied torque and articulation angle. GAF provides periodic frictional force, owing to its kinematics, and causes take-off shudder that occurs when a vehicle abruptly accelerates from a stop position. Therefore, accurately estimating the GAF in a CV joint is necessary. A non-rotating type GAF measurement tester is developed to measure GAF more accurately, considering the shudder condition. Results of GAF measurements are compared with those obtained using an existing rotating-type tester. The developed tester provides linear results regardless of test conditions; thus, it can be used to estimate the magnitude of GAF and evaluate the friction performance of grease.

  17. Electric Field Effects in RUS Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Timothy W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ten Cate, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Allured, Bradley [UNIV NEVADA, RENO; Carpenter, Michael A [CAMBRIDGE UNIV. UK


    Much of the power of the Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) technique is the ability to make mechanical resonance measurements while the environment of the sample is changed. Temperature and magnetic field are important examples. Due to the common use of piezoelectric transducers near the sample, applied electric fields introduce complications, but many materials have technologically interesting responses to applied static and RF electric fields. Non-contact optical, buffered, or shielded transducers permit the application of charge and externally applied electric fields while making RUS measurements. For conducting samples, in vacuum, charging produces a small negative pressure in the volume of the material - a state rarely explored. At very high charges we influence the electron density near the surface so the propagation of surface waves and their resonances may give us a handle on the relationship of electron density to bond strength and elasticity. Our preliminary results indicate a charge sign dependent effect, but we are studying a number of possible other effects induced by charging. In dielectric materials, external electric fields influence the strain response, particularly in ferroelectrics. Experiments to study this connection at phase transformations are planned. The fact that many geological samples contain single crystal quartz suggests a possible use of the piezoelectric response to drive vibrations using applied RF fields. In polycrystals, averaging of strains in randomly oriented crystals implies using the 'statistical residual' strain as the drive. The ability to excite vibrations in quartzite polycrystals and arenites is explored. We present results of experimental and theoretical approaches to electric field effects using RUS methods.

  18. Prediction of Fluid Velocity in Highly Heterogeneous Conductivity Fields Using a Genetic Algorithm-Designed Artificial Neural Network (United States)

    Shirley, C.


    A genetic algorithm (GA) is used to select the operational parameters of artificial neural networks (ANN) which are trained to predict fluid velocity. Populations of three-layer, feedforward backpropagation ANN's with varying numbers of hidden nodes, types and slopes of activation functions, alpha and beta learning rates and initial distributions of weights for both the input and hidden layers are created by the GA. The GA- defined ANN's are trained with inputs-output pairs of hydraulic conductivity neighborhoods and resulting fluid velocities at certain points in the simulation domain. The hydraulic conductivity fields are highly heterogeneous with an ensemble log conductivity variance of 1.0. Results of the GA are defined and selected ANN velocity predictions are presented.

  19. Measurements of the ion velocity distribution in an ultracold neutral plasma derived from a cold, dense Rydberg gas


    S. D. Bergeson; Lyon, M.


    We report measurements of the ion velocity distribution in an ultracold neutral plasma derived from a dense, cold Rydberg gas in a MOT. The Rydberg atoms are excited using a resonant two-step excitation pathway with lasers of 4 ns duration. The plasma forms spontaneously and rapidly. The rms width of the ion velocity distribution is determined by measuring laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of the ions. The measured excitation efficiency is compared with a Monte-Carlo wavefunction calculation, ...

  20. Benchmark and combined velocity-space tomography of fast-ion D-alpha spectroscopy and collective Thomson scattering measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.


    We demonstrate the combination of fast-ion D-alpha spectroscopy (FIDA) and collective Thomson scattering (CTS) measurements to determine a common best estimate of the fastion velocity distribution function by velocity-space tomography. We further demonstrate a benchmark of FIDA tomography and CTS...... measurements without using a numerical simulation as common reference. Combined velocity-space tomographies from FIDA and CTS measurements confirm that sawtooth crashes reduce the fast-ion phase-space densities in the plasma center and affect ions with pitches close to one more strongly than those with pitches...

  1. Distinguished hyperbolic trajectories in time-dependent fluid flows: analytical and computational approach for velocity fields defined as data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ide


    Full Text Available In this paper we develop analytical and numerical methods for finding special hyperbolic trajectories that govern geometry of Lagrangian structures in time-dependent vector fields. The vector fields (or velocity fields may have arbitrary time dependence and be realized only as data sets over finite time intervals, where space and time are discretized. While the notion of a hyperbolic trajectory is central to dynamical systems theory, much of the theoretical developments for Lagrangian transport proceed under the assumption that such a special hyperbolic trajectory exists. This brings in new mathematical issues that must be addressed in order for Lagrangian transport theory to be applicable in practice, i.e. how to determine whether or not such a trajectory exists and, if it does exist, how to identify it in a sequence of instantaneous velocity fields. We address these issues by developing the notion of a distinguished hyperbolic trajectory (DHT. We develop an existence criteria for certain classes of DHTs in general time-dependent velocity fields, based on the time evolution of Eulerian structures that are observed in individual instantaneous fields over the entire time interval of the data set. We demonstrate the concept of DHTs in inhomogeneous (or "forced" time-dependent linear systems and develop a theory and analytical formula for computing DHTs. Throughout this work the notion of linearization is very important. This is not surprising since hyperbolicity is a "linearized" notion. To extend the analytical formula to more general nonlinear time-dependent velocity fields, we develop a series of coordinate transforms including a type of linearization that is not typically used in dynamical systems theory. We refer to it as Eulerian linearization, which is related to the frame independence of DHTs, as opposed to the Lagrangian linearization, which is typical in dynamical systems theory, which is used in the computation of Lyapunov exponents. We

  2. Shape, size, velocity and field-aligned currents of dayside plasma injections: a multi-altitude study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marchaudon


    Full Text Available On 20 February 2005, Cluster in the outer magnetosphere and Double Star-2 (TC-2 at mid-altitude are situated in the vicinity of the northern cusp/mantle, with Cluster moving sunward and TC-2 anti-sunward. Their magnetic footprints come very close together at about 15:28 UT, over the common field-of-view of SuperDARN radars. Thanks to this conjunction, we determine the velocity, the transverse sizes, perpendicular and parallel to this velocity, and the shape of three magnetic flux tubes of magnetosheath plasma injection. The velocity of the structures determined from the Cluster four-spacecraft timing analysis is almost purely antisunward, in contrast with the antisunward and duskward convection velocity inside the flux tubes. The transverse sizes are defined from the Cluster-TC-2 separation perpendicular to the magnetic field, and from the time spent by a Cluster spacecraft in one structure; they are comprised between 0.6 and 2 RE in agreement with previous studies. Finally, using a comparison between the eigenvectors deduced from a variance analysis of the magnetic perturbation at the four Cluster and at TC-2, we show that the upstream side of the injection flux tubes is magnetically well defined, with even a concave front for the third one giving a bean-like shape, whereas the downstream side is far more turbulent. We also realise the first quantitative comparison between field-aligned currents at Cluster calculated with the curlometer technique and with the single-spacecraft method, assuming infinite parallel current sheets and taking into account the velocity of the injection flux tubes. The results agree nicely, confirming the validity of both methods. Finally, we compare the field-aligned current distribution of the three injection flux tubes at the altitudes of Cluster and TC-2. Both profiles are fairly similar, with mainly a pair of opposite field-aligned currents, upward at low-latitude and downward at high

  3. Shape, size, velocity and field-aligned currents of dayside plasma injections: a multi-altitude study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marchaudon


    Full Text Available On 20 February 2005, Cluster in the outer magnetosphere and Double Star-2 (TC-2 at mid-altitude are situated in the vicinity of the northern cusp/mantle, with Cluster moving sunward and TC-2 anti-sunward. Their magnetic footprints come very close together at about 15:28 UT, over the common field-of-view of SuperDARN radars. Thanks to this conjunction, we determine the velocity, the transverse sizes, perpendicular and parallel to this velocity, and the shape of three magnetic flux tubes of magnetosheath plasma injection. The velocity of the structures determined from the Cluster four-spacecraft timing analysis is almost purely antisunward, in contrast with the antisunward and duskward convection velocity inside the flux tubes. The transverse sizes are defined from the Cluster-TC-2 separation perpendicular to the magnetic field, and from the time spent by a Cluster spacecraft in one structure; they are comprised between 0.6 and 2 RE in agreement with previous studies. Finally, using a comparison between the eigenvectors deduced from a variance analysis of the magnetic perturbation at the four Cluster and at TC-2, we show that the upstream side of the injection flux tubes is magnetically well defined, with even a concave front for the third one giving a bean-like shape, whereas the downstream side is far more turbulent. We also realise the first quantitative comparison between field-aligned currents at Cluster calculated with the curlometer technique and with the single-spacecraft method, assuming infinite parallel current sheets and taking into account the velocity of the injection flux tubes. The results agree nicely, confirming the validity of both methods. Finally, we compare the field-aligned current distribution of the three injection flux tubes at the altitudes of Cluster and TC-2. Both profiles are fairly similar, with mainly a pair of opposite field-aligned currents, upward at low-latitude and downward at high-latitude. In terms of

  4. 3D velocity distribution of P- and S-waves in a biotite gneiss, measured in oil as the pressure medium: Comparison with velocity measurements in a multi-anvil pressure apparatus and with texture-based calculated data (United States)

    Lokajíček, T.; Kern, H.; Svitek, T.; Ivankina, T.


    Ultrasonic measurements of the 3D velocity distribution of P- and S-waves were performed on a spherical sample of a biotite gneiss from the Outokumpu scientific drill hole. Measurements were done at room temperature and pressures up to 400 and 70 MPa, respectively, in a pressure vessel with oil as a pressure medium. A modified transducer/sample assembly and the installation of a new mechanical system allowed simultaneous measurements of P- and S-wave velocities in 132 independent directions of the sphere on a net in steps of 15°. Proper signals for P- and S-waves could be recorded by coating the sample surface with a high-viscosity shear wave gel and by temporal point contacting of the transmitter and receiver transducers with the sample surface during the measurements. The 3D seismic measurements revealed a strong foliation-related directional dependence (anisotropy) of P- and S-wave velocities, which is confirmed by measurements in a multi-anvil apparatus on a cube-shaped specimen of the same rock. Both experimental approaches show a marked pressure sensitivity of P- and S-wave velocities and velocity anisotropies. With increasing pressure, P- and S-wave velocities increase non-linearly due to progressive closure of micro-cracks. The reverse is true for velocity anisotropy. 3D velocity calculations based on neutron diffraction measurements of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of major minerals show that the intrinsic bulk anisotropy is basically caused by the CPO of biotite constituting about 23 vol.% of the rock. Including the shape of biotite grains and oriented low-aspect ratio microcracks into the modelling increases bulk anisotropy. An important finding from this study is that the measurements on the sample sphere and on the sample cube displayed distinct differences, particularly in shear wave velocities. It is assumed that the differences are due to the different geometries of the samples and the configuration of the transducer-sample assembly

  5. A new instrument to measure charged and neutral cometary dust particles at low and high impact velocities (United States)

    Economon, T.; Simpson, J. A.; Tuzzolino, A. J.


    A new class of dust particle detector, the PVDF dust detector, was designed for space missions such as the Halley Comet missions where the particle impact velocity is very high. It is demonstrated that this same PVDF detector (operating in a different mode) also has the capability of detecting dust particles having low velocity (approx. 100 m/s). This low velocity detection capability is extremely important in terms of planned missions requiring measurement of low velocity dust particles such as comet rendezvous missions. An additional detecting element (charge induction cylinder) was also developed which, when combined with a PVDF detector, yields a system which will measure the charge (magnitude and sign) carried by a cometary particle as well as the particle velocity and mass for impact velocities in the range 100 to 500 m/s. Since the cylinder-PVDF detector system has a relatively small geometry factors, an array of PVDF detectors was included having a total sensing area of 0.1 sq m for measurements in regions of space where the dust flux is expected to be low. The characteristics of the detectors in this array have been chosen to provide optimum mass sensitivity for both low-velocity cometary dust as well as high-velocity asteroid associated and interplanetary dust.

  6. Continuos incremental field test to estimate velocity and maximal oxygen consumption in non-expert runners


    José A. Bragada; Moreno, R.; Barbosa, Tiago M.


    Parameters such as a maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and velocity at which VO2max occurs (VelVO2max) are often used to training control purposes to enhance runner’s performance. This study had two purposes: (i) determine the relationship between VelVO2max obtained in continuous incremental filed test (CIFT) and VelVO2max determined on a treadmill in a laboratory; and (II) verify if it is possible to estimate the VO2max based on CIFT velocity

  7. Creep of porous rocks and measurements of elastic wave velocities under different hydrous conditions (United States)

    Eslami, J.; Grgic, D.; Hoxha, D.


    The long-term mechanical behavior of rocks is of prime importance for many geological hazards (e.g., landslides, rock falls, and volcanoes) as well as for the stability of man-made structures (underground mines, road cuts, and open pits). In some shallow environments, rocks exist in partially saturated conditions which can evolve with time according to variations in the relative humidity hr of the atmosphere (e.g., natural slopes, open cut excavations). In underground mines, rocks are also partially saturated because of artificial ventilation. These variations in liquid saturation may have a large impact on mechanical behavior since they imply variations in capillary pressure and, depending on the porosity and on the shape of the porous network, variations in the effective stresses. Therefore, knowledge of static fatigue under saturated and partially saturated conditions is important for estimating the long-term stability of such rock structures. Many studies have already shown that time-dependent weakening is much more important for a saturated rock than for a dry one and that the time to failure may decrease by several orders of magnitude for saturated rocks as compared to dry rocks. In addition, the weakening effect of water is more significant in long-term experiments than in short-term ones (instantaneous loading). A physical explanation for these results may be the enhancement of subcritical crack growth by stress corrosion at crack tips which is often considered to be the main cause of time-dependent behavior of rocks. The failure of brittle rocks during compression tests is preceded by the formation, growth, and coalescence of microcracks. Elastic wave velocities are reduced due to the presence of open microcraks and fractures and may be used to monitor the progressive damage of rocks. The specific experimental setup available in our lab allows the simultaneous measurement of five velocities (with different polarizations and directions) and two directions

  8. Magnetic Field Measurements in Beam Guiding Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Henrichsen, K N


    Electromagnets used as beam guiding elements in particle accelerators and colliders require very tight tole-rances on their magnetic fields and on their alignment along the particle path. This article describes the methods and equipment used for magnetic measurements in beam transport magnets. Descriptions are given of magnetic resonance techniques, various induction coil methods, Hall generator measurements, the fluxgate magnetometer as well as the recently developed method of beam based alignment. References of historical nature as well as citations of recent work are given. The present commercial availability of the different sensors and asso-ciated equipment is indicated. Finally we shall try to analyze possible future needs for developments in those fields.

  9. Measurement of regional pulse wave velocity using very high frame rate ultrasound. (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Hongo, Kazue; Kanai, Hiroshi


    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is the propagation velocity of the pressure wave along the artery due to the heartbeat. The PWV becomes faster with progression of arteriosclerosis and, thus, can be used as a diagnostic index of arteriosclerosis. Measurement of PWV is known as a noninvasive approach for diagnosis of arteriosclerosis and is widely used in clinical situations. In the traditional PWV method, the average PWV is calculated between two points, the carotid and femoral arteries, at an interval of several tens of centimeters. However, PWV depends on part of the arterial tree, i.e., PWVs in the distal arteries are faster than those in the proximal arteries. Therefore, measurement of regional PWV is preferable. To evaluate regional PWV in the present study, the minute vibration velocity of the human carotid arterial wall was measured at intervals of 0.2 mm at 72 points in the arterial longitudinal direction by the phased-tracking method at a high temporal resolution of 3472 Hz, and PWV was estimated by applying the Hilbert transform to those waveforms. In the present study, carotid arteries of three healthy subjects were measured in vivo. The PWVs in short segments of 14.4 mm in the arterial longitudinal direction were estimated to be 5.6, 6.4, and 6.7 m/s, which were in good agreement with those reported in the literature. Furthermore, for one of the subjects, a component was clearly found propagating from the periphery to the direction of the heart, i.e., a well known component reflected by the peripheral arteries. By using the proposed method, the propagation speed of the reflection component was also separately estimated to be -8.4 m/s. The higher magnitude of PWV for the reflection component was considered to be the difference in blood pressure at the arrivals of the forward and reflection components. Such a method would be useful for more sensitive evaluation of the change in elasticity due to progression of arteriosclerosis by measuring the regional PWV

  10. Quantification of Fibrinolysis Using Velocity Curves Measured with Thromboelastometry in Children with Congenital Heart Disease. (United States)

    Faraoni, David; Van der Linden, Philippe; Ducloy-Bouthors, Anne-Sophie; Goobie, Susan M; DiNardo, James A; Nielsen, Vance G


    In this pilot study, we hypothesized that velocity parameters obtained from changes in clot amplitude (A) and clot elasticity (E) measured with thromboelastometry (ROTEM, Tem International GmbH, Munich, Germany) could improve detection of fibrinolysis in whole blood obtained from children undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease. Whole blood samples were obtained after induction of general anesthesia. Seven conditions were studied: native whole blood (baseline) and samples with progressive tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) concentrations (102, 255, 512, 1024, 1535, and 2539 units/mL). We calculated velocity curves based on changes in clot amplitude and elasticity between different time points using ROTEM data. The analysis allowed for the determination of the following parameters: the maximum rate of thrombus formation based on amplitude or elasticity and the maximum rate of thrombus lysis measured based on amplitude (MTL) or maximum rate of thrombus lysis measured based on elasticity (MTLe). We compared these parameters with the lysis in relation to maximal clotting firmness and measured 30 minutes after the clotting time (LI30, in percent). Concentrations of t-PA ≥ 255 units/mL resulted in a decrease in LI30 (mean difference, 255 units/mL versus baseline, -31.05%, P maximum rate of thrombus formation based on amplitude (mean difference, 255 units/mL versus baseline, -7.5, P = 0.005). Concentrations of t-PA ≥ 512 units/mL resulted in changes in maximum rate of thrombus formation based on elasticity (mean difference, 512 units/mL versus baseline, -10.9, P = 0.010), MTL (mean difference, 255 units/mL versus baseline, -3.2, P = 0.016), and MTLe (mean difference, 255 units/mL versus baseline, -7.8, P = 0.004). For t-PA concentrations ≥ 512 units/mL, clot formation was abolished. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curves did not differ between LI30, MTL, and MTLe for the detection of minimal fibrinolytic activation (102 units

  11. Measurement of the ATLAS solenoid magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksa, M; Giudici, P-A; Kehrli, A; Losasso, M; Pons, X; Sandaker, H; Miyagawa, P S; Snow, S W; Hart, J C; Chevalier, L


    ATLAS is a general purpose detector designed to explore a wide range of physics at the Large Hadron Collider. At the centre of ATLAS is a tracking detector in a 2 T solenoidal magnetic field. This paper describes the machine built to map the field, the data analysis methods, the final results, and their estimated uncertainties. The remotely controlled mapping machine used pneumatic motors with feedback from optical encoders to scan an array of Hall probes over the field volume and log data at more than 20 000 points in a few hours. The data were analysed, making full use of the physical constraints on the field and of our knowledge of the solenoid coil geometry. After a series of small corrections derived from the data itself, the resulting maps were fitted with a function obeying Maxwell's equations. The fit residuals had an r.m.s. less than 0.5 mT and the systematic error on the measurement of track sagitta due to the field uncertainty was estimated to be in the range 0.02 % to 0.12 % depending on the track...

  12. Full-field wafer warpage measurement technique (United States)

    Hsieh, H. L.; Lee, J. Y.; Huang, Y. G.; Liang, A. J.; Sun, B. Y.


    An innovative moiré technique for full-field wafer warpage measurement is proposed in this study. The wafer warpage measurement technique is developed based on moiré method, Talbot effect, scanning profiling method, stroboscopic, instantaneous phase-shift method, as well as four-step phase shift method, high resolution, high stability and full-field measurement capabilities can be easily achieved. According to the proposed full-field optical configuration, a laser beam is expanded into a collimated beam with a 2-inch diameter and projected onto the wafer surface. The beam is reflected by the wafer surface and forms a moiré fringe image after passing two circular gratings, which is then focused and captured on a CCD camera for computation. The corresponding moiré fringes reflected from the wafer surface are obtained by overlapping the images of the measuring grating and the reference grating. The moiré fringes will shift when wafer warpage occurs. The phase of the moiré fringes will change proportionally to the degree of warpage in the wafer, which can be measured by detecting variations in the phase shift of the moiré fringes in each detection points on the surface of the entire wafer. The phase shift variations of each detection points can be calculated via the instantaneous phase-shift method and the four-step phase-shift method. By adding up the phase shift variations of each detection points along the radii of the circular gratings, the warpage value and surface topography of the wafer can be obtained. Experiments show that the proposed method is capable of obtaining test results similar to that of a commercial sensor, as well as performing accurate measurements under high speed rotation of 1500rpm. As compared to current warpage measurement methods such as the beam optical method, confocal microscopy, laser interferometry, shadow moiré method, and structured light method, this proposed technique has the advantage of full-field measurement, high

  13. Development of a simplified optical technique for the simultaneous measurement of particle size distribution and velocity (United States)

    Smith, J. L.


    Existing techniques were surveyed, an experimental procedure was developed, a laboratory test model was fabricated, limited data were recovered for proof of principle, and the relationship between particle size distribution and amplitude measurements was illustrated in an effort to develop a low cost, simplified optical technique for measuring particle size distributions and velocities in fluidized bed combustors and gasifiers. A He-Ne laser illuminated Rochi Rulings (range 10 to 500 lines per inch). Various samples of known particle size distributions were passed through the fringe pattern produced by the rulings. A photomultiplier tube converted light from the fringe volume to an electrical signal which was recorded using an oscilloscope and camera. The signal amplitudes were correlated against the known particle size distributions. The correlation holds true for various samples.

  14. Interferometric measurement of displacements and displacement velocities for nondestructive quality control (United States)

    Shpeĭzman, V. V.; Peschanskaya, N. N.


    It is shown that the interferometric measurement of small displacements and small-displacement velocities can be used to determine internal stresses or the stresses induced by an applied load in solids and to control structural changes in them. The interferometric method based on the measurement of the reaction of a solid to a small perturbation in its state of stress is applied to determine stresses from the deviation of the reaction to perturbations from that in the standard stress-free case. For structural control, this method is employed to study the specific features of the characteristics of microplastic deformation that appear after material treatment or operation and manifest themselves in the temperature and force dependences of the rate of a small inelastic strain.

  15. Elasticity Evaluation of Regenerating Cartilage Sample Based on Laser Doppler Measurement of Ultrasonic Particle Velocity (United States)

    Nitta, Naotaka; Misawa, Masaki; Homma, Kazuhiro; Shiina, Tsuyoshi


    It is important for regenerative medicine to evaluate the maturity of regenerating tissue. In the maturity evaluation of regenerating cartilage, it is useful to measure the temporal change of elasticity because the maturity of regenerating tissue is closely related to its elasticity. In this study, an elasticity evaluation method for the extracted regenerating cartilage sample, which is based on the laser Doppler measurement of ultrasonic particle velocity, was experimentally investigated using agar-based phantoms with different elastic moduli and the regenerating cartilage samples extracted from beagles in animal experiments. In addition, the experimentally-obtained elasticity was compared with the result of a static compression test. These results verified the feasibility of the proposed method in the elasticity evaluation of regenerating cartilage samples.

  16. Accurate acoustic power measurement for low-intensity focused ultrasound using focal axial vibration velocity (United States)

    Tao, Chenyang; Guo, Gepu; Ma, Qingyu; Tu, Juan; Zhang, Dong; Hu, Jimin


    Low-intensity focused ultrasound is a form of therapy that can have reversible acoustothermal effects on biological tissue, depending on the exposure parameters. The acoustic power (AP) should be chosen with caution for the sake of safety. To recover the energy of counteracted radial vibrations at the focal point, an accurate AP measurement method using the focal axial vibration velocity (FAVV) is proposed in explicit formulae and is demonstrated experimentally using a laser vibrometer. The experimental APs for two transducers agree well with theoretical calculations and numerical simulations, showing that AP is proportional to the square of the FAVV, with a fixed power gain determined by the physical parameters of the transducers. The favorable results suggest that the FAVV can be used as a valuable parameter for non-contact AP measurement, providing a new strategy for accurate power control for low-intensity focused ultrasound in biomedical engineering.

  17. Optical Feedback Interferometry for Velocity Measurement of Parallel Liquid-Liquid Flows in a Microchannel (United States)

    Ramírez-Miquet, Evelio E.; Perchoux, Julien; Loubière, Karine; Tronche, Clément; Prat, Laurent; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar


    Optical feedback interferometry (OFI) is a compact sensing technique with recent implementation for flow measurements in microchannels. We propose implementing OFI for the analysis at the microscale of multiphase flows starting with the case of parallel flows of two immiscible fluids. The velocity profiles in each phase were measured and the interface location estimated for several operating conditions. To the authors knowledge, this sensing technique is applied here for the first time to multiphase flows. Theoretical profiles issued from a model based on the Couette viscous flow approximation reproduce fairly well the experimental results. The sensing system and the analysis presented here provide a new tool for studying more complex interactions between immiscible fluids (such as liquid droplets flowing in a microchannel). PMID:27527178

  18. Error analysis of cine phase contrast MRI velocity measurements used for strain calculation. (United States)

    Jensen, Elisabeth R; Morrow, Duane A; Felmlee, Joel P; Odegard, Gregory M; Kaufman, Kenton R


    Cine Phase Contrast (CPC) MRI offers unique insight into localized skeletal muscle behavior by providing the ability to quantify muscle strain distribution during cyclic motion. Muscle strain is obtained by temporally integrating and spatially differentiating CPC-encoded velocity. The aim of this study was to quantify CPC measurement accuracy and precision and to describe error propagation into displacement and strain. Using an MRI-compatible jig to move a B-gel phantom within a 1.5 T MRI bore, CPC-encoded velocities were collected. The three orthogonal encoding gradients (through plane, frequency, and phase) were evaluated independently in post-processing. Two systematic error types were corrected: eddy current-induced bias and calibration-type error. Measurement accuracy and precision were quantified before and after removal of systematic error. Through plane- and frequency-encoded data accuracy were within 0.4 mm/s after removal of systematic error - a 70% improvement over the raw data. Corrected phase-encoded data accuracy was within 1.3 mm/s. Measured random error was between 1 to 1.4 mm/s, which followed the theoretical prediction. Propagation of random measurement error into displacement and strain was found to depend on the number of tracked time segments, time segment duration, mesh size, and dimensional order. To verify this, theoretical predictions were compared to experimentally calculated displacement and strain error. For the parameters tested, experimental and theoretical results aligned well. Random strain error approximately halved with a two-fold mesh size increase, as predicted. Displacement and strain accuracy were within 2.6 mm and 3.3%, respectively. These results can be used to predict the accuracy and precision of displacement and strain in user-specific applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rotational Raman-based temperature measurements in a high-velocity, turbulent jet (United States)

    Locke, Randy J.; Wernet, Mark P.; Anderson, Robert C.


    Spontaneous rotational Raman scattering spectroscopy is used to acquire measurements of the mean and root mean square (rms) temperature fluctuations in turbulent, high-velocity heated jets. Raman spectra in air were obtained across a matrix of radial and axial locations downstream from a 50 mm diameter nozzle operating from subsonic to supersonic conditions over a wide range of temperatures and Mach numbers, in accordance with the Tanna matrix frequently used in jet noise studies. These data were acquired in the hostile, high noise (115 dB) environment of a large scale open air test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Temperature estimates were determined by performing non-linear least squares fitting of the single shot spectra to the theoretical rotational Stokes spectra of N2 and O2. The laser employed in this study was a high energy, long-pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. One thousand single-shot spectra were acquired at each spatial coordinate. Mean temperature and rms temperature variations were calculated at each measurement location. Excellent agreement between the averaged and single-shot temperatures was observed with an accuracy better than 2.5% for temperature, and rms variations in temperature between  ±2.2% at 296 K and  ±4.5% at 850 K. The mean and normalized rms temperatures measured here were then compared to NASA’s Consensus data set of PIV velocity and turbulence measurements in similar jet flows. The results of this and planned follow-on studies will support NASA GRC’s development of physics-based jet noise prediction, turbulence modeling and aeroacoustic source modeling codes.

  20. Comparison of genitoanal and bulbospongiosus reflexes and measurement of penile nerve conduction velocity in cats. (United States)

    Cook, J R; Oliver, J E; Purinton, P T


    The bulbospongiosus reflex, genitoanal reflex, and nerve conduction velocity of the dorsal nerve of the penis were evaluated in cats. Seven adult sexually intact or castrated male mixed-breed cats underwent surgical isolation of the bulbospongiosus (analagous to bulbocavernosus) branch, anal branch, and distal trunk of the pudendal nerve. The bulbospongiosus and genitoanal reflexes were recorded from the bulbospongiosus and anal branches, respectively, by electrical stimulation, in turn, of the distal pudendal trunk and the penis itself. Nerve conduction velocity of the dorsal nerve of the penis was calculated by measuring response latency differences in the anal branch after stimulation of 2 sites on the extruded penis. The bulbospongiosus reflex had response latencies of 8.1 to 10.3 ms (distal trunk stimulation) and 11.0 to 13.0 ms (penile stimulation). The genitoanal reflex had latencies of 8.1 to 10.5 ms (distal trunk stimulation) and 11.2 to 13.2 ms (penile stimulation). Response amplitudes diminished at stimulus rates of 5 to 10 Hz; responses were abolished at rates of 12 to 15 Hz, suggesting that the reflexes are polysynaptic. There was no significant difference between latency values for the bulbospongiosus and genitoanal reflexes. Mean +/- SD nerve conduction velocity in the dorsal nerve of the penis was calculated to be 3.8 +/- 0.34 m/s, which was considerably slower than that found in human beings. This may represent technical difficulties in performing the test in cats, but could also indicate a difference between cats and human beings in the predominant population of cutaneous sensory fiber types of the penis.

  1. Dissipated power and induced velocity fields data of a micro single dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator for active flow control. (United States)

    Pescini, E; Martínez, D S; De Giorgi, M G; Francioso, L; Ficarella, A


    In recent years, single dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuators have gained great interest among all the active flow control devices typically employed in aerospace and turbomachinery applications [1,2]. Compared with the macro SDBDs, the micro single dielectric barrier discharge (MSDBD) actuators showed a higher efficiency in conversion of input electrical power to delivered mechanical power [3,4]. This article provides data regarding the performances of a MSDBD plasma actuator [5,6]. The power dissipation values [5] and the experimental and numerical induced velocity fields [6] are provided. The present data support and enrich the research article entitled "Optimization of micro single dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator models based on experimental velocity and body force fields" by Pescini et al. [6].

  2. Potential, velocity, and density fields from redshift-distance samples: Application - Cosmography within 6000 kilometers per second (United States)

    Bertschinger, Edmund; Dekel, Avishai; Faber, Sandra M.; Dressler, Alan; Burstein, David


    A potential flow reconstruction algorithm has been applied to the real universe to reconstruct the three-dimensional potential, velocity, and mass density fields smoothed on large scales. The results are shown as maps of these fields, revealing the three-dimensional structure within 6000 km/s distance from the Local Group. The dominant structure is an extended deep potential well in the Hydra-Centaurus region, stretching across the Galactic plane toward Pavo, broadly confirming the Great Attractor (GA) model of Lynden-Bell et al. (1988). The Local Supercluster appears to be an extended ridge on the near flank of the GA, proceeding through the Virgo Southern Extension to the Virgo and Ursa Major clusters. The Virgo cluster and the Local Group are both falling toward the bottom of the GA potential well with peculiar velocities of 658 + or - 121 km/s and 565 + or - 125 km/s, respectively.

  3. [The radial velocity measurement accuracy of different spectral type low resolution stellar spectra at different signal-to-noise ratio]. (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Fei; Luo, A-Li; Zhao, Yong-Heng


    The radial velocity of the star is very important for the study of the dynamics structure and chemistry evolution of the Milky Way, is also an useful tool for looking for variable or special objects. In the present work, we focus on calculating the radial velocity of different spectral types of low-resolution stellar spectra by adopting a template matching method, so as to provide effective and reliable reference to the different aspects of scientific research We choose high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectra of different spectral type stellar from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and add different noise to simulate the stellar spectra with different SNR. Then we obtain theradial velocity measurement accuracy of different spectral type stellar spectra at different SNR by employing a template matching method. Meanwhile, the radial velocity measurement accuracy of white dwarf stars is analyzed as well. We concluded that the accuracy of radial velocity measurements of early-type stars is much higher than late-type ones. For example, the 1-sigma standard error of radial velocity measurements of A-type stars is 5-8 times as large as K-type and M-type stars. We discuss the reason and suggest that the very narrow lines of late-type stars ensure the accuracy of measurement of radial velocities, while the early-type stars with very wide Balmer lines, such as A-type stars, become sensitive to noise and obtain low accuracy of radial velocities. For the spectra of white dwarfs stars, the standard error of radial velocity measurement could be over 50 km x s(-1) because of their extremely wide Balmer lines. The above conclusion will provide a good reference for stellar scientific study.

  4. A method for measuring the electron drift velocity in working gas using a Frisch-grid ionization chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Huaiyong; Wang, Zhimin; Zhang, Luyu; Chen, Jinxiang; Zhang, Guohui, E-mail:


    A method for measuring the electron drift velocity in working gas is proposed. Based on the cathode and the anode signal waveforms of the Frisch-grid ionization chamber, the electron drift velocity is extracted. With this method, the electron drift velocities in Ar + 10% CH{sub 4}, Ar + 3.5% CO{sub 2} and Kr + 2.7% CO{sub 2} gases have been measured and the results are compared with the existing measurements and the simulating results. Using this method, the electron drift velocity can be monitored throughout the experiment of charged particle without bothering the measurement of other parameters, such as the energy and orientation.

  5. Autonomous Observations of the Upper Ocean Stratification and Velocity Fields About the Seasonally-Retreating Marginal Ice Zone (United States)


    Stratification and Velocity Fields About the Seasonally-Retreating Marginal Ice Zone John M. Toole MS 21/354 Clark Laboratory, WHOI Woods Hole, MA 02543...OBJECTIVES As a contribution to the Marginal Ice Zone DRI, this research element is designed to observe the seasonal evolution of the upper-ocean...Figure 4. Drift tracks of the 5 ITP-V systems deployed during the Marginal Ice Zone DRI program. RESULTS Analysis of the MIZ

  6. Autonomous Observations of the Upper Ocean Stratification and Velocity Field about the Seasonality Retreating Marginal Ice Zone (United States)


    stratification and velocity field about the seasonality-retreating marginal ice zone 5b. GRANT NUMBER N00014-12-1-0140 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...STATEMENT UNLIMITED - UNCLASSIFIED 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT As a contribution to the Marginal Ice Zone ORI, this research element was...understanding of the Arctic air-ice-ocean system. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Arctic Ocean Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction Marginal Ice Zone 16. SECURITY

  7. Autonomous Observations of the Upper Ocean Stratification and Velocity Field about the Seasonally-Retreating Marginal Ice Zone (United States)


    stratification and velocity field about the seasonality-retreating marginal ice zone Sb. GRANT NUMBER N00014-12-1 -0140 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...STATEMENT UNLIMITED- UNCLASSIFIED 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT As a contribution to the Marginal Ice Zone DRI , this research element was...understanding of the Arctic air-ice-ocean system. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Arctic Ocean Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction Marginal Ice Zone 16. SECURITY

  8. Reproduction of pressure field in ultrasonic-measurement-integrated simulation of blood flow. (United States)

    Funamoto, Kenichi; Hayase, Toshiyuki


    Ultrasonic-measurement-integrated (UMI) simulation of blood flow is used to analyze the velocity and pressure fields by applying feedback signals of artificial body forces based on differences of Doppler velocities between ultrasonic measurement and numerical simulation. Previous studies have revealed that UMI simulation accurately reproduces the velocity field of a target blood flow, but that the reproducibility of the pressure field is not necessarily satisfactory. In the present study, the reproduction of the pressure field by UMI simulation was investigated. The effect of feedback on the pressure field was first examined by theoretical analysis, and a pressure compensation method was devised. When the divergence of the feedback force vector was not zero, it influenced the pressure field in the UMI simulation while improving the computational accuracy of the velocity field. Hence, the correct pressure was estimated by adding pressure compensation to remove the deteriorating effect of the feedback. A numerical experiment was conducted dealing with the reproduction of a synthetic three-dimensional steady flow in a thoracic aneurysm to validate results of the theoretical analysis and the proposed pressure compensation method. The ability of the UMI simulation to reproduce the pressure field deteriorated with a large feedback gain. However, by properly compensating the effects of the feedback signals on the pressure, the error in the pressure field was reduced, exhibiting improvement of the computational accuracy. It is thus concluded that the UMI simulation with pressure compensation allows for the reproduction of both velocity and pressure fields of blood flow. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Transducer characterization by sound field measurements. (United States)

    Lenz, Michael; Gust, Norbert; Wolf, Mario; Kühnicke, Elfgard; Rodig, Thomas


    The paper discusses different methods for characterizing an ultrasonic transducer by sound field measurements and introduces a novel easy-to-implement method besides the commonly known point reflector and hydrophone measurement methods. The characterization methods that are presented are particularly suited to measuring the actual transducer element size and determining fabrication details and asymmetries, where the necessary information is derived from the position of the ultrasonic focus and the structure of the sound field. The procedure is discussed on the basis of the following practical problems: measurement of the acoustically relevant element size of a planar 3-MHz annular array made of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) using a single point reflector; visualization of inaccuracies, asymmetries, and fabrication details for different setups with transducer frequencies between 3 and 50 MHz; determination of the element sizes of the single elements of a spherically curved 9-MHz sparse annular array and examination of the transducer¿s focusing characteristics in a fluid containing scattering particles; and determination of the focus position of a 9-MHz single-element transducer with acoustic lens and comparison between two lens materials.

  10. Magnetic properties of iron oxide-based nanoparticles: Study using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution and magnetization measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushakov, M.V. [Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation); Oshtrakh, M.I., E-mail: [Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation); Felner, I. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem (Israel); Semenova, A.S.; Kellerman, D.G. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Šepelák, V. [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Semionkin, V.A. [Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation); Morais, P.C. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Universidade de Brasília, Instituto de Física, DF, Brasília 70910-900 (Brazil)


    We review the results of the study of magnetite, maghemite and nickel ferrite nanoparticles (NPs), applying for magnetic fluids, using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution and magnetization measurements. The Mössbauer spectra of these NPs were fitted using a large number of magnetic sextets reflecting NPs complicity. The presence of polar molecules at the magnetite surface in magnetic fluid increases the NPs magnetic moment and the median hyperfine magnetic field. However, surface coating of maghemite NPs with dimeracptosuccinic acid decreases the median hyperfine magnetic field. An example of nickel ferrite NPs demonstrated a new physical model based on distribution of Ni{sup 2+} in the local microenvironment of Fe{sup 3+} which can explain a large number of magnetic sextets in the Mössbauer spectra measured with a high velocity resolution.

  11. Magnetic properties of iron oxide-based nanoparticles: Study using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution and magnetization measurements (United States)

    Ushakov, M. V.; Oshtrakh, M. I.; Felner, I.; Semenova, A. S.; Kellerman, D. G.; Šepelák, V.; Semionkin, V. A.; Morais, P. C.


    We review the results of the study of magnetite, maghemite and nickel ferrite nanoparticles (NPs), applying for magnetic fluids, using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution and magnetization measurements. The Mössbauer spectra of these NPs were fitted using a large number of magnetic sextets reflecting NPs complicity. The presence of polar molecules at the magnetite surface in magnetic fluid increases the NPs magnetic moment and the median hyperfine magnetic field. However, surface coating of maghemite NPs with dimeracptosuccinic acid decreases the median hyperfine magnetic field. An example of nickel ferrite NPs demonstrated a new physical model based on distribution of Ni2+ in the local microenvironment of Fe3+ which can explain a large number of magnetic sextets in the Mössbauer spectra measured with a high velocity resolution.

  12. Coefficient of Friction Measurements for Thermoplastics and Fibre Composites Under Low Sliding Velocity and High Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Svendsen, Gustav Winther; Hiller, Jochen


    Friction materials for typical brake applications are normally designed considering thermal stability as the major performance criterion. There are, however, brake applications with very limited sliding velocities, where the generated heat is insignificant. In such cases it is possible that frict......Friction materials for typical brake applications are normally designed considering thermal stability as the major performance criterion. There are, however, brake applications with very limited sliding velocities, where the generated heat is insignificant. In such cases it is possible...... that friction materials which are untypical for brake applications, like thermoplastics and fibre composites, can offer superior performance in terms of braking torque, wear resistance and cost than typical brake linings. In this paper coefficient of friction measurements for various thermoplastic and fibre...... composite materials running against a steel surface are presented. All tests were carried out on a pinon-disc test-rig in reciprocating operation at a fixed sliding speed and various pressure levels for both dry and grease lubricated conditions. Moreover, a generic theoretical framework is introduced...

  13. Measurement of crystal growth velocity in a melt-quenched phase-change material. (United States)

    Salinga, Martin; Carria, Egidio; Kaldenbach, Andreas; Bornhöfft, Manuel; Benke, Julia; Mayer, Joachim; Wuttig, Matthias


    Phase-change materials are the basis for next-generation memory devices and reconfigurable electronics, but fundamental understanding of the unconventional kinetics of their phase transitions has been hindered by challenges in the experimental quantification. Here we obtain deeper understanding based on the temperature dependence of the crystal growth velocity of the phase-change material AgInSbTe, as derived from laser-based time-resolved reflectivity measurements. We observe a strict Arrhenius behaviour for the growth velocity over eight orders of magnitude (from ~10 nm s(-1) to ~1 m s(-1)). This can be attributed to the formation of a glass at elevated temperatures because of rapid quenching of the melt. Further, the temperature dependence of the viscosity is derived, which reveals that the supercooled liquid phase must have an extremely high fragility (>100). Finally, the new experimental evidence leads to an interpretation, which comprehensively explains existing data from various different experiments reported in literature.

  14. Group Velocity Measurements in Laser-Heated Capillary Discharge Waveguides for Laser-Plasma Accelerators (United States)

    Pieronek, C. V.; Daniels, J.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Benedetti, C.; Leemans, W. P.


    To date, the most energetic electron beams from laser-plasma accelerators have been produced using gas-filled capillary discharge waveguides, which increase the acceleration length by mitigating diffraction of the driving laser pulse. To reach higher electron beam energies, lower plasma density is required to reduce bunch dephasing. However, confinement of the driver is reduced for lower plasma density, reducing the acceleration length. A laser-heated capillary discharge waveguide, where the discharge is heated by a coaxial laser pulse, was proposed to create a steeper density gradient at lower density. Here the first measurements of group velocity in laser-heated capillary discharges, obtained via spectral interferometry, are presented. Increase of the driver group velocity and reduction in on-axis plasma density by laser-heating are shown. Work supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics, under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Additional support by the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-1415596.

  15. Predicting present-day rates of glacial isostatic adjustment using a smoothed GPS velocity field for the reconciliation of NAD83 reference frames in Canada (United States)

    Craymer, M. R.; Henton, J. A.; Piraszewski, M.


    Glacial isostatic adjustment following the last glacial period is the dominant source of crustal deformation in Canada east of the Rocky Mountains. The present-day vertical component of motion associated with this process may exceed 1 cm/y and is being directly measured with the Global Positioning System (GPS). A consequence of this steady deformation is that high accuracy coordinates at one epoch may not be compatible with those at another epoch. For example, modern precise point positioning (PPP) methods provide coordinates at the epoch of observation while NAD83, the officially adopted reference frame in Canada and the U.S., is expressed at some past reference epoch. The PPP positions are therefore incompatible with coordinates in such a realization of the reference frame and need to be propagated back to the frame's reference epoch. Moreover, the realizations of NAD83 adopted by the provincial geodetic agencies in Canada are referenced to different coordinate epochs; either 1997.0 or 2002.0. Proper comparison of coordinates between provinces therefore requires propagating them from one reference epoch to another. In an effort to reconcile PPP results and different realizations of NAD83, we empirically represent crustal deformation throughout Canada using a velocity field based solely on high accuracy continuous and episodic GPS observations. The continuous observations from 2001 to 2007 were obtained from nearly 100 permanent GPS stations, predominately operated by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) and provincial geodetic agencies. Many of these sites are part of the International GNSS Service (IGS) global network. Episodic observations from 1994 to 2006 were obtained from repeated occupations of the Canadian Base Network (CBN), which consists of approximately 160 stable pillar-type monuments across the entire country. The CBN enables a much denser spatial sampling of crustal motions although coverage in the far north is still rather sparse. NRCan solutions of

  16. Validity and reproducibility of arterial pulse wave velocity measurement using new device with oscillometric technique: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patnaik Amar


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Availability of a range of techniques and devices allow measurement of many variables related to the stiffness of large or medium sized arteries. There is good evidence that, pulse wave velocity is a relatively simple measurement and is a good indicator of changes in arterial properties. The pulse wave velocity calculated from pulse wave recording by other methods like doppler or tonometry is tedious, time-consuming and above all their reproducibility depends on the operator skills. It requires intensive resource involvement. For epidemiological studies these methods are not suitable. The aim of our study was to clinically evaluate the validity and reproducibility of a new automatic device for measurement of pulse wave velocity that can be used in such studies. Methods In 44 subjects including normal healthy control and patients with coronary artery disease, heart brachial, heart ankle, brachial ankle and carotid femoral pulse wave velocities were recorded by using a new oscillometric device. Lead I and II electrocardiogram and pressure curves were simultaneously recorded. Two observers recorded the pulse wave velocity for validation and one observer recorded the velocity on two occasions for reproducibility. Results and Discussion Pulse wave velocity and arterial stiffness index were recorded in 24 control and 20 coronary artery disease patients. All the velocities were significantly high in coronary artery disease patients. There was highly significant correlation between the values noted by the two observers with low standard deviation. The Pearson's correlation coefficient for various velocities ranged from (r = 0.88–0.90 with (p Conclusion The new device "PeriScope" based on oscillometric technique has been found to be a simple, non-invasive and reproducible device for the assessment of pulse wave velocity and can be used to determine arterial stiffness in large population based studies.

  17. The Contradiction Between the Measurement Theory of Quantum Mechanics and the Theory that the Velocity of Any Particle Can Not be Larger than the Velocity of Light (United States)

    Shen, Y.; Shen, Z. J.; Shen, G. T.; Yang, B. C.


    By the measurement theory of quantum mechanics and the method of Fourier transform,we proved that the wave function psi(x,y,z,t)= (8/((2(pi)(2L(exp (1/2)))(exp 3))(Phi(L,t,x)Phi(L,t,y)Phi(L,t,z)). According to the theory that the velocity of any particle can not be larger than the velocity of light and the Born interpretation, when absolute value of delta greater than (ct+ L),Phi(L,t,delta) = 0. But according to the calculation, we proved that for some delta, even if absolute value of delta is greater than (ct+L), Phi(L,t,delta) is not equal to 0.

  18. Detecting signatures of stochastic self-organization in US money and velocity measures (United States)

    Serletis, Apostolos; Uritskaya, Olga Y.


    In this paper, we continue the research by Serletis [Random walks, breaking trend functions, and the chaotic structure of the velocity of money, J. Bus. Econ. Stat. 13 (1995) 453-458] and Serletis and Shintani [Chaotic monetary dynamics with confidence, J. Macroeconomics 28 (2006) 228-252] by applying the method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA)-introduced by Peng et al. [Mosaic organization of DNA nucleotides, Phys. Rev. E 49 (1994) 1685-1689] and adapted to the analysis of long-range correlations in economic data by Uritskaya [Forecasting of magnitude and duration of currency crises based on analysis of distortions of fractal scaling in exchange rate fluctuations, Noise and fluctuations in econophysics and finance, Proc. SPIE 5848 (2005) 17-26; Fractal methods for modeling and forecasting of currency crises, in: Proceedings of the fourth International Conference on Modeling and Analysis of Safety and Risk in Complex Systems, SPbSU Press, St.Petersburg, 2005, pp. 210-215]-to investigate the dynamical structure of United States money and velocity measures. We use monthly data over the time period from 1959:1 to 2006:2, at each of the four levels of monetary aggregation, M1, M2, M3, and MZM, making comparisons among simple-sum, Divisia, and currency equivalent (CE) methods of aggregation. The results suggest that the sum and Divisia monetary aggregates are more appropriate for measuring long-term tendencies in money supply dynamics while the CE aggregates are more sensitive measures of short-term processes in the economy.

  19. Comparison of measurements and computations of isothermal flow velocity inside HyperVapotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergis, A., E-mail: [The Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Resvanis, K.; Hardalupas, Y. [The Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Barrett, T. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • A popular HHF device is the HyperVapotron (HV). • HVs employ a heat transfer mechanism called the Vapotron effect. • Experimental quantitative visualisation of the device has not been performed. • CFD tools used in the past to analyse HVs did not benchmark the coolant flows. • A PIV experiment is used to create benchmark data and compare them to literature. - Abstract: HyperVapotrons are two-phase water-cooled heat exchangers able to receive high heat fluxes (HHF) by employing a cyclic phenomenon called the “Vapotron Effect”. HyperVapotrons have been used routinely in HHF nuclear fusion applications. A detailed experimental investigation on the effect giving rise to the ability to sustain steady state heat fluxes in excess of 10 MW/m{sup 2} has not yet been possible and hence the phenomenon is not yet well understood. The coolant flow structures that promote the effect have been a major point of interest, and many investigations based on computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations have been performed in the past. The understanding of the physics of the coolant flow inside the device may hold the key to further optimisation of engineering designs. However, past computational investigations have not been experimentally evaluated. Isothermal flow velocity distribution measurements of the fluid flow in HyperVapotron optical models with high spatial resolution are performed in this paper. The same measurements are subsequently calculated via commercial CFD software. The isothermal CFD calculation is compared to the experimental velocity measurements to deduce the accuracy of the CFD investigations carried out. This unique comparison between computational and experimental results in HyperVapotrons will direct future efforts in analysing similar devices.

  20. 3-Component acceleration field measurement by dual-time stereoscopic particle image velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, L. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Aerodynamiques - UMR CNRS 6609, Poitiers (France); Boulevard Paul Langevin, Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille - UMR CNRS 8107, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Braud, P.; David, L. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Aerodynamiques - UMR CNRS 6609, Boulevard Marie et Pierre Curie teleport 2, B.P. 30179, Futuroscope Poitiers Cedex (France); Fourment, C.; Delville, J. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Aerodynamiques - UMR CNRS 6609, Poitiers (France)


    In this article, a multiplane stereo-particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was implemented and validated to measure the three-component acceleration field in a plane of turbulent flows. The employed technique relies on the use of two stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) systems to measure pairs of velocity fields superimposed in space but shifted in time. The time delay between the two velocity fields enables the implementation of a finite difference scheme to compute temporal derivatives. The use of two synchronized SPIV systems allows us to overcome the limited acquisition rate of PIV systems when dealing with highly turbulent flows. Moreover, a methodology based on the analysis of the spectral error distribution is described here to determine the optimal time delay to compute time derivatives. The present dual-time SPIV arrangement and the proposed analysis method are applied