Sample records for vein peletab stressi

  1. Ammattikorkeakouluopiskelijoiden stressi


    Kivimäki, Marja


    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää ammattikorkeakouluopiskelijoiden kokemaa stressiä ja sen hallintaa. Tavoitteena oli tuottaa tietoa opiskeluterveydenhuollolle ja vertaistuutoritoiminnalle ammattikorkeakouluopiskelijoiden stressinhallinnan edistämiseksi. Tutkimus toteutettiin kvantitatiivisena eli määrällisenä tutkimuksena. Tutkimuksen kohteena olivat Satakunnan ammattikorkeakoulun Raumalla opiskelevat opiskelijat. Aineisto kerättiin sähköisellä kyselylomakkeella. Kyselyyn vasta...



    Lähteenmäki, Tanja; Laine, Maija


    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tutkia, kuinka paljon Kymenlaakson ammattikorkeakoulun opiskelijat käyttävät aikaa opiskeluun ja toisaalta työhön ja harrastuksiin. Opinnäytetyössä kartoitettiin, missä määrin opiskelijat kokivat stressiä ja mistä koettu stressi johtui. Kuormittumisen lisäksi kartoitettiin myös opiskelijoiden voimavaroja. Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin myös, kuormittiko opiskelu parisuhdetta ja antoiko parisuhde voimavaroja opiskeluun. Opinnäytetyö toteutettiin kvantitat...

  3. Stressi mõjust läbipõlemisprotsessile politseiteenistujate uuringute põhjal / Liivia Anion

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Anion, Liivia


    Ülevaade läbipõlemissündroomi kontseptuaalsest arengust, olulisematest läbipõlemise teooriatest ja mudelitest, politseinike stressi (läbipõlemise) uurimuste tulemustest kogu maailmas, sh Eesti politseis. Skeemid. Diagrammid. Tabelid

  4. Varicose vein - noninvasive treatment (United States)

    Sclerotherapy; Laser therapy - varicose veins; Radiofrequency vein ablation; Endovenous thermal ablation; Ambulatory phlebectomy; Transilluminated power phlebotomy; Endovenous laser ablation; Varicose vein ...

  5. Portal Vein Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Demirci


    Full Text Available Portal vein thrombosis is an important cause of presinusoidal portal hypertension. Portal vein thrombosis commonly occurs in patient with cirrhosis, malignancy and prothrombotic states. Patients with acute portal vein thrombosis have immediate onset. Patients with chronic portal vein thrombosis have developed portal hypertension and cavernous portal transformation. Portal vein thrombosis is diagnosed with doppler ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Therapy with low molecular weight heparin achieves recanalization in more than half of acute cases.

  6. Focus on Varicose Veins (United States)

    ... plethysmography. These diagnostic tests are non-invasive and painless. How are varicose veins treated? Varicose veins are ... and mid-term results. • RF treatment involves controlled delivery of radio- frequency (RF) energy directly to a ...

  7. Portal Vein Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Cohen


    Full Text Available Portal vein thrombosis (PVT is the blockage or narrowing of the portal vein by a thrombus. It is relatively rare and has been linked with the presence of an underlying liver disease or prothrombotic disorders. We present a case of a young male who presented with vague abdominal symptoms for approximately one week. Imaging revealed the presence of multiple nonocclusive thrombi involving the right portal vein, the splenic vein, and the left renal vein, as well as complete occlusion of the left portal vein and the superior mesenteric vein. We discuss pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management of both acute and chronic thrombosis. The presence of PVT should be considered as a clue for prothrombotic disorders, liver disease, and other local and general factors that must be carefully investigated. It is hoped that this case report will help increase awareness of the complexity associated with portal vein thrombosis among the medical community.

  8. What Are Varicose Veins? (United States)

    ... often they develop in people who have certain genetic disorders, viral infections, or other conditions, such as ... all people who have varicose veins have a family history of them. Older ... or blue veins in a web or tree branch pattern. Often, these veins appear on the ...

  9. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    CONCLUSION: Deep Venous Thrombosis is a common disease with fatal and serious long term burdensome complications. ... WAJM 2009; 28(2): 77–82. Keywords: Deep Vein Thrombosis, Venous Thrombosis,. Phlebothrombosis. ... phlebitic syndrome, ulcers and varicose veins. In surgical patients with malignant disease ...

  10. Vein Problems Related to Varicose Veins (United States)

    ... Examples of these factors include family history, older age, gender, pregnancy, overweight or obesity , lack of movement, and leg trauma. Varicose veins are treated with lifestyle changes and medical procedures. The goals of treatment are to relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and improve ...

  11. Congenital preduodenal portal vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Hwang, Mi Soo; Huh, Young Soo; Park, Bok Hwan [College of Medicine, Youngnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)


    Congenital preduodenal portal vein, first reported by Knight in 1921, is an extremely rare congenital anomaly in which the portal vein passes anteriorly to the duodenum rather than posteriorly in its normal location. It is of surgical significance because it may cause difficulties in operations involving the gall bladder, biliary duct, or duodenum. Recently, we experienced 2 cases of preduodenal portal vein. One was found during surgical exploration for the diagnosis and correction of malrotation of the bowels and the other in a 3 day-old male newborn associated with dextrocardia, situs inversus, and duodenal obstruction by diaphragm. We report these 2 cases with a review of the literature.

  12. What Are Varicose Veins? (United States)

    ... these factors include family history, older age, gender, pregnancy, overweight or obesity , lack of movement, and leg trauma. Varicose veins are treated with lifestyle changes and medical procedures. The goals of treatment ...

  13. Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis (United States)

    ... methods that contain estrogen or hormone therapy for menopause symptoms Certain illnesses, including heart failure, inflammatory bowel disease, and some kidney disorders Obesity Smoking Varicose veins Having a tube in a ...

  14. Popliteal vein aneurysm. (United States)

    Falkowski, A; Poncyljusz, W; Zawierucha, D; Kuczmik, W


    The incidence of a popliteal vein aneurysm is extremely low. Two cases of this rare venous anomaly are described. The epidemiology, morphology, and diagnostic methods are discussed and the potentially dangerous complications and treatment methods are presented.

  15. Portal Vein Thrombosis (United States)

    Chawla, Yogesh K.; Bodh, Vijay


    Portal vein thrombosis is an important cause of portal hypertension. PVT occurs in association with cirrhosis or as a result of malignant invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma or even in the absence of associated liver disease. With the current research into its genesis, majority now have an underlying prothrombotic state detectable. Endothelial activation and stagnant portal blood flow also contribute to formation of the thrombus. Acute non-cirrhotic PVT, chronic PVT (EHPVO), and portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis are the three main variants of portal vein thrombosis with varying etiological factors and variability in presentation and management. Procoagulant state should be actively investigated. Anticoagulation is the mainstay of therapy for acute non-cirrhotic PVT, with supporting evidence for its use in cirrhotic population as well. Chronic PVT (EHPVO) on the other hand requires the management of portal hypertension as such and with role for anticoagulation in the setting of underlying prothrombotic state, however data is awaited in those with no underlying prothrombotic states. TIPS and liver transplant may be feasible even in the setting of PVT however proper selection of candidates and type of surgery is warranted. Thrombolysis and thrombectomy have some role. TARE is a new modality for management of HCC with portal vein invasion. PMID:25941431

  16. [Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis. (United States)

    Sandoval-Chagoya, Gloria Alejandra; Laniado-Laborín, Rafael


    Background: despite the proven effectiveness of preventive therapy for deep vein thrombosis, a significant proportion of patients at risk for thromboembolism do not receive prophylaxis during hospitalization. Our objective was to determine the adherence to thrombosis prophylaxis guidelines in a general hospital as a quality control strategy. Methods: a random audit of clinical charts was conducted at the Tijuana General Hospital, Baja California, Mexico, to determine the degree of adherence to deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis guidelines. The instrument used was the Caprini's checklist for thrombosis risk assessment in adult patients. Results: the sample included 300 patient charts; 182 (60.7 %) were surgical patients and 118 were medical patients. Forty six patients (15.3 %) received deep vein thrombosis pharmacologic prophylaxis; 27.1 % of medical patients received deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis versus 8.3 % of surgical patients (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: our results show that adherence to DVT prophylaxis at our hospital is extremely low. Only 15.3 % of our patients at risk received treatment, and even patients with very high risk received treatment in less than 25 % of the cases. We have implemented strategies to increase compliance with clinical guidelines.

  17. Cucumber vein yellowing virus (United States)

    Cucurbits are an important crop of temperate, subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) is a major viral pathogen of cucurbits. This chapter provides an overview of the biology of CVYV and the disease it causes....

  18. Squash vein yellowing virus (United States)

    Cucurbits are an important crop of temperate, subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is a major viral pathogen of cucurbits. This chapter provides an overview of the biology of SqVYV and the disease it causes....

  19. What Causes Varicose Veins? (United States)

    ... Examples of these factors include family history, older age, gender, pregnancy, overweight or obesity , lack of movement, and leg trauma. Varicose veins are treated with lifestyle changes and medical procedures. The goals of treatment are to relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and improve ...

  20. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast discusses the risk for deep vein thrombosis in long-distance travelers and ways to minimize that risk.  Created: 4/5/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2012.

  1. Portal Vein Thrombosis: Recent Advance. (United States)

    Qi, Xingshun


    Portal vein thrombosis is a life-threatening vascular disorder of the liver. In this chapter, I will review the recent advance regarding the epidemiology, etiology, management, and prognosis of portal vein thrombosis.

  2. Concerns and Discomforts of Pregnancy - Varicose Veins (United States)

    Concerns and Discomforts of Pregnancy - Varicose Veins Varicose veins are enlarged veins you may see on your legs. They can itch, ... Healthy Roads Media project www. healthyroadsmedia. org English - Concerns and Discomforts of Pregnancy (Varicose Veins) Last reviewed 2012

  3. Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemos Gustavo C.


    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein is a rare tumor of complex diagnosis. We presented a case of renal vein leiomyosarcoma detected in a routine study. The primary treatment was complete surgical removal of the mass. In cases where surgical removal is not possible the prognosis is poor, with high rates of local recurrence and distant spread.

  4. Dynamics of uranium vein mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrosyan, R.V. (Ministerstvo Geologii SSR, Moscow)


    The formation of uraniun vein deposits and the essence of consanguinity of the mineralization and wall metasomatites are considered. The formation of uranium mineralization is analysed from the positions of Korzhinsky D. S. : the formation of metasomatite aureole and associated vein ores take place as a result of the development of one solution flow while the formation of mineral vein associations occurs on the background of continuous filtration of the solution during metasomato is due to a repeated (pulse) half-opening of fractures and their filling with a part of filtrating solution. The analysis of the available information on the example of two different uranium manifestations permits to reveal certain relations both in the character of wall rock alterations and between the metasomatosis and the formation of ore minerals in veins. The conclusion is made that spatial-time correlations of vein formations with wall metasomatites attest that the pulse formation of ores in veinlets occurs on the background and in interrelation with a consecutive precipitation of components in the aureole volume. The analysis of element migration dynamics in wall aureole carried out from the positions of the Korzhinsky hypothesis of the advance wave of acid components that takes into account the interaction of continuous and pulse mechanisms of solution movement permits to avoid contradictions when interpreting the processes of wall rock alterations and vein ore-forming, and permits to make a common scheme of vein ore-genesis.

  5. Varicose Vein Treatment (Endovenous Ablation of Varicose Veins) (United States)

    ... surgery. Most of the veins treated are effectively invisible even to ultrasound 12 months after the procedure. ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed ...

  6. A Vein Map Biometric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Fuentes


    Full Text Available There is increasing demand world-wide, from government agencies and the private sector for cutting-edge biometric security technology that is difficult to breach but userfriendly at the same time. Some of the older tools, such as fingerprint, retina and iris scanning, and facial recognition software have all been found to have flaws and often viewed negatively because of many cultural and hygienic issues associated with them. Comparatively, mapping veins as a human barcode, a new technology, has many advantages over older technologies. Specifically, reproducing a three-dimensional model of a human vein system is impossible to replicate. Vein map technology is distinctive because of its state-of-the-art sensors are only able to recognize vein patterns if hemoglobin is actively flowing through the person

  7. Portal Vein Thrombosis in non cirrhotic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Spaander (Manon)


    textabstractExtrahepatic portal vein thrombosis (EPVT) is the most common cause of portal hypertension in non- cirrhotic patients. EPVT has been defined as an obstruction of the extrahepatic portal vein with or without involvement of the intrahepatic portal veins. Although the portal vein accounts

  8. Gypsum veins in Triassic Moenkopi mudrocks of southern Utah: Analogs to calcium sulfate veins on Mars (United States)

    Young, B. W.; Chan, M. A.


    Well-exposed gypsum veins in the Triassic Moenkopi formation in southern Utah, USA, are similar to veins at Endeavour and Gale Craters on Mars. Both Moenkopi and Mars veins are hydrated calcium sulfate, have fibrous textures, and crosscut other diagenetic features. Moenkopi veins are stratigraphically localized with strontium and sulfur isotope ratios similar to primary Moenkopi sulfate beds and are thus interpreted to be sourced from within the unit. Endeavour veins seem to be distributed by lithology and may have a local source. Gale veins cut across multiple lithologies and appear to be sourced from another stratigraphic interval. Evaluation of vein network geometries indicates that horizontal Moenkopi veins are longer and thicker than vertical veins. Moenkopi veins are also generally oriented with the modern stress field, so are interpreted to have formed in the latest stages of exhumation. Endeavour veins appear to be generally vertical and oriented parallel to the margins of Cape York and are interpreted to have formed in response to topographic collapse of the crater rim. Gale horizontal veins appear to be slightly more continuous than vertical veins and may have formed during exhumation. Abrupt changes in orientation, complex crosscutting relationships, and fibrous (antitaxial) texture in Moenkopi and Mars veins suggest emplacement via hydraulic fracture at low temperatures. Moenkopi and Mars veins are interpreted as late-stage diagenetic features that have experienced little alteration since emplacement. Moenkopi veins are useful terrestrial analogs for Mars veins because vein geometry, texture, and chemistry record information about crustal deformation and vein emplacement.

  9. Commercialization of vein contrast enhancement (United States)

    Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Deshmukh, Harshal; Vrancken, Carlos; Zhang, Yong; Zeman, Herbert D.; Weinberg, Devin


    An ongoing clinical study of an experimental infrared (IR) device, the Vein Contrast Enhancer (VCE) that visualizes surface veins for medical access, indicates that a commercial device with the performance of the existing VCE would have significant clinical utility for even a very skilled phlebotomist. A proof-of-principle prototype VCE device has now been designed and constructed that captures IR images of surface veins with a commercial CCD camera, transfers the images to a PC for real-time software image processing to enhance the vein contrast, and projects the enhanced images back onto the skin with a modified commercial LCD projector. The camera and projector are mounted on precision slides allowing for precise mechanical alignment of the two optical axes and for measuring the effects of axes misalignment. Precision alignment of the captured and projected images over the entire field-of-view is accomplished electronically by software adjustments of the translation, scaling, and rotation of the enhanced images before they are projected back onto the skin. This proof-of-principle prototype will be clinically tested and the experience gained will lead to the development of a commercial device, OnTarget!, that is compact, easy to use, and will visualize accessible veins in almost all subjects needing venipuncture.

  10. Immunohistochemistry comparing endoscopic vein harvesting vs. open vein harvesting on saphenous vein endothelium. (United States)

    Nezafati, Mohammad Hassan; Nezafati, Pouya; Amoueian, Sakineh; Attaranzadeh, Armin; Rahimi, Hamid Reza


    The present study attempts to compare the immunohistochemistry (IHC) of von Willebrand factor (vWf) , endothelial cadherin, Caveolin and endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) in VasoView Endoscopic Vein Harvesting (EVH) versus traditional Open Vein Harvesting (OVH) techniques for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery performed in Javad al Aemeh Hospital of Mashhad, Iran in 2013,. Forty-seven patients were scheduled for CABG (30 EVH and 17 OVH) among whom patients with relatively same gender and similar age were selected. Three separate two cm vein samples were harvested from each patient's saphenous vein. Each portion was collected from distal, middle and proximal zones of the saphenous vein. The tissues were deparaffinized, and antigen retrieval was done using EZ-retriever followed by an immunohistochemistry evaluation with vWf, e-cadherin, Caveolin and eNOS. In addition, demographic questioner as of Lipid profile, FBS, BMI, and cardiovascular risk factors were collected. Data analyses, including parametric and nonparametric tests were undertaken using the SPSS 16 software. A P value  0.05). Qualitative report of vWf, e-cadherin, Caveolin and eNOS reveals no significant difference between the EVH and OVH (P > 0.05). This study indicates that VasoView EVH technique causes no endothelial damage in comparison with OVH. This study could be a molecular confirmation for the innocuous of EVH technique.

  11. Anomalous branching pattern of the portal vein: right posterior portal vein originating from the left portal vein. (United States)

    Yasaka, Koichiro; Akai, Hiroyuki; Kiryu, Shigeru


    To introduce a rare variant branching pattern of the portal vein with clinical relevance. A 55-year-old man was examined by contrast-enhanced computed tomography to investigate the cause of fever and mildly elevated hepatic enzyme levels. Based on computed tomography, liver abscesses were identified which may have caused the fever and elevated hepatic enzyme levels. And a variation in the branching pattern of the portal vein was also detected in this patient, which has not been reported previously; the right posterior portal vein originated from the end of the horizontal part of the left portal vein. Identification of this rare branching pattern of the portal vein prior to hepatectomy, liver transplantation, and portal vein embolization is considered important to prevent complications. A rare variant in which the right posterior portal vein originated from the left portal vein was identified. Recognition of this variant may be important prior to surgical or interventional radiological strategies.

  12. Extrahepatic Portal Vein Obstruction and Portal Vein Thrombosis in Special Situations: Need for a New Classification (United States)

    Wani, Zeeshan A.; Bhat, Riyaz A.; Bhadoria, Ajeet S.; Maiwall, Rakhi


    Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction is a vascular disorder of liver, which results in obstruction and cavernomatous transformation of portal vein with or without the involvement of intrahepatic portal vein, splenic vein, or superior mesenteric vein. Portal vein obstruction due to chronic liver disease, neoplasm, or postsurgery is a separate entity and is not the same as extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. Patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction are generally young and belong mostly to Asian countries. It is therefore very important to define portal vein thrombosis as acute or chronic from management point of view. Portal vein thrombosis in certain situations such as liver transplant and postsurgical/liver transplant period is an evolving area and needs extensive research. There is a need for a new classification, which includes all areas of the entity. In the current review, the most recent literature of extrahepatic portal vein obstruction is reviewed and summarized. PMID:26021771

  13. How Are Varicose Veins Diagnosed? (United States)

    ... Examples of these factors include family history, older age, gender, pregnancy, overweight or obesity , lack of movement, and leg trauma. Varicose veins are treated with lifestyle changes and medical procedures. The goals of treatment are to relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and improve ...

  14. How Are Varicose Veins Treated? (United States)

    ... Examples of these factors include family history, older age, gender, pregnancy, overweight or obesity , lack of movement, and leg trauma. Varicose veins are treated with lifestyle changes and medical procedures. The goals of treatment are to relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and improve ...

  15. Klaaspärlimäng peletab klassikahirmu / Katrin Nielsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nielsen, Katrin


    Eri stiile-ajastuid ühendavast Peeter Vähi kujandatud muusikafestivalist "Klaaspärlimäng" 22. juulist-24. augustini. Kontsertidest Pärnu kontserdimajas: gamelaniansambli Gamelan Son of Lion kontserdist 22. juulil, Vardo Rumesseni kontserdist ja CD esitlusest 28. juulil, tütarlastekoori "Ellerhein" kontserdist 30. juulil

  16. Juubilar Clinton peletab vanadust armukeste abil / Triin Tael

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tael, Triin


    Bill Clintoni ja Belinda Stronachi suhetest. Kui Stronach võtab osa Bill Clintoni sünnipäevapeo vastuvõtust, võib see pressi arvates kahandada Hillary Clintoni püüdlusi saada 2008. aastal presidendiks. Lisa: 31 aastat Clintonite abielu; Billi saatuslikud armukesed

  17. Preoperative ultrasound mapping of the saphenous vein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Niels; Schroeder, T


    A prospective series of 92 patients had their greater saphenous vein assessed with duplex ultrasound scanning prior to planned infrainguinal bypass procedures. Sixteen (17%) bypass procedures thrombosed within the first week postoperatively. A naturally occurring optimal vein diameter was discove......A prospective series of 92 patients had their greater saphenous vein assessed with duplex ultrasound scanning prior to planned infrainguinal bypass procedures. Sixteen (17%) bypass procedures thrombosed within the first week postoperatively. A naturally occurring optimal vein diameter...

  18. Preoperative mapping of the saphenous vein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Sillesen, H; Nielsen, Tina G


    A consecutive series of 92 patients had their greater saphenous vein assessed with duplex ultrasound scanning prior to planned infrainguinal bypass procedures. A naturally occurring optimal vein diameter was discovered. It was significantly correlated with higher postoperative ankle-brachial pres......A consecutive series of 92 patients had their greater saphenous vein assessed with duplex ultrasound scanning prior to planned infrainguinal bypass procedures. A naturally occurring optimal vein diameter was discovered. It was significantly correlated with higher postoperative ankle...

  19. Cephalic veins in coronary artery bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, P; Jakobsen, Erik; Lerbjerg, G


    Various alternative conduits for aortocoronary bypass grafting have been suggested when the saphenous vein quality is inadequate. During a 10-year period we have used the cephalic vein in 39 patients. Eighteen entered an angiographic follow-up study. A total of 31 arm vein grafts were used with 43...... bypass operations....

  20. Recurrence of superficial vein thrombosis in patients with varicose veins. (United States)

    Karathanos, Christos; Spanos, Konstantinos; Saleptsis, Vassileios; Tsezou, Aspasia; Kyriakou, Despina; Giannoukas, Athanasios D


    To investigate which factors other than history of superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) are associated with recurrent spontaneous SVT episodes in patients with varicose veins (VVs). Patients with a history of spontaneous SVT and VVs were followed up for a mean period of 55 months. Demographics, comorbidities, and thrombophilia screening test were analyzed. Patients were grouped according to the clinical-etiology-anatomy-pathophysiology classification. A multiple logistic regression analysis with the forward likelihood ratio method was undertaken. Thirteen patients out of 97 had a recurrence SVT episode during the follow-up period. All those patients were identified to have a thrombophilia defect. Protein C and S, antithrombin, and plasminogen deficiencies were more frequently present in patients without recurrence. Gene mutations were present in 38% in the nonrecurrence group and 77% in the recurrence group. After logistic regression analysis, patients with dislipidemia and mutation in prothrombin G20210A (FII) had an increased risk for recurrence by 5.4-fold and 4.6-fold, respectively. No deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism occurred. Dislipidemia and gene mutations of F II are associated with SVT recurrence in patients with VVs. A selection of patients may benefit from anticoagulation in the short term and from VVs intervention in the long term. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Unusual termination of the right testicular vein | Woldeyes | Anatomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The testicular veins are formed by the veins emerging from the testis and epididymis forming the pampiniform venous plexus. The right testicular vein drains into inferior vena cava and the left testicular vein to the left renal vein. Testicular veins display a great variability with regard to their number, course and sites of ...

  2. Stressi kaudu tähtede poole / Gert D. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.


    Hansapanga uue peadirektori Priit Perensi karjäärist ja elust. Vt. samas: CV; Perens järjekorras seitsmes; Halli massi sulandub Subaruga. Kommenteerivad Härmo Värk, Henn Ruubel ja Tauno Vanaselja

  3. Normal hepatic vein patterns on ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hae Jin; Chae, Yoo Soon; Park, Hea Yeoung; Park, Bok Hwan; Kim, Yang Sook [Maryknoll Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    Understanding of the anatomy of the hepatic vein is important in manipulation for transplantation of the liver, hepatectomy and the treatment of hepatic trauma with avulsion of the hepatic vein. Demonstrated of the inferior right hepatic vein (IRHV) is also important; in some cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, thrombus can be seen in the IRHV; in primary Budd-Chiari syndrome, the IRHV is main draining vein; during hepatectomy, the postero-inferior segment of the right lobe and draining IRHV can be preserved. For some 10 months ultrasound examination was done in a total of 124 patients with normal liver function with special emphasis on the hepatic vein, their branches, and the IRHV, and analysed in terms of branching pattern and relative size of the hepatic vein and the detection rate of the IRHV.

  4. Shock Veins as Recorders of Shock Pressures in Chondrites: Pressure Histories from Thin vs. Thick Veins (United States)

    Xie, Z.; Sharp, T.; Decarli, P.


    High-pressure minerals are generally found within or adjacent to shock-induced melt veins and melt pockets in highly shocked chondrites. The minerals that crystallize in the melt veins and pockets and the distribution of these minerals provide a record of crystallization and quench histories that can be used to constrain shock pressure and pulse duration. Most previous investigations have focused on relatively thick veins (>100 μ m in width) because they tend to contain high-pressure minerals that are observable using petrography or scanning electron microscopy. However, the mineralogy of thin shock veins can provide additional constraints on the pressure history of shocked meteorites. Because shock veins cool predominantly by conduction to the surrounding matrix, rather than by adiabatic decompression, the timing of shock-vein crystallization depends strongly on vein thickness and position within the veins. Therefore, the thinnest melt veins, which solidify within tens of nanoseconds after melting, provide a brief crystallization history at the time of formation whereas thicker veins provide a longer history that may reflect crystallization during decompression. If thin veins form during compression or early in the shock pulse, they will likely record the equilibrium shock pressure or the peak pressure. The goal of this study is to characterize the mineralogy of thin melt veins and to compare the results to those of thicker veins in the same samples. We have investigated three L chondrites that contain a wide range of melt vein sizes. These include Tenham (several μ m to 600 μ m in width), Roy (10 μ m to 150 μ m in width) and Umbarger (35 μ m to 300 μ m in width). Thick veins in these samples have been previously investigated using FESEM and TEM, resulting in crystallization pressures of approximately 25, 20 and 18 GPa for Tenham, Roy and Umbarger, respectively. Thin veins from these samples were investigated using TEM. Three thin veins in Tenham show three

  5. Internal Jugular Vein Cannulation; Anatomical Surface Markings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the case of a female patient scheduled for skin grafting of chronic Burulli ulcers who had a history of difficult peripheral vein cannulation. She had undergone numerous central venous cannulations and unsuccessful peripheral vein cut-downs in the past. On two separate occasions she had central venous ...

  6. Generating and analyzing synthetic finger vein images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillerström, Fieke; Kumar, Ajay; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.


    Abstract: The finger-vein biometric offers higher degree of security, personal privacy and strong anti-spoofing capabilities than most other biometric modalities employed today. Emerging privacy concerns with the database acquisition and lack of availability of large scale finger-vein database have

  7. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Nisio, Marcello; van Es, Nick; Büller, Harry R.


    Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, collectively referred to as venous thromboembolism, constitute a major global burden of disease. The diagnostic work-up of suspected deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism includes the sequential application of a clinical decision rule and D-dimer

  8. Evaluation of apoptosis in varicose vein disease complicated by superficial vein thrombosis. (United States)

    Filis, Konstantinos; Kavantzas, Nikolaos; Dalainas, Ilias; Galyfos, George; Karanikola, Evridiki; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Tsioufis, Constantinos; Sigala, Fragiska


    The factors contributing to superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) in patients with varicose vein disease are unclear. Differences in vein wall apoptotic activity could be associated with the pathogenesis of SVT. The aim of the study is to address the role of the programmed cell death in the vein wall by comparing varicose veins with history of SVT to uncomplicated varicose veins. Vein segments from the proximal part of the great saphenous vein (GSV), the distal part of the vein and from a varicose tributary, from 16 patients with varicose vein disease and one episode of SVT, were evaluated for the immunohistochemical expression of pro-apoptotic (Bax, p53, Caspase 3, BCL-6, BCL-xs), anti-apoptotic (BCL-xl and BCL-2) and proliferation (Ki-67) markers. The results of this study were compared to the results from the evaluation of 19 patients suffering from uncomplicated varicose vein disease and 10 healthy GSVs as controls. Overall, there was increased apoptosis in the distal part of GSV compared to the proximal part documented by increased expression of Bax (p SVT showed significant differences among the three different anatomic locations. In the proximal GSV, only BCL-xs was higher in patients with SVT (p = 0.029). In the tributaries, Bax, BCL-xl and Ki-67 were higher in patients with SVT (p SVT shows increased pro-apoptotic activity compared to uncomplicated disease and normal veins. Whether increased vein wall cell apoptosis is a causative factor for SVT in varicose veins disease or a repairing mechanism of the thrombosis itself needs further research.

  9. [Portal vein embolization: Present and future]. (United States)

    Piron, Lauranne; Deshayes, Emmanuel; Escal, Laure; Souche, Regis; Herrero, Astrid; Pierredon-Foulongne, Marie-Ange; Assenat, Eric; le Lam, Ngo; Quenet, François; Guiu, Boris


    Portal vein embolization consists of occluding a part of the portal venous system in order to achieve the hypertrophy of the non-embolized liver segments. This technique is used during the preoperative period of major liver resection when the future remnant liver (FRL) volume is insufficient, exposing to postoperative liver failure, main cause of death after major hepatectomy. Portal vein embolization indication depends on the FRL, commonly assessed by its volume. Nowadays, FRL function evaluation seems more relevant and can be measured by 99mTc labelled mebrofenin scintigraphy. Portal vein embolization procedure is mostly performed with percutaneous trans-hepatic access by using ultrasonography guidance and consists of embolic agent injection, such as cyanoacrylate, in the targeted portal vein branches with fluoroscopic guidance. It is a safe and well-tolerated technique, with extremely low morbi-mortality. Portal vein embolization leads to sufficient FRL hypertrophy in about 80% of patients, allowing them to undergo surgery from which they were initially rejected. The two main reasons of non-resection are tumor progression (≈15% of cases) and FRL insufficient hypertrophy (≈5% of cases). When portal vein embolization is not enough to obtain adequate FRL regeneration, hepatic vein embolization may potentiate its effect (liver venous deprivation technique). Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Portal vein gas in emergency surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Hind


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Portal vein gas is an ominous radiological sign, which indicates a serious gastrointestinal problem in the majority of patients. Many causes have been identified and the most important was bowel ischemia and mesenteric vascular accident. The presentation of patients is varied and the diagnosis of the underlying problem depends mainly on the radiological findings and clinical signs. The aim of this article is to show the clinical importance of portal vein gas and its management in emergency surgery. Methods A computerised search was made of the Medline for publications discussing portal vein gas through March 2008. Sixty articles were identified and selected for this review because of their relevance. These articles cover a period from 1975–2008. Results Two hundreds and seventy-five patients with gas in the portal venous system were reported. The commonest cause for portal vein gas was bowel ischemia and mesenteric vascular pathology (61.44%. This was followed by inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract (16.26%, obstruction and dilatation (9.03%, sepsis (6.6%, iatrogenic injury and trauma (3.01% and cancer (1.8%. Idiopathic portal vein gas was also reported (1.8%. Conclusion Portal vein gas is a diagnostic sign, which indicates a serious intra-abdominal pathology requiring emergency surgery in the majority of patients. Portal vein gas due to simple and benign cause can be treated conservatively. Correlation between clinical and diagnostic findings is important to set the management plan.

  11. Radiological features of azygous vein aneurysm. (United States)

    Choudhary, Arabinda Kumar; Moore, Michael


    Mediastinal masses are most commonly associated with malignancy. Azygous vein aneurysm is a very rare differential diagnosis of mediastinal mass. We report here three cases of azygous vein aneurysm including children and adult patients. In the pediatric patient it was further complicated by thrombosis and secondary pulmonary embolism. We describe the radiological features on CXR, MRI, CT, PET-CT, US and angiogram and their differential diagnosis. Imaging findings of continuity with azygous vein, layering of contrast medium on enhanced CT and dynamic MRA showing filling of the mass at the same time as the azygous vein without prior enhancement will be strongly suggestive of azygous vein aneurysm with transtracheal ultrasound being the definitive test in these patients. It is important to keep a vascular origin mass in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal masses. Also, in young healthy patients with pulmonary embolism, a vascular etiology such as azygous vein aneurysm should be carefully evaluated. This article will help the clinicians to learn about the imaging features of azygous vein aneurysm on different imaging modalities.

  12. Valsalva and gravitational variability of the internal jugular vein and common femoral vein: Ultrasound assessment

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    Beddy, P. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland)]. E-mail:; Geoghegan, T. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Ramesh, N. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Buckley, O. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); O' Brien, J. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Colville, J. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Torreggiani, W.C. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland)


    Purpose: Central venous cannulation via the common femoral vein is an important starting point for many interventions. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum conditions for cannulation of the femoral vein and to compare these with the relative changes in the internal jugular vein. Methods: High-resolution 2D ultrasound was utilised to determine variability of the calibre of the femoral and internal jugular veins in 10 healthy subjects. Venous diameter was assessed during the Valsalva manoeuvre and in different degrees of the Trendelenburg position. Results: The Valsalva manoeuvre significantly increased the size of the femoral and internal jugular veins. There was a relatively greater increase in femoral vein diameter when compared with the internal jugular vein of 40 and 29%, respectively. Changes in body inclination (Trendelenburg position) did not significantly alter the luminal diameter of the femoral vein. However, it significantly increased internal jugular vein diameter. Conclusions: Femoral vein cannulation is augmented by the Valsalva manoeuvre but not significantly altered by the gravitational position of the subject.

  13. Prospective analysis of endoscopic vein harvesting. (United States)

    Patel, A N; Hebeler, R F; Hamman, B L; Hunnicutt, C; Williams, M; Liu, L; Wood, R E


    Utilization of bridging vein harvesting (BVH) of saphenous vein grafts (SVG) for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) results in large wounds with great potential for pain and infection. Endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH) may significantly reduce the morbidity associated with SVG harvesting. A prospective database of 200 matched patients receiving EVH and BVH was compared. The patients all underwent CABG done over a period of 4 months (April to August 2000). Patients were excluded if they had prior vein harvesting. The EVH and BVH group included 100 patients each with similar demographics. The patients in the EVH group had significantly fewer wound complications, mean days to ambulation, and total length of stay (P BVH in patients undergoing CABG.

  14. Leiomyosarcoma of the great saphenous vein. (United States)

    El Khoury, M; Mesurolle, B; Trassard, M; Cherel, P; Talma, V; Hagay, C


    Peripheral vascular leiomyosarcomas are rare. A case of leiomyosarcoma of the great saphenous vein diagnosed pre-surgically by MRI and fine-needle aspiration is presented. Characteristics of the tumour and imaging features are discussed.

  15. Hepatic vein obstruction (Budd-Chiari) (United States)

    ... MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Hepatic vein obstruction (Budd-Chiari) URL of this page: // ...

  16. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the innominate vein. (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Miraldi, Fabio; Mazzesi, Giuseppe; D'urso, Antonio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Bezzi, Marcello


    Primary venous leiomyosarcoma is rare. We report the case of a primary leiomyosarcoma of the left innominate vein, with neoplastic thrombus extending into the left jugular and subclavian veins. The tumor was curatively resected en bloc with anterior mediastinal and laterocervical lymphatics, through a median sternotomy prolonged into left cervicotomy. Primary venous sarcomas may be associated with prolonged survival in individual cases, with curative resection recommended as the standard treatment, in the absence of distant spread.

  17. CT in thrombosed dilated posterior epidural vein

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    Bammatter, S.; Schnyder, P.; Preux, J. de


    The authors report a case of thrombosis of the distal end of an enlarged right posterior epidural vein. The patient had a markedly narrow lumbar canal due to L5 spondylolisthesis. The dilated vein and the thrombosis were displayed by computed tomography but remained unrecognized until surgery. Pathogenesis of this condition is discussed. A review of the English, French and German literature revealed no prior radiological reports of a similar condition.

  18. Retrotracheal aberrant left brachiocephalic vein: CT findings

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    Yigit, Adalet E.; Haliloglu, Mithat; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay; Ariyurek, Macit O. [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)


    We present a child with double aberrant left brachiocephalic vein (ALBCV) that was an incidental finding on CT. The anterior and thin branch was above the aortic arch and behind the truncus brachiocephalicus and drained into the superior vena cava (SVC). The posterior and thick branch of the ALBCV coursed posterior to the trachea and oesophagus and joined with the azygos vein before draining into the SVC. To our knowledge, retrotracheal ALBCV has not been previously described. (orig.)

  19. Efficacy of varicose vein surgery with preservation of the great safenous vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Cunha Senra Barros

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of surgical treatment of varicose veins with preservation of the great saphenous vein. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of 15 female patients between 25 and 55 years of age with clinical, etiologic, anatomic and pathophysiologic (CEAP classification 2, 3 and 4. The patients underwent surgical treatment of primary varicose veins with great saphenous vein (GSV preservation. Doppler ultrasonography exams were carried out in the first and third months postoperatively. The form of clinical severity of venous disease, Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS was completed before and after surgery. We excluded patients with history of deep vein thrombosis, smoking or postoperatively use of elastic stockings or phlebotonics. RESULTS: All patients had improved VCSS (p <0.001 and reduction in the diameter of the great saphenous vein (p <0.001. There was a relationship between VCSS and the GSV caliber, as well as with preoperative CEAP. There was improvement in CEAP class in nine patients when compared with the preoperative period (p <0.001. CONCLUSION: The varicose vein surgery with preservation of the great saphenous vein had beneficial effects to the GSV itself, with decreasing caliber, and to the symptoms when the vein had maximum caliber of 7.5 mm, correlating directly with the CEAP. The decrease in GSV caliber, even without complete abolition of reflux, leads to clinical improvement by decreasing the reflux volume.

  20. Veins improve fracture toughness of insect wings.

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    Jan-Henning Dirks

    Full Text Available During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect's flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material's resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m. However, the cross veins increase the wing's toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm. This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically 'optimal' solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial 'venous' wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species.

  1. Conservative hemodynamic surgery for varicose veins. (United States)

    Criado, Enrique; Luján, Salvador; Izquierdo, Luis; Puras, Enrique; Gutierrez, Miguel; Fontcuberta, Juan


    Conservative hemodynamic surgery for varicose veins is a minimally invasive, nonablative technique that preserves the saphenous vein and helps avoid excision of varicosities. It represents a physiologic approach to the surgical treatment of varicose veins based on knowledge of the underlying venous pathophysiology gained through detailed duplex scanning. A change in venous hemodynamics is attained through fragmentation of the blood column by interruption of the refluxing saphenous trunks, closure of the origin of the refluxing varicose branches, and preservation of the communicating veins that drain the incompetent varicose veins into the deep venous system. After surgery, varicose veins regress through a reduction in hydrostatic pressure and efficient emptying of the superficial system by the musculo-venous pump. Obvious advantages of this technique are that it is done in an ambulatory setting, minimizes the risk of surgical complications, and permits a rapid return to full activity. The long-term hemodynamic improvement and recurrence rate of this technique remain to be established. Copyright 2002 by W.B. Saunders Company

  2. Diagnosis and treatment of superficial vein thrombosis. (United States)

    Bauersachs, R M


    Superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) is a common disease, characterized by an inflammatory-thrombotic process in a superficial vein. Typical clinical findings are pain and a warm, tender, reddish cord along the vein. Until recently, no reliable epidemiological data were available. The incidence is estimated to be higher than that of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) (1/1000). SVT shares many risk factors with DVT, but affects twice as many women than men and frequently occurs in varicose veins. Clinically, SVT extension is commonly underestimated, and patients may have asymptomatic DVT. Therefore, ultrasound assessment and exclusion of DVT is essential. Risk factors for concomitant DVT are recent hospitalization, immobilization, autoimmune disorders, age > 75 years, prior VTE, cancer and SVT in non-varicose veins. Even though most patients with isolated SVT (without concomitant DVT or PE) are commonly treated with anticoagulation for a median of 15 days, about 8% experience symptomatic thromboembolic complications within three months. Risk factors for occurrence of complications are male gender, history of VTE, cancer, SVT in a non-varicose vein or SVT involving the sapheno-femoral junction (SFJ). As evidence supporting treatment of isolated SVT was sparse and of poor quality, the large, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled CALISTO trial was initiated assessing the effect of fondaparinux on symptomatic outcomes in isolated SVT. This study showed that, compared with placebo, 2.5 mg fondaparinux given for 45 days reduced the risk of symptomatic thromboembolic complications by 85% without increasing bleeding. Based on CALISTO and other observational studies, evidence-based recommendations can be made for the majority of SVT patients. Further studies can now be performed in higher risk patients to address unresolved issues.

  3. Corrosion cast study of the canine hepatic veins. (United States)

    Uršič, M; Vrecl, M; Fazarinc, G


    This study presents a detailed description of the distribution, diameters and drainage patterns of hepatic veins on the basis of the corrosion cast analysis in 18 dogs. We classified the hepatic veins in three main groups: the right hepatic veins of the caudate process and right lateral liver lobe, the middle hepatic veins of the right medial and quadrate lobes and the left hepatic veins of both left liver lobes and the papillary process. The corrosion cast study showed that the number of the veins in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria and most anatomical textbooks is underestimated. The number of various-sized hepatic veins of the right liver division ranged from 3 to 5 and included 1 to 4 veins from the caudate process and 2 to 4 veins from the right lateral liver lobe. Generally, in all corrosion casts, one middle-sized vein from the right part of the right medial lobe, which emptied separately in the caudal vena cava, was established. The other vein was a large-sized vein from the remainder of the central division, which frequently joined the common left hepatic vein from the left liver lobes. The common left hepatic vein was the largest of all the aforementioned hepatic veins.

  4. The anatomy of the cardiac veins in mice (United States)

    Ciszek, Bogdan; Skubiszewska, Daria; Ratajska, Anna


    Although the cardiac coronary system in mice has been the studied in detail by many research laboratories, knowledge of the cardiac veins remains poor. This is because of the difficulty in marking the venous system with a technique that would allow visualization of these large vessels with thin walls. Here we present the visualization of the coronary venous system by perfusion of latex dye through the right caudal vein. Latex injected intravenously does not penetrate into the capillary system. Murine cardiac veins consist of several principal branches (with large diameters), the distal parts of which are located in the subepicardium. We have described the major branches of the left atrial veins, the vein of the left ventricle, the caudal veins, the vein of the right ventricle and the conal veins forming the conal venous circle or the prepulmonary conal venous arch running around the conus of the right ventricle. The venous system of the heart drains the blood to the coronary sinus (the left cranial caval vein) to the right atrium or to the right cranial caval vein. Systemic veins such as the left cranial caval, the right cranial caval and the caudal vein open to the right atrium. Knowledge of cardiac vein location may help to elucidate abnormal vein patterns in certain genetic malformations. PMID:17553104

  5. Superficial vein thrombosis with hemorrhagic cerebral infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-wei CONG


    Full Text Available Background Cerebral superficial vein thrombosis was rare and often misdiagnosed or missed for its various etiological factors, and complicated and nonspecific clinical manifestations. This paper reported one case of superficial vein thrombosis in right fronto-parietal lobe with hemorrhagic infarction. The anatomy of superficial vein, pathophysiological points, diagnosis and treatment of superficial vein thrombosis were reviewed to help to reduce missed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. Methods and Results A 18-year-old male patient had suffered from progressive headache for 4 years and weakness of left limbs for 2 d. Head MRI showed circular space-occupying lesion in right fronto-parietal lobe. Magnetic resonance venography (MRV examination showed the front two-thirds of the superior sagittal sinus was not clear. The lesions were removed and decompressive craniectomy was conducted, showing the brain tissue was pale, partly yellow or dark red, and superficial venous engorgement. Histological observation showed pial superficial vein thrombosis and subpial encephalomalacia, and multifocal hemorrhage of cerebral cortex and local parenchymal hemorrhage. A large number of "grid cells" and vascular "cuff" phenomenan were visible in surrounding tissue, and the parenchymal blood vessel proliferation was obvious. Left hand activity of the patient was obviously limited after the operation. Conclusions Clinical diagnosis of superficial vein thrombosis with hemorrhagic infarction is difficult, and brain imaging and serological examination can provide certain help. Much attention should be paid to the multidisciplinary diagnosis and treatment to reduce misdiagnosis or missed diagnosis, and gather clinical experience. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.01.007

  6. Deep vein thrombosis: a clinical review

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    Kesieme EB


    Full Text Available Emeka Kesieme1, Chinenye Kesieme2, Nze Jebbin3, Eshiobo Irekpita1, Andrew Dongo11Department of Surgery, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria; 2Department of Paediatrics, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria; 3Department of Surgery, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port-Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT is the formation of blood clots (thrombi in the deep veins. It commonly affects the deep leg veins (such as the calf veins, femoral vein, or popliteal vein or the deep veins of the pelvis. It is a potentially dangerous condition that can lead to preventable morbidity and mortality.Aim: To present an update on the causes and management of DVT.Methods: A review of publications obtained from Medline search, medical libraries, and Google.Results: DVT affects 0.1% of persons per year. It is predominantly a disease of the elderly and has a slight male preponderance. The approach to making a diagnosis currently involves an algorithm combining pretest probability, D-dimer testing, and compression ultrasonography. This will guide further investigations if necessary. Prophylaxis is both mechanical and pharmacological. The goals of treatment are to prevent extension of thrombi, pulmonary embolism, recurrence of thrombi, and the development of complications such as pulmonary hypertension and post-thrombotic syndrome.Conclusion: DVT is a potentially dangerous condition with a myriad of risk factors. Prophylaxis is very important and can be mechanical and pharmacological. The mainstay of treatment is anticoagulant therapy. Low-molecular-weight heparin, unfractionated heparin, and vitamin K antagonists have been the treatment of choice. Currently anticoagulants specifically targeting components of the common pathway have been recommended for prophylaxis. These include fondaparinux, a selective indirect factor Xa inhibitor and the new oral selective direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran and selective

  7. Image Quality Enhancement Using the Direction and Thickness of Vein Lines for Finger-Vein Recognition

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    Young Ho Park


    Full Text Available On the basis of the increased emphasis placed on the protection of privacy, biometric recognition systems using physical or behavioural characteristics such as fingerprints, facial characteristics, iris and finger-vein patterns or the voice have been introduced in applications including door access control, personal certification, Internet banking and ATM machines. Among these, finger-vein recognition is advantageous in that it involves the use of inexpensive and small devices that are difficult to counterfeit. In general, finger-vein recognition systems capture images by using near infrared (NIR illumination in conjunction with a camera. However, such systems can face operational difficulties, since the scattering of light from the skin can make capturing a clear image difficult. To solve this problem, we proposed new image quality enhancement method that measures the direction and thickness of vein lines. This effort represents novel research in four respects. First, since vein lines are detected in input images based on eight directional profiles of a grey image instead of binarized images, the detection error owing to the non-uniform illumination of the finger area can be reduced. Second, our method adaptively determines a Gabor filter for the optimal direction and width on the basis of the estimated direction and thickness of a detected vein line. Third, by applying this optimized Gabor filter, a clear vein image can be obtained. Finally, the further processing of the morphological operation is applied in the Gabor filtered image and the resulting image is combined with the original one, through which finger-vein image of a higher quality is obtained. Experimental results from application of our proposed image enhancement method show that the equal error rate (EER of finger-vein recognition decreases to approximately 0.4% in the case of a local binary pattern-based recognition and to approximately 0.3% in the case of a wavelet transform

  8. Clinical Significance of the Soleal Vein and Related Drainage Veins, in Calf Vein Thrombosis in Autopsy Cases with Massive Pulmonary Thromboembolism (United States)

    Kageyama, Norimasa


    Objective: To clarify the histopathological characteristics of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) resulting in lethal pulmonary thromboembolism (PE). Subjects and Methods: We investigated 100 autopsy cases of PE from limb DVT. The distribution and chronology of DVT in each deep venous segment were examined. Venous segments were classified into three groups: iliofemoral vein, popliteal vein and calf vein (CV). The CV was subdivided into two subgroups, drainage veins of the soleal vein (SV) and non drainage veins of SV. Results: Eighty-nine patients had bilateral limb DVTs. CV was involved in all limbs with DVT with isolated calf DVTs were seen in 47% of patients. Fresh and organized thrombi were detected in 84% of patients. SV showed the highest incidence of DVTs in eight venous segments. The incidence of DVT gradually decreased according to the drainage route of the central SV. Proximal tips of fresh thrombi were mainly located in the popliteal vein and tibioperoneal trunk, occurring in these locations in 63% of limbs. Conclusions: SV is considered to be the primary site of DVT; the DVT then propagated to proximal veins through the drainage veins. Lethal thromboemboli would occur at proximal veins as a result of proximal propagation from calf DVTs. PMID:27087868

  9. Portal-to-right portal vein bypass for extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. (United States)

    Long, Li; Jinshan, Zhang; Zhen, Chen; Qi, Li; Ning, Dong; Mei, Diao; Wei, Cheng


    Rex shunt (mesenteric-to-left portal vein bypass) is considered a more physiologically rational treatment for EHPVO than other portosystemic systemic shunts in children. However, about 13.6% of children with EHPVO do not have usable left portal veins and up to 28.1%. Rex operations in children are not successful. Hence, a Rex shunt in these children was impossible. This study reports a novel approach by portal-to-right portal vein bypass for treatment of children with failed Rex shunts. Eight children (age 6.1years, range 3.5-8.9years) who underwent Rex shunts developed recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding and hypersplenism 13months (11-30months) postoperatively. After ultrasound confirmation of blocked shunt, they underwent exploration. Three patients were found to have right portal vein agenesis. Five patients (62.5%) were found to have the patent right portal vein, with the diameter of 3-6mm. Four patients underwent bypass between the main portal vein in the hepatoduodenal ligament and the right portal vein by interposing an inferior mesenteric vein autograft, whereas the remaining patient underwent a bypass using ileal mesenteric vein autograft. The operations took 2.3h (1.9-3.5h). The estimated blood loss was 50ml (30-80ml), with no complication. The portal venous pressure dropped from 34.6cmH2O (28-45 cmH2O) before the bypass to 19.6cmH2O (14-24cmH2O) after the bypass. The 5 patients were followed up for 10.2months (4-17months) and the post-operative ultrasound and CT angiography confirmed the patency of all the grafts and disappearance of the portal venous cavernova in all five patients. The portal-to-right portal vein bypass technique is feasible and safe for treatment of children with EHPVO who have had failed Rex shunts. Our preliminary result indicates that this technique extends the success of Rex shunt from left portal vein to right portal vein and open a new indication of physiological shunt for some of the children who not only have had failed Rex

  10. An unusual case: right proximal ureteral compression by the ovarian vein and distal ureteral compression by the external iliac vein

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    Halil Ibrahim Serin


    Full Text Available A 32-years old woman presented to the emergency room of Bozok University Research Hospital with right renal colic. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT showed compression of the proximal ureter by the right ovarian vein and compression of the right distal ureter by the right external iliac vein. To the best of our knowledge, right proximal ureteral compression by the ovarian vein together with distal ureteral compression by the external iliac vein have not been reported in the literature. Ovarian vein and external iliac vein compression should be considered in patients presenting to the emergency room with renal colic or low back pain and a dilated collecting system.

  11. Portal vein aneurysm and portal biliopathy. (United States)

    Kurtcehajic, Admir; Vele, Esved; Hujdurovic, Ahmed


    Highlight Kurtcehajic and colleagues present a rare case of congenital portal vein aneurysm (PVA) with biliopathy. Symptoms associated with PVA occur in less than 10% of cases. Imaging modalities showed the PVA partially compressing the common and right hepatic ducts. Conservative treatment markedly lowered bilirubin levels and relieved the abdominal pain. © 2016 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  12. Portal vein thrombosis complicating appendicitis | Ayantunde | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appendicitis is still the most common acute surgical abdomen all over the world and its complications may be grave. We report an adult case of acute appendicitis complicated by Portal Vein Thrombosis (PVT) and ascending portomesenteric phlebitis treated successfully with antibiotics and anticoagulation with no residual ...

  13. vein thrombosis in elective hip replacement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the decision tree and these costs, the cost of the various modalities of prophylaxis was then detennined. Results. The probability, detennined by the forum, of developing a deep-vein thrombosis (DYD when no prophylaxis is used was 0.5, with a mortality rate of 2.1 %. The cost of this decision was R875. No prophylaxis ...

  14. Endovascular vein harvest: systemic carbon dioxide absorption. (United States)

    Maslow, Andrew M; Schwartz, Carl S; Bert, Arthur; Hurlburt, Peter; Gough, Jeffrey; Stearns, Gary; Singh, Arun K


    Endovascular vein harvest (EDVH) requires CO(2) insufflation to expand the subcutaneous space, allowing visualization and dissection of the saphenous vein. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of CO(2) absorption during EDVH. Prospective observational study. Single tertiary care hospital. Sixty patients (30 EDVH and 30 open-vein harvest) undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Hemodynamic, procedural, and laboratory data were collected prior to (baseline), during, and at it the conclusion (final) of vein harvesting. Data were also collected during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Data were compared by using t tests, analysis of variance, and correlation statistics when needed. There were significant increases in arterial CO(2) (PaCO(2), 35%) and decreases in pH (1.35%) during EDVH. These were associated with increases in heart rate, mean blood pressure, and cardiac output. Within the EDVH group, greater elevations (>10 mmHg) in PaCO2 were more likely during difficult harvest procedures, and these patients exhibited greater increase in heart rate. Elevated CO(2) persisted during CPB, requiring higher systemic gas flows and greater use of phenylephrine to maintain desired hemodynamics. EDVH was associated with systemic absorption of CO(2). Greater absorption was more likely in difficult procedures and was associated with greater hemodynamic changes requiring medical therapy.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    less rigid erections and are currently re- sponding to oral measures and lCl. Penile numbness occurred in four patients with dorsal plaques, and it was self limiting within six months. We encountered no complaint of penile shortening or impo- tence. Conclusion The saphenous vein presents a reasonable alternative grafting ...

  16. Combined central retinalartery and vein occlusion complicating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orbital Cellulitis is a dreaded ophthalmologic disease. Itmay destroy vision and the eye andmay even become life threatening. Often visual loss is the result of exposure and subsequent destruction of ocular tissue commonly the cornea and the uvea. We report a case of combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion ...

  17. Preduodenal portal vein: A potential laparoscopic cholecystectomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variations of biliary anatomy are well described. Those of most relevance to the operative surgeon are the variations of the extrahepatic ducts and their relationships to the right hepatic artery and its branches. We describe another even rarer congenital anomaly of a preduodenal portal vein. Its embryological derivation and ...

  18. Retinal Vein Occlusion in Benin City, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neovascularization). A diagnosis of CRVO was made in the presence of generalized, scattered hemorrhages consisting of dot, blot, or flame shaped hemorrhages located in the superficial or deep layers of the retina, retinal edema, venous dilatation, and areas of occluded veins. BRVO or HRVO was characterized by retinal ...

  19. Portal vein thrombosis in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Köckritz, Leona; De Gottardi, Andrea; Trebicka, Jonel


    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is frequent in patients with liver cirrhosis and possible severe complications such as mesenteric ischemia are rare, but can be life-threatening. However, different aspects of clinical relevance, diagnosis and management of PVT are still areas of uncertainty...

  20. Who Is at Risk for Varicose Veins? (United States)

    ... Examples of these factors include family history, older age, gender, pregnancy, overweight or obesity , lack of movement, and leg trauma. Varicose veins are treated with lifestyle changes and medical procedures. The goals of treatment are to relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and improve ...

  1. How Can Varicose Veins Be Prevented? (United States)

    ... Examples of these factors include family history, older age, gender, pregnancy, overweight or obesity , lack of movement, and leg trauma. Varicose veins are treated with lifestyle changes and medical procedures. The goals of treatment are to relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and improve ...

  2. Small saphenous vein: where does reflux go?

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    Guillermo Gustavo Rossi


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The anatomy of small saphenous vein (SSV is very variable because of its complex embryological origin. SSV incompetence often causes reflux that goes to the perforating veins, sometimes not respecting the anatomical course. OBJECTIVE: To analyze differences in reflux direction and reentry in the SSV. METHODS: In this prospective, observational study, 60 lower limbs with SSV incompetence of 43 patients were assessed using a color Doppler ultrasound protocol. RESULTS: Reentry variations were grouped into four types and subtypes. Percentage results were: Type A, perforating veins on the medial side = 25/60 cases (41.66%; subtypes: Cockett, Sherman, paratibial and vertex; Type B, lateral malleolus and perforating veins on the lateral side (fibular 17-26 cm = 15/60 cases (25%; subtypes: fibular and malleolus; Type C, two branches = 19/60 cases (31.66%; subtypes: gastrocnemius and Cockett, gastrocnemius and malleolus, and/or fibular, Cockett and malleolus, Cockett-vertex and fibular; Type D, reflux in the superficial system = 1/60 cases (1.66%. CONCLUSION: On most of the lower limbs assessed, reflux did not follow the classical anatomic course. Our findings demonstrated a high degree of variation in reflux/reentry, but no SSV anatomical variations. Reflux seems to, either look for the most accessible anatomical connection for reentry or be originated in the distal area and then reach the SSV.

  3. Percutaneous portal vein access and transhepatic tract hemostasis. (United States)

    Saad, Wael E A; Madoff, David C


    Percutaneous portal vein interventions require minimally invasive access to the portal venous system. Common approaches to the portal vein include transjugular hepatic vein to portal vein access and direct transhepatic portal vein access. A major concern of the transhepatic route is the risk of postprocedural bleeding, which is increased when patients are anticoagulated or receiving pharmaceutical thrombolytic therapy. Thus percutaneous portal vein access and subsequent closure are important technical parts of percutaneous portal vein procedures. At present, various techniques have been used for either portal access or subsequent transhepatic tract closure and hemostasis. Regardless of the method used, meticulous technique is required to achieve the overall safety and effectiveness of portal venous procedures. This article reviews the various techniques of percutaneous transhepatic portal vein access and the various closure and hemostatic methods used to reduce the risk of postprocedural bleeding.

  4. Incidental retroaortic left innominate vein in adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Semionov, MD, PhD


    Full Text Available Retro-aortic left innominate vein is a rare vascular abnormality, usually associated with congenital heart disease. Here we report a case of isolated retro-aortic left innominate vein in an adult female.

  5. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Pulmonary Embolism (PE) - Blood Clot Forming in a Vein (United States)

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism (DVT/PE) are often underdiagnosed and serious, but ... bloodstream to the lungs, causing a blockage called pulmonary embolism (PE). If the clot is small, and with ...

  6. Evaluation of left renal vein entrapment using multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyraz, Ahmet K.; Onur, Mehmet R. [Dept. of Radiology, Firat Univ. School of Medicine, Elazig (Turkey)], e-mail:; Firdolas, Fatih [Dept. of Urology, Firat Univ. School of Medicine, Elazig (Turkey); Kocakoc, Ercan [Dept. of Radiology, Bezmialem Vakif Univ., School of Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey)


    Background: Nutcracker syndrome, also called left renal vein entrapment syndrome, is a cause of non-glomerular hematuria with difficulties in diagnosis. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is a powerful tool to prevent unnecessary diagnostic procedures. Purpose: To retrospectively determine the prevalence of nutcracker phenomenon and nutcracker syndrome seen in MDCT in consecutive patients. Material and Methods: The institutional review board approved the study and waived the requirement for informed consent. Abdominal contrast-enhanced MDCT scans were reviewed from 1000 consecutive patients. MDCT scan assessment included renal vein diameter measurements and evaluation for the presence of anterior or posterior left renal vein entrapment. Electronic medical records and urine analysis reports of patients with left renal vein entrapment were reviewed. Student's t test was used to assess differences in renal vein diameter in patients with left renal vein entrapment. Results: Left renal vein entrapment was observed in 10.9% (109), retroaortic left renal vein in 6.5% (65), entrapment of left renal vein between superior mesenteric artery and aorta in 4.1% (41), and circumaortic left renal vein in 0.3% (3) of patients. Mean diameters of right (8.8 {+-} 1.9 mm) and unentrapped left (8.9 {+-} 1.8 mm) renal veins were not significantly different (P = 0.1). The mean diameter of anterior entrapped left renal veins (10.3 {+-} 2 mm) was significantly greater (P = 0.04) than contralateral renal veins (8.6 {+-} 2.1 mm) in their widest portion. In 8.8% of patients with the left renal vein entrapment, urine analysis showed isomorphic hematuria or proteinuria with no other known cause. Varicocele and pelvic congestion were seen in 5.5% of patients with the left renal vein entrapment. Conclusion: Left renal vein entrapment is not a rare entity and renal nutcracker phenomenon might be underdiagnosed.

  7. Vein visualization: patient characteristic factors and efficacy of a new infrared vein finder technology. (United States)

    Chiao, F B; Resta-Flarer, F; Lesser, J; Ng, J; Ganz, A; Pino-Luey, D; Bennett, H; Perkins, C; Witek, B


    We investigated the patient characteristic factors that correlate with identification of i.v. cannulation sites with normal eyesight. We evaluated a new infrared vein finding (VF) technology device in identifying i.v. cannulation sites. Each subject underwent two observations: one using the conventional method (CM) of normal, unassisted eyesight and the other with the infrared VF device, VueTek's Veinsite™ (VF). A power analysis for moderate effect size (β=0.95) required 54 samples for within-subject differences. Patient characteristic profiles were obtained from 384 subjects (768 observations). Our sample population exhibited an overall average of 5.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.4-6.2] veins using CM. As a whole, CM vein visualization were less effective among obese [4.5 (95% CI 3.8-5.3)], African-American [4.6 (95% CI 3.6-5.5 veins)], and Asian [5.1 (95% CI 4.1-6.0)] subjects. Next, the VF technology identified an average of 9.1 (95% CI 8.6-9.5) possible cannulation sites compared with CM [average of 5.8 (95% CI 5.4-6.2)]. Seventy-six obese subjects had an average of 4.5 (95% CI 3.8-5.3) and 8.2 (95% CI 7.4-9.1) veins viewable by CM and VF, respectively. In dark skin subjects, 9.1 (95% CI 8.3-9.9) veins were visible by VF compared with 5.4 (95% CI 4.8-6.0) with CM. African-American or Asian ethnicity, and obesity were associated with decreased vein visibility. The visibility of veins eligible for cannulation increased for all subgroups using a new infrared device.

  8. Adventitial cystic disease of the common femoral vein presenting as deep vein thrombosis

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    Young-Kyun Kim


    Full Text Available Adventitial cystic disease of the common femoral vein is a rare condition. We herein report the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with painless swelling in her left lower leg that resembled deep vein thrombosis. She underwent femoral exploration and excision of the cystic wall. The presentation, investigation, treatment, and pathology of this condition are discussed with a literature review.

  9. Efficacy of varicose vein surgery with preservation of the great safenous vein. (United States)

    Barros, Bernardo Cunha Senra; Araujo, Antonio Luiz de; Magalhães, Carlos Eduardo Virgini; Barros, Raimundo Luiz Senra; Fiorelli, Stenio Karlos Alvim; Gatts, Raphaella Ferreira


    To evaluate the efficacy of surgical treatment of varicose veins with preservation of the great saphenous vein. We conducted a prospective study of 15 female patients between 25 and 55 years of age with clinical, etiologic, anatomic and pathophysiologic (CEAP) classification 2, 3 and 4. The patients underwent surgical treatment of primary varicose veins with great saphenous vein (GSV) preservation. Doppler ultrasonography exams were carried out in the first and third months postoperatively. The form of clinical severity of venous disease, Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS) was completed before and after surgery. We excluded patients with history of deep vein thrombosis, smoking or postoperatively use of elastic stockings or phlebotonics. All patients had improved VCSS (p caliber, as well as with preoperative CEAP. There was improvement in CEAP class in nine patients when compared with the preoperative period (p caliber, and to the symptoms when the vein had maximum caliber of 7.5 mm, correlating directly with the CEAP. The decrease in GSV caliber, even without complete abolition of reflux, leads to clinical improvement by decreasing the reflux volume.

  10. Portal vein thrombosis after reconstruction in 270 consecutive patients with portal vein resections in hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) surgery. (United States)

    Miyazaki, Masaru; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Ohtuka, Masayuki; Kato, Atsushi; Yoshitomi, Hiroyuki; Furukawa, Katsunori; Takayashiki, Tsukasa; Kuboki, Satoshi; Takano, Shigetsugu; Suzuki, Daisuke; Higashihara, Taku


    This study was aimed to evaluate the occurrence of portal vein thrombosis after portal vein reconstruction. The portal veins were repaired with venorrhaphy, end-to-end, patch graft, and segmental graft in consecutive 270 patients undergoing hepato-pancreto-biliary (HPB) surgery. Portal vein thrombosis was encountered in 20 of 163 of end-to-end, 2 of 56 of venorrhaphy, and 2 of 5 of patch graft groups, as compared with 0 of 46 of segmental graft group (p Portal vein thrombosis occurred more frequently after hepatectomy than after pancreatectomy (p portal vein blood flow was more sufficiently achieved in the early re-operation within 3 days after surgery than in the late re-operation over 5 days after surgery (p portal vein reconstruction. The revision surgery for portal vein thrombosis should be performed within 3 days after surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Primary varicose veins: Frequency, clinical significance and surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Dragan M.


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION According to the definition of the World Health Organization, varicose veins represent abnormally enlarged superficial veins having baggy or cylindrical shape. The most frequent cause of primary varicose veins is the insufficiency of long saphenous vein (LSV, but especially the basin of its connection with femoral vein and perforating veins. OBJECTIVE The objectives of these investigations were: the determination of insufficiency incidence of SSV in cases of LSV insufficiency; the establishment of association of insufficiency of perforating veins of the basin of LSV and SSV; the study of the results of surgical treatment of insufficiency and varicosity of both short and long saphenous veins. METHODS In this study, 100 patients (66 women and 34 men, average age 52.1 years, with clinical symptoms showing the insufficiency and varicosity of long saphenous vein with no change of deep vein system were examined. Ultrasonographic examinations were made using Color Doppler probes - 7.5 and 3.75 MHz (Toshiba Corevison SSA 350 A; the development of incompetence of long saphenous vein (LSV and short saphenous vein (SSV at the level of the junction as well as other incompetent valves were examined. The reflux was defined as a retrograde flow of the duration longer than 0.5 seconds. RESULTS The insufficiency of short saphenous vein was determined by ultrasonographic examination in 34%, while the insufficiency of perforating veins in 80% of patients. 40% of patients were operated (33.3% of females, and 52.9% of males. The most frequent indications for surgical treatment of superficial veins insufficiency were: strong varicosities, clear symptoms and signs, superficial thrombophlebitis and conditions after superficial thrombophlebitis. Surgical treatment was applied in 16% of patients due to recurrence in the basin of long saphenous vein, and in 6% of cases because of the recurrence in the basin of short saphenous vein. Data analysis failed to

  12. ClariVein® - Early results from a large single-centre series of mechanochemical endovenous ablation for varicose veins. (United States)

    Tang, T Y; Kam, J W; Gaunt, M E


    Objectives This study assessed the effectiveness and patient experience of the ClariVein® endovenous occlusion catheter for varicose veins from a large single-centre series in the UK. Methods A total of 300 patients (371 legs) underwent ClariVein® treatment for their varicose veins; 184 for great saphenous vein (GSV) incompetence, 62 bilateral GSV, 23 short saphenous vein (SSV), 6 bilateral SSV and 25 combined unilateral great saphenous vein and SSV. Patients were reviewed at an interval of two months post procedure and underwent Duplex ultrasound assessment. Postoperative complications were recorded along with patient satisfaction. Results All 393 procedures were completed successfully under local anaesthetic. Complete occlusion of the treated vein was initially achieved in all the patients, but at eight weeks' follow-up, there was only partial obliteration in 13/393 (3.3%) veins. These were all successfully treated with ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy. Procedures were well tolerated with a mean pain score of 0.8 (0-10). No significant complications were reported. Conclusions ClariVein® can be used to ablate long and short saphenous varicose veins on a walk-in-walk-out basis. Bilateral procedures can be successfully performed, and these are well tolerated as can multiple veins in the same leg. Early results are promising but further evaluation and longer term follow-up are required.

  13. Internal vein texture and vein evolution of the epithermal Shila-Paula district, southern Peru (United States)

    Chauvet, Alain; Bailly, Laurent; André, Anne-Sylvie; Monié, Patrick; Cassard, Daniel; Tajada, Fernando Llosa; Vargas, Juan Rosas; Tuduri, Johann


    The epithermal Shila-Paula Au-Ag district is characterized by numerous veins hosted in Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Western Cordillera (southern Peru). Field studies of the ore bodies reveal a systematic association of a main E-W vein with secondary N55-60°W veins—two directions that are also reflected by the orientation of fluid-inclusion planes in quartz crystals of the host rock. In areas where this pattern is not recognized, such as the Apacheta sector, vein emplacement seems to have been guided by regional N40°E and N40°W fractures. Two main vein-filling stages are identified. stage 1 is a quartz-adularia-pyrite-galena-sphalerite-chalcopyrite-electrum-Mn silicate-carbonate assemblage that fills the main E-W veins. stage 2, which contains most of the precious-metal mineralization, is divided into pre-bonanza and bonanza substages. The pre-bonanza substage consists of a quartz-adularia-carbonate assemblage that is observed within the secondary N45-60°W veins, in veinlets that cut the stage 1 assemblage, and in final open-space fillings. The two latter structures are finally filled by the bonanza substage characterized by a Fe-poor sphalerite-chalcopyrite-pyrite-galena-tennantite-tetrahedrite-polybasite-pearceite-electrum assemblage. The ore in the main veins is systematically brecciated, whereas the ore in the secondary veins and geodes is characteristic of open-space crystallization. Microthermometric measurements on sphalerite from both stages and on quartz and calcite from stage 2 indicate a salinity range of 0 to 15.5 wt% NaCl equivalent and homogenization temperatures bracketed between 200 and 330°C. Secondary CO2-, N2- and H2S-bearing fluid inclusions are also identified. The age of vein emplacement, based on 40Ar/39Ar ages obtained on adularia of different veins, is estimated at around 11 Ma, with some overlap between adularia of stage 1 (11.4±0.4 Ma) and of stage 2 (10.8±0.3 Ma). A three-phase tectonic model has been constructed to explain the

  14. Biometric Authentication Using Infrared Imaging of Hand Vein Patterns (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Shrotri, A.; Rethrekar, S. C.; Patil, M. H.; Alisherov, Farkhod A.; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    Hand vein patterns are unique and universal. Vein pattern is used as biometric feature in recent years. But, it is not very much popular biometric system as compared to other systems like fingerprint, iris etc, because of the higher cost. For conventional algorithm, it is necessary to use high quality images, which demand high-priced collection devices. There are two approaches for vein authentication, these are hand dorsa and hand ventral. Currently we are working on hand dorsa vein patterns. Here we are putting forward the new approach for low cost hand dorsa vein pattern acquisition using low cost device and proposing a algorithm to extract features from these low quality images.

  15. Primary leiomyosarcoma of saphenous vein presenting as deep venous thrombosis. (United States)

    Fremed, Daniel I; Faries, Peter L; Schanzer, Harry R; Marin, Michael L; Ting, Windsor


    Only a small number of venous leiomyosarcomas have been previously reported. Of these tumors, those of saphenous origin comprise a minority of cases. A 59-year-old man presented with symptoms of deep vein thrombosis and was eventually diagnosed with primary leiomyosarcoma of great saphenous vein origin. The tumor was treated with primary resection and femoral vein reconstruction with autologous patch. Although extremely rare, saphenous leiomyosarcoma can present as deep vein thrombosis. Vascular tumors should be included in the differential diagnosis of atypical extremity swelling refractory to conventional deep vein thrombosis management. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions:

  16. Thermal stimulation of intra-abdominal veins in conscious rabbits. (United States)

    Cranston, W I; Hellon, R F; Townsend, Y


    1. Infusions of hot and cold Hartmann's solution were given into the hepatic portal vein and inferior vena cava of conscious rabbits. Similar infusions were given into an ear vein as controls. The time integral of the displacement of brain temperature was measured. 2. There was no evidence for the presence of warm sensors in the inferior vena cava, portal vein, liver or hepatic vein, and no evidence for a concentration of cold sensors in the inferior vena cava. 3. There may be cold-sensitive elements in the portal vein or the tissue perfused by blood passing through it. PMID:650560

  17. Ligation of superior mesenteric vein and portal to splenic vein anastomosis after superior mesenteric-portal vein confluence resection during pancreaticoduodenectomy – Case report

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    Jianlin Tang


    Conclusion: The lessons we learned are (1 Before SMPV confluence resection, internal jugular vein graft should be ready for reconstruction. (2 Synthetic graft is an alternative for internal jugular vein graft. (3 Direct portal vein to SMV anastomosis can be achieved by mobilizing liver. (4 It is possible that venous collaterals secondary to SMV tumor obstruction may have allowed this patient's post-operative survival.

  18. Deep dorsal vein arterialisation in vascular impotence. (United States)

    Wespes, E; Corbusier, A; Delcour, C; Vandenbosch, G; Struyven, J; Schulman, C C


    A series of 12 patients with vasculogenic impotence (4 arterial lesions; 8 arterial and venous lesions) underwent deep dorsal vein arterialisation after pre-operative assessment by a multidisciplinary approach. Cumulative graft patency was 58% (7 of 12 patients) up to 21 months but only 4 patients developed almost normal erections. Digital angiography, with and without the intracavernous injection of papaverine, was performed during follow-up to determine the vascular physiological status. At flaccidity, the corpora cavernosa were never opacified in the absence of a venocorporeal shunt. The penile glans was always visualised. Opacification of the deep dorsal vein and the circumflex system decreased with penile rigidity, resulting from their compression between Buck's fascia and the tunica albuginea. Intracavernous pressure recorded before and after the surgical procedure showed a marked increase when a caverno-venous shunt was performed. Hypervascularisation of the glans occurred in 2 cases. The relevance of this new surgical technique and its functional mechanism are discussed.

  19. Antioxidative mechanism in the course of varicose veins. (United States)

    Horecka, Anna; Biernacka, Jadwiga; Hordyjewska, Anna; Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Terlecki, Piotr; Zubilewicz, Tomasz; Musik, Irena; Kurzepa, Jacek


    Objective Our objective was to evaluate the state of oxidative stress in the great saphenous varicose vein wall and blood of varicose vein patients taken from the antecubital vein. Methods The superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant status were measured with commercially available colorimetric kits in erythrocytes, plasma and varicose vein wall of 65 patients (second degree of clinical state classification, etiology, anatomy and pathophysiology) aged 22-70 (49 women, 16 men) in comparison to normal great saphenous vein walls collected from 10 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft and blood collected from 20 healthy individuals. Results A statistically significant decrease (p < 0.001) in superoxide dismutase activity in erythrocytes and the increase (p < 0.05) in superoxide dismutase activity in varicose vein has been observed. There have been no significant changes in the concentration of GSH in plasma and in varicose vein. The decreased concentration of total antioxidant status in plasma (p < 0.001) and in varicose vein wall (p < 0.05) in comparison to the control has been noticed. Conclusion The varicose vein patients are affected by oxidative stress. Our results indicate impaired antioxidant defense mechanism in the blood of varicose vein patients. In contrast to the blood, an increased process of antioxidant defense in the varicose vein wall was noticed.

  20. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system. (United States)

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian


    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed.

  1. Pharmacological assessment of adrenergic receptors in human varicose veins. (United States)

    Miller, V M; Rud, K S; Gloviczki, P


    Experiments were to characterize pharmacologically adrenergic receptors in human varicose veins to the natural transmitter norepinephrine and to an extract of Ruscus. Greater saphenous veins and varicose tributaries from patients undergoing elective surgery for primary varicose disease and portions of greater saphenous veins from patients undergoing peripheral arterial reconstruction (control) were suspended for the measurement of isometric force in organ chambers. Concentration response curves were obtained to norepinephrine or the extract of Ruscus aculeatus in the absence and presence of selective antagonists of alpha, and alpha2 adrenergic receptors. Norepinephrine and Ruscus extract caused concentration-dependent contractions in all veins. Contractions to norepinephrine were greater in control veins than in varicose tributaries. Contractions to the extract were greater in varicose tributaries than in greater saphenous veins from varicose patients. Contractions to norepinephrine were reduced similarly by alpha and alpha2-adrenergic agonists in control and varicose veins but to a greater extent by alpha2-blockade in greater saphenous veins from varicose patients. Contractions to Ruscus extract were not reduced by alpha-adrenergic blockade in control veins but were reduced by alpha2-adrenergic blockade in varicose veins. These results suggest a differential distribution of alpha adrenergic receptors on greater saphenous veins from non-varicose patients compared to those with primary varicose disease. Venotropic agents from plant extract probably exert effects by way of multiple receptor and non-receptor mediated events.

  2. Sclerotherapy and foam sclerotherapy for varicose veins. (United States)

    Coleridge Smith, P


    To review published evidence concerning treatment of varicose veins using ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy (UGFS) to assess the safety and efficacy of this treatment. Medical literature databases including MedLine, Embase and DH-DATA were searched for recent literature concerning UGFS. Papers describing the early results and later outcome have been assessed and their main findings were included in this summary. Few randomized studies have been published in this field and much of the available data come from clinical series reported by individual clinicians. It is clear that foam sclerotherapy is far more effective than liquid sclerotherapy and that ultrasound imaging allows the treatment to be delivered accurately to affected veins. There is evidence that 3% polidocanol foam is no more effective than 1% polidocanol foam. The optimum ratio of gas to liquid is 4:1, although a range of ratios is reported in the published work. There is a wide variation in the volume used as well as the method by which it is injected. The use of carbon dioxide foam reduces the systemic complications, particularly visual disturbance, as compared with air foams. Very few serious adverse events have been reported in the literature despite the widespread use of this method. Rates of recanalization of saphenous trunks following UGFS are similar to those observed after endovenous laser and endovenous RF ablation of veins, as well as the residual incompetence after surgical treatment. UGFS is a safe and effective method of treating varicose veins. The relative advantages or disadvantages of this treatment in the longer term have yet to be published.

  3. Varicose veins of the pelvis men

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    O. B. Zhukov


    Full Text Available Syndrome of pelvic venous congestion in men and of prostate particularly in contrast to women disease is poorly known. Classification of varicose pelvic veins in men does not exist. In this paper we analyzed their own data on the diagnosis and treatment of venous congestion in the pelvic and prostate in patients with varicocele. Classification of prostate varicose are also offered by us.

  4. Deep Vein Thrombosis after Coronary Angiography

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    Vivek Singh Guleria


    Full Text Available Deep vein thrombosis (DVT is a rare but potentially serious complication of coronary angiography (CAG, incidence being just 0.05%. Only a few clinical cases of DVT after diagnostic transfemoral catheterization have been reported. Here, we describe the case of a 54-year-old woman who developed significant DVT after CAG without venous thromboembolism (VTE and, which was treated with anticoagulants.

  5. Atypical ultrasonographic presentation of ovarian vein thrombosis. (United States)

    Graupera, B; Pascual, M A; Garcia, P; Di Paola, R; Ubeda, B; Tresserra, F


    Ovarian vein trombosis (OVT) is a pathologic entity classically considered as a postpartum complication and only rarely associated with other diseases. Due to its vague symptoms, it is usually underdiagnosed. However its consequences can be fatal. We report a case of an incidental finding of ovarian thrombosis in an asymptomatic 45-year-old woman who underwent surgery due to the ultrasonographic finding of a para-ovarian cyst.

  6. Ultrasonic Vein Detector Implementation for Medical Applications


    Taheri, Seyedd Arash


    Nowadays, taking blood samples from a human forearm and using Cephalic, Basilic, and Median Cubital veins to perform various injections can be considered as one of the most routine medical procedures for diagnostic purposes. Most human patients don’t need to waste a lot of time in clinics waiting for the nurses and/or doctors to locate an applicable venipuncture site. However, minority of individuals who suffer from obesity, cancer, and other similar medical complications have to go to excruc...

  7. Deep vein thrombosis: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, W.P.; Youngswick, F.D.

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a dangerous complication that may present after elective foot surgery. Because of the frequency with which DVT occurs in the elderly patient, as well as in the podiatric surgical population, the podiatrist should be acquainted with this entity. A review of the diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and the role of podiatry in the management of DVT is discussed in this paper.

  8. Absent right superior caval vein in situs solitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytzen, Rebekka; Sundberg, Karin; Vejlstrup, Niels


    Introduction In up to 0.07% of the general population, the right anterior cardinal vein obliterates and the left remains open, creating an absent right superior caval vein and a persistent left superior caval vein. Absent right superior caval vein is associated with additional congenital heart...... disease in about half the patients. We wished to study the consequences of absent right superior caval vein as an incidental finding on prenatal ultrasonic malformation screening. Material and methods This is a retrospective case series study of all foetuses diagnosed with absent right superior caval vein...... at the national referral hospital, Rigshospitalet, Denmark, from 2009 to 2012. RESULTS: In total, five cases of absent right superior caval vein were reviewed. No significant associated cardiac, extra-cardiac, or genetic anomalies were found. Postnatal echocardiographies confirmed the diagnosis and there were...

  9. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. (United States)

    Di Nisio, Marcello; van Es, Nick; Büller, Harry R


    Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, collectively referred to as venous thromboembolism, constitute a major global burden of disease. The diagnostic work-up of suspected deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism includes the sequential application of a clinical decision rule and D-dimer testing. Imaging and anticoagulation can be safely withheld in patients who are unlikely to have venous thromboembolism and have a normal D-dimer. All other patients should undergo ultrasonography in case of suspected deep vein thrombosis and CT in case of suspected pulmonary embolism. Direct oral anticoagulants are first-line treatment options for venous thromboembolism because they are associated with a lower risk of bleeding than vitamin K antagonists and are easier to use. Use of thrombolysis should be limited to pulmonary embolism associated with haemodynamic instability. Anticoagulant treatment should be continued for at least 3 months to prevent early recurrences. When venous thromboembolism is unprovoked or secondary to persistent risk factors, extended treatment beyond this period should be considered when the risk of recurrence outweighs the risk of major bleeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Laser photocoagulation for retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Mirzabekova


    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is one of the leading causes of permanent vision loss. In adults, central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO occurs in 1.8% while branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO occurs in 0.2%. Treatment strategy and disease prognosis are determined by RVO type (ischemic/non-ischemic. Despite numerous studies and many current CRVO and BRVO treatment approaches, the management of these patients is still being debated. Intravitreal injections of steroids (triamcinolone acetate, dexamethasone and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibitors (bevacizumab, ranibizumab were shown to be fairly effective. However, it is unclear whether anti-VEGF agents are reasonable in ischemic RVOs. Laser photocoagulation remains the only effective treatment of optic nerve head and/or retinal neovascularization. Laser photocoagulation is also indicated for the treatment of macular edema. Both threshold and sub-threshold photocoagulation may be performed. Photocoagulation performed with argon (514 nm, krypton (647 nm, or diode (810 nm laser for macular edema provides similar results (no significant differences. The treatment may be complex and include medication therapy and/or surgery. Medication therapy includes anti-aggregant agents and antioxidants, i.e., emoxypine which may be used in acute RVO as well as in post-thrombotic retinopathy. 

  11. Laser photocoagulation for retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Mirzabekova


    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is one of the leading causes of permanent vision loss. In adults, central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO occurs in 1.8% while branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO occurs in 0.2%. Treatment strategy and disease prognosis are determined by RVO type (ischemic/non-ischemic. Despite numerous studies and many current CRVO and BRVO treatment approaches, the management of these patients is still being debated. Intravitreal injections of steroids (triamcinolone acetate, dexamethasone and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibitors (bevacizumab, ranibizumab were shown to be fairly effective. However, it is unclear whether anti-VEGF agents are reasonable in ischemic RVOs. Laser photocoagulation remains the only effective treatment of optic nerve head and/or retinal neovascularization. Laser photocoagulation is also indicated for the treatment of macular edema. Both threshold and sub-threshold photocoagulation may be performed. Photocoagulation performed with argon (514 nm, krypton (647 nm, or diode (810 nm laser for macular edema provides similar results (no significant differences. The treatment may be complex and include medication therapy and/or surgery. Medication therapy includes anti-aggregant agents and antioxidants, i.e., emoxypine which may be used in acute RVO as well as in post-thrombotic retinopathy. 

  12. The vertebral venous plexuses: the internal veins are muscular and external veins have valves. (United States)

    Stringer, Mark D; Restieaux, Matthew; Fisher, Amanda L; Crosado, Brynley


    The internal and external vertebral venous plexuses (VVP) extend the length of the vertebral column. Authoritative sources state that these veins are devoid of valves, permitting bidirectional blood flow and facilitating the hematogenous spread of malignant tumors that have venous connections with these plexuses. The aim of this investigation was to identify morphologic features that might influence blood flow in the VVP. The VVP of 12 adult cadavers (seven female, mean age 79.5 years) were examined by macro- and micro-dissection and representative veins removed for histology and immunohistochemistry (smooth muscle antibody staining). A total of 26, mostly bicuspid, valves were identified in 19 of 56 veins (34%) from the external VVP, all orientated to promote blood flow towards the internal VVP. The internal VVP was characterized by four main longitudinal channels with transverse interconnections; the maximum caliber of the longitudinal anterior internal VVP veins was significantly greater than their posterior counterparts (P < 0.001). The luminal architecture of the internal VVP veins was striking, consisting of numerous bridging trabeculae (cords, thin membranes and thick bridges) predominantly within the longitudinal venous channels. Trabeculae were composed of collagen and smooth muscle and also contained numerous small arteries and nerve fibers. A similar internal venous trabecular meshwork is known to exist within the dural venous sinuses of the skull. It may serve to prevent venous overdistension or collapse, to regulate the direction and velocity of venous blood flow, or is possibly involved in thermoregulation or other homeostatic processes. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Absence of Middle Hepatic Vein Combined with Retro-Aortic Left Renal Vein: a Very Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezer Akçer


    Full Text Available The hepatic and renal veins drain into the inferior vena cava. The upper group of hepatic veins consists of three veins which extend to the posterior face of the liver to join the inferior cava. The left renal vein passes anterior to the aorta just below the origin of the superior mesenteric artery. We detected a variation in the hepatic and renal veins in a multislice CT angiogram of a nine-year-old male patient in the Radiology Department of Afyon Kocatepe University Medical School. The upper group hepatic veins normally drains into the inferior vena cava as three separate trunks, namely the right, left and middle. In our case, we found that only the right and left hepatic veins existed and the middle hepatic vein was absent. Furthermore, the left renal vein, which normally passes anterior to the abdominal aorta, was retro-aortic. Left renal vein variations are of great importance in planning retroperitoneal surgery and vascular interventions. Knowledge of a patient’s hepatic vein and renovascular anatomy and determining their variations and anomalies are of critical importance to abdominal operations, transplantations and preoperative evaluation of endovascular interventions.

  14. Multiple variations in the azygos venous system: a preaortic interazygos vein and the absence of hemiazygos vein. (United States)

    Ozdemir, B; Aldur, M M; Celik, H H


    Multiple variations of the azygos venous system were detected during routine dissection. The hemiazygos vein was underdeveloped. On the left side of the thorax, posterior intercostal veins between the 8th and 11th intercostal spaces and the subcostal vein drained into the azygos vein independently. In addition, the posterior 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th intercostal veins united and formed two superior and inferior trunks. The superior common trunk, at the level of the T4 vertebra, crossed the vertebral column obliquely, lying anterior to the aorta and posterior to the esophagus, opening into the azygos vein at the level of the T4 vertebra. The other structures in this part were normal. There were different courses of the azygos vein system. This variation is important in mediastinal surgery and also in the interpretation of radiographs.


    Veronese, Chiara; Staurenghi, Giovanni; Pellegrini, Marco; Maiolo, Chiara; Primavera, Laura; Morara, Mariachiara; Armstrong, Grayson W; Ciardella, Antonio P


    The aim of this study is to describe the clinical presentation of vortex vein varices with multimodal imaging. The authors carried out a retrospective case series of eight patients (7 female, 1 male) with an average age of 60.2 years (min 8, max 84, median 68.5) presenting with vortex vein varices. All patients were evaluated at the Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy and at Luigi Sacco Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, Italy. Patients underwent complete ophthalmologic examinations, including best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, anterior segment, and fundus examination. Imaging studies, including fundus color photography, near-infrared reflectance imaging, fundus autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and spectral-domain enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography were also performed. Ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography and ultra-widefield indocyanine angiography using the Heidelberg Retina Angiograph and the Staurenghi 230 SLO Retina Lens were used to demonstrate the disappearance of all retinal lesions when pressure was applied to the globe. All eight cases initially presented to the emergency room. One patient presented secondary to trauma, two patients presented for suspected hemangioma, whereas the other five were referred to the authors' hospitals for suspected retinal lesions. On examination, retinal abnormalities were identified in all 8 patients, with 7 (87.5%) oculus dexter and 1 (12.5%) oculus sinister, and with 1 (12.5%) inferotemporally, 3 (37.5%) superonasally, 3 (37.5%) inferonasally, and 1 (12.5%) inferiorly. Fundus color photography showed an elevated lesion in seven patients and a nonelevated red lesion in one patient. In all patients, near-infrared reflectance imaging showed a hyporeflective lesion in the periphery of the retina. Fundus autofluorescence identified round hypofluorescent rings surrounding weakly hyperfluorescent lesions in all

  16. Anatomic Variation of Facial Vein in Carotid-Cavernous Fistula and Trans-Facial Vein Embolization. (United States)

    Luo, Chao-Bao; Chang, Feng-Chi; Teng, Michael Mu-Huo; Ting, Ta-Wei


    Trans-facial vein (FV) embolization via the internal jugular vein is an alternative approach to embolization of carotid cavernous fistulas (CCFs). The purpose of this study is to report the anatomic variation of FVs and our experience of trans-FV embolization of CCFs. Over 6 years, 26 patients (12 men and 14 women; age range 27-72 years old) with CCFs underwent trans-FV embolization because of anterior drainage of fistulas. We retrospectively analyzed angioarchitecture of the CCFs focusing on the anatomic variations of FVs and angiographic and clinical outcomes after embolization. FVs drained to the internal jugular vein in 10 (38%) cases; FVs unexpectedly emptied into the external jugular vein in 16 (62%) cases. All FVs entered into the internal jugular vein at the level of the hyoid bone. In cases with fistulas to the FV and EJV, the termination of FVs was variable including superior (n = 5), inferior (n = 1), or at the level of the hyoid bone (n = 10). Successful microcatheterization via different insertions of FVs to jugular veins was achieved in all cases. One patient had a small residual fistula, and 2 patients had fistula recurrence. Temporary impairment of cranial nerve III or VI occurred in 4 patients. The mean clinical follow-up time was 18 months. Trans-FV embolization is an effective and safe method to manage CCFs with anterior drainage. However, anatomic variations of the FV exist, and a careful work-up of fistula venous drainage before trans-FV embolization is essential to reduce erroneous attempts, procedure time, and periprocedural risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Automated detection of periventricular veins on 7 T brain MRI (United States)

    Kuijf, Hugo J.; Bouvy, Willem H.; Zwanenburg, Jaco J. M.; Viergever, Max A.; Biessels, Geert Jan; Vincken, Koen L.


    Cerebral small vessel disease is common in elderly persons and a leading cause of cognitive decline, dementia, and acute stroke. With the introduction of ultra-high field strength 7.0T MRI, it is possible to visualize small vessels in the brain. In this work, a proof-of-principle study is conducted to assess the feasibility of automatically detecting periventricular veins. Periventricular veins are organized in a fan-pattern and drain venous blood from the brain towards the caudate vein of Schlesinger, which is situated along the lateral ventricles. Just outside this vein, a region-of- interest (ROI) through which all periventricular veins must cross is defined. Within this ROI, a combination of the vesselness filter, tubular tracking, and hysteresis thresholding is applied to locate periventricular veins. All detected locations were evaluated by an expert human observer. The results showed a positive predictive value of 88% and a sensitivity of 95% for detecting periventricular veins. The proposed method shows good results in detecting periventricular veins in the brain on 7.0T MR images. Compared to previous works, that only use a 1D or 2D ROI and limited image processing, our work presents a more comprehensive definition of the ROI, advanced image processing techniques to detect periventricular veins, and a quantitative analysis of the performance. The results of this proof-of-principle study are promising and will be used to assess periventricular veins on 7.0T brain MRI.

  18. Quantification of deep medullary veins at 7 T brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijf, Hugo J.; Viergever, Max A.; Vincken, Koen L. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bouvy, Willem H.; Razoux Schultz, Tom B.; Biessels, Geert Jan [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zwanenburg, Jaco J.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)


    Deep medullary veins support the venous drainage of the brain and may display abnormalities in the context of different cerebrovascular diseases. We present and evaluate a method to automatically detect and quantify deep medullary veins at 7 T. Five participants were scanned twice, to assess the robustness and reproducibility of manual and automated vein detection. Additionally, the method was evaluated on 24 participants to demonstrate its application. Deep medullary veins were assessed within an automatically created region-of-interest around the lateral ventricles, defined such that all veins must intersect it. A combination of vesselness, tubular tracking, and hysteresis thresholding located individual veins, which were quantified by counting and computing (3-D) density maps. Visual assessment was time-consuming (2 h/scan), with an intra-/inter-observer agreement on absolute vein count of ICC = 0.76 and 0.60, respectively. The automated vein detection showed excellent inter-scan reproducibility before (ICC = 0.79) and after (ICC = 0.88) visually censoring false positives. It had a positive predictive value of 71.6 %. Imaging at 7 T allows visualization and quantification of deep medullary veins. The presented method offers fast and reliable automated assessment of deep medullary veins. (orig.)

  19. Computed tomographic evaluation of the portal vein in the hepatomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kee Hyung; Lee, Seung Chul; Bae, Man Gil; Seo, Heung Suk; Kim, Soon Yong; Lee, Min Ho; Kee, Choon Suhk; Park, Kyung Nam [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Computed tomography and pornographic findings of 63 patients with hepatoma, undergone hepatic angiography and superior mesenteric pornography for evaluation of tumor and thrombosis of portal vein and determination of indication of transcatheter arterial embolization for palliative treatment of hepatoma from April, 85 to June, 86 in Hanyang university hospital, were reviewed. The results were as follows: 1. In 36 cases, portal vein thrombosis was detected during photography. Nineteen of 37 cases which revealed localized hepatoma in the right lobe of the liver showed portal vein thrombosis; 9 of 11 cases of the left lobe; 8 of 14 cases which were involved in entire liver revealed thrombosis. One case localized in the caudate lobe showed no evidence of invasion to portal vein. 2. Twenty-four of 34 cases with diffuse infiltrative hepatoma revealed portal vein thrombosis and the incidence of portal vein thrombosis in this type were higher than in the cases of the nodular type. 3. The portal vein thrombosis appeared as filling defects of low density in the lumen of the portal veins in CT and they did not reveal contrast enhancement. 4. CT revealed well the evidence of obstructions in the cases of portal vein thrombosis and the findings were well-corresponded to the findings of the superior mesenteric photography. 5. Five of the cases of the portal vein thrombosis were missed in the CT and the causes were considered as due to partial volume effect of enhanced portal vein with partial occlusion or arterioportal shunts. 6. Six of 13 cases with occlusion of main portal vein showed cavernous transformation and they were noted as multiple small enhanced vascularities around the porta hepatis in the CT. According to the results, we conclude that CT is a useful modality to detect the changes of the portal veins in the patients of the hepatoma.

  20. Pressure-Temperature History of Shock-Induced Melt Veins (United States)

    Decarli, P. S.; Sharp, T. G.; Xie, Z.; Aramovich, C.


    Shock-induced melt veins that occur in chondrites commonly contain metastable high-pressure phases such as (Mg,Fe)SiO3-perovskite, akimotoite, ringwoodite, and majorite, that crystallized from the melt at high pressure. The metastable high-pressure minerals invert rapidly to stable low-pressure phases if they remain at high temperatures after the pressure is released. Although shock compression mechanisms permit rapid heating of the vein volume, adiabatic cooling on decompression is negligible because of the relative incompressibility of the material in the vein. The presence of metastable mantle minerals in a vein thus implies that the vein was quenched via thermal conduction to adjacent cooler material at high pressure. The quenching time of the vein can be determined from ordinary heat flow calculations (Langenhorst and Poirier, 2000), given knowledge of the vein dimensions and the temperatures at the time of vein formation in both the vein and the surrounding material. We have calculated a synthetic Hugoniot for the Tenham L6 chondrite to estimate bulk post-shock and shock temperatures as a function of shock pressure. Assuming a superliquidus temperature of 2500°C for the melt vein, we use a simple thermal model to investigate then thermal histories of melt veins during shock. The variation in crystallization assemblages within melt veins can be explained in terms of variable cooling rates. Survival of (Mg,Fe)SiO3-perovskite in Tenham (Tomioka and Fugino, 1997) requires that melt veins cooled to below 565°C before pressure release, which further constrains shock pressure, duration of the pressure pulse and cooling histories.

  1. Acute Thrombosis of Left Portal Vein during Right Portal Vein Embolization Extended to Segment 4. (United States)

    Shaw, Colette M; Madoff, David C


    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is an uncommon, but potentially devastating complication of portal vein embolization (PVE). Its occurrence relates to both local and systemic risk factors. In the setting of PVE, precipitating factors include injury to the vessel wall and reduced portal flow. Contributory factors include portal hypertension, hypercoagulopathy, inflammatory processes, malignancy, pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, and asplenia. The goal of therapy is to prevent thrombus progression and lyse existing clot. Hepatectomy is impossible if adequate recanalization has not occurred and/or overt portal hypertension develops. The mechanisms for thrombus development, its diagnosis, management, and prognosis are discussed.

  2. Portal vein and mesenteric vein gas: CT features; Aeroportie ety aeromesenterie: donnees TDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmutz, G.; Fournier, L.; Le Pennec, V.; Provost, N.; Hue, S.; Phi, I.N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 14 - Caen (France)


    Portal vein and mesenteric vein gas are unusual conditions with a complex and nuclear pathogenesis. Mesenteric ischemia frequently causes such pathological conditions but a variety of other causes are known: inflammatory bowel disease, bowel distension, traumatic and iatrogenic injury, intra-abdominal sepsis, and idiopathic conditions. This pathologic entity is favored by intestinal wall alterations, bowel distension and sepsis. The prognosis is frequently fatal, especially when associated with extended bowel necrosis although in the majority of the cases, outcome is favorable without surgery. (author)

  3. Cyclic nucleotides and production of prostanoids in human varicose veins. (United States)

    Nemcova, S; Gloviczki, P; Rud, K S; Miller, V M


    Experiments were designed to determine the production of prostacyclin and thromboxane and the activation of cyclic nucleotides in human varicose and nonvaricose veins and to determine whether these second messenger pathways were differentially activated by the venotropic extract of Ruscus aculeatus. The experiments were designed to characterize the activity of cyclic nucleotides and the production of prostaglandins in human varicose and nonvaricose veins. Segments of the greater saphenous veins and the adjacent tributaries were obtained from patients who underwent vein stripping and excision of primary varicose veins. The saphenous veins from the patients who underwent peripheral arterial bypass grafting were used as controls. The segments of veins were incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution in the presence of venotropic extract of Ruscus aculeatus (10(-3) g/mL) or in water-miscible organic solvent (dimethyl sulfoxide, 10(-3) g/mL), for 1, 5, and 10 minutes at 37 degrees C. The nonspecific phosphodiesterase inhibitor (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, 10(-4) g/mL) was used to block cyclic nucleotide degradation in some samples. Tissue and media samples were collected. Tissue concentrations of both cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cAMP and cGMP, respectively) and media concentrations of 6-ketoprostaglandin-F(1)(alpha) (the stable metabolite of prostacyclin) and thromboxane B(2) (the stable metabolite of thromboxane A(2)) were measured by means of radioimmunoassay. Cyclooxygenase 2 was measured with Western blot analysis. The varicose veins showed greater levels of cAMP but not of cGMP at all time points as compared with the control veins. Prostanoid production was not significantly altered in the varicose veins. Stimulation with Ruscus aculeatus increased the cAMP concentration in the varicose veins but did not affect the cGMP levels. The ratio between 6-ketoprostaglandin-F(1)(alpha) and thromboxane B(2) was two-fold greater in

  4. Vestibular tributaries to the vein of the vestibular aqueduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Marsner; Qvortrup, Klaus; Friis, Morten


    CONCLUSION: The vein of the vestibular aqueduct drains blood from areas extensively lined by vestibular dark cells (VDCs). A possible involvement in the pathogenesis of an impaired endolymphatic homeostasis can be envisioned at the level of the dark cells area. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study...... was to investigate the vascular relationship between the vein of the vestibular aqueduct and the vestibular apparatus, with focus on the VDCs. METHODS: Sixteen male Wistar rats were divided into groups of 6 and 10. In the first group, 2 µm thick sections including the vein of the vestibular aqueduct, utricle...... relation to the VDCs in the utricle and the crista ampullaris of the lateral semicircular canal in the vestibular apparatus. One major vein emanated from these networks, which emptied into the vein of the vestibular aqueduct. Veins draining the saccule and the common crus of the superior and posterior...

  5. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Revealing Coelic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction: Thrombosis has been widely reported in coeliac disease (CD but central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO is rarely described. Case presentation: A 27-year-old woman presented with acute visual loss and was diagnosed with CRVO. Her protein S and protein C levels were low and CD was diagnosed on the basis of endoscopic, immunological and histological results. A gluten-free diet resulted in favourable evolution. Conclusion: CD should be considered in young patients with thrombosis, especially if in an unusual location. Treatment is based on a gluten-free diet.

  6. Portal vein thrombosis in patients with cirrhosis (United States)

    von Köckritz, Leona; De Gottardi, Andrea; Praktiknjo, Michael


    Abstract Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is frequent in patients with liver cirrhosis and possible severe complications such as mesenteric ischemia are rare, but can be life-threatening. However, different aspects of clinical relevance, diagnosis and management of PVT are still areas of uncertainty and investigation in international guidelines. In this article, we elaborate on PVT classification, geographical differences in clinical presentation and standards of diagnosis, and briefly on the current pathophysiological understanding and risk factors. This review considers and highlights the pitfalls of the various treatment approaches and prophylactic treatments. Finally, we review the controversial issue of clinical impact of PVT on prognosis, especially considering liver transplantation and future perspectives. PMID:28533912

  7. Unilateral pulmonary vein atresia: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, So Hwa; Kim, Ki Jun [Dept. of Radiology, Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Unilateral pulmonary vein atresia is a rare congenital anomaly. Its symptoms begin to manifest in childhood and a broad spectrum of clinical severity has been described, ranging from asymptomatic, recurrent pulmonary infection, severe hemoptysis, to death. Only a few adult cases with this condition, with no or mild symptoms, have been reported. Pulmonary angiography has been typically used for definite diagnosis. However, pulmonary angiography may be replaced with the current developing multidetector CT. This report presents an adult case with mild symptoms, diagnosed by multidetector CT.

  8. Pediatric aneurysms and vein of Galen malformations (United States)

    Rao, V. R. K.; Mathuriya, S. N.


    Pediatric aneurysms are different from adult aneurysms – they are more rare, are giant and in the posterior circulation more frequently than in adults and may be associated with congenital disorders. Infectious and traumatic aneursyms are also seen more frequently. Vein of Galen malformations are even rarer entities. They may be of choroidal or mural type. Based on the degree of AV shunting they may present with failure to thrive, with hydrocephalus or in severe cases with heart failure. The only possible treatment is by endovascular techniques – both transarterial and transvenous routes are employed. Rarely transtorcular approach is needed. These cases should be managed by an experienced neurointerventionist. PMID:22069420

  9. Treatment of superficial vein thrombosis to prevent deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichers, Iris M.; Di Nisio, Marcello; Büller, Harry R.; Middeldorp, Saskia


    The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCT) concerning the efficacy and safety of medical or surgical treatments of superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) for the prevention of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). A

  10. Marginal vein is not a varicose vein; it is a venous malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Boong Lee


    Full Text Available Marginal vein (MV is one form of venous malformation (VM; MV is not a varicose vein. MV is the outcome of defective development during the later stage of embryogenesis while the vein trunk is formed. It is an embryonic vein tissue remnant remaining on birth following the failure of normal involutional process. MV is the most common VM involved to Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS; together with the lymphatic malformation, MV is one of two clinically most important congenital vascular malformation components among KTS. MV causes chronic venous insufficiency (CVI due to a unique condition of avalvulosis (lack of venous valve development it accompanies with. Besides, it accompanies a high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE due to its structural defect with a lack of smooth muscle cell to form the media properly as a truncular VM infrequently causing fatal pulmonary embolism. Therefore, the MV is indicated for the surgical excision whenever feasible not only for the prevention of VTE and CVI but also for abnormal long bone growth known as vascular bone syndrome as well as lymphatic complication precipitated by MV.

  11. Vein mechanism simulation study for deep vein thrombosis early diagnosis using cfd (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nabilah; Aziz, Nur Shazilah Abd; Manap, Abreeza Noorlina Abd


    Using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique, this work focus on the analysis of pressure, velocity, and vorticity of blood flow along the popliteal vein. Since the study of early stage of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) becomes essential to prevent the pulmonary embolism (PE), those three parameters are analysed to assess the effect of different opening between two valves of a normal popliteal vein. When only one valve is simulated, the result of pressure shows that the highest and lowest velocities are 15.45 cm/s and 0.73 cm/s, respectively. From the visualization of observed data, however, the different size of orifice between the first and second valves influencing the velocity and vorticity of the blood flow. The rotational motion of blood particle at the same region increases the probability of blood accumulating which is associated with the development of thrombus. Thus, a series of experiment has been conducted by changing the size of valve orifice for the first and second valves along the vein distribution. The result of the CFD simulation shows a significant variation in blood flow in terms of velocity and vorticity.

  12. [Portal perfusion with right gastroepiploic vein flow in liver transplant]. (United States)

    Mendoza-Sánchez, Federico; Javier-Haro, Francisco; Mendoza-Medina, Diego Federico; González-Ojeda, Alejandro; Cortés-Lares, José Antonio; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde

    Liver transplantation in patients with liver cirrhosis, portal vein thrombosis, and cavernous transformation of the portal vein, is a complex procedure with high possibility of liver graft dysfunction. It is performed in 2-19% of all liver transplants, and has a significantly high mortality rate in the post-operative period. Other procedures to maintain portal perfusion have been described, however there are no reports of liver graft perfusion using right gastroepiploic vein. A 20 year-old female diagnosed with cryptogenic cirrhosis, with a Child-Pugh score of 7 points (class "B"), and MELD score of 14 points, with thrombosis and cavernous transformation of the portal vein, severe portal hypertension, splenomegaly, a history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to oesophageal varices, and left renal agenesis. The preoperative evaluation for liver transplantation was completed, and the right gastroepiploic vein of 1-cm diameter was observed draining to the infrahepatic inferior vena cava and right suprarenal vein. An orthotopic liver transplantation was performed from a non-living donor (deceased on January 30, 2005) using the Piggy-Back technique. Portal vein perfusion was maintained using the right gastroepiploic vein, and the outcome was satisfactory. The patient was discharged 13 days after surgery. Liver transplantation was performed satisfactorily, obtaining an acceptable outcome. In this case, the portal perfusion had adequate blood flow through the right gastroepiploic vein. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Portal Vein Thrombosis After Splenic and Pancreatic Surgery. (United States)

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Priego, Pablo


    The portal vein is formed by the confluence of the splenic and superior mesenteric veins, which drain the spleen and small intestine respectively. Occlusion of the portal vein by thrombus typically occurs in patients with cirrhosis and/or prothrombotic disorders. However, portal vein thrombosis (PVT) can also happen after determined surgeries. Moreover, PVT can have serious consequences depending on the location and extent of the thrombosis, including hepatic ischemia, intestinal ischemia, portal hypertension… In this chapter, we will review the incidence, management and prophylaxis of PVT after splenectomy, pancreas transplantation, pancreatic surgery and in the setting of acute and chronic pancreatitis.

  14. A rare case of branch retinal vein occlusion following Sirsasana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balamurugan, Anugraha; Srikanth, Krishnagopal


    .... It is also known to cause causes raised intraocular pressure, decompression retinopathy, glaucomatous visual field defects, central retinal vein occlusion, progression of glaucoma, optic neuropathy...

  15. Can deep vein thrombosis be predicted after varicose vein operation in women in rural areas? (United States)

    Warot, Marcin; Synowiec, Tomasz; Wencel-Warot, Agnieszka; Daroszewski, Przemysław; Bojar, Iwona; Micker, Maciej; Chęciński, Paweł


    Chronic venous disease is a group of symptoms caused by functional and structural defects of the venous vessels. One of the most common aspects of this disease is the occurrence of varicose veins. There are many ways of prevention and treatment of varicose veins, but in Poland the leading one is still surgery. As in every medical procedure there is the possibility of some complications. One of them is deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The diagnosis of DVT can be difficult, especially when access to a specialist is limited, such as in case of rural patients. The aim of the study. The aim of the study was estimation of the influence of LMWH primary prophylaxis on the formation of postoperative DVT, as well as sensitivity and specificity of clinical examination and D-dimer value in diagnosis of postoperative DVT in women. The study was conducted in a group of 93 women operated on in the Department of General, Vascular Surgery and Angiology at the Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences in Poznań, Poland. The patients had undergone a varicose vein operation and were randomly divided into two groups: A - 48 women receiving LMWH during two days of the perioperative period, B - 45 women receiving LMWH during seven days of the perioperative period. There was no significant difference in the postoperative DVT complications in both groups. The value of D-dimer > 0.987 mcg/ml and swelling > 1.5 cm of shin (in comparison to the preoperative period) plays a significant role in diagnosis of DVT. The extended primary prophylaxis with LMWH does not affect the amount or quality of thrombotic complications after varicose vein operation. If the DVT occurs, the evaluation of the D - dimer and careful clinical examination can be a useful method for its diagnosis.

  16. Can deep vein thrombosis be predicted after varicose vein operation in women in rural areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Warot


    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Chronic venous disease is a group of symptoms caused by functional and structural defects of the venous vessels. One of the most common aspects of this disease is the occurrence of varicose veins. There are many ways of prevention and treatment of varicose veins, but in Poland the leading one is still surgery. As in every medical procedure there is the possibility of some complications. One of them is deep vein thrombosis (DVT. The diagnosis of DVT can be difficult, especially when access to a specialist is limited, such as in case of rural patients. [b]The aim of the study.[/b] The aim of the study was estimation of the influence of LMWH primary prophylaxis on the formation of postoperative DVT, as well as sensitivity and specificity of clinical examination and D-dimer value in diagnosis of postoperative DVT in women. [b]Materials and methods[/b]. The study was conducted in a group of 93 women operated on in the Department of General, Vascular Surgery and Angiology at the Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences in Poznań, Poland. The patients had undergone a varicose vein operation and were randomly divided into two groups: A – 48 women receiving LMWH during two days of the perioperative period, B – 45 women receiving LMWH during seven days of the perioperative period. [b]Results[/b]. There was no significant difference in the postoperative DVT complications in both groups. The value of D-dimer > 0.987 mcg/ml and swelling > 1.5 cm of shin (in comparison to the preoperative period plays a significant role in diagnosis of DVT. [b]Conclusions[/b]. The extended primary prophylaxis with LMWH does not affect the amount or quality of thrombotic complications after varicose vein operation. If the DVT occurs, the evaluation of the D – dimer and careful clinical examination can be a useful method for its diagnosis.

  17. Neonatal vitelline vein aneurysm with thrombosis: prompt treatment should be needed (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Hong; Yu, Hyeong Won; Jo, Heui Seung


    Vitelline veins are a pair of embryonic structures. The veins develop the portal vein system. Serious problems occur if the vitelline vein does not regress and becomes an aneurysm. Thrombus formation in the vitelline vein aneurysm could lead to portal vein thrombosis and portal hypertension unless promptly and correctly treated. Though vitelline vein aneurysm is an extremely rare anomaly, it rapidly progresses to portal vein thrombosis that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. We reported a case of neonatal vitelline vein aneurysm and thrombosis that was cured by prompt operation. PMID:26665130

  18. Doppler-guided cannulation of internal jugular vein, subclavian vein and innominate (brachiocephalic) vein--a case-control comparison in patients with reduced and normal intracranial compliance. (United States)

    Schummer, Wolfram; Schummer, Claudia; Niesen, Wolf-Dirk; Gerstenberg, Hendrik


    A case-control comparison of Doppler guidance on the success rate of central venous cannulation in patients with normal or reduced intracranial compliance. A single operator performed central venous access procedures with continuous wave Doppler guidance. It was used on patients on a ventilator. The position of patients with reduced intracranial compliance (RIC) was not changed for the procedure. Patients with normal intracranial compliance (NIC) were put in the Trendelenburg position. We prospectively evaluated 249 Doppler-guided central venous access procedures performed over a 12-month period at our 10-bed neuro-intensive care unit at a university hospital. The group with RIC included 26 males and 35 females (n=61) aged 16-79 years. In this group 155 Doppler-guided cannulation procedures (62%) were performed. The group with NIC (n=52) comprised 29 males and 23 females aged 34-76 years; 94 Doppler-guided cannulation procedures (38%) were carried out. The veins cannulated in RIC and NIC, respectively, were: right innominate vein: 24/18, left innominate vein 26/12, right subclavian vein 12/7, left subclavian vein 25/14, and right internal jugular vein 33/18 and left internal jugular vein 35/24. The absence of one left internal jugular vein was identified in the NIC group. The success rate of first needle pass in patients with RIC was 92% and in patients with NIC 89%. This study showed that Doppler guidance allows the cannulation of central veins in patients with RIC placed in head-up position. Cannulation can be ensured and first-pass needle placement maximised.

  19. Further evidence of Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus but not of Lettuce big-vein associated virus with big-vein disease in lettuce. (United States)

    Sasaya, Takahide; Fujii, Hiroya; Ishikawa, Koichi; Koganezawa, Hiroki


    Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus (MLBVV) and Lettuce big-vein associated virus (LBVaV) are found in association with big-vein disease of lettuce. Discrimination between the two viruses is critical for elucidating the etiology of big-vein disease. Using specific antibodies to MLBVV and LBVaV for western blotting and exploiting differences between MLBVV and LBVaV in host reaction of cucumber and temperature dependence in lettuce, we separated the two viruses by transfering each virus from doubly infected lettuce plants to cucumber or lettuce plants. A virus-free fungal isolate was allowed to acquire the two viruses individually or together. To confirm the separation, zoospores from MLBVV-, LBVaV-, and dually infected lettuce plants were used for serial inoculations of lettuce seedlings 12 successive times. Lettuce seedlings were infected at each transfer either with MLBVV alone, LBVaV alone, or both viruses together, depending on the virus carried by the vector. Lettuce seedlings infected with MLBVV alone developed the big-vein symptoms, while those infected with LBVaV alone developed no symptoms. In field surveys, MLBVV was consistently detected in lettuce plants from big-vein-affected fields, whereas LBVaV was detected in lettuce plants not only from big-vein-affected fields but also from big-vein-free fields. LBVaV occurred widely at high rates in winter-spring lettuce-growing regions irrespective of the presence of MLBVV and, hence, of the presence of the big-vein disease.

  20. Preventing intimal thickening of vein grafts in vein artery bypass using STAT-3 siRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Jiangbin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs play a key role in neointimal formation which leads to restenosis of vein graft in venous bypass. STAT-3 is a transcription factor associated with cell proliferation. We hypothesized that silencing of STAT-3 by siRNA will inhibit proliferation of VSMCs and attenuate intimal thickening. Methods Rat VSMCs were isolated and cultured in vitro by applying tissue piece inoculation methods. VSMCs were transfected with STAT 3 siRNA using lipofectamine 2000. In vitro proliferation of VSMC was quantified by the MTT assay, while in vivo assessment was performed in a venous transplantation model. In vivo delivery of STAT-3 siRNA plasmid or scramble plasmid was performed by admixing with liposomes 2000 and transfected into the vein graft by bioprotein gel applied onto the adventitia. Rat jugular vein-carotid artery bypass was performed. On day 3 and7 after grafting, the vein grafts were extracted, and analyzed morphologically by haematoxylin eosin (H&E, and assessed by immunohistochemistry for expression of Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA. Western-blot and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR were used to detect the protein and mRNA expression in vivo and in vitro. Cell apoptosis in vein grafts was detected by TUNEL assay. Results MTT assay shows that the proliferation of VSMCs in the STAT-3 siRNA treated group was inhibited. On day 7 after operation, a reduced number of Ki-67 and PCNA positive cells were observed in the neointima of the vein graft in the STAT-3 siRNA treated group as compared to the scramble control. The PCNA index in the control group (31.3 ± 4.7 was higher than that in the STAT-3 siRNA treated group (23.3 ± 2.8 (P Conclusions The STAT-3 siRNA can inhibit the proliferation of VSMCs in vivo and in vitro and attenuate neointimal formation.

  1. Supraclavicular versus Infraclavicular Subclavian Vein Catheterization in Infants


    Wen-Hsien Lu; Mei-Ling Yao; Kai-Sheng Hsieh; Pao-Chin Chiu; Ying-Yao Chen; Chu-Chuan Lin; Ta-Cheng Huang; Chu-Chin Chen


    Central venous catheterization is an important procedure for infant patients for a number of different purposes, including nutritional support, surgical operation, hemodynamic monitoring, and multiple lines for critical care medications. Subclavian vein catheterization (SVC) is one of the central vein catheterization techniques. SVC can be performed from 4 different locations: right supraclavicular (RSC), left supraclavicular (LSC), right infraclavicular (RIC), and left infraclavicular (LIC)....

  2. Ovarian vein thrombosis | Jenayah | Pan African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT) is a rare cause of abdominal pain that may mimic a surgical abdomen. It is most often diagnosed during the postpartum period. In this report, we present four cases of postoperative ovarian vein thrombosis .The complications of OVT can be significant, and the diagnosis relies on a careful ...

  3. Portal Vein Stenting for Portal Biliopathy with Jaundice. (United States)

    Hyun, Dongho; Park, Kwang Bo; Lim, Seong Joo; Hwang, Jin Ho; Sinn, Dong Hyun


    Portal biliopathy refers to obstruction of the bile duct by dilated peri- or para-ductal collateral channels following the main portal vein occlusion from various causes. Surgical shunt operation or endoscopic treatment has been reported. Herein, we report a case of portal biliopathy that was successfully treated by interventional portal vein recanalization.

  4. Endovascular management for significant iatrogenic portal vein bleeding. (United States)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Shin, Ji Hoon; Park, Jonathan K; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Ko, Gi-Young; Gwon, Dong Il; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Sung, Kyu-Bo


    Background Despite conservative treatment, hemorrhage from an intrahepatic branch of the portal vein can cause hemodynamic instability requiring urgent intervention. Purpose To retrospectively report the outcomes of hemodynamically significant portal vein bleeding after endovascular management. Material and Methods During a period of 15 years, four patients (2 men, 2 women; median age, 70.5 years) underwent angiography and embolization for iatrogenic portal vein bleeding. Causes of hemorrhage, angiographic findings, endovascular treatment, and complications were reported. Results Portal vein bleeding occurred after percutaneous liver biopsy (n = 2), percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (n = 1), and percutaneous cholecystostomy (n = 1). The median time interval between angiography and percutaneous procedure was 5 h (range, 4-240 h). Common hepatic angiograms including indirect mesenteric portograms showed active portal vein bleeding into the peritoneal cavity with (n = 1) or without (n = 2) an arterioportal (AP) fistula, and portal vein pseudoaneurysm alone with an AP fistula (n = 1). Successful transcatheter arterial embolization (n = 2) or percutaneous transhepatic portal vein embolization (n = 2) was performed. Embolic materials were n-butyl cyanoacrylate alone (n = 2) or in combination with gelatin sponge particles and coils (n = 2). There were no major treatment-related complications or patient mortality within 30 days. Conclusion Patients with symptomatic or life-threatening portal vein bleeding following liver-penetrating procedures can successfully be managed with embolization.

  5. Portal Vein Stenting for Portal Biliopathy with Jaundice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Dongho, E-mail:; Park, Kwang Bo, E-mail: [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Seong Joo [Konyang University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Konyang University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jin Ho [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Sinn, Dong Hyun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center (Korea, Republic of)


    Portal biliopathy refers to obstruction of the bile duct by dilated peri- or para-ductal collateral channels following the main portal vein occlusion from various causes. Surgical shunt operation or endoscopic treatment has been reported. Herein, we report a case of portal biliopathy that was successfully treated by interventional portal vein recanalization.

  6. unilateral idiopathic dilated episcleral vein with secondary open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    intraocular pressure (IOP) is a function of: production of aqueous humour, resistance to aqueous outflow at the anterior chamber angles, and episcleral venous pressure. When the episcleral veins are dilated, the pressure in these veins becomes elevated. Prolonged elevation of episcleral venous pressure often causes ...

  7. Foam treatment for varicose veins; efficacy and safety | Kotb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Lower extremity varicose vein is a common disease. Sclerotherapy can be used to treat truncal varices of the superficial venous system. This involves injecting a sclerosant intraluminally in order to cause fibrosis and eventual obliteration of the vein. Objective: To demonstrate the efficacy and safety of foam ...

  8. Foam treatment for varicose veins; efficacy and safety

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mamdouh Mohamed Kotb


    Apr 8, 2013 ... Abstract Introduction: Lower extremity varicose vein is a common disease. Sclerotherapy can be used to treat truncal varices of the superficial venous system. This involves injecting a sclerosant intraluminally in order to cause fibrosis and eventual obliteration of the vein. Objective: To demonstrate the ...

  9. HIV Associated Deep Vein Thrombosis: Case Reports from Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) has been reported to be 2-10 times commoner in HIV infected patients than in the general population. We report two cases of extensive unilateral deep vein thrombosis involving the lower limb in HIV infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Doppler ultrasound in the two ...

  10. Early Diagnosis of Posttraumatic Deep Vein Thrombosis - A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: The importance of early diagnosis and treatment of deep vein thrombosis in patients with fractures of long bones. INTRODUCTION: Associated injury to deep-veins in limb fractures presents a serious pathology. It results not only to localized venous occlusion but also to death from pulmonary embolism.

  11. Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis after elbow trauma: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment by low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) then by vitamin K antagonists was conducted and evaluation by Doppler ultrasonography realized 18 months after trauma showed recanalization of basilica and humeral veins and thrombosis of axillary and subclavian veins. Management of occupational activity was ...

  12. A Tight Spot After Pulmonary Vein Catheter Ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amir, Rabia; Yeh, Lu; Montealegre-Gallegos, Mario; Saraf, Rabya; Matyal, Robina; Mahmood, Feroze


    A 52-YEAR-OLD woman with a history of embolic stroke due to paroxysmal atrial fibrillation was referred to the authors’ institution for epicardial surgical pulmonary vein isolation with left atrial appendage resection. The patient had 2 previous failed pulmonary vein catheter ablations. Dense

  13. Geology and geochemistry of giant quartz veins from the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    They show imprints of strong brittle to ductile–brittle deformation, and in places are associated with base metal and gold incidences, and pyrophyllite-diaspore mineralization. The geochemistry of giant quartz veins were studied. Apart from presenting new data on the geology and geochemistry of these veins, an attempt has ...

  14. Renal Vein Leiomyoma: A Rare Entity with Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar


    Full Text Available Tumors of vascular origin are unusual. These tumors are predominantly malignant and commonly arise from the inferior vena cava. Benign smooth muscle tumors arising from renal vein are very rare. We present a case of leiomyoma of renal vein in a post-menopausal woman that clinically resembled a retroperitoneal paraganglioma.

  15. The fifth pulmonary vein | Kinfemichael | Anatomy Journal of Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cadaver in Myungsung Medical College (MMC) had a 3rd pulmonary vein originating from the middle lobe of the right lung. Such anatomical variations are very rare. People with this variation have a total of five pulmonary veins entering left atrium. It has clinical implications especially for thoracic surgeons and radiologists ...

  16. Leiomyosarcoma of the great saphenous vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Campos Moraes Amato


    Full Text Available A 56-year-old male patient presented with a complaint of two painful, hard, palpable nodules in the right lower limb. A Doppler ultrasound scan revealed the presence of nodules, likely to be neoplastic. Computed angiography showed two solid hypervascular nodules in the right great saphenous vein, fed by branches of the posterior tibial artery. Embolization of the nodules using surgical cyanoacrylate was performed, followed by an excisional biopsy. Anatomical pathology and immunohistochemical analysis identified the nodule as a high-grade leiomyosarcoma, characterized by ten mitotic figures per ten high-power fields, necrosis and cell pleomorphism. Immunohistochemical analysis results were positive for caldesmon and desmin labeling. A second surgical procedure was performed to enlarge the free margins.

  17. Doppler spectral characteristics of infrainguinal vein bypasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina G; von Jessen, F; Sillesen, H


    of arteriovenous fistulas the initially antegrade diastolic velocity was replaced by a retrograde flow within 3 months, whereas a forward flow in diastole was sustained in grafts with patent fistulas. Abnormal Duplex findings in 31 patients led to angiography and revision in 13 cases. Four revised grafts failed......, while nine remained patent at follow-up 1-12 months later. Ten (56%) of 18 non-revised bypasses with abnormal Duplex findings failed within 9 months compared to 1 (1%) of 76 bypasses with a normal velocity profile (p ... valuable information concerning haemodynamics of infrainguinal vein bypasses and identifies grafts at risk of thrombosis. Inclusion of low resistance index (detection of stenoses appears to improve the sensitivity of Duplex scanning....

  18. Climate drives vein anatomy in Proteaceae. (United States)

    Jordan, Gregory J; Brodribb, Timothy J; Blackman, Christopher J; Weston, Peter H


    The mechanisms by which plants tolerate water deficit are only just becoming clear. One key factor in drought tolerance is the ability to maintain the capacity to conduct water through the leaves in conditions of water stress. Recent work has shown that a simple feature of the leaf xylem cells, the cube of the thickness of cell walls divided by the lumen width (t/b)(3), is strongly correlated with this ability. Using ecologically, phylogenetically, and anatomically diverse members of Proteaceae, we tested the relationships between (t/b)(3) and climate, leaf mass per unit area, leaf area, and vein density. To test relationships at high phylogenetic levels (mostly genus), we used phylogenetic and nonphylogenetic single and multiple regressions based on data from 50 species. We also used 14 within-genus species pairs to test for relationships at lower phylogenetic levels. All analyses revealed that climate, especially mean annual precipitation, was the best predictor of (t/b)(3). The variation in (t/b)(3) was driven by variation in both lumen diameter and wall thickness, implying active control of these dimensions. Total vein density was weakly related to (t/b)(3) but unrelated to either leaf area or climate. We conclude that xylem reinforcement is a fundamental adaptation for water stress tolerance and, among evergreen woody plants, drives a strong association between rainfall and xylem anatomy. The strong association between (t/b)(3) and climate cannot be explained by autocorrelation with other aspects of leaf form and anatomy that vary along precipitation gradients.

  19. Mineral vein dynamics modelling (FRACS II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urai, J.; Virgo, S.; Arndt, M. [RWTH Aachen (Germany); and others


    The Mineral Vein Dynamics Modeling group ''FRACS'' started out as a team of 7 research groups in its first phase and continued with a team of 5 research groups at the Universities of Aachen, Tuebingen, Karlsruhe, Mainz and Glasgow during its second phase ''FRACS 11''. The aim of the group was to develop an advanced understanding of the interplay between fracturing, fluid flow and fracture healing with a special emphasis on the comparison of field data and numerical models. Field areas comprised the Oman mountains in Oman (which where already studied in detail in the first phase), a siliciclastic sequence in the Internal Ligurian Units in Italy (closed to Sestri Levante) and cores of Zechstein carbonates from a Lean Gas reservoir in Northern Germany. Numerical models of fracturing, sealing and interaction with fluid that were developed in phase I where expanded in phase 11. They were used to model small scale fracture healing by crystal growth and the resulting influence on flow, medium scale fracture healing and its influence on successive fracturing and healing, as well as large scale dynamic fluid flow through opening and closing fractures and channels as a function of fluid overpressure. The numerical models were compared with structures in the field and we were able to identify first proxies for mechanical vein-hostrock properties and fluid overpressures versus tectonic stresses. Finally we propose a new classification of stylolites based on numerical models and observations in the Zechstein cores and continued to develop a new stress inversion tool to use stylolites to estimate depth of their formation.

  20. Asymptomatic portal vein aneurysms: To treat, or not to treat? (United States)

    Hirji, Sameer A; Robertson, Faith C; Casillas, Sergio; McPhee, James T; Gupta, Naren; Martin, Michelle C; Raffetto, Joseph D


    Background Portal vein aneurysms are rare dilations in the portal venous system, for which the etiology and pathophysiological consequences are poorly understood. Method We reviewed the existing literature as well as present a unique anecdotal case of a patient presenting with a very large portal vein aneurysm that was successfully managed conservatively and non-operatively without anticoagulation, with close follow-up and routine surveillance. Result The rising prevalence of abdominal imaging in clinical practice has increased rates of portal vein aneurysm detection. While asymptomatic aneurysms less than 3 cm can be clinically observed, surgical intervention may be necessary in large asymptomatic aneurysms (>3 cm) with or without thrombus, or small aneurysms with evidence of evolving mural thrombus formation on imaging. Conclusion Portal vein aneurysms present a diagnostic challenge for any surgeon, and the goal for surgical therapy is based on repairing the portal vein aneurysm, and if portal hypertension is present decompressing via surgically constructed shunts.

  1. Three superficial veins coursing over the clavicles: a case report. (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, Nikolaos; Paraskevas, George; Apostolidis, Stylianos; Natsis, Konstantinos


    We report a unique bilateral combination of multiple variations in the superficial venous system of the neck of a 77-year-old male cadaver. On the right side of the neck, the external jugular vein (EJV) crossed superficial to the lateral third of the clavicle constituting a common trunk with the cephalic vein (CV) that drained into the subclavian vein (SCV). On the left side the EJV descended distally, passed over the anterior surface of the medial third of the clavicle and drained into the SCV. The posterior external jugular vein (PEJV) crossed superficial to the lateral third of the clavicle and terminated into the CV, providing an additional communicating branch to the EJV. Knowledge of both normal and abnormal anatomy of the veins of the neck plays an important role for anesthesiologists or cardiologists doing catheterization, orthopedic surgeons treating clavicle fractures and general surgeons performing head and neck surgery, to avoid inadvertent injury to these vascular structures.

  2. Thrombolysis for acute upper extremity deep vein thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feinberg, Joshua; Nielsen, Emil Eik; Jakobsen, Janus C


    BACKGROUND: About 5% to 10% of all deep vein thromboses occur in the upper extremities. Serious complications of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis, such as post-thrombotic syndrome and pulmonary embolism, may in theory be avoided using thrombolysis. No systematic review has assessed the effects...... of thrombolysis for the treatment of individuals with acute upper extremity deep vein thrombosis. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of thrombolysis for the treatment of individuals with acute upper extremity deep vein thrombosis. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist...... of thrombolytics added to anticoagulation, thrombolysis versus anticoagulation, or thrombolysis versus any other type of medical intervention for the treatment of acute upper extremity deep vein thrombosis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened all records to identify those...

  3. Persistent right umbilical vein: sonographic detection and subsequent neonatal outcome. (United States)

    Hill, L M; Mills, A; Peterson, C; Boyles, D


    To review our experience with antenatal detection and subsequent neonatal outcome of fetuses with a persistent right umbilical vein. In a prospective observational study, 33 cases of persistent right umbilical vein were detected during 15,237 obstetric ultrasound examinations performed after 15 weeks' gestation. Persistent right umbilical vein was detected at a rate of one per 476 obstetric ultrasound examinations. Six of 33 (18.2%) fetuses with a persistent right umbilical vein had additional important congenital malformations. Careful second- and third-trimester ultrasound examinations can detect a persistent right umbilical vein. When this particular anomaly is detected, a thorough fetal anatomic survey, including echocardiography, should be performed to rule out more serious congenital malformations.

  4. Catheter entrapment in a pulmonary vein: a unique complication of pulmonary vein isolation. (United States)

    Monney, Pierre; Pascale, Patrizio; Fromer, Martin; Pruvot, Etienne


    Ablation strategies for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) are associated with several potential complications. During electro-anatomic mapping of the left atrium (LA) before ablation, the ablation catheter was entrapped in the right inferior pulmonary vein (RIPV). After multiple unsuccessful gentle tractions, stronger maneuvers with rotation of the catheter slowly allowed its retrieval. Examination of the catheter showed a thin, translucent membrane covering its tip, suggesting complete stripping of a vein branch. Occlusion of the superior branch of the RIPV was confirmed by LA angiogram. During the following days, no pericardial effusion was noted, but the patient complained of light chest pain and mild hemoptysis, spontaneously resolving within 48 h. This case shows that catheter entrapment and mechanical disruption of a PV branch can be a rare potential complication of AF ablation. In this case, the outcome was spontaneously favorable and symptoms only included transient mild hemoptysis.

  5. Evaluation of endoscopic vein extraction on structural and functional viability of saphenous vein endothelium


    Hussaini, Bader E; Lu, Xiu-Gui; Wolfe, J Alan; Thatte, Hemant S


    Abstract Objectives Endothelial injury during harvest influences graft patency post CABG. We have previously shown that endoscopic harvest causes structural and functional damage to the saphenous vein (SV) endothelium. However, causes of such injury may depend on the extraction technique. In order to assess this supposition, we evaluated the effect of VirtuoSaph endoscopic SV harvesting technique (VsEVH) on structural and functional viability of SV endothelium using multiphoton imaging, bioch...

  6. Portal Vein Recanalization and Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Creation for Chronic Portal Vein Thrombosis: Technical Considerations. (United States)

    Thornburg, Bartley; Desai, Kush; Hickey, Ryan; Kulik, Laura; Ganger, Daniel; Baker, Talia; Abecassis, Michael; Lewandowski, Robert J; Salem, Riad


    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is common in cirrhotic patients and presents a challenge at the time of transplant. Owing to the increased posttransplant morbidity and mortality associated with complete PVT, the presence of PVT is a relative contraindication to liver transplantation at many centers. Our group began performing portal vein (PV) recanalization and transjugular intrahepatic portostystemic shunt placement (PVR-TIPS) several years ago to optimize the transplant candidacy of patients with PVT. The procedure has evolved to include transsplenic access to assist with recanalization, which is now our preferred method due to its technical success without significant added morbidity. Here, we describe in detail our approach to PVR-TIPS with a focus on the transsplenic method. The procedure was attempted in 61 patients and was technically successful in 60 patients (98%). After transitioning to transsplenic access to assist with recanalization, the technical success rate has improved to 100%. The recanalized portal vein and TIPS have maintained patency during follow-up, or to the time of transplant, in 55 patients (92%) with a mean follow-up of 16.7 months. In total, 23 patients (38%) have undergone transplant, all of whom received a physiologic anastomosis (end-to-end anastomosis in 22 of 23 patients, 96%). PVR-TIPS placement should be considered as an option for patients with chronic PVT in need of transplantation. Transsplenic access makes the procedure technically straightforward and should be considered as the primary method for recanalization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Total anomalous connection of pulmonary veins to the portal vein. Value of multislice angiotomography. Report on three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Alejandra Solórzano-Morales


    15 and 26% if all its varieties. Multislice angiotomography allows us to view the blood vessels and adjacent organs under consideration and obtain high-definition anatomic information. In the patients in this study, total anomalous connection of pulmonary veins to the portal vein was viewed with three-dimensional volumetric tomographic reconstructions and their correlation with ultrasonography studies.

  8. Leaf hydraulic conductance varies with vein anatomy across Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and leaf vein mutants. (United States)

    Caringella, Marissa A; Bongers, Franca J; Sack, Lawren


    Leaf venation is diverse across plant species and has practical applications from paleobotany to modern agriculture. However, the impact of vein traits on plant performance has not yet been tested in a model system such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies analysed cotyledons of A. thaliana vein mutants and identified visible differences in their vein systems from the wild type (WT). We measured leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf ), vein traits, and xylem and mesophyll anatomy for A. thaliana WT (Col-0) and four vein mutants (dot3-111 and dot3-134, and cvp1-3 and cvp2-1). Mutant true leaves did not possess the qualitative venation anomalies previously shown in the cotyledons, but varied quantitatively in vein traits and leaf anatomy across genotypes. The WT had significantly higher mean Kleaf . Across all genotypes, there was a strong correlation of Kleaf with traits related to hydraulic conductance across the bundle sheath, as influenced by the number and radial diameter of bundle sheath cells and vein length per area. These findings support the hypothesis that vein traits influence Kleaf , indicating the usefulness of this mutant system for testing theory that was primarily established comparatively across species, and supports a strong role for the bundle sheath in influencing Kleaf . © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Factors Associated with Recurrence of Varicose Veins after Thermal Ablation: Results of The Recurrent Veins after Thermal Ablation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Bush


    Full Text Available Background. The goal of this retrospective cohort study (REVATA was to determine the site, source, and contributory factors of varicose vein recurrence after radiofrequency (RF and laser ablation. Methods. Seven centers enrolled patients into the study over a 1-year period. All patients underwent previous thermal ablation of the great saphenous vein (GSV, small saphenous vein (SSV, or anterior accessory great saphenous vein (AAGSV. From a specific designed study tool, the etiology of recurrence was identified. Results. 2,380 patients were evaluated during this time frame. A total of 164 patients had varicose vein recurrence at a median of 3 years. GSV ablation was the initial treatment in 159 patients (RF: 33, laser: 126, 52 of these patients had either SSV or AAGSV ablation concurrently. Total or partial GSV recanalization occurred in 47 patients. New AAGSV reflux occurred in 40 patients, and new SSV reflux occurred in 24 patients. Perforator pathology was present in 64% of patients. Conclusion. Recurrence of varicose veins occurred at a median of 3 years after procedure. The four most important factors associated with recurrent veins included perforating veins, recanalized GSV, new AAGSV reflux, and new SSV reflux in decreasing frequency. Patients who underwent RF treatment had a statistically higher rate of recanalization than those treated with laser.

  10. Palm Vein Verification Using Multiple Features and Locality Preserving Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohsin Al-juboori


    Full Text Available Biometrics is defined as identifying people by their physiological characteristic, such as iris pattern, fingerprint, and face, or by some aspects of their behavior, such as voice, signature, and gesture. Considerable attention has been drawn on these issues during the last several decades. And many biometric systems for commercial applications have been successfully developed. Recently, the vein pattern biometric becomes increasingly attractive for its uniqueness, stability, and noninvasiveness. A vein pattern is the physical distribution structure of the blood vessels underneath a person’s skin. The palm vein pattern is very ganglion and it shows a huge number of vessels. The attitude of the palm vein vessels stays in the same location for the whole life and its pattern is definitely unique. In our work, the matching filter method is proposed for the palm vein image enhancement. New palm vein features extraction methods, global feature extracted based on wavelet coefficients and locality preserving projections (WLPP, and local feature based on local binary pattern variance and locality preserving projections (LBPV_LPP have been proposed. Finally, the nearest neighbour matching method has been proposed that verified the test palm vein images. The experimental result shows that the EER to the proposed method is 0.1378%.

  11. Preliminary Study for Designing a Novel Vein-Visualizing Device (United States)

    Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Yujin; Yoon, Siyeop; Lee, Deukhee


    Venipuncture is an important health diagnosis process. Although venipuncture is one of the most commonly performed procedures in medical environments, locating the veins of infants, obese, anemic, or colored patients is still an arduous task even for skilled practitioners. To solve this problem, several devices using infrared light have recently become commercially available. However, such devices for venipuncture share a common drawback, especially when visualizing deep veins or veins of a thick part of the body like the cubital fossa. This paper proposes a new vein-visualizing device applying a new penetration method using near-infrared (NIR) light. The light module is attached directly on to the declared area of the skin. Then, NIR beam is rayed from two sides of the light module to the vein with a specific angle. This gives a penetration effect. In addition, through an image processing procedure, the vein structure is enhanced to show it more accurately. Through a phantom study, the most effective penetration angle of the NIR module is decided. Additionally, the feasibility of the device is verified through experiments in vivo. The prototype allows us to visualize the vein patterns of thicker body parts, such as arms. PMID:28178227

  12. Morphopatological and histochemical highlights in normal and varicose vein wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Condor


    Full Text Available The nutrition of the venous wall appears to be an important factor in the vascularfibrillar trophicity and in the dynamic of the extracellular matrix formation for the normal veins and, for the chronic venous ulcers of legs, on period of healing. Sequential biopsies were taken at various levels of venous wall of external and internal saphena in 16 cases presenting a chronic condition of legs venous system (35-58 years old patients, both sexes. 8 vein fragments with normal macroscopic appearance were also taken, in necropsy. These samples were analyzed using regular morphological methods and some histochemical reactions to reveal the glycogen, glycoproteins, and glycosaminoglycans substrates. There were been used the Gomori silver impregnation and orcein to expose some specific substrates like reticulin or elastin. Other staining methods, like Gomori trichrome, were used to differentiate the specific structures of the vein wall, were used to differentiate the specific structures of the vein wall. A rich vascularization of normal and dilated vein wall could be remarked.Angiogenesis in vein wall and vasa vasorum changes as well as alcianophilic of vascular intima seem to be reactive and protective factors, depending on the applied therapeutic modalities. The veins are weak structures whose integrity depends on the thickness of the media and the support of neighboring structures.

  13. Renal Vein Reconstruction for Harvesting Injury in Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkan Bozkurt


    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation is the best treatment choice in the end-stage renal disease. In the renal transplantation, renal vein damage or shortness which occurs during cadaveric or living donor nephrectomy causes technical difficulties for surgeons. The lack of the donors already especially cadaveric, the acquirement of the graft, gets very much importance. In this report, it is aimed to share the clinical experiment by which it seen, how anastomosis can become appropriate by using the renal vein which is damaged in the way that anastomosis cannot be done anyway by using cadaveric vena cava graft. The renal vein brought to length for anostomosis which is repaired by using cadaveric vena cava graft, is anastomosed successfully by becoming an end-to-side of the external iliac vein of the recipient. Vascular anastomoses are applied easily in technique. The time of the warm ischemia was under 2 hours and the kidney was functional in the post-operative period. Renal vein trombosis was not observed. The renal vein damage occured during cadaveric or living donor nephrectomy, can be repaired by some methods. In the kidneys in which vein requirement is done, the success rates are rather high although acute tubular necrosis and delayed function can be seen more.

  14. Applied anatomic study of testicular veins in adult cadavers and in human fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Favorito


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Analyze the anatomic variations of the testicular veins in human cadavers and fetuses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred male adult cadavers and 24 fetuses were studied. Four anatomic aspects were considered: 1 Number of testicular veins, 2 The local of vein termination, 3 Type and number of collaterals present and 4 Testicular vein termination angle. RESULTS: Cadavers - Right side - One testicular vein occurred in 85% and 2 veins in 5% of the cases. There were communicating veins with the colon in 21% of the cases. Left side - One testicular vein occurred in 82%, two veins in 15%, three veins in 2% and four veins in 1% of the cases. There were communicating veins with the colon in 31% of the cases. Fetuses - Right side -One testicular vein occurred in all cases. This vein drained to the vena cava in 83.3% of the cases, to the junction of the vena cava with the renal vein in 12.5% and to the renal vein in 4.2%. There were communicating veins with the colon in 25% of the cases. Left side - One testicular vein occurred in 66.6% of the cases, and 2 veins in occurred 33.3%. Communicating veins with the colon were found in 41.6% of the cases. CONCLUSION: The testicular vein presents numeric variations and also variations in its local of termination. In approximately 30% of the cases, there are collaterals that communicate the testicular vein with retroperitoneal veins. These anatomic findings can help understanding the origin of varicocele and its recurrence after surgical interventions.

  15. [Prevalence and risk factors of varicose veins in adults]. (United States)

    Ahumada, Miguel; Vioque, Jesús


    We intended to estimate the prevalence of varicose veins in the mature population of the Valencia Community and to analyze its relationship with socio-demographic variables, self-reported health status, body mass index and the presence of hemorrhoids, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity. Information on self-reported varicose veins was collected from 1,778 adults older than 14 years (819 men and 959 women) who participated in the Health and Nutrition Survey of the Valencia Community (Spain). We estimated the prevalence of varicose veins by age groups and sex. To explore the association between varicose veins and variables, we estimated adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI 95%) by multiple logistic regression. The overall prevalence of varicose veins was 16.4%, with a much higher prevalence in women that in men (26.7% versus 5.5%) and with older age. Gender and age were the 2 strongest predictors of varicose veins in multivariate analysis. Women had seven times more risk than men (OR = 7.01; CI 95%, 4.52-10.87) and those older than 35 years almost tripled the risk with respect to those aged 15-24 years. A body mass index of 30 kg/m2, a poor self-reported health status and hemorrhoids were significantly associated with the presence of varicose veins. Employers showed higher risk than workers. A moderate alcohol consumption (varicose veins. Although being a woman and having an advanced age were the strongest predictors of varicose veins, other factors such as a high BMI, poor health status, hemorrhoids and some professional categories may be also important factors in their presentation. A moderate alcohol consumption seems to have a protective effect.

  16. Deep vein thrombosis as a paraneoplastic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klačar Marija


    Full Text Available Introduction: Several conditions represent the risk factor for deep vein thrombosis (DVT but sometimes it occurs with no apparent reason. DVT usually involve lower extremities. It can be a component of paraneoplastic syndrome, and occasionally it is the first manifestation of malignancy. Case report: Fifty-five years old male reported to his general practitioner with history of painless right leg swelling of three weeks duration. He denied leg trauma or any other hardship. The patient had a long history of hypertension and took his medications irregularly. Family history was positive for cardiovascular diseases but negative for metabolic diseases or malignancies. He was a smoker and physically active. Physical examination revealed right calf swelling without skin discoloration, distention of superficial veins or trophic changes. Pulses of magistral arteries of the leg were symmetrical, Homans' sign was positive on the right leg. The rest of the physical examination was normal, except for the blood pressure. He was referred to vascular surgeon with the clinical diagnosis of femoro- popliteal phlebothrombosis of the right leg. Vascular surgeon performed the Color duplex scan of the lower extremities which confirmed the diagnosis. The patient was treated with low-molecular-weight heparin. The swelling significantly subsided after two weeks of therapy, but then patient fell and fractured left ramus of ischial bone. X-ray examination of pelvis revealed both fracture line and osteoblastic deposits in pelvis and the fracture was pronounced pathological. In order to localize the primary tumor, subsequent tests included chest X-ray, abdominal and pelvic ultrasound and digitorectal examination of prostate were performed. The results of all of the above mentioned examinations were within normal ranges, including routine blood tests. Skeletal scintigraphy revealed multiple secondary deposits in pelvic bones, vertebral column and ribs. Tumor markers' values

  17. Pylephlebitis of a variant mesenteric vein complicating sigmoid diverticulitis. (United States)

    Falkowski, Anna L; Cathomas, Gieri; Zerz, Andreas; Rasch, Helmut; Tarr, Philip E


    Pylephlebitis--suppurative thrombophlebitis of the portal and/or mesenteric veins--is a rare complication of abdominal infections, especially diverticulitis. It can lead to severe complications such as hepatic abscess, sepsis, peritonitis, bowel ischemia, etc., which increase the mortality rate. Here we present a case of suppurative thrombophlebitis of the inferior mesenteric vein, as a complication of sigmoid diverticulitis. The epidemiology, clinical and radiological features as well as treatment strategies are discussed. We also review the anatomy of the mesenteric vein given its anatomic variation in the present case and how this anatomic knowledge might influence the operative approach should surgery be necessary.

  18. MDCT of inferior mesenteric vein: normal anatomy and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpinar, E.; Turkbey, B. [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Karcaaltincaba, M. [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail:; Karaosmanoglu, D.; Akata, D. [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)


    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is a useful technique for imaging the inferior mesenteric vein. The aim of the present review was to discuss the normal anatomy and the pathologies of the inferior mesenteric vein, including partial or total thrombosis secondary to inflammation (pyophlebitis) and malignancy, occlusion, dilatation and reversed flow, which are rarely encountered. Optimal reconstruction techniques are also discussed. The pathologies of the inferior mesenteric vein can be clearly demonstrated using MDCT using curved-planar reformatted multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) and minimum intensity projection (MIP) images.

  19. Bilateral retinal vein occlusion and rubeosis irides: lessons to learn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Kalthum Md Noh


    Full Text Available Uncontrolled hypertension is well- known to give rise to systemic complications involving multiple central organs. Artherosclerosis leads to damage of the retinal vessels wall, contributing to venous stasis, thrombosis and finally, occlusion. Retinal vein occlusions compromise vision through development of ischaemic maculopathy, macular oedema, and rubeotic glaucoma. Laser photocoagulation remains the definitive treatment for ischaemic vein occlusion with secondary neovascularization. Timely treatment with anti- vascular endothelial growth factor prevents development of rubeotic glaucoma. We hereby report an unusual case of bilateral retinal vein occlusion complicated by rubeosis irides, which was successfully managed to improve vision and prevent rubeotic glaucoma.

  20. Formation of the external jugular vein in the brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregório Corrêa Guimarães


    Full Text Available The brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira is a brown-greyish short-haired wild ruminant living in Central and South Americas. This paper aimed at describing the formation of the external jugular vein in a male specimen which died due to run-over. The facial and cervical regions were dissected so as to allow the visualization of the external jugular vein and its tributaries. This vein was formed by the union of the maxillary and linguofacial veins. The first originated from the superficial and transverse facial temporal veins, and it received along its length the angular vein of the eye, as well as the dorsal and lateral veins of the nose and upper lip. The second was formed after the anastomosis of the lingual and facial veins. The facial vein was originated by the union of the lower lip and deep facial veins, in the middle third of the face, rostral to the masseter muscle. This vascular arrangement differs from that usually observed in domestic ruminants, in which the transverse facial vein is underdeveloped and the facial vein receives the angular vein of the eye, the dorsal and lateral veins of the nose, besides the upper lip vein. The external jugular vein in the brown brocket deer presented the same tributaries than domestic ruminants, however, with a different vessel arrangement of the facial and facial transverse veins.

  1. Portal vein stent placement for the treatment of postoperative portal vein stenosis: long-term success and factor associated with stent failure. (United States)

    Kato, Atsushi; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Ohtsuka, Masayuki; Yoshitomi, Hideyuki; Furukawa, Katsunori; Miyazaki, Masaru


    Portal vein stenosis develops due to different causes including postoperative inflammation and oncological processes. However, limited effective therapy is available for portal vein stenosis. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of a portal vein stent for portal vein stenosis after hepatobiliary pancreatic surgery and to determine the factors associated with stent patency. From December 2003 to December 2015, portal vein stents were implanted in 29 patients who had portal vein stenosis after hepatobiliary pancreatic surgery. We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of portal vein stent placement. Twelve clinical variables were analyzed for their role in stent patency. The symptoms before portal vein stent placements included nine patients with hepatic encephalopathy, six patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, four patients with ascites, and four patients with hyperbilirubinemia. Portal vein thrombosis due to postoperative portal stenosis was found in four patients. Portal vein stent were successfully implanted without any major complications. Of the 21 patients with symptoms, 17 showed improvement, and stent patency was maintained in 22 (76%) patients. The presence of a collateral vein is the only variable related to the development of an occlusion after portal stenting. Portal vein stent were implanted safely and had good long-term patency. This procedure is useful to relieve portal hypertension-related symptoms and to improve the quality of life. Our data strongly suggest that embolization to block blood flow in a collateral vein during portal vein stent placement will improve the patency of the stent.

  2. The Aristotelian account of "heart and veins". (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios; Ardalan, Mohammad R


    The exploration of the cardiovascular (CV) system has a history of at least five millennia. The model of the heart and veins represented by Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) is one of the earliest and accurate descriptions of the CV system. With his own specific metaphysical approach, Aristotle discussed why there might be a vascular tree composed of two vessels and also why these vessels must extend throughout the entire body. Herein, the authors present a history of the original account of the CV system based on the studies and teachings of Aristotle who made detailed observations and experimented upon animals and human corpses to explore the anatomy of the heart and vessels and thus provided the basis for modern CV medicine. The Aristotelian CV model consisted of two related but slightly dissimilar passages based on experimentation and tradition, which could be perceived as the morphology and metaphysical accounts of physiology, respectively. Restricted by his own methodology of dissecting dead animals, Aristotle was the first to describe the anatomy of the heart and blood vessels. A thorough reading of his Historia Animalium showed that he was able to morphologically delineate the right atrium in addition to three distinct heart cavities corresponding to the left atrium and right and left ventricles. The authors conclude that when interpreting Aristotelian doctrine, the methodology and terminology should be taken into account in order to prevent potential misconceptions. It is the early work of such scientists as Aristotle on which we base our current understanding of the CV system.

  3. Nitroprusside modulates pulmonary vein arrhythmogenic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yao-Chang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary veins (PVs are the most important sources of ectopic beats with the initiation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, or the foci of ectopic atrial tachycardia and focal atrial fibrillation. Elimination of nitric oxide (NO enhances cardiac triggered activity, and NO can decrease PV arrhythmogensis through mechano-electrical feedback. However, it is not clear whether NO may have direct electrophysiological effects on PV cardiomyocytes. This study is aimed to study the effects of nitroprusside (NO donor, on the ionic currents and arrhythmogenic activity of single cardiomyocytes from the PVs. Methods Single PV cardiomyocytes were isolated from the canine PVs. The action potential and ionic currents were investigated in isolated single canine PV cardiomyocytes before and after sodium nitroprusside (80 μM, using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Results Nitroprusside decreased PV cardiomyocytes spontaneous beating rates from 1.7 ± 0.3 Hz to 0.5 ± 0.4 Hz in 9 cells (P Conclusion Nitroprusside regulates the electrical activity of PV cardiomyocytes, which suggests that NO may play a role in PV arrhythmogenesis.

  4. Deep Vein Thrombosis in Intensive Care. (United States)

    Boddi, Maria; Peris, Adriano


    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) which includes deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is a severe complication in critically ill patients generally affected by multiorgan disfunction associated with immobilization also prolonged.Nowadays, VTE prophylaxis is included in the requirements of hospital accreditation and evaluation of the maintenance of standards of quality of care. ICU patients are characterized by a dynamic day-to-day variation both of thromboembolic that bleeding risk and DVT incidence in presence of thromboprophylaxis ranges between 5 and 15 %.Patient-centered methods for the assessment of both thrombotic and bleeding risk are recommended because pre-existent factors to ICU admission, diagnosis, emerging syndromes, invasive procedures and pharmacological treatments daily induce important changes in clinical condition.General consensus currently establishes use of heparin in pharmacological prophylaxis at the time of admission to the ICU and the temporary suspension of heparin in patients with active bleeding or severe (pneumatic compression was reported but no general consensus was reached about its use at the best. Much work has to be done but ICU remain the last frontier for VTE prophylaxis.

  5. Deep Vein Thrombosis Prophylaxis in Trauma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Toker


    Full Text Available Deep vein thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE are known collectively as venous thromboembolism (VTE. Venous thromboembolic events are common and potentially life-threatening complications following trauma with an incidence of\t5 to 63%. DVT prophylaxis is essential in the management of trauma patients. Currently, the optimal VTE prophylaxis strategy for trauma patients is unknown. Traditionally, pelvic and lower extremity fractures, head injury, and prolonged immobilization have been considered risk factors for VTE; however it is unclear which combination of risk factors defines a high-risk group. Modalities available for trauma patient thromboprophylaxis are classified into pharmacologic anticoagulation, mechanical prophylaxis, and inferior vena cava (IVC filters. The available pharmacologic agents include low-dose heparin (LDH, low molecular weight heparin (LMWH, and factor Xa inhibitors. Mechanical prophylaxis methods include graduated compression stockings (GCSs, pneumatic compression devices (PCDs, and A-V foot pumps. IVCs are traditionally used in high risk patients in whom pharmacological prophylaxis is contraindicated. Both EAST and ACCP guidelines recommend primary use of LMWHs in trauma patients; however there are still controversies regarding the definitive VTE prophylaxis in trauma patients. Large randomized prospective clinical studies would be required to provide level I evidence to define the optimal VTE prophylaxis in trauma patients.

  6. Ettevõtjad hoiatavad : maksude ja tasude tõstmine peletab turistid Eestist / Villy Paimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paimets, Villy, 1972-


    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 25. aug. lk. 5. Meelelahutus- ja laevafirmade väitel võib hasartmängumaksu ning alkoholiaktsiisi maksude tõus turistide arvu kahandada. Graafik: Välismaiste hotellikülastajate arv kasvas järsult. Vt. samas: Juunis külastas Eestit 287 862 välisturisti

  7. Ovarian vein thrombosis – a rare but important complication of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case study highlights the clinical importance of ovarian vein thrombosis in the context of pelvic surgery for benign gynaecological conditions and the role of imaging, particularly computed tomography with reformatting, in confirming the diagnosis.

  8. Plantar vein thrombosis: a rare cause of plantar foot pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegal, Daniel S.; Wu, Jim S.; Brennan, Darren D.; Hochman, Mary G. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Challies, Tracy [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States)


    Plantar vein thrombosis is a rare condition, with only a handful of cases reported in the literature. The cause is unknown; however, the disease has been attributed to prior surgery, trauma, and paraneoplastic conditions. We present a case of a 32-year-old female runner with plantar vein thrombosis diagnosed on contrast-enhanced MRI and confirmed on ultrasound. The symptoms resolved with conservative treatment and evaluation revealed the presence of a prothrombin gene mutation and use of oral contraceptive pills. To our knowledge, this is the first case of plantar vein thrombosis diagnosed initially by MRI. Moreover, this case suggests that plantar vein thrombosis should be considered in patients with hypercoagulable states and plantar foot pain. (orig.)

  9. Travelers' Health: Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism (United States)

    ... Books, Journals, Articles & Websites Resources for the Travel Industry Yellow Book Contents Chapter 2 (19) Deep Vein ... recommended. For long-distance travelers, the use of aspirin or anticoagulants to prevent VTE is not recommended. ...

  10. Management Strategy for Patients With Chronic Subclavian Vein Thrombosis. (United States)

    Keir, Graham; Marshall, M Blair


    We performed a systematic review to determine best practice for the management of patients with chronic or subacute subclavian vein thrombosis. This condition is best managed with surgical excision of the first rib followed by long-term anticoagulation. Interventional techniques aimed at restoring patency are ineffective beyond 2 weeks postthrombosis. Additional therapeutic options should be made based on the severity of symptoms as well as vein status. Patients with milder symptoms are given decompression surgery followed by anticoagulation whereas patients with more severe symptoms are considered for either a jugular vein transposition or saphenous patch based on the vein characteristics. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of Deep Vein Thrombosis and Associated Factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Background: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) collectively referred to as venous thromboembolism (VTE) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. DVT is common in hospitalized patients with acute medical illness. Routine use of thromboprophylaxis has.

  12. Two cases of jugular vein thrombosis in severely burned patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cen H


    Full Text Available Hanghui Cen, Xiaojie HeDepartment of Burn, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University Medical College, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Here we present two cases of jugular vein thrombosis in burn patients, with diagnosis, risk factor analysis, and treatment approaches. Severely burned patients have high risk of deep vein thrombosis occurrence due to multiple surgeries. The deep vein catheter should be carefully performed. Once deep vein thrombosis is detected, a wide ultrasonography helps to find other thrombosis sites. During the acute phase, low molecular weight heparin can be used. Upon long-term anti-thrombosis treatment, combined use of herbal medicine during rehabilitation is helpful.Keywords: burn, heparin, combined treatment

  13. Blood pooling in extrathoracic veins after glossopharyngeal insufflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijacika, Tanja; Frestad, Daria; Kyhl, Kasper


    divers in a sub-study. Results: After GPI, pulmonary volume increased by 0.8 ± 0.6 L above total lung capacity. The diameter of the superior caval (by 36 ± 17%) and intrathoracic part of the inferior caval vein decreased (by 21 ± 16%), while the diameters of the internal jugular (by 53 ± 34%), hepatic......Purpose: Trained breath-hold divers hyperinflate their lungs by glossopharyngeal insufflation (GPI) to prolong submersion time and withstand lung collapse at depths. Pulmonary hyperinflation leads to profound hemodynamic changes. Methods: Thirteen divers performed preparatory breath-holds followed...... (by 28 ± 40%), abdominal part of the inferior caval (by 28 ± 28%), and femoral veins (by 65 ± 50%) all increased (P volume of the internal jugular, the hepatic, the abdominal part of the inferior caval vein, and the combined common iliac and femoral veins increased by 145 ± 115, 80 ± 88...

  14. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion AssociatedWith Sildenafil (Viagra

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    H C Obiudu


    Conclusion - Central retinal vein occlusion is a possible adverse effect of sildenafil use. Physicians should be vigilant while prescribing thismedication and avoid its use in patients with elevated intraocular pressure

  15. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the jugular vein in a dog

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    Alessio Pierini


    Full Text Available A four-year-old, male, Labrador retriever was referred for removal of a spindle cell sarcoma involving the right jugular vein. A post-contrast CT scan showed a seven-centimeter subcutaneous mass originated from the right external jugular vein, which was partially obstructed and showing contrast stasis, suggested a primary intravascular tumor of the jugular vein. The mass was resected, and histological evaluation was consistent with grade II intravenous spindle cell sarcoma of the jugular vein. Immunohistochemical positivity for vimentin, desmin, and αSMA antibody and negativity for S-100 protein confirmed venous leiomyosarcoma. The dog received five doses of intravenous doxorubicin, and there was no recurrence of the tumor 30 months post treatment. In dogs, primary intravascular sarcomas are rare and primary venous leiomyosarcoma has not been described. A venous tumor may be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs with ventral neck swelling.

  16. Sciatica caused by a dilated epidural vein: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Petre, C.; Wilms, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium); Plets, C. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium)


    We report the MR imaging findings in a 41-year-old woman presenting with sudden low back pain and sciatica. At surgery a dilated epidural vein was found compressing the nerve root. The MR findings may suggest the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of a dilated epidural vein or varix causing sciatica has not been reported until now. (orig.) (orig.) With 1 fig., 4 refs.

  17. Vein graphite deposits: geological settings, origin, and economic significance


    Luque del Villar, Francisco Javier; Huizenga, Jan-Marten; Crespo Feo, Elena; Wada, Hideki; Ortega Menor, Lorena; Barrenechea, Edurne


    Graphite deposits result from the metamorphism of sedimentary rocks rich in carbonaceous matter or from precipitation from carbon-bearing fluids (or melts). The latter process forms vein deposits which are structurally controlled and usually occur in granulites or igneous rocks. The origin of carbon, the mechanisms of transport, and the factors controlling graphite deposition are discussed in relation to their geological settings. Carbon in granulite-hosted graphite veins derives from sublith...

  18. Neurogenic contraction and relaxation of human penile deep dorsal vein


    Segarra, Gloria; Medina, Pascual; Domenech, Cristina; Martínez León, Juan B; Vila, José M.; Aldasoro, Martin; Lluch, Salvador


    The aim of the present study was to characterize neurogenic and pharmacological responses of human penile deep dorsal vein and to determine whether the responses are mediated by nitric oxide from neural or endothelial origin.Ring segments of human penile deep dorsal vein were obtained from 22 multiorgan donors during procurement of organs for transplantation. The rings were suspended in organ bath chambers for isometric recording of tension. We then studied the contractile and relaxant respon...

  19. Leiomyosarcoma of the pulmonary veins extending into the left atrium. (United States)

    Hong, S P; Choi, J Y; Son, J Y; Lee, Y S; Lee, J B; Kim, K S


    Primary tumors of the great vessels are very rare. Primary leiomyosarcomas of the pulmonary vein are extremely rare and little is known about their clinical manifestation and treatment. We report the case of a 34-year-old patient with primary leiomyosarcoma of the pulmonary vein extending into the left atrium. A review of the clinical manifestation and treatment of 24 cases including our own is provided.

  20. Engorgement of vortex vein and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. (United States)

    Chung, Song Ee; Kang, Se Woong; Kim, Jae Hui; Kim, Yun Taek; Park, Do Young


    The purpose of this study was to identify a correlation between engorgement of the vortex vein and the development of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). Engorgement of the vortex vein was evaluated by masked observers using a montage of indocyanine green angiography images. Sixty-three eyes with PCV, 27 uninvolved fellow eyes with PCV, and 30 eyes of age-matched control subjects were included. The incidence and distribution pattern of engorgement were evaluated. Thirty-three eyes (52.4%) of PCV evidenced engorgement of the vortex vein, whereas such engorgement was detected in only 7 of the 30 eyes (30.4%) of the control subjects (P = 0.016). Among 27 fellow eyes with PCV, it was detected in 11 (40.7%) (P = 0.706 vs. control eyes). In all groups, it was most frequently detected at the inferior temporal quadrant. In eyes with PCV, mean (±standard deviation) choroidal thickness of the eyes evidencing vortex vein engorgement was 338.1 ± 131.3 μm and the thickness of those not evidencing vortex vein engorgement was 275.1 ± 107.7 μm. When the choroidal thickness increased to 10 μm in the eyes with PCV, the odds of detecting the engorgement was multiplied by a factor of 1.05 (P = 0.042). The incidence of the engorgement of vortex vein was correlated with the presence of choroidal vascular hyperpermeability (P = 0.009). This study demonstrates that engorgement of the vortex vein was observed more frequently in the eyes with PCV. Such a finding was associated with choroidal thickening and choroidal vascular hyperpermeability. These indicate that the engorgement of the vortex vein might be involved in the pathogenic mechanisms of PCV.

  1. Branch retinal vein occlusion associated with quetiapine fumarate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siang Lim


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report a case of branch retinal vein occlusion in a young adult with bipolar mood disorder treated with quetiapine fumarate. Case Presentation A 29 years old gentleman who was taking quetiapine fumarate for 3 years for bipolar mood disorder, presented with sudden vision loss. He was found to have a superior temporal branch retinal vein occlusion associated with hypercholesterolemia. Conclusion Atypical antipsychotic drugs have metabolic side effects which require regular monitoring and prompt treatment.

  2. Morphopatological and histochemical highlights in normal and varicose vein wall


    Alina Condor; Caius Solovan; Liliana Vasile


    The nutrition of the venous wall appears to be an important factor in the vascularfibrillar trophicity and in the dynamic of the extracellular matrix formation for the normal veins and, for the chronic venous ulcers of legs, on period of healing. Sequential biopsies were taken at various levels of venous wall of external and internal saphena in 16 cases presenting a chronic condition of legs venous system (35-58 years old patients, both sexes). 8 vein fragments with normal macroscopic appeara...

  3. Associations of Antiphospholipid Antibodies With Splanchnic Vein Thrombosis


    Qi, Xingshun; De Stefano, Valerio; Su, Chunping; Bai, Ming; GUO Xiaozhong; Fan, Daiming


    Abstract Splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) refers to Budd–Chiari syndrome (BCS) and portal vein system thrombosis (PVST). Current practice guidelines have recommended the routine screening for antiphospholipid antibodies (APAs) in patients with SVT. A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies was performed to explore the association between APAs and SVT. The PubMed, EMBASE, and ScienceDirect databases were searched for all relevant papers, in which the prevalence of positive...

  4. Ultrasonography of the lower extremity veins: Anatomy and basic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Kyu; Ahn, Kyung Sik; Kang, Chang Ho; Cho, Sung Bum [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Ultrasonography is an imaging modality widely used to evaluate venous diseases of the lower extremities. It is important to understand the normal venous anatomy of the lower extremities, which has deep, superficial, and perforating venous components, in order to determine the pathophysiology of venous disease. This review provides a basic description of the anatomy of the lower extremity veins and useful techniques for approaching each vein via ultrasonography.

  5. [Treatment of nontumoral portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis]. (United States)

    Bañares, Rafael; Catalina, María-Vega


    Portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis is a relatively common complication associated with the presence of an accompanying prothrombotic phenotype of advanced cirrhosis. The consequences of portal vein thrombosis are relevant because it can be associated with impaired hepatic function, might contraindicate hepatic transplantation and could increase morbidity in the surgical procedure. There is controversy concerning the most effective treatment of portal vein thrombosis, which is based on information that is seldom robust and whose primary objective is to achieve a return to vessel patency. Various studies have suggested that starting anticoagulation therapy early is associated with portal vein repatency more frequently than without treatment and has a low rate of complications. There are no proven data on the type of anticoagulant (low-molecular-weight heparins or dicoumarin agents) and the treatment duration. The implementation of TIPS is technically feasible in thrombosis without cavernous transformation and is associated with portal vein recanalization in a significant proportion of cases. Thrombolytic therapy does not appear to present an adequate balance between efficacy and safety; its use is therefore not supported for this indication. The proper definition of treatment for portal vein thrombosis requires properly designed studies to delimit the efficacy and safety of the various alternatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Robust Finger Vein ROI Localization Based on Flexible Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Sun Park


    Full Text Available Finger veins have been proved to be an effective biometric for personal identification in the recent years. However, finger vein images are easily affected by influences such as image translation, orientation, scale, scattering, finger structure, complicated background, uneven illumination, and collection posture. All these factors may contribute to inaccurate region of interest (ROI definition, and so degrade the performance of finger vein identification system. To improve this problem, in this paper, we propose a finger vein ROI localization method that has high effectiveness and robustness against the above factors. The proposed method consists of a set of steps to localize ROIs accurately, namely segmentation, orientation correction, and ROI detection. Accurate finger region segmentation and correct calculated orientation can support each other to produce higher accuracy in localizing ROIs. Extensive experiments have been performed on the finger vein image database, MMCBNU_6000, to verify the robustness of the proposed method. The proposed method shows the segmentation accuracy of 100%. Furthermore, the average processing time of the proposed method is 22 ms for an acquired image, which satisfies the criterion of a real-time finger vein identification system.

  7. Giant Intrahepatic Portal Vein Aneurysm: Leave it or Treat it? (United States)

    Shrivastava, Amit; Rampal, Jagdeesh S; Nageshwar Reddy, D


    Portal vein aneurysm (PVA) is a rare vascular dilatation of the portal vein. It is a rare vascular anomaly representing less than 3% of all visceral aneurysms and is not well understood. Usually, PVA are incidental findings, are asymptomatic, and clinical symptoms are proportionally related to size. Patients present with nonspecific epigastric pain or gastrointestinal bleeding with underlying portal hypertension. PVA may be associated with various complications such as biliary tract compression, portal vein thrombosis/rupture, duodenal compression, gastrointestinal bleeding, and inferior vena cava obstruction. Differential diagnoses of portal vein aneurysms are solid, cystic, and hypervascular abdominal masses, and it is important that the radiologists be aware of their multi-modality appearance; hence, the aim of this article was to provide an overview of the available literature to better simplify various aspects of this rare entity and diagnostic appearance on different modality with available treatment options. In our case, a 55-year-old male patient came to the gastroenterology OPD for further management of pancreatitis with portal hypertension and biliary obstruction with plastic stents in CBD and PD for the same. In this article, we have reported a case of largest intrahepatic portal vein aneurysm and its management by endovascular technique. As per our knowledge, this is the largest intrahepatic portal vein aneurysm and first case where the endovascular technique was used for the treatment of the same.

  8. [Measurement of oxygen tension in normal and varicose vein walls]. (United States)

    Taccoen, A; Lebard, C; Borie, H; Poullain, J C; Zuccarelli, F; Gerentes, I; Stern, S; Guichard, M


    Oxygen tension (PO2) was investigated in vivo in the long saphenous vein from 21 varicose patients (31 veins) during venous surgery and 7 patients with normal venous network undergoing popliteo-femoral by-pass. Measurement was achieved using computerized polarographic system Kimoc 6650 (Eppendorf, Hamburg) providing a microdriven stepwise progression of a needle probe. Oxygen tension profile was similar in both groups of patients. A slow PO2 decrease was observed from adventitia up to the union of the middle and inner thirds of the media where values were at the lowest then followed by a marked increased in the intima and the saphenous lumen. Oxygenation of the two external thirds of the venous wall was provided by vasa vasorum. The average minimum values in the media was significantly reduced in varicose veins compared to no-varicose veins (7,9 mmHg versus 13,4 mmHg; p vein nutrition and suggest a primary or secondary deficiency in oxygen supply in varicose veins.

  9. Hemorrhoids and varicose veins: a review of treatment options. (United States)

    MacKay, D


    Hemorrhoids and varicose veins are common conditions seen by general practitioners. Both conditions have several treatment modalities for the physician to choose from. Varicose veins are treated with mechanical compression stockings. There are several over-the-counter topical agents available for hemorrhoids. Conservative therapies for both conditions include diet, lifestyle changes, and hydrotherapy which require a high degree of patient compliance to be effective. When conservative hemorrhoid therapy is ineffective, many physicians may choose other non-surgical modalities: injection sclerotherapy, cryotherapy, manual dilation of the anus, infrared photocoagulation, bipolar diathermy, direct current electrocoagulation, or rubber band ligation. Injection sclerotherapy is the non-surgical treatment for primary varicose veins. Non-surgical modalities require physicians to be specially trained, own specialized equipment, and assume associated risks. If a non-surgical approach fails, the patient is often referred to a surgeon. The costly and uncomfortable nature of treatment options often lead a patient to postpone evaluation until aggressive intervention is necessary. Oral dietary supplementation is an attractive addition to the traditional treatment of hemorrhoids and varicose veins. The loss of vascular integrity is associated with the pathogenesis of both hemorrhoids and varicose veins. Several botanical extracts have been shown to improve microcirculation, capillary flow, and vascular tone, and to strengthen the connective tissue of the perivascular amorphous substrate. Oral supplementation with Aesculus hippocastanum, Ruscus aculeatus, Centella asiatica, Hamamelis virginiana, and bioflavonoids may prevent time-consuming, painful, and expensive complications of varicose veins and hemorrhoids.

  10. Factors associated with the development of superficial vein thrombosis in patients with varicose veins. (United States)

    Karathanos, Christos; Exarchou, Maria; Tsezou, Aspasia; Kyriakou, Despina; Wittens, Cees; Giannoukas, Athanasios


    Superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) is a common and controversial clinical entity. Recent studies have demonstrated that SVT should be seen as a venous thromboembolism (VTE). The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of thrombophilia defects and to estimate the role of age, sex and body mass index (BMI) in patients with varicose veins (VVs) and SVT. A total of 230 patients with VVs, 128 with, and 102 without SVT underwent thrombophilia testing included factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and plasminogen activator inhibitor- 1 mutations, protein C, protein S (PS), anti-thrombin III and plasminogen deficiencies and levels of A2 antiplasmin, activate protein C resistance and lupus anticoagulant. According to Clinical-Etiology-Anatomy-Pathophysiology (CEAP) classification patients were categorized in two subgroups: moderate disease (C2,3) and severe disease (C4,5,6). Age and body mass index were also assessed. The prevalence of thrombophilia defects was significantly higher in patients with moderate disease and SVT (p=0.002). In the C2,3 group, SVT was associated with PS deficiency (p=0.018), obesity (pSVT development among patients with VVs having moderate disease (C2,3). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The inferior emissary vein: a reliable landmark for right adrenal vein sampling. (United States)

    Kohi, Maureen P; Agarwal, Vishal K; Naeger, David M; Taylor, Andrew G; Kolli, K Pallav; Fidelman, Nicholas; LaBerge, Jeanne M; Kerlan, Robert K


    Right adrenal vein (RAV) catheterization can be a very challenging step in adrenal venous sampling (AVS). Visualization of the inferior emissary vein (IEV) may be an indication of successful RAV catheterization. To compare the rate of successful RAV sampling in the presence of the IEV. Retrospective review of all consecutive patients with PA who underwent AVS between April 2009 and April 2012 was performed. A total of 30 patients were identified. Procedural images, cortisol, and aldosterone values obtained from sampling of the RAV and inferior vena cava (IVC) were reviewed. Cortisol measurements obtained from RAV samples were divided by measurements from the infra-renal IVC blood samples in order to calculate the selectivity index (SI). An SI >3 was considered indicative of technically successful RAV sampling. RAV sampling was considered technically successful in 29 out of 30 cases (97%). In cases of successful RAV sampling (29 patients), the IEV was identified in 25 patients (86%). The IEV was visualized in isolation in 16 patients (64%), and in conjunction with visualization of the RAV or right adrenal gland stain in nine patients (36%). The IEV was not visualized in the one case of unsuccessful RAV sampling. Visualizing the IEV had a sensitivity of 86.2% for successful RAV sampling. The IEV may serve as a reliable landmark for the RAV during RAV sampling. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and permissions:

  12. Evaluation of endoscopic vein extraction on structural and functional viability of saphenous vein endothelium. (United States)

    Hussaini, Bader E; Lu, Xiu-Gui; Wolfe, J Alan; Thatte, Hemant S


    Endothelial injury during harvest influences graft patency post CABG. We have previously shown that endoscopic harvest causes structural and functional damage to the saphenous vein (SV) endothelium. However, causes of such injury may depend on the extraction technique. In order to assess this supposition, we evaluated the effect of VirtuoSaph endoscopic SV harvesting technique (VsEVH) on structural and functional viability of SV endothelium using multiphoton imaging, biochemical and immunofluorescence assays. Nineteen patients scheduled for CABG were prospectively identified. Each underwent VsEVH for one portion and "No-touch" open SV harvesting (OSVH) for another portion of the SV. A two cm segment from each portion was immersed in GALA conduit preservation solution and transported overnight to our lab for processing. The segments were labeled with fluorescent markers to quantify cell viability, calcium mobilization and generation of nitric oxide. Morphology, expression, localization and stability of endothelial caveolin, eNOS, von Willebrand factor and cadherin were evaluated using immunofluorescence, Western blot and multiphoton microscopy (MPM). Morphological, biochemical and immunofluorescence parameters of viability, structure and function were well preserved in VsEVH group as in OSVH group. However, tonic eNOS activity, agonist-dependent calcium mobilization and nitric oxide production were partially attenuated in the VsEVH group. This study indicates that VirtuoSaph endoscopic SV harvesting technique preserves the structural and functional viability of SV endothelium, but may differentially attenuate the vasomotor function of the saphenous vein graft.

  13. Leiomyosarcoma of inferior vena cava involving bilateral renal veins: Surgical challenges and reconstruction with upfront saphenous vein interposition graft for left renal vein outflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Nayyar


    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma of inferior vena cava (IVC involving bilateral renal veins presents a surgical challenge. Herein, we report the successful management of two such cases using restoration of left renal venous outflow by saphenous vein interposition graft as first step of surgery. Then radical resection of tumor and right kidney was done. IVC was lastly reconstructed using Gore-Tex graft. This report highlights the surgical challenges to ensure radical resection. Furthermore, the importance of restoring left renal outflow in presence of concomitant right nephrectomy is discussed. Both the patients were disease free at six months with no loss of left renal glomerular filtration rate.

  14. Transsplenic portal vein reconstruction–transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in a patient with portal and splenic vein thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason T. Salsamendi, MD


    Full Text Available Portal vein thrombosis (PVT is a potential complication of cirrhosis and can worsen outcomes after liver transplant (LT. Portal vein reconstruction–transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (PVR-TIPS can restore flow through the portal vein (PV and facilitate LT by avoiding complex vascular conduits. We present a case of transsplenic PVR-TIPS in the setting of complete PVT and splenic vein (SV thrombosis. The patient had a 3-year history of PVT complicated by abdominal pain, ascites, and paraesophageal varices. A SV tributary provided access to the main SV and was punctured percutaneously under ultrasound scan guidance. PV access, PV and SV venoplasty, and TIPS placement were successfully performed without complex techniques. The patient underwent LT with successful end-to-end anastomosis of the PVs. Our case suggests transsplenic PVR-TIPS to be a safe and effective alternative to conventional PVR-TIPS in patients with PVT and SV thrombosis.

  15. Aneurysm of the superior mesenteric vein: imaging findings; Anevrisme de la veine mesenterique superieure: apport de l'imagerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billaud, Y.; Meyer, X.; Ehre, P.; Weber, G. [Hopital d' Instruction des Armees Desgenettes, Service de Radiologie, 69 - Lyon (France); Pilleul, F.; Henry, L.; Valette, P.J. [Hopital Universitaire Edouard Herriot, Service de Radiologie Digestive, 69 - Lyon (France)


    The authors report two uncommon cases of incidental superior mesenteric vein aneurysm in two asymptomatic women. Patients underwent ultrasonography, CT and MR angiography. The etiology, clinical features and treatment are discussed along with a review of to the literature. (authors)

  16. Incidence, location, and cause of recovery of electrical connections between the pulmonary veins and the left atrium after pulmonary vein isolation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yamada, Takumi; Murakami, Yoshimasa; Okada, Taro; Okamoto, Mitsuhiro; Shimizu, Takeshi; Toyama, Junji; Yoshida, Yukihiko; Tsuboi, Naoya; Ito, Teruo; Muto, Masahiro; Kondo, Takahisa; Inden, Yasuya; Hirai, Makoto; Murohara, Toyoaki


    ...) between the left atrium and the pulmonary veins (PVs) after the segmental ostial PV isolation (PVI). Pulmonary vein mapping and successful PVI were performed using a computerized three-dimensional mapping system...

  17. Medical management of acute superficial vein thrombosis of the saphenous vein. (United States)

    Scovell, Sherry D; Ergul, Emel A; Conrad, Mark F


    Acute superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) of the axial veins, such as the great saphenous vein (GSV), is a common clinical condition that carries with it significant risk of propagation of thrombus, recurrence, and, most concerning, subsequent venous thromboembolism (VTE). Conservative therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication and heat does not prevent extension of thrombus or protect against recurrent or future VTE in patients with extensive SVT (thrombotic segment of at least 5 cm in length). To prevent future thromboembolic events, anticoagulation has become the treatment of choice for extensive acute SVT in the GSV. In spite of this, the dose and duration of anticoagulation in the treatment of SVT vary widely. This review summarizes the evidence from large prospective, randomized clinical trials on the treatment of SVT with anticoagulation (vs placebo or different doses and durations of anticoagulation) with respect to the outcome measures of thrombus extension, SVT recurrence, and future VTE. A systematic search was performed using the MEDLINE database to identify all prospective, randomized controlled trials of treatment with anticoagulation in patients with SVT in the GSV. Six prospective, randomized trials were identified that met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed in detail. Treatment of acute SVT was most commonly managed in an outpatient setting using either low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in four studies or, alternatively, a factor Xa inhibitor in one large multicenter trial. LMWH was associated with a lower rate of thrombus extension and subsequent recurrence, especially when an intermediate dose (defined as a dose between prophylactic and therapeutic doses) was used for a period of 30 days. The full effect of treatment with LMWH on the risk of subsequent VTE remains unclear, as do the optimal dose and duration of this drug. Prophylactic doses of fondaparinux, a factor Xa inhibitor, were found to be beneficial in reducing the

  18. Structural and mechanical characterisation of bridging veins: A review. (United States)

    Famaey, Nele; Ying Cui, Zhao; Umuhire Musigazi, Grace; Ivens, Jan; Depreitere, Bart; Verbeken, Erik; Vander Sloten, Jos


    Bridging veins drain the venous blood from the cerebral cortex into the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and doing so they bridge the subdural space. Despite their importance in head impact biomechanics, little is known about their properties with respect to histology, morphology and mechanical behaviour. Knowledge of these characteristics is essential for creating a biofidelic finite element model to study the biomechanics of head impact, ultimately leading to the improved design of protective devices by setting up tolerance criteria. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art knowledge on bridging veins. Tolerance criteria to prevent head injury through impact have been set by a number of research groups, either directly through impact experiments or by means of finite element (FE) simulations. Current state-of-the-art FE head models still lack a biofidelic representation of the bridging veins. To achieve this, a thorough insight into their nature and behaviour is required. Therefore, an overview of the general morphology and histology is provided here, showing the clearly heterogeneous nature of the bridging vein complex, with its three different layers and distinct morphological and histological changes at the region of outflow into the superior sagittal sinus. Apart from a complex morphology, bridging veins also exhibit complex mechanical behaviour, being nonlinear, viscoelastic and prone to damage. Existing material models capable of capturing these properties, as well as methods for experimental characterisation, are discussed. Future work required in bridging vein research is firstly to achieve consensus on aspects regarding morphology and histology, especially in the outflow cuff segment. Secondly, the advised material models need to be populated with realistic parameters through biaxial mechanical experiments adapted to the dimensions of the bridging vein samples. Finally, updating the existing finite element head models with these

  19. Mystery of Retinal Vein Occlusion: Vasoactivity of the Vein and Possible Involvement of Endothelin-1

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    Teruyo Kida


    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is a common vascular disease of retina; however, the pathomechanism leading to RVO is not yet clear. In general, increasing age, hypertension, arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disorder, and cerebral stroke are systemic risk factors of RVO. However, RVO often occur in the unilateral eye and sometimes develop in young subjects who have no arteriosclerosis. In addition, RVO show different variations on the degrees of severity; some RVO are resolved without any treatment and others develop vision-threatening complications such as macular edema, combined retinal artery occlusion, vitreous hemorrhage, and glaucoma. Clinical conditions leading to RVO are still open to question. In this review, we discuss how to treat RVO in practice by presenting some RVO cases. We also deliver possible pathomechanisms of RVO through our clinical experience and animal experiments.

  20. Multiple ligation of the proximal greater saphenous vein in the CHIVA treatment of primary varicose veins

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    Roberto Delfrate


    Full Text Available Saphenous femoral disconnection is the key point of most surgical techniques in the treatment of primary varicose vein surgery. The aim of this study is to compare and analyze different techniques for conservative saphenousfemoral ligation or disconnection. These techniques can be to perform mini invasive open surgery and are suitable for implementation of the conservative hemodynamic correction of venous insufficiency (CHIVA method. The aim was to present the follow-up by retrospective analysis of three different ligation-disconnection techniques of the proximal great saphenous vein (GSV according to the CHIVA method at the GSV end, i.e. between the very end of the GSV and the first arch tributary, according to the CHIVA method. The first thecnique consisted of a surgical division (crossotomy. The other two consisted of triple superposed ligation with No. 2 non-absorbable braided coated suture without division labeled TSFL (triple saphenous flush ligation and No. 0 polypropylenene ligation TPL (triple polypropylene ligation. The difference between TSFL and TPL was in the thickness and type of material of the thread, though both were non-absorbable. The follow up of 56 TPL procedures, 61 crossotomy procedures, and 82 TSFL procedures was analysed. The follow-up consisted of checking the sapheno-femoral junction occlusion with Duplex color ultra sound. The incidence rates of neovascularization (new vessels in the ligation or surgical disconnection site with saphenous-femoral reflux during the Valsalva maneuver were: 4.9% for the crossotomy group, 6.1% for the TSFL group and 37.5% for the TPL group. The data analysed show satisfactory results with both crossotomy and TSFL. Crossotomy has proven to be an effective technique for performing saphenous-femoral disconnection, but TSFL could also be a reliable, safe and low-cost varicose mini-invasive surgery in outpatients. TPL appeared to be less reliable.

  1. Evaluation of endoscopic vein extraction on structural and functional viability of saphenous vein endothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xiu-Gui


    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Endothelial injury during harvest influences graft patency post CABG. We have previously shown that endoscopic harvest causes structural and functional damage to the saphenous vein (SV endothelium. However, causes of such injury may depend on the extraction technique. In order to assess this supposition, we evaluated the effect of VirtuoSaph endoscopic SV harvesting technique (VsEVH on structural and functional viability of SV endothelium using multiphoton imaging, biochemical and immunofluorescence assays. Methods Nineteen patients scheduled for CABG were prospectively identified. Each underwent VsEVH for one portion and "No-touch" open SV harvesting (OSVH for another portion of the SV. A two cm segment from each portion was immersed in GALA conduit preservation solution and transported overnight to our lab for processing. The segments were labeled with fluorescent markers to quantify cell viability, calcium mobilization and generation of nitric oxide. Morphology, expression, localization and stability of endothelial caveolin, eNOS, von Willebrand factor and cadherin were evaluated using immunofluorescence, Western blot and multiphoton microscopy (MPM. Results Morphological, biochemical and immunofluorescence parameters of viability, structure and function were well preserved in VsEVH group as in OSVH group. However, tonic eNOS activity, agonist-dependent calcium mobilization and nitric oxide production were partially attenuated in the VsEVH group. Conclusions This study indicates that VirtuoSaph endoscopic SV harvesting technique preserves the structural and functional viability of SV endothelium, but may differentially attenuate the vasomotor function of the saphenous vein graft. Ultramini-Abstract Endoscopic extraction preserved the structure and function, but attenuated the calcium mobilization and nitric oxide generation in human SV endothelium.


    Fişuş, Andreea Dana; Pop, Doina Suzana; Rusu, Monica Blanka; Vultur, Florina; Horvath, Karin Ursula


    Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is the second most common retinal vein disease with significant visual loss via thrombus or compression of vein wall. Thrombophilia is the predisposition to vascular thrombosis with the existence of genetic defect that leads to blood hypercoagulability. This report describes the case of a 55 year old male patient, with an active life who presented himself at the emergency room with acute visual lose, insidious and progressive visual field constriction, without any known history of neurological or vascular diseases. The examinations revealed unilateral optic nerve head edema, the fluorescein angiography was specific for nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion CRVO complicated with macular edema. Blood examinations has emphasized the presence of the heterozygous mutation A1298C in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR), the only one presented from the thrombophilia screen panel and a slightly elevated cholesterol level. During the follow-up period, the patient received anti-VEGF treatment (Bevacizumab, 3x 0.1 ml intravitreal injections) with improved visual acuity and amendment of macular edema. The complex etiology calls for interdisciplinary approach to determine better the cause of this ophthalmological disease. Although studies have found a correlation between some thrombophilia mutations and retinal vein occlusion, more studies that contain a larger number of patients are necessary in order to determine the final role of these gene variants.

  3. Isolated Subclavian Vein Injury: A Rare and High Mortality Case

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    Sahin Iscan


    Full Text Available Isolated subclavian vein injuries are rarely seen without concomitant arterial injury, bone fracture, damage to brachial plexus, and thoracal traumas. Our case was brought to the emergency service 6 hours after he had been shot at the shoulder with a firearm. After detection of extravasation from the left axillary and subclavian vein on arteriographic and venographic examinations, he was operated on. An autogenous saphenous vein graft was interposed between subclavian and axillary veins. Cardiac arrest developed twice because of hypovolemia, which was resolved with medical therapy. Subclavian vein injuries have a more mortal course when compared with the injuries to the subclavian arteries. Its most important reason is excessive blood loss and air embolism because of delayed arrival to hospital. As is the case in all vascular injuries, angiography is the most important diagnostic examination. If the general health state of the patient permits, arteriography and venography should be performed in patients potentially exposed to vascular injuries. In patients with extreme blood loss and deteriorated health state, direct surgical exploration of the injury site, containment of the bleeding, and venous repair are life-saving approaches.

  4. Palm vein recognition based on directional empirical mode decomposition (United States)

    Lee, Jen-Chun; Chang, Chien-Ping; Chen, Wei-Kuei


    Directional empirical mode decomposition (DEMD) has recently been proposed to make empirical mode decomposition suitable for the processing of texture analysis. Using DEMD, samples are decomposed into a series of images, referred to as two-dimensional intrinsic mode functions (2-D IMFs), from finer to large scale. A DEMD-based 2 linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for palm vein recognition is proposed. The proposed method progresses through three steps: (i) a set of 2-D IMF features of various scale and orientation are extracted using DEMD, (ii) the 2LDA method is then applied to reduce the dimensionality of the feature space in both the row and column directions, and (iii) the nearest neighbor classifier is used for classification. We also propose two strategies for using the set of 2-D IMF features: ensemble DEMD vein representation (EDVR) and multichannel DEMD vein representation (MDVR). In experiments using palm vein databases, the proposed MDVR-based 2LDA method achieved recognition accuracy of 99.73%, thereby demonstrating its feasibility for palm vein recognition.

  5. [Treatment of venous trophic ulcers, using echoscleroobliteration of perforant veins]. (United States)

    Rusyn, V I; Korsak, V V; Boldizhar, P O; Borsenko, M I; Mytrovka, B A


    In 36 patients, suffering trophic ulcers on a chronic venous insufficiency background in a decompensated stage (C6 in accordance to CEAP), echoscleroobliteration of perforant veins, using a "foam-form" method in accordance to Tessari, was performed. In 29 patients postrombophlebitic syndrome in incomplete recanalization stage was diagnosed, in 7 recurrence of varicose disease of the lower extremities. In all the patients during echoscleroobliteration there was possible to obliterate the insufficient perforant veins, in 3 patients two perforant veins were obliterated in each of them. In a one week a pathological blood flow along perforant veins, in accordance to data of ultrasound duplex scanning, was absent. This effect lasted during 6 mo in 29 (80.6%) patients. In 25 (69.4%) patients a trophic ulcers healing was achieved in 1 - 3 mo. In a one year in 30 (83.3%) patients a stable obliteration was noted, in 3 (8.3%) - partial recanalization, in 3 (8.3%) - complete recanalization of perforant veins.

  6. Coronary magnetic resonance vein imaging: imaging contrast, sequence, and timing. (United States)

    Nezafat, Reza; Han, Yuchi; Peters, Dana C; Herzka, Daniel A; Wylie, John V; Goddu, Beth; Kissinger, Kraig K; Yeon, Susan B; Zimetbaum, Peter J; Manning, Warren J


    Recently, there has been increased interest in imaging the coronary vein anatomy to guide interventional cardiovascular procedures such as cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), a device therapy for congestive heart failure (CHF). With CRT the lateral wall of the left ventricle is electrically paced using a transvenous coronary sinus lead or surgically placed epicardial lead. Proper transvenous lead placement is facilitated by the knowledge of the coronary vein anatomy. Cardiovascular MR (CMR) has the potential to image the coronary veins. In this study we propose and test CMR techniques and protocols for imaging the coronary venous anatomy. Three aspects of design of imaging sequence were studied: magnetization preparation schemes (T(2) preparation and magnetization transfer), imaging sequences (gradient-echo (GRE) and steady-state free precession (SSFP)), and imaging time during the cardiac cycle. Numerical and in vivo studies both in healthy and CHF subjects were performed to optimize and demonstrate the utility of CMR for coronary vein imaging. Magnetization transfer was superior to T(2) preparation for contrast enhancement. Both GRE and SSFP were viable imaging sequences, although GRE provided more robust results with better contrast. Imaging during the end-systolic quiescent period was preferable as it coincided with the maximum size of the coronary veins. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. [Molecular identification of geminivirus inducing vein yellowing in Abelmoschus manihot]. (United States)

    Tang, Mei-qiong; Qin, Liu-yan


    The virus isolate H was identified by molecular biology,it was collected from Abelmoschus manihot plant showing leaf curl,yellow vein symptoms in Guangxi Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plant. The virus isolate H was observed in electron micrograph, and conformed detected by PCR using universal primer pair for the genus Geminivirus. The results indicated that all sequences homologous to the specific fragment belonged to the genus Begomovirus of the family Geminiviridae. There was the highest similarity shared 95% homology at nucleotide between the specific fragment and DNA-A of Emilia yellow vein virus isolates. These findings suggested that there was geminiviridea in Abelmoschus manihot, and the disease probably caused by Emilia yellow vein virus.

  8. Visualization of the superior opthalmic vein on carotid angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servo, A.


    Visualization of the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) on carotid angiography was investigated based on a prospective sample of 452 carotid angiograms performed during one year. The SOV with normal blood flow direction, from facial veins into the cavernous sinus (CS), was seen on 26% and with reversed flow direction in 7% of the angiograms. A hypothesis was suggested that the anatomical variations of the moddle cerebral (MCV) and uncal veins (UV) affected the visualization. When both the MCV and UV drained into the CS, the SOV was seen in 11% of 179 angiograms. If the MCV and UV bypassed the CS, the SOV was seen on 51% of 118 angiograms. The difference is significant. Intubation of the patient increased the visualization of the SOV with normal flow direction but did not affect the visualization of the SOV with reversed flow. No SOV with normal blood flow direction was seen on selective internal carotid angiography.

  9. Breast cancer metastatic to the kidney with renal vein involvement. (United States)

    Nasu, Hatsuko; Miura, Katsutoshi; Baba, Megumi; Nagata, Masao; Yoshida, Masayuki; Ogura, Hiroyuki; Takehara, Yasuo; Sakahara, Harumi


    The common sites of breast cancer metastases include bones, lung, brain, and liver. Renal metastasis from the breast is rare. We report a case of breast cancer metastatic to the kidney with extension into the renal vein. A 40-year-old woman had undergone left mastectomy for breast cancer at the age of 38. A gastric tumor, which was later proved to be metastasis from breast cancer, was detected by endoscopy. Computed tomography performed for further examination of the gastric tumor revealed a large left renal tumor with extension into the left renal vein. It mimicked a primary renal tumor. Percutaneous biopsy of the renal tumor confirmed metastasis from breast cancer. Surgical intervention of the stomach and the kidney was avoided, and she was treated with systemic chemotherapy. Breast cancer metastatic to the kidney may present a solitary renal mass with extension into the renal vein, which mimics a primary renal tumor.

  10. Shock veins in the Sahara 02500 ordinary chondrite (United States)

    Owocki, Krzysztof; Muszyński, Andrzej


    A specimen of the Sahara 02500 ordinary chondrite contains shock-produced veins consisting of recrystallised fine-grained pyroxenes that include small droplets of Ni-rich metal. Non-melted olivines and pyroxenes show planar deformations filled by shock-melted and -polluted metal and troilite. Shock-melted feldspathic glass is present close to the shock veins. Geothermometric estimations indicate that the meteorite locally experienced moderate shock metamorphism with a minimum local peak temperature above 1400°C, resulting in partial melting of Ca-poor pyroxene and full melting of feldspars, metal and sulphides. The mineral assemblage in the shock veins suggests a pressure during melt recrystallisation below 10 GPa.

  11. Aneurysm of the Vein of Galen Diagnosed with MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themistoklis Dagklis


    Full Text Available We describe the case of a neonate with aneurysm of vein of Galen that was diagnosed prenatally in the 33rd gestational week by MRI. A 27-year-old woman, gravida 2, para 2, was admitted to our department at 33 weeks of gestation with suspected fetal hydrocephaly. Ultrasound examination after admission demonstrated an anechoic, supratentorial, and median mass with regular borders, raising the possible diagnosis of an aneurysm of the vein of Galen. MRI confirmed the presence of an aneurysm of the vein of Galen. An elective caesarean section was performed at 33 weeks of gestation. The newborn was admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Despite the full respiratory and medical support given, the sustainment of cardiac failure resulted in neonatal death just one day following its admission.

  12. Renal vein doppler sonography in rabbits with acute ureteral obstruction: usefulness of impedance index of renal vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Kyung Myung; Chung, Su Kyo; Lee, Sung Yong [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the usefulness of the impedance index of the renal vein for the diagnosis of acute obstructive uropathy in rabbits. Ligation of the left ureter was done in 12 rabbits. Doppler sonography of the interlobar veins in both kidneys was checked before and 30 minutes, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 24 hours after ureteral ligation. The venous impedance index [(peak flow signal-least flow signal)/peak flow signal] was compared between the obstructed and non-obstructed kidneys for all periods. The change in the impedance index after ureteral ligation was also compared between the obstructed and non-obstructed kidneys. A decrease in the impedance index of the intrarenal vein was observed starting from 30 mins atter ureteral ligation, and the index remained low up to 24 hours after ureteral ligation. The obstructed kidneys had a significantly lower impedance index than the contralateral kidneys for all six of the postligation measurements (p< 0.05). There were significant differences in the change of impedance index after ureteral ligation between the obstructed and non-obstructed kidneys (p< 0.05). The impedance index of the intrarenal vein was significantly decreased in the obstructed kidneys. The measurement of the impedance index of the intrarenal vein using Doppler sonography could provide a useful method of diagnosing obstructive uropathy.

  13. Relationship between amorphous silica and precious metal in quartz veins (United States)

    Harrichhausen, N.; Rowe, C. D.; Board, W. S.; Greig, C. J.


    Super-saturation of silica is common in fault fluids, due to pressure changes associated with fracture, fault slip, or temperature gradients in hydrothermal systems. These mechanisms lead to precipitation of amorphous silica, which will recrystallize to quartz under typical geologic conditions. These conditions may also promote the saturation of precious metals, such as gold, and the precipitation of nanoparticles. Previous experiments show that charged nanoparticles of gold can attach to the surface of amorphous silica nanoparticles. Thus, gold and silica may be transported as a colloid influencing mineralization textures during amorphous silica recrystallization to quartz. This may enrich quartz vein hosted gold deposits, but the instability of hydrous silica during subsequent deformation means that the microstructural record of precipitation of gold is lost. We investigate a recent, shallow auriferous hydrothermal system at Dixie Valley, Nevada to reveal the nano- to micro-scale relationships between gold and silica in fresh veins. Fault slip surfaces at Dixie Valley exhibit layers of amorphous silica with partial recrystallization to quartz. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) show amorphous silica can contain a few wt. % gold while areas recrystallized to quartz are barren. At the Jurassic Brucejack deposit in British Columbia, Canada we observe the cryptocrystalline quartz textures that may indicate recrystallization from amorphous silica within quartz-carbonate veins containing high grade gold. Comb quartz within syntaxial veins, vugs, and coating breccia clasts indicate structural dilation. Vein geometry is investigated to determine relative importance of fault slip in creating dilational sites. By comparing quartz-carbonate veins from the Dixie Valley to Brucejack, we can determine whether amorphous silica formed in different environments show similar potential to affect precious metal mineralization.

  14. Evidence for varicose vein surgery in venous leg ulceration. (United States)

    Kheirelseid, Elrasheid A H; Bashar, Khalid; Aherne, Thomas; Babiker, Thamir; Naughton, Peter; Moneley, Daragh; Walsh, Stewart R; Leahy, Austin L


    Venous leg ulcers affect 1-3% of adults with a significant economic impact, utilizing 1% of annual healthcare budgets in some western European countries. To determine the effects of intervention for incompetent superficial veins on ulcer healing and recurrence in patients with active or healed venous ulcers. In October 2014, we searched Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, the Cochrane library and Web of Science without date or language restriction for relevant randomized or observational studies. Bibliographies of included studies were also searched for additional studies. Observational studies or randomized controlled trials comparing intervention for varicose veins with compression therapy alone for venous leg ulcers were eligible. In addition, studies compared open to endovenous therapy for varicose veins in patients with leg ulcers and those compared treating saphenous and perforating veins to treating saphenous veins only were also included. Studies had to report at least one ulcer-related outcome (healing rate, recurrence or time to healing). Details of potentially eligible studies were extracted and summarized using a data extraction table. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed independently by two review authors, and any disagreements resolved by consensus or by arbitration of a third author. Intervention for superficial venous reflux improved ulcer healing (risk ratio = 1.11 [1.00, 1.22], 95% CI, p = 0.04) and reduced recurrence (risk ratio = 0.48 [0.32, 0.67], 95% CI, p venous leg ulcer is at beast weak. A well-structured RCT is required to investigate the role of endovenous ablation of incompetent superficial veins in improving venous leg ulcer outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Budd-Chiari and inferior caval vein syndromes due to membranous obstruction of the liver veins. Successful treatment with angioplasty and transcaval TIPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland-Fischer, Peter


    The case is presented of a 25-year-old Caucasian patient with Budd-Chiari syndrome due to membranous obstruction of the liver veins and inferior caval vein syndrome as a result of secondary hyperplasia of the caudate lobe of the liver, obstructing the caval vein. Diagnosis was established...... by intravascular pressure measurements, ultrasound examinations and caval and liver vein angiograms. Treatment consisting of stent placement in the outlet of a hepatic vein and subsequent transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt (TIPS) insertion via the caval vein was successful. After 34 months of follow......-up the stents remain open and the patient is symptom free. This successful combination of stent placement and TIPS has not been described before. The case report is followed by a review of the literature on the use of angioplasty in short hepatic vein stenosis and TIPS in Budd-Chiari syndrome. It is concluded...

  16. Isolated Facial Vein Thrombophlebitis: A Variant of Lemierre Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnov, Kirstine KS; Lilja-Fischer, Jacob Kinggaard; Randrup, Thomas Skov


    Lemierre syndrome is a rare complication of acute tonsillitis. It is caused by the anaerobic bacterium Fu- sobacterium necrophorum and is characterized by bacteremia and septic thrombosis of the internal jug- ular vein. Dissemination of septic emboli may occur. The diagnosis can be difficult sinc...... different organs can be involved. We discuss a case of Lemierre syn- drome in a 35-year-old woman with isolated throm- bophlebitis of the facial vein and fusobacteria growth in blood culture. This case emphasizes the need for awareness of the condition....

  17. Aneurysm of the common iliac vein mimicking a pelvic mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Eun Joo; Kim, Dong Hun [Dept. of Radiology, Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Suk, Eun Ha [Dept. of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seonam University College of Medicine, Namwon (Korea, Republic of)


    Venous aneurysm, especially of primary origin, is rare. The authors report a case of a 63-year-old female who was admitted for back pain and an aneurysm of the common iliac which was detected incidentally. CT, magnetic resonance (MR), Doppler ultrasonography, and conventional venography showed an aneurysm of the left common iliac vein measuring 4.5 , 00D7, 3, 00D7, 4 cm. Because there were no complications of the aneurysm, no further treatment was administered. Herein, we describe findings of a venous aneurysm of the common iliac vein mimicking a pelvic mass on CT and MR scans and with a review of the literature.

  18. Mortality in Patients with Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Linneberg, Allan; Christoffersen, Nynne


    .03-1.56) and in women 60 to 69 years of age (SMR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.22-3.08). CONCLUSIONS: Central retinal vein occlusion was associated with an overall increase in mortality compared with controls that was attributed statistically to cardiovascular disorders and diabetes. We recommend treatment of hypertension......PURPOSE: To assess mortality in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). DESIGN: Registry-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS AND CONTROLS: Four hundred thirty-nine photographically verified CRVO patients and a control cohort of 2195 unexposed subjects matched by age and gender and alive...

  19. Changes in the retinal veins in acute optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell, T; Sellebjerg, F; Jensen, C


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate patients with acute optic neuritis (ON) for changes of the retinal veins. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-six patients with acute ON were extensively neuro-ophthalmologically examined. RESULTS: Multiple sclerosis (MS) was found in 41 patients of whom 1 had periphlebitis...... retinae (PR) and 2 had venous sheathing (VS). Probable MS was found in 15 patients without prior symptoms of MS. One had PR and VS, and 2 had VS. Twenty patients had mono-symptomatic ON, none had retinal changes. CONCLUSION: Changes of the retinal veins should alert the clinician to a probable diagnosis...

  20. Bilateral Renal Vein Thrombosis due to Elevated Factor VIII Levels. (United States)

    Patole, Shalom; Ramya, I


    Recent evidence has shown that high level of factor VIII is associated with increased risk of thromboembolism. High factor VIII levels are associated with a seven-fold increase in the risk of venous thrombosis. Renal vein thrombosis is usually associated with nephrotic syndrome, procoagulant state or oral contraceptive pills. We report a case of a lady who presented with bilateral renal vein thrombosis due to high factor VIII levels and oral contraceptive pills (OCP) use. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  1. Finger Vein Recognition Using Local Line Binary Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiar Affendi Rosdi


    Full Text Available In this paper, a personal verification method using finger vein is presented. Finger vein can be considered more secured compared to other hands based biometric traits such as fingerprint and palm print because the features are inside the human body. In the proposed method, a new texture descriptor called local line binary pattern (LLBP is utilized as feature extraction technique. The neighbourhood shape in LLBP is a straight line, unlike in local binary pattern (LBP which is a square shape. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LLBP has better performance than the previous methods using LBP and local derivative pattern (LDP.

  2. Velocity Estimation of the Main Portal Vein with Transverse Oscillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Andreas Hjelm; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann


    This study evaluates if Transverse Oscillation (TO) can provide reliable and accurate peak velocity estimates of blood flow the main portal vein. TO was evaluated against the recommended and most widely used technique for portal flow estimation, Spectral Doppler Ultrasound (SDU). The main portal...... and subcostal were significantly different (intercostal mean SDU=0.202m/s, subcostal mean SDU=0.320m/s, pindicating a large beam-to-flow angle variability in the portal vein. This can affect the peak velocity estimation...

  3. Biliary collateral veins and associated biliary abnormalities of portal hypertensive biliopathy in patients with cavernous transformation of portal vein. (United States)

    Liu, Yubao; Hou, Baohua; Chen, Ren; Jin, Haosheng; Zhong, Xiaomei; Ye, Weitao; Liang, Changhong


    The purpose was to investigate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of biliary collateral veins and associated biliary abnormalities of portal hypertensive biliopathy (PHB). Thirty-six patients including 18 patients with abnormal biliary changes and 18 patients as control group were involved in this study. MRI features of biliary collateral veins were analyzed. Stenosis with dilated proximal bile ducts occurred in 33.3% of patients, 27.8% of patients had irregular ductal walls, 22.2% of patients had thickened ductal walls, 16.7% of patients had angulated ductal walls, and 44.4% of patients had thickened gallbladder walls. Biliary collateral veins and associated biliary abnormalities of PHB can be detected by MRI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The risk of varicose veins in standing female workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Hidayat


    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang:Varises sering terjadi pada karyawan yang harus bekerja dalam posisi kerja berdiri. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui beberapa faktor risiko terhadap varises tungkai dan atau kaki di antara pekerja perempuan. Metode:Penelitian potong lintang ini dilakukan pada Januari-Maret 2010. Sampel penelitian yang dipilih secara purposif yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi penelitian di antara pekerja perempuan perlu bekerja dalam  posisi  kerja  berdiri.  Data  dikumpulkan  dengan  wawancara,  pemeriksaan  fisik  dan  observasi posisi kerja berdiri. Pengolahan data untuk menentukan faktor dominan terhadap varises menggunakan pendekatan risiko relatif.Hasil:Dari 152 karyawan yang terdapat 111 yang bersedia mengikuti penelitian, dan yang menderita varises tungkai dan atau kaki sebanyak 52,3% (53 orang. Sebagian besar responden berusia 18-35 tahun, memiliki masa kerja 3-17 tahun, bekerja dalam posisi kerja banyak berdiri. Sebagian kecil responden memiliki riwayat varises di dalam keluarga (13,51%, memakai kontrasepsi oral (11,71%, memiliki kebiasaan olah raga (18,02% dan memakai sepatu hak tinggi (11,71%. Faktor umur, pemakaian kontrasepsi oral, pemakaian sepatu hak tinggi, kebiasaan olah raga, posisi kerja berdiri, tempat kerja, dan masa kerja tidak berhubungan dengan varises tungkai dan atau kaki. Karyawan yang mempunyai dibandingkan dengan yang tidak mempunyai riwayat keluarga varises, berisiko 69% lebih tinggi menderita varises [risiko relatif (RR = 1,69; P = 0.121]. Kesimpulan:Karyawan yang mempunyai riwayat keluarga varises berisiko lebih tinggi menderita varises. (Health Science Indones 2013;1:47-50 Kata kunci:varises, posisi kerja berdiriAbstractBackground: Varicose veins often occur in employees who have to work in a position of standing work. The purpose of this study to determine risk factors for varicose veins and leg or foot among women workers.Methods: In this cross-sectional study in January-March 2010 the

  5. [Soleus veins: anatomic basis and their role in the origin of deep venous lower limb thrombosis]. (United States)

    Sequeira, Carlos Miguel Gomes; Juliano, Yara; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Mayall, Rubens Carlos; Miranda, Fausto


    Study of the number, sectorization and termination of the soleus veins. Meticulous, stratigraphical, anatomical dissections were carried out in the posterior crural region of 100 legs of 50 fresh cadavers. Those belonging to subjects with congenital or acquired pathologies in the lower limbs were disregarded. After the skin was reflected on both sides, dissection of superficial and perforating veins, was performed. Then reflection of the subcutaneous tissue and fascia, detachment and reflection of the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles, detachment of the tibial origin of the soleus muscle, differentiation of the soleus veins and study of morphometric parameters were carried out. The region was divided into six sectors: superior-medial, superior-lateral, medio-medial, medio-lateral, inferior-medial and inferior-lateral. Data obtained from Wilcoxon and Friedman nonparametric tests were utilized for statistical analysis. In the dissected legs 4679 soleus veins were found. The sector with the greatest number of soleus veins was the superior-lateral (1529 veins - 32.7%), followed by the mediomedial (1.256 veins - 26.8%) and the mediolateral sectors (975 veins - 20.8%). The extremities drained into communicant veins (1.207 veins - 25.8%), posterior tibial veins (964 veins - 20.6%), peroneal veins (709 veins - 15.2%) and into 32 other types (1.799 veins 38.4%). The venous drainage of the soleus muscle is carried out by a great number of soleus veins which are frequently located in the superior-lateral, mediomedial and mediolateral sectors, more often going into the posterior tibial, peroneal and communicant veins.

  6. Anatomical variation of thyroid veins on contrast-enhanced multi-detector row computed tomography. (United States)

    Tomita, Hayato; Yamada, Takayuki; Murakami, Kenji; Hashimoto, Kazuki; Tazawa, Yoko; Kumano, Reiko; Nakajima, Yasuo


    The objective of this study was to clarify the anatomical variation of thyroid veins into the systemic vein using contrast-enhanced multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT). The subjects were 80 patients (34 males and 46 females; mean age, 50.1 years; age range, 15-92 years) with neck diseases who underwent MDCT. The number and location of inflow points of the thyroid veins into the systemic vein, and the length from the junction of bilateral brachiocephalic veins to the orifice of inferior thyroid vein were investigated by reviewing the axial and coronal images. All superior thyroid veins were detected. Right and left middle thyroid veins were identified in 39 and 29 patients, respectively. Right inferior thyroid veins, left inferior thyroid veins, and common trunks were detected in 43, 46, and 39 patients, respectively; in five patients, two left thyroid veins were identified. All left inferior thyroid veins and 34 common trunks flowed into the innominate vein, while right ones had some variations in inflow sites. Mean lengths were 3.01±1.30 cm (range, 0.5-6.19) and 2.04±0.91 cm (0.5-4.4) in the left inferior thyroid vein and common trunk, and 1.96±1.05 cm (0.81-4.8) and 1.65±0.69 cm (0.63-2.94) in the right one flowing into the right internal jugular vein and the innominate vein, respectively. The numbers and orifices of thyroid veins were identified at high rates on contrast-enhanced MDCT. This strategy can provide anatomical information before selective venous sampling for measurements of parathyroid hormone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rare mycotic aneurysms of internal jugular vein and innominate vein secondary to untreated parapharyngeal abscess: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdus Salam


    Full Text Available We report a 31 year old woman presented with three months history of large untreated parapharyngeal abscess and bleeding from the mouth. On evaluation chest CT scan identified the abscess extending down to the superior mediastinum and multiple small lung abscesses. Echocardiography showed tricuspid valve insufficiency. Patient was brought to the operating room (OR and intra-operatively it was found that she had multiple large mycotic pseudoaneurysms of the internal jugular vein and right brachiocephalic veins. All these pseudoaneurysms were repaired with pericardial patches under cardiopulmonary bypass. Patient did well in the short postoperative follow up and was then referred to plastic surgery and ENT for further surgical interventions.

  8. Evaluation of Azygous Vein Aneurysm Using Integrated PET/MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hyo Jung; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Goo, Jin Mo; Kim, Young Tae; Park, Young Sik; Cheon, Gi Jeong [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    A previously healthy, non-smoking, 72-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with abnormal chest X-ray and chest discomfort. A 3.5-cm, well-defined, right paratracheal mass was revealed on non-contrast chest computed tomography (CT), which was suspected to be an azygous vein aneurysm, lymph adenopathy or neurogenic tumor. Whole-body integrated positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) (Biograph mMR; Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) was performed for the differential diagnosis. A homogenously enhancing mass connected with the azygous vein was well visualized in a post-contrast volumetric interpolated gradient echo (VIBE) sequence. Additionally, the PET showed minimal {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake (maximum standardized uptake value [SUVmax], 1.83), similar to that of the great vessels, with no filling defect to suggest thromboembolism and no significant FDG uptake to suggest active thrombo-embolism or malignancy. The imaging findings in integrated PET/MRI were useful to characterize azygous vein aneurysm. The patient had a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery to relieve the symptom of chest pain. A congenital etiology of azygous vein aneurysm was confirmed by pathology.

  9. The Short Saphenous Vein: A Viable Alternative Conduit for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wide variety of vascular conduits including the. Internal Mammary Artery (IMA), Radial Artery. (RA) and the Long Saphenous Vein (LSV), are available to the Cardiac Surgeon performing Coronary. Artery Bypass Graft procedures. These have demonstrated various successes over the years in both long-term patency.

  10. Prevalence of Deep Vein Thrombosis and Associated Factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Community Health Services (Memphis, TN, USA). ABSTRACT. Background: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary ... predominantly confined to the United States of America. (USA) and Europe. Over 2 million people develop DVT. 6 ... a prothrombotic state.¹° Epidemiological studies have revealed that HIV infected ...

  11. Prevention of vein graft intimal hyperplasia with photochemical tissue passivation. (United States)

    Salinas, Harry M; Khan, Saiqa I; McCormack, Michael C; Fernandes, Justin R; Gfrerer, Lisa; Watkins, Michael T; Redmond, Robert W; Austen, William G


    Saphenous vein is the conduit of choice for bypass grafting. Saphenous vein grafts have poor long-term patency rates because of intimal hyperplasia (IH) and subsequent accelerated atherosclerosis. One of the primary triggers of IH is endothelial injury resulting from excessive dilation of the vein after exposure to arterial pressures. Photochemical tissue passivation (PTP) is a technology that cross-links adventitial collagen by a light-activated process, which limits dilation by improving vessel compliance. The objective of this study was to investigate whether PTP limits the development of IH in a rodent venous interposition graft model. PTP is accomplished by coating venous adventitia with a photosensitizing dye and exposing it to light. To assess the degree of collagen cross-linking after PTP treatment, a biodegradation assay was performed. Venous interposition grafts were placed in the femoral artery of Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were euthanized after 4 weeks, and intimal thickness was measured histologically. Vein dilation at the time of the initial procedure was also measured. Time to digestion was 63 ± 7 minutes for controls, 101 ± 2.4 minutes for rose bengal (RB), and 300 ± 0 minutes for PTP (P collagen cross-linking, decreased vessel compliance, and significant reduction in IH. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Male Wistar rats were used to evaluate microvenous prosthetic grafting techniques and microvenous prostheses in the femoral vein. With the end-to-end technique to implant microvenous prostheses, there was extensive exposure of vessel wall collagen especially at the suture sites. Thrombus formation

  13. A retrospective analysis of patients treated for superficial vein thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichers, I. M.; Haighton, M.; Büller, H. R.; Middeldorp, S.


    Introduction: The absolute risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) as well as extension and/or recurrence in superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) of the leg is considerable and underestimated. We retrospectively evaluated therapeutic management, thrombophilic risk factors and

  14. Clinical approach to splanchnic vein thrombosis: risk factors and treatment. (United States)

    Riva, Nicoletta; Donadini, Marco P; Dentali, Francesco; Squizzato, Alessandro; Ageno, Walter


    Splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) is an unusual manifestation of venous thromboembolism which involves one or more abdominal veins (portal, splenic, mesenteric and supra-hepatic veins). SVT may be associated with different underlying disorders, either local (abdominal cancer, liver cirrhosis, intra-abdominal inflammation or surgery) or systemic (hormonal treatment, thrombophilic conditions). In the last decades, myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) emerged as the leading systemic cause of SVT. JAK2 mutation, even in the absence of known MPN, showed a strong association with the development of SVT, and SVT was suggested to be the first clinical manifestation of MPN. Recently, an association between SVT, in particular supra-hepatic vein thrombosis, and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria has also been reported. SVT occurs with heterogeneous clinical presentations, ranging from incidentally detected events to extensive thrombosis associated with overt gastrointestinal bleeding, thus representing a clinical challenge for treatment decisions. In the absence of major contraindications, anticoagulant therapy is generally recommended for all patients presenting with acute symptomatic SVT, but there is no consensus about the use of anticoagulant drugs in chronic or incidentally detected SVT. High quality evidence on the acute and long-term management is substantially lacking and the risk to benefit-ratio of anticoagulant therapy in SVT still needs to be better assessed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Renal vein oxygen saturation in renal artery stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Rehling, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl


    Renal vein oxygen-saturation was measured in 56 patients with arterial hypertension and unilateral stenosis or occlusion of the renal artery. Oxygen-saturation in blood from the ischaemic kidney (84.4%, range 73-93%) was significantly higher than that from the 'normal' contralateral kidney (81...

  16. Saphenous Vein Sparing Superficial Inguinal Dissection in Lower Extremity Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Beşir Öztürk


    Full Text Available Aim. The classic inguinal lymph node dissection is the main step for the regional control of the lower extremity melanoma, but this surgical procedure is associated with significant postoperative morbidity. The permanent lymphedema is the most devastating long-term complication leading to a significant decrease in the patient’s quality of life. In this study we present our experience with modified, saphenous vein sparing, inguinal lymph node dissections for patients with melanoma of the lower extremity. Methods. Twenty one patients (10 women, 11 men who underwent saphenous vein sparing superficial inguinal lymph node dissection for the melanoma of lower extremity were included in this study. The effects of saphenous vein sparing on postoperative complications were evaluated. Results. We have observed the decreased rate of long-term lymphedema in patients undergoing inguinal lymphadenectomy for the lower extremity melanoma. Conclusion. The inguinal lymphadenectomy with saphenous vein preservation in lower extremity melanoma patients seems to be an oncologically safe procedure and it may offer reduced long-term morbidity.

  17. Yellow Vein Mosaic disease in kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus l.) under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of appropriate sowing dates is an important approach towards obtaining optimum crop yield as it affects the resistance/susceptibility of crops to insect pests and diseases. The study investigated the effect of three sowing dates (May, June and July) on the occurrence and incidence of yellow vein mosaic ...

  18. Clinical Risk factors for deep vein thrombosis in Maiduguri - Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... associated risk factors in the affected patients. There is therefore the need to consider prophylactic anticoagulation for puerperal and post-operative patients especially in those who are obese or older than 45 years. KEY WORDS: Deep Vein Thrombosis, Risk Factors Highland Medical Research Journal Vol.1(4) 2003: 9- ...

  19. [The external carotid vein. Historical review of Paul Launay's work]. (United States)

    Collin, J F; Lauwers, F


    The authors, one century later, review the anatomical studies conducted by Launay, a student of Farabeuf, concerning the venous drainage of the face and neck. These studies were based on the analogy between the arterial system and the venous drainage of the external carotid territory. After describing the external carotid vein, the didactic and practical aspects of this study are emphasized.

  20. unilateral idiopathic dilated episcleral vein with secondary open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    TO Otulana, OO Onabolu, VO Fafiolu. 22 flourescien angiography to exclude lesions of the vortex veins are all useful investigations to determine the aetiology of dilated episcleral vessels. Orbital ocular Doppler imaging is important in imaging orbital and ocular blood flow, especially in cases of fistula and varix.3, 13, 15, 17.

  1. Cerebral Vein Thrombosis Post Cabg Precipitated by Malposition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral venous thrombosis is an uncommon disorder in the general population. However, it has a higher frequency among patients younger than 40 years , patients with thrombophilia and patients that have foreign body such as catheter in their veins or arterial system. CASE DETAILS: In this case report, ...

  2. Clinical outcome of ovarian vein embolization in pelvic congestion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS), is a condition associated with ovarian vein (OV) incompetence among other causes. It is manifested by chronic pelvic pain with associated dyspareunia and dysmenorrhea. The diagnosis of PCS is often overlooked and the management can be difficult. Traditional therapy for ...

  3. Mortality in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Nynne; Gade, Else; Knudsen, Lars


    PURPOSE: To assess the impact of branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), a condition related to arteriolar wall thickening, as a prognostic marker of mortality. DESIGN: Long-term follow-up study comparing cases with background population. PARTICIPANTS: Patients diagnosed with BRVO. METHODS: Diagnos...

  4. Conservative Management of Azygous Vein Rupture in Blunt Thoracic Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cian McDermott


    Full Text Available We report a case of successful conservative management of acute traumatic rupture of the azygous vein. A 48-year-old male was involved in a motor vehicle collision. Primary survey revealed acute right intrathoracic haemorrhage. He remained haemodynamically stable with rapid infusion of warmed crystalloid solution and blood. Computed tomographic imaging showed a contained haematoma of the azygous vein. The patient was managed conservatively in the intensive care. Azygous vein laceration resulting from blunt thoracic trauma is a rare condition that carries a universally poor prognosis unless the appropriate treatment is instituted. Clinical features include acute hypovolaemic shock, widened mediastinum on chest radiograph, and a right-sided haemothorax. Haemodynamic collapse necessitates immediate resuscitative thoracotomy. Interest in this injury stems from the severity of the clinical condition, difficulty in diagnosis, the onset of a rapidly deteriorating clinical course all of which can be promptly reversed by timely and appropriate treatment. Although it is a rare cause of intramediastinal haemorrhage, it is proposed that a ruptured azygous vein should be considered in every trauma case causing a right-sided haemothorax or widened mediastinum. All cases described in the literature to date involved operative management. We present a case of successful conservative management of this condition.

  5. Cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis in elderly patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferro, José M.; Canhão, Patrícia; Bousser, Marie-Germaine; Stam, Jan; Barinagarrementeria, Fernando


    Backgound and Purpose - The clinical features and prognosis of cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis (CVT) in elderly patients have not been previously described. Methods - In a multicenter prospective observational study, we compared clinical and imaging features, risk factors, and outcome of

  6. Case Report: Supernumerary right renal vein draining inferior to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With recent increase in renal transplantations, renovascular reconstructions and imaging advances, meticulous knowledge of the normal and variant anatomy of the renal vasculature is important to avoid potential pitfalls. We report a case of an accessory renal vein arising from the right kidney, and draining into the inferior ...

  7. Sonographic assessment of the portal vein diameter in apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study found the mean values of PV diameter in apparently healthy adults in our environment to be 9.60 ±. 1.41mm and that PV diameter ... Keywords: Portal vein diameter, sonography, Nigerian population, healthy adults. ... architecture that leads to enlargement of extrahepatic and intrahepatic portal ...

  8. Abernethy malformation with portal vein aneurysm in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheragaru H Chandrashekhara


    Full Text Available Abernethy malformation is an extremely rare anomaly of the splanchnic venous system. We describe multidetector computed tomography findings of an incidentally detected Abernethy malformation with portal vein aneurysm in a two-and-half-year old child. The computed tomography scan was performed for the evaluation of respiratory distress, poor growth, and loss of appetite.

  9. Popliteal vein aneurysm | Ibirogba | South African Journal of Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most patients are asymptomatic, but the condition can present as an unusual source of fatal pulmonary embolism.2,3 Other symptomatic presentations include swelling in the popliteal fossa, local pain and the post-phlebitic syndrome. We present a case of an asymptomatic popliteal vein aneurysm detected on routine ...

  10. Online Resources Genome survey on invasive veined rapa whelk ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hao Song

    2011. High degree of multiple paternity in the viviparous Shiner Perch, Cymatogaster aggregata,. 193 a fish with long-term female sperm storage. ... Occurrence of imposex and seasonal patterns of gametogenesis in the. 201 invading veined rapa whelk Rapana venosa from Chesapeake Bay, USA. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser ...

  11. Anomalous Gonadal Arteries in Relation to the Renal Vein: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in ovarian arteries on the right side; 37 (64%) of testicular arteries and 3 (27%) of ovarian arteries on the left side. Partial occlusion or compression of the renal vein due to the arching gonadal arteries could result in varicocele and hypertension. The knowledge of such anomalous is useful in surgery and human anatomy

  12. [Diagnostic strategy in patients with clinically suspected deep vein thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantoni, Margit Yvonne; Kristensen, M.; Brogaard, M.H.


    INTRODUCTION: The standard method for diagnosing deep vein thrombosis (DVT) involves determination of D-dimer and ultrasound scanning. In an attempt to reduce the number of ultrasound examinations we have supplemented this with a clinical probability estimate for DVT (DVT-score) over one year...

  13. Evaluation of clinical model for deep vein thrombosis: a cheap ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Deep vein thrombosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The clinical features are non-specific and the clinical diagnosis is unreliable. The objective testing for the correct diagnosis is not usually available in most developing countries and the expertise are not readily available couple ...

  14. Prevalence of deep vein thrombosis and associated factors in adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) collectively referred to as venous thromboembolism (VTE) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. DVT is common in hospitalized patients with acute medical illness. Routine use of thromboprophylaxis has been shown to ...

  15. Ovarian vein thrombosis – a rare but important complication of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ovarian vein thrombosis is a rare but important complication of surgical procedures such as hysterectomy and oophorectomy. The clinical importance relates to the possible complications and requirement for lifelong anticoagulation. Radiological investigation is integral in making the diagnosis; in particular, computed ...

  16. Geology and geochemistry of giant quartz veins from the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The green colour is sometimes due to the presence of secondary epi- dote and chlorite. Very fine-grained green quartz similar to colloidal quartz is also observed in places. Quartz grains occurring within grey-coloured giant veins are highly strained in nature. A number of thin (up to 10cm; figure 3c) sub- vertical, milky white ...

  17. Corporoplasty with Saphenous Vein Graft in the Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ObjectivesThe aim of this study is to evaluate the use of the saphenous vein in grafting the tunica albuginea defect after excision/incision of Peyronie's plaque in cases of disabling penile deformity. Patients and MethodsA total of 12 patients with significant penile curvature due to Peyronie's disease interfering with their ...

  18. Association between clomiphene citrate and central retinal vein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is a common retinal vascular disorder associated with cardiovascular disorders and other related risk factors. A case of CRVO secondary to clomiphene citrate has been reported. We present a case that also illustrates the association between clomiphene citrate and CRVO, and hope ...

  19. Retinal vein occlusion in Benin City, Nigeria | Uhumwangho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is the most common occlusive retinal vascular disorder and results in varying degrees of visual loss. Aim: To determine the pattern of presentation, risk factors, and treatment outcomes in a group of patients with RVO seen in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: ...

  20. Pathogenetics of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szafranski, P.; Gambin, T.; Dharmadhikari, A.V.; Akdemir, K.C.; Jhangiani, S.N.; Schuette, J.; Godiwala, N.; Yatsenko, S.A.; Sebastian, J.; Madan-Khetarpal, S.; Surti, U.; Abellar, R.G.; Bateman, D.A.; Wilson, A.L.; Markham, M.H.; Slamon, J.; Santos-Simarro, F.; Palomares, M.; Nevado, J.; Lapunzina, P.; Chung, B.H.; Wong, W.L.; Chu, Y.W.; Mok, G.T.; Kerem, E.; Reiter, J.; Ambalavanan, N.; Anderson, S.A.; Kelly, D.R.; Shieh, J.; Rosenthal, T.C.; Scheible, K.; Steiner, L.; Iqbal, M.A.; McKinnon, M.L.; Hamilton, S.J.; Schlade-Bartusiak, K.; English, D.; Hendson, G.; Roeder, E.R.; DeNapoli, T.S.; Littlejohn, R.O.; Wolff, D.J.; Wagner, C.L.; Yeung, A.; Francis, D.; Fiorino, E.K.; Edelman, M.; Fox, J.; Hayes, D.A.; Janssens, S.; Baere, E. De; Menten, B.; Loccufier, A.; Vanwalleghem, L.; Moerman, P.; Sznajer, Y.; Lay, A.S.; Kussmann, J.L.; Chawla, J.; Payton, D.J.; Phillips, G.E.; Brosens, E.; Tibboel, D.; Klein, A.; Maystadt, I.; Fisher, R.; Sebire, N.; Male, A.; Chopra, M.; Pinner, J.; Malcolm, G.; Peters, G.; Arbuckle, S.; Lees, M.; Mead, Z.; Quarrell, O.; Sayers, R.; Owens, M.; Shaw-Smith, C.; Lioy, J.; McKay, E.; Leeuw, N. de; Feenstra, I.; Spruijt, L.; Elmslie, F.; Thiruchelvam, T.; Bacino, C.A.; Langston, C.; Lupski, J.R.; Sen, P.; Popek, E.; Stankiewicz, P.


    Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is a lethal lung developmental disorder caused by heterozygous point mutations or genomic deletion copy-number variants (CNVs) of FOXF1 or its upstream enhancer involving fetal lung-expressed long noncoding RNA genes

  1. A review of animal models for portal vein embolization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Floor; van Lienden, Krijn P.; Damude, Samantha; Hoekstra, Lisette T.; van Gulik, Thomas M.


    Portal vein embolization (PVE) is a preoperative intervention to increase the future remnant liver (FRL) through regeneration of the non-embolized liver lobes. This review assesses all the relevant animal models of PVE available, to guide researchers who intend to study PVE. We performed a

  2. Comorbidity in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Linneberg, Allan René; Rosenberg, Niels Thomas


    To evaluate comorbidity before and after the diagnosis of branch retinal vein occlusion to determine whether it is a consequence of arterial thickening and therefore could serve as a diagnostic marker for other comorbidities and to evaluate the risk factors for the development of such occlusion....

  3. Portal Vein Thrombosis in Sudanese Children | Sabir | Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Portal Vein Thrombosis (PVT) is one of the most common causes of portal hypertension among children in Sudan. Objectives: To determine the incidence, aetiology and mode of presentation of PVT among children and find its relation to gastrointestinal bleeding in a Sudanese hospital. Methodology: This is a ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa El-Karaksy


    Full Text Available Abdominal venous thrombosis may present as splanchnic venous thrombosis (SVT (occlusion of portal, splenic, superior or inferior mesenteric veins or Budd- Chiari Syndrome (BCS (thrombosis of inferior vena cava and/or hepatic veins. The aim of this review is to report the scanty data available for splanchnic vein thrombosis in the South Mediterranean area. In one Egyptian study, the possible circumstantial risk factors for portal vein thrombosis were found in 30% of cases:  19% neonatal sepsis, 8.7% umbilical catheterization, 6% severe gastroenteritis and dehydration. Another Egyptian study concluded that hereditary thrombophilia was common in children with PVT (62.5%, the commonest being factor V Leiden mutation (FVL (30%. Concurrence of more than one hereditary thrombophilia was not uncommon (12.5%. The first international publication on hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD in Egypt was in 1965 in children who rapidly develop abdominal distention with ascites and hepatomegaly. This disease was more frequent in malnourished children coming from rural areas; infusions given at home may contain noxious substances that were hepatotoxic and Infections might play a role. VOD of childhood is rarely seen nowadays. Data from South Mediterranean area are deficient and this may be attributable to reporting in local medical journals that are difficult to access. Medical societies concerned with this topic could help distribute this information.

  5. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on deep vein thrombosis seen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate the role of homocysteine metabolism due to Helicobacter pylori infection on the development of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients with Behcet's disease (BD). Design: Prospective clinical study. Setting: Teaching hospital. Subject: Fifty-five patients with BD divided into groups, with DVT and ...

  6. effect of helicobacter pylori infection on deep vein thrombosis seen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Objective: To investigate the role of homocysteine metabolism due to Helicobacter pylori infection on the development of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients with Behcet's disease (BD). Design: Prospective clinical study. Setting: Teaching hospital. Subject: Fifty-five patients with BD divided into groups, with DVT and ...

  7. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Varicose Veins? (United States)

    ... Examples of these factors include family history, older age, gender, pregnancy, overweight or obesity , lack of movement, and leg trauma. Varicose veins are treated with lifestyle changes and medical procedures. The goals of treatment are to relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and improve ...

  8. Stable Isotope Characteristics of Akiri Vein Copper Mineralization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Akiri vein copper mineralization was investigated for its carbon and oxygen isotopic composition to determine the characteristics of the mineralizing fluid. Carbon and oxygen isotope analyses of Akiri siderite range between δ13C values (-1.05 to -1.71‰) and δ13O values (-14.94 to -15.18) respectively. δ 13C isotopic ...

  9. Variant Anatomy of the External Jugular Vein | Olabu | Anatomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variant anatomy of the external jugular vein is important when performing invasive procedures in the neck. Although there are a number of case reports on some of these variations, there are few descriptive cross-sectional regarding the same. This study therefore aimed at describing the variant anatomy of the external ...

  10. Antenatal Deep Vein Thrombosis with an Underlying Thrombophilia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can cause severe morbidity in the puerperium and, less commonly, during pregnancy. A woman who developed DVT as a result of thrombophilia was successfully managed with anti-coagulant therapy. The case highlights the need for thrombophilia screening in pregnancy. Key Words: ...

  11. Classical varicose vein surgery in a diverse ethnic community. (United States)

    Murli, N L; Navin, I D


    Chronic venous disorders range from telangiactasia or spider veins to varicose veins, venous swellings, skin changes and venous ulcerations. The aim of this study is to assess outcome of varicose vein surgery in the ethnically diverse population of Penang, Malaysia. This study is a retrospective analysis of patients seen from 1999 to 2004. All patients who presented to the outpatient clinic of our surgical department with saphenofemoral junction (SFJ) and/or saphenopopliteal junction (SPJ) reflux associated with incompetence of the great saphenous vein (GSV) or small saphenous vein (SSV) respectively underwent classical varicose varicose vein surgery. A single surgeon at a single institution performed the surgeries. Data from pre-operative, post-operative and follow-up procedures were recorded in case report forms. A total of 202 cases were treated. Of these, 200 were qualified by the inclusion criteria and follow-ups, with 23 who were treated bilaterally. Of those treated, Chinese comprised 47.5%, Indians 27.0%, Malays 12.5% and foreigners 13.0% (largely Indonesian Chinese, British and Americans). The average age was 52.1 years. Indians had the highest average BMI of 29.2, compared to the Chinese who had the lowest of 24.6. Based on occupation, housewives (43.0%), blue collar workers (19.0%), salespersons (12.0%) and factory workers (9.5%) were among those afflicted with varicose veins. While local Chinese predominated in the business groups (salespersons and food-related workers), the Indians and Malays in this study were mainly factory workers and/or blue collar workers. Symptomatology in descending order of severity included pain in 80.0% of cases, swelling in 65.5%, heaviness in 53.5%, cramps in 53.0%, lipodermatosclerosis in 39.0%, superficial thrombophlebitis in 33.5%, venous ulceration in 32.0%, eczema 22.0% and cellulitis in 12.5% of patients. Post surgery pains dropped to 9.9%, cramps 6.4%, heaviness 5.5% and swelling 5.3% (p<0.0001 in all groups

  12. Percutaneous bail-out treatment of vein graft rupture with a polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent. (United States)

    Pavlidis, Antonios N; Karamasis, Grigorios V; Clapp, Brian R


    Vessel perforation is an undesirable and life-threatening complication during vein graft angioplasty. We report on a case of vein graft rupture during angioplasty, which was successfully managed with deployment of a polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent.

  13. Liver Regeneration After Portal Vein Embolization Using Absorbable and Permanent Embolization Materials in a Rabbit Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Esschert, Jacomina W.; van Lienden, Krijn P.; Alles, Lindy K.; van Wijk, Albert C.; Heger, Michal; Roelofs, Joris J.; van Gulik, Thomas M.


    Objective: To compare the safety and hypertrophy response after portal vein embolization (PVE) using 2 absorbable and 3 permanent embolization materials. Background: Portal vein embolization is used to increase future remnant liver volume preoperatively. Application of temporary, absorbable

  14. Nuclide Transport and Diffusion for Vein and Fracture Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heer, W


    Modelling radionuclide transport through crystalline rock is usually based on a small water flow in a system of narrow fractures. This flow is denoted as fracture flow. In our model, it implies planar water-conducting channels and adjacent zones of dominant matrix diffusion. According to the constitution of the rock, it can be necessary to consider additionally a vein flow being characterized by cylindrical water-conducting channels and adjacent zones of dominant matrix diffusion. Transport calculations, based on a dual porosity concept, were performed for vein as well as for fracture flow. An extensive discussion of the results provides an overview on important parameter dependencies and on the major vein flow effects. Formulae for quick estimates are given to guide quantitative interpretation of break-through curves. The discussion of analytical results for nuclide diffusion from a planar and from a cylindrical boundary backs up the comments on matrix diffusion. The following effects of vein flow onto the break-through curves are illustrative examples of useful findings: (1) The peak height can be very strongly reduced compared to fracture flow. The peak arrival time, however, is only slightly changed. (2) The asymptotic part of the tail is flatter than the well-known t{sup -3/2} decrease for fracture flow. (3) The bump at the end of the tail, generated by the limitation of the diffusion zones, is substantially larger than for fracture flow. A double-peak break-through curve, therefore, can emerge from many cases of nuclide transport. (4) Sorption on the surfaces of diffusion-accessible pores can substantially change the break-through curves. The vein to fracture flow ratios of the break-through peak data, however, remain essentially equal. This holds for the whole range of investigated retardation factors from 7 to 27'000. The investigations presented contribute to sophisticated interpretations of break-through curves and improve the physical understanding

  15. Extrahepatic Portal Vein Obstruction in Children: Role of Preoperative Imaging. (United States)

    Achar, Shashidhar; Dutta, Hemonta Kumar; Gogoi, Rudra Kanta


    Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) is characterized by features of recent thrombosis or portal hypertension with portal cavernoma as a sequel of portal vein obstruction. Imaging of spleno-portal axis is the mainstay for the diagnosis of EHPVO. The aim of this study is to analyze the role of imaging in the preoperative assessment of the portal venous system in children with EHPVO. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted on twenty children with EHPVO aged between 1 and 18 years over a period of 1 year. The children were evaluated clinically, followed by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Radiological assessment included imaging of the main portal vein, its right and left branches, splenic vein, and superior mesenteric vein using color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUSG) and magnetic resonance portovenogram (MRP). Evidence of portal biliopathy, status of collaterals, and possible sites for portosystemic shunt surgery were also examined. All the patients presented in chronic stage with portal cavernoma and only one patient (5%) had bland thrombus associated with cavernoma. The CDUSG and MRPs had a sensitivity of 66.6-90% and 96.7% and specificity of 91.5% and 98.3% respectively with regard to the assessment of the extent of thrombus formation and flow in the portal venous system. Both the modalities were found to be complementary to each other in preoperative assessment of EHPVO. However, the sensitivity of MRP was slightly superior to CDUSG in detecting occlusion and identifying portosystemic collaterals and dilated intrahepatic biliary radicals. Results of the present study indicate that MRP is well suited and superior to CDUSG in the preoperative imaging of patients with EHPVO.

  16. Feasibility of laparoscopic portal vein ligation prior to major hepatectomy. (United States)

    Are, C; Iacovitti, S; Prete, F; Crafa, F M


    Patients noted to have an inadequate future liver remnant on pre operative volumetric assessment are considered to be candidates for portal vein embolization (PVE). A subset of patients undergo laparoscopic intervention prior to PVE for staging purposes or to address the primary in Stage IV colon cancer. These patients usually undergo PVE as a subsequent additional procedure by the transhepatic route. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of portal vein ligation by the laparoscopic approach in suitable patients. A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was performed to identify patients that underwent laparoscopic portal vein ligation (LPVL). The demographic, clinical, radiographic, operative and volumetric details were collected to determine the feasibility of portal vein ligation. A total of nine patients underwent LPVL as part of a two stage procedure in preparation for subsequent major hepatectomy. With a median age of 67 yrs, the diagnoses included: colorectal metastasis (five patients), cholangiocarcinoma (three patients) and hepatocellular carcinoma (one patient). The ligation involved the right portal vein in all and was performed with silk ligature (seven patients) and clips (two patients). Volumetric data was available in six patients which showed a mean increase from 209.1 cc+/-97.76 to 495.83 cc+/-310.91 (increase by 181.5%) In two patients, inadequate hypertrophy mandated later embolization by percutaneous technique. Five patients underwent subsequent major hepatic resection as planned. The remaining four patients were noted to have progression of disease that precluded the planned procedure. There were no complications associated with LPVL. LPVL is feasible and can be safely performed. In a select group of patients, it may be considered as an alternative to subsequent embolization and thereby potentially absolve the need for an additional procedure with its attendant complications.

  17. Superficial peripheral vein type classification of adolescents, adults and elderly according to the Delphi technique


    Cristina Arreguy-Sena; Emilia Campos de Carvalho


    This descriptive research attempts to cooperate with the standardization of communication about vein types in Nursing. Authors utilized the "Delphi" technique and aimed at elaborating and validating a peripheral vein type classification of adolescents/adults/elderly according to their vein characteristics. Initially, authors identified different vein types in literature. This was a preliminary classification that contained the titles and definitions, which were complemented during the expert ...

  18. Variations in Draining Patterns of Right Pulmonary Veins at the Hilum and an Anatomical Classification


    Rajeshwari, M. S.; Ranganath, Priya


    Pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. Variations are quite common in the pattern of drainage. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence of different draining patterns of the right pulmonary veins at the hilum by dissecting the human fixed cadaveric lungs. Clinically, pulmonary veins have been demonstrated to often play an important role in generating atrial fibrillation. Hence, it is important to look into the anatomy of the veins during MR...

  19. Leaf hydraulic conductance varies with vein anatomy across A rabidopsis thaliana wild-type and leaf vein mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caringella, M.A.; Bongers, F.J.; Sack, L.


    Leaf venation is diverse across plant species and has practical applications from paleobotany to modern agriculture. However, the impact of vein traits on plant performance has not yet been tested in a model system such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies analysed cotyledons of A. thaliana

  20. Risk factors for upper limb deep vein thrombosis associated with the use of central vein catheter in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verso, Melina; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Ageno, Walter; Bazzan, Mario; Lazzaro, Antonio; Paoletti, Francesco; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Mosca, Stefano; Bertoglio, Sergio


    Deep vein thrombosis of upper limb is a common complication of CVC in patients with cancer. In these patients the risk factors for CVC-related thrombosis are not completely defined. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for CVC-related thrombosis in patients included in a

  1. Endovenous laser ablation of great saphenous vein and perforator veins improves venous stasis ulcer healing. (United States)

    Abdul-Haqq, Ryan; Almaroof, Babatunde; Chen, Brian L; Panneton, Jean M; Parent, F Noel


    We sought to compare the outcomes of endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) of the great saphenous vein (GSV) to EVLA of the GSV and calf incompetent perforator veins (IPVs) in management of venous stasis ulcers (VSUs). A retrospective review of patients with active VSUs (clinical, etiology, anatomy, and pathophysiology [CEAP] classification C6) that received EVLA of the GSV or combined EVLA of the GSV and IPV between May 2005 and May 2010 was completed. Primary outcomes measured include ulcer healing and a change in the venous clinical severity score (VCSS). Secondary end points included complications, ulcer recurrence rate, and time to ulcer healing. Ninety-five patients (108 limbs) met inclusion criteria with active VSU (CEAP classification C6) before ablation. The average age was 58 years, with a male predominance (61%). Seventy-eight patients (91 limbs) were treated with EVLA of the GSV alone. Subgroup analysis revealed that 46 of 91 limbs (35 patients) had GSV reflux only (group 1) and 45 of 91 limbs (43 patients) had underlying IPV (group 2). Seventeen patients (17 limbs) underwent combined EVLA of the GSV and IPV (group 3). VSU healing (CEAP classification C5) occurred in 21 of 46 limbs (46%) in group 1, 15 of 45 limbs (33%) in group 2, and 12 of 17 limbs (71%) in group 3. A comparison of ulcer healing between groups 1 and 2 and between groups 1 and 3 revealed no significant difference (Fisher's exact test; P = 0.285 and P = 0.095, respectively). However, there was a significant difference in ulcer healing between groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.011). Group 1 ulcers healed in an average of 14.8 weeks, group 2 ulcers in 11.2 weeks, and group 3 in 13.2 weeks (analysis of variance; P = 0.918). Postoperative complications occurred in 7 limbs (15%) in group 1, 5 limbs (11%) in group 2, and 3 (18%) limbs in group 3. Recurrence of VSU occurred in 2 limbs (4%) in group 1, 5 limbs in group 2 (11%), and in no limbs in group 3 (Fisher's exact test; P = 0.676). Mean follow-up was 16

  2. Diagnostic efficacy of impedance plethysmography for clinically suspected deep-vein thrombosis. A randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hull, R. D.; Hirsh, J.; Carter, C. J.; Jay, R. M.; Ockelford, P. A.; Buller, H. R.; Turpie, A. G.; Powers, P.; Kinch, D.; Dodd, P. E.


    Impedance plethysmography is an accurate noninvasive method to test for proximal vein thrombosis, but it is insensitive to calf-vein thrombi. We randomly assigned patients on referral with clinically suspected deep-vein thrombosis and normal impedance plethysmographic findings to either serial

  3. Delay in the Diagnosis of Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus Thrombosis Influence on Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferro, José M.; Canhão, Patrícia; Stam, Jan; Bousser, Marie-Germaine; Barinagarrementeria, Fernando; Massaro, Ayrton; Ducrocq, Xavier; Kasner, Scott E.


    Background and Purpose-Diagnostic delay of cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis may have an impact on outcome. Methods-In the International Study on Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus Thrombosis (ISCVT) cohort (624 patients with cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis), we analyzed the predictors

  4. Saphenous vein covered stenting for right coronary artery lesion containing thrombus. (United States)

    Joseph, D; Bashi, V V; Guhathakurtha, S; Harilal, H; Jacob, A; George, T; Suguna, S


    Vein covered stenting to close coronary pseudoaneurysm and perforation and in the setting of acute myocardial infarction have been described. This case report describes saphenous vein covered stenting to exclude a large thrombus in a right coronary artery lesion. Vein covered stenting may be considered as an option when dealing with a thrombus containing lesion.

  5. Pulmonary vein region ablation in experimental vagal atrial fibrillation: role of pulmonary veins versus autonomic ganglia. (United States)

    Lemola, Kristina; Chartier, Denis; Yeh, Yung-Hsin; Dubuc, Marc; Cartier, Raymond; Armour, Andrew; Ting, Michael; Sakabe, Masao; Shiroshita-Takeshita, Akiko; Comtois, Philippe; Nattel, Stanley


    Pulmonary vein (PV) -encircling radiofrequency ablation frequently is effective in vagal atrial fibrillation (AF), and there is evidence that PVs may be particularly prone to cholinergically induced arrhythmia mechanisms. However, PV ablation procedures also can affect intracardiac autonomic ganglia. The present study examined the relative role of PVs versus peri-PV autonomic ganglia in an experimental vagal AF model. Cholinergic AF was studied under carbachol infusion in coronary perfused canine left atrial PV preparations in vitro and with cervical vagal stimulation in vivo. Carbachol caused dose-dependent AF promotion in vitro, which was not affected by excision of all PVs. Sustained AF could be induced easily in all dogs during vagal nerve stimulation in vivo both before and after isolation of all PVs with encircling lesions created by a bipolar radiofrequency ablation clamp device. PV elimination had no effect on atrial effective refractory period or its responses to cholinergic stimulation. Autonomic ganglia were identified by bradycardic and/or tachycardic responses to high-frequency subthreshold local stimulation. Ablation of the autonomic ganglia overlying all PV ostia suppressed the effective refractory period-abbreviating and AF-promoting effects of cervical vagal stimulation, whereas ablation of only left- or right-sided PV ostial ganglia failed to suppress AF. Dominant-frequency analysis suggested that the success of ablation in suppressing vagal AF depended on the elimination of high-frequency driver regions. Intact PVs are not needed for maintenance of experimental cholinergic AF. Ablation of the autonomic ganglia at the base of the PVs suppresses vagal responses and may contribute to the effectiveness of PV-directed ablation procedures in vagal AF.

  6. Computed tomography findings in 10 cases of iliac vein compression (May-Thurner) syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguzkurt, Levent [Baskent University, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey)]. E-mail:; Tercan, Fahri [Baskent University, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey); Pourbagher, M. Ali [Baskent University, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey); Kizilkilic, Osman [Baskent University, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey); Turkoz, Riza [Baskent University, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Adana (Turkey); Boyvat, Fatih [Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)


    Objective: To present the computed tomography (CT) findings for the iliac veins of 10 patients who had left-sided lower extremity deep vein thrombosis due to iliac vein compression syndrome. Materials and methods: The CT findings for 10 cases of left-sided acute or chronic deep vein thrombosis caused by iliac vein compression syndrome were retrospectively evaluated. The patients were five women and five men (mean age {+-} S.D., 49.9 {+-} 15.6 years). In each patient with iliac vein compression syndrome, the diagnosis of the compression was established by venography performed during endovascular treatment. Diameter of the left common iliac vein was also measured in 14 control subjects without any lower extremity venous disease for comparison. Results: In all 10 cases, CT images in the transverse plane demonstrated the left common iliac vein being compressed by the overlying right common iliac artery. The mean diameter at the origin of the left common iliac vein (3.5 mm) in patients group was much smaller than the mean diameter of the same vein (11.5 mm) in the control group (p < 0.01). The mean percent stenosis of the left common iliac vein due to compression by the artery was 68%. Conclusion: Pelvic CT images in the transverse plane are useful for detecting iliac vein compression by the overlying right common iliac artery in patients with left-sided deep vein thrombosis. Radiologists should be aware of this imaging finding of iliac vein compression by the artery where the inferior vena cava bifurcates into the common iliac veins.

  7. Hepatic caudate vein in Budd-Chiari syndrome: Depiction by using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Wei [Department of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, Sichuan 637000 (China); Zhang Xiaoming, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, Sichuan 637000 (China); Yang Lin [Department of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, Sichuan 637000 (China); Mitchell, Donald G. [Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, 132 S 10th Street, 1094 Main Bldg, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Zeng Nanlin; Zhai Zhaohua [Department of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, Sichuan 637000 (China)


    Objective: To study the visibility of the caudate vein and its diameter on MR imaging in healthy people and in patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome. Materials and methods: In this study there were 14 patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome and 54 healthy subjects without hepatic lesion or liver disease, all of whom had upper abdominal enhanced MRI. The visibility of the caudate vein and its diameter on MR images was compared between Budd-Chiari patients and healthy subjects, and among Budd-Chiari patients, the correlation between the visibility of caudate vein and extrahepatic collaterals were compared. Results: Caudate vein was noted in 64% of patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome and in 7% of healthy subjects (P = 0.000). The diameter of the caudate vein visualized on MR imaging in Budd-Chiari syndrome was significantly larger than that in healthy group (7.3 {+-} 3.9 mm vs 2.6 {+-} 0.6 mm, P = 0.037). Among Budd-Chiari patients, both caudate vein and extrahepatic collateral veins were noted in 9 patients, only extrahepatic collateral veins were noted in 4 patients and neither caudate vein nor extrahepatic collateral veins were noted in 1 patient. No correlation was found between the visibility of caudate vein and that of extrahepatic collateral vein in patients with Budd-Chiari (P = 0.375). Conclusion: Gadolinium enhanced dynamic MR imaging can visualize hepatic caudate vein frequently. The visibility and dilation of hepatic caudate veins on MR imaging in Budd-Chiari syndrome were more frequent than in control subjects. MR depiction of a caudate vein may help differentiate Budd-Chiari from cirrhosis.

  8. A Case Study of Deep Vein Thrombosis of the Right Internal Jugular Vein in a Healthy 21-Year-Old Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Corral


    Full Text Available We are reporting a case of a healthy 21-year-old male, with no significant past medical history, who was found to have an incidental nonocclusive deep vein thrombosis in the right internal jugular vein detected on a head MRI previously ordered for work-up of headaches. A follow-up upper extremity venous Doppler ultrasound confirmed the presence of a partially occlusive deep vein thrombosis in the right jugular vein. The case presented is unique for the reason that the patient is young and has no prior risk factor, personal or familial, for venous thrombosis except for associated polycythemia on clinical presentation.

  9. Retro-Aortic Inverted Left Renal Vein: A Rare Anomaly Found in a Renal Donor


    Sabouri, Sofia; Hosseini, Ashrafsadat; Shivaei, Seyedeh Shirin


    Awareness of the renal vascular anatomy including variants of the renal vein is important for abdominal and renal surgeries, such as renal transplantation. The complex embryological development of the renal vein results in the following variations: additional renal veins on the left side, circum-aortic renal collar and retro-aortic renal veins. In this report, we present a case of a 35-year-old renal donor who had a rare renal vein anomaly that had been shown by computed tomography (CT) angio...

  10. Relationship between Specific Distributions of Isolated Soleal Vein Thrombosis and Risk Factors (United States)

    Ohgi, Nagako


    Objective: The relationship between specific distributions of isolated soleal vein thrombosis (SVT) and risk factors was investigated. Subjects and Methods: The subjects included 93 patients with SVT diagnosed with ultrasonography. Results: In the acute thrombus distribution, the thrombi of central veins were significantly more frequent than the thrombi of medial veins in the unilateral SVT. The thrombi of central veins were not more significantly frequent than the thrombi of medial veins in the bilateral SVT. Conclusion: The risk factors of bilateral SVT are considered to be different from that of the unilateral SVT. (*English translation of J Jpn Coll Angiol 2013; 53: 159-166) PMID:25298825

  11. Anatomical variation of thyroid veins on contrast-enhanced multi-detector row computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Hayato, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Yokohama City Seibu Hospital, 1197-1 Yasashicho, Asahi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 241-0811 (Japan); Yamada, Takayuki; Murakami, Kenji; Hashimoto, Kazuki; Tazawa, Yoko; Kumano, Reiko [Department of Radiology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Yokohama City Seibu Hospital, 1197-1 Yasashicho, Asahi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 241-0811 (Japan); Nakajima, Yasuo [Department of Radiology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1 Sugao, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 216-8511 (Japan)


    Highlights: • This is the first study to demonstrate the anatomy of thyroid veins on contrasted-enhanced MDCT. • Identifying the thyroid vein on MDCT prior to selective venous sampling of parathyroid hormone provides clinical information to interventional radiologist. • Detecting especially the inferior thyroid veins with individual variability in numbers, locations, and lengths may have an effect on SVS for HPT and decrease the difficulty and time of the procedure. - Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study was to clarify the anatomical variation of thyroid veins into the systemic vein using contrast-enhanced multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT). Design and methods: : The subjects were 80 patients (34 males and 46 females; mean age, 50.1 years; age range, 15–92 years) with neck diseases who underwent MDCT. The number and location of inflow points of the thyroid veins into the systemic vein, and the length from the junction of bilateral brachiocephalic veins to the orifice of inferior thyroid vein were investigated by reviewing the axial and coronal images. Results: All superior thyroid veins were detected. Right and left middle thyroid veins were identified in 39 and 29 patients, respectively. Right inferior thyroid veins, left inferior thyroid veins, and common trunks were detected in 43, 46, and 39 patients, respectively; in five patients, two left thyroid veins were identified. All left inferior thyroid veins and 34 common trunks flowed into the innominate vein, while right ones had some variations in inflow sites. Mean lengths were 3.01 ± 1.30 cm (range, 0.5–6.19) and 2.04 ± 0.91 cm (0.5–4.4) in the left inferior thyroid vein and common trunk, and 1.96 ± 1.05 cm (0.81–4.8) and 1.65 ± 0.69 cm (0.63–2.94) in the right one flowing into the right internal jugular vein and the innominate vein, respectively. Conclusions: The numbers and orifices of thyroid veins were identified at high rates on contrast-enhanced MDCT. This

  12. Internal jugular vein: Peripheral vein adrenocorticotropic hormone ratio in patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent Cushing′s syndrome: Ratio calculated from one adrenocorticotropic hormone sample each from right and left internal jugular vein during corticotrophin releasing hormone stimulation test

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    Sachin Chittawar


    Full Text Available Background: Demonstration of central: Peripheral adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH gradient is important for diagnosis of Cushing′s disease. Aim: The aim was to assess the utility of internal jugular vein (IJV: Peripheral vein ACTH ratio for diagnosis of Cushing′s disease. Materials and Methods: Patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing′s syndrome (CS patients were the subjects for this study. One blood sample each was collected from right and left IJV following intravenous hCRH at 3 and 5 min, respectively. A simultaneous peripheral vein sample was also collected with each IJV sample for calculation of IJV: Peripheral vein ACTH ratio. IJV sample collection was done under ultrasound guidance. ACTH was assayed using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA. Results: Thirty-two patients participated in this study. The IJV: Peripheral vein ACTH ratio ranged from 1.07 to 6.99 ( n = 32. It was more than 1.6 in 23 patients. Cushing′s disease could be confirmed in 20 of the 23 cases with IJV: Peripheral vein ratio more than 1.6. Four patients with Cushing′s disease and 2 patients with ectopic ACTH syndrome had IJV: Peripheral vein ACTH ratio less than 1.6. Six cases with unknown ACTH source were excluded for calculation of sensitivity and specificity of the test. Conclusion: IJV: Peripheral vein ACTH ratio calculated from a single sample from each IJV obtained after hCRH had 83% sensitivity and 100% specificity for diagnosis of CD.

  13. The pathology of facial vein blood sampling in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ket; Harslund, Jakob le Fèvre; Bollen, Peter


    vein blood sampling. Therefore, we investigated if this technique was associated with pathological changes of the jaw region. Methods: 43 NMRI mice were subjected to facial vein blood sampling by using the lancet method during 12 months, starting at the age of 8 weeks. The mice were restrained manually......, and the tissue of the jaw was evaluated. Results: In the 23 mice, from which blood samples had been taken 2 days previously, 5 mice had no signs of gross pathological changes, whereas 12 mice had signs of minimal local subcutaneous bleeding and 6 mice had moderate local subcutaneous bleeding. No additional gross...... pathological changes were observed. In the 23 mice, from which blood samples had been taken 4 weeks earlier, no hemorrhage or signs of scar tissue formation could be observed. Histological slides are currently being processed (HE staining) and will be evaluated and discussed....

  14. Deep Vein Thrombosis Provoked by Inferior Vena Cava Agenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raad A. Haddad


    Full Text Available Inferior vena cava agenesis (IVCA is a rare congenital anomaly that can be asymptomatic or present with vague, nonspecific symptoms, such as abdominal or lower back pain, or deep vein thrombosis (DVT. Here, we present a 55-year-old male who came with painless swelling and redness of his left lower limb. On examination, swelling and redness were noted extending from the left foot to the upper thigh; it was also warm compared to his right lower limb. Venous Doppler ultrasound was done which showed DVT extending up to the common femoral vein. Subsequently, computed-tomography (CT of the chest and abdomen was done to exclude malignancy or venous flow obstruction; it revealed congenital absence (agenesis of the infrarenal inferior vena cava (IVC.

  15. [Management of deep-vein thrombosis: A 2015 update]. (United States)

    Messas, E; Wahl, D; Pernod, G


    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a frequent and multifactor disease, with two major complications, post thrombotic syndrome and pulmonary embolism. Both transient (surgery, plaster immobilization, bed rest/hospitalization) and chronic/persistent (age, cancer, clinical or biological thrombophilia…) risk factors modulate treatment duration. Diagnostic management relies on clinical evaluations, probability followed by laboratory tests or imaging. So far, compression ultrasound is the diagnostic test of choice to make a positive diagnosis of DVT. Anticoagulants at therapeutic dose for at least 3 months constitute the cornerstones of proximal (i.e. involving popliteal or more proximal veins) DVT therapeutic management. The arrival of new oral anticoagulants should optimize ambulatory management of DVT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis presenting as ureteral obstruction. (United States)

    Kolluru, Anuradha; Lattupalli, Rakesh; Kanwar, Manreet; Behera, Deepak; Kamalakannan, Desikan; Beeai, Muhammed K


    Ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT) is a relatively uncommon but serious postpartum complication. Although infrequent, OVT may progress to involve the inferior vena cava, the renal vein or may cause sepsis and septic pulmonary embolism, all of which are potentially life-threatening. Clinical misdiagnosis is common, and, unfortunately, most affected women undergo laparotomy for possible appendicitis. We present an interesting case of OVT presenting as ureteral obstruction in a postpartum woman who was in her early 20s. Knowledge of this entity and clinical suspicion for its occurrence, in a puerperal patient with fever and abdominal pain not responding to antibiotics, should guide clinicians to appropriate diagnosis and treatment, avoiding misdiagnosis, unnecessary laparotomy and potential complications.

  17. Subclavian vein aneurysm secondary to a benign vessel wall hamartoma

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    Warren, Patrick [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Section of Pediatric Interventional Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States); Spaeth, Maya [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Columbus, OH (United States); Prasad, Vinay [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Section of Pediatric Pathology, Columbus, OH (United States); McConnell, Patrick [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Section of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Columbus, OH (United States)


    Venous aneurysms are rare clinical entities, particularly in children, and their presentation and natural history often depend on the anatomical location and underlying etiology. We present a single case of a 12-year-old girl who presented with a palpable right supraclavicular mass. Imaging evaluation with CT, conventional venography, MRI and sonography revealed a large fusiform subclavian vein aneurysm with an unusual, mass-like fibrofatty component incorporated into the vessel wall. The girl ultimately required complete resection of the right subclavian vein with placement of a synthetic interposition graft. This case provides a radiology/pathology correlation of an entity that has not previously been described as well as an example of the utility of multiple imaging modalities to aid diagnosis and preoperative planning. (orig.)

  18. Spontaneous Rupture of Uterine Vein in Twin Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emek Doger


    Full Text Available Objective. Aim of our study is to present a case of a twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complicated with hemoperitoneum at third trimester. Case. A 26-year-old nulliparous pregnant woman at 32 weeks of gestation with twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complained of abdominal pain. After 48 hours of admission, laparotomy was performed with indications of aggravated abdominal pain and decreased hemoglobin levels. Utero-ovarian vein branch rupture was detected on the right posterior side of uterus and bleeding was stopped by suturing the vein. Etiopathogenesis of the present case still remains unclear. Conclusion. Spontaneous rupture of the uterine vessels during pregnancy is a rare complication and may lead to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis and treatment are based on the clinical symptoms of acute abdominal pain and laboratory tests of hypovolemic shock signs.

  19. Complications associated with radiofrequency ablation of pulmonary veins. (United States)

    Madrid Pérez, J M; García Barquín, P M; Villanueva Marcos, A J; García Bolao, J I; Bastarrika Alemañ, G

    Radiofrequency ablation is an efficacious alternative in patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation who do not respond to or are intolerant to at least one class I or class III antiarrhythmic drug. Although radiofrequency ablation is a safe procedure, complications can occur. Depending on the location, these complications can be classified into those that affect the pulmonary veins themselves, cardiac complications, extracardiac intrathoracic complications, remote complications, and those that result from vascular access. The most common complications are hematomas, arteriovenous fistulas, and pseudoaneurysms at the puncture site. Some complications are benign and transient, such as gastroparesis or diaphragmatic elevation, whereas others are potentially fatal, such as cardiac tamponade. Radiologists must be familiar with the complications that can occur secondary to pulmonary vein ablation to ensure early diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. A review of the anatomy and clinical significance of adrenal veins. (United States)

    Cesmebasi, Alper; Du Plessis, Maira; Iannatuono, Mark; Shah, Sameer; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios


    The adrenal veins may present with a multitude of anatomical variants, which surgeons must be aware of when performing adrenalectomies. The adrenal veins originate during the formation of the prerenal inferior vena cava (IVC) and are remnants of the caudal portion of the subcardinal veins, cranial to the subcardinal sinus in the embryo. The many communications between the posterior cardinal, supracardinal, and subcardinal veins of the primordial venous system provide an explanation for the variable anatomy. Most commonly, one central vein drains each adrenal gland. The long left adrenal vein joins the inferior phrenic vein and drains into the left renal vein, while the short right adrenal vein drains immediately into the IVC. Multiple variations exist bilaterally and may pose the risk of surgical complications. Due to the potential for collaterals and accessory adrenal vessels, great caution must be taken during an adrenalectomy. Adrenal venous sampling, the gold standard in diagnosing primary hyperaldosteronism, also requires the clinician to have a thorough knowledge of the adrenal vein anatomy to avoid iatrogenic injury. The adrenal vein acts as an important conduit in portosystemic shunts, thus the nature of the anatomy and hypercoagulable states pose the risk of thrombosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Morphology of congenital portosystemic shunts involving the left colic vein in dogs and cats. (United States)

    White, R N; Parry, A T


    To describe the anatomy of congenital portosystemic shunts involving the left colic vein in dogs and cats. Retrospective review of a consecutive series of dogs and cats managed for congenital portosystemic shunts. For inclusion a shunt involving the left colic vein with recorded intraoperative mesenteric portovenography or computed tomography angiography along with direct gross surgical observations at the time of surgery was required. Six dogs and three cats met the inclusion criteria. All cases had a shunt which involved a distended left colic vein. The final communication with a systemic vein was variable; in seven cases (five dogs, two cats) it was via the caudal vena cava, in one cat it was via the common iliac vein and in the remaining dog it was via the internal iliac vein. In addition, two cats showed caudal vena cava duplication. The morphology of this shunt type appeared to be a result of an abnormal communication between either the left colic vein or the cranial rectal vein and a pelvic systemic vein (caudal vena cava, common iliac vein or internal iliac vein). This information may help with surgical planning in cases undergoing shunt closure surgery. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  2. Cranial dural arteriovenous shunts. Part 1. Anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins. (United States)

    Baltsavias, Gerasimos; Parthasarathi, Venkatraman; Aydin, Emre; Al Schameri, Rahman A; Roth, Peter; Valavanis, Anton


    We reviewed the anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins aiming to elucidate aspects related to the cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae. Data from relevant articles on the anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins were identified using one electronic database, supplemented by data from selected reference texts. Persisting fetal pial-arachnoidal veins correspond to the adult bridging veins. Relevant embryologic descriptions are based on the classic scheme of five divisions of the brain (telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, myelencephalon). Variation in their exact position and the number of bridging veins is the rule and certain locations, particularly that of the anterior cranial fossa and lower posterior cranial fossa are often neglected in prior descriptions. The distal segment of a bridging vein is part of the dural system and can be primarily involved in cranial dural arteriovenous lesions by constituting the actual site of the shunt. The veins in the lamina cribriformis exhibit a bridging-emissary vein pattern similar to the spinal configuration. The emissary veins connect the dural venous system with the extracranial venous system and are often involved in dural arteriovenous lesions. Cranial dural shunts may develop in three distinct areas of the cranial venous system: the dural sinuses and their interfaces with bridging veins and emissary veins. The exact site of the lesion may dictate the arterial feeders and original venous drainage pattern.

  3. Two distinct assemblages of high-pressure liquidus phases in shock veins of the Sixiangkou meteorite (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Xie, Xiande


    Shock-produced complex veins, including earlier and later veins, are identified in the Sixiangkou L6 chondrite. The early vein is intersected by the late vein and consists of coarse-grained aggregates of ringwoodite, majorite, and lingunite, and fragments of olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, metal, and troilite, as well as a fine-grained matrix of garnet, ringwoodite, metal, and troilite. The late vein mainly consists of a fine-grained matrix of garnet, magnesiowüstite, metal, and troilite, as well as a small amount of coarse-grained aggregates. The amount of fine-grained matrix suggests that the late vein was nearly completely melted, whereas the early vein underwent partial melting. Both fine-grained assemblages of garnet plus ringwoodite in the early vein and garnet plus magnesiowüstite in the late vein are liquidus phases crystallized from shock-induced melt. Based on our understanding of the liquidus assemblages, the late vein experienced a higher pressure and temperature than the early vein.

  4. Comparison of the visualisation of the subclavian and axillary veins: An ultrasound study in healthy volunteers. (United States)

    Roger, Claire; Sadek, Meriem; Bastide, Sophie; Jeannes, Pascal; Muller, Laurent; Bobbia, Xavier; Lefrant, Jean-Yves


    To compare the area of the lumen of the axillary and subclavian veins using ultrasound (US) in 50 healthy volunteers. Using an ultrasound device, depth, area, short axis vein length and long axis vein, vein-artery and vein-pleura distances were measured for axillary and subclavian approaches. The mean cross-sectional area of the axillary vein was greater than the mean cross-sectional area of the subclavian vein (327±89 mm(2) versus 124±46 mm(2), Pvisualised in 3 and 45 volunteers, respectively (Pvisualisation of the axillary vein under US is greater than that for the subclavian vein, mainly due to a better alignment with the long axis of the axillary vein leading to a greater cross-sectional area of the axillary vein. NCT01647815. Copyright © 2016 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Arteriovenous fistulas aggravate the hemodynamic effect of vein bypass stenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina G; Djurhuus, Christian Born; Morre-Pedersen, Erik


    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of arteriovenous fistulas combined with varying degrees of stenosis on distal bypass hemodynamics and Doppler spectral parameters. METHODS: In an in vitro flow model bypass stenoses causing 30%, 55%, and 70% diameter reduction were induced...... hemodynamic conditions of a more severe stenosis. Assessment of the hemodynamic impact of fistulas must be undertaken in the evaluation of in situ vein bypass stenoses....

  6. Saphenous vein thrombophlebitis (SVT): a deceptively benign disease. (United States)

    Hanson, J N; Ascher, E; DePippo, P; Lorensen, E; Scheinman, M; Yorkovich, W; Hingorani, A


    The association between deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and the hypercoagulable state is a well-established entity. However, the association between saphenous vein thrombophlebitis and coagulation abnormalities has not been investigated. Although thrombosis of varicose veins typically runs a benign course, phlebitis of the saphenous system may propagate to the deep system or saphenofemoral junction that requires more aggressive therapy. Given the potential similarity in clinical outcome between saphenous vein thrombophlebitis (SVT) and DVT, we have investigated the coagulation profile of patients presenting with isolated SVT. Seventeen consecutive patients who presented to our vascular laboratory with isolated SVT had a coagulation profile performed that included antithrombin III (AT III), protein C (PC), protein S (PS) antigen and activity levels, activated protein C (APC) resistance, factor V DNA mutation, and coagulation factors II and X. All patients had duplex scans performed on both the superficial and deep venous systems. Patients with SVT only were treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and warm soaks as outpatients, whereas those patients found to have DVT or a clot at the saphenofemoral junction were fully anticoagulated with heparin and coumadin therapy. All 17 patients had at least one repeat coagulation profile performed up to 5 months after their SVT occurrence to ensure that the results of hypercoagulability were not transient. Ten (59%) of the 17 patients with SVT had abnormal coagulation profiles on initial presentation. All 10 patients who were hypercoagulable had repeat tests and 6 (35%) remained abnormal. Four patients who had abnormal results converted to normal values. Seven patients with normal coagulation profiles on initial presentation had repeat tests and all remained normal. The incidence of the hypercoagulable state in patients with SVT is high. Thirty-five percent of patients with isolated SVT had consistently abnormal

  7. Hepatic Vein and IVC Thrombosis in Liver Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatraman Indiran


    Full Text Available Liver abscess, due to amebic or pyogenic etiology, is a relatively common cause of right upper quadrant pain in the tropical countries. Imaging techniques, serological tests, image guided interventional procedures and appropriate therapeutic regimens have significantly reduced mortality; yet the disease is associated with many complications and can be fatal if untreated. Here we describe hepatic vein and Inferior Vena Cava (IVC thrombosis which is one of the rarer complications of liver abscess.

  8. MR Venography of the Central Veins of the Thorax. (United States)

    Cline, Brendan; Hurwitz, Lynne M; Kim, Charles Y


    While imaging of the central venous system has traditionally been performed with conventional venography, MR venography (MRV) has emerged as an important modality as techniques and validation studies have evolved over time. While magnetic resonance angiography has a very robust representation in the literature, the proportion representing MRV is relatively sparse. The purpose of this article is to review the indications, techniques, and dedicated studies validating MRV of the central veins of the thorax.

  9. A Rare Complication of Acute Appendicitis: Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Koncoro


    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric vein (SMV thrombosis caused by acute appendicitis is quite rare nowadays. These conditions occurs secondary to infection in the region drained by the portal venous system. In this case, we report a successfully treated case of SMV thrombosis and liver abscess associated with appendicitis with antibiotics and anticoagulant.Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are basic to a favorable clinical course.

  10. Global search demand for varicose vein information on the internet. (United States)

    El-Sheikha, Joseph


    Changes in internet search trends can provide healthcare professionals detailed information on prevalence of disease and symptoms. Chronic venous disease, more commonly known as varicose veins, is a common symptomatic disease among the adult population. This study aims to measure the change in global search demand for varicose vein information using Google over the past 8 years. The Google Trends instrument was used to measure the change in demand for the use of the local name for varicose veins in several countries across the world between January 2006 and December 2012. The measurements were normalised onto a scale relative to the largest volume of search requests received during a designated time and geographical location. Comparison of national levels of private healthcare and healthcare spending per capita to search demand was also undertaken using Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development economic measurements. Global interest has increased significantly, with linear regression demonstrating a 3.72% year-on-year increase in demand over the 8-year time period (r(2 )= 0.385, p search demand compared to cooler winter months (search demand (r(2 )= 0.120 p = 0.306). Healthcare spending per capita did not relate to search demand (r(2 )= 0.450 p = 0.077). There is increasing demand for information about varicose veins on the internet, especially during the warmer months of the year. Online search demand does not appear to be related to healthcare spending. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Greater saphenous vein anomaly and aneurysm with subsequent pulmonary embolism


    Ma, Truong; Kornbau, Craig


    Abstract Venous aneurysms often present as painful masses. They can present either in the deep or superficial venous system. Deep venous system aneurysms have a greater risk of thromboembolism. Though rare, there have been case reports of superficial aneurysms and thrombus causing significant morbidity such as pulmonary embolism. We present a case of an anomalous greater saphenous vein connection with an aneurysm and thrombus resulting in a pulmonary embolism. This is the only reported case o...

  12. Interposition vein graft for giant coronary aneurysm repair (United States)

    Firstenberg, M. S.; Azoury, F.; Lytle, B. W.; Thomas, J. D.


    Coronary aneurysms in adults are rare. Surgical treatment is often concomitant to treating obstructing coronary lesions. However, the ideal treatment strategy is poorly defined. We present a case of successful treatment of a large coronary artery aneurysm with a reverse saphenous interposition vein graft. This modality offers important benefits over other current surgical and percutaneous techniques and should be considered as an option for patients requiring treatment for coronary aneurysms.

  13. Pathogenetics of Alveolar Capillary Dysplasia with Misalignment of Pulmonary Veins


    Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Gambin, Tomasz; Dharmadhikari, Avinash V.; Akdemir, Kadir Caner; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Schuette, Jennifer; Godiwala, Nihal; Yatsenko, Svetlana A.; Sebastian, Jessica; Madan-Khetarpal, Suneeta; Surti, Urvashi; Abellar, Rosanna G.; Bateman, David A.; Wilson, Ashley L.; Markham, Melinda H.


    Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is a lethal lung developmental disorder caused by heterozygous point mutations or genomic deletion copy-number variants (CNVs) of FOXF1 or its upstream enhancer involving fetal lung-expressed long noncoding RNA genes LINC01081 and LINC01082. Using custom-designed array comparative genomic hybridization, Sanger sequencing, whole exome sequencing (WES), and bioinformatic analyses, we studied 22 new unrelated families (20...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Paraskevas


    Full Text Available The jugular venous system constitutes the primary venous drainage of the head and neck. It includes a profundus or subfascial venous system, formed by the two internal jugular veins, and a superficial or subcutaneous one, formed by the two anterior and two external jugular veins. We report one case of unilateral anatomical variations of the external and anterior jugular veins. Particularly, on the right side, three external jugular veins co-existed with two anterior jugular veins. Such a combination of venous anomalies is extremely rare. The awareness of the variability of these veins is essential to anesthesiologists and radiologists, since the external jugular vein constitutes a common route for catheterization. Their knowledge is also important to surgeons performing head and neck surgery.

  15. Multiple variations of the superficial jugular veins: case report and clinical relevance. (United States)

    Paraskevas, George; Natsis, Konstantinos; Ioannidis, Orestis; Kitsoulis, Panagiotis; Anastasopoulos, Nikolaos; Spyridakis, Ioannis


    The jugular venous system constitutes the primary venous drainage of the head and neck. It includes a profundus or subfascial venous system, formed by the two internal jugular veins, and a superficial or subcutaneous one, formed by the two anterior and two external jugular veins. We report one case of unilateral anatomical variations of the external and anterior jugular veins. Particularly, on the right side, three external jugular veins co-existed with two anterior jugular veins. Such a combination of venous anomalies is extremely rare. The awareness of the variability of these veins is essential to anesthesiologists and radiologists, since the external jugular vein constitutes a common route for catheterization. Their knowledge is also important to surgeons performing head and neck surgery.

  16. Tracheid analysis and modeling of the minor veins of the coleus and smilax leaves. (United States)

    Korn, Robert


    Tracheid analysis was carried out on the veinlets and minor veins of the coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides [L.] Codd) leaf. Third- to fifth-order, or minor, veins average 3.4 tracheids in tandem and they bipartition islets when these enclosed islets reach a critical size; both these features of vein length and islet size contribute to a self-similar process of vein pattern generation. An areole was calculated to be initially comprised of about ten cells making the patterning event for vein formation requiring only a few cells. An algorithmic model developed here for minor vein formation includes five production rules, and this computer model explains the 3-4 tracheids per minor vein, presence of isolated tracheids, the structure of veinlets, and the elaborate branching patterns of veinlets in coleus and other plants.

  17. Nephrotic syndrome complicated with portal, splenic, and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Soo Park


    Full Text Available Thromboembolism is a major complication of nephrotic syndrome. Renal vein thrombosis and deep vein thrombosis are relatively common, especially in membranous nephropathy. However, the incidence of portal vein and superior mesenteric vein (SMV thrombosis in patients with nephrotic syndrome is very rare. To date, several cases of portal vein thrombosis treated by anticoagulation therapy, not by thrombolytic therapy, have been reported as a complication of nephrotic syndrome. Here, we report a case of portal, splenic, and SMV thrombosis in a patient with a relapsed steroid dependent minimal change disease who was treated successfully with anticoagulation and thrombolytic therapy using urokinase. Radiologic findings and his clinical conditions gradually improved. Six months later, a complete remission of the nephrotic syndrome was observed and the follow-up computed tomography scan showed the disappearance of all portal vein, splenic vein, and SMV thrombi.

  18. Convolutional Neural Network-Based Finger-Vein Recognition Using NIR Image Sensors. (United States)

    Hong, Hyung Gil; Lee, Min Beom; Park, Kang Ryoung


    Conventional finger-vein recognition systems perform recognition based on the finger-vein lines extracted from the input images or image enhancement, and texture feature extraction from the finger-vein images. In these cases, however, the inaccurate detection of finger-vein lines lowers the recognition accuracy. In the case of texture feature extraction, the developer must experimentally decide on a form of the optimal filter for extraction considering the characteristics of the image database. To address this problem, this research proposes a finger-vein recognition method that is robust to various database types and environmental changes based on the convolutional neural network (CNN). In the experiments using the two finger-vein databases constructed in this research and the SDUMLA-HMT finger-vein database, which is an open database, the method proposed in this research showed a better performance compared to the conventional methods.

  19. Splanchnic Vein Thrombosis - an Uncommon Complication after Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Carli


    Full Text Available Background: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG is an innovative and relatively safe surgical approach for weight reduction in morbidly obese people. Splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT is an extremely rare complication of LSG and, if not recognized, carries a high mortality rate. This paper highlights a potentially lethal condition of SVT after LSG. Case Report: A 37-year-old morbidly obese woman was referred to our institution for LSG. Three weeks after the intervention, she was readmitted with abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and fever with positive family anamnesis to viral disease. Abdominal X-ray as well as utrasonography were both normal, and no X-ray contrast medium leakage was observed. One week later, she was readmitted with septic condition. An abdominal computed tomography scan diagnosed lienal vein thrombosis along its whole length and partial thrombosis of the superior mesenteric vein. Conclusion: SVT presents very heterogeneously, which makes it extremely challenging to diagnose and to make an appropriate treatment decision. With regard to the high prevalence of obesity and the increasing frequency of LSG, prompt diagnosis and management are crucial.


    STEINBRÜCK, Klaus; ALVES, Jefferson; FERNANDES, Reinaldo; ENNE, Marcelo; PACHECO-MOREIRA, Lúcio Filgueiras


    Background Portal vein embolization is an accepted procedure that provides hypertrophy of the future remnant liver in order to reduce post-hepatectomy complications. Aim To present a series submitted to portal vein embolization using an adapted hysterosalpingography catheter via transileocolic route. Methods Were performed right portal branch embolization in 19 patients using hysterosalpingography catheter. For embolizing the vessel, was used Gelfoam® powder with absolute alcohol solution. Indications for hepatectomy were colorectal liver metastases in all cases. Results An adequate growth of the future remnant liver was achieved in 15 patients (78.9%) and second time hepatectomy could be done in 14 (73.7%). In one patient (5.2%), tumor progression prevented surgery. One patient presented acute renal failure after portal embolization. Conclusions The hysterosalpingography catheter is easy to handle and can be introduced into the portal vein with a wire guide. There were no major post-embolization complication. Its use is safe, cheap and effective. PMID:25184773

  1. Aneurisma de la vena de Galeno Galen's vein aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Piloña Ruiz


    Full Text Available La malformación arteriovenosa de la vena de Galeno es una enfermedad congénita poco frecuente que se produce a partir de un defecto en la fusión de las venas cerebrales internas y que, debido a la baja resistencia, produce un cuadro de falla cardíaca de alto gasto. Las manifestaciones clínicas son muy variables y dependen de la edad de presentación. El pronóstico depende del tamaño del aneurisma. Se presenta el caso de un recién nacido del sexo masculino, con diagnóstico prenatal de aneurisma de la vena de Galeno y, desde el nacimiento, graves signos de insuficiencia cardíaca congestiva de difícil tratamiento. Se realiza una revisión sobre el tema.Arteriovenous malformation of Galen's vein is an uncommon congenital disease present from a defect in internal cerebral veins fusion and that due to the low resistance, produces a high output heart failure. Clinical manifestations are very variables depending on age of presentation. Prognosis depends on the size of aneurysm. This is the case of a male newborn diagnosed prenatally with Galen's vein aneurysm and from his birth severe signs of congestive heart failure of difficult treatment. A literature review on this subject is made.

  2. An unusual case of Y-shaped right renal vein. (United States)

    Lavy, M; Martin, L; Eouzan, D; Turco, C; Heyd, B; Mantion, G; Parratte, B; Tatu, L


    Vascular renal anomalies are frequent, multiple and well described and result from errors in vessel embryogenesis between the 6th and 10th week of gestation. Historically, variations are described in anatomic dissection and currently mostly in image interpretation. We report an anatomic variation concerning the right renal vein which, to our knowledge, has never been described in the literature either by dissection or by radiological examination. This variation was discovered during the routine dissection of an embalmed male body. It consists of a Y-shaped right renal vein and is associated with multiple retroperitoneal variations: a bilateral accessory renal artery, a trident ending of the right renal artery and a left testicular vein variation. Venous and arterial renal anatomy and its variations are fundamentally important in renal surgery, especially concerning living donor renal grafts. These variations may be diagnosed thanks to injected tomodensitometry which has a good sensitivity and specificity for anomalies. Preoperative diagnosis of an anatomic vascular renal variation may reduce morbidity during surgery, which is why precise examination of injected tomography should be mandatory.

  3. Fossil evidence for Cretaceous escalation in angiosperm leaf vein evolution. (United States)

    Feild, Taylor S; Brodribb, Timothy J; Iglesias, Ari; Chatelet, David S; Baresch, Andres; Upchurch, Garland R; Gomez, Bernard; Mohr, Barbara A R; Coiffard, Clement; Kvacek, Jiri; Jaramillo, Carlos


    The flowering plants that dominate modern vegetation possess leaf gas exchange potentials that far exceed those of all other living or extinct plants. The great divide in maximal ability to exchange CO(2) for water between leaves of nonangiosperms and angiosperms forms the mechanistic foundation for speculation about how angiosperms drove sweeping ecological and biogeochemical change during the Cretaceous. However, there is no empirical evidence that angiosperms evolved highly photosynthetically active leaves during the Cretaceous. Using vein density (D(V)) measurements of fossil angiosperm leaves, we show that the leaf hydraulic capacities of angiosperms escalated several-fold during the Cretaceous. During the first 30 million years of angiosperm leaf evolution, angiosperm leaves exhibited uniformly low vein D(V) that overlapped the D(V) range of dominant Early Cretaceous ferns and gymnosperms. Fossil angiosperm vein densities reveal a subsequent biphasic increase in D(V). During the first mid-Cretaceous surge, angiosperm D(V) first surpassed the upper bound of D(V) limits for nonangiosperms. However, the upper limits of D(V) typical of modern megathermal rainforest trees first appear during a second wave of increased D(V) during the Cretaceous-Tertiary transition. Thus, our findings provide fossil evidence for the hypothesis that significant ecosystem change brought about by angiosperms lagged behind the Early Cretaceous taxonomic diversification of angiosperms.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Novak


    Full Text Available Pattern electroretinogram (PERG findings were analysed in 30 patients with central retinal vein occlusion. Latency and amplitude values of PERG waves were compared with the results obtained in 30 healthy individuals after sample randomisation. In 15 cases with „hemorrhagic type” occlusion of the central retinal vein significantly reduced N1-P1 wave amplitude was noted (0,369 mV, related to „exudative“ disease type (0,557 mV, as well as to the control group of examines (0,782 mV. PERG was described as the sensitive method and important indicator in damage assessment, ie. ischemia in the ganglional cell layer in central retinal vein occlusion. Ischemia increases anoxia, which influences not only the axons but also the enzymatic and transport processes within the cell bodies, dendrites, axons and axonal terminals. Slowing down of the fast phase of axoplasmatic transport in the axons in ischemic damage blocked transmission impulses which could be evident through different degrees of PERG wave amplitude reduction. With this method the patients can be selected in whom due to severe retinal ischemia there is the risk of neovascular glaucomma and maculopathy, which is the absolute indication for panlaser-photocoagulation.

  5. [Acute ovarian vein thrombosis in the third trimestre]. (United States)

    Rattenhuber, J; Schmalfeldt, B; Fischer, T; Schneider, K T


    Ovarian vein thrombosis is a known complication in the peri- and postpartum phase. Its incidence is documented as 1:600 to 1:2000. Concerning ovarian vein thrombosis in earlier stages of pregnancy there are only very few case reports. We report on a woman in her third pregnancy who presented with acute abdominal pain in the 27th week of gestation. After a long car drive she felt an acute pain in the upper right abdomen which moved down to the right lower abdomen. On admission the obstetrical examination showed no pathology. There were no contractions. Clinical and sonographic examination could not reveal the cause of the pain. As adequate analgesia failed to relieve the pain, an explorative laparotomy was performed. It showed a dilated right ovarian vein of 3 cm diameter with a thrombus reaching the confluence to the vena cava. The ovarian vessels were resected and the adnectomy on the right side performed. Anticoagulation was initiated. There were no complications during the postoperative course. The pregnancy proceeded normally. After 10 days the patient could be dismissed in good condition. Laboratory diagnostic showed an deficiency in protein C. At 39 weeks of gestation a planned caesarean section was performed without any complications.

  6. Health-related quality of life after deep vein thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utne, Kristin Kornelia; Tavoly, Mazdak; Wik, Hilde Skuterud


    BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is known to be impaired in patients who develop post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) following deep vein thrombosis (DVT). However, there is limited knowledge of the long-term HRQoL after DVT compared to controls without DVT. The objectives of this study...... specific VEINES-QOL/Sym questionnaire, whereas PTS was assessed by the Villalta scale. Patients were asked to give the EQ-5D questionnaire to two friends of same age- (±5 years) and sex (buddy controls). RESULTS: Patients scored significantly lower on all dimensions of EQ-5D compared to controls. EQ-5D...... associated with impaired HRQoL assessed by EQ-5D index value (odds ratio [OR] 11.0: 95 % confidence interval [CI] 4.6-29.7; and 2.3: 95 % CI 1.1-4.8, respectively) and VEINES-QOL (OR 28.2: 95 % CI 10.6-75.0; and OR 4.1: 95 % CI 1.7-9.7, respectively). CONCLUSION: Long-term HRQoL was significantly impaired...

  7. Treatment of caval vein thrombosis associated with renal tumors. (United States)

    Jiménez-Romero, Carlos; Conde, María; de la Rosa, Federico; Manrique, Alejandro; Calvo, Jorge; Caso, Óscar; Muñoz, Carlos; Marcacuzco, Alberto; Justo, Iago


    Renal carcinoma represents 3% of all solid tumors and is associated with renal or inferior caval vein (IVC) thrombosis between 2-10% of patients, extending to right atrial in 1% of cases. This is a retrospective study that comprises 5 patients who underwent nephrectomy and thrombectomy by laparotomy because of renal tumor with IVC thrombosis level iii. Four patients were males and one was female, and the mean age was 57,2 years (range: 32-72). Most important clinical findings were hematuria, weight loss, weakness, anorexia, and pulmonary embolism. Diagnostic confirmation was performed by CT scanner. Metastatic disease was diagnosed before surgery in 3 patients. Suprahepatic caval vein and hepatic hilium (Pringle's maneouver) were clamped in 4 patients, and ligation of infrarrenal caval vein was carry out in one patient. Five patients developed mild complications (Clavien I/II). No patient died and the mean hospital stay was 8,6 days. All patients were treated with chemotherapy, and 3 died because distant metastasis, but 2 are alive, without recurrence, at 5 and 60 months, respectively. Nephrectomy and thrombectomy in renal tumors with caval thrombosis can be curative in absence of metastasis or, at less, can increase survival or quality of live. Then these patients must be treated in liver transplant units because major surgical and anesthesiologic expertise. Adjuvant treatment with tyrosin kinase inhibitors must be validate in the future with wider experiences. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Cryptosystem Based On Finger Vein Patterns Using Vas Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Cryptosystems based on biometrics authentication is developing areas in the field of modernize security schemes. Elastic distortion of fingerprints is one of the major causes for false non-match. While this problem affects all fingerprint identification function it is especially dangerous in opposite identification function such as note list and reduplication function. In such function malicious possessors may purposely distort their fingerprints to evade identification. Distortion rectification or equivalently distortion field estimation is viewed as a regression problem where the input is a distorted fingerprint and the output is the distortion field. The current document deals with the application of finger veins pattern as an approach for possessor confirmation and encryption key generation. The design of the optical imprison scheme by near infrared is described. We propose a step for the location of the vein crossing points and the quantification of the angles between the vein-branches this information is used to generate a personal key that allows the possessor to encrypt information after the confirmation is approved. In order to demonstrate the potential of the suggested approach and model of figure encryption is developed. All action biometric imprison figure presetting key generation and figure encryption are performed on the identical hidden platform adding an important portability and diminishing the execution time.

  9. Natural fracking and the genesis of five-element veins (United States)

    Markl, Gregor; Burisch, Mathias; Neumann, Udo


    Hydrothermal Ag-Co-Ni-Bi-As (five-element vein type) ore deposits show very conspicuous textures of the native elements silver, bismuth, and arsenic indicating formation from a rapid, far-from-equilibrium process. Such textures include up to dm-large tree- and wire-like aggregates overgrown by Co-Ni-Fe arsenides and mostly carbonates. Despite the historical and contemporary importance of five-element vein type deposits as sources of silver, bismuth, and cobalt, and despite of spectacular museum specimens, their process of formation is not yet understood and has been a matter of debate since centuries. We propose, based on observations from a number of classical European five-element vein deposits and carbon isotope analyses, that "natural fracking," i.e., liberation of hydrocarbons or hydrocarbon-bearing fluids during break up of rocks in the vicinity of an active hydrothermal system and mixing between these hydrocarbons (e.g., methane and/or methane-bearing fluids) and a metal-rich hydrothermal fluid is responsible for ore precipitation and the formation of the unusual ore textures and assemblages. Thermodynamic and isotope mixing calculations show that the textural, chemical, and isotopic features of the investigated deposits can entirely be explained by this mechanism.

  10. Proximal spleno-renal shunt with retro-aortic left renal vein in a patient with extra-hepatic portal vein obstruction: first case report. (United States)

    Jain, Sundeep; Kalla, Mukesh; Suleman, Adil; Verma, Alok


    Presence of retro-aortic left renal vein poses special challenge in creating spleno-renal shunt potentially increasing the chance of shunt failure. The technical feasibility and successful outcome of splenectomy with proximal spleno-renal shunt (PSRS) with retro-aortic left renal vein is presented for the first time. The patient was treated for portal hypertension and hypersplenism due to idiopathic extra-hepatic portal vein obstruction. A twenty year old male suffering from idiopathic extra-hepatic portal vein obstruction presented with bleeding esophageal varices, portal hypertensive gastropathy, asymptomatic portal biliopathy and symptomatic hypersplenism. As variceal bleeding did not respond to endoscopic and medical treatment, surgical portal decompression was planned. On preoperative contrast enhanced computed tomography retro-aortic left renal vein was detected. Splenectomy with proximal splenorenal shunt with retro-aortic left renal vein was successfully performed by using specific technical steps including adequate mobilisation of retro-aortic left renal vein and per-operative pressure studies. Perioperative course was uneventful and patient is doing well after 3 years of follow up. PSRS is feasible, safe and effective procedure when done with retro-aortic left renal vein for the treatment of portal hypertension related to extra-hepatic portal vein obstruction provided that attention is given to key technical considerations including pressure studies necessary to ensure effective shunt. Present case provides the first evidence that retro-aortic left renal vein can withstand the extra volume of blood flow through the proximal shunt with effective portal decompression so as to treat all the components of extra-hepatic portal vein obstruction without causing renal venous hypertension.

  11. Phenotypic heterogeneity in the endothelium of the human vortex vein system. (United States)

    Yu, Paula K; Tan, Priscilla E Z; Cringle, Stephen J; McAllister, Ian L; Yu, Dao-Yi


    The vortex vein system is the drainage pathway for the choroidal circulation and serves an important function in the effective drainage of the exceptionally high blood flow from the choroidal circulation. As there are only 4-6 vortex veins, a large volume of blood must be drained from many choroidal veins into each individual vortex vein. The vortex vein system must also cope with passing through tissues of different rigidity and significant pressure gradient as it transverses from the intrao-cular to the extra-ocular compartments. However, little is known about how the vortex vein system works under such complex situations in both physiological and pathological condition. Endothelial cells play a vital role in other vascular systems, but they have not been studied in detail in the vortex vein system. The purpose of this study is to characterise the intracellular structures and morphology in both the intra-and extra-ocular regions of the human vortex vein system. We hypothesise the presence of endothelial phenotypic heterogeneity through the vortex vein system. The inferior temporal vortex vein system from human donor eyes were obtained and studied histologically using confocal microscopy. The f-actin cytoskeleton and nuclei were labelled using Alexa Fluor conjugated Phalloidin and YO-PRO-1. Eight regions of the vortex vein system were examined with the venous endothelium studied in detail with quantitative data obtained for endothelial cell and nuclei size and shape. Significant endothelial phenotypic heterogeneity was found throughout the vortex vein system with the most obvious differences observed between the ampulla and its downstream regions. Variation in the distribution pattern of smooth muscle cells, in particular the absence of smooth muscle cells around the ampulla, was noted. Our results suggest the presence of significantly different haemodynamic forces in different regions of the vortex vein system and indicate that the vortex vein system may play

  12. Phlebographic classification of anatomic variants in the right internal spermatic vein confluence. (United States)

    Pieri, S; Agresti, P; Fiocca, G; Regine, G


    Male varicocele is a clinical dysfunction caused by a pathological venous reflux. Knowledge of anatomic variants of the internal spermatic vein confluence is fundamental for the technical success of percutaneous treatment. While numerous studies have analysed the phlebographic anatomy of the left internal spermatic vein, no exhaustive description exists for the right internal spermatic vein. From a retrospective review of 3229 patients treated percutaneously between 1988 and 2003, we extrapolated the phlebographic images of patients with incontinence of the right internal spermatic vein only. Mean patient age was 24.6 (range 14-46) years. Indication for treatment was presence of pain in the right inguinal region and absence of a history of trauma and/or seminal-fluid alterations. Phlebography had been performed with transbrachial access using a tilt table and a multipurpose angiographic catheter. Contrast medium was injected into both the inferior vena cava and the renal vein. Selective catheterisation of the internal spermatic vein was then performed to assess the radiological characteristics of the vessels prior to sclerosis. There were 93 cases of incontinence of the right internal spermatic vein only (2.8%). In the first group of patients (seven cases, 7.5%), the right internal spermatic vein drained exclusively into the renal vein; the injection of contrast medium during a Valsalva manoeuvre allowed visualisation of the vein almost as far as the iliac level. In most cases, the vein appeared uniformly dilatated and without valvular systems along its course. In the second group (21 cases, 22.5%), the vein drained into both the renal vein and the inferior vena cava, with one branch showing functional predominance over the other: selective catheterisation was easier to perform on the first branch. Selective catheterisation confirmed dilatation of the vein as well as the absence of valvular systems. In most patients, (65 cases, 69.8%), the internal spermatic vein

  13. The response of thrombosis in the portal vein or hepatic vein in hepatocellular carcinoma to radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Bong Kyung; Kim, Jae Chul [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of current study is to evaluate the response of the patients with portal vein thrombosis (PVT) or hepatic vein thrombosis (HVT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT). In addition, survival of patients and potential prognostic factors of the survival was evaluated. Forty-seven patients with PVT or HVT in HCC, referred to our department for radiotherapy, were retrospectively reviewed. For 3D-CRT plans, a gross tumor volume (GTV) was defined as a hypodense filling defect area in the portal vein (PV) or hepatic vein (HV). Survival of patients, and response to radiation therapy (RT) were analyzed. Potential prognostic factors for survival and response to RT were evaluated. The median survival time of 47 patients was 8 months, with 1-year survival rate of 15% and response rate of 40%. Changes in Child-Pugh score, response to RT, Eastern cooperative oncology group performance status (ECOG PS), hepatitis C antibody (HCVAb) positivity, and additional post RT treatment were statistically significant prognostic factors for survival in univariate analysis (p = 0.000, p = 0.018, p = 0.000, p = 0.013, and p = 0.047, respectively). Of these factors, changes in Child-Pugh score, and response to RT were significant for patients' prognosis in multivariate analysis (p = 0.001 and p = 0.035, respectively). RT could constitute a reasonable treatment option for patients with PVT or HVT in HCC with acceptable toxicity. Changes in Child-Pugh score, and response to RT were statistically significant factors of survival of patients.

  14. Embolization of Incompetent Pelvic Veins for the Treatment of Recurrent Varicose Veins in Lower Limbs and Pelvic Congestion Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses, Luis, E-mail:; Fava, Mario; Diaz, Pia; Andia, Marcelo [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Radiology Department and Biomedical Imaging Center (Chile); Tejos, Cristian; Irarrazabal, Pablo [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Biomedical Imaging Center (Chile); Uribe, Sergio, E-mail: [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Radiology Department and Biomedical Imaging Center (Chile)


    We present our experience with embolization of incompetent pelvic veins (IPV) in women with recurrence of varicose veins (VV) in lower limbs, as well as symptoms of pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS), after first surgery. In addition, we evaluated the effects of embolization in decreasing the symptoms of VV before surgery as well as its effects on PCS symptoms. We included 10 women who had consulted a vascular surgeon because of recurrent VV in lower limbs after surgery. All of these patients were included in the study because they also had symptoms of PCS, probably due to IPV. In patients who had confirmed IPV, we performed embolization before a second surgery. VV and PCS were assessed before and at 3 months after embolization (before the second surgery) using a venous clinical severity score (VCSS) and a visual analog pain scale (VAS), respectively. Patients were controlled between 3 and 6 months after embolization. Paired Student t test analysis was used for comparing data before and after embolization. Fifteen vein segments in 10 women were suitable for embolization. There was a significant (p < 0.001) decrease of VCSS after embolization, and recurrence of VV was not detected within a period of 6 months. There was also significant (p < 0.01) relief of chronic pelvic pain related to PCS evaluated using VAS at 3 months after embolization. Embolization decreases the risk of VV recurrence after surgery and also improves PCS symptoms in women with VV in lower limbs and IPV.

  15. Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava Associated with Hemiazygos Vein Draining in It and Absence of Left Brachiocephalic Vein, in a Patient with Congenital Heart Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opincariu Diana


    Full Text Available Persistent left superior vena cava is an anomalous vein that derives from a malfunction of obliteration of the left common cardinal vein during intrauterine life. The diagnosis can be suggested by a dilated coronary sinus as seen in echocardiography, or other imagistic methods. Due to the lack of hemodynamic impairment, and consequently with few or no symptoms, this vascular anomaly is frequently discovered incidentally. In this brief report we present the case of a 35-year-old male known with a complex congenital cardiovascular malformation that included atrial septum defect, persistent left superior vena cava and anomalous right pulmonary vein drainage in the PLSVC, diagnosed with sinoatrial block that required pacemaker implantation. Due to the patient’s medical history, investigations to decide the best approach needed for pacemaker implantation were performed, including a thoracic CT that incidentally found additional anomalies — the hemiazygos vein draining in PLSVC and the lack of the left brachiocephalic vein.

  16. Portal vein resection and reconstruction with artificial blood vessels is safe and feasible for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients with portal vein involvement: Chinese center experience. (United States)

    Xie, Zhi-Bo; Gu, Ji-Chun; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Yao, Lie; Jin, Chen; Jiang, Yong-Jian; Li, Ji; Yang, Feng; Zou, Cai-Feng; Fu, De-Liang


    Evidence shows that portal vein resection (PVR) increase the resectability but does little benefit to overall survival in all pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. But for patients with portal vein involvement, PVR is the only radical choice. But whether the PDAC patients with portal vein involvement would benefit from radical pancreaticoduodenectomy with PVR or not is controversial. All 204 PDAC patients with portal vein involvement were enrolled in this study [PVR group, n=106; surgical bypass (SB) group, n=52; chemotherapy group, n=46]. Overall survival and prognostic factors were analyzed among three groups. Moreover, a literature review of 13 studies were also conducted. Among 3 groups, patients in PVR group achieved a significant longer survival (median survival: PVR group, 22.83 months; SB group, 7.26 months; chemotherapy group, 10.64 months). Therapy choice [hazard ratio (HR) =1.593, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.323 to 1.918, Pportal vein involvement.

  17. Portal flow into the liver through veins at the site of biliary-enteric anastomosis. (United States)

    Hashimoto, M; Heianna, J; Yasuda, K; Tate, E; Watarai, J; Shibata, S; Sato, T; Yamamoto, Y


    The aim of this study was to establish the role played by jejunal veins in hepatopetal flow after biliary-enteric anastomosis and to evaluate the helical CT features of hepatopetal flow through the anastomosis. We retrospectively analyzed helical CT images of the liver in 31 patients with biliary-enteric anastomosis who underwent hepatic angiography with (n=13) or without (n=18) CT arterial portography within 2 weeks of the CT examination during the last 4 years. Arterial portography showed hepatopetal flow through small vessels located (communicating veins) between the elevated jejunal veins and the intrahepatic portal branches in two (9%) of 22 patients with a normal portal system. Helical CT showed focal parenchymal enhancement around the anastomosis in these two patients. All nine patients with extrahepatic portal vein occlusion (100%) had hepatopetal flow through the anastomosis, and four of the nine had decreased portal flow. CT revealed small communicating veins in two of these four patients. In five patients with normal portal perfusion despite extrahepatic portal vein occlusion, CT detected dilated communicating veins and elevated jejunal veins. The presence of communicating veins and/or focal parenchymal enhancement around the anastomosis indicates hepatopetal flow through the elevated jejunal veins.

  18. Surgical Implications of Portal Vein Variations and Liver Segmentations: A Recent Update. (United States)

    Iqbal, Showkathali; Iqbal, Raiz; Iqbal, Faiz


    The Couinaud's liver segmentation is based on the identification of portal vein bifurcation and origin of hepatic veins. It is widely used clinically, because it is better suited for surgery and is more accurate in localizing and monitoring various intra parenchymal lesions. According to standard anatomy, the portal vein bifurcates into right and left branches; the left vein drains segment II, III and IV and the right vein divides into two secondary branches - the anterior portal vein drains segments V and VIII, and the posterior drains segments VI and VII. The portal vein variants such as portal trifurcation, with division of the main portal vein into the left, right anterior, and posterior branches, and the early origin of the right posterior branch directly from the main portal vein were found to be more frequent and was seen in about 20 - 35% of the population. Accurate knowledge of the portal variants and consequent variations in vascular segments are essential for intervention radiologists and transplant surgeons in the proper diagnosis during radiological investigations and in therapeutic applications such as preparation for biopsy, Portal Vein Embolization (PVE), Transjugular Intrahepatic Porto-Systemic Shunt (TIPS), tumour resection and partial hepatectomy for split or living donor transplantations. The advances in the knowledge will reduce intra and postoperative complications and avoid major catastrophic events. The purpose of the present review is to update the normal and variant portal venous anatomy and their implications in the liver segmentations, complex liver surgeries and various radiological intervention procedures.

  19. Simulation, Fabrication and Analysis of Silver Based Ascending Sinusoidal Microchannel (ASMC for Implant of Varicose Veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Javaid Afzal


    Full Text Available Bioengineered veins can benefit humans needing bypass surgery, dialysis, and now, in the treatment of varicose veins. The implant of this vein in varicose veins has significant advantages over the conventional treatment methods. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT, vein patch repair, pulmonary embolus, and tissue-damaging problems can be solved with this implant. Here, the authors have proposed biomedical microdevices as an alternative for varicose veins. MATLAB and ANSYS Fluent have been used for simulations of blood flow for bioengineered veins. The silver based microchannel has been fabricated by using a micromachining process. The dimensions of the silver substrates are 51 mm, 25 mm, and 1.1 mm, in length, width, and depth respectively. The dimensions of microchannels grooved in the substrates are 0.9 mm in width and depth. The boundary conditions for pressure and velocity were considered, from 1.0 kPa to 1.50 kPa, and 0.02 m/s to 0.07 m/s, respectively. These are the actual values of pressure and velocity in varicose veins. The flow rate of 5.843 (0.1 nL/s and velocity of 5.843 cm/s were determined at Reynolds number 164.88 in experimental testing. The graphs and results from simulations and experiments are in close agreement. These microchannels can be inserted into varicose veins as a replacement to maintain the excellent blood flow in human legs.

  20. Ore mineralogy and textural zonation in the world-class epithermal Waihi Vein System, Hauraki Goldfield (United States)

    Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Skinner, Erin G; Fyfe, Sarah J; Menzies, Andrew H; Lowers, Heather A.; Koenig, Alan E.


    The Waihi district in the Hauraki Goldfield of New Zealand contains adularia-sericite epithermal gold-silver veins that have produced more than 7.7 Moz gold. The outermost veins of the district (Martha, Favona, Moonlight, and Cowshed) contain abundant colloform, cherty, and black quartz fill textures, with minor crustiform and massive quartz. The central veins (Amaranth, Trio, and Union) contain predominantly massive and crustiform textures, and these veins are also commonly coarser grained than outermost veins. Pyrite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, electrum, and acanthite occur in both outermost and central veins; base metal sulfide minerals typically increase in abundance in deeper samples. Antimony-, arsenic-, and selenium-bearing minerals are most abundant in the Favona and Moonlight veins, whereas base metal sulfide minerals are more abundant in the central veins at Correnso. Throughout the Waihi vein system, electrum is by far the most widespread, abundant, and significant gold-bearing mineral, but LA-ICP-MS analyses show that arsenian pyrite also contains some gold. Mineralogical and textural data are consistent with the central veins forming at a deeper structural level, or from hydrothermal fluids with different chemistry, or both.


    Specchi, Swan; Pey, Pascaline; Ledda, Gianluca; Lustgarten, Meghann; Thrall, Donald; Bertolini, Giovanna


    In humans, the process of development of collateral vessels with hepatopetal flow around the portal vein in order to bypass an obstruction is called "cavernous transformation of the portal vein." The purpose of this retrospective, cross-sectional, multicentric study was to describe presumed cavernous transformation of the portal vein in small animals with portal vein obstruction using ultrasound and multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). Databases from three different institutions were searched for patients with an imaging diagnosis of cavernous transformation of the portal vein secondary to portal vein obstruction of any cause. Images were retrieved and reanalyzed. With MDCT-angiography, two main portoportal collateral pathways were identified: short tortuous portoportal veins around/inside the thrombus and long portoportal collaterals bypassing the site of portal obstruction. Three subtypes of the long collaterals, often coexisting, were identified. Branches of the hepatic artery where involved in collateral circulation in nine cases. Concomitant acquired portosystemic shunts were identified in six patients. With ultrasound, cavernous transformation of the portal vein was suspected in three dogs and one cat based on visualization of multiple and tortuous vascular structures corresponding to periportal collaterals. In conclusion, the current study provided descriptive MDCT and ultrasonographic characteristics of presumed cavernous transformation of the portal vein in a sample of small animals. Cavernous transformation of the portal vein could occur as a single condition or could be concurrent with acquired portosystemic shunts. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  2. Development of an image acquisition system for hand vein based on an embedded system (United States)

    Li, Xiuyan; Liu, Tiegen; Wang, Yunxin; Yuan, Chenhu; Deng, Shichao


    As one kind of the latest forms of biometrics, the human hand vein recognition utilizes a state-of-the-art recognition algorithm based on unique veins and capillaries found on human dorsal hand, which possesses the advantages such as well anti-falsification and high noise immunity. For the hand vein recognition, the most important premise is acquiring the high quality hand vein image. According to the special effect of human hand vein on the near infrared (NIR), when a hand is scanned by an image sensor, the vein pattern appears darker than its surroundings. Depending on this characteristic, the NIR light source was utilized to illuminate the image acquisition system for hand vein. And the optimal parameters of light source were chosen and the light source with high uniformity illuminance was manufactured to acquire the more clear hand vein image. Simultaneously, for the purpose of system miniaturization and design flexibility, the embedded image acquisition system for hand vein was designed based on the technology of system on programmable chip (SOPC). FPGA and CMOS image sensor were taken as the core components in the system, and the hardware of acquisition module is realized by configuring NiosII soft-core CPU and some corresponding interface modules on a FPGA. The software was developed by using the NiosII IDE to realize the initialization control to CMOS image sensor and collection, storage and transmission for the image data gathered from CMOS. Then the collected hand vein image was simply preprocessed, which further improved the image quality. Through experiments, the results indicated that this system could obtain the hand vein image with high performance, and it supplied the embedded development platform for hand vein recognition simultaneously. It was significant to develop the hand vein recognition system with small size and high speed.

  3. Anatomical variation of superior petrosal vein and its management during surgery for cerebellopontine angle meningiomas. (United States)

    Watanabe, Takao; Igarashi, Takahiro; Fukushima, Takao; Yoshino, Atsuo; Katayama, Yoichi


    No systematic study is yet available that focuses on the surgical anatomy of the superior petrosal vein and its significance during surgery for cerebellopontine angle meningiomas. The aim of the present study was to examine the variation of the superior petrosal vein via the retrosigmoid suboccipital approach in relation to the tumor attachment of cerebellopontine angle meningiomas as well as postoperative complications related to venous occlusion. Forty-three patients with cerebellopontine angle meningiomas were analyzed retrospectively. Based on the operative findings, the tumors were classified into four subtypes: the petroclival type, tentorial type, anterior petrous type, and posterior petrous type. According to a previous anatomical report, the superior petrosal veins were divided into three groups: Type I which emptied into the superior petrosal sinus above and lateral to the internal acoustic meatus, Type II which emptied between the lateral limit of the trigeminal nerve at Meckel's cave and the medial limit of the facial nerve at the internal acoustic meatus, and Type III which emptied into the superior petrosal sinus above and medial to Meckel's cave. In both the petroclival and anterior petrous types, the most common vein was Type III which is the ideal vein for a retrosigmoid approach. In contrast, the Type II vein which is at high risk of being sacrificed during a suprameatal approach procedure was most frequent in posterior petrous type, in which the superior petrosal vein was not largely an obstacle. Intraoperative sacrificing of veins was associated with a significantly higher rate of venous-related phenomena, while venous complications occurred even in cases where the superior petrosal vein was absent or compressed by the tumor. The variation in the superior petrosal vein appeared to differ among the tumor attachment subtypes, which could permit a satisfactory surgical exposure without dividing the superior petrosal vein. In cases where the

  4. Anomlus pulmonary venous return aaccompanied by normal superior pulmonary veins in the left upper lobe: A case report

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    Kim, Dong Eon; Kang, Min Jin; Lee, Ji Hae; Bae, Kyung Eun; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kang, Tae Kyung; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Soo Hyun [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return is a rare congenital pulmonary venous anomaly, in which some of the pulmonary veins drain into the systemic circulation rather than the left atrium. Many variants of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return have been reported. We present a rare type of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return in which the anomalous left upper lobe pulmonary vein drained into the left innominate vein via the vertical vein, accompanying the left upper lobe pulmonary vein in the normal location.

  5. A Retrospective Study of Preferable Alternative Route to Right Internal Jugular Vein for Placing Tunneled Dialysis Catheters: Right External Jugular Vein versus Left Internal Jugular Vein. (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Wang, Yufei; Qiao, Yingjin; Zhou, Sijie; Liang, Xianhui; Liu, Zhangsuo


    Right internal jugular vein (IJV) is a preferred access route for tunneled (cuffed) dialysis catheters (TDCs), and both right external jugular vein (EJV) and left IJV are alternative routes for patients in case the right IJV isn't available for TDC placement. This retrospective study aimed to determine if a disparity exists between the two alternative routes in hemodialysis patients in terms of outcomes of TDCs. 49 hemodialysis patients who required TDCs through right EJV (n = 21) or left IJV (n = 28) as long-term vascular access were included in this study. The primary end point was cumulative catheter patency. Secondary end points include primary catheter patency, proportion of patients that never required urokinase and incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI). A total of 20,870 catheter-days were evaluated and the median was 384 (interquartile range, 262-605) catheter-days. Fewer catheters were removed in the right EJV group than in the left IJV group (P = 0.007). Mean cumulative catheter patency was higher in the right EJV group compared with the left IJV group (P = 0.031). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the incidence of CRBSI, primary catheter patency or proportion of patients that never required urokinase use. Total indwell time of antecedent catheters was identified as an independent risk factor for cumulative catheter patency by Cox regression hazards test with an HR of 2.212 (95% CI, 1.363-3.588; p = 0.001). Right EJV might be superior to left IJV as an alternative insertion route for TDC placement in hemodialysis patients whose right IJVs are unavailable.

  6. Ultrastructure of dragonfly wing veins: composite structure of fibrous material supplemented by resilin. (United States)

    Appel, Esther; Heepe, Lars; Lin, Chung-Ping; Gorb, Stanislav N


    Dragonflies count among the most skilful of the flying insects. Their exceptional aerodynamic performance has been the subject of various studies. Morphological and kinematic investigations have showed that dragonfly wings, though being rather stiff, are able to undergo passive deformation during flight, thereby improving the aerodynamic performance. Resilin, a rubber-like protein, has been suggested to be a key component in insect wing flexibility and deformation in response to aerodynamic loads, and has been reported in various arthropod locomotor systems. It has already been found in wing vein joints, connecting longitudinal veins to cross veins, and was shown to endow the dragonfly wing with chordwise flexibility, thereby most likely influencing the dragonfly's flight performance. The present study revealed that resilin is not only present in wing vein joints, but also in the internal cuticle layers of veins in wings of Sympetrum vulgatum (SV) and Matrona basilaris basilaris (MBB). Combined with other structural features of wing veins, such as number and thickness of cuticle layers, material composition, and cross-sectional shape, resilin most probably has an effect on the vein's material properties and the degree of elastic deformations. In order to elucidate the wing vein ultrastructure and the exact localisation of resilin in the internal layers of the vein cuticle, the approaches of bright-field light microscopy, wide-field fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser-scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were combined. Wing veins were shown to consist of up to six different cuticle layers and a single row of underlying epidermal cells. In wing veins of MBB, the latter are densely packed with light-scattering spheres, previously shown to produce structural colours in the form of quasiordered arrays. Longitudinal and cross veins differ significantly in relative thickness of exo- and endocuticle, with cross veins

  7. Distal anastomotic vein adjunct usage in infrainguinal prosthetic bypasses. (United States)

    McPhee, James T; Goodney, Philip P; Schanzer, Andres; Shaykevich, Shimon; Belkin, Michael; Menard, Matthew T


    Single-segment saphenous vein remains the optimal conduit for infrainguinal revascularization. In its absence, prosthetic conduit may be used. Existing data regarding the significance of anastomotic distal vein adjunct (DVA) usage with prosthetic grafts are based on small series. This is a retrospective cohort analysis derived from the regional Vascular Study Group of New England as well as the Brigham and Women's hospital database. A total of 1018 infrainguinal prosthetic bypass grafts were captured in the dataset from 73 surgeons at 15 participating institutions. Propensity scoring and 3:1 matching was performed to create similar exposure groups for analysis. Outcome measures of interest included: primary patency, freedom from major adverse limb events (MALEs), and amputation free survival at 1 year as a function of vein patch utilization. Time to event data were compared with the log-rank test; multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the adjusted association between vein cuff usage and the primary end points. DVA was defined as a vein patch, cuff, or boot in any configuration. Of the 1018 bypass operations, 94 (9.2%) had a DVA whereas 924 (90.8%) did not (no DVA). After propensity score matching, 88 DVAs (25%) and 264 no DVAs (75%) were analyzed. On univariate analysis of the matched cohort, the DVA and no DVA groups were similar in terms of mean age (70.0 vs 69.0; P = .55), male sex (58.0% vs 58.3%; P > .99), and preoperative characteristics such as living at home (93.2% vs 94.3%; P = .79) and independent ambulatory status (72.7% vs 75.7%; P = .64). The DVA and no DVA groups had similar rates of major comorbidities such as hypertension chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and dialysis dependence (P > .05 for all). Likewise, they had similar rates of distal origin grafts (13.6% vs 12.5%; P = .85), critical limb ischemia indications (P = .53), and prior arterial bypass (58% vs 47%; P = .08

  8. Rule-based model of vein graft remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minki Hwang

    Full Text Available When vein segments are implanted into the arterial system for use in arterial bypass grafting, adaptation to the higher pressure and flow of the arterial system is accomplished thorough wall thickening and expansion. These early remodeling events have been found to be closely coupled to the local hemodynamic forces, such as shear stress and wall tension, and are believed to be the foundation for later vein graft failure. To further our mechanistic understanding of the cellular and extracellular interactions that lead to global changes in tissue architecture, a rule-based modeling method is developed through the application of basic rules of behaviors for these molecular and cellular activities. In the current method, smooth muscle cell (SMC, extracellular matrix (ECM, and monocytes are selected as the three components that occupy the elements of a grid system that comprise the developing vein graft intima. The probabilities of the cellular behaviors are developed based on data extracted from in vivo experiments. At each time step, the various probabilities are computed and applied to the SMC and ECM elements to determine their next physical state and behavior. One- and two-dimensional models are developed to test and validate the computational approach. The importance of monocyte infiltration, and the associated effect in augmenting extracellular matrix deposition, was evaluated and found to be an important component in model development. Final model validation is performed using an independent set of experiments, where model predictions of intimal growth are evaluated against experimental data obtained from the complex geometry and shear stress patterns offered by a mid-graft focal stenosis, where simulation results show good agreements with the experimental data.

  9. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy in patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. (United States)

    Sharma, Praveen; Sharma, Barjesh C; Puri, Vinod; Sarin, Shiv K


    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is associated with poor quality of life and increased work disability in cirrhotic patients. Its prevalence in extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) is not known. We studied the prevalence of MHE in EHPVO patients and utility of critical flicker frequency (CFF) for diagnosing MHE. Thirty-four EHPVO patients with a history of variceal bleed (age 23.2 +/- 11.2 yr, M:F 22:12) diagnosed by either Doppler US or MR angiography, which demonstrated portal vein obstruction and/or portal vein cavernoma, were evaluated by psychometry (number connection tests A, B or figure connection tests A, B) and P300 auditory event-related potential (P300ERP). CFF was also evaluated. MHE was diagnosed by abnormal psychometry (>2 standard deviation [SD]) and/or P300ERP (>2.5 SD). Prevalence of MHE (N = 12) was 35.3%. Of 34 patients, P300ERP was abnormal (380.0 +/- 28.9 msec) in 11 (32%), psychometry in 9 (26.4%), both P300ERP and psychometry in 8 (23.5%), and CFF psychometry and 7 (64%) with abnormal P300ERP had CFF below 38 Hz. CFF had sensitivity (75%), specificity (96%), positive predictive value (86%), negative predictive value (93%), and diagnosis accuracy of 91% when compared to patients with both abnormal psychometry and P300ERP. The venous ammonia level was higher in patients with MHE (83.1 +/- 29.7 vs 44.7 +/- 16.1 micromol/L, P psychometry and P300ERP. However, in view of the relatively low number of patients with MHE, the usefulness of CFF in this setting awaits confirmatory studies.

  10. Magnesium-induced vasodilation in the dorsal hand vein. (United States)

    Landau, Ruth; Scott, Jason A; Smiley, Richard M


    Magnesium affects blood pressure by modulating vascular tone and reactivity. In obstetric patients, magnesium is administered to prevent eclamptic seizures and as a tocolytic to treat preterm labour. Prior to studying vascular sensitivity in women with pre-eclampsia, we sought to determine the effect of magnesium on venous tone in healthy women of childbearing age. Dose-response study. Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, New York. Ten healthy non-pregnant women (age range 21-47 years). Vascular response to magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) was measured in a dorsal hand vein using the linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) technique. Complete dose-response curves to MgSO4 (0.0000275-0.088 mmol/min) were determined after 50% preconstriction of the vein with phenylephrine. The ED50 of MgSO4 (dose resulting in 50% of maximal effect, Emax) was determined. Blood samples from the contralateral upper extremity were obtained to assess total plasma magnesium levels at baseline and at the highest infused dose of magnesium. ED50 results are expressed as geometric mean (95% confidence interval, CI). Emax results and magnesium plasma concentrations are expressed as mean [SD]. The ED50 of MgSO4 was 0.000307 mmol/min (95% CI 0.138, 0.666) and Emax was 102% [20%]. Magnesium induces dose-dependent venodilation in healthy women in the absence of systemic haemodynamic effects. The dose resulting in vasodilation using the LVDT/hand vein model is two to three orders of magnitude less than the therapeutic doses of magnesium used for tocolysis or seizure prophylaxis. Studies of the effect of systemically administered therapeutic doses of magnesium on vascular reactivity in pre-eclampsia will be of interest.

  11. [Portal vein thrombosis with sepsis caused by inflammation at colonic stent insertion site]. (United States)

    Choi, Su Jin; Min, Ji Won; Yun, Jong Min; Ahn, Hye Shin; Han, Deok Jae; Lee, Hyeon Jeong; Kim, Young Ok


    Portal vein thrombosis is an uncommon but an important cause of portal hypertension. The most common etiological factors of portal vein thrombosis are liver cirrhosis and malignancy. Albeit rare, portal vein thrombosis can also occur in the presence of local infection and inflammation such as pancreatitis or cholecystitis. A 52-year-old male was admitted because of general weakness and poor oral intake. He had an operation for colon cancer 18 months ago. However, colonic stent had to be inserted afterwards because stricture developed at anastomosis site. Computed tomography taken at admission revealed portal vein thrombosis and inflammation at colonic stent insertion site. Blood culture was positive for Escherichia coli. After antibiotic therapy, portal vein thrombosis resolved. Herein, we report a case of portal vein thrombosis with sepsis caused by inflammation at colonic stent insertion site which was successfully treated with antibiotics.

  12. Primary Iliac Venous Leiomyosarcoma: A Rare Cause of Deep Vein Thrombosis in a Young Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Oliveira


    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary venous tumours are a rare cause of deep vein thrombosis. The authors present a case where the definitive diagnosis was delayed by inconclusive complementary imaging. Clinical Case. A thirty-seven-year-old female presented with an iliofemoral venous thrombosis of the right lower limb. The patient had presented with an episode of femoral-popliteal vein thrombosis five months before and was currently under anticoagulation. Phlegmasia alba dolens installed progressively, as thrombus rapidly extended to the inferior vena cava despite systemic thrombolysis and anticoagulation. Diagnostic imaging failed to identify the underlying aetiology of the deep vein thrombosis. The definitive diagnosis of primary venous leiomyosarcoma was reached by a subcutaneous abdominal wall nodule biopsy. Conclusion. Primary venous leiomyosarcoma of the iliac vein is a rare cause of deep vein thrombosis, which must be considered in young patients with recurrent or refractory to treatment deep vein thrombosis.

  13. Clinical and cross-sectional imaging features of spontaneous pancreatic pseudocyst-portal vein fistula. (United States)

    Alessandrino, Francesco; Strickland, Corinne; Mojtahed, Amirkasra; Eberhardt, Steven C; Mortele, Koenraad J

    To evaluate clinical and imaging features of pancreatic pseudocyst-portal vein fistula (PPVF). Patients with evidence of PPVF on CT/MRI were included. Clinical presentation, outcomes, imaging appearance of the portal vein were recorded. 75% of patients developed portal hypertension, 62% cavernous transformation of the portal vein and 25% portal biliopathy. PPVF presented on CT as fluid-attenuated portal vein, and on MRI as T2-weighted hyperintense fluid-filled portal vein. PPVF was misdiagnosed as portal vein thrombosis in all patients who underwent CT as initial examination. Whenever PPVF is suspected on CT, MRI can be helpful to achieve accurate diagnosis and avoid unnecessary interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Management of venous ulcers according to their anatomical relationship with varicose veins. (United States)

    Lin, Yun-Nan; Hsieh, Tung-Ying; Huang, Shu-Hung; Liu, Chia-Ming; Chang, Kao-Ping; Lin, Sin-Daw


    Background Adequately excising varicose and incompetent perforating veins is necessary for reducing their recurrence rate of venous ulcer. Method In total, 66 venous ulcers (C6) in 1083 legs with primary varicose veins were managed through endoscopic-assisted surgery. In an endoscopic operative view, the nonvaricose, varicose, and incompetent perforating veins were clearly visualized and precisely dissected. The varicose and incompetent perforating veins were divided and completely excised. Result The varicose veins were traced to the base or periphery of the 55 ulcers. Moreover, 89.4% of the ulcers healed within 14 weeks. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a five-year recurrence rate of 0.0%, and the satisfaction mean score was 4.6. Conclusion Endoscopic-assisted surgery can be used to radically excise varicose veins complicated with venous ulcers; the surgery yields low recurrence and high satisfaction rates.

  15. Retrograde mechanochemical ablation of the small saphenous vein for the treatment of a venous ulcer. (United States)

    Moore, Hayley M; Lane, Tristan R A; Franklin, Ian J; Davies, Alun H


    We present the first case of retrograde ablation of the small saphenous vein to treat active venous ulceration. A 73-year-old gentleman with complicated varicose veins of the left leg and a non-healing venous ulcer despite previous successful endovenous treatment to his left great saphenous vein underwent mechanochemical ablation of his small saphenous vein with the ClariVein® system, under local anaesthetic, using a retrograde cannulation technique. Post-operatively the patient had improved symptomatically and the ulcer size had reduced. This report highlights that patients with small saphenous vein incompetence and active ulceration can be treated successfully with retrograde mechanochemical ablation. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions:

  16. Force-Based Puncture Detection and Active Position Holding for Assisted Retinal Vein Cannulation. (United States)

    Gonenc, Berk; Tran, Nhat; Riviere, Cameron N; Gehlbach, Peter; Taylor, Russell H; Iordachita, Iulian


    Retinal vein cannulation is a demanding procedure proposed to treat retinal vein occlusion by direct therapeutic agent delivery methods. Challenges in identifying the moment of venous puncture, achieving cannulation and maintaining cannulation during drug delivery currently limit the feasibility of the procedure. In this study, we respond to these problems with an assistive system combining a handheld micromanipulator, Micron, with a force-sensing microneedle. The integrated system senses the instant of vein puncture based on measured forces and the position of the needle tip. The system actively holds the cannulation device securely in the vein following cannulation and during drug delivery. Preliminary testing of the system in a dry phantom, stretched vinyl membranes, demonstrates a significant improvement in the total time the needle could be maintained stably inside of the vein. This was especially evident in smaller veins and is attributed to decreased movement of the positioned cannula following venous cannulation.

  17. Finger-vein image recognition combining modified Hausdorff distance with minutiae feature matching. (United States)

    Yu, Cheng-Bo; Qin, Hua-Feng; Cui, Yan-Zhe; Hu, Xiao-Qian


    In this paper, we propose a novel method for finger-vein recognition. We extract the features of the vein patterns for recognition. Then, the minutiae features included bifurcation points and ending points are extracted from these vein patterns. These feature points are used as a geometric representation of the vein patterns shape. Finally, the modified Hausdorff distance algorithm is provided to evaluate the identification ability among all possible relative positions of the vein patterns shape. This algorithm has been widely used for comparing point sets or edge maps since it does not require point correspondence. Experimental results show that these minutiae feature points can be used to perform personal verification tasks as a geometric representation of the vein patterns shape. Furthermore, by this developed method, we can achieve robust image matching under different lighting conditions.

  18. Trans-Splenic Portal Vein Embolization: A Technique to Avoid Damage to the Future Liver Remnant

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    Sarwar, Ammar, E-mail:; Brook, Olga R.; Weinstein, Jeffrey L. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Khwaja, Khalid [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School, Division of Transplant Surgery, Department of Surgery (United States); Ahmed, Muneeb [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)


    Portal vein embolization (PVE) induces hypertrophy of the future liver remnant (FLR) in patients undergoing extensive hepatic resection. Portal vein access for PVE via the ipsilateral hepatic lobe (designated for resection) places veins targeted for embolization at acute angles to the access site requiring reverse curve catheters for access. This approach also involves access close to tumors in the ipsilateral lobe and requires care to avoid traversing tumor. Alternatively, a contralateral approach (through the FLR) risks damage to the FLR due to iatrogenic trauma or non-target embolization. Two patients successfully underwent PVE via trans-splenic portal vein access, allowing easy access to the ipsilateral portal veins and eliminating risk of damage to FLR. Technique and advantages of trans-splenic portal vein access to perform PVE are described.

  19. Atresia of the bilateral pulmonary veins: a rare and dismal anomaly identified on cardiac CT

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    Goo, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang-Hyub; Koo, Hyun Jung; Cho, Young Hoon; Lee, Eunsol [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Imaging findings of bilateral pulmonary vein atresia have not been described. To describe cardiac CT findings and clinical outcomes of bilateral pulmonary vein atresia. Three newborns with bilateral pulmonary vein atresia were encountered at our institution during a period of 8 years. We evaluated prenatal echocardiographic findings, clinical presentations, postnatal echocardiographic findings, chest radiographic findings, cardiac CT findings and clinical outcomes. All newborns presented immediately after birth with severe cyanosis, respiratory distress and acidosis that were unresponsive to medical management. Prenatal and postnatal echocardiographic studies and chest radiography were misleading, inconclusive or nonspecific in making the diagnosis in these children; however cardiac CT clearly demonstrated atresia of the bilateral pulmonary veins with multiple small mediastinal collateral veins and pulmonary edema. Surgical treatments were not feasible for this anomaly. Their clinical outcomes were universally dismal and all infants died within 3 days. Cardiac CT provides an accurate diagnosis of bilateral pulmonary vein atresia and leads to prompt treatment decision in these children. (orig.)

  20. Case report: Varicosity of the communicating vein between the left renal vein and the left ascending lumbar vein mimicking a renal artery aneurysm: Report of an unusual site of varicose veins and a novel hypothesis to explain its association with abdominal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep G Jakhere


    Full Text Available A communicating vein between the left renal vein and the left ascending lumbar vein has only rarely been reported in the imaging literature. There are very few reports of varicosity of this communicating vein. Nonetheless, awareness about this communicating vein is of utmost importance for surgeons performing aortoiliac surgeries and nephrectomies as it may pose technical difficulties during surgery or cause life-threatening retroperitoneal hemorrhage. Varicosity of this venous channel may be mistaken for paraaortic lymphadenopathy, adrenal pseudo-mass, or renal artery aneurysm. We report a case of a patient with varicosity of this communicating vein, which mimicked a left renal artery aneurysm. A novel hypothesis is also proposed to explain the relationship with abdominal pain.

  1. Stenting of vertical vein in an infant with obstructed supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage

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    W K Lim


    Full Text Available A 1.7 kg infant with obstructed supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (TAPVD presented with severe pulmonary hypertension secondary to vertical vein obstruction. The child, in addition, had a large omphalocele that was being managed conservatively. The combination of low weight, unoperated omphalocele, and severe pulmonary hypertension made corrective cardiac surgery very high-risk. Therefore, transcatheter stenting of the stenotic vertical vein, as a bridge to corrective surgery was carried out. The procedure was carried out through the right internal jugular vein (RIJ. The stenotic segment of the vertical vein was stented using a coronary stent. After procedure, the child was discharged well to the referred hospital for weight gain and spontaneous epithelialization of the omphalocele. Stenting of the vertical vein through the internal jugular vein can be considered in very small neonates as a bridge to repair obstructed supracardiac total anomalous venous drainage.

  2. Central retinal vein occlusion following Sirsasana (headstand posture

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    Shah Nikunj


    Full Text Available We report a case of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO following Sirsasana, a head-down postural yoga. A 55-year-old male patient presented to us, with sudden-onset loss of vision following Sirsasana, in the right eye. The patient had suffered from pulmonary thromboembolism 5 years earlier and was receiving warfarin prophylaxis. Over 6 months of follow-up, the patient developed neovascularization of the iris and was subjected to panretinal laser with no improvement in visual acuity. Sirsasana could be an important risk factor for CRVO especially in predisposed patients.

  3. Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus of Liver Metastasis from Lung Cancer

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    Ryoko Ogawa


    Full Text Available We report a case of liver metastasis of lung carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT. Although the primary lesion of lung tumor remained unchanged, the patient rapidly developed wide-spread metastases and formed PVTT of liver metastasis. The primary lesion showed features of mixed Clara and bronchial surface epithelial cell component type adenocarcinoma with small foci of micropapillary pattern. Micropapillary pattern was observed in the metastatic lesions in the liver and PVTT. Micropapillary pattern lung adenocarcinoma may develop rapid metastases and cause PVTT associated with liver metastasis. We should perform a detailed examination to establish correct diagnosis.

  4. OCT imaging of myocardium extending to pulmonary vein (United States)

    Li, Zhifang; Dickfeld, Timm; Tang, Qinggong; Wang, Bohan; Chen, Yu


    In this study, we propose to use optical coherence tomography to enable a direct visualization of myocardium extending into the pulmonary vein (PV). The results showed that there are obvious differences in the morphology of myocardium and fibrous tissue in the transition region of myocardial sleeve, which is in agreement with the histological analysis. In addition, the myocardial area in transition point has three layers in the depth of 1 mm, and the depth-resolved myocardial fiber show different orientation in the different layers. This characteristic was applied for segmentation of the structures of myocardium extending into PV.

  5. Microstructures of glassy alloys: presence of hills, valleys, and veins

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    Aboki T.A.M.


    Full Text Available Amorphous ribbon surfaces, wheel and free sides are peculiar, but no microstructural description is not yet proposed. Here, we introduce a new description of the two surfaces by analogy with biological organs like a leaf as a network of hills, valleys, and veins. The venation can help understand the transport properties like heat dissipation during ribbon processing and mechanical properties like resilience or tensile strength of the amorphous ribbon. The new microstructure presentation can be useful to describe the crystallization of glassy materials

  6. Neurogenic contraction and relaxation of human penile deep dorsal vein (United States)

    Segarra, Gloria; Medina, Pascual; Domenech, Cristina; Martínez León, Juan B; Vila, José M; Aldasoro, Martin; Lluch, Salvador


    The aim of the present study was to characterize neurogenic and pharmacological responses of human penile deep dorsal vein and to determine whether the responses are mediated by nitric oxide from neural or endothelial origin.Ring segments of human penile deep dorsal vein were obtained from 22 multiorgan donors during procurement of organs for transplantation. The rings were suspended in organ bath chambers for isometric recording of tension. We then studied the contractile and relaxant responses to electrical field stimulation and to vasoactive agents.Electrical field stimulation (0.5–2 Hz) and noradrenaline (3×10−10–3×10−5 M) caused frequency- and concentration-dependent contractions that were of greater magnitude in veins denuded of endothelium. The inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME, 10−4 M) increased the adrenergic responses only in rings with endothelium.In preparations contracted with noradrenaline in the presence of guanethidine (10−6 M) and atropine (10−6 M), electrical stimulation induced frequency-dependent relaxations. This neurogenic relaxation was prevented by L-NAME, methylene blue (3×10−5 M) and tetrodotoxin (10−6 M), but was unaffected by removal of endothelium.Acetylcholine (10−8–3×10−5 M) and substance P (3×10−11–3×10−7 M) induced endothelium-dependent relaxations. In contrast, sodium nitroprusside (10−9–3×10−5 M) and papaverine (10−8–3×10−5 M) caused endothelium-independent relaxations.The results provide functional evidence that the human penile deep dorsal vein is an active component of the penile vascular resistance through the release of nitric oxide from both neural and endothelial origin. Dysfunction in any of these sources of nitric oxide should be considered in some forms of impotence. PMID:9690872

  7. Retro-aortic, left inferior renal capsular vein

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    Umberto G Rossi


    Full Text Available In our case report, abdominal multi-detector computed tomography was used for the pre-operative anatomy evaluation in a living kidney donor. The early phase of the test revealed normal kidneys in the donor. The vascular phase detected a venous variant on the left side: An inferior renal capsular vein, which had a loop and a retro-aortic course. This preoperative knowledge was crucial for the laparoscopic nephrectomy as a surgical procedure for harvesting kidney from the living donor.

  8. Compartment Syndrome After Varicose Vein Surgery Evidenced by CT Images. (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Min; Kim, Maru


    A 21-year-old man developed compartment syndrome after a varicose vein surgery. Because of a lack of appropriate diagnostic apparatus, it was not possible to measure calf pressure. The only diagnostic tool available was computed tomography (CT). With the aid of CT, faster diagnosis of the compartment syndrome was possible, leading to appropriate management. By providing unique CT images of a patient before and after having compartment syndrome and after a fasciotomy, this study could add valuable references for diagnosis of compartment syndrome using CT. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Facial vein thrombophlebitis: an uncommon complication of sinusitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotes, Claudia [The University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Radiology, Galveston, TX (United States); Riascos, Roy [The University of Texas Medical School, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Swischuk, Leonard E. [The University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Radiology, Galveston, TX (United States)


    Facial vein thrombophlebitis is an uncommon complication of sinusitis. In cases where periorbital swelling complicating sinusitis is diagnosed, clinical findings of swelling and erythema extending beyond the orbital region into the cheek should alert the physician about this unusual complication and the need for further contrast-enhanced imaging and venography. The radiologist must be particularly careful in the evaluation of vascular structures of the face and neck in these children. CT and MRI with contrast material and MR venography are studies that clearly demonstrate the vascular anatomy and possible complications. However, MR venography confirms flow abnormalities within the venous system with the advantage of avoiding radiation exposure to the pediatric patient. (orig.)

  10. TEM Examination of Shock Veins in Ordinary Chondrites (United States)

    Lingemann, C. M.; Langenhorst, F.; Stoffler, D.


    Introduction: As part of a research project on shock metamorphism of chondrites [1] we studied shock veins in different L-chondrites to understand their formation conditions. These thin shock veins (>20 micrometers thickness) have been found in the meteorites L5-6-Acfer 040, L6-Coorara, L6-Johnson City and L6-Tenham and were studied in detail by analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM). Texture. Shock veins consist of a fine-grained opaque matrix with embedded large fragments of the host chondrite. High-pressure polymorphs of olivine (ringwoodite and wadsleyite) and enstatite (majorite), which are clear indicators of strong shock metamorphism [1], are present in both matrix and fragments. In the matrix, majorite and, to a minor extent, ringwoodite coexist with globules of Fe-Ni alloy and troilite (ringwoodite and majorite occur as polycrystalline aggregates of tiny crystals (Ringwoodite shows generally a high density of stacking faults parallel to 110 planes. These stacking faults are interpreted as growth defects due to rapid cooling [2]. Majorite is defect-free. Chemistry. Ringwoodite in fragments is chemically less homogeneous and tends to a higher FeO-content than olivine in the host chondrite [3, 4]. A tendency to chemical heterogeneity has also been detected for majorite in fragments. The composition of the majorite in the matrix is distinctly heterogeneous and differs systematically from that of the enstatite, because it shows a distinct enrichment in Al, Mg, Ca, Na and a significant depletion in Si, Mn and especially in Fe, which is up to 50% lower than in the primary enstatite. Discussion. Chemical heterogeneity and small grain sizes of high-pressure phases as well as presence of Fe-Ni alloy and troilite in the form of globules indicates that shock veins represent quenched melts. The high-pressure phases are interpreted as crystallization products of these melts. The localized temperature excursions result probably from friction of the meteoritic

  11. Hemorrhage and abnormal veins in acoustic neurinoma. MR findings

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    Ishii, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Shoki; Matsumoto, Ko; Ishibashi, Tadashi; Sakamoto, Kiyohiko; Hashimoto, Sho; Katakura, Ryuichi; Ogawa, Akira [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine; Yuasa, Ryo


    We reviewed the MR imaging findings of 57 acoustic neurinomas which were verified at surgery or diagnosed on the basis of neuroradiological and neurootological data. Two uncommon MR findings of acoustic neurinoma were found. First, hypointense areas were observed on T{sub 2}-weighted images in five of the 12 tumors larger than 25 mm in diameter. These hypointense areas represented hemosiderin deposition secondary to occult intratumoral hemorrhage. Second, curvilinear or round signal voids were noted at the periphery of 11 large or medium-sized tumors, and these corresponded to `abnormal veins` seen on angiographic studies. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available During early embryonic development, absorption of pulmonary venous network by the left primitive atrial chamber results in opening of four pulmonary veins which drain independently into its chamber. The extent of absorption and hence, the number of pulmon ary veins which open into the left atrium, may vary. Here we report a variation in the opening of the Left upper (superior pulmonary vein into the Left atrium. A total of six openings observed

  13. Correlation between the milk vein internal diameter surface andmilk yield in Simmental cows




    It is known that milk production is directly correlated with the blood flow through the mammary gland, and milk veins drain approximately 90% of the total blood passing through this organ. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between milk vein internal diameter surface and milk production in Simmental cows. The milk vein internal diameter was measured by ultrasonography in heifers during the 2nd month of the first gravidity, and again on day 50 following the second c...

  14. Intrastent sonotherapy in pulmonary vein restenosis: a new treatment for a recalcitrant problem


    McMahon, C J; C. E. Mullins; El Said, H G


    A 2 year old boy developed recurrent pulmonary vein stenosis after surgical repair of infradiaphragmatic pulmonary venous connection. He had required implantation of stents in the left and right sided pulmonary veins at 7 and 13 months of age, respectively. By 2 years of age he had undergone three catheterisation procedures and two surgical procedures to treat recurrent pulmonary vein stenosis. His right ventricular pressure was suprasystemic and catheterisation showed severe neointimal proli...

  15. Inflammatory pseudotumor causing deep vein thrombosis after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Memon, Adeel Rasool


    Metal-on-metal hip resurfacings have recently been associated with a variety of complications resulting from adverse reaction to metal debris. We report a case of extensive soft tissue necrosis associated with a huge pelvic mass causing extensive deep vein thrombosis of the lower limb secondary to mechanical compression of the iliac vein. This is a rare and unusual cause of deep vein thrombosis after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty.

  16. Bipolar radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy of great saphenous vein: Our initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Kasi


    Full Text Available The incidence of varicose veins in lower limbs is increasing in the Indian subcontinent. With the advent of radiofrequency ablation (RFA, an effective minimally invasive technique is now available to treat varicose veins. RFA can be performed with either unipolar or bipolar probes. We present a simple technique for bipolar radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy of the great saphenous vein. This can be a safe and effective alternative to surgical procedures.

  17. Catheter-Directed Fibrinolysis of Submassive Pulmonary Embolism After IVC Filter Migration to Renal Veins. (United States)

    Patel, Kershaw V; Leef, Jeffrey A; Blair, John E; Shah, Atman P; Nathan, Sandeep; Paul, Jonathan D


    A 76-year-old male presented with a submassive pulmonary embolism despite having an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. Imaging demonstrated pulmonary artery emboli and a deep vein thrombosis in the left common femoral vein. Venography revealed the IVC filter with struts extending into the left and right renal veins. A new IVC filter was deployed below the prior filter. This case demonstrates IVC filter migration complicated by a submassive pulmonary embolism.

  18. Vein Pattern Recognition Using Chain Codes, Spatial Information and Skeleton Fusing


    Hartung, Daniel; Pflug, Anika; Busch, Christoph


    Vein patterns are a unique attribute of each individual and can therefore be used as a biometric characteristic. Exploiting the specific near infrared light absorption properties of blood, the vein capture procedure is convenient and allows contact-less sensors. We propose a new chain code based feature encoding method, using spacial and orientation properties of vein patterns. The proposed comparison method has been evaluated in a series of different experiments in single and ...

  19. Intra-Arterial Thrombolysis for Deep Vein Thrombosis of the Lower Extremity: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moo Sang; Roh, Byung Suk [Dept. of Radiology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)


    If the appropriate catheterization of the affected vein was not possible because of a narrowed or thrombus-filled venous lumen, successful treatment gets into trouble during catheter directed regional thrombolysis for treatment of deep vein thrombosis. In this situation, intra-arterial thrombolysis can be considered as an alternative treatment, but to the best of our knowledge, only two reports have been described. We present here cases of successful intra-arterial thrombolysis in patients with deep vein thrombosis.

  20. Arteriovenous Fistula Complicated by Popliteal Venous Access for Endovascular Thrombolytic Therapy of Deep Vein Thrombosis

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    Byun, Sung Su; Kim, Jeong Ho; Park, Chul Hi; Hwang, Hee Young; Kim, Hyung SiK [Gacheon University Gil Medical Center, Gacheon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Young Sun; Kim, Won Hong [Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    We report a case of an iatrogenic arteriovenous fistula complicated by catheter- directed thrombolytic therapy in a patient with acute deep vein thrombosis of a lower extremity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an arteriovenous fistula between the sural artery and popliteal vein in that situation. As the vessels have a close anatomical relationship, the arteriovenous fistula seems to be a potential complication after endovascular thrombolytic therapy of acute deep vein thrombosis.

  1. Hepatic vein morphology: a new sonographic diagnostic parameter in the investigation of cirrhosis? (United States)

    Vessal, Sheida; Naidoo, Shunkara; Hodson, James; Stella, Damien L; Gibson, Robert N


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a new sonographic marker for the diagnosis of cirrhosis using hepatic vein wall changes. A prospective pilot study evaluating 88 patients, 38 with cirrhosis and 50 with no evidence of liver disease, was undertaken. Hard copy sonograms of the hepatic veins were obtained and reviewed in a blinded fashion by 2 radiologists. The hepatic vein morphology was assessed by 3 parameters: hepatic vein wall straightness, uniformity of hepatic vein wall echogenicity, and visualization of a complete 1-cm hepatic vein segment. The 3 parameters were compared to evaluate sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of cirrhosis. Interobserver and intraobserver errors for each parameter were also calculated with kappa statistics to assess reproducibility. There was a strong correlation between altered straightness and nonuniformity of hepatic vein wall echogenicity and cirrhosis. The straightness parameter had superior sensitivity of 97% (95% confidence interval [CI], 85%-100%) and specificity of 91% (95% CI, 78%-97%) for diagnosis of cirrhosis. Uniformity of hepatic vein wall echogenicity was the next most useful parameter, with sensitivity of 88% (95% CI, 73%-97%) and specificity of 86% (95% CI, 72%-95%). The continuous 1-cm segment of the hepatic vein had sensitivity of 68% (95% CI, 49%-83%) and specificity of 91% (95% CI, 78%-97%). Hepatic vein evaluation was found to show both good intraobserver and interobserver error. Hepatic vein morphology on sonography, in particular, changes in the straightness and uniformity of hepatic vein wall echogenicity, is a new sign of cirrhosis, which may increase the overall accuracy of sonographic diagnosis of cirrhosis and which appears to have a moderately high degree of reproducibility.

  2. Regional heterogeneity of endothelial cells in the porcine vortex vein system. (United States)

    Tan, Priscilla Ern Zhi; Yu, Paula K; Cringle, Stephen J; Morgan, William H; Yu, Dao-Yi


    The aim of this study was to investigate whether region-dependent endothelial heterogeneity is present within the porcine vortex vein system. The superior temporal vortex vein in young adult pig eyes were dissected out and cannulated. The intact vortex vein system down to the choroidal veins was then perfused with labels for f-actin and nucleic acid. The endothelial cells within the choroidal veins, pre-ampulla, anterior portion of the ampulla, mid-ampulla, posterior portion of the ampulla, post-ampulla, intra-scleral canal and the extra-ocular vortex vein regions were studied in detail using a confocal microscopy technique. The endothelial cell and nuclei length, width, area and perimeter were measured and compared between the different regions. Significant regional differences in the endothelial cell and nuclei length, width, area and perimeter were observed throughout the porcine vortex vein system. Most notably, very narrow and elongated endothelia were found in the post-ampulla region. A lack of smooth muscle cells was noted in the ampulla region compared to other regions. Heterogeneity in endothelial cell morphology is present throughout the porcine vortex vein system and there is a lack of smooth muscle cells in the ampulla region. This likely reflects the highly varied haemodynamic conditions and potential blood flow control mechanisms in different regions of the vortex vein system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydraulic tuning of vein cell microstructure in the evolution of angiosperm venation networks. (United States)

    Feild, Taylor S; Brodribb, Timothy J


    High vein density (D(V)) evolution in angiosperms represented a key functional transition. Yet, a mechanistic account on how this hydraulic transformation evolved remains lacking. We demonstrate that a consequence of producing high D(V is that veins must become very small to fit inside the leaf, and that angiosperms are the only clade that evolved the specific type of vessel required to yield sufficiently conductive miniature leaf veins. From 111 species spanning key divergences in vascular plant evolution, we show, using analyses of vein conduit evolution in relation to vein packing, that a key xylem innovation associated with high D(V) evolution is a strong reduction in vein thickness and simplification of the perforation plates of primary xylem vessels. Simple perforation plates in the leaf xylem occurred only in derived angiosperm clades exhibiting high D(V) (> 12 mm mm(-2)). Perforation plates in the vessels of other species, including extant basal angiosperms, consisted of resistive scalariform types that were associated with thicker veins and much lower D(V). We conclude that a reduction in within-vein conduit resistance allowed vein size to decrease. We suggest that this adaptation may have been a critical evolutionary step that enabled dramatic D(V) elaboration in angiosperms. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Reflux in foot veins is associated with venous toe and forefoot ulceration. (United States)

    van Bemmelen, Paul S; Spivack, Daniel; Kelly, Patrick


    To determine the prevalence of foot vein incompetence in a group of patients with chronic venous insufficiency and to assess the association of this, with venous ulceration located on the forefoot. A total of 20 consecutive patients (21 limbs) with active or healed venous ulceration was prospectively studied with duplex ultrasound of the superficial and plantar foot veins. In these, four extremities had venous ulceration involving the forefoot. Specifically, the superficial venous arch near the metatarsal heads, the foot portion of the great and small saphenous veins, the anterior arch veins on the foot dorsum, and the plantar veins were interrogated with a 12-MHz probe. Reflux was found in 32% of pedal vein segments in CEAP C5, C6 legs, with ulceration involving only the gaiter area (mean number of incompetent foot segments, 1.6 ± 1.2). Pedal reflux was present in 65% of foot vein segments when forefoot ulceration was present (mean number of incompetent foot segments, 3.3 ± 1.3). Student t-test for the difference in the mean number of incompetent foot vein segments was significant (P Venous ulceration can affect the forefoot and toe areas and is associated with reflux in the pedal vein segments. Copyright © 2011 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Successful treatment of a spontaneous rupture of the left external iliac vein in a man. (United States)

    Sadaghianloo, Nirvana; Jean-Baptiste, Elixine; Haudebourg, Pierre; Declemy, Serge; Mousnier, Aurdlien; Hassen-Khodja, Rida


    Spontaneous rupture of the external iliac vein associated with a May-Thurner syndrome is infrequent, particularly in men. We report a case of previously healthy 73-year-old man with a left iliac vein thrombosis, who presented a large lower left abdominal hematoma of sudden-unset. Emergent laparotomy revealed a 3-cm longitudinal tear in the left external iliac vein, which was repaired primarily. Patient's recovery was uneventful. Possible etiological factors have been identified as venous hypertension due to iliac vein thrombosis associated with Cockett syndrome, as well as inflammatory venous wall. Some other estrogenic factors could explain female preponderance of the event.

  6. Central retinal vein occlusion concomitant with dengue fever. (United States)

    Velaitham, Punithamalar; Vijayasingham, Nandini


    Dengue virus infection is on the rise and there is increasing number of ocular complications that are being reported. Most common ocular complications are macular edema, macular hemorrhages, and foveolitis. There are case reports on branch retinal vessel occlusions. Most of the ocular complications are attributed to the bleeding tendency and transudative process in dengue viral infection. This is a case report of ischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) concomitant with dengue fever. A 41 year old Malay female was admitted to medical ward and diagnosed to have "dengue fever with warning signs". On the day of admission she noted sudden onset of right eye blurring of vision. She presented to our clinic 1 week later. Ocular examination revealed right eye visual acuity of <20/1000 and ischaemic CRVO with macular edema. She had no other risk factors to develop retinal vein occlusion. She progressively developed proliferative retinopathy and received multiple laser therapy. There was no anterior segment neovascularization. However, her vision improved to only 20/400 despite of resolution of macular edema and new vessels elsewhere. Dengue virus infection is known to cause thrombocytopenia which can result in hemorrhagic events. It can also cause procoagulant state which can result in thrombotic events secondary to immune reaction. Awareness among treating physicians of such ocular complication which can result in significant morbidity for patient is necessary.

  7. Jugular vein phlebectasia in paediatric patients with vocal fold nodules. (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Sun, Chang-zhi; Zou, Hua; Luo, Ren-zhong


    Jugular vein phlebectasia (JVP) may often be overlooked in clinical practice and the management for JVP include surgery and a conservative approach. We have studied the relationship between JVP and vocal fold nodules in paediatric patients as well as the effects of treatment. Twenty-three cases of paediatric vocal fold nodules with JVP were studied. All patients received voice therapy. After 6 months of treatment, hoarseness, neck appearance (subjective evaluation) and the degree of dilation of the jugular vein detected by Doppler ultrasonography were analysed. The follow-up period was 6 to 84 months. The hoarseness disappeared or lessened noticeably after treatment for 1-4 months. The neck masses also lessened (pre vs. post: 2.58 ± 0.40 vs. 1.60 ± 0.19) after treatment for 1-4 months. The visual analogue score of the post-treatment symptoms decreased significantly compared with pre-treatment (p vocal fold nodules may be related to JVP. Voice changes may also be observed in cases of paediatric JVP. Voice therapy may offer another conservative treatment option for JVP accompanied by vocal fold nodules, and it may offer better results than simple observation of JVP.

  8. Spontaneous Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis: A Case Report

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    Mustafa Serinken


    Full Text Available Internal jugular vein thrombosis (IJVT is an elusive vascular disease that is rarely seen, with potentially lethal complications such as sepsis and pulmonary embolism. Spontaneous IJVT is considered when no apparent predisposing cause of thrombosis is present. A previously healthy, 31-year-old woman presented to the university-based emergency department because of painless swelling in the right anterior side of her neck. Physical examination revealed a painless, soft and immobile mass in the right anterior side of her neck beneath the sternocleidomastoid muscle, without hyperemia or local heat. On ultrasonographic examination, a hyperechogenic mass was visualized around the thoracic entrance of the right internal jugular vein, which was suggestive of a thrombus. The patient was administered intravenous antibiotic and low-molecular-weight heparin followed by oral coumadin as anticoagulant therapy. Her complaints were relieved within 5 days. She was completely well after 6 months. Venous thrombosis generally results from impaired blood flow locally or systemically that leads to activation of coagulation. Primary care physicians should sustain a high index of suspicion in patients who present with undiagnosed swelling in the neck, or other signs and symptoms attributed to IJVT.

  9. Relations of Facial Nerve With Retromandibular Vein in Human Fetuses. (United States)

    Elvan, Özlem; Gilan, Yağmurhan; Beger, Orhan; Bobuş, Alev; Tezer, Mesut; Aktekin, Mustafa


    The relationship of facial nerve (FN) and its branches with the retromandibular vein (RMV) has been described in adults, whereas there is no data in the literature regarding this relationship in fetuses. The study was conducted to evaluate the anatomic relationships of these structures on 61 hemi-faces of fetuses with a mean age of 26.5 ± 4.9 weeks with no visible facial abnormalities. The FN trunk was identified at its emergence at the stylomastoid foramen. It was traced till its ramification within the parotid gland. In 46 sides, FN trunk ramified before crossing RMV and ran lateral to it, while in 8 sides FN trunk ramified on the lateral aspect of the RMV. In 3 sides, FN trunk ramified after crossing the RMV at its medial aspect. In only 1 side, FN trunk trifurcated as superior, middle, and inferior divisions and RMV lied anterior to FN trunk, lateral to superior division, medial to middle and inferior divisions. In 2 sides, FN trunk bifurcated as superior and inferior divisions. Retromandibular vein was located anterior to FN trunk, medial to superior division, lateral to inferior division in both of them. In 1 side, RMV ran medial to almost all branches, except the cervical branch of FN. Variability in the relationship of FN and RMV in fetuses as presented in this study is thought to be crucial in surgical procedures particularly in early childhood.

  10. SIFT Based Vein Recognition Models: Analysis and Improvement

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    Guoqing Wang


    Full Text Available Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT is being investigated more and more to realize a less-constrained hand vein recognition system. Contrast enhancement (CE, compensating for deficient dynamic range aspects, is a must for SIFT based framework to improve the performance. However, evidence of negative influence on SIFT matching brought by CE is analysed by our experiments. We bring evidence that the number of extracted keypoints resulting by gradient based detectors increases greatly with different CE methods, while on the other hand the matching result of extracted invariant descriptors is negatively influenced in terms of Precision-Recall (PR and Equal Error Rate (EER. Rigorous experiments with state-of-the-art and other CE adopted in published SIFT based hand vein recognition system demonstrate the influence. What is more, an improved SIFT model by importing the kernel of RootSIFT and Mirror Match Strategy into a unified framework is proposed to make use of the positive keypoints change and make up for the negative influence brought by CE.

  11. [Surgical treatment of acute deep leg and pelvic vein trombosis]. (United States)

    Gall, F; Husfeldt, K J


    In the last 3 years 93 cases of iliofermoral trombosis were treated by surgery. We prefer the method used by Brunner, but under general anaesthesia and using a Bentley-Autotransfusion-System (ATS). The average age of our patients was 55 years (age ranged between 17 and 87 years). No lethal pulmonary embolism was observed. 2, 1 percent of the patients died following apoplex or acute heart failure. Of 67 patients who were operated on 6 months ago or more 70 percent have no further complaints, 28 percent still have some residual edema and only 2 patients have a severe postthrombotic syndrome. 50 percent of 40 control-phlebograms demonstrated patency of all veins. 20 percent had short segmentary occlusions with definite signs of recanalisation, while in 27 percent of the cases occlusions of the lower leg and thigh were found, the iliac veins being free. Only 2 postoperative phlebograms showed a complete iliofemoral venous occlusion. Our results prove, that the operative thrombectomy is a successful method, with which the main complications of the iliofemoral thrombosis-pulmonary embolisation and postthrombotic syndrome-can difinitely be reduced. Also because of better long term results, the operative therapy of acute ilofemoral thrombosis should be generally prefered instead of conservative treatment.

  12. Remora cranial vein morphology and its functional implications for attachment. (United States)

    Flammang, Brooke E


    Remora fishes adhere to, and maintain long-term, reversible attachment with, surfaces of varying roughness and compliance under wetted high-shear conditions using an adhesive disc that evolved from the dorsal fin spines typical of other fishes. Evolution of this complex hierarchical structure required extensive reorganization of the skull and fin spines, but the functional role of the soft tissues of the disc are poorly understood. Here I show that remora cranial veins are highly-modified in comparison to those of other vertebrates; they are transposed anteriorly and enlarged, and lie directly ventral to the disc on the dorsum of the cranium. Ancestrally, these veins lie inside the neurocranium, in the dura ventral to the brain, and return blood from the eyes, nares, and brain to the heart. Repositioning of these vessels to lie in contact with the ventral surface of the disc lamellae implies functional importance associated with the adhesive mechanism. The position of the anterior cardinal sinus suggests that it may aid in pressurization equilibrium during attachment by acting as a hydraulic differential.

  13. Veins and Lymphatics is taking its first steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ricci


    Full Text Available Veins represent an important field of medicine. They are frequently involved in several diseases with a very wide range of severity. At one end of the spectrum, we have thrombosis and post-thrombotic syndrome, while at the other we have telangectasias, and a vast number of other conditions lie between these two extremes. Varicose veins are not always severe, but they affect an enormous number of people, with a consequent social and economic burden to society. Lymphology is also an important subject. Lymphatics play a role in many human diseases but lymphedema is a sort of Cinderella disease, neglected by patients, doctors and health care administrators. The name itself shows how little we know; a description of the clinical manifestation has been transformed into the name of the disease. Lymphedema is usually considered to be an inevitable event, be it congenital or secondary. Its incidence is thought to be growing each year, especially in poorer countries and in the field of oncology. Lymphedema treatment is mostly unsatisfactory and costs are high, while patient adherence to treatment is low...

  14. Reading speed improvements in retinal vein occlusion after ranibizumab treatment. (United States)

    Suñer, Ivan J; Bressler, Neil M; Varma, Rohit; Lee, Paul; Dolan, Chantal M; Ward, James; Colman, Shoshana; Rubio, Roman G


    Treatment of macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion with ranibizumab has been shown to improve visual acuity compared with macular laser or observation. It is important to determine whether these visual acuity improvements translate into measurable improvements in visual function. To examine the benefit of ranibizumab (Lucentis) on measured reading speed, a direct performance assessment, through 6 months in eyes of patients with macular edema after retinal vein occlusion (RVO). DESIGN Two multicenter, double-masked, phase 3 trials in which participants with macular edema after branch RVO or central RVO were randomized 1:1:1 to monthly sham, ranibizumab, 0.3 mg, or ranibizumab, 0.5 mg, for 6 months. Community- and academic-based ophthalmology practices specializing in retinal diseases. Seven hundred eighty-nine eyes of 789 participants who were at least aged 18 years with macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion in the branch vein occlusion (BRAVO) and central vein occlusion (CRUISE) trials. Eyes were randomized 1:1:1 to 1 of 3 groups for monthly injections for 6 months: sham (132 in BRAVO and 130 in CRUISE), intravitreal ranibizumab, 0.3 mg (134 in BRAVO and 132 in CRUISE), and intravitreal ranibizumab, 0.5 mg (131 in BRAVO and 130 in CRUISE). Patients were able to receive macular laser after 3 months if they met prespecified criteria. Reading speed in the study eye was measured with enlarged text (letter size equivalent to approximately 20/1500 at the test distance) at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months. The number of correctly read words per minute (wpm) was reported. The reading speed test requires a sixth-grade reading level and does not account for literacy or cognitive state. RESULTS In patients with branch RVO, the mean gain for the 0.5-mg group was 31.3 wpm compared with 15.0 wpm in sham-treated eyes (difference, 16.3 wpm; P = .007) at 6 months. In patients with central RVO, the mean gain for the 0.5-mg group was 20.5 wpm compared with 8

  15. Incidence and predictors of portal and splenic vein thrombosis after pure laparoscopic splenectomy. (United States)

    de'Angelis, Nicola; Abdalla, Solafah; Lizzi, Vincenzo; Esposito, Francesco; Genova, Pietro; Roy, Lydia; Galacteros, Frédéric; Luciani, Alain; Brunetti, Francesco


    Optimal modalities for diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance of portal or splenic vein thrombosis have not yet been defined. The present retrospective study aimed to investigate the role of computed tomography performed systematically before and after laparoscopic splenectomy to assess the incidence of portal or splenic vein thrombosis, predictors, and outcomes. Computed tomography scans were obtained from 170 patients undergoing elective laparoscopic splenectomy between 2005 and 2015. Pre- and postoperative splenic vein diameter was measured at the splenoportal junction and at a distance of 2, 4, 6 cm from it. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify portal or splenic vein thrombosis risk factors and predictors of treatment outcome. Overall, 68.2% of patients had benign hematologic diseases; 64.1% showed splenomegaly. Portal or splenic vein thrombosis occurred in 53.5% of patients (91/170), of whom 49.5% were asymptomatic. Preoperative splenic vein diameter measurements at 2, 4, and 6 cm from the splenoportal junction were significantly greater in portal or splenic vein thrombosis patients than in no-portal or splenic vein thrombosis patients. Patients with splenic vein diameter ≥8 mm at all measured sites had a greater risk of developing portal or splenic vein thrombosis (P = .009; odds ratio, 2.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-5.23). The majority of thromboses involved the distal splenic vein (45.1%, 41/91), and 41.7% of patients had thromboses located in multiple sites. Fully 71.4% showed complete resolution of portal or splenic vein thrombosis. Thrombus location at a single site predicted a favorable treatment outcome (P Portal or splenic vein thrombosis is a frequent complication of splenectomy that occurs asymptomatically in half of cases. Computed tomography could have an important role in identifying patients at risk of developing portal or splenic vein thrombosis as well as in predicting portal or splenic vein thrombosis

  16. Characterization of lettuce big-vein associated virus and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus infecting lettuce in Saudi Arabia. (United States)

    Umar, M; Amer, M A; Al-Saleh, M A; Al-Shahwan, I M; Shakeel, M T; Zakri, A M; Katis, N I


    During 2014 and 2015, 97 lettuce plants that showed big-vein-disease-like symptoms and seven weed plants were collected from the Riyadh region. DAS-ELISA revealed that 25% and 9% of the lettuce plants were singly infected with LBVaV and MiLBVV, respectively, whereas 63% had a mixed infection with both viruses. The results were confirmed by multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for LBVaV and MiLBVV. LBVaV and MiLBVV were also detected in Sonchus oleraceus and Eruca sativa, respectively. The nucleotide sequence of LBVaV and MiLBVV Saudi isolates ranged from 94.3-100%, and their similarities to isolates with sequences in the GenBank database ranged from 93.9 to 99.6% and 93.8 to 99.3%, respectively. Olpidium sp. was present in the roots of lettuce plants with big-vein disease and it was shown to facilitate transmission of both viruses.

  17. Ultrasound guidance versus anatomical landmarks for internal jugular vein catheterization. (United States)

    Brass, Patrick; Hellmich, Martin; Kolodziej, Laurentius; Schick, Guido; Smith, Andrew F


    Central venous catheters (CVCs) can help with diagnosis and treatment of the critically ill. The catheter may be placed in a large vein in the neck (internal jugular vein), upper chest (subclavian vein) or groin (femoral vein). Whilst this is beneficial overall, inserting the catheter risks arterial puncture and other complications and should be performed with as few attempts as possible. Traditionally, anatomical 'landmarks' on the body surface were used to find the correct place in which to insert catheters, but ultrasound imaging is now available. A Doppler mode is sometimes used to supplement plain 'two-dimensional' ultrasound. The primary objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of two-dimensional (imaging ultrasound (US) or ultrasound Doppler (USD)) guided puncture techniques for insertion of central venous catheters via the internal jugular vein in adults and children. We assessed whether there was a difference in complication rates between traditional landmark-guided and any ultrasound-guided central vein puncture.Our secondary objectives were to assess whether the effect differs between US and USD; whether the effect differs between ultrasound used throughout the puncture ('direct') and ultrasound used only to identify and mark the vein before the start of the puncture procedure (indirect'); and whether the effect differs between different groups of patients or between different levels of experience among those inserting the catheters. We searched the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1966 to 15 January 2013), EMBASE (1966 to 15 January 2013), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to 15 January 2013 ), reference lists of articles, 'grey literature' and dissertations. An additional handsearch focused on intensive care and anaesthesia journals and abstracts and proceedings of scientific meetings. We attempted to identify unpublished or ongoing studies

  18. Fluids and Sulfate Vein Formation in Gale Crater, Mars. (United States)

    Schwenzer, S. P.; Bridges, J.; Leveille, R. J.; Westall, F.; Wiens, R. C.; Mangold, N.; McAdam, A.; Conrad, P. G.; Martín-Torres, J.; Zorzano, M. P.


    Curiosity detected sulfate veins crosscutting mudstones in the Sheepbed member of Gale Crater (Grotzinger et al., DOI: 10.1126/science.1242777; Manchon et al., DOI:10.1002/2013JE004588). We have used this information to evaluate the clay formation conditions in detail through thermochemical modeling (Bridges et al. submitted to JGR; this conference, session 2128) and compare the calculated fluid to those modeled for the nakhlite alteration mineralogy (Hicks et al. DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2014.04.010, Bridges and Schwenzer, DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2012.09.044) and other Martian fluids. Concentrating the modeled Gale fluid though evaporation (or freezing) leads to a complex set of precipitates, which include silica, sulfate and halite. For example, 1 kg of brine produced by the alteration of a mixture of 70 % amorphous component, 20 % olivine and 10 % host rock (W/R 1000, T= 10 °C) evaporated to dryness (less that 1 % water left) will precipitate 70 mg of anhydrite, 46 mg of silica, 6.5 mg of halite and traces of pyrite, sulfur, calcite, and apatite. A fluid from this host rock with more mature alteration (W/R 100, T = 10 °C) precipitates the same minerals, but in very different abundances: the most abundant phase at dryness is halite (330 mg), followed by silica (88 mg) and anhydrite (30 mg). The calculated pH varies between 8 and 7.3 in both cases. If the evaporating brine is allowed to interact with the precipitate, a 'dirty' sulfate layer or vein filling would result, which could subsequently be refined through dissolution and re-precipitation, a mechanism that, for example, is proposed for the gypsum veins at the UK Triassic coast near Watchet (Philipp doi:10.1017/S0016756808005451). Factors that influence the nature of the precipitate include alteration stage of the host rock during clay formation, and pH and degree of fractionation of the early formed minerals from the evaporating fluid. Using REMS data we also consider desiccation of sulfates in the near surface.

  19. The status of Cucumber vein yellowing virus in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh BANANEJ


    Full Text Available Yellowing symptoms of greenhouse- and open field-grown cucurbit crops are becoming increasingly important in many cucurbit growing regions of the world, and particularly in Iran. A survey was conducted from 2011 to 2012 in eight major cucurbit growing regions in Iran. Yellowing and specifically vein clearing symptoms were observed in many cucumber plants grown in greenhouses and open fields, suggesting the presence of Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV, genus Ipomovirus, family Potyviridae. The identification of CVYV was carried out with a specific triple-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA and reverse transcription (RT-PCR. CVYV was detected in 42% of the collected samples, in all surveyed provinces, except Bushehr. CVYV was also detected in melon and cucumber crops grown in open fields. These results indicate that CVYV is widely distributed on these two cucurbit species in the major cucumber growing areas of Iran. CVYV positive samples were also tested, using DAS-ELISA, for the presence of Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV, two criniviruses reported previously to occur in Iran. Double or triple infections of CCYV and CYSDV occurred in 49 of 166 of the CVYV-infected plants. The CVYV and CCYV combined infections were more prevalent than CVYV and CYSDV combined infections. TAS-ELISA positive samples were used to mechanically inoculate healthy cucumber plants, and mild vein yellowing was observed on the inoculated leaves. Identical symptoms were also observed on whitefly inoculated healthy cucumber plants. The presence of CVYV in mechanically and whitefly inoculated plants was confirmed by TAS-ELISA and RT-PCR. Sequence analysis revealed that the Iranian isolate of CVYV was more closely related to Spanish isolates than to isolates from Jordan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CVYV isolates can be divided into two phylogenetic groups (I and II. Despite the close

  20. A traumatic dural arteriovenous fistula between the inferolateral trunk of the internal carotid artery and the ophthalmic vein: A case of transvenous coil embolization via the facial vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Young; Hong, Chang Ki; Suh, Sang Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Ik [Dept. of of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)


    A 31-year-old man was admitted with exophthalmos. He suffered from progressive exophthalmos, bruit and conjunctival chemosis 7 days after head trauma caused by falling down. Cerebral angiography showed a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) draining into the ophthalmic vein caused by tear in the inferolateral trunk, which is a rare presentation of traumatic DAVF. Selective transvenous coil embolization was performed via the facial vein without neurologic complications.

  1. The contribution of magnetic resonance in the congenital anomalies of the thoracic veins; L'apport de la resonance magnetique dans les anomalies congenitales des veines thoraciques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapierre, C.; Guerin, R.; Miro, J.; Poirier, N.; Dahdah, N. [Univ. of Montreal, Sainte-Justine Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail:


    Congenital anomalies of the thoracic veins, although uncommon, can be of the utmost clinical and surgical significance. These venous anomalies may be subdivided into systemic and pulmonary. Most systemic venous abnormalities are incidental findings, whereas pulmonary vein malformations coexist with coronary heart disease, especially atrial septal defect. Although cardiac ultrasonography remains the initial noninvasive imaging modality, magnetic resonance imaging with ultrafast sequences is of great diagnostic value because multiplanar 3-dimensional reconstructions may be made. (author)

  2. Treatment of major vein injury with the hemostatic fleece TachoSil by interposing a peritoneal patch to avoid vein thrombosis: A feasibility study in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dregelid Einar


    Full Text Available Background : Vein lacerations in awkward locations are difficult to repair and carry high mortality. The hemostatic fleece, TachoSil, is effective in preventing intraoperative bleeding in different settings, but has not been recommended for use in large vein injury. TachoSil with a peritoneal patch interposed to avoid vein thrombosis has been reported as a method to obtain hemostasis in vein laceration, but further studies of this method are needed. Materials and Methods : A 1.5 × 1 cm defect was created in the vena cava in five pigs. A 26 × 32 mm peritoneal patch was applied on the coagulant side of a 48 × 48 mm TachoSil sheet, and used to cover the defect. Light compression with a wet sponge was applied for 3 min. No vascular suturing was performed. Results : Successful hemostasis was obtained in four out of the five pigs although the minimum TachoSil gluing zone surrounding the peritoneal patch was only 0-2 mm. The fifth pig died of hemorrhage 30 min after surgery due to a 4-mm stretch with no TachoSil gluing zone outside the peritoneal patch. At six days postoperatively the peritoneal patch was well integrated into the vein wall. After 28 days, the peritoneal patch was almost indiscernible from surrounding vein endothelium. Conclusions : Vein wall defects can be repaired using TachoSil with a peritoneal patch interposed to prevent contact between the thrombogenic TachoSil sheet and the vein lumen. An adequate TachoSil gluing zone all around the patch is essential.

  3. Localization of aldosterone-producing tumours in primary aldosteronism by adrenal and renal vein catheterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, J O; Nielsen, M D; Giese, Jacob


    Regional venous plasma aldosterone concentrations were determined and assessed against concurrent arterial levels in 16 patients with primary aldosteronism. The results obtained by sampling from the left adrenal vein or the left renal vein allowed correct side prediction of the presupposed adenoma...

  4. Successful catheter directed thrombolysis of IVC and renal vein occlusive thrombus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, E


    Thrombus formation is a recognised complication of IVC filter placement, however IVC and bilateral renal vein occlusion secondary to thrombus is much less common. We present a case of infrahepatic caval and bilateral renal vein occlusion secondary to thrombosis of a suprarenal IVC filter. With progressive clinical deterioration and failure of conservative medical management the patient underwent successful mechanical disruption and catheter directed thrombolysis.

  5. Prognostic impact of the site of portal vein invasion in patients with surgically resected perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. (United States)

    Nakanishi, Yoshitsugu; Tsuchikawa, Takahiro; Okamura, Keisuke; Nakamura, Toru; Tamoto, Eiji; Murakami, Soichi; Ebihara, Yuma; Kurashima, Yo; Noji, Takehiro; Asano, Toshimichi; Shichinohe, Toshiaki; Hirano, Satoshi


    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the site of portal vein invasion on survival after hepatectomy for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. This study classified 168 patients undergoing resection for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma histologically as without portal vein resection or tumor invasion to the portal vein (PV0), with tumor invasion to unilateral branches of the portal vein (PVt3), or with tumor invasion to the main portal vein or its bilateral branches, or to unilateral second-order biliary radicals with contralateral portal vein involvement (PVt4). Patients in PVt4 were subclassified into the A-M group (cancer invasion limited to the tunica adventitia or media) or the I group (cancer invasion reaching the tunica intima). Of the patients, 121 were in PV0, 21 were in PVt3, and 26 were in PVt4. There was no difference in survival between the PV0 and PVt3 groups (P = .267). The PVt4 group had a worse prognosis than the PVt3 group (P = .046). In addition, the A-M (n = 19) and I subgroups (n = 7) of PVt4 had worse prognoses than the PV0 or PVt3 groups (P = .005 and portal vein invasion, although patients with tumor invasion to the main or contralateral branches of the portal vein, especially with tunica intima invasion, had extremely poor prognoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. TIPS Placement via Combined Transjugular and Transhepatic Approach for Cavernous Portal Vein Occlusion: Targeted Approach. (United States)

    Jourabchi, Natanel; McWilliams, Justin Pryce; Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Sauk, Steven; Kee, Stephen Thomas


    Purpose. We report a novel technique which aided recanalization of an occluded portal vein for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation in a patient with symptomatic portal vein thrombosis with cavernous transformation. Some have previously considered cavernous transformation a contraindication to TIPS. Case Presentation. 62-year-old man with chronic pancreatitis, portal vein thrombosis, portal hypertension and recurrent variceal bleeding presents with melena and hematemesis. The patient was severely anemic, hemodynamically unstable, and required emergent portal decompression. Attempts to recanalize the main portal vein using traditional transjugular access were unsuccessful. After percutaneous transhepatic right portal vein access and navigation of a wire through the occluded main portal vein, an angioplasty balloon was inflated at the desired site of shunt takeoff. The balloon was targeted and punctured from the transjugular approach, and a wire was passed into the portal system. TIPS placement then proceeded routinely. Conclusion. Although occlusion of the portal vein increases difficulty of performing TIPS, it should not be considered an absolute contraindication. We have described a method for recanalizing an occluded portal vein using a combined transhepatic and transjugular approach for TIPS. This approach may be useful to relieve portal hypertension in patients who fail endoscopic and/or surgical therapies.

  7. Adaptation of the main peripheral artery and vein to long term confinement (Mars 500). (United States)

    Arbeille, Philippe; Provost, Romain; Vincent, Nicole; Aubert, Andre


    The objective was to check if 520 days in confinement (MARS 500), may affect the main peripheral arterial diameter and wall thickness and the main vein size. Common carotid (CC) femoral artery (FA) portal vein (PV), jugular (JG), femoral vein (FV) and tibial vein were assessed during MARS 500 by echography, performed by the subjects. A hand free volumic echographic capture method and a delayed 3D reconstruction software developed by our lab were used for collecting and measuring the vascular parameters. During the MARS 500 experiment the subjects performed 6 sessions among which 80% of the echographic data were of sufficient quality to be processed. No significant change was found for the Common carotid, Jugular vein, femoral artery, femoral vein, portal vein, and tibial vein diameter. CC and FA IMT (intima media thickness) were found significantly increased (14% to 28% PMARS 500. The experiment confirmed that even untrained to performing echography the subjects were able to capture enough echographic data to reconstruct the vessel image from which the parameters were measured. The increase in both CC and FA IMT should be in relation with the stress generated by the confined environment or absence of solar radiation, as there was no change in gravity, temperature and air in the MARS 500 module, and minor changes in physical exercise and nutrition.

  8. Transposition of cephalic vein to rescue hemodialysis access arteriovenous fistula and treat symptomatic central venous obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Jose Skupien


    Full Text Available It is known that stenosis or central venous obstruction affects 20 to 50% of patients who undergo placement of catheters in central veins. For patients who are given hemodialysis via upper limbs, this problem causes debilitating symptoms and increases the risk of loss of hemodialysis access. We report an atypical case of treatment of a dialysis patient with multiple comorbidities, severe swelling and pain in the right upper limb (RUL, few alternative sites for hemodialysis vascular access, a functioning brachiobasilic fistula in the RUL and severe venous hypertension in the same limb, secondary to central vein occlusion of the internal jugular vein and right brachiocephalic trunk. The alternative surgical treatment chosen was to transpose the RUL cephalic vein, forming a venous necklace at the anterior cervical region, bypassing the site of venous occlusion. In order to achieve this, we dissected the cephalic vein in the right arm to its junction with the axillary vein, devalved the cephalic vein and anastomosed it to the contralateral external jugular vein, providing venous drainage to the RUL, alleviating symptoms of venous hypertension and preserving function of the brachiobasilic fistula.

  9. Unintentional arterial puncture during cephalic vein cannulation: case report and anatomical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lirk, P.; Keller, C.; Colvin, J.; Colvin, H.; Rieder, J.; Maurer, H.; Moriggl, B.


    The cephalic antebrachial vein is often used for venous access. However, superficial radial arteries of the forearm are known and unintentional arterial puncture can result from attempts to cannulate the lateral veins of the arm. Accidental puncture of a superficial radial artery during peripheral

  10. Pulmonary vein and atrial wall pathology in human total anomalous pulmonary venous connection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, Yvonne L.; Jongbloed, Monique R. M.; den Hartog, Wietske C. E.; Bartelings, Margot M.; Bogers, Ad J. J. C.; Ebels, Tjark; DeRuiter, Marco C.; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C.


    Background: Normally, the inside of the left atrial (LA) body and pulmonary veins (PVs) is lined by vessel wall tissue covered by myocardium. In total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC), no connection of the PVs with the LA body exists. These veins have an increased incidence of PV

  11. [Endovascular treatment of persistent dysuria and chronic pelvic pain in women with pelvic varicose veins]. (United States)

    Neĭmark, A I; Shelkovnikova, N V


    The results of the examination and treatment of 16 patients aged from 26 to 46 years with persistent urinary disorders and chronic pelvic pain due to severe pelvic varicose veins are presented. Using ultrasound with color Doppler mapping and venography of renal and ovarian vein for evaluation of condition of the venous system of the pelvis, the significant dilation of the internal iliac, ovarian and uterine veins with a pronounced decrease in blood flow in veins up to the stasis of blood, accompanied by flow turbulence and powerful backflow of renal blood through ovarian veins were found in all patients. According to uroflowmetry, there was a decrease in detrusor tone and a violation of evacuation capacity of the bladder. Evaluation of microcirculation using LDF allowed to diagnose congestive hemodynamic type of microcirculation. Scleroembolization for varicose ovarian vein with Gianturco coil and ethoxysclerol was performed in all patients. Positive therapeutic effect in the form of eliminating varicose pelvic veins, pain relieve, disappearance of persistent dysuria, and the remission of chronic cystitis was achieved in 86% of women. This intervention provided the normal outflow of blood from the pelvic veins, contributed to the normalization of uroflowmetry data and restoration of normal microcirculation in the urinary bladder.

  12. Inherent rhythmcity and interstitial cells of Cajal in a frog vein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Interstitial cells of Cajal are responsible for rhythmic contractions of the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract and blood vessels. The existence of these cells and spontaneous rhythmicity were noticed in amphibian vein and the findings are reported in this paper. The postcaval vein was identified in the frog, Rana tigrina ...

  13. Iliopsoas bursitis with compression of the common femoral vein resulting in acute lower leg edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Seung Bae; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Han, Young Min; Lee, Sang Yong; Jeong, Yeon Jun [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)


    The clinical manifestations related to iliopsoas bursitis can vary due to compression of the adjacent structure such as the common femoral vein, nerve and bladder. We report here on a rare case of iliopsoas bursitis with compression of the common femoral vein that resulted in acute lower leg edema.

  14. Effects of green veining on natural enemies of invertebrate pest species in leek and sprouts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingerden, van W.K.R.E.; Griffioen, A.J.; Veen, van der M.; Straten, van der M.J.J.; Noordam, A.P.; Heijerman, Th.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Meeuwsen, H.A.M.; Timmermans, H.; Bianchi, F.J.J.A.


    Arachnids and insects have been sampled with different methods in leek, sprouts and adjacent green veining (i.e. (semi-)natural non-crop elements). Composition of 10 taxonomic or functional groups of potential enemies has been analysed in relation to crop type, green veining at the farm, and

  15. Congenital absence of the portal vein associated with congenital hepatic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gocmen, Rahsan; Akhan, Okan [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Radiology Department, Ankara (Turkey); Talim, Beril [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Pathology Department, Ankara (Turkey)


    The radiological features of a 7-year-old boy with congenital absence of the portal vein, pathologically proven congenital hepatic fibrosis, double inferior vena cava, ventricular septal defect, vertebral anomalies, crossed fused renal ectopia, and facial anomalies with pathological correlation are reported. This association between congenital absence of the portal vein and congenital hepatic fibrosis is unique. (orig.)

  16. Right top pulmonary vein: Evaluation with 64 section multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslan, Gokhan [Department of Radiology, Akdeniz University, Faculty of Medicine, Dumlupinar Bulvari, Arapsuyu 07070, Antalya (Turkey)], E-mail:; Dincer, Elvan; Kabaalioglu, Adnan; Ozkaynak, Can [Department of Radiology, Akdeniz University, Faculty of Medicine, Dumlupinar Bulvari, Arapsuyu 07070, Antalya (Turkey)


    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence and anatomic features of the rare variant of the pulmonary veins named 'right top pulmonary vein' as depicted with 64 section multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Materials and methods: MDCT of 610 patients obtained over 12 months period for diagnosis of suspected thoracic or cardiac pathology were routinely reviewed in transverse and 3D images. The frequency of right top pulmonary vein (RTPV) was determined and anatomic features were also documented. Results: Right top pulmonary vein (RTPV) is a supernumerary vein arising from the roof of the right part of the left atrium separately from the orifice of the right superior pulmonary vein. It crosses behind the intermediate bronchus and drains mainly posterior segment of the right upper lobe but also receives few subsegmental branches of superior segment of the right lower lobe. It was detected in 2.2% of patients (14/610). The mean diameter of RTPV was 5.1 mm. Conclusion: The RTPV is a rare venous drainage variation of pulmonary veins. It is important to be aware of this anatomic pattern for avoiding misinterpretation of pulmonary venographic findings, inadvertent ablation of pulmonary vein and perioperative bleeding during video assisted thorocoscopic lobectomy.

  17. Acceptable results after venous reconstructive surgery following iatrogenic injuries to the iliofemoral vein segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Bo; Bækgaard, Niels


    Venous reconstructions after iatrogenic injuries are rarely performed and are associated with a relatively high risk of complications. We present our experiences with venous reconstructive surgery to the iliofemoral vein segment.......Venous reconstructions after iatrogenic injuries are rarely performed and are associated with a relatively high risk of complications. We present our experiences with venous reconstructive surgery to the iliofemoral vein segment....

  18. EUS-guided FNA of a portal vein thrombus in hepatocellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portal vein thrombosis is a relatively rare but well-known complication of cirrhosis that has a prevalence of between 1% and 5.7%. On the contrary, in case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), it is a much more frequent complication. In this paper, we presented three cases that had liver cirrhosis, mass and portal vein ...

  19. Variation in the Course and Termination of the Cephalic Vein in the Deltopectoral Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogood Atoni Atoni


    Full Text Available The knowledge of cephalic vein variation would aid proper identification and prevent error in surgical emergencies. The path, distribution, and termination of the cephalic vein in relation to the deltopectoral triangle were studied in twenty formalin-embalmed cadavers.

  20. [Query: distinguish between dicot and monocot according to whether free vein termination exist or not]. (United States)

    He, Baozuo; Lao, Yuekui; Zhu, Yilin; Li, Li; Zhou, Yuan; Yuan, Zhengwei


    To observe and study the correctness of the proposition dicot have free vein termination but monocot have not. To evaluate the reliability of the identification principle that is based on above proposition. Fourteen species of pharmaceutical monocot come from 9 families and 3 species of pharmaceutical dicot come from 3 families were observed by using the method of microscopic identification. The free vein termination existed in the vein-islets of 10 species of monocot from 8 families, Zingiberaceae, Stemonaceae, Gramineae, Liliaceae, Orchidaceae, Alismataceae, Dioscoreaceae and Araceae ect, and it was not to find the free vein termination in monocot Iris tectorum, Belamcanda chinensis (Fam. Iridaceae) and Imperata cylindrica, Coix lacryma-jobi (Fam. Gramineae). Three species dicot, Cinnamomum burmannii, Castanea mollissima, Mangifera indica, all had the free vein termination. The free vein termination of C. burnmannii was sparse, and C. mollissima's was usually covered by non-glandular hair. The proposition is not universally applicable, monocot have no free vein termination. The identification principle is unreliable, which distinguish between medicinal dicot and monocot leaves according to whether the free vein termination exists or not.

  1. Laparoscopic umbilical hernia repair in the presence of extensive paraumbilical collateral veins: A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Lases (Seilenna); H.H. Eker (Hasan); E.G.J.M. Pierik; P.J. Klitsie (Pieter); B. de Goede (Barry); M.P.F.V. Peeters; G. Kazemier (Geert); J.F. Lange (Johan)


    textabstractA patient with an umbilical hernia presenting with collateral veins in the abdominal wall and umbilicus is a case that every hernia surgeon has to deal with occasionally. Several underlying diseases have been described to provoke collateral veins in the abdominal wall. However, the

  2. pattern and risk factors for retinal vein occlusion in onitsha nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Sabastian Nwosu

    Objectives: To determine the pattern and risk factors for retinal vein occlusion at the Guinness Eye Center, Onitsha,. Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Case files of all patients with retinal vein occlusion between May 1997 and April 2004 were reviewed. Information on age, sex, visual acuity, ocular complications and ...

  3. Sonographic findings of the internal jugular vein valve in normal children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youk, Dong Joon; Rho, Taek Soo; Lee, Min Jin; Lee, Sang Chun [Seoul Red Cross Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To describe the sonographic findings of the valve in the internal jugular vein in normal children. Seventy children (5-15 years, average age 10.8 years, 36 boys and 34 girls) were recruited for the study. The number of cusps, length and insertion sites of the valve in the internal jugular vein was examined. Sex differences were investigated, in addition to the symmetry of the valves found in both of the veins. In all children, valve was found in either one or both internal jugular veins. Sixteen percents of the children had valve on one side only, while eighty four percents showed on both sides. All the one side were found on the right side only. Nine percents of the valves in the internal jugular veins of the children were bicuspid and ninety one percents were unicuspid. The length of the cusps was on the average, 7.59 +- 2.77 mm. The insertion of the cusps was on the average, 6.75 +- 2.59 mm (range: 0-12.0 mm), proximal to the confluence of the subclavian and internal jugular veins to form the brachiocephalic vein. There was no significant statistical difference of the number of cusps, length and insertion sites of the valves on both sides and sex distinction. A valve in internal jugular vein is identified in all cases on ultrasonography. There was no significant statistical difference of the number of cusps, length and insertion sites of the valves on both sides and sex distinction.

  4. Pattern and Risk Factors for Retinal Vein Occlusion in Onitsha, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the pattern and risk factors for retinal vein occlusion at the Guinness Eye Center, Onitsha, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Case files of all patients with retinal vein occlusion between May 1997 and April 2004 were reviewed. Information on age, sex, visual acuity, ocular complications and ...

  5. Congenital absence of the portal vein in oculoauriculovertebral dysplasia (Goldenhar syndrome)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, S.S.; Taylor, K.J.W.; Strauss, E.B.; Ramirez, E.; Seashore, J.H.


    Absence of the portal vein with systemic visceral venous return was demonstrated in an 8-year old girl with oculoauriculovertebral dysplasia (Goldenhar syndrome) during preoperative evaluation of a liver mass. Congenital absence of the portal vein is a rare malformation of potential clinical significance.

  6. [Thrombosis of lower-limb deep veins: a present-day view on conservative treatment]. (United States)

    Soroka, V V; Fomin, K N; Nokhrin, S P; Belousov, E Iu

    The article contains a review of the literature data concerning different variants of conservative treatment of patients suffering from lower limb deep vein thrombosis. This is accompanied and followed by demonstrating the manner of alterations in the views on using various anticoagulants, as well as analysing the attitude towards the place of compression therapy in treatment of patients with lower limb deep vein thrombosis.

  7. The synergistic effect of combining woodlands and green veining for biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grashof-Bokdam, C.J.; Chardon, J.P.; Vos, C.C.; Foppen, R.; Wallis de Vries, M.F.; Veen, van der M.; Meeuwsen, H.A.M.


    Combining nature reserves with small semi-natural elements (green veining) may improve the persistence of plant and animal species in fragmented landscapes. A better understanding of this synergy is essential to improve species diversity in the European Natura 2000 sites and in green veining

  8. TIPS Placement via Combined Transjugular and Transhepatic Approach for Cavernous Portal Vein Occlusion: Targeted Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natanel Jourabchi


    Full Text Available Purpose. We report a novel technique which aided recanalization of an occluded portal vein for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS creation in a patient with symptomatic portal vein thrombosis with cavernous transformation. Some have previously considered cavernous transformation a contraindication to TIPS. Case Presentation. 62-year-old man with chronic pancreatitis, portal vein thrombosis, portal hypertension and recurrent variceal bleeding presents with melena and hematemesis. The patient was severely anemic, hemodynamically unstable, and required emergent portal decompression. Attempts to recanalize the main portal vein using traditional transjugular access were unsuccessful. After percutaneous transhepatic right portal vein access and navigation of a wire through the occluded main portal vein, an angioplasty balloon was inflated at the desired site of shunt takeoff. The balloon was targeted and punctured from the transjugular approach, and a wire was passed into the portal system. TIPS placement then proceeded routinely. Conclusion. Although occlusion of the portal vein increases difficulty of performing TIPS, it should not be considered an absolute contraindication. We have described a method for recanalizing an occluded portal vein using a combined transhepatic and transjugular approach for TIPS. This approach may be useful to relieve portal hypertension in patients who fail endoscopic and/or surgical therapies.

  9. Bilateral chylothorax as a complication of internal jugular vein cannulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Saxena


    Full Text Available Central venous catheterization is one of the most prevalent procedures in the Intensive Care Unit. Complications are reported in about 15% of the patients and usually comprise of infection, arterial puncture, malpositioning, pneumothorax, local hematoma, hemothorax, and so on. Chylothorax is a rare complication of this procedure. We present a 42-year-old lady, who developed bilateral massive chylothorax after cannulation of her left internal jugular vein (IJV, due to direct injury to the thoracic duct during the procedure. The patient was successfully managed with bilateral chest tube drainage and omission of oral feeds for four days. Development of bilateral chylothorax as a complication of IJV cannulation is rare, but merits reporting, in view of a large number of central venous cannulations being undertaken. Critical care professionals should be aware of this rare complication of a common procedure to facilitate early identification and institute appropriate therapy.

  10. Galen and his anatomic eponym: vein of Galen. (United States)

    Ustun, Cagatay


    Galen or Galenus was born at Pergamum (now Bergama in Turkey) in 129 A.D., and died in the year 200 A.D. He was a 2nd century Greek philosopher-physician who switched to the medical profession after his father dreamt of this calling for his son. Galen's training and experiences brought him to Alexandria and Rome and he rose quickly to fame with public demonstrations of anatomical and surgical skills. He became physician to emperor Marcus Aurelius and the emperor's ambitious son, Commodus. He wrote prodigiously and was able to preserve his medical research in 22 volumes of printed text, representing half of all Greek medical literature that is available to us today. The structures, the great cerebral vein and the communicating branch of the internal laryngeal nerve, bear his eponym.

  11. Portal vein embolization: rationale, technique, and current application. (United States)

    May, Benjamin J; Madoff, David C


    Portal vein embolization (PVE) is a technique used before hepatic resection to increase the size of liver segments that will remain after surgery. This therapy redirects portal blood to segments of the future liver remnant (FLR), resulting in hypertrophy. PVE is indicated when the FLR is either too small to support essential function or marginal in size and associated with a complicated postoperative course. When appropriately applied, PVE has been shown to reduce postoperative morbidity and increase the number of patients eligible for curative intent resection. PVE is also being combined with other therapies in novel ways to improve surgical outcomes. This article reviews the rationale, technical considerations, and current use of preoperative PVE.

  12. Percutaneous transhepatic portal vein embolization: rationale, technique, and outcomes. (United States)

    Avritscher, Rony; de Baere, Thierry; Murthy, Ravi; Deschamps, Frederic; Madoff, David C


    Portal vein embolization (PVE) is used to induce preoperative liver hypertrophy in patients with anticipated marginal future liver remnant (FLR) volumes who are otherwise potential candidates for resection. PVE can be performed utilizing the transhepatic contralateral and ipsilateral approaches. The transhepatic contralateral approach is the most commonly used technique worldwide, largely owing to its technical ease. However, the contralateral approach risks injuring the FLR, thereby compromising the planned surgical resection. The transhepatic ipsilateral approach offers a potentially safer alternative because the complications associated with this approach affect only the hepatic lobe that will be resected and are usually not serious enough to preclude surgery. This article discusses PVE using the transhepatic ipsilateral and contralateral approaches, including patient selection criteria, anatomical and technical considerations, and patient complications and outcomes.

  13. Portal vein embolization: rationale, outcomes, controversies and future directions. (United States)

    Avritscher, Rony; Duke, Eugene; Madoff, David C


    Portal vein embolization (PVE) is now considered the standard of care to improve safety for patients undergoing extensive hepatectomy with an anticipated small future liver remnant (FLR). PVE is used to induce contralateral liver hypertrophy in preparation for major liver resection. Optimal patient selection is essential to maximize the clinical benefits of PVE. Computed tomography volumetry is used to calculate a standardized FLR and determine the need for preoperative PVE. Percutaneous PVE can be performed via the transhepatic ipsilateral or contralateral approaches, depending on operator preference. Several different embolic agents are available to the interventional radiologist, all with similar effectiveness in inducing hypertrophy. When an extended hepatectomy is planned, right PVE should include segment 4, in order to maximize FLR hypertrophy. Multiple studies have demonstrated the beneficial outcomes of PVE in both patients with healthy livers and with underlying liver diseases. Novel improvements to PVE should expand its scope to patients who were previously not candidates for the procedure.

  14. Preoperative portal vein embolization: indications and technical considerations. (United States)

    de Baere, Thierry; Denys, Alban; Madoff, David C


    Preoperative portal vein embolization (PVE) has become an important tool in the management of select patients before major hepatic resection. PVE redirects portal flow to the intended future remnant liver (FRL) to induce hypertrophy of the nondiseased portion of the liver and thereby may reduce complications and shorten hospital stays after surgery. This article reviews the technical considerations for performing PVE including the use of the ipsilateral or contralateral approaches, how to choose a particular embolic agent for PVE, the importance of liver volumetric measurements to estimate functional hepatic reserve, the pathophysiology of PVE, and some of the results showing the benefit of the procedure. In addition, the indications and contraindications for performing PVE in patients with and without chronic liver disease, the use of combination therapies, and the concern for tumor growth after PVE will be discussed.

  15. In situ saphenous vein bypass surgery in diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L P; Schroeder, T V; Lorentzen, J E


    .005). Indication for surgery was gangrene or ulceration in 57% of diabetics, as opposed to 36% in non-diabetic patients (p = 0.0002). A femoro-popliteal bypass was performed in 18% of patients, whereas 82% received an infrapopliteal procedure, of which 42% were to the distal third of the calf or foot. Diabetic......From 1986 through to 1990 a total of 483 consecutive in situ infra-inguinal vein bypass procedures were performed in 444 patients, of whom 112 (25%) were diabetics (57 insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and 55 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus). Based on a prospective vascular data registry...... this material was analysed to determine the influence of diabetes on the outcome. Preoperative risk factors were equally distributed among diabetic and non-diabetic patients, except for smoking habits (diabetics: 48%; non-diabetics: 64%, p = 0.002) and cardiac disease (diabetics: 45%; non-diabetics: 29%, p = 0...

  16. Ekspresi Rekombinan Gen Protein Selubung Pepper vein yellows virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Kurnia Apindiati


    Full Text Available Pepper vein yellows virus (PeVYV isolate from Bali have been identified from pepper plants with chlorosis symptoms. Specific antiserum of PeVYV had not available yet commercially. One of the advance techniques in providing a source of abundant antigen for antiserum production is through molecular approach by overexpressed the coat protein gene in suitable bacterial expression system. PeVYV coat protein gene of ~650 bp in size was amplified using specific primers, then was cloned into pQE30 expression vector and was over expressed in E. coli strain M15 [pREP4]. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the recombinant coat protein gene of PeVYV was successfully expressed protein band with size of ~25 kDa at 6 hours after induction by 0.5 mM IPTG on 37 °C.

  17. The vein of the vestibular aqueduct with potential pathologic perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Morten; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten; Qvortrup, Klaus


    HYPOTHESIS: Pathologic changes around the vein of the vestibular aqueduct (VVA) may cause obstruction to the flow of blood toward the sigmoid sinus. Furthermore, a distal obstruction of this vessel may be responsible for a development of a retrograde flow of blood with concomitant drainage...... of endolymphatic sac (ES) substances to the inner ear. BACKGROUND: The VVA is responsible for the venous drainage of the vestibular apparatus and endolymphatic duct and ES. Previous studies have linked the VVA to Ménière's disease. The aim of the present article was a 3-dimensional perspective study of the VVA...... with its adjacent anatomic structures. METHODS: In 14 rats, the VVA was examined by 3-dimensional reconstruction of 2-microm serial sections, corrosion cast technique, and scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: From the external aperture of the vestibular aqueduct, the VVA is interposed between the ES...

  18. Portal vein thrombosis: Insight into physiopathology, diagnosis, and treatment (United States)

    Ponziani, Francesca R; Zocco, Maria A; Campanale, Chiara; Rinninella, Emanuele; Tortora, Annalisa; Maurizio, Luca Di; Bombardieri, Giuseppe; Cristofaro, Raimondo De; Gaetano, Anna M De; Landolfi, Raffaele; Gasbarrini, Antonio


    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a relatively common complication in patients with liver cirrhosis, but might also occur in absence of an overt liver disease. Several causes, either local or systemic, might play an important role in PVT pathogenesis. Frequently, more than one risk factor could be identified; however, occasionally no single factor is discernable. Clinical examination, laboratory investigations, and imaging are helpful to provide a quick diagnosis, as prompt treatment might greatly affect a patient’s outcome. In this review, we analyze the physiopathological mechanisms of PVT development, together with the hemodynamic and functional alterations related to this condition. Moreover, we describe the principal factors most frequently involved in PVT development and the recent knowledge concerning diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Finally, we analyze the implications of PVT in the setting of liver transplantation and its possible influence on patients’ future prognoses. PMID:20066733

  19. Characteristics of abdominal vein thrombosis in children and adults (United States)

    Landi, Daniel; Beckman, Michele G.; Shah, Nirmish R.; Bockenstedt, Paula; Grant, Althea M.; Heit, John A.; Key, Nigel S.; Kulkarni, Roshni; Manco-Johnson, Marilyn; Moll, Stephan; Philipp, Claire S.; Andersen, Judith C.; Ortel, Thomas L.


    Summary The demographic and clinical characteristics of adults and children with lower extremity deep-vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism (LE DVT/PE) may differ from those with abdominal vein thrombosis (abdominal VT). Abdominal VT can be a presenting sign of an underlying prothrombotic state, and its presence in the setting of known disease might have prognostic implications different from LE DVT/PE. This study describes clinical presentations of abdominal VT compared to LE DVT/PE in adults and children. We analysed prospectively-collected data from consecutive consenting patients enrolled in one of seven Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded Thrombosis and Hemostasis Network Centers from August 2003 to April 2011 to compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of adults and children with abdominal VT. Both adults and children with abdominal VT tended to be younger and have a lower body mass index (BMI) than those with LE DVT/PE. Of patients with abdominal VT, children were more likely to have inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis than adults. For adults with venous thromboembolism (VTE), relatively more women had abdominal VT than LE DVT/PE, while the proportions with LE DVT/PE and abdominal VT by sex were similar in children. Children with abdominal VT were more likely to have diagnosed inherited thrombophilia, while trauma was more common in children with LE DVT/PE. In conclusion, both children and adults with abdominal VT were younger with a lower BMI than those with LE DVT/PE. Significant differences exist between children and adults in respect to abdominal VT compared to LE DVT/PE. PMID:23407670

  20. Prepancreatic postduodenal portal vein: a case report and review of the literature. (United States)

    Goussous, Naeem; Cunningham, Steven C


    Prepancreatic postduodenal portal vein is extremely rare, with only 13 cases reported in the literature. A 55-year-old white woman presented to our emergency department with abdominal pain. She underwent a computed tomography of her abdomen, which showed a portal vein coursing anterolaterally to her pancreas and posteriorly to the first portion of her duodenum, constituting a prepancreatic postduodenal portal vein. Imaging revealed choledocholithiasis, requiring endoscopic sphincterotomy, but due to a history of a gastric bypass procedure, she was lost to follow-up after being referred to an advanced endoscopist. This represents the 14th reported case of prepancreatic postduodenal portal vein. Awareness of this rare anomaly is paramount, and will help surgeons and interventional radiologists to avoid complications related to inadvertent injury to the portal vein, which could be life-threatening.

  1. Permeability enhancement during gold mineralization: Evidences from Kestanelik epithermal vein system, NW Turkey (United States)

    Gulyuz, Nilay; Shipton, Zoe; Kuscu, Ilkay; Lord, Richard A.; Gladwell, David R.; Kaymakci, Nuretdin


    The most favourable and principal mineral deposition mechanism in low sulphidation epithermal systems is boiling. Mineralization in these systems occurs dominantly as veins and stockworks; therefore, structures play major role in the localization of epithermal fluid flow. Epithermal fluids rise from depth along structural conduits at high temperatures under enough pressure to prevent boiling. When the pressure drops suddenly (for instance, through faulting or any fracturing), boiling occurs, and CO2 and H2S are released to the vapour phase. Change in fluid chemistry due to the boiling causes first the base metals, and then the ore and gangue minerals to deposit in a well-recognized temporal and vertical sequence until all open spaces are filled. Vein infill in epithermal deposits indicate that mineralization is multiphase and associated with repeated and episodic fluid flow rather than a steady-state process. How can permeability enhancement be achieved after deposition of minerals in fractures and faults chokes permeable pathways and restrict fluid flow? Although geochemical aspects of LS epithermal systems are well known, limited studies exist on the permeability enhancement mechanisms in LS epithermal veins. The main aim of the study is to understand the permeability enhancement mechanisms in epithermal gold deposits by focussing on the structures and quartz textures of a well-preserved low sulphidation epithermal quartz vein/breccia system in Lapseki, NW Turkey. We revealed the kinematics of the structure-vein network by mapping the geometries of epithermal quartz veins and associated structures and collecting detailed structural data from them. In addition, we determined the different phases of fluid flow and mineralization with the cross-cutting and structural relationships among them by examining the quartz textures and breccias and mapping their spatial distribution on vein outcrops and in drill cores with the help of thin section analyses. On-going work

  2. Strength and deformation behaviors of veined marble specimens after vacuum heat treatment under conventional triaxial compression (United States)

    Su, Haijian; Jing, Hongwen; Yin, Qian; Yu, Liyuan; Wang, Yingchao; Wu, Xingjie


    The mechanical behaviors of rocks affected by high temperature and stress are generally believed to be significant for the stability of certain projects involving rocks, such as nuclear waste storage and geothermal resource exploitation. In this paper, veined marble specimens were treated to high temperature treatment and then used in conventional triaxial compression tests to investigate the effect of temperature, confining pressure, and vein angle on strength and deformation behaviors. The results show that the strength and deformation parameters of the veined marble specimens changed with the temperature, presenting a critical temperature of 600 °C. The triaxial compression strength of a horizontal vein (β = 90°) is obviously larger than that of a vertical vein (β = 0°). The triaxial compression strength, elasticity modulus, and secant modulus have an approximately linear relation to the confining pressure. Finally, Mohr-Coulomb and Hoek-Brown criteria were respectively used to analyze the effect of confining pressure on triaxial compression strength.

  3. Effective Endovascular Stenting of Malignant Portal Vein Obstruction in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Ellis


    Full Text Available We report herein the case of a patient successfully treated by transhepatic portal venous stent placement for malignant portal vein obstruction with associated gastric and small bowel varices and repeated gastrointestinal bleeding. CT angiography and portography showed severe portal vein obstruction from recurrent pancreatic cancer 15 months following pancreaticoduodenectomy with tumor encasement and dilated collateral veins throughout the gastric and proximal small bowel wall as the suspected cause of the GI bleeding. Successful transhepatic endovascular stent placement of the splenic vein at the portal vein confluence followed by balloon dilation was performed with immediate decompression of the gastric and small bowel varices and relief of GI hemorrhage in this patient until his death four months later. The treatment for patients with this dilemma can prove to be difficult, but as we have shown endovascular stenting of the portal system is an effective treatment option.

  4. Upper limb vein anatomy before hemodialysis fistula creation: cross-sectional anatomy using MR venography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laissy, Jean-Pierre; Fernandez, Pedro; Karila-Cohen, Pascale; Chillon, Sylvie; Schouman-Claeys, Elisabeth [Department of Radiology, Hopital Bichat, 46 rue Henri Huchard, 75877 Paris Cedex 18 (France); Delmas, Vincent [Department of Urology, Hopital Bichat, 46 rue Henri Huchard, 75877 Paris Cedex 18 (France); Dupuy, Emmanuel; Mignon, Francoise [Department of Nephrology, Hopital Bichat, 46 rue Henri Huchard, 75877 Paris Cedex 18 (France)


    Preoperative imaging is indicated to discriminate patent, adequate superficial veins of the upper limbs undetectable by clinical inspection that could be anastomosed for the creation of a durable and functional hemodialysis fistula. The aim of this pictorial review is to provide a venous anatomic map of the upper limbs using MR venography (MRV) which could help surgeons before creation of hemodialysis access fistulas (AVF). At the level of the forearm, the antebrachial cephalic vein is the most commonly identified as patent. At the level of the elbow and distal arm, the cephalic vein is patent in 80% of normal subjects, and less often patent (23-26%) than basilic vein (33-38%) in patients. Overall, reading transaxial MR views can help for assessing upper limb vein anatomy before creation of a hemodialysis access fistula. (orig.)

  5. Ablation of Focal Right Upper Pulmonary Vein Tachycardia Using Retrograde Aortic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Sheikhvatan


    Full Text Available The use of diagnostic and therapeutic methods for assessing pulmonary vein due to its status as a main source of ectopicbeats for the initiation of atrial dysrrythmias is strongly recommended. We report the case of a 13-year-old girl who wasadmitted to our hospital with the electrocardiogram manifestation of an ectopic atrial tachycardia. The focus of arrhythmia was inside the right upper pulmonary vein. The patient underwent successful ablation with a conventional electrophysiology catheter via the retrograde aortic approach. We showed that when the origin of atrial tachycardia is in the right upper pulmonary vein, it is possible to advance the catheter into this vein via the retrograde aortic approach and find the focus of arrhythmia. This case demonstrates that right upper pulmonary vein mapping is feasible through the retrograde aortic approach and it is also possible to ablate the arrhythmia using the same catheter and approach.

  6. [Cockett's syndrome, May-Thurner syndrome, or iliac vein compression syndrome]. (United States)

    Gil Martín, A R; Carreras Aja, M; Arrieta Ardieta, I; Labayen Azparren, I


    Iliac vein compression syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome or Cockett's syndrome) is a rare clinical entity in which the left common iliac vein is compressed when it passes between the right common iliac artery and the spine. The sustained compression and trauma caused by the pulsatile force of the artery on the vein damage the intima and lead to the formation of membranes or bands in the vascular lumen that hinder or obstruct the flow of blood in the vein, favoring thrombus formation. The current treatment strategy of choice is endovascular vein patch angioplasty and stenting with the aim of improving the caliber of the lumen and enabling normal venous drainage. We present two cases of May-Thurner syndrome and review the clinical and CT findings. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Congenital Agenesis of the Internal Jugular Vein: An Extremely Rare Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Kayiran


    Full Text Available Vascular anomalies of major venous vessels are rarely seen. Moreover, congenital absence of internal jugular vein is extremely uncommon. In our case, a female patient presented with primary unknown left cervical mass. Cervical ultrasonography demonstrated absence of right internal jugular vein. In addition, computed tomography and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging scans confirmed this diagnosis. Compensatory left internal jugular vein enlargement mimicked sort of cervical mass. Venous magnetic resonance imaging images revealed the absence of right internal jugular vein with compensatory left internal jugular vein dominance. In the literature, the agenesis of IJV was mentioned in a case with concomitant multiple problems. Here, an asymptomatic case is reported with an incident diagnosis. No interventions were planned upon the patient's request. It should be kept in mind that any kind of anomalies can be seen during venous access and neck surgery.

  8. Conversion to central cannulation following azygous vein cannulation in right congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Nosavan


    Full Text Available Right-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (R-CDH can be associated with variations in anatomy that make extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO cannulation challenging. We report a case of azygous vein cannulation in a R-CDH patient requiring ECMO. The venous cannula passed directly from the right internal jugular vein into the azygous vein and failed to provide adequate venous return. Cannula repositioning was unsuccessful which led to an urgent planned conversion to central cannulation with a successful outcome. The risk of azygous vein cannulation is increased in patients with R-CDH due to the anatomic distortions that are unique to this subset. Azygous vein cannulation should be considered when inadequate venous return on the ECMO circuit occurs, especially in a R-CDH patient. Central cannulation should be available if the venous cannula cannot be repositioned into the superior vena cava (SVC.

  9. Formation of quartz veins by local dissolution and transport of silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangen, Magnus; Munz, Ingrid Anne


    A simple model is proposed for the (often) thick quartz veins observed in the Modum Complex in Southern Norway. The formation of these veins cannot easily be explained by silica imported by hot ascending fluids. The proposed model has dissolution in the host rock adjacent to the veins as the source for silica. The suggested process for vein formation is represented by a reaction-diffusion equation, and the process is studied in terms of a Damkoehler number. Estimates for the growth rate of quartz cement are derived. The estimates for the growth rate can be used to constrain poorly known parameters of the vein formation process, like for instance, the degree of supersaturation in the host rock. (Author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Šikovec


    Full Text Available Background. Minimally invasive treatment of varicose veins is becoming more and more important as it represents less burden to the patient and health system. The success of the different methods depends on their capability to eliminate the reflux at the sapheno-femoral junction (SFJ and the incompetent greater saphenous vein (GSV. In achieving these only three methods are successful: ultrasound (US guided catheter sclerosation, radiofrequency or laser endovenous obliteration of GSV.Aims. To demonstrate a novel way to use a laser energy through an endoluminal laser fiber for the minimally invasive treatment of truncal varicosities and the elimination of SFJ reflux.Methods. The patients with US detected reflux in the SFJ and GSV were treated on the outpatient basis under local anaesthesia with laser mediated heat energy in the GSV 2–3 cm from SFJ with the laser of wave length of 980 nm with the power 15 W and the impulse duration of 1 sek. We used 20–40 impulses along the treated segment of GSV. The exact position of the laser fiber was determined by the US. The smaller branch varices were removed by mini phlebectomies. Patients tolerated well the procedure and they were dismissed from the hospital with applied compression stockings (CCL II immediately after the completion of the procedure. The control US was done one week, four weeks and three months later. At one week one out of 16 patients presented with no occlusion of the GSV. At four weeks another patient had recanalisation of GSV but without the reflux. All other patients had the short GSV stump in which the patent epigastric vein was draining while the remaning part of the GSV was obliterated by the thrombus. Except for some skin ecchymosis and mild induration in the but patients did not have any other problems. The unsuccessful treatment in two patients is probably due to insufficient applied energy.Conclusions. Endovenous laser obliteration of GSV is an effective method that can be

  11. A new design concept for knitted external vein-graft support mesh. (United States)

    Singh, Charanpreet; Wang, Xungai


    Autologous vein-graft failure significantly limits the long-term efficacy of coronary artery bypass procedures. The major cause behind this complication is biomechanical mismatch between the vein and coronary artery. The implanted vein experiences a sudden increase (10-12 fold) in luminal pressures. The resulting vein over-distension or 'ballooning' initiates wall thickening phenomenon and ultimate occlusion. Therefore, a primary goal in improving the longevity of a coronary bypass procedure is to inhibit vein over-distension using mechanical constriction. The idea of using an external vein-graft support mesh has demonstrated sustained benefits and wide acceptance in experimental studies. Nitinol based knitted structures have offered more promising mechanical features than other mesh designs owing to their unique loosely looped construction. However, the conventional plain knit construction still exhibits limitations (radial compliance, deployment ease, flexibility, and bending stresses) which limit this design from proving its real clinical advantage. The new knitted mesh design presented in this study is based on the concept of composite knitting utilising high modulus (nitinol and polyester) and low modulus (polyurethane) material components. The experimental comparison of the new design with a plain knit design demonstrated significant improvement in biomechanical (compliance, flexibility, extensibility, viscoelasticity) and procedural (deployment limit) parameters. The results are indicative of the promising role of new mesh in restoring the lost compliance and pulsatility of vein-graft at high arterial pressures. This way it can assist in controlled vein-graft remodelling and stepwise restoration of vein mechanical homoeostasis. Also, improvement in deployment limit parameter offers more flexibility for a surgeon to use a wide range of vein diameters, which may otherwise be rendered unusable for a plain knit mesh. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  12. Surgery for acquired cardiovascular disease: antiseptic treatment of contaminated vein grafts. (United States)

    Schmidt, F P; Peivandi, A A; Kohnen, W; Jansen, B


    Saphenous vein grafts harvested for use as bypass conduits can be contaminated intraoperatively, e.g. by being inadvertently dropped to the floor of the operating room (OR). This study was performed to investigate microorganisms most likely contaminating vein grafts and to assess the possible efficacy of measures to treat potentially contaminated vein grafts antiseptically for further use. In a first step we determined the microbiological flora of the OR using surface cultures and cultures from intentionally dropped vein grafts. Several antiseptic agents (PVP-iodine 10%, octenidinhydrochloride 0.1%, polyhexanide 1%) were evaluated for their in vitro efficacy to disinfect artificially contaminated vein segments. The most promising antiseptic regimen was tested on veins contaminated in a real OR setting. Finally, we tested for possible alterations in mechanical properties of the veins caused by antiseptic treatment. Coagulase-negative staphylococci where the predominant bacteria recovered from the OR with 59.9%. Antiseptic treatment with a combination of octenidine and PVP-iodine resulted in a higher rate of negative cultures than any single agent. Treatment of 50 saphenous vein grafts contaminated in the OR with the combination regimen resulted in only 3 positive cultural results within 7 days. Mechanical tear-stress testing comparing antiseptically treated vein grafts with controls showed no difference in their resistance to tear stress. Antiseptic treatment of contaminated vein grafts was shown to be effective in a high percentage of cases without altering mechanical properties of grafts and may be an option for the surgeon in case of a contamination.

  13. Toward an Optimal Position for IVC Filters: Computational Modeling of the Impact of Renal Vein Inflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S L; Singer, M A


    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the hemodynamic effects of renal vein inflow and filter position on unoccluded and partially occluded IVC filters using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics. Three-dimensional models of the TrapEase and Gunther Celect IVC filters, spherical thrombi, and an IVC with renal veins were constructed. Hemodynamics of steady-state flow was examined for unoccluded and partially occluded TrapEase and Gunther Celect IVC filters in varying proximity to the renal veins. Flow past the unoccluded filters demonstrated minimal disruption. Natural regions of stagnant/recirculating flow in the IVC are observed superior to the bilateral renal vein inflows, and high flow velocities and elevated shear stresses are observed in the vicinity of renal inflow. Spherical thrombi induce stagnant and/or recirculating flow downstream of the thrombus. Placement of the TrapEase filter in the suprarenal vein position resulted in a large area of low shear stress/stagnant flow within the filter just downstream of thrombus trapped in the upstream trapping position. Filter position with respect to renal vein inflow influences the hemodynamics of filter trapping. Placement of the TrapEase filter in a suprarenal location may be thrombogenic with redundant areas of stagnant/recirculating flow and low shear stress along the caval wall due to the upstream trapping position and the naturally occurring region of stagnant flow from the renal veins. Infrarenal vein placement of IVC filters in a near juxtarenal position with the downstream cone near the renal vein inflow likely confers increased levels of mechanical lysis of trapped thrombi due to increased shear stress from renal vein inflow.

  14. Transjugular Endovascular Recanalization of Splenic Vein in Patients with Regional Portal Hypertension Complicated by Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xuefeng; Nie, Ling; Wang, Zhu; Tsauo, Jiaywei; Tang, Chengwei; Li, Xiao, E-mail: [West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Department of Gastroenterology (China)


    PurposeRegional portal hypertension (RPH) is an uncommon clinical syndrome resulting from splenic vein stenosis/occlusion, which may cause gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding from the esophagogastric varices. The present study evaluated the safety and efficacy of transjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein in patients with GI bleeding secondary to RPH.MethodsFrom December 2008 to May 2011, 11 patients who were diagnosed with RPH complicated by GI bleeding and had undergone transjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein were reviewed retrospectively. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed splenic vein stenosis in six cases and splenic vein occlusion in five. Etiology of RPH was chronic pancreatitis (n = 7), acute pancreatitis with pancreatic pseudocyst (n = 2), pancreatic injury (n = 1), and isolated pancreatic tuberculosis (n = 1).ResultsTechnical success was achieved in 8 of 11 patients via the transjugular approach, including six patients with splenic vein stenosis and two patients with splenic vein occlusion. Two patients underwent splenic vein venoplasty only, whereas four patients underwent bare stents deployment and two covered stents. Splenic vein pressure gradient (SPG) was reduced from 21.5 ± 7.3 to 2.9 ± 1.4 mmHg after the procedure (P < 0.01). For the remaining three patients who had technical failures, splenic artery embolization and subsequent splenectomy was performed. During a median follow-up time of 17.5 (range, 3–34) months, no recurrence of GI bleeding was observed.ConclusionsTransjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein is a safe and effective therapeutic option in patients with RPH complicated by GI bleeding and is not associated with an increased risk of procedure-related complications.

  15. File list: ALL.CDV.05.AllAg.Primary_umbilical_vein_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  16. File list: ALL.CDV.20.AllAg.Primary_umbilical_vein_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  17. File list: ALL.CDV.10.AllAg.Primary_umbilical_vein_endothelial_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  19. Percutaneous Antegrade Varicocele Embolization Via the Testicular Vein in a Patient with Recurrent Varicocele After Surgical Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, Carlos J., E-mail:; El-Hilal, Alexander H., E-mail:; Darcy, Michael D., E-mail: [Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine (United States)


    This is a case report of an adolescent male who underwent surgical ligation for a left-sided varicocele that recurred 2 years later. Standard retrograde embolization via the left renal vein was not possible, because there was no connection from the renal vein to the gonadal vein following surgical ligation. The patient was treated via antegrade access of the spermatic vein at the inguinal level with subsequent coil embolization.

  20. Portal vein branching order helps in the recognition of anomalous right-sided round ligament: common features and variations in portal vein anatomy. (United States)

    Yamashita, Rikiya; Yamaoka, Toshihide; Nishitai, Ryuta; Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Taura, Kojiro; Arizono, Shigeki; Furuta, Akihiro; Ohno, Tsuyoshi; Ono, Ayako; Togashi, Kaori


    This study aimed to evaluate the common features and variations of portal vein anatomy in right-sided round ligament (RSRL), which can help propose a method to detect and diagnose this anomaly. In this retrospective study of 14 patients with RSRL, the branching order of the portal tree was analyzed, with special focus on the relationship between the dorsal branch of the right anterior segmental portal vein (P A-D ) and the lateral segmental portal vein (P LL ), to determine the common features. The configuration of the portal vein from the main portal trunk to the right umbilical portion (RUP), the inclination of the RUP, and the number and thickness of the ramifications branching from the right anterior segmental portal vein (P A ) were evaluated for variations. In all subjects, the diverging point of the P A-D was constantly distal to that of the P LL . The portal vein configuration was I- and Z-shaped in nine and five subjects, respectively. The RUP was tilted to the right in all subjects. In Z-shaped subjects, the portal trunk between the branching point of the right posterior segmental portal vein and that of the P LL was tilted to the left in one subject and was almost parallel to the vertical plane in four subjects. Multiple ramifications were radially distributed from the P A in eight subjects, whereas one predominant P A-D branched from the P A in six subjects. Based on the diverging points of the P A-D and P LL , we proposed a three-step method for the detection and diagnosis of RSRL.

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  14. [Ultrasound imaging of bridge vessel transplant used to reconstruct the tributary of middle hepatic vein in living donor liver transplantation]. (United States)

    Lu, Qiang; Luo, Yan; Yuan, Chao-xin; Yan, Lü-nan; Wu, Hong; Zhang, Zhong-wei


    To discuss the application of color Doppler ultrasound in the imaging of bridge vein transplant used to reconstruct the tributary of the middle hepatic vein in adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). From December 2005 to July 2006, 25 patients underwent the adult living donor liver transplantation with right lobe grafts without middle hepatic vein. Tributaries of middle hepatic vein larger than 5 mm were reconstructed with great saphenous vein. Types and numbers of reconstructed tributaries of middle hepatic vein were listed below: single V5 (n=8), double V5 (n=2), the V5 and V8 (n=9), V8 (n=6). The successive investigation of the vein grafts was performed by color Doppler ultrasound in the period of from postoperative 7 days to 8 months. All vein transplants were detected by color Doppler ultrasound. Among them, 34 vein transplants of 24 cases undergoing adult LDLT appeared patent, but one case was suspected to have reconstructed finally the bypass vessels for blood circle regardless of the grafted bridge vein probably occurring the thrombosis. Color Doppler ultrasound can precisely detect and appear the postoperative bridge vessel grafted, and also measure the blood flow velocity in grafted vein used to reconstruct the tributaries of the middle hepatic vein in LDLT.

  15. Comparison of the portal vein and kidney subcapsule as sites for primate islet autotransplantation. (United States)

    Rajab, Amer; Buss, Jill; Diakoff, Elizabeth; Hadley, Gregg A; Osei, Kwame; Ferguson, Ronald M


    To date, the portal vein has been the primary site for clinical islet transplantation. Despite success, potential complications such as portal vein thrombosis still exist. The kidney subcapsule has been used successfully in rodent models of islet transplantation. We hypothesized that the kidney subcapsule as a site for islet transplantation in the nonhuman primate model would be as effective as the portal vein. Diabetes was induced in the primate Macaca fascicularis via a total pancreatectomy. Animals were kept under anesthesia during the isolation procedure. Islet isolation was performed using intraductal infusion with Liberase HI and mechanical digestion in the Ricordi chamber, and were purified using a continuous Ficoll gradient. Purified islets were autotransplanted either into the portal vein (n = 6) or the left kidney subcapsule (n = 5) of pancreatectomized animals. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed prior to pancreatectomy and 10 days following transplantation. Three animals underwent pancreatectomy and served as diabetic controls. Of the six animals receiving islets in the portal vein, one developed portal vein thrombosis. All remaining autotransplanted animals in this group remained normoglycemic with glucose-induced insulin secretion that was not different from that prior to pancreatectomy. Of the five animals undergoing transplantation into the kidney subcapsule, only one maintained normoglycemia and elicited insulin secretion in response to glucose stimulation. The other four animals remained hyperglycemic. We conclude that the portal vein is superior to the kidney subcapsule as a site for islet transplantation in nonhuman primates 10 days posttransplantation.

  16. In vitro effect of calcium dobesilate on oxidative/inflammatory stress in human varicose veins. (United States)

    Alda, O; Valero, M S; Pereboom, D; Serrano, P; Azcona, J M; Garay, R P


    To determine whether calcium dobesilate can act in chronic venous insufficiency by similar antioxidant, anti-inflammatory mechanisms as in diabetic retinopathy. Calcium dobesilate was tested in vitro for its protective action against oxidative/inflammatory stress in human varicose veins. Varicose greater saphenous veins were obtained from 14 patients (11 men, 3 women) aged 53-65 years. Oxidative stress was induced exogenously in the vein segments, with the phenazine methosulphate (PMS)/NADH couple. Total antioxidant status (TAS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were used as markers of oxidative stress. Calcium dobesilate significantly prevented oxidative disturbances in the micromolar range. PMS/NADH-dependent TAS decrease was fully prevented with IC(50) = 11.4 ± 2.3 µmol/L (n = 6 veins), whereas MDA increase was fully prevented with IC(50) = (102 ± -3) µmol/L (n = 6 veins). Calcium dobesilate acted quali- and quantitatively like rutin, the reference compound. Comparison with pharmacokinetic data suggests that calcium dobesilate can act at therapeutic concentrations. Calcium dobesilate protected human varicose veins against oxidative stress in vitro at levels that correspond to therapeutic concentrations. Further studies are required to investigate whether a similar action is found in varicose veins from patients orally treated with calcium dobesilate.

  17. [Vascularization of the wall of the superficial veins. Anatomic study of the vasa vasorum]. (United States)

    Lefebvre, D; Lescalie, F


    The blood vessel wall is almost always nourished by two ways; from the blood stream itself and through the outer part of the wall by vasa vasorum. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that this kind of nutrition is also available for the venous wall and to define the distribution pattern in superficial venous walls. 50 long saphenous veins and 20 short saphenous veins latex or barium injections, dissections with magnifying glasses and microradiographies. Topographical evaluation of the origin of vasa vasorum. The results showed that vasa vasorum originated from perforating arteries coming from several levels and getting a lot of anastomosis. We showed that the main sources for the long saphenous vein are the external pudendal artery and descending artery of the knee and for the short saphenous vein, the short saphenous vein artery. In thrombosis and varicose veins, the vasa were strongly altered. This study outlines the fact that superficial veins are supplied by arterial and venous vasa vasorum, and the role of vasa vasorum must be considered when questioning the pathogenesis of varicose and post thrombotic disease.

  18. Evaluation of Primary Pulmonary Vein Stenosis in Children: Comparison of Radionuclide Perfusion Lung Scan and Angiography. (United States)

    Drubach, Laura A; Jenkins, Kathy J; Stamoulis, Catherine; Palmer, Edwin L; Lee, Edward Y


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of radionuclide perfusion lung scanning in the evaluation of primary pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) in pediatric patients by comparing it with angiography. We retrospectively identified pediatric patients with primary PVS who underwent both lung scanning and angiography. A cohort of 34 patients was evaluated. The presence of PVS in the right upper, right lower, left upper, and left lower pulmonary veins on angiograms was recorded. Two nuclear medicine physicians evaluated the lung scans for perfusion defects. Agreement between lung scan and angiographic findings was assessed with contingency tables. Sensitivity and specificity of lung scanning for accurate detection of PVS with angiographic findings as the reference standard were assessed by ROC analysis. Angiography depicted PVS in 90 of the total 136 pulmonary veins (66%). Lung scans correctly depicted 65 (72%) of the cases of PVS diagnosed with angiography. The sensitivity and specificity of lung scans were 76.0% and 88.9% for the right upper pulmonary vein, 70.6% and 94.1% for the right lower pulmonary vein, 77.3% and 58.3% for the left upper pulmonary vein, and 65.4% and 87.5% for the left lower pulmonary vein. Lung scan findings correlate with angiographic findings in the detection of primary PVS in pediatric patients. Perfusion lung scanning may have a role in angiographically diagnosed PVS by noninvasively showing relative perfusion at the tissue level.

  19. Sublingual vein parameters, AFP, AFP-L3, and GP73 in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. (United States)

    Zhao, J; Guo, L-Y; Yang, J-M; Jia, J-W


    This study evaluated the diagnostic value of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), AFP heterogeneity 3 (AFP-L3), Golgi protein 73 (GP73), and sublingual vein parameters in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Levels of serum AFP, AFP-L3, GP73, and sublingual vein scores were measured in 34 patients with chronic hepatitis, 65 patients with post-hepatitis B cirrhosis, 71 patients with HCC, and 6 healthy controls. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore potential correlations. Sublingual vein grades in patients with HCC were higher than those in the other three groups; sublingual vein scores were also different between groups; combined diagnosis using AFP, GP73, and sublingual vein grade was superior to the individual parameters alone or when only two were used in different combinations. Thus, sublingual vein grade can be considered as an independent risk factor for diagnosis of HCC. Furthermore, combined detection with AFP, GP73, and sublingual vein grade is simple, inexpensive, and effective. It may therefore be suitable for screening high-risk populations for early diagnosis of HCC.

  20. Complications following radiofrequency ablation of the porcine liver through portal vein penetration: radiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hoon; Lim, Hyo K.; Choi, Dong Gil [Samsung Medical Center Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Yong Hwan [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kil Sun [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate complications after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the porcine liver through portal vein penetration. Twelve pigs were divided into two groups. In group I (n = 11) animals, the portal veins were directly penetrated with an electrode, and in the group II (n = 16) animals, the portal veins were located within the expected ablation area. For the group I pigs, RFA were performed for seven minutes after complete portal vein passing of the exposed tip. Gray-scale and Doppler ultrasonography, and CT were performed before and after RFA on the procedure day, and on day two. If any complications were found, the same studies were performed at day seven. We analyzed the presence and extent of thrombotic occlusion, the vascular stricture, the arterioportal shunt, and the presence of an intra-abdominal hemorrhage. We applied Fisher's exact test to compare the complication rate between the two groups; a value was considered statistically significant if the p-value was less than 0.05. In the group I animals (n = 11), three had complete thrombotic occlusion of the portal vein. Among these three animals, one had a segmental infarction, and one animal showed a partial occlusion. In the group II animals (n = 16), complications were not identified. Statistical analysis revealed the complication rate of group I was significantly higher than that of group II ({rho} = .019). The portal vein occlusion rate was significantly higher in the portal vein penetrating group than in the non-penetrating group.