WorldWideScience

Sample records for vehicle testing activities

  1. Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Francfort; D. Karner

    2006-04-01

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity teamed with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Public Service to develop and monitor the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant. The Pilot Plant provides 100% hydrogen, and hydrogen and compressed natural gas (H/CNG)-blended fuels for the evaluation of hydrogen and H/CNG internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in controlled and fleet testing environments. Since June 2002, twenty hydrogen and H/CNG vehicles have accumulated 300,000 test miles and 5,700 fueling events. The AVTA is part of the Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. These testing activities are managed by the Idaho National Laboratory. This paper discusses the Pilot Plant design and monitoring, and hydrogen ICE vehicle testing methods and results.

  2. Torsion vehicle model test for automotive vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, M. K. Mohd; Ho, C. S.; Ma'at, N.

    2017-04-01

    Torsion vehicle model test of Simple Structural Surfaces (SSS) model for automotive vehicle sedan is proposed in this paper to demonstrate the importance of providing continuous load path within the vehicle structures. The proposed approach is relatively easy to understand as compared to Finite Element Method (FEM). The results prove that the proposed vehicle model test is capable to show that a satisfactory load paths can five a sufficient structural stiffness within the vehicle structure. It is clearly observed that the global torsion stiffness reduces significantly when only one panel is removed from the complete SSS model. The results also five a food agreement with respect to the theoretical hypothesis as the structure is less stiff in torsion in an open section condition. The SSS model and the corresponding torsion test is obviously useful to give an overview of vehicle structural integrity. It can be potentially integrated with FEM to speed up the design process of automotive vehicle.

  3. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Cold Weather On-road Testing of the Chevrolet Volt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report details cold weather on-road testing of a Chevrolet Volt. It quantifies changes in efficiency and electric range as ambient temperature changes. It will be published to INL's AVTA website as an INL technical report and will be accessible to the general public.

  4. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  5. Tactical Vehicle Climate Control Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 02-2-820 Tactical Vehicle Climate Control Testing 5a...provides procedures for determining the maximum performance climate control capability of tactical vehicles in a minimalist baseline configuration inside...PROCEDURE *Test Operations Procedure 02-2-820 31 March 2017 DTIC AD No. TACTICAL VEHICLE CLIMATE CONTROL TESTING Page Paragraph 1. SCOPE

  6. Tropic Testing of Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-27

    a ground crawling vehicle to negotiate one pass over fine-grained soil (clays and silts). Experimental VCI is not determined for clean sands. Soil...1. Vegetation Data a. Stem diameter at breast height (DBH) (inches) b. Vegetation type c. Mode of tree failure 2. Vehicle

  7. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity -- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Morrow; Donald Darner; James Francfort

    2008-11-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are under evaluation by various stake holders to better understand their capability and potential benefits. PHEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard HEV and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, have the ability to eliminate fuel consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The cost associated with providing charge infrastructure for PHEVs, along with the additional costs for the on-board power electronics and added battery requirements associated with PHEV technology will be a key factor in the success of PHEVs. This report analyzes the infrastructure requirements for PHEVs in single family residential, multi-family residential and commercial situations. Costs associated with this infrastructure are tabulated, providing an estimate of the infrastructure costs associated with PHEV deployment.

  8. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 3539 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Shirk; Tyler Gray; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicle batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid (VIN KMHEC4A47BA003539). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. Design and test of a novel magnetic lead screw for active suspension system in a vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nick Ilsø; Holm, Rasmus Koldborg; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2014-01-01

    . Furthermore the Magnetic Lead Screw is introduced and its benefits when used with an active suspension system are discussed. Based on a model of a quarter car, the design specifications for the MLS active suspension system are found, which leads to a design study. The design study investigates the relation...

  10. Vehicle rollover sensor test modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCoy, R.W.; Chou, C.C.; Velde, R. van de; Twisk, D.; Schie, C. van

    2007-01-01

    A computational model of a mid-size sport utility vehicle was developed using MADYMO. The model includes a detailed description of the suspension system and tire characteristics that incorporated the Delft-Tyre magic formula description. The model was correlated by simulating a vehicle suspension

  11. Passive Earth Entry Vehicle Landing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellas, Sotiris

    2017-01-01

    Two full-scale passive Earth Entry Vehicles (EEV) with realistic structure, surrogate sample container, and surrogate Thermal Protection System (TPS) were built at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and tested at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). The main test objective was to demonstrate structural integrity and investigate possible impact response deviations of the realistic vehicle as compared to rigid penetrometer responses. With the exception of the surrogate TPS and minor structural differences in the back shell construction, the two test vehicles were identical in geometry and both utilized the Integrated Composite Stiffener Structure (ICoSS) structural concept in the forward shell. The ICoSS concept is a lightweight and highly adaptable composite concept developed at NASA LaRC specifically for entry vehicle TPS carrier structures. The instrumented test vehicles were released from a helicopter approximately 400 m above ground. The drop height was selected such that at least 98% of the vehicles terminal velocity would be achieved. While drop tests of spherical penetrometers and a low fidelity aerodynamic EEV model were conducted at UTTR in 1998 and 2000, this was the first time a passive EEV with flight-like structure, surrogate TPS, and sample container was tested at UTTR for the purpose of complete structural system validation. Test results showed that at a landing vertical speed of approximately 30 m/s, the test vehicle maintained structural integrity and enough rigidity to penetrate the sandy clay surface thus attenuating the landing load, as measured at the vehicle CG, to less than 600 g. This measured deceleration was found to be in family with rigid penetrometer test data from the 1998 and 2000 test campaigns. Design implications of vehicle structure/soil interaction with respect to sample container and sample survivability are briefly discussed.

  12. JPL's electric and hybrid vehicles project: Project activities and preliminary test results. [power conditioning and battery charge efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    Efforts to achieve a 100 mile urban range, to reduce petroleum usage 40% to 70%, and to commercialize battery technology are discussed with emphasis on an all plastic body, four passenger car that is flywheel assisted and battery powered, and on an all metal body, four passenger car with front wheel drive and front motor. For the near term case, a parallel hybrid in which the electric motor and the internal combustion engine may directly power the drive wheels, is preferred to a series design. A five passenger car in which the electric motor and the gasoline engine both feed into the same transmission is discussed. Upgraded demonstration vehicles were tested using advanced lead acid, nickel zinc, nickel iron, and zinc chloride batteries to determine maximum acceleration, constant speed, and battery behavior. The near term batteries demonstrated significant improvement relative to current lead acid batteries. The increase in range was due to improved energy density, and ampere hour capacity, with relatively 1 small weight and volume differences.

  13. Yeager Airport Hydrogen Vehicle Test Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Williams [West Virginia University Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was designed to have the National Alternative Fuels Training Consortium (NAFTC), together with its partners, manage the Hydrogen Vehicle Test Project at the Yeager Airport in conjunction with the Central West Virginia Regional Airport Authority (CWVRAA) in coordination with the United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. DOE NETL). This program would allow testing and evaluation of the use of hydrogen vehicles in the state of West Virginia utilizing the hydrogen fueling station at Yeager Airport. The NAFTC and CWVRAA to raise awareness and foster a greater understanding of hydrogen fuel and hydrogen-powered vehicles through a targeted utilization and outreach and education effort. After initial implementation of the project, the project added, determine the source(s) of supply for hydrogen powered vehicles that could be used for the testing. After completion of this, testing was begun at Yeager Airport. During the course of the project, the station at Yeager Airport was closed and moved to Morgantown and the West Virginia University Research Corporation. The vehicles were then moved to Morgantown and a vehicle owned by the CWVRAA was purchased to complete the project at the new location. Because of a number of issues detailed in the report for DE-FE0002994 and in this report, this project did not get to evaluate the effectiveness of the vehicles as planned.

  14. Status of the irradiation test vehicle for testing fusion materials in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, H.; Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Palmer, A.J.; Ingram, F.W. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wiffen, F.W. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States). Office of Fusion Energy

    1998-09-01

    The design of the irradiation test vehicle (ITV) for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has been completed. The main application for the ITV is irradiation testing of candidate fusion structural materials, including vanadium-base alloys, silicon carbide composites, and low-activation steels. Construction of the vehicle is underway at the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO). Dummy test trains are being built for system checkout and fine-tuning. Reactor insertion of the ITV with the dummy test trains is scheduled for fall 1998. Barring unexpected difficulties, the ITV will be available for experiments in early 1999.

  15. The development of the DAST I remotely piloted research vehicle for flight testing an active flutter suppression control system. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    The development of the DAST I (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing) remotely piloted research vehicle is described. The DAST I is a highly modified BQM-34E/F Firebee II Supersonic Aerial Target incorporating a swept supercritical wing designed to flutter within the vehicle's flight envelope. The predicted flutter and rigid body characteristics are presented. A description of the analysis and design of an active flutter suppression control system (FSS) designed to increase the flutter boundary of the DAST wing (ARW-1) by a factor of 20% is given. The design and development of the digital remotely augmented primary flight control system and on-board analog backup control system is presented. An evaluation of the near real-time flight flutter testing methods is made by comparing results of five flutter testing techniques on simulated DAST I flutter data. The development of the DAST ARW-1 state variable model used to generate time histories of simulated accelerometer responses is presented. This model uses control surface commands and a Dryden model gust as inputs. The feasibility of the concept of extracting open loop flutter characteristics from closed loop FSS responses was examined. It was shown that open loop characteristics can be determined very well from closed loop subcritical responses.

  16. Vehicle to Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Smart Grid Communications Interface Research and Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard; Jeff Wishart

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and extended range electric vehicles, are under evaluation by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) and other various stakeholders to better understand their capability and potential petroleum reduction benefits. PEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard hybrid electric vehicles, and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, PEVs may have the ability to eliminate petroleum consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The AVTA is working jointly with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) to assist in the further development of standards necessary for the advancement of PEVs. This report analyzes different methods and available hardware for advanced communications between the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and the PEV; particularly Power Line Devices and their physical layer. Results of this study are not conclusive, but add to the collective knowledge base in this area to help define further testing that will be necessary for the development of the final recommended SAE communications standard. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Applications conduct the AVTA for the United States Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program.

  17. Flight Testing of Hybrid Powered Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, George; Arves, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid Rocket powered vehicles have had a limited number of flights. Most recently in 2004, Scaled Composites had a successful orbital trajectory that put a private vehicle twice to over 62 miles high, the edge of space to win the X-Prize. This endeavor man rates a hybrid system. Hybrids have also been used in a number of one time launch attempts - SET-1, HYSR, HPDP. Hybrids have also been developed for use and flown in target drones. This chapter discusses various flight-test programs that have been conducted, hybrid vehicles that are in development, other hybrid vehicles that have been proposed and some strap-on applications have also been examined.

  18. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  19. IRVIN - Intelligent Road and Vehicle test INfrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.T.; Hogema, J.A.; Huiskamp, W.; Papp, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Simulation, or rather virtual testing, is a good instrument for study and design of traffic management concepts, traffic safety, vehicle safety and ergonomics. Simulation facilitates the evaluation of the design at an early stage and reduces the costs of making prototypes. The Dutch research

  20. Parametric Testing of Launch Vehicle FDDR Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Johann; Bajwa, Anupa; Berg, Peter; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2011-01-01

    For the safe operation of a complex system like a (manned) launch vehicle, real-time information about the state of the system and potential faults is extremely important. The on-board FDDR (Failure Detection, Diagnostics, and Response) system is a software system to detect and identify failures, provide real-time diagnostics, and to initiate fault recovery and mitigation. The ERIS (Evaluation of Rocket Integrated Subsystems) failure simulation is a unified Matlab/Simulink model of the Ares I Launch Vehicle with modular, hierarchical subsystems and components. With this model, the nominal flight performance characteristics can be studied. Additionally, failures can be injected to see their effects on vehicle state and on vehicle behavior. A comprehensive test and analysis of such a complicated model is virtually impossible. In this paper, we will describe, how parametric testing (PT) can be used to support testing and analysis of the ERIS failure simulation. PT uses a combination of Monte Carlo techniques with n-factor combinatorial exploration to generate a small, yet comprehensive set of parameters for the test runs. For the analysis of the high-dimensional simulation data, we are using multivariate clustering to automatically find structure in this high-dimensional data space. Our tools can generate detailed HTML reports that facilitate the analysis.

  1. 2011 Honda CR-Z 4466 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing traction batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Honda CR-Z (VIN JHMZF1C67BS004466). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. 2011 Honda CR-Z 2982 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Tyler [Intertek Testing Services NA, Phoenix, AZ (United States). Center for Evaluation of Clean Energy Technology (CECET); Wishart, Jeffrey [Intertek Testing Services NA, Phoenix, AZ (United States). Center for Evaluation of Clean Energy Technology (CECET); Shirk, Matthew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing traction batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Honda CR-Z (VIN JHMZF1C64BS002982). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  3. Efficiency Test Method for Electric Vehicle Chargers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieldsen, Andreas; Thingvad, Andreas; Martinenas, Sergejus

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates different methods for measuring the charger efficiency of mass produced electric vehicles (EVs), in order to compare the different models. The consumers have low attention to the loss in the charger though the impact on the driving cost is high. It is not a high priority...... different vehicles. A unified method for testing the efficiency of the charger in EVs, without direct access to the component, is presented. The method is validated through extensive tests of the models Renault Zoe, Nissan LEAF and Peugeot iOn. The results show a loss between 15 % and 40 %, which is far...... above the state of the art power converters. This is an unnecessary high consumption of electrical energy during charging, which not only affects the consumer financially, but also creates unnecessary load on the grid....

  4. NAC Off-Vehicle Brake Testing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Project Officer ( TIPO ) US Army National Automotive Center (NAC) Warren, MI Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The original document contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...May 2007 FinalR1 UNCLAS: Dist A. Approved for public release Leo Miller, Technology Insertion Project Officer ( TIPO ) NAC Off-vehicle Brake Testing

  5. Electric vehicles in urban areas: test cases using a scenario simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, João; Lobo, Cristina; Morais, H.; Vale, Zita

    2012-01-01

    Electric vehicles introduction will affect cities environment and urban mobility policies. Network system operators will have to consider the electric vehicles in planning and operation activities due to electric vehicles’ dependency on the electricity grid. The present paper presents test cases using an Electric Vehicle Scenario Simulator (EVeSSi) being developed by the authors. The test cases include two scenarios considering a 33 bus network with up to 2000 electric vehicles in the urba...

  6. Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing in Support of Launch Vehicle Loads and Controls Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, Margaret L.; Chenevert, Donald J.

    2009-01-01

    NASA has conducted dynamic tests on each major launch vehicle during the past 45 years. Each test provided invaluable data to correlate and correct analytical models. GVTs result in hardware changes to Saturn and Space Shuttle, ensuring crew and vehicle safety. Ares I IVGT will provide test data such as natural frequencies, mode shapes, and damping to support successful Ares I flights. Testing will support controls analysis by providing data to reduce model uncertainty. Value of testing proven by past launch vehicle successes and failures. Performing dynamic testing on Ares vehicles will provide confidence that the launch vehicles will be safe and successful in their missions.

  7. Braking, Wheeled Vehicles. Test Operations Procedure (TOP)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    .... Major factors to be considered in the evaluation of vehicle braking systems are stopping and grade holding ability, vehicle stability and control during brake applications, and individual braking...

  8. Test vehicles for CMS HGCAL readout ASIC

    CERN Document Server

    Thienpont, Damien

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents first measurement results of two test vehicles ASIC embedding some building blocks for the future CMS High Granularity CALorimeter (HGCAL) read-out ASIC. They were fabricated in CMOS 130 nm, in order to first design the Analog and Mixed-Signal blocks before going to a complete and complex chip. Such a circuit needs to achieve low noise high dynamic range charge measurement and 20 ps resolution timing capability. The results show good analog performance but with higher noise levels compared to simulations. We present the results of the preamplifiers, shapers and ADCs.

  9. Characterization Test Procedures for Intersection Collision Avoidance Systems Based on Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Characterization test procedures have been developed to quantify the performance of intersection collision avoidance (ICA) systems based on vehicle-to-vehicle communications. These systems warn the driver of an imminent crossing-path collision at a r...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1724-99 - Test vehicles and engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test vehicles and engines. 86.1724-99... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General... Trucks § 86.1724-99 Test vehicles and engines. The provisions of § 86.096-24 and subsequent model year...

  11. Active damper wind tunnel test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Active damper wind tunnel test in support of the development of Constellation/Ares. Testing of the 1% and .548% models for active damper and wall interference assessment in support of the Ares/CLV integrated vehicle. This test occurred at the 11 foot wind tunnel at the Ames Research Center, California. This image is extracted from high definition video file and is the highest resolution available.

  12. Electrical Vehicles Activities Around the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauer, Gerd; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    which have jointly changed how mobility is viewed in recent years. We describe key points concerning such field testing and the renaissance in electric vehicles that occurred around 2010. We discuss progress in lithium battery technology for high power and high energy density, improvement in integrated...... business models, and the availability of high-performance electric vehicles have become key enablers of this new technology. In this regard, it is promising that electric vehicles will soon be a part of a green transport solution (green mobility) powered by renewable energy and a new smart electricity......To understand the development of electric vehicles it is helpful to recognize constraints that were overcome during its history and the lessons learned from these constraints. In the earliest history of automobiles electrical cars initially dominated, but were pushed aside by cars with a combustion...

  13. Vehicle test report: Electric Vehicle Associates electric conversion of an AMC Pacer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T. W.; Wirth, V. A., Jr.; Pampa, M. F.

    1981-01-01

    The change of pace, an electric vehicle was tested. These tests were performed to characterize certain parameters of the electric vehicle pacer and to provide baseline data that can be used for the comparison of improved batteries that may be incorporated into the vehicle at a later time. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive subsystem, the batteries, controller and motor. Coastdowns to characterize the road load, and range evaluations for both cyclic and constant speed conditions were performed. The vehicle's performance was evaluated by comparing its constant speed range performance with described vehicles. It is found that the pacer performance is approximately equal to the majority of the vehicles tested in the 1977 assessment.

  14. Flight Testing of Wireless Networking for Nanosat Launch Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here addresses the testing and evaluation of wireless networking technologies for small launch vehicles by leveraging existing nanosat launch...

  15. Test Vehicle Forebody Wake Effects on CPAS Parachutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Eric S.

    2017-01-01

    Parachute drag performance has been reconstructed for a large number of Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) flight tests. This allows for determining forebody wake effects indirectly through statistical means. When data are available in a "clean" wake, such as behind a slender test vehicle, the relative degradation in performance for other test vehicles can be computed as a Pressure Recovery Fraction (PRF). All four CPAS parachute types were evaluated: Forward Bay Cover Parachutes (FBCPs), Drogues, Pilots, and Mains. Many tests used the missile-shaped Parachute Compartment Drop Test Vehicle (PCDTV) to obtain data at high airspeeds. Other tests used the Orion "boilerplate" Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV) to evaluate parachute performance in a representative heatshield wake. Drag data from both vehicles are normalized to a "capsule" forebody equivalent for Orion simulations. A separate database of PCDTV-specific performance is maintained to accurately predict flight tests. Data are shared among analogous parachutes whenever possible to maximize statistical significance.

  16. A Model of Active Roll Vehicle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Čech

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes active suspension with active roll for four-wheel vehicle (bus by means of an in-series pump actuator with doubled hydropneumatic springs. It also gives full control law with no sky-craping. Lateral stiffness and solid axle geometry in the mechanical model are not neglected. Responses to lateral input as well as responses to statistical unevennesses show considerable improvement of passengers comfort and safety when cornering.

  17. Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-02

    Engineers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL’s) Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility (VTIF) are developing strategies to address two separate but equally crucial areas of research: meeting the demands of electric vehicle (EV) grid integration and minimizing fuel consumption related to vehicle climate control. Dedicated to renewable and energy-efficient solutions, the VTIF showcases technologies and systems designed to increase the viability of sustainably powered vehicles. NREL researchers instrument every class of on-road vehicle, conduct hardware and software validation for EV components and accessories, and develop analysis tools and technology for the Department of Energy, other government agencies, and industry partners.

  18. Fully Fueled TACOM Vehicle Storage Test Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    AFLRL with a water bottom were tested as control samples. This fuel sample had been previously innoculated with a culture of Cladosporium resinae and was...turbid, light pink color * Containing active growth of Cladosporium resinae ** Sample was shaken and allowed to stand for 24 hours prior to obtaining

  19. Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing in Support of NASA Launch Vehicle Loads and Controls Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, Margaret L.; Davis, Susan R.; Askins, Bruce R.; Salyer, Blaine H.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ares Projects Office (APO) is continuing to make progress toward the final design of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and Ares V cargo launch vehicle. Ares I and V will form the space launch capabilities necessary to fulfill NASA's exploration strategy of sending human beings to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. As with all new space vehicles there will be a number of tests to ensure the design can be Human Rated. One of these is the Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test (IVGVT) that will be measuring responses of the Ares I as a system. All structural systems possess a basic set of physical characteristics unique to that system. These unique characteristics include items such as mass distribution, frequency and damping. When specified, they allow engineers to understand and predict how a structural system like the Ares I launch vehicle behaves under given loading conditions. These physical properties of launch vehicles may be predicted by analysis or measured through certain types of tests. Generally, these properties are predicted by analysis during the design phase of a launch vehicle and then verified through testing before the vehicle is Human Rated. The IVGVT is intended to measure by test the fundamental dynamic characteristics of Ares I during various phases of operational/flight. This testing includes excitations of the vehicle in lateral, longitudinal, and torsional directions at vehicle configurations representing different trajectory points. During the series of tests, properties such as natural frequencies, mode shapes, and transfer functions are measured directly. These data will then be used to calibrate loads and Guidance, Navigation, and Controls (GN&C) analysis models for verifying analyses of Ares I. NASA launch vehicles from Saturn to Shuttle have undergone Ground Vibration Tests (GVTs) leading to successful launch vehicles. A GVT was not performed on the unmanned Delta III. This vehicle was

  20. 40 CFR 205.57-3 - Test vehicle preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test vehicle preparation. 205.57-3 Section 205.57-3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.57-3 Test vehicle...

  1. Drawbar Pull (DP) Procedures for Off-Road Vehicle Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Colin; Asnani, Vivake; Oravec, Heather; Woodward, Adam

    2017-01-01

    As NASA strives to explore the surface of the Moon and Mars, there is a continued need for improved tire and vehicle development. When tires or vehicles are being designed for off-road conditions where significant thrust generation is required, such as climbing out of craters on the Moon, it is important to use a standard test method for evaluating their tractive performance. The drawbar pull (DP) test is a way of measuring the net thrust generated by tires or a vehicle with respect to performance metrics such as travel reduction, sinkage, or power efficiency. DP testing may be done using a single tire on a traction rig, or with a set of tires on a vehicle; this report focuses on vehicle DP tests. Though vehicle DP tests have been used for decades, there are no standard procedures that apply to exploration vehicles. This report summarizes previous methods employed, shows the sensitivity of certain test parameters, and provides a body of knowledge for developing standard testing procedures. The focus of this work is on lunar applications, but these test methods can be applied to terrestrial and planetary conditions as well. Section 1.0 of this report discusses the utility of DP testing for off-road vehicle evaluation and the metrics used. Section 2.0 focuses on test-terrain preparation, using the example case of lunar terrain. There is a review of lunar terrain analogs implemented in the past and a discussion on the lunar terrain conditions created at the NASA Glenn Research Center, including methods of evaluating the terrain strength variation and consistency from test to test. Section 3.0 provides details of the vehicle test procedures. These consist of a review of past methods, a comprehensive study on the sensitivity of test parameters, and a summary of the procedures used for DP testing at Glenn.

  2. Roll control resonance test vehicle (RCRTV) system postflight evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryvoruka, J.K.

    1973-03-01

    This report presents the flight test results for a reentry vehicle spin-fin roll control system. The test vehicle, designated the Roll Control Resonance Test Vehicle, was flight tested on May 10, 1972, at the Sandia Laboratories Tonopah Test Range. The purpose of the flight were (1) to demonstrate and evaluate the capability of the control system to overcome a roll resonance flight instability and (2) to confirm the analytic predictions of system performance. The flight test vehicle had built-in asymmetries which, without roll control, would have caused a persistent roll resonance instability to occur. The test was successful in that all systems functioned properly and all program and flight test objectives were accomplished. Flight test data presented herein confirm analytic predictions and flight simulation methods. Results show that the system maintained roll rate control and prevented the roll resonance instability.

  3. Staged collision and damage data. Volume 2: Report for accident reconstruction of thirty (30) test vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Test vehicles were instrumented with accelerometers to measure vehicle accelerator resultants. The vehicles were also identified for residual crush and collision deformation classification (CDC) measurements.

  4. Plasma Vehicle Charging Analysis for Orion Flight Test 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, B.; Norgard, J.

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for the upcoming experimental test flight for the Orion crew module, considerable interest was raised over the possibility of exposure to elevated levels of plasma activity and vehicle charging both externally on surfaces and internally on dielectrics during the flight test orbital operations. Initial analysis using NASCAP-2K indicated very high levels of exposure, and this generated additional interest in refining/defining the plasma and spacecraft models used in the analysis. This refinement was pursued, resulting in the use of specific AE8 and AP8 models, rather than SCATHA models, as well as consideration of flight trajectory, time duration, and other parameters possibly affecting the levels of exposure and the magnitude of charge deposition. Analysis using these refined models strongly indicated that, for flight test operations, no special surface coatings were necessary for the Thermal Protection System (TPS), but would definitely be required for future GEO, trans-lunar, and extra-lunar missions.

  5. Vehicle Test Facilities at Aberdeen Test Center and Yuma Test Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    dynamometers rated at 350 hp and 600 hp NA NA Wheeled Vehicle Roller Brake Dynamometer 70 Brake forces up to 45 kN (10,000 lb) at axle weights up to 2000...2.11.9 Wheeled Vehicle Roller Brake Dynamometer. The roller brake dynamometer is capable of dynamically testing brakes and anti-lock brake systems...used for closely controlled engineering tests such as drawbar pull (Figure 12), tractive resistance measurements, coast-down, braking , and fuel

  6. 40 CFR 86.096-24 - Test vehicles and engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.096-24 Test vehicles and engines. (a... configuration. (E) The intake and exhaust valve sizes. (F) The fuel system. (G) The camshaft timing and ignition... (non-catalyst, oxidation catalyst only, three-way catalyst equipped). (9) Engine families identical in...

  7. Reference architecture for interoperability testing of Electric Vehicle charging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehfuss, F.; Nohrer, M.; Werkmany, E.; Lopezz, J.A.; Zabalaz, E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a reference architecture for interoperability testing of electric vehicles as well as their support equipment with the smart grid and the e-Mobility environment. Pan-European Electric Vehicle (EV)-charging is currently problematic as there are compliance and interoperability

  8. 40 CFR 86.001-24 - Test vehicles and engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test vehicles and engines. 86.001-24... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for...-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied...

  9. 40 CFR 86.098-24 - Test vehicles and engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test vehicles and engines. 86.098-24... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for...-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied...

  10. 40 CFR 86.000-24 - Test vehicles and engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test vehicles and engines. 86.000-24... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for...-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied...

  11. Current Hypersonic and Space Vehicle Flight Test and Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-22

    System AFRL and DARPA have teamed up to manage two different hypersonic propulsion technology development programs; Tactical Boost Glide (TBG) and...412TW-PA-15264 CURRENT HYPERSONIC AND SPACE VEHICLE FLIGHT TEST AND INSTRUMENTATION John J. Spravka* and Timothy R. Jorris† AIR FORCE TEST...DATES COVERED (From - To) 22 – 26 July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Current Hypersonic and Space Vehicle Flight Test and Instrumentation

  12. 2014 ITS World Congress Connected Vehicle Test Bed Demonstration Vehicle Situation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — During the 2014 ITS World Congress a demonstration of the connected vehicle infrastructure in the City of Detroit was conducted. The test site included approximately...

  13. Summary of Developmental Testing for the Light Strike Vehicle/Internally Transportable Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallagher, Michael

    1999-01-01

    ...)/ Internally Transportable Vehicle (ITV) Program. An extensive amount of testing has been undertaken and accomplished in anticipation of a Milestone I decision to proceed with development and fielding of the LSV/ITV...

  14. Braking, Wheeled Vehicles. Test Operations Procedure (TOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-20

    are as follows: a. Micrometer calipers (inside, outside, and dial types). b. Surface finish gauges. c. Torque wrench. d. Brake shoe...HAZARDOUS CONDITION • The power assist unit fails to operate. 10. Front Drum Brakes Procedure: Equipment needed: Steel scale or Vernier ... Micrometer and dial indicator. Reject the vehicle if: • Rotors are broken or damaged, or cracks on the surface extend to the outer edges. • Two grooves

  15. Battery Test Manual For 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Lee Kenneth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This manual details the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium and U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program goals, test methods, and analysis techniques for a 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle system. The test methods are outlined stating with characterization tests, followed by life tests. The final section details standardized analysis techniques for 48 V systems that allow for the comparison of different programs that use this manual. An example test plan is included, along with guidance to filling in gap table numbers.

  16. Staged collision and damage data. Volume 1: Report for accident reconstruction of thirty (30) test vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The test vehicles were impacted tested for compliance with FMVSS 212/219/301-75. As a parallel nonconflicting effort, the test vehicles were instrumented with accelerometers to measure vehicle accelerator resultants.

  17. Active seat isolation for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Donald J.; Malowicki, Mark; Buckley, Stephen J.; Naganathan, Ganapathy

    1999-07-01

    A feasibility study in the use of induced strain actuators for active seal isolation is described. The focus of the work is the isolation of lightweight automotive seats for hybrid-electric vehicles. The feasibility study is based on a numerical analysis of a three-degree-of-freedom vibration model of the seat. Mass and inertia properties are based on measurements from a powered seat that is found in current model year automobiles. Tradeoffs between vertical acceleration of the seat, actuator stroke requirements, and isolation frequency are determined through numerical analysis of the vibration model. Root mean square accelerations and actuator strokes are computed using power spectral densities that model broadband excitation and road excitation that is filtered by the vehicle suspension. Numerical results using the road excitation indicate that factors of two to three reduction in vertical acceleration are achieved when the active isolation frequency is reduced to approximately 1 Hz with damping factors on the order of 10 to 30 percent critical. More significant reductions are achieved in the case of broadband floor excitation. Root mean square actuator strokes for both case are int he range of 0.4 to 50 mm. Root mean square accelerations in the vertical direction are consistent with the levels found in standard comfort curves.

  18. Potential use of battery packs from NCAP tested vehicles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01

    Several large electric vehicle batteries available to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are candidates for use in future safety testing programs. The batteries, from vehicles subjected to NCAP crashworthiness testing, are considered potentially damaged due to the nature of testing their associated vehicles have been subjected to. Criteria for safe shipping to Sandia is discussed, as well as condition the batteries must be in to perform testing work. Also discussed are potential tests that could be performed under a variety of conditions. The ultimate value of potential testing performed on these cells will rest on the level of access available to the battery pack, i.e. external access only, access to the on board monitoring system/CAN port or internal electrical access to the battery. Greater access to the battery than external visual and temperature monitoring would likely require input from the battery manufacturer.

  19. Robust Vehicle Suspension System by Converting Active & Passive Control of a Vehicle to Semi-Active Control System Analytically

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hassan Elahi; Dr. Riffat Asim Pasha; Dr. Asif Israr; Dr. M. Zubair Khan

    2014-01-01

    .... Passive Vehicle Suspension System is converted into Semi Active Vehicle System. Major advantage achieved by this system is that it adjusts the damping of the suspension system without the application of any actuator by using MATLAB® simulations...

  20. Safe and secure South Africa. Vehicle landmine protection validation testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reinecke, JD

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of vehicle landmine protection validation testing in South Africa. A short history of validation test standards is given, followed by a summary of current open test standards in general use...

  1. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  2. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-12-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  3. Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing of Manned Spacecraft: Historical Precedent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Paul R.; Tuma, Margaret L.; Askins, Bruce R.

    2008-01-01

    For the first time in nearly 30 years, NASA is developing a new manned space flight launch system. The Ares I will carry crew and cargo to not only the International Space Station, but onward for the future exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Ares I control system and structural designs use complex computer models for their development. An Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test (IVGVT) will validate the efficacy of these computer models. The IVGVT will reduce the technical risk of unexpected conditions that could place the vehicle or crew in jeopardy. The Ares Project Office's Flight and Integrated Test Office commissioned a study to determine how historical programs, such as Saturn and Space Shuttle, validated the structural dynamics of an integrated flight vehicle. The study methodology was to examine the historical record and seek out members of the engineering community who recall the development of historic manned launch vehicles. These records and interviews provided insight into the best practices and lessons learned from these historic development programs. The information that was gathered allowed the creation of timelines of the historic development programs. The timelines trace the programs from the development of test articles through test preparation, test operations, and test data reduction efforts. These timelines also demonstrate how the historical tests fit within their overall vehicle development programs. Finally, the study was able to quantify approximate staffing levels during historic development programs. Using this study, the Flight and Integrated Test Office was able to evaluate the Ares I Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test schedule and workforce budgets in light of the historical precedents to determine if the test had schedule or cost risks associated with it.

  4. Results from Operational Testing of the Siemens Smart Grid-Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Siemens smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Siemens for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Siemens smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  5. Electric vehicle test report Cutler-Hammer Corvette

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Vehicles were characterized for the state of the art assessment of electric vehicles. The vehicle evaluated was a Chevrolet Corvette converted to electric operation. The original internal combustion engine was replaced by an electric traction motor. Eighteen batteries supplied the electrical energy. A controller, an onboard battery charger, and several dashboard instruments completed the conversion. The emphasis was on the electrical portion of the drive train, although some analysis and discussion of the mechanical elements are included. Tests were conducted both on the road (actually a mile long runway) and in a chassis dynamometer equipped laboratory. The majority of the tests performed were according to SAE Procedure J227a and included maximum effort accelerations, constant speed range, and cyclic range. Some tests that are not a part of the SAE Procedure J227a are described and the analysis of the data from all tests is discussed.

  6. Using the lead vehicle as preview sensor in convoy vehicle active suspension control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mustafizur; Rideout, Geoff

    2012-12-01

    Both ride quality and roadholding of actively suspended vehicles can be improved by sensing the road ahead of the vehicle and using this information in a preview controller. Previous applications have used look-ahead sensors mounted on the front bumper to measure terrain beneath. Such sensors are vulnerable, potentially confused by water, snow, or other soft obstacles and offer a fixed preview time. For convoy vehicle applications, this paper proposes using the overall response of the preceding vehicle(s) to generate preview controller information for follower vehicles. A robust observer is used to estimate the states of a quarter-car vehicle model, from which road profile is estimated and passed on to the follower vehicle(s) to generate a preview function. The preview-active suspension, implemented in discrete time using a shift register approach to improve simulation time, reduces sprung mass acceleration and dynamic tyre deflection peaks by more than 50% and 40%, respectively. Terrain can change from one vehicle to the next if a loose obstacle is dislodged, or if the vehicle paths are sufficiently different so that one vehicle misses a discrete road event. The resulting spurious preview information can give suspension performance worse than that of a passive or conventional active system. In this paper, each vehicle can effectively estimate the road profile based on its own state trajectory. By comparing its own road estimate with the preview information, preview errors can be detected and suspension control quickly switched from preview to conventional active control to preserve performance improvements compared to passive suspensions.

  7. Ensuring Safe Exploration: Ares Launch Vehicle Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, M. L.; Chenevert, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated vehicle ground vibration testing (IVGVT) will be a vital component for ensuring the safety of NASA's next generation of exploration vehicles to send human beings to the Moon and beyond. A ground vibration test (GVT) measures the fundamental dynamic characteristics of launch vehicles during various phases of flight. The Ares Flight & Integrated Test Office (FITO) will be leading the IVGVT for the Ares I crew launch vehicle at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) from 2012 to 2014 using Test Stand (TS) 4550. MSFC conducted similar GVT for the Saturn V and Space Shuttle vehicles. FITO is responsible for performing the IVGVT on the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which will lift the Orion crew exploration vehicle to low Earth orbit, and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, which can launch the lunar lander into orbit and send the combined Orionilander vehicles toward the Moon. Ares V consists of a six-engine core stage with two solid rocket boosters and an Earth departure stage (EDS). The same engine will power the EDS and the Ares I second stage. For the Ares IVGVT, the current plan is to test six configurations in three unique test positions inside TS 4550. Position 1 represents the entire launch stack at liftoff (using inert first stage segments). Position 2 consists of the entire launch stack at first stage burn-out (using empty first stage segments). Four Ares I second stage test configurations will be tested in Position 3, consisting of the Upper Stage and Orion crew module in four nominal conditions: J-2X engine ignition, post Launch Abort System (LAS) jettison, critical slosh mass, and J-2X burn-out. Because of long disuse, TS 4550 is being repaired and reactivated to conduct the Ares I IVGVT. The Shuttle-era platforms have been removed and are being replaced with mast climbers that provide ready access to the test articles and can be moved easily to support different positions within the test stand. The electrical power distribution system for TS 4550 was

  8. Wheeled and Tracked Vehicle Endurance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-02

    board power, and lift /tow (wreckers) to identify equipment damage or degradation. When establishing test mileage cycles, identify the number of...Standing Operating Procedures (SOPs) throughout test operations. b. Maintain correct levels of standard military lubricants, hydraulic fluids...Trailer, Light and Medium 50 40 10 a - Wheeled Truck-Tractor and Trailer, Heavy 40 45 15 a - Motorcycle 10 10 50 30 Quad / All Terrain

  9. Launch vehicle aerodynamic flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, L. M.; Osborn, W. L.; Wiltse, P. D.

    1983-01-01

    The aerodynamic flight test procedures and results for the Space Shuttle orbiter are presented. The aerodynamic characteristics used in testing were determined from flights STS-1 and through STS-4. Normal force and pitching moment were different than predicted, suggesting an unanticipated aerodynamic force acting upward on the end of the orbiter. However, lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics were in good management with good predictions. The flight measured aerodynamics are repeatable and show good correlation with angle of attack and angle of sideslip.

  10. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Heavy Fuel Engine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    engines and gaz turbine engines. Unfortunately, the best production diesel engines in the 50 HP class weigh 250 lbs or more, although these engines...Heavy Fuel Engine Test 6. AUTHOR(S) Robert Brucato Joseph Lawton Anthony Magglo 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ...BASELINE ENGINE PERFORMANCE ................. 20 3.2.3.2 EXHAUST SYSTEM TUNING ........................ 20-21 3.2.3.3 TURBOCHARGER TESTING

  11. Summary of electric vehicle dc motor-controller tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBrien, E F; Tryon, H B

    1982-09-01

    Available performance data for production motors are usually of marginal value to the electric vehicle designer. To provide at least a partial remedy to this situation, tests of typical dc propulsion motors and controllers were conducted as part of the DOE Electric Vehicle Program. The objectives of this program were to evaluate the differences in the performance of dc motors when operating with chopper-type controllers and when operating on direct current; and to gain an understanding of the interactions between the motor and the controller which cause these differences. Toward this end, motor-controller tests performed by the NASA Lewis Research Center provided some of the first published data that quantified motor efficiency variations for both ripple-free (straight dc) and chopper modes of operation. Test and analysis work at the University of Pittsburgh explored motor-controller relationships in greater depth. And to provide additional data, 3E Vehicles tested two small motors, both on a dynamometer and in a vehicle, and the Eaton Corporation tested larger motors, using sophisticated instrumentation and digital processing techniques. All the motors tested were direct-current types. Of the separately excited types, seven were series wound and two were shunt wound. One self-excited permanent magnet type was also tested. Four of the series wound motors used brush shifting to obtain good commutation. In almost all cases, controller limitations constrained the test envelope so that the full capability of the motors could not be explored.

  12. 40 CFR 205.57-2 - Test vehicle sample selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test vehicle sample selection. 205.57-2 Section 205.57-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.57-2 Test...

  13. Data Fusion Modeling for an RT3102 and Dewetron System Application in Hybrid Vehicle Stability Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Miao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available More and more hybrid electric vehicles are driven since they offer such advantages as energy savings and better active safety performance. Hybrid vehicles have two or more power driving systems and frequently switch working condition, so controlling stability is very important. In this work, a two-stage Kalman algorithm method is used to fuse data in hybrid vehicle stability testing. First, the RT3102 navigation system and Dewetron system are introduced. Second, a modeling of data fusion is proposed based on the Kalman filter. Then, this modeling is simulated and tested on a sample vehicle, using Carsim and Simulink software to test the results. The results showed the merits of this modeling.

  14. Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle Jettison Mechanism Engineering and Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldirola, L.; Schmid, B.

    2015-09-01

    The IXV (Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle) is a project of the European Space Agency that aims to develop an autonomous atmospheric re-entry system. A flight model has been launched on a Vega rocket on the 11th of February 2015 and after descending from an altitude of 420km splashed down in the Pacific Ocean. In the frame of this project RUAG space has developed the entire cold structure and the mechanisms able to eject the panels closing the parachute and floatation balloons bays. Panels ejection allows respectively parachutes deployment, reducing the IXV re-entry speed from Mach 1.5 to few meters per second just before the splash down, and buoyancy balloons inflation which let the vehicle float on the sea surface until arrival of the recovery ship.Such panels and the relevant mechanisms had to be designed not only to guarantee the correct external aerodynamic shape needed for the flight performance, but also to provide enough stiffness and strength to the IXV structure, being capable of transfer high shear loads.Moreover the floatation doors design enclosed both the hold down and release mechanism, based on a non- explosive separation nut, and the jettison springs, therefore particular attention had to be put to prevent any damage to the panel during the release which could have potentially led to jamming of the panel itself which jeopardise the floatation balloon deployment. The chosen design was therefore based on a spherical joint, so that shear load can be withstand and bending moment on the jettison-able panels limited at the same time.Test activities have been performed at mechanism level for environmental and preliminary functional qualification, subsystem level, including dummy panel jettison and full scale IXV drop test, to complete the functional qualification and system level test to close qualification campaign.The purpose of this paper is to present the mechanism design and the activities performed to qualify at component and sub-system level the

  15. Legacy Vehicle Fuel System Testing with Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G. W.; Hoff, C. J.; Borton, Z.; Ratcliff, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    The effects of E10 and E17 on legacy fuel system components from three common mid-1990s vintage vehicle models (Ford, GM, and Toyota) were studied. The fuel systems comprised a fuel sending unit with pump, a fuel rail and integrated pressure regulator, and the fuel injectors. The fuel system components were characterized and then installed and tested in sample aging test rigs to simulate the exposure and operation of the fuel system components in an operating vehicle. The fuel injectors were cycled with varying pulse widths during pump operation. Operational performance, such as fuel flow and pressure, was monitored during the aging tests. Both of the Toyota fuel pumps demonstrated some degradation in performance during testing. Six injectors were tested in each aging rig. The Ford and GM injectors showed little change over the aging tests. Overall, based on the results of both the fuel pump testing and the fuel injector testing, no major failures were observed that could be attributed to E17 exposure. The unknown fuel component histories add a large uncertainty to the aging tests. Acquiring fuel system components from operational legacy vehicles would reduce the uncertainty.

  16. Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle Active Thermal Control and Environmental Control and Life Support Development Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard A.; Boehm, Paul; Cross, Cynthia D.; Rains, George Edward

    2014-01-01

    The Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is the first crew transport vehicle to be developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the last thirty years. Orion is currently being developed to transport the crew safely beyond Earth orbit. This year, the vehicle focused on building the Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT1) vehicle to be launched in September of 2014. The development of the Orion Active Thermal Control (ATCS) and Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System, focused on the integrating the components into the EFT1 vehicle and preparing them for launch. Work also has started on preliminary design reviews for the manned vehicle. Additional development work is underway to keep the remaining component progressing towards implementation on the flight tests of EM1 in 2017 and of EM2 in 2020. This paper covers the Orion ECLS development from April 2013 to April 2014

  17. Comparison of road load simulator test results with track tests on electric vehicle propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, M. O.

    1983-01-01

    A special-purpose dynamometer, the road load simulator (RLS), is being used at NASA's Lewis Research Center to test and evaluate electric vehicle propulsion systems developed under DOE's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. To improve correlation between system tests on the RLS and track tests, similar tests were conducted on the same propulsion system on the RLS and on a test track. These tests are compared in this report. Battery current to maintain a constant vehicle speed with a fixed throttle was used for the comparison. Scatter in the data was greater in the track test results. This is attributable to variations in tire rolling resistance and wind effects in the track data. It also appeared that the RLS road load, determined by coastdown tests on the track, was lower than that of the vehicle on the track. These differences may be due to differences in tire temperature.

  18. Electric vehicle chassis dynamometer test methods at JPL and their correlation to track tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marte, J.; Bryant, J.

    1983-01-01

    Early in its electric vehicle (EV) test program, JPL recognized that EV test procedures were too vague and too loosely defined to permit much meaningful data to be obtained from the testing. Therefore, JPL adopted more stringent test procedures and chose the chassis dynamometer rather than the track as its principal test technique. Through the years, test procedures continued to evolve towards a methodology based on chassis dynamometers which would exhibit good correlation with track testing. Based on comparative dynamometer and track test results on the ETV-1 vehicle, the test methods discussed in this report demonstrate a means by which excellent track-to-dynamometer correlation can be obtained.

  19. 7th Conference Simulation and Testing for Vehicle Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Riese, Jens; Rüden, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The book includes contributions on the latest model-based methods for the development of personal and commercial vehicle control devices. The main topics treated are: application of simulation and model design to development of driver assistance systems; physical and database model design for engines, motors, powertrain, undercarriage and the whole vehicle; new simulation tools, methods and optimization processes; applications of simulation in function and software development; function and software testing using HiL, MiL and SiL simulation; application of simulation and optimization in application of control devices; automation approaches at all stages of the development process.

  20. A laboratory facility for electric vehicle propulsion system testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, N. B.

    1980-01-01

    The road load simulator facility located at the NASA Lewis Research Center enables a propulsion system or any of its components to be evaluated under a realistic vehicle inertia and road loads. The load is applied to the system under test according to the road load equation: F(net)=K1F1+K2F2V+K3 sq V+K4(dv/dt)+K5 sin theta. The coefficient of each term in the equation can be varied over a wide range with vehicle inertial representative of vehicles up to 7500 pounds simulated by means of flywheels. The required torque is applied by the flywheels, a hydroviscous absorber and clutch, and a drive motor integrated by a closed loop control system to produce a smooth, continuous load up to 150 horsepower.

  1. Development of potential methods for testing congestion control algorithm implemented in vehicle-to-vehicle communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Jen; Fikentscher, Joshua; Kreeb, Robert

    2017-05-29

    A channel congestion problem might occur when the traffic density increases because the number of basic safety messages carried on the communication channel also increases in vehicle-to-vehicle communications. A remedy algorithm proposed in SAE J2945/1 is designed to address the channel congestion issue by decreasing transmission frequency and radiated power. This study is to develop potential test procedures for evaluating or validating the congestion control algorithm. Simulations of a reference unit transmitting at a higher frequency are implemented to emulate a number of onboard equipment (OBE) transmitting at the normal interval of 100 ms (10 Hz). When the transmitting interval is reduced to 1.25 ms (800 Hz), the reference unit emulates 80 vehicles transmitting at 10 Hz. By increasing the number of reference units transmitting at 800 Hz in the simulations, the corresponding channel busy percentages are obtained. An algorithm for Global Positioning System (GPS) data generation of virtual vehicles is developed for facilitating the validation of transmission intervals in the congestion control algorithm. Channel busy percentage is the channel busy time over a specified period of time. Three or 4 reference units are needed to generate channel busy percentages between 50 and 80%, and 5 reference units can generate channel busy percentages above 80%. The proposed test procedures can verify the operation of congestion control algorithm when channel busy percentages are between 50 and 80% and above 80%. By using a GPS data generation algorithm, the test procedures can also verify the transmission intervals when traffic densities are 80 and 200 vehicles in a radius of 100 m. A suite of test tools with functional requirements is also proposed for facilitating the implementation of test procedures. The potential test procedures for a congestion control algorithm are developed based on the simulation results of channel busy percentage and the GPS data generation

  2. The harp: a vehicle crash test apparatus for full-scale crash test experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsen, J. S.; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Robbersmyr, Kjell G.

    2012-01-01

    Published version of an article in the journal: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. Also available from the publisher at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00170-012-3960-3 The current paper describes an apparatus for full-scale vehicle crash test experimentation. This apparatus is referred to as the harp. In brief, the harp may either accelerate a trolley which is impacted into a test vehicle or the test vehicle itself may be accelerated and impacted into an object su...

  3. Active System for Electromagnetic Perturbation Monitoring in Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoi, Adrian Marian; Helerea, Elena

    Nowadays electromagnetic environment is rapidly expanding in frequency domain and wireless services extend in terms of covered area. European electromagnetic compatibility regulations refer to limit values regarding emissions, as well as procedures for determining susceptibility of the vehicle. Approval procedure for a series of cars is based on determining emissions/immunity level for a few vehicles picked randomly from the entire series, supposing that entire vehicle series is compliant. During immunity assessment, the vehicle is not subjected to real perturbation sources, but exposed to electric/magnetic fields generated by laboratory equipment. Since current approach takes into account only partially real situation regarding perturbation sources, this paper proposes an active system for determining electromagnetic parameters of vehicle's environment, that implements a logical diagram for measurement, satisfying the imposed requirements. This new and original solution is useful for EMC assessment of hybrid and electrical vehicles.

  4. Battery Test Manual For Electric Vehicles, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christophersen, Jon P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Electric Vehicles (EV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for EVs. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Chul Bae of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  5. Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Attitude Control Motor Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Paschal, Keith B.; Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Foley, Robert; Mayfield, David; Cross, Jared

    2011-01-01

    Current Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) configurations use an eight-jet, solid-fueled Attitude Control Motor (ACM) to provide required vehicle control for all proposed abort trajectories. Due to the forward position of the ACM on the LAV, it is necessary to assess the effects of jet-interactions (JI) between the various ACM nozzle plumes and the external flow along the outside surfaces of the vehicle. These JI-induced changes in flight control characteristics must be accounted for in developing ACM operations and LAV flight characteristics. A test program to generate jet interaction aerodynamic increment data for multiple LAV configurations was conducted in the NASA Ames and NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels from August 2007 through December 2009. Using cold air as the simulant gas, powered subscale models were used to generate interaction data at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic test conditions. This paper presents an overview of the complete ACM JI experimental test program for Orion LAV configurations, highlighting ACM system modeling, nozzle scaling assumptions, experimental test techniques, and data reduction methodologies. Lessons learned are discussed, and sample jet interaction data are shown. These data, in conjunction with computational predictions, were used to create the ACM JI increments for all relevant flight databases.

  6. Autonomy-Enabled Fuel Savings for Military Vehicles: Report on 2016 Aberdeen Test Center Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatz, Adam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-26

    Fuel savings have never been the primary focus for autonomy-enabled military vehicles. However, studies have estimated that autonomy in passenger and commercial vehicles could improve fuel economy by as much as 22%-33% over various drive cycles. If even a fraction of this saving could be realized in military vehicles, significant cost savings could be realized each year through reduced fuel transport missions, reduced fuel purchases, less maintenance, fewer required personnel, and increased vehicle range. Researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory installed advanced data logging equipment and instrumentation on two autonomy-enabled convoy vehicles configured with Lockheed Martin's Autonomous Mobility Applique System to determine system performance and improve on the overall vehicle control strategies of the vehicles. Initial test results from testing conducted at the U.S. Army Aberdeen Test Center at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds are included in this report. Lessons learned from in-use testing and performance results have been provided to the project partners for continued system refinement.

  7. Data from short-term tests on motor vehicle exhausts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannug, U

    1983-01-01

    The mutagenicity of motor vehicle exhausts has been studied by using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98 and TA 100. Acetone extracts of the particulate phase and the gas phase have been tested in the presence and absence of a metabolizing system (S9). The particulate phases from medium- and heavy-duty diesel vehicles were tested. The vehicles were driven according to a modified 13 mode test, and the particulate phase was sampled at mode 6 (maximum load and intermediate engine speed) and mode 12 (10% load and rated speed). In mode 6 all vehicles gave approximately the same mutagenicity in strain TA 98 (50,000-90,000 revertants/kW-hr) as well as in TA 100 (200,000-360,000 revertants/kW-hr). A higher mutagenic effect, in some cases up to 10 times, was seen with mode 12.Light-duty vehicles of different year models were tested using different fuel/engine combinations. The vehicles were driven according to FTP 72 or ECE driving cycle. Cold starts at two different temperature levels, approx. 0 degrees C and 23 degrees C, respectively, were also compared. Based on the mutagenicity of the particulate extracts (given as revertants per km), the light-duty vehicles could be divided into three main groups. The first group, the high mutagenicity group, giving 100,000-700,000 revertants/km, consists only of diesel cars. In the medium mutagenicity group, giving between 20,000 and 100,000 revertants/km, different gasoline fuels are placed, i.e., leaded and lead-free gasoline as well as alcohol/gasoline fuels. Two other fuels, methanol (M95) and propane (LPG), constitute the low mutagenicity group, giving less than 20,000 revertants/km. Fuels from the medium effect group will produce a particulate phase with low mutagenicity if the vehicle is equipped with a three way catalyst with closed loop, or fuel injection. The cold start temperature did not change this classification, since all samples gave a somewhat higher mutagenic effect at the low temperature. With the ECE driving

  8. Flight testing vehicles for verification and validation of hypersonics technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacher, Peter W.

    1995-03-01

    Hypersonics technology has obtained renewed interest since various concepts for future completely reusable Space Transportation Systems (STS) using airbreathing propulsion for the parts of atmospheric flight have been proposed in different countries (e.g. US, CIS, Japan, France, Germany, and UK). To cover major developments in those countries, AGARD FDP has formed the Working Group 18 on 'Hypersonic Experimental and Computational Capabilities - Improvement and Validation'. Of major importance for the proof of feasibility for all these concepts is the definition of an overall convincing philosophy for a 'hypersonics technology development and verification concept' using ground simulation facilities (both experimental and numerical) and flight testing vehicles. Flying at hypersonic Mach numbers using airbreathing propulsion requires highly sophisticated design tools to provide reliable prediction of thrust minus aerodynamic drag to accelerate the vehicle during ascent. Using these design tools, existing uncertainties have to be minimized by a carefully performed code validation process. To a large degree the database required for this validation cannot be obtained on ground. In addition thermal loads due to hypersonic flow have to be predicted accurately by aerothermodynamic flow codes to provide the inputs needed to decide on materials and structures. Heat management for hypersonic flight vehicles is one of the key-issues for any kind of successful flight demonstration. This paper identifies and discusses the role of flight testing during the verification and validation process of advanced hypersonic technology needed for flight in the atmosphere with hypersonic Mach numbers using airbreathing propulsion systems both for weapons and space transportation systems.

  9. Robust Vehicle Suspension System by Converting Active & Passive Control of a Vehicle to Semi-Active Control System Analytically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Elahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research work a simplified translational model of an automotive suspension system is constructed by only considering the translation motion of one wheel of a car. Passive Vehicle Suspension System is converted into Semi Active Vehicle System. Major advantage achieved by this system is that it adjusts the damping of the suspension system without the application of any actuator by using MATLAB® simulations. The semi-active control is found to control the vibration of suspension system very well.

  10. Anode catalysts for direct hydrazine fuel cells: from laboratory test to an electric vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, Alexey; Padilla, Monica; Roy, Aaron J; Atanassov, Plamen; Sakamoto, Tomokazu; Asazawa, Koichiro; Tanaka, Hirohisa

    2014-09-22

    Novel highly active electrocatalysts for hydrazine hydrate fuel cell application were developed, synthesized and integrated into an operation vehicle prototype. The materials show in both rotating disc electrode (RDE) and membrane electrode assembly (MEA) tests the world highest activity with peak current density of 16,000 A g(-1) (RDE) and 450 mW cm(-2) operated in air (MEA). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Intercomparison of real-time tailpipe ammonia measurements from vehicles tested over the new world-harmonized light-duty vehicle test cycle (WLTC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Bertoa, Ricardo; Zardini, Alessandro A; Lilova, Velizara; Meyer, Daniel; Nakatani, Shigeru; Hibel, Frank; Ewers, Jens; Clairotte, Michael; Hill, Leslie; Astorga, Covadonga

    2015-05-01

    Four light-duty vehicles (two diesel, one flex-fuel, and one gasoline vehicle) were tested as part of an intercomparison exercise of the world-harmonized light-duty vehicle test procedure (WLTP) aiming at measuring real-time ammonia emissions from the vehicles' raw exhaust at the tailpipe. The tests were conducted in the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VELA) at the European Commission Joint Research Centre (EC-JRC), Ispra, Italy. HORIBA, CGS, and the Sustainable Transport Unit of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) took part in the measurement and analysis of the four vehicles' exhaust emissions over the world-harmonized light-duty vehicle test cycle class 3, version 5.3 using a HORIBA MEXA 1400 QL-NX, a CGS BLAQ-Sys, and the JRC Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, respectively. The measured ammonia concentrations and the emission profiles revealed that these three instruments are suitable to measure ammonia from the vehicles' raw exhaust, presenting no significant differences. Furthermore, results showed that measurement of ammonia from the vehicle exhaust using online systems can be performed guaranteeing the reproducibility and repeatability of the results. While no ammonia was detected for any of the two diesel vehicles (even though, one was equipped with a selective catalytic reduction system), we report average ammonia emission factors 8-10 mg/km (average concentrations 20-23 ppm) and 10-12 mg/km (average concentrations 22-24 ppm) for the flex-fuel and gasoline vehicles, respectively.

  12. Design and Testing for a New Thermosyphon Irradiation Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felde, David K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carbajo, Juan J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McDuffee, Joel Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) requires most materials and all fuel experiments to be placed in a pressure containment vessel to ensure that internal contaminants such as fission products cannot be released into the primary coolant. It also requires that all experiments be capable of withstanding various accident conditions (e.g., loss of coolant) without generating vapor bubbles on the surface of the experiment in the primary coolant. These requirements are intended to artificially increase experiment temperatures by introducing a barrier between the experimental materials and the HFIR coolant, and by reducing heat loads to the HFIR primary coolant, thus ensuring that no boiling can occur. A proposed design for materials irradiation would remove these limitations by providing the required primary containment with an internal cooling flow. This would allow for experiments to be irradiated without concern for coolant contamination (e.g., from cladding failure of advanced fuel pins) or for specimen heat load. This report describes a new materials irradiation experiment design that uses a thermosyphon cooling system to allow experimental materials direct access to a liquid coolant. The new design also increases the range of conditions that can be tested in HFIR. This design will provide a unique capability to validate the performance of current and advanced fuels and materials. Because of limited supporting data for this kind of irradiation vehicle, a test program was initiated to obtain operating data that can be used to (1) qualify the vehicle for operation in HFIR and (2) validate computer models used to perform design- and safety-basis calculations. This report also describes the test facility and experimental data, and it provides a comparison of the experimental data to computer simulations. A total of 51 tests have been completed: four tests with pure steam, 12 tests with argon, and 35 tests with helium. A total

  13. Hyper-X Research Vehicle (HXRV) Experimental Aerodynamics Test Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Scott D.; Woods, William C.; Engelund, Walter C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the experimental aerodynamics test program to ensure mission success for the autonomous flight of the Hyper-X Research Vehicle (HXRV). The HXRV is a 12-ft long, 2700 lb lifting body technology demonstrator designed to flight demonstrate for the first time a fully airframe integrated scramjet propulsion system. Three flights are currently planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10, beginning in the fall of 2000. The research vehicles will be boosted to the prescribed scramjet engine test point where they will separate from the booster, stabilize. and initiate engine test. Following 5+ seconds of powered flight and 15 seconds of cowl-open tares, the cowl will close and the vehicle will fly a controlled deceleration trajectory which includes numerous control doublets for in-flight aerodynamic parameter identification. This paper reviews the preflight testing activities, wind tunnel models, test rationale. risk reduction activities, and sample results from wind tunnel tests supporting the flight trajectory of the HXRV from hypersonic engine test point through subsonic flight termination.

  14. Laboratory testing of high energy density capacitors for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, A.F.

    1991-10-01

    Laboratory tests of advanced, high energy density capacitors in the Battery Test Laboratory of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory have been performed to investigate their suitability for load-leveling the battery in an electric vehicle. Two types of devices were tested -- 3 V, 70 Farad, spiral wound, carbon-based, single cell devices and 20 V, 3. 5 Farad, mixed-oxide, multi-cell bipolar devices. The energy density of the devices, based on energy stored during charge to the rated voltage, was found to be 1--2 Wh/kg, which agreed well with that claimed by the manufacturers. Constant power discharge tests were performed at power densities up to 1500 W/kg. Discharges at higher power densities could have been performed had equipment been available to maintain constant power during discharges of less than one second. It was found that the capacitance of the devices were rate dependent with the rate dependency of the carbon-based devices being higher than that of the mixed-oxide devices. The resistance of both types of devices were relatively low being 20--30 milliohms. Testing done in the study showed that the advanced high energy density capacitors can be charged and discharged over cycles (PSFUDS) which approximate the duty cycle that would be encountered if the devices are used to load-level the battery in an electric vehicle. Thermal tests of the advanced capacitors in an insulated environment using the PSFUDS cycle showed the devices do not overheat with their temperatures increasing only 4--5{degrees}C for tests that lasted 5--7 hours. 7 refs., 33 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Propellant Densification for Launch Vehicles: Simulation and Testing 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Timothy E.; Tomisk, Thomas M.; Greene, William D.

    1999-01-01

    One of the many key technologies required to make single-stage to orbit an actuality, the technology of sub-cooling cryogenic propellants below their normal saturation temperatures and thereby making them more dense, is unquestionably on its way towards full and practical realization. The technology of Propellant Densification has been the subject of an extensive research and development program overseen by Lockheed Martin Michoud Space Systems and NASA Glenn Research Center over the past several years. This paper presents a status report of this research and development. Specifically examined within this paper is the status of the current and continuing efforts on the mathematical simulation of the in-tank propellant densification process currently baselined for the Lockheed Martin VentureStar Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Keys to this modeling effort are an understanding and quantification of the effects of thermal stratification and the ability to capture the complex and unique multiple section tank geometries being proposed for future launch vehicles. A simulation that properly captures these phenomena has been developed by Lockheed Martin. Also discussed is the significant test program that has been undertaken in coordination with NASA Glenn Research Center. In this testing, the liquid hydrogen recirculation and densification process was simulated and the thermal stratification of the densified propellant was recorded throughout the tank. This testing marks the first time that such a process has been carried out within a multiple-lobe, flight-similar tank. The results from this testing have gone a long way towards grounding the mathematical models and towards demonstrating the readiness of the technology for near-term use. A further and even more ambitious test program examining the production and utilization of densified propellants is being planned for late-autumn 1999. An overview of these plans is presented.

  16. Free Flight Rotorcraft Flight Test Vehicle Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, W. Todd; Walker, Gregory W.

    1994-01-01

    A rotary wing, unmanned air vehicle (UAV) is being developed as a research tool at the NASA Langley Research Center by the U.S. Army and NASA. This development program is intended to provide the rotorcraft research community an intermediate step between rotorcraft wind tunnel testing and full scale manned flight testing. The technologies under development for this vehicle are: adaptive electronic flight control systems incorporating artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, small-light weight sophisticated sensors, advanced telepresence-telerobotics systems and rotary wing UAV operational procedures. This paper briefly describes the system's requirements and the techniques used to integrate the various technologies to meet these requirements. The paper also discusses the status of the development effort. In addition to the original aeromechanics research mission, the technology development effort has generated a great deal of interest in the UAV community for related spin-off applications, as briefly described at the end of the paper. In some cases the technologies under development in the free flight program are critical to the ability to perform some applications.

  17. Simulating New Drop Test Vehicles and Test Techniques for the Orion CEV Parachute Assembly System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Aaron L.; Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Bledsoe, Kristin J.; Ray, Eric; Moore, Jim W.; Olson, Leah M.

    2011-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project is engaged in a multi-year design and test campaign to qualify a parachute recovery system for human use on the Orion Spacecraft. Test and simulation techniques have evolved concurrently to keep up with the demands of a challenging and complex system. The primary simulations used for preflight predictions and post-test data reconstructions are Decelerator System Simulation (DSS), Decelerator System Simulation Application (DSSA), and Drop Test Vehicle Simulation (DTV-SIM). The goal of this paper is to provide a roadmap to future programs on the test technique challenges and obstacles involved in executing a large-scale, multi-year parachute test program. A focus on flight simulation modeling and correlation to test techniques executed to obtain parachute performance parameters are presented.

  18. Hypersonic Vehicle Propulsion System Control Model Development Roadmap and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Le, Dzu K.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Hypersonic project is directed towards fundamental research for two classes of hypersonic vehicles: highly reliable reusable launch systems (HRRLS) and high-mass Mars entry systems (HMMES). The objective of the hypersonic guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) discipline team is to develop advanced guidance and control algorithms to enable efficient and effective operation of these challenging vehicles. The ongoing work at the NASA Glenn Research Center supports the hypersonic GN&C effort in developing tools to aid the design of advanced control algorithms that specifically address the propulsion system of the HRRLSclass vehicles. These tools are being developed in conjunction with complementary research and development activities in hypersonic propulsion at Glenn and elsewhere. This report is focused on obtaining control-relevant dynamic models of an HRRLS-type hypersonic vehicle propulsion system.

  19. 40 CFR 86.153-98 - Vehicle and canister preconditioning; refueling test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.153-98 Vehicle and canister...) shall be determined from the fuel economy on the UDDS applicable to the test vehicle and from the number... “fuel consumed point” occurs partway through a UDDS cycle, the cycle shall be completed in its entirety...

  20. Development and testing of an unmanned air vehicle telemetry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Kevin T.

    1991-09-01

    Unmanned air vehicles (UAV's) provide a low-cost, low-maintenance, and effective platform upon which experimentation can be performed to validate conceptual aerodynamic ideas. However, the UAV flight test data acquisition process is complex and requires a reliable recording system for post-flight data analysis. The thrust of this thesis was the development, construction, and validation of a viable telemetry system for data gathering and processing. Major areas of focus were: integration of the telemetry into a 1/8 scale model, radio controlled F-16A airplane; telemetry circuitry optimization; recording and display of instrumented parameters; and data reduction techniques necessary to obtain useful information. A flight test was flown and data was gathered using a steady-heading side-slip maneuver to demonstrate successful integration of all supporting elements.

  1. Safety of railroad passenger vehicle dynamics : OMNISIM simulation and test correlations for passenger rail cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of the work is to validate the safety assessment methodology previously developed for passenger rail vehicle dynamics, which requires the application of simulation tools as well as testing of vehicles under different track scenarios. This...

  2. Intelligent transportation systems field operational test cross-cutting study : commercial vehicle administrative processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Commercial Vehicle Administrative (CVO) Processes Cross-Cutting report summarizes and interprets the results of several Field Operational Tests (FOTs) conducted to evaluate systems that increase the efficiency of commercial vehicle administrative pro...

  3. The design of a vehicle-mounted test system for the thermal performance of solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, S. R.; Wu, X. H.; Zhou, L.; Zheng, W.; Liu, L.; Yan, J. C.

    2016-08-01

    To increase the test efficiency of thermal performance of solar collector, a vehicle- mounted test system with high automation, simple operation, good mobility and stability is proposed in this paper. By refitting a medium bus, design of mechanical system and test loop, and using PC control technology, we implemented the vehicle-mounted system and realized effective integration between vehicle and test equipment. A number of tests have been done, and the results show that the vehicle-mounted test system has good parameters and performance and can be widely used to provide door-to-door testing services in the field of solar thermal application.

  4. Mars Ascent Vehicle Test Requirements and Terrestrial Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Cathey, Henry M.; Smith, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The Mars robotic sample return mission has been a potential flagship mission for NASA s science mission directorate for decades. The Mars Exploration Program and the planetary science decadal survey have highlighted both the science return of the Mars Sample Return mission, but also the need for risk reduction through technology development. One of the critical elements of the MSR mission is the Mars Ascent Vehicle, which must launch the sample from the surface of Mars and place it into low Mars orbit. The MAV has significant challenges to overcome due to the Martian environments and the Entry Descent and Landing system constraints. Launch vehicles typically have a relatively low success probability for early flights, and a thorough system level validation is warranted. The MAV flight environments are challenging and in some cases impossible to replicate terrestrially. The expected MAV environments have been evaluated and a first look of potential system test options has been explored. The terrestrial flight requirements and potential validation options are presented herein.

  5. Experimental results from the sounding vehicle Sonda III test campaign in the Pilot Transonic Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista P. Falcão Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Pilot Transonic Wind Tunnel of the Institute of Aeronautics and Space has conducted the first test campaign of a sounding vehicle, Sonda III. The campaign is part of a project whose activities and final results are presented in this paper. During the test campaign, many activities were performed to increase the productivity and accuracy of the tunnel. These activities included calibration procedures, corrective and preventive trials, development of auxiliary devices, and theoretical and experimental analysis. Two tasks are described in details: the development and tests performed with the static pressure probe and the automatic re-entry flap actuation system. Several tests were carried out with the Sonda III at Mach numbers ranging from 0.3 to 1.0, at stagnation pressures of 70, 94, and 110 kPa. Experimental results include global aerodynamic coefficients (using internal balance and pressure distribution over essential regions of the test article (using pressure sensitive paint technique.

  6. Vehicle-Level Oxygen/Methane Propulsion System Hotfire Testing at Thermal Vacuum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morehead, Robert L.; Melcher, J. C.; Atwell, Matthew J.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Desai, Pooja; Werlink, Rudy

    2017-01-01

    A prototype integrated liquid oxygen/liquid methane propulsion system was hot-fire tested at a variety of simulated altitude and thermal conditions in the NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station In-Space Propulsion Thermal Vacuum Chamber (formerly B2). This test campaign served two purposes: 1) Characterize the performance of the Plum Brook facility in vacuum accumulator mode and 2) Collect the unique data set of an integrated LOX/Methane propulsion system operating in high altitude and thermal vacuum environments (a first). Data from this propulsion system prototype could inform the design of future spacecraft in-space propulsion systems, including landers. The test vehicle for this campaign was the Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article (ICPTA), which was constructed for this project using assets from the former Morpheus Project rebuilt and outfitted with additional new hardware. The ICPTA utilizes one 2,800 lbf main engine, two 28 lbf and two 7 lbf reaction control engines mounted in two pods, four 48-inch propellant tanks (two each for liquid oxygen and liquid methane), and a cold helium system for propellant tank pressurization. Several hundred sensors on the ICPTA and many more in the test cell collected data to characterize the operation of the vehicle and facility. Multiple notable experiments were performed during this test campaign, many for the first time, including pressure-fed cryogenic reaction control system characterization over a wide range of conditions, coil-on-plug ignition system demonstration at the vehicle level, integrated main engine/RCS operation, and a non-intrusive propellant mass gauging system. The test data includes water-hammer and thermal heat leak data critical to validating models for use in future vehicle design activities. This successful test campaign demonstrated the performance of the updated Plum Brook In-Space Propulsion thermal vacuum chamber and incrementally advanced the state of LOX/Methane propulsion

  7. Irradiation Testing Vehicles for Fast Reactors from Open Test Assemblies to Closed Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Grandy, Christopher [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-15

    A review of irradiation testing vehicle approaches and designs that have been incorporated into past Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) or envisioned for incorporation has been carried out. The objective is to understand the essential features of the approaches and designs so that they can inform test vehicle designs for a future U.S. Fast Test Reactor. Fast test reactor designs examined include EBR-II, FFTF, JOYO, BOR-60, PHÉNIX, JHR, and MBIR. Previous designers exhibited great ingenuity in overcoming design and operational challenges especially when the original reactor plant’s mission changed to an irradiation testing mission as in the EBRII reactor plant. The various irradiation testing vehicles can be categorized as: Uninstrumented open assemblies that fit into core locations; Instrumented open test assemblies that fit into special core locations; Self-contained closed loops; and External closed loops. A special emphasis is devoted to closed loops as they are regarded as a very desirable feature of a future U.S. Fast Test Reactor. Closed loops are an important technology for irradiation of fuels and materials in separate controlled environments. The impact of closed loops on the design of fast reactors is also discussed in this report.

  8. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Gustafason

    2001-03-01

    The Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 240, was clean-closed following the approved Corrective Action Decision Document closure alternative and in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU consists of thee Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-07-01 - Vehicle Washdown Area (Propellant Pad); 25-07-02 - Vehicle Washdown Area (F and J Roads Pad); and 25-07-03 - Vehicle Washdown Station (RADSAFE Pad). Characterization activities indicated that only CAS 25-07-02 (F and J Roads Pad) contained constituents of concern (COCs) above action levels and required remediation. The COCs detected were Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) as diesel, cesium-137, and strontium-90. The F and J Roads Pad may have been used for the decontamination of vehicles and possibly disassembled engine and reactor parts from Test Cell C. Activities occurred there during the 1960s through early 1970s. The F and J Roads Pad consisted of a 9- by 5-meter (m) (30- by 15-foot [ft]) concrete pad and a 14- by 13-m (46-by 43-ft) gravel sump. The clean-closure corrective action consisted of excavation, disposal, verification sampling, backfilling, and regrading. Closure activities began on August 21, 2000, and ended on September 19, 2000. Waste disposal activities were completed on December 12, 2000. A total of 172 cubic meters (223 cubic yards) of impacted soil was excavated and disposed. The concrete pad was also removed and disposed. Verification samples were collected from the bottom and sidewalls of the excavation and analyzed for TPH diesel and 20-minute gamma spectroscopy. The sample results indicated that all impacted soil above remediation standards was removed. The closure was completed following the approved Corrective Action Plan. All impacted waste was disposed in the Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill. All non-impacted debris was disposed in the Area 9 Construction Landfill and the Area 23 Sanitary Landfill.

  9. ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING FOR VEHICLE ROUTING PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Moolman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:Activity-based costing (ABC is a costing model that identifies activity costs in an organisation. It assigns the cost of activity resources to generate the actual cost of products in order to eliminateunprofitable products and to lowerthe prices of overpriced ones. The vehicle routing problem (VRP is a combinatorial optimisation and nonlinear programming problem that seeks to service a number of customers with a fleet of vehicles in a cost-effective manner. In this article we propose a new approach to determine costing for vehicle routing type problems. The methodology incorporates the predictive sharing of a resource by clustering producers.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ‘Activity-based costing’ (ABC is ’n kostemodel wat die aktiwiteitskoste in ’n organisasie identifiseer. Dit allokeer die koste van die bronne sodat die ware koste van die vervaardiging en dienste van die produk bereken kan word om winsgewendheid te bepaal. Die ‘vehicle routing problem’ (VRP is ’n kombinatoriese optimisering en nie-lineêre programmeringsprobleem wat verskeie kliënte met ’n vloot voertuie in die mees koste- effektiewe manier bedien. Die artikel bespreek ’n nuwe metode om die kombinasie van probleme op te los. Die metode maak gebruik van groeperingsalgoritmes om meer akkurate voertuig deling te voorspel.

  10. FY2014 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    The Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to advancing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle systems to help maximize the number of electric miles driven and increase the energy efficiency of transportation vehicles.

  11. Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Active Thermal Control and Environmental Control and Life Support Development Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard A.; Boehm, Paul; Cross, Cynthia D.; Rains, George Edward

    2014-01-01

    The Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is the first crew transport vehicle to be developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the last thirty years. Orion is currently being developed to transport the crew safely beyond Earth orbit. This year, the vehicle focused on building the Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT1) vehicle to be launched in September of 2014. The development of the Orion Active Thermal Control (ATCS) and Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System, focused on the integrating the components into the EFT1 vehicle and preparing them for launch. Work also has started on preliminary design reviews for the manned vehicle. Additional development work is underway to keep the remaining component progressing towards implementation on the flight tests of EM1 in 2017 and of EM2 in 2020. This paper covers the Orion ECLS development from April 2013 to April 2014.

  12. Near term electric test vehicle ETV-2 (Engineering Materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engineering drawings are provided for ETV-2, a unique battery-powered passenger vehicle has been developed that provides a significant improvement over conventional electric vehicle performance, particularly during stop-and-go driving. The vehicle is unique in two major respects: (1) the power system incorporates a flywheel that stores energy during regenerative braking and makes possible the acceleration capability needed to keep up with traffic without reducing range to unacceptable values; and (2) lightweight plastic materials are used for the vehicle unibody to minimize weight and increase range. Reference DOE/CS/51213-01. (WHK)

  13. CMC thermal protection system for future reusable launch vehicles: Generic shingle technological maturation and tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon, T.; Barreteau, R.; Soyris, P.; Foucault, A.; Parenteau, J. M.; Prel, Y.; Guedron, S.

    2009-07-01

    Experimental re-entry demonstrators are currently being developed in Europe, with the objective of increasing the technology readiness level (TRL) of technologies applicable to future reusable launch vehicles. Among these are the Pre-X programme, currently funded by CNES, the French Space Agency, and which is about to enter into development phase B, and the IXV, within the future launcher preparatory programme (FLPP) funded by ESA. One of the major technologies necessary for such vehicles is the thermal protection system (TPS), and in particular the ceramic matrix composites (CMC) based windward TPS. In support of this goal, technology maturation activities named "generic shingle" were initiated beginning of 2003 by SPS, under a CNES contract, with the objective of performing a test campaign of a complete shingle of generic design, in preparation of the development of a re-entry experimental vehicle decided in Europe. The activities performed to date include: the design, manufacturing of two C/SiC panels, finite element model (FEM) calculation of the design, testing of technological samples extracted from a dedicated panel, mechanical pressure testing of a panel, and a complete study of the attachment system. Additional testing is currently under preparation on the panel equipped with its insulation, seal, attachment device, and representative portion of cold structure, to further assess its behaviour in environments relevant to its application The paper will present the activities that will have been performed in 2006 on the prediction and preparation of these modal characterization, dynamic, acoustic as well as thermal and thermo-mechanical tests. Results of these tests will be presented and the lessons learned will be discussed.

  14. Light-Duty Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Federal Test Procedure Emissions Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K.; Eudy, L.; Coburn, T.

    1999-12-13

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's development and deployment of alternative fuels for environmental and national security reasons, NREL has managed a series of light-duty vehicle emissions tests on alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). The purpose of this report is to give a detailed evaluation of the final emissions test results on vehicles tested on methanol, ethanol, and compressed natural gas.

  15. Near-term electric test vehicle ETV-2. Phase II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    A unique battery-powered passenger vehicle has been developed that provides a significant improvement over conventional electric vehicle performance, particularly during stop-and-go driving. The vehicle is unique in two major respects: (1) the power system incorporates a flywheel that stores energy during regenerative braking and makes possible the acceleration capability needed to keep up with traffic without reducing range to unacceptable values; and (2) lightweight plastic materials are used for the vehicle unibody to minimize weight and increase range. These features were analyzed and demonstrated in an electric test vehicle, ETV-2. Characteristics of this vehicle are summarized. Information is presented on: vehicle design, fabrication, safety testing, and performance testing; power system design and operation; flywheel; battery pack performance; and controls and electronic equipment. (LCL)

  16. Vehicle test report: South Coast technology electric conversion of a Volkswagen Rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T. W.; Shain, T. W.; Bryant, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The South Coast Technology Volkswagen Rabbit, was tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) dynamometer facility and at JPL's Edwards Test Station (ETS). The tests were performed to characterize certain parameters of the South Coast Rabbit and to provide baseline data that will be used for the comparison of near term batteries that are to be incorporated into the vehicle. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive system; i.e., the batteries, controller, and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load, maximum effort acceleration, and range evaluation for both cyclic and constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with those vehicles described in the document 'state of the Art assessment of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles'. The Rabbit performance was near to the best of the 1977 vehicles.

  17. Development of vehicle model test-bending of a simple structural surfaces model for automotive vehicle sedan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, M. K. Mohd; Noordin, A.; Ruzali, M. F. S.; Hussen, M. H.; Mustapa@Othman, N.

    2017-04-01

    Simple Structural Surfaces (SSS) method is offered as a means of organizing the process for rationalizing the basic vehicle body structure load paths. The application of this simplified approach is highly beneficial in the development of modern passenger car structure design. In Malaysia, the SSS topic has been widely adopted and seems compulsory in various automotive programs related to automotive vehicle structures in many higher education institutions. However, there is no real physical model of SSS available to gain considerable insight and understanding into the function of each major subassembly in the whole vehicle structures. Based on this motivation, a real physical SSS of sedan model and the corresponding model vehicle tests of bending is proposed in this work. The proposed approach is relatively easy to understand as compared to Finite Element Method (FEM). The results prove that the proposed vehicle model test is useful to physically demonstrate the importance of providing continuous load path using the necessary structural components within the vehicle structures. It is clearly observed that the global bending stiffness reduce significantly when more panels are removed from the complete SSS model. The analysis shows the front parcel shelf is an important subassembly to sustain bending load.

  18. Connected commercial vehicles-integrated truck project : vehicle build and build test plan, final technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Connected vehicle wireless data communications can enable safety applications that may reduce injuries and : fatalities suffered on our roads and highways, as well as enabling reductions in traffic congestion and impacts on : the environment. As a cr...

  19. Connected commercial vehicles-integrated truck project : vehicle build test report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Connected vehicle wireless data communications can enable safety applications that may reduce injuries and fatalities : suffered on our roads and highways, as well as enabling reductions in traffic congestion and effects on the : environment. As a cr...

  20. Multidisciplinary design optimization of mechatronic vehicles with active suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuping; McPhee, John

    2005-05-01

    A multidisciplinary optimization method is applied to the design of mechatronic vehicles with active suspensions. The method is implemented in a GA-A'GEM-MATLAB simulation environment in such a way that the linear mechanical vehicle model is designed in a multibody dynamics software package, i.e. A'GEM, the controllers and estimators are constructed using linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) method, and Kalman filter algorithm in Matlab, then the combined mechanical and control model is optimized simultaneously using a genetic algorithm (GA). The design variables include passive parameters and control parameters. In the numerical optimizations, both random and deterministic road inputs and both perfect measurement of full state variables and estimated limited state variables are considered. Optimization results show that the active suspension systems based on the multidisciplinary optimization method have better overall performance than those derived using conventional design methods with the LQG algorithm.

  1. A complementary emissions test for light-duty vehicles: Assessing the technical feasibility of candidate procedures

    OpenAIRE

    WEISS MARTIN; Bonnel, Pierre; HUMMEL RUDOLF; STEININGER Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    Light-duty diesel vehicles emit on the road substantially more nitrogen oxides than permitted by regulatory emissions standards. The European Commission addresses this problem by developing a complementary emissions test procedure for the type approval and in-service conformity testing of these vehicles. To facilitate the technical development, the European Commission established in January 2011 the Real-Driving Emissions - Light-Duty Vehicles (RDE-LDV) working group that is open to all stake...

  2. DOE ETV-1 electric test vehicle. Phase III: performance testing and system evaluation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1981-12-01

    The DOE ETV-1 represents the most advanced electric vehicle in operation today. Engineering tests have been conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in order to characterize its overall system performance and component efficiencies within the system environment. A dynamometer was used in order to minimize the ambient effects and large uncertainties present in track testing. Extensive test requirements have been defined and procedures were carefully controlled in order to maintain a high degree of credibility. Limited track testing was performed in order to corroborate the dynamometer results. Test results include an energy flow analysis through the major subsystems and incorporate and aerodynamic and rolling losses under cyclic and various steady speed conditions. A complete summary of the major output from all relevant dynamometer and track tests is also included as an appendix.

  3. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing: Five-Axle Combination Tractor-Flatbed Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, in coordination with the Federal Highway Administration, sponsored the Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing (HOVBT) program in order to provide information about the effect of gross vehicle weight (GVW) on braking performance. Because the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations limit the number of braking system defects that may exist for a vehicle to be allowed to operate on the roadways, the examination of the effect of brake defects on brake performance for increased loads is also relevant. The HOVBT program seeks to provide relevant information to policy makers responsible for establishing load limits, beginning with providing test data for a combination tractor/trailer. This testing was conducted on a five-axle combination vehicle with tractor brakes meeting the Reduced Stopping Distance requirement rulemaking. This report provides a summary of the testing activities, the results of various analyses of the data, and recommendations for future research. Following a complete brake rebuild, instrumentation, and brake burnish, stopping tests were performed from 20 and 40 mph with various brake application pressures (15 psi, 25 psi, 35 psi, 45 psi, 55 psi, and full system pressure). These tests were conducted for various brake conditions at the following GVWs: 60,000, 80,000, 91,000, 97,000, 106,000, and 116,000 lb. The 80,000-lb GVWs included both balanced and unbalanced loads. The condition of the braking system was also varied. To introduce these defects, brakes (none, forward drive axle, or rear trailer axle) were made inoperative. In addition to the stopping tests, performance-based brake tests were conducted for the various loading and brake conditions. Analysis of the stopping test data showed the stopping distance to increase with load (as expected) and also showed that more braking force was generated by the drive axle brakes than the trailer axle brakes. The constant-pressure stopping test data

  4. 40 CFR 1051.501 - What procedures must I use to test my vehicles or engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engine testing. For motorcycles with engine displacement at or below 169 cc and all ATVs, use the driving... vehicles or engines? 1051.501 Section 1051.501 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Test...

  5. VENOLIVA - Vehicle Noise Limit Values - comparison of two noise emission test methods. Final Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roo, F. de; Dittrich, M.G.; Beek, P.J.G. van; Bosschaart, C.; Derksen. D.G.; Kievit, M. de

    2011-01-01

    The permissible sound level of road vehicles is part of the EU vehicle type approval legislation, as laid down in EU Directive 70/157/EEC [1] and in the UN-ECE Regulation No 51 [2] , which specifies the test method for the noise emission test. Since 1984 several studies [48] [49] [50] [51] [52

  6. Evaluating the effectiveness of active vehicle safety systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunbi; Oh, Cheol

    2017-03-01

    Advanced vehicle safety systems have been widely introduced in transportation systems and are expected to enhance traffic safety. However, these technologies mainly focus on assisting individual vehicles that are equipped with them, and less effort has been made to identify the effect of vehicular technologies on the traffic stream. This study proposed a methodology to assess the effectiveness of active vehicle safety systems (AVSSs), which represent a promising technology to prevent traffic crashes and mitigate injury severity. The proposed AVSS consists of longitudinal and lateral vehicle control systems, which corresponds to the Level 2 vehicle automation presented by the National Highway Safety Administration (NHTSA). The effectiveness evaluation for the proposed technology was conducted in terms of crash potential reduction and congestion mitigation. A microscopic traffic simulator, VISSIM, was used to simulate freeway traffic stream and collect vehicle-maneuvering data. In addition, an external application program interface, VISSIM's COM-interface, was used to implement the AVSS. A surrogate safety assessment model (SSAM) was used to derive indirect safety measures to evaluate the effectiveness of the AVSS. A 16.7-km freeway stretch between the Nakdong and Seonsan interchanges on Korean freeway 45 was selected for the simulation experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of AVSS. A total of five simulation runs for each evaluation scenario were conducted. For the non-incident conditions, the rear-end and lane-change conflicts were reduced by 78.8% and 17.3%, respectively, under the level of service (LOS) D traffic conditions. In addition, the average delay was reduced by 55.5%. However, the system's effectiveness was weakened in the LOS A-C categories. Under incident traffic conditions, the number of rear-end conflicts was reduced by approximately 9.7%. Vehicle delays were reduced by approximately 43.9% with 100% of market penetration rate (MPR). These results

  7. In-vehicle group activity modeling and simulation in sensor-based virtual environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir; Telagamsetti, Durga; Poshtyar, Azin; Chan, Alex; Hu, Shuowen

    2016-05-01

    Human group activity recognition is a very complex and challenging task, especially for Partially Observable Group Activities (POGA) that occur in confined spaces with limited visual observability and often under severe occultation. In this paper, we present IRIS Virtual Environment Simulation Model (VESM) for the modeling and simulation of dynamic POGA. More specifically, we address sensor-based modeling and simulation of a specific category of POGA, called In-Vehicle Group Activities (IVGA). In VESM, human-alike animated characters, called humanoids, are employed to simulate complex in-vehicle group activities within the confined space of a modeled vehicle. Each articulated humanoid is kinematically modeled with comparable physical attributes and appearances that are linkable to its human counterpart. Each humanoid exhibits harmonious full-body motion - simulating human-like gestures and postures, facial impressions, and hands motions for coordinated dexterity. VESM facilitates the creation of interactive scenarios consisting of multiple humanoids with different personalities and intentions, which are capable of performing complicated human activities within the confined space inside a typical vehicle. In this paper, we demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of VESM in terms of its capabilities to seamlessly generate time-synchronized, multi-source, and correlated imagery datasets of IVGA, which are useful for the training and testing of multi-source full-motion video processing and annotation. Furthermore, we demonstrate full-motion video processing of such simulated scenarios under different operational contextual constraints.

  8. Probabilistic model of bridge vehicle loads in port area based on in-situ load testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ming; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jianren; Wang, Rei; Yan, Yanhong

    2017-11-01

    Vehicle load is an important factor affecting the safety and usability of bridges. An statistical analysis is carried out in this paper to investigate the vehicle load data of Tianjin Haibin highway in Tianjin port of China, which are collected by the Weigh-in- Motion (WIM) system. Following this, the effect of the vehicle load on test bridge is calculated, and then compared with the calculation result according to HL-93(AASHTO LRFD). Results show that the overall vehicle load follows a distribution with a weighted sum of four normal distributions. The maximum vehicle load during the design reference period follows a type I extremum distribution. The vehicle load effect also follows a weighted sum of four normal distributions, and the standard value of the vehicle load is recommended as 1.8 times that of the calculated value according to HL-93.

  9. Ballistic Resistance of Armored Passenger Vehicles: Test Protocols and Quality Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk

    2005-07-01

    This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

  10. Prediction of Military Vehicle?s Drawbar Pull Based on an Improved Relevance Vector Machine and Real Vehicle Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Yang; Wei Sun; Guoyu Lin; Weigong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The scientific and effective prediction of drawbar pull is of great importance in the evaluation of military vehicle trafficability. Nevertheless, the existing prediction models have demonstrated lots of inherent limitations. In this framework, a multiple-kernel relevance vector machine model (MkRVM) including Gaussian kernel and polynomial kernel is proposed to predict drawbar pull. Nonlinear decreasing inertia weight particle swarm optimization (NDIWPSO) is employed for parameter optimizati...

  11. Off-Line Optimization Based Active Control of Torsional Oscillation for Electric Vehicle Drivetrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As there is no clutch or hydraulic torque converter in electric vehicles to buffer and absorb torsional vibrations. Oscillation will occur in electric vehicle drivetrains when drivers tip in/out or are shifting. In order to improve vehicle response to transients, reduce vehicle jerk and reduce wear of drivetrain parts, torque step changes should be avoided. This article mainly focuses on drivetrain oscillations caused by torque interruption for shifting in a Motor-Transmission Integrated System. It takes advantage of the motor responsiveness, an optimal active control method is presented to reduce oscillations by adjusting motor torque output dynamically. A rear-wheel-drive electric vehicle with a two gear automated manual transmission is considered to set up dynamic differential equations based on Newton’s law of motion. By linearization of the affine system, a joint genetic algorithm and linear quadratic regulator method is applied to calculate the real optimal motor torque. In order to improve immediacy of the control system, time consuming optimization process of parameters is completed off-line. The active control system is tested in AMEsim® and limitation of motor external characteristics are considered. The results demonstrate that, compared with the open-loop system, the proposed algorithm can reduce motion oscillation to a satisfied extent when unloading torque for shifting.

  12. Development of portable measuring system for testing of electrical vehicle's heat energy recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvajcz, K.; Váradiné Szarka, A.

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays the consumer society applies a huge amount of energy in many fields including transportation sector. Internal combustion vehicles contribute substantially to the air pollution. An alternative solution for reducing energy consumption is replacing the internal combustion vehicles by electrical or hybrid vehicles. Today one of the biggest disadvantages of the electrical vehicles is the finite capacity of batteries. The research topic presented in this paper is the „Energy Harvesting”, and development of energy recovery system for electrical vehicles which largely contributes in increasing the driving range. At the current phase of the research efficiency analysis of the heat energy recovery devices are investigated in real driving circumstances. Computer based mobile and wireless measurement system for the analysis was developed, tested and installed in a real vehicle. Driving tests were performed and analysed in different circumstances.

  13. Development of hybrid electric vehicle powertrain test system based on virtue instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanmin; Guo, Konghui; Chen, Liming

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid powertrain has become the standard configuration of some automobile models. The test system of hybrid vehicle powertrain was developed based on virtual instrument, using electric dynamometer to simulate the work of engines, to test the motor and control unit of the powertrain. The test conditions include starting, acceleration, and deceleration. The results show that the test system can simulate the working conditions of the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain under various conditions.

  14. Novel Field Test Equipment for Lithium-Ion Batteries in Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Goran Lindbergh; Olle Gelin; Pontus Svens; Marten Behm; Johan Lindstrom

    2011-01-01

    Lifetime testing of batteries for hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV) is usually performed in the lab, either at the cell, module or battery pack level. Complementary field tests of battery packs in vehicles are also often performed. There are, however, difficulties related to field testing of battery-packs. Some examples are cost issues and the complexity of continuously collecting battery performance data, such as capacity fade and impedance increase. In this paper, a novel field test equipmen...

  15. Wind Tunnel and Hover Performance Test Results for Multicopter UAS Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Carl R.; Jung, Jaewoo; Willink, Gina; Glasner, Brett

    2016-01-01

    There is currently a lack of published data for the performance of multicopter unmanned aircraft system (UAS) vehicles, such as quadcopters and octocopters, often referred to collectively as drones. With the rapidly increasing popularity of multicopter UAS, there is interest in better characterizing the performance of this type of aircraft. By studying the performance of currently available vehicles, it will be possible to develop models for vehicles at this scale that can accurately predict performance and model trajectories. This paper describes a wind tunnel test that was recently performed in the U.S. Army's 7- by 10-ft Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. During this wind tunnel entry, five multicopter UAS vehicles were tested to determine forces and moments as well as electrical power as a function of wind speed, rotor speed, and vehicle attitude. The test is described here in detail, and a selection of the key results from the test is presented.

  16. Pilot Study of Systems to Drive Autonomous Vehicles on Test Tracks

    OpenAIRE

    Agardt, Erik; Löfgren, Markus

    2008-01-01

    This Master’s thesis is a pilot study that investigates different systems to drive autonomous and non-autonomous vehicles simultaneously on test tracks. The thesis includes studies of communication, positioning, collision avoidance, and techniques for surveillance of vehicles which are suitable for implementation. The investigation results in a suggested system outline. Differential GPS combined with laser scanner vision is used for vehicle state estimation (position, heading, velocity, etc.)...

  17. Design, synthesis, manufacturing, and testing of a competitive FHSAE vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this multi-year project is to create a fully functional University of Idaho entry in the hybrid FSAE competition scheduled for : 2012. Vehicle integration has been completed as part of a variety of 2010-2011 senior design projects and 201...

  18. Design and test of urea hydrolysis reactor for vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhanfeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia production technology of urea-SCR system for vehicle is mainly used in pyrolysis. The reaction is complex, and there are some side effects. So a kind of urea hydrolysis device for vehicle is designed. Based on the in-depth analysis of ammonia production technology’s mechanism of urea hydrolysis for vehicle, the modified extended UNIQUAC equation and PHS equation of state were used to solve the thermodynamic model, and the experimental verification was carried out on the JX493ZLQ3 diesel engine. The results show that the design of urea hydrolysis reactor is in agreement with the experimental results. In the environment of urea hydrolysis, the higher the hydrolysis temperature, the faster the urea hydrolysis and the faster the production of ammonia. Under the same conditions, the hydrolysis rate of urea was the same, the higher the initial quality, the more ammonia produced. The method is suitable for the ammonia production technology of urea hydrolysis for vehicle and can be used for the formation of urea hydrolysis SCR system.

  19. Novel Field Test Equipment for Lithium-Ion Batteries in Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Lindbergh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Lifetime testing of batteries for hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV is usually performed in the lab, either at the cell, module or battery pack level. Complementary field tests of battery packs in vehicles are also often performed. There are, however, difficulties related to field testing of battery-packs. Some examples are cost issues and the complexity of continuously collecting battery performance data, such as capacity fade and impedance increase. In this paper, a novel field test equipment designed primarily for lithium-ion battery cell testing is presented. This equipment is intended to be used on conventional vehicles, not hybrid vehicles, as a cheaper and faster field testing method for batteries, compared to full scale HEV testing. The equipment emulates an HEV environment for the tested battery cell by using real time vehicle sensor information and the existing starter battery as load and source. In addition to the emulated battery cycling, periodical capacity and pulse testing capability are implemented as well. This paper begins with presenting some background information about hybrid electrical vehicles and describing the limitations with today’s HEV battery testing. Furthermore, the functionality of the test equipment is described in detail and, finally, results from verification of the equipment are presented and discussed.

  20. Prediction of Military Vehicle's Drawbar Pull Based on an Improved Relevance Vector Machine and Real Vehicle Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Sun, Wei; Lin, Guoyu; Zhang, Weigong

    2016-03-10

    The scientific and effective prediction of drawbar pull is of great importance in the evaluation of military vehicle trafficability. Nevertheless, the existing prediction models have demonstrated lots of inherent limitations. In this framework, a multiple-kernel relevance vector machine model (MkRVM) including Gaussian kernel and polynomial kernel is proposed to predict drawbar pull. Nonlinear decreasing inertia weight particle swarm optimization (NDIWPSO) is employed for parameter optimization. As the relations between drawbar pull and its influencing factors have not been tested on real vehicles, a series of experimental analyses based on real vehicle test data are done to confirm the effective influencing factors. A dynamic testing system is applied to conduct field tests and gain required test data. Gaussian kernel RVM, polynomial kernel RVM, support vector machine (SVM) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) are also used to compare with the MkRVM model. The results indicate that the MkRVM model is a preferable model in this case. Finally, the proposed novel model is compared to the traditional prediction model of drawbar pull. The results show that the MkRVM model significantly improves the prediction accuracy. A great potential of improved RVM is indicated in further research of wheel-soil interactions.

  1. Heavy vehicle simulator testing on pre-cast concrete panels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, L

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available pavement slabs and perform in the same way. Dowel slots cast on the bottom of the slabs provide two benefits. First, they keep dowel grout on the bottom, protecting it from de-icing chemicals and degradation from freeze/ thaw activity. Secondly... an indication of their size, the brass sensor caps are 75mm in diameter). Drill cores obtained from various locations in both test sections indicated very good performance of the dowel grout. There was no sign of looseness of the dowel, which means...

  2. Active Damping of Oscillations in Off-Road Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T. O.; Hansen, M. R.; Conrad, Finn

    2003-01-01

    This paper relates to analyse and control of the oscillations occuring in many off-road vehicles, which are designed without any suspension. Without suspension, the tire is the only elastic element acting between the vichle and the ground, but the suspension and damping properties of the tires...... simulation model that describes dynamics of the tractor with mechanica栬inkkages, and the hitch actuator and an typical implemenet. The developed model was used and is in use for both stability and damping analysis, and for evaluation of control strategies, incliding active damping of oscillations....

  3. Literature review on recent international activity in cooperative vehicle-highway automation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This literature review supports the report, Recent International Activity in Cooperative VehicleHighway Automation Systems. It : reviews the published literature in English dating from 2007 or later about non-U.S.-based work on cooperative vehicle...

  4. Development of crash imminent test scenarios for Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    This report identifies crash imminent test scenarios based on common pre-crash scenarios for integrated vehicle-based safety systems that alert the driver of a light vehicle or a heavy truck to an impending rear-end, lane change, or run-off-road cras...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles. 86.1832-01 Section 86.1832-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In...

  6. Ground Vibration Test Planning and Pre-Test Analysis for the X-33 Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Herand; Tinker, Michael L.; Hidalgo, Homero

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the modal test planning and the pre-test analysis for the X-33 vehicle. The pre-test analysis included the selection of the target modes, selection of the sensor and shaker locations and the development of an accurate Test Analysis Model (TAM). For target mode selection, four techniques were considered, one based on the Modal Cost technique, one based on Balanced Singular Value technique, a technique known as the Root Sum Squared (RSS) method, and a Modal Kinetic Energy (MKE) approach. For selecting sensor locations, four techniques were also considered; one based on the Weighted Average Kinetic Energy (WAKE), one based on Guyan Reduction (GR), one emphasizing engineering judgment, and one based on an optimum sensor selection technique using Genetic Algorithm (GA) search technique combined with a criteria based on Hankel Singular Values (HSV's). For selecting shaker locations, four techniques were also considered; one based on the Weighted Average Driving Point Residue (WADPR), one based on engineering judgment and accessibility considerations, a frequency response method, and an optimum shaker location selection based on a GA search technique combined with a criteria based on HSV's. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed sensor and shaker locations for exciting the target modes, extensive numerical simulations were performed. Multivariate Mode Indicator Function (MMIF) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of each sensor & shaker set with respect to modal parameter identification. Several TAM reduction techniques were considered including, Guyan, IRS, Modal, and Hybrid. Based on a pre-test cross-orthogonality checks using various reduction techniques, a Hybrid TAM reduction technique was selected and was used for all three vehicle fuel level configurations.

  7. Test results of the Electric Vehicle Field-Laboratory Correspondence Program, phase 1 report

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDowall, R. D.

    1987-12-01

    During the past decade a signficant number of vehicles, batteries, and powertrain components have been evaluated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. These evaluation tests have been performed in dynamometer laboratories, on test tracks, and on the road under actual field operating conditions. Previous DOE-funded programs have developed several computer models which simulate electric vehicle performance over a wide range of operating conditions. This report presents the results of tests performed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The primary objective of the Electric Vehicle Field-Laboratory Correspondence Program is to significantly enhance the ability to predict field performance from laboratory test results, and to predict the behavior of vehicle systems not yet fabricated. A secondary objective of this program is to obtain real-time based data with the INEL Portable Data Acquisition system (PDAS) which can then be compared to the event-based test data acquired using the Versatile Data Acquisition System (VDAS). The VDAS-to-PDAS comparisons from these tests indicate the relative strengths and limitations of these rather different approaches to in-vehicle acquisition of engineering data. The conclusions of this first phase report indicate that the corresondence among the data acquisition systems was comparable to test-to-test repeatability, and that the energy consumption values matched closely among dynamometer, track, and tightly controlled road tests.

  8. Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project - N+2 Advanced Vehicle Concepts Study and Conceptual Design of Subscale Test Vehicle (STV) Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, John T.; Schellenger, Harvey G.; Rawdon, Blaine K.; Elmer, Kevin R.; Wakayama, Sean R.; Brown, Derrell L.; Guo, Yueping

    2011-01-01

    NASA has set demanding goals for technology developments to meet national needs to improve fuel efficiency concurrent with improving the environment to enable air transportation growth. A figure shows NASA's subsonic transport system metrics. The results of Boeing ERA N+2 Advanced Vehicle Concept Study show that the Blended Wing Body (BWB) vehicle, with ultra high bypass propulsion systems have the potential to meet the combined NASA ERA N+2 goals. This study had 3 main activities. 1) The development of an advanced vehicle concepts that can meet the NASA system level metrics. 2) Identification of key enabling technologies and the development of technology roadmaps and maturation plans. 3) The development of a subscale test vehicle that can demonstrate and mature the key enabling technologies needed to meet the NASA system level metrics. Technology maturation plans are presented and include key performance parameters and technical performance measures. The plans describe the risks that will be reduced with technology development and the expected progression of technical maturity.

  9. Feasibility of Turing-Style Tests for Autonomous Aerial Vehicle "Intelligence"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    A new approach is suggested to define and evaluate key metrics as to autonomous aerial vehicle performance. This approach entails the conceptual definition of a "Turing Test" for UAVs. Such a "UAV Turing test" would be conducted by means of mission simulations and/or tailored flight demonstrations of vehicles under the guidance of their autonomous system software. These autonomous vehicle mission simulations and flight demonstrations would also have to be benchmarked against missions "flown" with pilots/human-operators in the loop. In turn, scoring criteria for such testing could be based upon both quantitative mission success metrics (unique to each mission) and by turning to analog "handling quality" metrics similar to the well-known Cooper-Harper pilot ratings used for manned aircraft. Autonomous aerial vehicles would be considered to have successfully passed this "UAV Turing Test" if the aggregate mission success metrics and handling qualities for the autonomous aerial vehicle matched or exceeded the equivalent metrics for missions conducted with pilots/human-operators in the loop. Alternatively, an independent, knowledgeable observer could provide the "UAV Turing Test" ratings of whether a vehicle is autonomous or "piloted." This observer ideally would, in the more sophisticated mission simulations, also have the enhanced capability of being able to override the scripted mission scenario and instigate failure modes and change of flight profile/plans. If a majority of mission tasks are rated as "piloted" by the observer, when in reality the vehicle/simulation is fully- or semi- autonomously controlled, then the vehicle/simulation "passes" the "UAV Turing Test." In this regards, this second "UAV Turing Test" approach is more consistent with Turing s original "imitation game" proposal. The overall feasibility, and important considerations and limitations, of such an approach for judging/evaluating autonomous aerial vehicle "intelligence" will be discussed from a

  10. Developing a "Research Test Bed" to introduce innovative Emission Testing Technology to improve New Zealand's Vehicle Emission Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Stephen J.

    2012-05-01

    Vehicle exhaust emissions arise from the combustion of the fuel and air mixture in the engine. Exhaust emission gases generally include carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), particulates, and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). In New Zealand improvements have occurred in emissions standards over the past 20 years however significant health related issues are now being discovered in Auckland as a direct effect of high vehicle emission levels. Pollution in New Zealand, especially via vehicle emissions are an increasing concern and threatens New Zealand's "clean and green" image. Unitec Institute of Technology proposes establishing a Vehicle Emissions Testing Facility, and with an understanding with Auckland University, National Institute of Water & Atmosphere Research Ltd (NIWA) this research group can work collaboratively on vehicle emissions testing. New Zealand research providers would support an application in the UK led by the University of Huddersfield to a range of European Union Structural Funds. New Zealand has an ideal "vehicle emissions research environment" supported by significant expertise in vehicle emission control technology and associated protocols at the University of Auckland, and the effects of high vehicle emissions on health at the National Institutes of Water and Atmosphere (NIWA).

  11. 40 CFR 86.157-98 - Refueling test procedures for liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.157-98 Refueling... shall be performed for each fuel tank. (e) Records required. (1) Test: test number, system or device... total refueling mass emissions by the total gallons of fuel dispensed in the refueling test (see...

  12. 2014 ITS World Congress Connected Vehicle Test Bed Demonstration Intersection Situation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — During the 2014 ITS World Congress a demonstration of the connected vehicle infrastructure in the City of Detroit was conducted. The test site included approximately...

  13. Evaluation of the Volvo intelligent vehicle initiative field operational test, version 1.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-05

    This report presents the final results of an independent evaluation of the Volvo Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI) Field Operational Test (FOT), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT). The intent of the overall IVI program, a m...

  14. 2014 ITS World Congress Connected Vehicle Test Bed Demonstration Traveler Situation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — During the 2014 ITS World Congress a demonstration of the connected vehicle infrastructure in the City of Detroit was conducted. The test site included approximately...

  15. Executive Summary of Propulsion on the Orion Abort Flight-Test Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Brooks, Syri J.; Barnes, Marvin W.; McCauley, Rachel J.; Wall, Terry M.; Reed, Brian D.; Duncan, C. Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orion Flight Test Office was tasked with conducting a series of flight tests in several launch abort scenarios to certify that the Orion Launch Abort System is capable of delivering astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Module to a safe environment, away from a failed booster. The first of this series was the Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight-Test Vehicle, which was successfully flown on May 6, 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. This report provides a brief overview of the three propulsive subsystems used on the Pad Abort 1 Flight-Test Vehicle. An overview of the propulsive systems originally planned for future flight-test vehicles is also provided, which also includes the cold gas Reaction Control System within the Crew Module, and the Peacekeeper first stage rocket motor encased within the Abort Test Booster aeroshell. Although the Constellation program has been cancelled and the operational role of the Orion spacecraft has significantly evolved, lessons learned from Pad Abort 1 and the other flight-test vehicles could certainly contribute to the vehicle architecture of many future human-rated space launch vehicles

  16. Virginia Connected Vehicle Test Bed System Performance (V2I System Performance)

    OpenAIRE

    Viray, Reginald; Sarkar, Abhijit; Doerzaph, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    This project identified vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication system limitations on the Northern Virginia Connected Vehicle Test Bed. Real-world historical data were analyzed to determine wireless Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) coverage gaps and overlaps. In addition, a simulated scalability test was run to determine the effects of network congestion on the system. The results from the real-world historical data showed that significant loss of signal occurred due to obstru...

  17. A Hybrid Control Policy for Semi-Active Vehicle Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando D. Goncalves

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Various control policies, such as skyhook and groundhook control, have often been considered for semi-active vehicle suspensions. Past studies have shown the performance limitations of these policies, as well as others that have been considered for vehicle applications. This study will provide a look into an alternative control technique called "hybrid control", which attempts to merge the performance benefits of skyhook and groundhook control. The results of this study are based on an experimental evaluation of hybrid control using a quarter-car rig and a magneto-rheological damper. The control policy is employed and evaluated under a steady-state or pure tone input, and a transient or step input. Peak-to-peak displacement and peak-to-peak acceleration are used to evaluate performance. The results indicate that hybrid control can offer benefits to both the sprung mass and the unsprung mass. The steady-state results reveal that hybrid control can be used to reduce the peak-to- peak displacements and accelerations of both bodies. The transient evaluation shows that hybrid control can be effective at reducing the peak-to-peak displacement of the sprung mass.

  18. Vehicle active suspension system using skyhook adaptive neuro active force control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyandoko, G.; Mailah, M.; Jamaluddin, H.

    2009-04-01

    This paper aims to highlight the practical viability of a new and novel hybrid control technique applied to a vehicle active suspension system of a quarter car model using skyhook and adaptive neuro active force control (SANAFC). The overall control system essentially comprises four feedback control loops, namely the innermost proportional-integral (PI) control loop for the force tracking of the pneumatic actuator, the intermediate skyhook and active force control (AFC) control loops for the compensation of the disturbances and the outermost proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control loop for the computation of the optimum target/commanded force. A neural network (NN) with a modified adaptive Levenberg-Marquardt learning algorithm was used to approximate the estimated mass and inverse dynamics of the pneumatic actuator in the AFC loop. A number of experiments were carried out on a physical test rig using a hardware-in-the-loop configuration that fully incorporates the theoretical elements. The performance of the proposed control method was evaluated and compared to examine the effectiveness of the system in suppressing the vibration effect on the suspension system. It was found that the simulation and experimental results were in good agreement, particularly for the sprung mass displacement and acceleration behaviours in which the proposed SANAFC scheme is found to outperform the PID and passive counterparts.

  19. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Fuel Economy Testing at the U.S. EPA National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory (SAE Paper 2004-01-2900)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduction of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and their new technology has created the need for development of new fuel economy test procedures and safety procedures during testing. The United States Environmental Protection Agency-National Vehicle Fuels and Emissions Laborato...

  20. Shift Performance Test and Analysis of Multipurpose Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented an analysis of the gear shifting performances of a multipurpose vehicle transmission in driving condition by Ricardo's Gear Shift Quality Assessment (GSQA system. The performances of the transmission included the travel and effort of the gear shift lever and synchronizing time. The mathematic models of the transmission including the gear shift mechanism and synchronizer were developed in MATLAB. The model of the gear shift mechanism was developed to analyze the travel map of the gear shift lever and the model of the synchronizer was developed to obtain the force-time curve of the synchronizer during the slipping time. The model of the synchronizer was used to investigate the relationship between the performances of the transmission and the variation of parameters during gear shifting. The mathematic models of the gear shift mechanism and the synchronizer provided a rapid design and verification method for the transmission with ring spring.

  1. Vibration control of a semi-active railway vehicle suspension with magneto-rheological dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Seok Oh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents vibration control performances of a semi-active railway vehicle suspension system using a magneto-rheological damper tested on the roller rig. In order to evaluate control performances, a mathematical railway vehicle model with 15 degrees of freedom is first derived to represent the lateral, yaw and roll motions of the car body, bogie frame, and wheel set, respectively. Based on the formulated model, the design parameters of magneto-rheological damper are determined to undertake a compatible comparison with dynamic performances of conventional (existing passive railway vehicle suspension system. The designed magneto-rheological damper is manufactured and its field-dependent damping force characteristics are experimentally evaluated. Subsequently, in order to enhance the ride quality of a railway vehicle suspension equipped with magneto-rheological damper, a skyhook controller associated with an extended Kalman filter is designed in a state space representation. The railway suspension system incorporated with the car body and two bogies is then experimentally set up on the roller rig in order to evaluate the ride quality. It is demonstrated from experimental realization of the controller that the ride quality of the suspension system with magneto-rheological damper can be significantly enhanced compared with the existing passive suspension system.

  2. Do laboratory frontal crash test programs predict driver fatality risk? Evidence from within vehicle line variation in test ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harless, David W; Hoffer, George E

    2007-09-01

    A number of studies have examined whether the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) frontal crash test results reliably indicate the risk of fatality or injury in serious crashes. The conclusions of these studies are mixed. Generally, studies that examine crashes in the circumstances as close as possible to those of the laboratory test find that crash test results do predict real-world risk, but studies of crashes outside those specific circumstances find either no support for the predictive validity of crash test results or limited support with important inconsistencies. We provide a new test of the predictive validity of the crash test results using information from multiple crash tests within vehicle lines, thus controlling for systematic differences in driver behavior across vehicle lines. Among drivers of passenger cars, we find large, statistically significant differences in fatality risk for vehicles with one- to four-star NHTSA ratings versus a five-star rating. We also examine the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety's frontal offset crash test, though our sample of vehicle lines tested twice or more is considerably smaller than for NHTSA ratings. Our results also support the predictive validity of the frontal offset crash test results for passenger cars, but not for trucks.

  3. Testing of a sodium/nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery for electric propulsion of ships and vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluiters, E.C.; Schmal, D.; Veen, W.R. ter [TNO Inst. of Environmental Sciences, Energy Research and Process Innovation, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Posthumus, K.J.C.M. [Royal Netherlands Navy, The Haag (Netherlands). Dept. of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering

    1999-07-01

    One of the promising future batteries for electric propulsion of vehicles and ships is the sodium/nickel chloride or ZEBRA (Zero Emission Battery Research Activities) battery. Despite some disadvantages with respect to the high temperature, the advantages with respect to specific energy and energy density are such that, especially in applications where the battery is used on a more or less continuous basis (e.g., in delivery vans and taxies) it is an interesting candidate battery. Another interesting application is on board of ships, like submarines or future electrical surface ships with electric propulsion. In 1995 a 2 year feasibility study, including experimental testing of a 10 kW h battery, was completed. This investigated the naval applicability of the sodium/sulphur battery, which is also a high temperature battery. Here the limited, experimentally proven, life-time of the batteries was of about 1.5 years and this made naval application almost impossible. A paper about this study was presented at the 19th International Power Sources Symposium held at Brighton, England, in April 1995. Because of the more or less comparable specifications on specific energy and the more promising results of the life-time and field tests with sodium/nickel chloride batteries, a ZEBRA battery from AEG Anglo Batteries has been tested for naval applications. This was done by simulating the charge and discharge as it occurs in practice for the applications investigated. With respect to the electrical ship application (investigated for the Royal Netherlands Navy) the power versus time taken from the battery was simulated as well as the charge procedures. The same can be done for the vehicle application: in this case typical drive cycles for a van or taxi are translated to power versus time taken from the battery. The results of the tests for application of the battery in naval ships are very promising. (orig.)

  4. Alternative Sensor System and MLP Neural Network for Vehicle Pedal Activity Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Wefky

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available It is accepted that the activity of the vehicle pedals (i.e., throttle, brake, clutch reflects the driver’s behavior, which is at least partially related to the fuel consumption and vehicle pollutant emissions. This paper presents a solution to estimate the driver activity regardless of the type, model, and year of fabrication of the vehicle. The solution is based on an alternative sensor system (regime engine, vehicle speed, frontal inclination and linear acceleration that reflects the activity of the pedals in an indirect way, to estimate that activity by means of a multilayer perceptron neural network with a single hidden layer.

  5. Operations Assessment of Launch Vehicle Architectures using Activity Based Cost Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Torres, Alex J.; McCleskey, Carey

    2000-01-01

    The growing emphasis on affordability for space transportation systems requires the assessment of new space vehicles for all life cycle activities, from design and development, through manufacturing and operations. This paper addresses the operational assessment of launch vehicles, focusing on modeling the ground support requirements of a vehicle architecture, and estimating the resulting costs and flight rate. This paper proposes the use of Activity Based Costing (ABC) modeling for this assessment. The model uses expert knowledge to determine the activities, the activity times and the activity costs based on vehicle design characteristics. The approach provides several advantages to current approaches to vehicle architecture assessment including easier validation and allowing vehicle designers to understand the cost and cycle time drivers.

  6. Research on optimization of test cycles for comfort to the special vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitroi, Marian; Chiru, Anghel

    2017-10-01

    The comfort of vehicles, regardless of their type is represent a requirement to by fulfilled in the context of current technological developments special vehicles generally move under different soil, time, or season conditions, and the land in which the vehicles move is complex and varied in the physical structure. Due to the high level of involvement in the driveability, safety and comfort of automotive, suspension system is a key factor with major implications for vibration and noise, affecting the human body. The objective of the research is related to determining the test cycles of special vehicles that are approaching real situations, to determine the level of comfort. The evaluate of the degree of comfort will be realized on acceleration values recorded, especially the vertical ones that have the highest influence on the human body. Thus, in this way the tests can be established needed to determine the level of comfort required for each particular type of special vehicle. The utility of the test cycles to optimize comfort is given to the accurate identification of the specific test needs, depending on the each vehicle.

  7. Safety assessment characteristics of pedestrian legform impactors in vehicle-front impact tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of safety assessment results of front-area vehicle impact tests carried out using the Transport Research Laboratory (TRL) legform impactor and a flexible legform impactor (FLEX legform impactor). Different types of vehicles (sedan, sport utility vehicle, high-roof K-car, and light cargo van) were examined. The impact locations in the study were the center of the bumper and an extremely stiff structure of the bumper (i.e., in front of the side member) of each tested vehicle. The measured injury criteria were normalized by injury assessment reference values of each legform impactor. The test results for center and side-member impacts indicated that there were no significant differences in ligament injury assessments derived from the normalized knee ligament injury measures between the TRL legform impactor and the FLEX legform impactor. Evaluations made using the TRL legform impactor and the FLEX legform impactor are thus similar in the vehicle safety investigation for knee ligament injury. Vehicle-center impact test results revealed that the tibia fracture assessments derived from the normalized tibia fracture measures did not significantly differ between the TRL legform impactor and the FLEX legform impactor. However, for an impact against an extremely stiff structure, there was a difference in the tibia fracture assessment between the FLEX legform impactor and the TRL legform impactor owing to their different sensor types. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ares I-X Launch Vehicle Modal Test Measurements and Data Quality Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Justin D.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Gaspar, James L.; Parks, Russell A.; Lazor, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I-X modal test program consisted of three modal tests conducted at the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA s Kennedy Space Center. The first test was performed on the 71-foot 53,000-pound top segment of the Ares I-X launch vehicle known as Super Stack 5 and the second test was performed on the 66-foot 146,000- pound middle segment known as Super Stack 1. For these tests, two 250 lb-peak electro-dynamic shakers were used to excite bending and shell modes with the test articles resting on the floor. The third modal test was performed on the 327-foot 1,800,000-pound Ares I-X launch vehicle mounted to the Mobile Launcher Platform. The excitation for this test consisted of four 1000+ lb-peak hydraulic shakers arranged to excite the vehicle s cantilevered bending modes. Because the frequencies of interest for these modal tests ranged from 0.02 to 30 Hz, high sensitivity capacitive accelerometers were used. Excitation techniques included impact, burst random, pure random, and force controlled sine sweep. This paper provides the test details for the companion papers covering the Ares I-X finite element model calibration process. Topics to be discussed include test setups, procedures, measurements, data quality assessments, and consistency of modal parameter estimates.

  9. Virtual prototyping and testing of in-vehicle interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullinger, Hans-Jörg; Dangelmaier, Manfred

    2003-01-15

    Electronic innovations that are slowly but surely changing the very nature of driving need to be tested before being introduced to the market. To meet this need a system for integrated virtual prototyping and testing has been developed. Functional virtual prototypes of various traffic systems, such as driver assistance, driver information, and multimedia systems can now be easily tested in a driving simulator by a rapid prototyping approach. The system has been applied in recent R&D projects.

  10. Comparative Emissions Testing of Vehicles Aged on E0, E15 and E20 Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertin, K.; Glinsky, G.; Reek, A.

    2012-08-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act passed into law in December 2007 has mandated the use of 36 billion ethanol equivalent gallons per year of renewable fuel by 2022. A primary pathway to achieve this national goal is to increase the amount of ethanol blended into gasoline. This study is part of a multi-laboratory test program coordinated by DOE to evaluate the effect of higher ethanol blends on vehicle exhaust emissions over the lifetime of the vehicle.

  11. Launch Vehicle Ascent Stage Separation Wind Tunnel Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordelon, Wayne; Frost, Alonzo; Pritchett, Victor

    2002-01-01

    The Aerodynamic Research Facility (ARF) LGBB (Liquid Glide-back Booster) Stage Separation Test is part of the Multi-Center Second Generation In-House Tool Development Task. The ARF LGBB Stage Separation Test has been completed at MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center). It includes the following: PSP (Project Study Plan) Feasibility Test; Isolated Force/Moment Data; Bimese Configuration Force/Moment Data; Schlieren Video. The LGBB Bimese Reference Configuration Analyses and Test Results In-Work to Develop Tools and Database. Preliminary results showed qualitative agreement with CFD (computational fluid dynamics) aerodynamic predictions. The preliminary results exhibit the complex nature of the stage separation aerothermal problem.

  12. Modeling of Semi-Active Vehicle Suspension with Magnetorhological Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasa Richard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of suspension is a current topic. Vehicle users require both greater driving comfort and safety. There is a space to invent new technologies like magnetorheological dampers and their control systems to increase these conflicting requirements. Magnetorheological dampers are reliably mathematically described by parametric and nonparametric models. Therefore they are able to reliably simulate the driving mode of the vehicle. These simulations are important for automotive engineers to increase vehicle safety and passenger comfort.

  13. Damping parameters of suspension of passenger vehicle equipped with semi-active dampers with by-pass valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz ŚLASKI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of experimental tests of characteristics of semi-active dampers with by-pass valve and results of calculations evaluating suspension damping ratio taking into consideration also installation ratio and vehicle sprung mass changes. The asymmetry of damper characteristic is also investigated and changes in damper damping coefficients versus damper velocity. The papers also compares these values of passive damper used in this car with tested semi-active damper.

  14. Future testing of active safety systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, F.M.; Pelders, H.A.A.W.

    2010-01-01

    Active safety systems are increasingly becoming available in trucks and passenger vehicles. Developments in the field of active safety are shifting from increasing driver comfort towards increasing occupant safety. Furthermore, this shift is seen within active safety systems: safety functions are

  15. Aerodynamic behavior of the Viking entry vehicle - Ground test and flight results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, D. B.; Intrieri, P. F.; Seiff, A.

    1977-01-01

    An extensive series of tests of the Viking entry vehicle flying in pure CO2 was conducted in a ballistic range at Ames Research Center. The primary purpose of these tests was to calibrate the aerodynamic lift and drag characteristics in order to allow the density, pressure, and temperature profiles of the Martian atmosphere to be determined from onboard instrumentation carried on Viking. Both the Viking 1 and Viking 2 entry vehicles performed flawlessly during entry and descent, and the atmosphere structure was deduced to an altitude of about 120 km. A description is given of the ballistic range tests and of the aerodynamic behavior of the full scale entry vehicles during entry into the Martian atmosphere. Some comparisons between ground test and flight results are shown.

  16. Control of air pollution from new motor vehicles and new motor vehicle engines. Federal certification test results for 1993 model year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The regulations that apply to the control of emissions from vehicles and engines, appearing in 40 CFR Part 86, set maximum allowable limits on exhaust and evaporative emission levels. The exhaust limits are applicable to gasoline-fueled and diesel light-duty vehicles (passenger cars), light-duty trucks, and heavy-duty engines, and to gasoline-fueled motorcycles. The evaporative limits are applicable to gasoline-fueled light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and heavy-duty vehicles. The report contains all of the individual tests that were required by the certification procedures.

  17. An SINS/GNSS Ground Vehicle Gravimetry Test Based on SGA-WZ02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruihang; Cai, Shaokun; Wu, Meiping; Cao, Juliang; Zhang, Kaidong

    2015-09-16

    In March 2015, a ground vehicle gravimetry test was implemented in eastern Changsha to assess the repeatability and accuracy of ground vehicle SINS/GNSS gravimeter-SGA-WZ02. The gravity system developed by NUDT consisted of a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS), a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) remote station on test vehicle, a GNSS static master station on the ground, and a data logging subsystem. A south-north profile of 35 km along the highway in eastern Changsha was chosen and four repeated available measure lines were obtained. The average speed of a vehicle is 40 km/h. To assess the external ground gravity disturbances, precise ground gravity data was built by CG-5 precise gravimeter as the reference. Under relative smooth conditions, internal accuracy among repeated lines shows an average agreement at the level of 1.86 mGal for half wavelengths about 1.1 km, and 1.22 mGal for 1.7 km. The root-mean-square (RMS) of difference between calculated gravity data and reference data is about 2.27 mGal/1.1 km, and 1.74 mGal/1.7 km. Not all of the noises caused by vehicle itself and experiments environments were eliminated in the primary results. By means of selecting reasonable filters and improving the GNSS observation conditions, further developments in ground vehicle gravimetry are promising.

  18. An SINS/GNSS Ground Vehicle Gravimetry Test Based on SGA-WZ02

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihang Yu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In March 2015, a ground vehicle gravimetry test was implemented in eastern Changsha to assess the repeatability and accuracy of ground vehicle SINS/GNSS gravimeter—SGA-WZ02. The gravity system developed by NUDT consisted of a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS, a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS remote station on test vehicle, a GNSS static master station on the ground, and a data logging subsystem. A south-north profile of 35 km along the highway in eastern Changsha was chosen and four repeated available measure lines were obtained. The average speed of a vehicle is 40 km/h. To assess the external ground gravity disturbances, precise ground gravity data was built by CG-5 precise gravimeter as the reference. Under relative smooth conditions, internal accuracy among repeated lines shows an average agreement at the level of 1.86 mGal for half wavelengths about 1.1 km, and 1.22 mGal for 1.7 km. The root-mean-square (RMS of difference between calculated gravity data and reference data is about 2.27 mGal/1.1 km, and 1.74 mGal/1.7 km. Not all of the noises caused by vehicle itself and experiments environments were eliminated in the primary results. By means of selecting reasonable filters and improving the GNSS observation conditions, further developments in ground vehicle gravimetry are promising.

  19. Simulation of an electric vehicle model on the new WLTC test cycle using AVL CRUISE software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristian Cioroianu, Constantin; Marinescu, Dănuţ Gabriel; Iorga, Adrian; Răzvan Sibiceanu, Adrian

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, environmental pollution has become a general issue and the automotive industry is probably the most affected. The principal air-quality pollutant emissions from petrol, diesel and LPG engines are carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, un-burnt hydrocarbons. Modern cars produce only quite small quantities of the air quality pollutants, but the emissions from large numbers of cars add to a significant air quality problem. Electric vehicles are an answer to this problem because they have absolutely no emissions. These vehicles have some major disadvantages regarding cost and range. In this paper, an electric vehicle model will be created in the AVL Cruise software. The constructed model is based on the existing Dacia Sandero. Also unlike the real car, the model presented has different characteristics since it is a full electric vehicle. It has an electric motor instead of the petrol engine and a battery pack placed in the trunk. The model will be simulated in order to obtain data regarding vehicle performance, energy consumption and range on the new WLTC test cycle. The obtained know-how will help on later improvements of the electric model regarding methods to increase the vehicle range on the new WLTC test cycle.

  20. NASA Ares I Launch Vehicle First Stage Roll Control System Cold Flow Development Test Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Adam; Popp, Christopher G.; Holt, Kimberly A.; Pitts, Hank M.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I launch vehicle is the selected design, chosen to return humans to the moon, Mars, and beyond. It is configured in two inline stages: the First Stage is a Space Shuttle derived five-segment Solid Rocket Booster and the Upper Stage is powered by a Saturn V derived J-2X engine. During launch, roll control for the First Stage (FS) is handled by a dedicated Roll Control System (RoCS) located on the connecting Interstage. That system will provide the Ares I with the ability to counteract induced roll torque while any induced yaw or pitch moments are handled by vectoring of the booster nozzle. This paper provides an overview of NASA s Ares I FS RoCS cold flow development test program including detailed test objectives, types of tests run to meet those objectives, an overview of the results, and applicable lessons learned. The test article was built and tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. The FS RoCS System Development Test Article (SDTA) is a full scale, flight representative water flow test article whose primary objective was to obtain fluid system performance data to evaluate integrated system level performance characteristics and verify analytical models. Development testing and model correlation was deemed necessary as there is little historical precedent for similar large flow, pulsing systems such as the FS RoCS. The cold flow development test program consisted of flight-similar tanks, pressure regulators, and thruster valves, as well as plumbing simulating flight geometries, combined with other facility grade components and structure. Orifices downstream of the thruster valves were used to simulate the pressure drop through the thrusters. Additional primary objectives of this test program were to: evaluate system surge pressure (waterhammer) characteristics due to thruster valve operation over a range of mission duty cycles at various feed system pressures, evaluate temperature transients and heat transfer in the

  1. Solutions for acceleration measurement in vehicle crash tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, D. S.; Covaciu, D.

    2017-10-01

    Crash tests are useful for validating computer simulations of road traffic accidents. One of the most important parameters measured is the acceleration. The evolution of acceleration versus time, during a crash test, form a crash pulse. The correctness of the crash pulse determination depends on the data acquisition system used. Recommendations regarding the instrumentation for impact tests are given in standards, which are focused on the use of accelerometers as impact sensors. The goal of this paper is to present the device and software developed by authors for data acquisition and processing. The system includes two accelerometers with different input ranges, a processing unit based on a 32-bit microcontroller and a data logging unit with SD card. Data collected on card, as text files, is processed with a dedicated software running on personal computers. The processing is based on diagrams and includes the digital filters recommended in standards.

  2. Parametric Analysis of a Hover Test Vehicle using Advanced Test Generation and Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Schumann, Johann; Menzies, Tim; Barrett, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Large complex aerospace systems are generally validated in regions local to anticipated operating points rather than through characterization of the entire feasible operational envelope of the system. This is due to the large parameter space, and complex, highly coupled nonlinear nature of the different systems that contribute to the performance of the aerospace system. We have addressed the factors deterring such an analysis by applying a combination of technologies to the area of flight envelop assessment. We utilize n-factor (2,3) combinatorial parameter variations to limit the number of cases, but still explore important interactions in the parameter space in a systematic fashion. The data generated is automatically analyzed through a combination of unsupervised learning using a Bayesian multivariate clustering technique (AutoBayes) and supervised learning of critical parameter ranges using the machine-learning tool TAR3, a treatment learner. Covariance analysis with scatter plots and likelihood contours are used to visualize correlations between simulation parameters and simulation results, a task that requires tool support, especially for large and complex models. We present results of simulation experiments for a cold-gas-powered hover test vehicle.

  3. Argonne to open new facility for advanced vehicle testing

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory will open it's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility on Friday, Nov. 15. The facility is North America's only public testing facility for engines, fuel cells, electric drives and energy storage. State-of-the-art performance and emissions measurement equipment is available to support model development and technology validation (1 page).

  4. Passenger vehicles sustain huge damage in 5 Mph tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-15

    Seventeen new cars, all 1999 and 2000 models, turned in mostly disappointing results in 5 mph crash tests conducted to assess how well the bumpers resist costly damage in the kinds of impacts that frequently occur in commuter traffic and parking lots...

  5. Roll torque evaluation (RTE) vehicle postflight test report. [Spin effect of tape wrapped heat shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryvoruka, J.K.

    1976-03-01

    Results of analyses of the roll torque evaluation (RTE) vehicle, a reentry configuration which was flight-tested during May 1974 at the Sandia Laboratories Tonopah Test Range are presented. The purpose of the test program was to evaluate, in a controlled environment, the roll-torque-producing effect of an ablating tape-wrapped carbon phenolic (TWCP) heat shield. The boost system, a Talos-Terrier-Recruit (TATER) rocket, delivered the reentry configuration to conditions approximating the latter portion of full-scale reentry while providing nominal payload separation. Flight instrumentation, designed to evaluate the aerodynamic performance and thermal response of the vehicle, indicates that the flight environment was severe enough to produce the desired level of ablation and that significant rolling moments were obtained. In addition, the vehicle was recovered intact for postflight inspection.

  6. Rollover Mitigation Controller Development for Three-Wheeled Vehicle Using Active Front Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Amer Azim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-wheeled vehicles are agile, less complex, but relatively more prone to rollover. The current study focuses on the rollover mitigation control design using active front steering for such vehicles. A lateral load transfer ratio (LLTR adapted for a three-wheeled platform is presented. Sliding mode control design strategy has been devised which results in pseudo-direct control for roll dynamics of the vehicle. The lag in vehicle roll angle response has been managed using adaptive sliding surface. This concept can be extended for other vehicle configurations. The proposed control scheme is investigated for efficacy using a full vehicle simulation model of CarSim software and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s proposed Fishhook maneuver. The controller is able to limit the rollover propensity even with vehicle parameter uncertainties.

  7. Stability Simulation of a Vehicle with Wheel Active Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brabec Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the possibility of increasing the vehicle driving stability at a higher speed. One of the ways how to achieve higher stability is using the 4WS system. Mathematical description of vehicle general movement is a very complex task. For simulation, models which are aptly simplified are used. For the first approach, so-called single-truck vehicle model (often linear is usually used. For the simulation, we have chosen to extend the model into a two-truck one, which includes the possibility to input more vehicle parameters. Considering the 4WS system, it is possible to use a number of potential regulations. In our simulation model, the regulation system with compound coupling was used. This type of regulation turns the rear wheels depending on the input parameters of the system (steering angle of the front wheels and depending on the output moving quantities of the vehicle, most frequently the yaw rate. Criterion for compensation of lateral deflection centre of gravity angle is its zero value, or more precisely the zero value of its first-order derivative. Parameters and set-up of the simulation model were done in conjunction with the dSAPACE software. Reference performances of the vehicle simulation model were made through the defined manoeuvres. But the simulation results indicate that the rear-wheels steering can have a positive effect on the vehicle movement stability, especially when changing the driving direction at high speed.

  8. Cold Regions Test of Tracked and Wheeled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-11

    being instructed to start, the subjects have one minute to write each word one time and study the list. The list is then immediately turned upside...minute to write down as many of the original twelve words as they can remember. All subjects are given the same list of words for a given test...long cold spell has chilled the ground. Other causes are automobile exhaust or the compressed remnants of a snowfall. c. Black ice (sometimes known

  9. Vehicle to Grid Communication Standards Development, Testing and Validation - Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowri, Krishnan; Pratt, Richard M.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2011-09-01

    In the US, more than 10,000 electric vehicles (EV) have been delivered to consumers during the first three quarters of 2011. A large majority of these vehicles are battery electric, often requiring 220 volt charging. Though the vehicle manufacturers and charging station manufacturers have provided consumers options for charging preferences, there are no existing communications between consumers and the utilities to manage the charging demand. There is also wide variation between manufacturers in their approach to support vehicle charging. There are in-vehicle networks, charging station networks, utility networks each using either cellular, Wi-Fi, ZigBee or other proprietary communication technology with no standards currently available for interoperability. The current situation of ad-hoc solutions is a major barrier to the wide adoption of electric vehicles. SAE, the International Standards Organization/International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC), ANSI, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and several industrial organizations are working towards the development of interoperability standards. PNNL has participated in the development and testing of these standards in an effort to accelerate the adoption and development of communication modules.

  10. Data acquisition on board of test vehicles under severe environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossmann, G.E.; Tscheuschner, C.

    1985-01-01

    The usage of microprocessors by the metrology of vehicles gives the advantage of performing measurements which become more and more complex. A data acquisition system developed for this special purpose is named MEDAKS - a multiprocessor system in CMOS-technology. Because of its small size and low power requirements MEDAKS is an appropriate instrument for the determination of vehicle parameters during long periods without having an influence on the behaviour of the car. The practical usefulness of MEDAKS is described by means of two examples of application: long-term-tests of catalysts on board of test vehicles with respect to the determination of temperature profiles and the monitoring of critical temperatures and on-line-classifying of fatigue loads due to the rainflow counting algorithm.

  11. Thermophysical and Optical Properties of Materials Considered for Use on the LDSD Test Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Matthew; Mastropietro, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    In June 2014, the first of multiple flights in the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) technology development program took place and successfully demonstrated a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) in Mars-like conditions. Although the primary goal of the technology program was the development of new decelerators for landing heavier payloads on Mars, the low-cost thermal design of the test vehicle was only possible through the innovative use of a combination of both commercial off the shelf (COTS) and aerospace grade materials. As a result, numerous thermophysical and optical property measurements were undertaken to characterize material candidates before the final material selection was made. This paper presents thermophysical and optical property measurements performed over the course of the LDSD test vehicle development, including those not ultimately selected for use on the vehicle. These properties are compared and contrasted with the existing measurements available in previous literature.

  12. H2 control of a one-quarter semi-active ground vehicle suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Félix-Herrán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-rheological (MR dampers are effective solutions in improving vehicle stability and passenger comfort. However, handling these dampers implies a strong effort in modeling and control. This research proposes an H2 controller, based on a Takagi–Sugeno (T–S fuzzy model, for a two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOF one-quarter vehicle semi-active suspension with an MR damper; a system with important applications in automotive industry. Regarding performance criteria (in frequency domain handled herein, the developed controller considerably improves the passive suspension's efficiency. Moreover, nonlinear actuator dynamics usually avoided in reported work, is included in controller's synthesis; improving the relevance of research outcomes because the controller is synthesized from a closer-to-reality suspension model. Going further, outcomes of this research are compared (based on frequency domain performance criteria and a common time domain test with reported work to highlight the outstanding results. H2 controller is given in terms of quadratic Lyapunov stability theory and carried out by means of Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI, and the command signal is applied via the Parallel Distributed Compensation (PDC approach. A case of study, with real data, is developed and simulation work supports the results. The methodology applied herein can be extended to include other vehicle suspension's dynamics towards a general chassis control.

  13. Testing of a sodium/nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery for electric propulsion of ships and vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluiters, Edwin C.; Schmal, Dick; ter Veen, Willem R.; Posthumus, Kees J. C. M.

    One of the promising future batteries for electric propulsion of vehicles and ships is the sodium/nickel chloride or ZEBRA (Zero Emission Battery Research Activities) battery. Despite some disadvantages with respect to the high temperature, the advantages with respect to specific energy and energy density are such that, especially in applications where the battery is used on a more or less continuous basis (e.g., in delivery vans and taxies) it is an interesting candidate battery. Another interesting application is on board of ships, like submarines or future electrical surface ships with electric propulsion. In 1995 a 2 year feasibility study, including experimental testing of a 10 kW h battery, was completed. This investigated the naval applicability of the sodium/sulphur battery, which is also a high temperature battery. Here the limited, experimentally proven, life-time of the batteries of about 1.5 years and this made naval application almost impossible. A paper about this study was presented at the 19th International Power Sources Symposium held at Brighton, England, in April 1995 [R.A.A. Schillemans, C.E. Kluiters, Sodium/sulphur batteries for naval applications, in: A. Attewell, T. Keily (Eds.), Power Sources 15, International Power Sources Symposium Committee, Crowborough UK, 1995. p. 421.]. Because of the more or less comparable specifications on specific energy and the more promising results of the life-time and field tests with sodium/nickel chloride batteries, a ZEBRA battery from AEG Anglo Batteries has been tested for naval applications. This was done by simulating the charge and discharge as it occurs in practice for the applications investigated. With respect to the electrical ship application (investigated for the Royal Netherlands Navy) the power versus time taken from the battery was simulated as well as the charge procedures. The same can be done for the vehicle application: in this case typical drive cycles for a van or taxi are translated to

  14. 40 CFR Appendix II to Subpart S of... - As-Received Testing Vehicle Rejection Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false As-Received Testing Vehicle Rejection Criteria II Appendix II to Subpart S of Part 86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1830-01 - Acceptance of vehicles for emission testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance of vehicles for emission testing. 86.1830-01 Section 86.1830-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1836-01 - Manufacturer-supplied production vehicles for testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manufacturer-supplied production vehicles for testing. 86.1836-01 Section 86.1836-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1831-01 - Mileage accumulation requirements for test vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mileage accumulation requirements for test vehicles. 86.1831-01 Section 86.1831-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  18. Mechanistic-empirical subgrade design model based on heavy vehicle simulator test results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theyse, HL

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available -empirical design models. This paper presents a study on subgrade permanent deformation based on the data generated from a series of Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) tests done at the Richmond Field Station in California. The total subgrade deflection was found to be a...

  19. Three state-of-the-art individual electric and hybrid vehicle test reports, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Procedures used in determining the energy efficiency and economy of a gasoline-electric hybrid taxi, an electric passenger car, and an electric van are described. Tabular and graphic data show results of driving cycle and constant speed tests, energy distribution to various components, efficiency of the components, and, for the hybrid vehicle, the emissions.

  20. Multi-Mission Earth Vehicle Subsonic Dynamic Stability Testing and Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Fremaux, C. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEVs) are blunt-body vehicles designed with the purpose of transporting payloads from outer space to the surface of the Earth. To achieve high-reliability and minimum weight, MMEEVs avoid use of limited-reliability systems, such as parachutes, retro-rockets, and reaction control systems and rely on the natural aerodynamic stability of the vehicle throughout the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) phase of flight. The Multi-Mission Systems Analysis for Planetary Entry (M-SAPE) parametric design tool is used to facilitate the design of MMEEVs for an array of missions and develop and visualize the trade space. Testing in NASA Langley?s Vertical Spin Tunnel (VST) was conducted to significantly improve M-SAPE?s subsonic aerodynamic models. Vehicle size and shape can be driven by entry flight path angle and speed, thermal protection system performance, terminal velocity limitations, payload mass and density, among other design parameters. The objectives of the VST testing were to define usable subsonic center of gravity limits, and aerodynamic parameters for 6-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) simulations, for a range of MMEEV designs. The range of MMEEVs tested was from 1.8m down to 1.2m diameter. A backshell extender provided the ability to test a design with a much larger payload for the 1.2m MMEEV.

  1. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Saakes, M.; Kluiters, C.E.; Schmal, D.; Have, P. ten

    1998-01-01

    A 80V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run succesfully. Model calculations showed that the constructed 80V module,

  2. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saakes, M.; Kluiters, E.; Schmal, D.; Mourad, S.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    1999-01-01

    An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module

  3. Test experiences with the DaimlerChrysler: Fuel cell electric vehicle NECAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedlmeier Gerardo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The DalmlerChrysler fuel cell electric vehicle NECAR 4, a hydrogen-fueled zero-emission compact car based on the A-Class of Mercedes-Benz, is described. Test results obtained on the road and on the dynamometer are presented. These and other results show the high technological maturity reliability and durability already achieved with fuel cell technology.

  4. Single-vehicle collisions in Europe: Analysis using real-world and crash-test data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naing, C.L.; Hill, J.; Thomson, R.; Fagerlind, H.; Kelkka, M.; Klootwijk, C.; Dupre, G.; Bisson, O.

    2008-01-01

    Many European road casualties result from vehicles leaving the road, often impacting roadside obstacles. As part of the European Commission-funded project RISER (Roadside Infrastructure for Safer European Roads), several activities were undertaken to collate the type of real world crash data which

  5. On-road vehicle emissions of glyoxal and methylglyoxal from tunnel tests in urban Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Wen, Sheng; Herrmann, Hartmut; Yang, Weiqiang; Huang, Xinyu; Zhang, Zhou; Huang, Zhonghui; He, Quanfu; George, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Glyoxal and methylglyoxal, the two smallest yet most abundant dicarbonyls, play vital roles in forming secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the ambient air. The direct sources for glyoxal and methylglyoxal from vehicles are still unclear because of only a few investigations in the USA. Here we carried out tests in the Zhujiang tunnel in urban Guangzhou in south China to obtain emission factors (EFs) of glyoxal and methylglyoxal for on-road vehicles. Measured EFs for glyoxal and methylglyoxal averaged 1.18 ± 0.43 and 0.52 ± 0.26 mg km-1 veh-1, and were about 6.6 and 2.3 times those measured in the Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel in 1999 (Grosjean et al., 2001), respectively. Multiple linear regressions further resolved glyoxal EFs of 1.64 ± 1.03, 0.10 ± 3.49 and 0.58 ± 2.37 mg km-1 and methylglyoxal EFs of 0.17 ± 0.33, 1.68 ± 1.20 and 0.70 ± 0.66 mg km-1, respectively, for gasoline, diesel and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles. The fuel-based EFs for glyoxal and methylglyoxal were estimated to be 28.1 and 2.9 mg kg-1 for gasoline vehicles, and 1.5 and 26.3 mg kg-1 for diesel vehicles, respectively. Based on available SOA yields, SOA formed from vehicle-emitted glyoxal and methylglyoxal could attain 25-50% of that formed from vehicle-emitted toluene. With the EFs from this study, the vehicle emission of the two dicarbonyls in China and in the world were roughly estimated. Either the CO-tracer-based or the fuel-based global estimates are below 0.1 Tg a-1 and therefore vehicle emission could be negligible in their global total sources, yet they might play vital roles in urban areas in forming SOA, particularly in the early chemical evolution of vehicle exhausts in the ambient.

  6. Challenges of testing manned and unmanned aerial vehicles with reconnaissance payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergevin, Dean H.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe some challenges of testing aircraft and unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) with reconnaissance payloads, and discuss how the challenges are met. The Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR) has participated in testing the Electro-Optical-Long Range Oblique Photography System upgrade for the RF-4C aircraft, the Medium Range UAV (MR UAV), the ARGUS remotely piloted reconnaissance UAV, and other recent programs. Lessons learned from the UTTR's wide variety of recent test experience with developmental reconnaissance aircraft and UAVs can be used to guide future development and flight testing of next-generation systems.

  7. Field test of re-refined automotive engine oil in RCMP vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, J.

    1980-11-01

    A field test has been designed to isolate the performance characteristics of the virgin and re-refined base oils being studied. The conditions selected for the test are those normally experienced by Royal Canadian Mounted Police vehicles in similar service. All test and reference vehicles have been subjected to as equal treatment as possible, in both driving conditions and maintenance schedules. The primary conclusion that can be made with the data obtained to date is that there are statistically significant differences occurring in certain measured properties of used crankcase oil from the two test groups of vehicles. These differences are no doubt attributable, at least in part, to performance differences between the two finished oils, but other factors such as the observed differences in length of oil change interval and top-up requirements are also contributing to the responses being measured. Given the methods by which the test and reference oils were defined and chosen, it might be expected that differences in performance characteristics would be observed, and also that the reference oil might exhibit better performance characteristics than the test oil. However, the final magnitudes of any differences between the oils will not be known until the field test period is completed, and the real significance of these differences, in terms of their effect on the engines, cannot be determined until the engine examinations have been completed.

  8. Application of subharmonics for active sound design of electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Doo Young; Yoon, Kiseop; Seong, Yeolwan; Lee, Soogab

    2014-12-01

    The powertrain of electric vehicles generates an unfamiliar acoustical environment for customers. This paper seeks optimal interior sound for electric vehicles based on psychoacoustic knowledge and musical harmonic theory. The concept of inserting a virtual sound, which consists of the subharmonics of an existing high-frequency component, is suggested to improve sound quality. Subjective evaluation results indicate that the impression of interior sound can be enhanced in this manner. Increased appeal is achieved through two designed stimuli, which proves the effectiveness of the method proposed.

  9. Electric Vehicle Communications Standards Testing and Validation - Phase II: SAE J2931/1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Richard M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gowri, Krishnan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Vehicle to grid communication standards enable interoperability among vehicles, charging stations and utility providers and provide the capability to implement charge management. Several standards initiatives by the Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE), International Standards Organization and International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC), and ZigBee/HomePlug Alliance are developing requirements for communication messages and protocols. Recent work by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in collaboration with SAE and automobile manufacturers has identified vehicle to grid communication performance requirements and developed a test plan as part of SAE J2931/1 committee work. This laboratory test plan was approved by the SAE J2931/1 committee and included test configurations, test methods, and performance requirements to verify reliability, robustness, repeatability, maximum communication distance, and authentication features of power line carrier (PLC) communication modules at the internet protocol layer level. The goal of the testing effort was to select a communication technology that would enable automobile manufacturers to begin the development and implementation process. The EPRI/Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) testing teams divided the testing so that results for each test could be presented by two teams, performing the tests independently. The PNNL team performed narrowband PLC testing including the Texas Instruments (TI) Concerto, Ariane Controls AC-CPM1, and the MAXIM Tahoe 2 evaluation boards. The scope of testing was limited to measuring the vendor systems communication performance between Electric Vehicle Support Equipment (EVSE) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). The testing scope did not address PEV’s CAN bus to PLC or PLC to EVSE (Wi-Fi, cellular, PLC Mains, etc.) communication integration. In particular, no evaluation was performed to delineate the effort needed to translate the IPv6

  10. 76 FR 13580 - Bus Testing; Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ..., developing preventive maintenance schedules, and budgeting for unscheduled maintenance. In addition... components, ensuring the availability of such vehicles for passenger service. This NPRM is based on modern... modern scientific data, and provides flexibility and freedom of choice for the affected entities. The bus...

  11. Practicability of passenger vehicle driving emission tests according to new European Union procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pielecha Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article compares driving test data using the latest legislative proposals applicable to passenger cars. Several measurements were performed on the same test route in accordance with the RDE test guidelines, which requires a number of criteria to be met. These criteria include: the length of the measuring segments, their overall test time share, and the dynamic characteristics of the drive. A mobile device for reading the EOBD System information was used to record the engine and vehicle operating parameters during tests. This allowed for the monitoring of parameters such as: load value, engine speed and vehicle velocity. The obtained results were then analyzed for their compatibility with the RDE procedure requirements. Despite the same research route, the obtained results were not the same. The analysis also uses the two-dimensional operating time share characteristics expressed in vehicle velocity and acceleration co-ordinates. As a result it was possible to compare the dynamic properties, share of operating time and, consequently, to check the validity of conducted drive tests in terms of their practicability and emission values.

  12. Subscale and Full-Scale Testing of Buckling-Critical Launch Vehicle Shell Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Haynie, Waddy T.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Roberts, Michael G.; Norris, Jeffery P.; Waters, W. Allen; Herring, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    New analysis-based shell buckling design factors (aka knockdown factors), along with associated design and analysis technologies, are being developed by NASA for the design of launch vehicle structures. Preliminary design studies indicate that implementation of these new knockdown factors can enable significant reductions in mass and mass-growth in these vehicles and can help mitigate some of NASA s launch vehicle development and performance risks by reducing the reliance on testing, providing high-fidelity estimates of structural performance, reliability, robustness, and enable increased payload capability. However, in order to validate any new analysis-based design data or methods, a series of carefully designed and executed structural tests are required at both the subscale and full-scale level. This paper describes recent buckling test efforts at NASA on two different orthogrid-stiffened metallic cylindrical shell test articles. One of the test articles was an 8-ft-diameter orthogrid-stiffened cylinder and was subjected to an axial compression load. The second test article was a 27.5-ft-diameter Space Shuttle External Tank-derived cylinder and was subjected to combined internal pressure and axial compression.

  13. A Coupling Vibration Test Bench and the Simulation Research of a Maglev Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the characteristics of the coupling vibration between a maglev vehicle and its track beam system and to improve the performance of the levitation system, a new type of vibration test bench was developed. Take a single maglev frame as the study object; simulation of the coupling vibration of the maglev vehicle, levitation system, and track beam were achieved. In addition, all types of real track irregularity excitations can be simulated using hydraulic actuators of the test bench. To expand the research scope, a simulation model was developed that can conduct the simulation research synergistically with the test bench. Based on a dynamics model of the test bench, the dynamics simulation method determined the influence on the levitation control performance of three factors: the track beam support stiffness, the track beam mass, and the track irregularity. The vibration resonance phenomenon of the vehicle/track system was reproduced by the dynamics simulation, and a portion of the simulation results were validated by the test results. By combining the test bench and the dynamics model, experiments can be guided by the simulation results, and the experimental results can validate the dynamics simulation results.

  14. Thermographic Testing Using on the X-33 Space Launch Vehicle Program by BFGoodrich Aerospace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Douglas

    1999-01-01

    The X-33 program is a team effort sponsored by NASA, under Cooperative Agreement NCC8-115, and led by the Lockheed Martin Corporation. Team member BFGoodrich Aerospace Aerostructures Group (formerly Rohr) is responsible for design, manufacture, and integration of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the X-33 launch vehicle. The X-33 is a half-scale, experimental prototype of a vehicle called RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicle) or VentureStar(Trademark), an SSTO (single stage to orbit) vehicle, which is a proposed successor to the aging Space Shuttle. Thermographic testing has been employed by BFGoodrich Aerospace Aerostructures Group for a wide variety of uses in the testing of components of the X-33. Thermographic NDT (TNDT) has been used for inspecting large graphite-epoxy/aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels used on the Leeward Aeroshell structure of the X-33. And TNDT is being evaluated for use in inspecting carbon-carbon composite parts such as the nosecap and wing leading edge components. Pulsed Infrared Testing (PIRT), a special form of TNDT, is used for the routine inspection of sandwich panels made of brazed inconel honeycomb and facesheets. In the developmental and qualification testing of sub-elements of the X-33, thermography has been used to monitor 1) Arc Jet tests at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountainview, CA and NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, 2) High Temperature (wind) Tunnel Tests (HTT) at NASA Langley Research Center in Langley, VA, and 3) Hot Gas Tests at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL.

  15. Ecodriver. D23.1: Report on test scenarios for val-idation of on-line vehicle algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seewald, P.; Ivens, T.W.T.; Spronkmans, S.

    2014-01-01

    This deliverable provides a description of test scenarios that will be used for validation of WP22’s on-line vehicle algorithms. These algorithms consist of the two modules VE³ (Vehicle Energy and Environment Estimator) and RSG (Reference Signal Genera-tor) and will be tested using the

  16. 75 FR 76708 - Extension of the Date by Which Youth All-Terrain Vehicles Must Be Tested and Certified

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... COMMISSION Extension of the Date by Which Youth All-Terrain Vehicles Must Be Tested and Certified AGENCY... (including importers) of youth all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) must submit sufficient samples of such products to... which youth ATVs must be tested by third party conformity assessment bodies accredited by the Commission...

  17. Data Acquisition System for Electric Vehicle's Driving Motor Test Bench Based on VC++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Song; Chenguang, Lv

    In order to solve such problems as great labor intensity, high cost, low efficiency and accuracy during the performance experiment for driving motor system of electric vehicles, and realize data acquisition automatically and synchronously, a data acquisition system for driving motor test bench based on visual instruments is designed. This data acquisition system can be used to obtain the driving motor's parameters of currents and voltages at the same time. This system's hardware is based on electric vehicle's motor test bench in Beijing Institute of Technology, and combined with PXI2010 data acquisition card from ADLINK Company. Visual c++ software is adopted as development tool. In this paper, the design and realization of the hardware and software are presented. Experiment results show that this system improves the efficiency and quality of testing task with high utility. And experiment data can be obtained accurately.

  18. Testing of Lightweight Fuel Cell Vehicles System at Low Speeds with Energy Efficiency Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaffa, Muhammad Rizuwan B.; Mohamed, Wan Ahmad Najmi B. Wan

    2013-12-01

    A fuel cell vehicle power train mini test bench was developed which consists of a 1 kW open cathode hydrogen fuel cell, electric motor, wheel, gearing system, DC/DC converter and vehicle control system (VCS). Energy efficiency identification and energy flow evaluation is a useful tool in identifying a detail performance of each component and sub-systems in a fuel cell vehicle system configuration. Three artificial traction loads was simulated at 30 kg, 40 kg and 50 kg force on a single wheel drive configuration. The wheel speed range reported here covers from idle to 16 km/h (low speed range) as a preliminary input in the research work frame. The test result shows that the system efficiency is 84.5 percent when the energy flow is considered from the fuel cell to the wheel and 279 watts of electrical power was produced by the fuel cell during that time. Dynamic system responses was also identified as the load increases beyond the motor traction capabilities where the losses at the converter and motor controller increased significantly as it tries to meet the motor traction power demands. This work is currently being further expanded within the work frame of developing a road-worthy fuel cell vehicle.

  19. Study of the Correlation between the Performances of Lunar Vehicle Wheels Predicted by the Nepean Wheeled Vehicle Performance Model and Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J. Y.; Asnani, V. M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study of the correlation between the performances of wheels for lunar vehicles predicted using the Nepean wheeled vehicle performance model (NWVPM), developed under the auspices of Vehicle Systems Development Corporation, Ottawa, Canada, and the corresponding test data presented in Performance evaluation of wheels for lunar vehicles , Technical Report M-70-2, prepared for George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), USA, by the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES). The NWVPM was originally developed for design and performance evaluation of terrestrial off-road wheeled vehicles. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential of the NWVPM for evaluating wheel candidates for the new generation of extra-terrestrial vehicles. Two versions of a wire-mesh wheel and a hoop-spring wheel, which were considered as candidates for lunar roving vehicles for the NASA Apollo program in the late 1960s, together with a pneumatic wheel were examined in this study. The tractive performances of these wheels and of a 464 test vehicle with the pneumatic wheels on air-dry sand were predicted using the NWVPM and compared with the corresponding test data obtained under Earth s gravity and previously documented in the above-named report. While test data on wheel or vehicle performances obtained under Earth s gravity may not necessarily be representative of those on extra-terrestrial bodies, because of the differences in gravity and in environmental conditions, such as atmospheric pressure, it is still a valid approach to use test data obtained under Earth s gravity to evaluate the predictive capability of the NWVPM and its potential applications to predicting wheel or wheeled rover performances on extra-terrestrial bodies. Results of this study show that, using the ratio (P20/W) of the drawbar pull to normal load at 20 per cent slip as a performance indicator, there is a reasonable

  20. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Technologies Testing of Heavy-Duty Vocational Vehicles and a Dry Van Trailer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatz, Adam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thornton, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This study focused on two accepted methods for quantifying the benefit of aerodynamic improvement technologies on vocational vehicles: the coastdown technique, and on-road constant speed fuel economy measurements. Both techniques have their advantages. Coastdown tests are conducted over a wide range in speed and allow the rolling resistance and aerodynamic components of road load force to be separated. This in turn allows for the change in road load and fuel economy to be estimated at any speed, as well as over transient cycles. The on-road fuel economy measurements only supply one lumped result, applicable at the specific test speed, but are a direct measurement of fuel usage and are therefore used in this study as a check on the observed coastdown results. Resulting coefficients were then used to populate a vehicle model and simulate expected annual fuel savings over real-world vocational drive cycles.

  1. Scientific Laboratory Platform for Testing the Electric Vehicle Equipped with DC Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brazis V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a test platform for the low-power DC electric motor of a traction vehicle or a high-power motor scaled in the traction and braking modes. The load emulator of the traction drive is made using an induction motor controlled by a frequency converter. A microcontroller controls the bi-directional DC/DC converter and sends a speed reference signal to the frequency converter. The test bench is meant for determination of the power consumption by motor in various speed cycles, and will be used to demonstrate the operation of electric vehicle to students and to investigate the charging/discharging strategies of energy sources.

  2. Affordable Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI) Testing on Large Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Edward; Curry, Bruce; Scully, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Perform System-Level EMI testing of the Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) spacecraft in situ in the Kennedy Space Center's Neil Armstrong Operations & Checkout (O&C) Facility in 6 days. The only way to execute the system-level EMI testing and meet this schedule challenge was to perform the EMI testing in situ in the Final Assembly & System Test (FAST) Cell in a reverberant mode, not the direct illumination mode originally planned. This required the unplanned construction of a Faraday Cage around the vehicle and FAST Cell structure. The presence of massive steel platforms created many challenges to developing an efficient screen room to contain the RF energy and yield an effective reverberant chamber. An initial effectiveness test showed marginal performance, but improvements implemented afterward resulted in the final test performing surprisingly well! The paper will explain the design, the challenges, and the changes that made the difference in performance!

  3. RESISTANCE TEST OF DEPOSITED ALUMINIUM LAYER ON PARABOLIC PARTS OF VEHICLE HEADLIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal ADAMIK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents a basic quality measurement in an automotive light industry. The experiment is based on a verification of reflective aluminium layer resistance against 100% humidity and higher temperature. This simulates the lifetime of a headlight on vehicle. The goal of this test is to prove that the reflective aluminium layer is able to resist to this environment without any changes in its structure. If any change occurs, the modification of production process will be needed.

  4. Analysis of a Transonic Alternating Flow Phenomenon Observed During Ares Crew Launch Vehicle Wind Tunnel Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekula, Martin K.; Piatak, David J.; Rausch, Russ D.

    2010-01-01

    A transonic wind tunnel test of the Ares I-X Rigid Buffet Model (RBM) identified a Mach number regime where unusually large buffet loads are present. A subsequent investigation identified the cause of these loads to be an alternating flow phenomenon at the Crew Module-Service Module junction. The conical design of the Ares I-X Crew Module and the cylindrical design of the Service Module exposes the vehicle to unsteady pressure loads due to the sudden transition from separated to attached flow about the cone-cylinder junction with increasing Mach number. For locally transonic conditions at this junction, the flow randomly fluctuates back and forth between a subsonic separated flow and a supersonic attached flow. These fluctuations produce a square-wave like pattern in the pressure time histories which, upon integration result in large amplitude, impulsive buffet loads. Subsequent testing of the Ares I RBM found much lower buffet loads since the evolved Ares I design includes an ogive fairing that covers the Crew Module-Service Module junction, thereby making the vehicle less susceptible to the onset of alternating flow. An analysis of the alternating flow separation and attachment phenomenon indicates that the phenomenon is most severe at low angles of attack and exacerbated by the presence of vehicle protuberances. A launch vehicle may experience either a single or, at most, a few impulsive loads since it is constantly accelerating during ascent rather than dwelling at constant flow conditions in a wind tunnel. A comparison of a wind-tunnel-test-data-derived impulsive load to flight-test-data-derived load indicates a significant over-prediction in the magnitude and duration of the buffet load

  5. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saakes, Michel; Kluiters, Edwin; Schmal, Dick; Mourad, Salem; ten Have, Peter T. J. H.

    An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module constructed, which is at the moment 2.5 times heavier than required for the HEV operation studied, can be optimised to meet the requirements.

  6. Control and flight test of a tilt-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tilt-rotor unmanned aerial vehicles have attracted increasing attention due to their ability to perform vertical take-off and landing and their high-speed cruising abilities, thereby presenting broad application prospects. Considering portability and applications in tasks characterized by constrained or small scope areas, this article presents a compact tricopter configuration tilt-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle with full modes of flight from the rotor mode to the fixed-wing mode and vice versa. The unique multiple modes make the tilt-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle a multi-input multi-output, non-affine, multi-channel cross coupling, and nonlinear system. Considering these characteristics, a control allocation method is designed to make the controller adaptive to the full modes of flight. To reduce the cost, the accurate dynamic model of the tilt-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle is not obtained, so a full-mode flight strategy is designed in view of this situation. An autonomous flight test was conducted, and the results indicate the satisfactory performance of the control allocation method and flight strategy.

  7. Mathematical modelling of active safety system functions as tools for development of driverless vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryazantsev, V.; Mezentsev, N.; Zakharov, A.

    2018-02-01

    This paper is dedicated to a solution of the issue of synthesis of the vehicle longitudinal dynamics control functions (acceleration and deceleration control) based on the element base of the vehicle active safety system (ESP) – driverless vehicle development tool. This strategy helps to reduce time and complexity of integration of autonomous motion control systems (AMCS) into the vehicle architecture and allows direct control of actuators ensuring the longitudinal dynamics control, as well as reduction of time for calibration works. The “vehicle+wheel+road” longitudinal dynamics control is complicated due to the absence of the required prior information about the control object. Therefore, the control loop becomes an adaptive system, i.e. a self-adjusting monitoring system. Another difficulty is the driver’s perception of the longitudinal dynamics control process in terms of comfort. Traditionally, one doesn’t pay a lot of attention to this issue within active safety systems, and retention of vehicle steerability, controllability and stability in emergency situations are considered to be the quality criteria. This is mainly connected to its operational limits, since it is activated only in critical situations. However, implementation of the longitudinal dynamics control in the AMCS poses another challenge for the developers – providing the driver with comfortable vehicle movement during acceleration and deceleration – while the possible highest safety level in terms of the road grip is provided by the active safety system (ESP). The results of this research are: universal active safety system – AMCS interaction interface; block diagram for the vehicle longitudinal acceleration and deceleration control as one of the active safety system’s integrated functions; ideology of adaptive longitudinal dynamics control, which enables to realize the deceleration and acceleration requested by the AMCS; algorithms synthesised; analytical experiments proving

  8. Human factors evaluation of an in-vehicle active traffic and demand management (ATDM) system : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-15

    This research study focused on the development and subsequent evaluation of an in-vehicle Active Traffic and Demand Management (ATDM) system deployed on Interstate 66 in Northern Virginia. The ATDM elements inside the vehicle allowed drivers to remai...

  9. Powertrain Test Procedure Development for EPA GHG Certification of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambon, Paul H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deter, Dean D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    xiii ABSTRACT The goal of this project is to develop and evaluate powertrain test procedures that can accurately simulate real-world operating conditions, and to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of advanced medium- and heavy-duty engine and vehicle technologies. ORNL used their Vehicle System Integration Laboratory to evaluate test procedures on a stand-alone engine as well as two powertrains. Those components where subjected to various drive cycles and vehicle conditions to evaluate the validity of the results over a broad range of test conditions. Overall, more than 1000 tests were performed. The data are compiled and analyzed in this report.

  10. Preliminary tests for an intelligent thermal protection system for space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolozzi, Antonio; Felli, Ferdinando; Valente, Teodore; Caponero, Michele A.; Tului, Mario

    2001-04-01

    Re-entry in planetary atmospheres is one of the most challenging environments to be faced by an aerospace structure. Presently space agencies are studying and developing programs to reduce launch costs by developing a new generation reusable launch vehicles. In fact a significant portion of the launch cost, for those vehicles, is represented by maintenance, non destructive testing and personnel involved in ground operations. For instance NASA and Lockeed Martin are leading the VentureStar program, where the real time health monitoring is considered an important aspect, while ESA has now finished a preliminary analysis for different reusable launch vehicle configurations. Fiber optic sensors which can be embedded into structural components can provide an efficient means for fast and reliable structural health monitoring. In this paper the possibility of embedding fiber optic sensors into materials subjected to particularly critical thermal treatments is verified. Several specimens of metal alloys and carbide based powders with embedded optical fibers have been prepared by the high pressure high velocity oxy fuel technique. The tests have proven the feasibility of the embedding with the above mentioned technology which exposes the fibers to quite a severe environment during the deposition. Micrographic analysis and optical transmission tests have been carried out on the sprayed specimens.

  11. Aerodynamic Models for the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Test Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Norman, John W.; Dyakonov, Artem; Schoenenberger, Mark; Davis, Jody; Muppidi, Suman; Tang, Chun; Bose, Deepak; Mobley, Brandon; Clark, Ian

    2016-01-01

    An overview of aerodynamic models for the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) campaign test vehicle is presented, with comparisons to reconstructed flight data and discussion of model updates. The SFDT campaign objective is to test Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) and large supersonic parachute technologies at high altitude Earth conditions relevant to entry, descent, and landing (EDL) at Mars. Nominal SIAD test conditions are attained by lifting a test vehicle (TV) to 36 km altitude with a helium balloon, then accelerating the TV to Mach 4 and 53 km altitude with a solid rocket motor. Test flights conducted in June of 2014 (SFDT-1) and 2015 (SFDT-2) each successfully delivered a 6 meter diameter decelerator (SIAD-R) to test conditions and several seconds of flight, and were successful in demonstrating the SFDT flight system concept and SIAD-R technology. Aerodynamic models and uncertainties developed for the SFDT campaign are presented, including the methods used to generate them and their implementation within an aerodynamic database (ADB) routine for flight simulations. Pre- and post-flight aerodynamic models are compared against reconstructed flight data and model changes based upon knowledge gained from the flights are discussed. The pre-flight powered phase model is shown to have a significant contribution to off-nominal SFDT trajectory lofting, while coast and SIAD phase models behaved much as predicted.

  12. Feasibility assessment for battery electric vehicles based on multi-day activity-travel patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-11

    A Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) feasibility considering State Of Charge (SOC) level is : assessed using multiday activity-travel patterns to overcome the limitations of using one-day : activity-travel patterns. Since multi-day activity-travel patter...

  13. Simple control-theoretic models of human steering activity in visually guided vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Ronald A.

    1991-01-01

    A simple control theoretic model of human steering or control activity in the lateral-directional control of vehicles such as automobiles and rotorcraft is discussed. The term 'control theoretic' is used to emphasize the fact that the model is derived from a consideration of well-known control system design principles as opposed to psychological theories regarding egomotion, etc. The model is employed to emphasize the 'closed-loop' nature of tasks involving the visually guided control of vehicles upon, or in close proximity to, the earth and to hypothesize how changes in vehicle dynamics can significantly alter the nature of the visual cues which a human might use in such tasks.

  14. PaTAVTT: A Hardware-in-the-Loop Scaled Platform for Testing Autonomous Vehicle Trajectory Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of autonomous vehicles, in particular its adaptability to harsh conditions, the research and development of autonomous vehicles attract significant attention by not only academia but also practitioners. Due to the high risk, high cost, and difficulty to test autonomous vehicles under harsh conditions, the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL scaled platform has been proposed as it is a safe, inexpensive, and effective test method. This platform system consists of scaled autonomous vehicle, scaled roadway, monitoring center, transmission device, positioning device, and computers. This paper uses a case of the development process of tracking control for high-speed U-turn to build the tracking control function. Further, a simplified vehicle dynamics model and a trajectory tracking algorithm have been considered to build the simulation test. The experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness of the HIL scaled platform.

  15. A Review of Active Yaw Control System for Vehicle Handling and Stability Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Aripin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Yaw stability control system plays a significant role in vehicle lateral dynamics in order to improve the vehicle handling and stability performances. However, not many researches have been focused on the transient performances improvement of vehicle yaw rate and sideslip tracking control. This paper reviews the vital elements for control system design of an active yaw stability control system; the vehicle dynamic models, control objectives, active chassis control, and control strategies with the focus on identifying suitable criteria for improved transient performances. Each element is discussed and compared in terms of their underlying theory, strengths, weaknesses, and applicability. Based on this, we conclude that the sliding mode control with nonlinear sliding surface based on composite nonlinear feedback is a potential control strategy for improving the transient performances of yaw rate and sideslip tracking control.

  16. Multi-Objective Sliding Mode Control on Vehicle Cornering Stability with Variable Gear Ratio Actuator-Based Active Front Steering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Ma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Active front steering (AFS is an emerging technology to improve the vehicle cornering stability by introducing an additional small steering angle to the driver’s input. This paper proposes an AFS system with a variable gear ratio steering (VGRS actuator which is controlled by using the sliding mode control (SMC strategy to improve the cornering stability of vehicles. In the design of an AFS system, different sensors are considered to measure the vehicle state, and the mechanism of the AFS system is also modelled in detail. Moreover, in order to improve the cornering stability of vehicles, two dependent objectives, namely sideslip angle and yaw rate, are considered together in the design of SMC strategy. By evaluating the cornering performance, Sine with Dwell and accident avoidance tests are conducted, and the simulation results indicate that the proposed SMC strategy is capable of improving the cornering stability of vehicles in practice.

  17. Testing of the International Space Station and X-38 Crew Return Vehicle GPS Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, James; Campbell, Chip; Carpenter, Russell; Davis, Ed; Kizhner, Semion; Lightsey, E. Glenn; Davis, George; Jackson, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the process and results of the performance testing of the GPS receiver planned for use on the International Space Station (ISS) and the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV). The receiver is a Force-19 unit manufactured by Trimble Navigation and Modified in software by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to perform navigation and attitude determination in space. The receiver is the primary source of navigation and attitude information for ISS and CRV. Engineers at GSFC have developed and tested the new receiver with a Global Simulation Systems Ltd (GSS) GPS Signal Generator (GPSSG). This paper documents the unique aspects of ground testing a GPS receiver that is designed for use in space. A discussion of the design and tests using the GPSSG, documentation, data capture, data analysis, and lessons learned will precede an overview of the performance of the new receiver. A description of the challenges of that were overcome during this testing exercise will be presented. Results from testing show that the receiver will be within or near the specifications for ISS attitude and navigation performance. The process for verifying other requirements such as Time to First Fix, Time to First Attitude, selection/deselection of a specific GPS satellite vehicles (SV), minimum signal strength while still obtaining attitude and navigation, navigation and attitude output coverage, GPS week rollover, and Y2K requirements are also given in this paper.

  18. Active seat suspension for a small vehicle: considerations for control system including observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Hiroyuki; Shiino, Hiroshi; Oshinoya, Yasuo; Ishibashi, Kazuhisa; Ozaki, Koichi; Ogino, Hirohiko

    2007-12-01

    We have examined the improvement of ride quality and the reduction of riding fatigue brought about by the active control of the seat suspension of small vehicles such as one-seater electric automobiles. A small active seat suspension, which is easy to install, was designed and manufactured for one-seater electric automobiles. For the actuator, a maintenance-free voice coil motor used as a direct drive was adopted. For fundamental considerations, we designed a one-degree-of-freedom model for the active seat suspension system. Then, we designed a disturbance cancellation control system that includes the observer for a two-degree-of-freedom model. In an actual driving test, a test road, in which the concavity and convexity of an actual road surface were simulated using hard rubber, was prepared and the control performance of vertical vibrations of the seat surface during driving was examined. As a result, in comparison with the one-degree-of-freedom control system, it was confirmed that the control performance was improved by the two-degree-of-freedom control system that includes the observer.

  19. Extraction and Separation Modeling of Orion Test Vehicles with ADAMS Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Anderson, Keith; Cuthbert, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    The Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project has increased efforts to demonstrate the performance of fully integrated parachute systems at both higher dynamic pressures and in the presence of wake fields using a Parachute Compartment Drop Test Vehicle (PCDTV) and a Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV), respectively. Modeling the extraction and separation events has proven challenging and an understanding of the physics is required to reduce the risk of separation malfunctions. The need for extraction and separation modeling is critical to a successful CPAS test campaign. Current PTV-alone simulations, such as Decelerator System Simulation (DSS), require accurate initial conditions (ICs) drawn from a separation model. Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS), a Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) tool, was employed to provide insight into the multi-body six degree of freedom (DOF) interaction between parachute test hardware and external and internal forces. Components of the model include a composite extraction parachute, primary vehicle (PTV or PCDTV), platform cradle, a release mechanism, aircraft ramp, and a programmer parachute with attach points. Independent aerodynamic forces were applied to the mated test vehicle/platform cradle and the separated test vehicle and platform cradle. The aero coefficients were determined from real time lookup tables which were functions of both angle of attack ( ) and sideslip ( ). The atmospheric properties were also determined from a real time lookup table characteristic of the Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) atmosphere relative to the planned test month. Representative geometries were constructed in ADAMS with measured mass properties generated for each independent vehicle. Derived smart separation parameters were included in ADAMS as sensors with defined pitch and pitch rate criteria used to refine inputs to analogous avionics systems for optimal separation conditions. Key design variables were dispersed in a Monte

  20. Firefly Optimization and Mathematical Modeling of a Vehicle Crash Test Based on Single-Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Klausen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper mathematical modeling of a vehicle crash test based on a single-mass is studied. The model under consideration consists of a single-mass coupled with a spring and/or a damper. The parameters for the spring and damper are obtained by analyzing the measured acceleration in the center of gravity of the vehicle during a crash. A model with a nonlinear spring and damper is also proposed and the parameters will be optimized with different damper and spring characteristics and optimization algorithms. The optimization algorithms used are interior-point and firefly algorithm. The objective of this paper is to compare different methods used to establish a simple model of a car crash and validate the results against real crash data.

  1. Aerodynamic characteristics of the Scout 133R vehicle determined from wind tunnel tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, F. B.; Muir, T. G., Jr.; Simmons, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    Bending moments and other associated parameters were measured on a Scout vehicle during a launch through high velocity horizontal winds. Comparison of the measured data with predictions revealed some unexplained discrepancies. Possible sources of error in the experimental data and predictions were considered; one of which is the predicted aerodynamic characteristics. A wind tunnel investigation was initiated, including supersonic force and pressure tests, to better define the aerodynamics. In addition to basic aerodynamic coefficients from the force test, detailed pressure and load distributions along the body were established from the pressure test. Pressure coefficients were integrated to determine normal load distributions, total normal force, and total pitching moment of the body. Comparison of the normal forces from pressure and force tests resulted in agreement within 15%. Comparison of pitching moment data from the two tests resulted in larger differences.

  2. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Fuel System Integrity Research : Electrical Isolation Test Procedure Development and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) establish minimum levels for vehicle safety, and manufacturers of motor vehicle and equipment items must comply with these standards. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) contra...

  3. Test Operation Procedure (TOP) 01-1-010A Vehicle Test Course Severity (Surface Roughness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-12

    Paragraph 1. SCOPE ................................................................................... 2 2. FACILITIES...ATEC) Test Center facilities are provided in Section 5, in the following paragraphs : a. ATC courses, paragraph 5.1. b. YTC courses, paragraph ...5.2. c. TRTC courses, paragraph 5.3. 3. MONITORING TEST COURSE SURFACE ROUGHNESS. Test course roughness is monitored using several techniques

  4. Trends in Automobile Travel, Motor Vehicle Fatalities, and Physical Activity: 2003-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Noreen C

    2017-05-01

    Annual per-capita automobile travel declined by 600 miles from 2003 to 2014 with decreases greatest among young adults. This article tests whether the decline has been accompanied by public health co-benefits of increased physical activity and decreased motor vehicle fatalities. Minutes of auto travel and physical activity derived from active travel, sports, and exercise were obtained from the American Time Use Survey. Fatalities were measured using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Longitudinal change was assessed for adults aged 20-59 years by age group and sex. Significance of changes was assessed by absolute differences and unadjusted and adjusted linear trends. Analyses were conducted in 2016. Daily auto travel decreased by 9.2 minutes from 2003 to 2014 for all ages (pmillennials. Despite suggestions to the contrary, individuals did not switch from cars to active modes nor spend more time in sports and exercise. Maintenance of the safety benefits requires additional attention to road safety efforts, particularly as auto travel increases. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Descent and Landing Triggers for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Exploration Flight Test-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Brian D.; Semrau, Jeffrey D.; Duke, Charity J.

    2013-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will perform a flight test known as Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) currently scheduled for 2014. One of the primary functions of this test is to exercise all of the important Guidance, Navigation, Control (GN&C), and Propulsion systems, along with the flight software for future flights. The Descent and Landing segment of the flight is governed by the requirements levied on the GN&C system by the Landing and Recovery System (LRS). The LRS is a complex system of parachutes and flight control modes that ensure that the Orion MPCV safely lands at its designated target in the Pacific Ocean. The Descent and Landing segment begins with the jettisoning of the Forward Bay Cover and concludes with sensing touchdown. This paper discusses the requirements, design, testing, analysis and performance of the current EFT-1 Descent and Landing Triggers flight software.

  6. Safety Performance Evaluations for the Vehicle Based Movable Barriers Using Full Scale Crash Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Minsoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to develop a prototype of large-size movable barriers to protect roadside workers from incoming vehicles to the road work area with the following functions: maximization of work space in the right and left directions, convenient mobility, and minimization of impact without modification of the inside of movable barriers into traffic lanes and perform safety performance assessment on passengers through full scale crash tests. The large movable barrier was divided into folder type and telescope type and the development stage was now at the prototype phase. A full scale crash test was conducted prior to certification test at a level of 90%. The full scale crash test result showed that both types of folder type movable barrier and telescope type movable barrier satisfied the standard of the passenger safety performance evaluation at a level of 90%.

  7. Imparting Motion to a Test Object Such as a Motor Vehicle in a Controlled Fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southward, Stephen C. (Inventor); Reubush, Chandler (Inventor); Pittman, Bryan (Inventor); Roehrig, Kurt (Inventor); Gerard, Doug (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An apparatus imparts motion to a test object such as a motor vehicle in a controlled fashion. A base has mounted on it a linear electromagnetic motor having a first end and a second end, the first end being connected to the base. A pneumatic cylinder and piston combination have a first end and a second end, the first end connected to the base so that the pneumatic cylinder and piston combination is generally parallel with the linear electromagnetic motor. The second ends of the linear electromagnetic motor and pneumatic cylinder and piston combination being commonly linked to a mount for the test object. A control system for the linear electromagnetic motor and pneumatic cylinder and piston combination drives the pneumatic cylinder and piston combination to support a substantial static load of the test object and the linear electromagnetic motor to impart controlled motion to the test object.

  8. Study on Active Suppression Control of Drivetrain Oscillations in an Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Cui, Ying

    2017-07-01

    Due to the low damping in a central driven electric vehicle and lack of passive damping mechanisms as compared with a conventional vehicle, the vehicle may endure torsional vibrations which may deteriorates the vehicle’s drivability. Thus active damping control strategy is required to reduce the undesirable oscillations in an EV. In this paper, the origin of the vibration and the design of a damping control method to suppress such oscillations to improve the drivability of an EV are studied. The traction motor torque that is given by the vehicle controller is adjusted according to the acceleration rate of the motor speed to attenuate the resonant frequency. Simulations and experiments are performed to validate the system. The results show that the proposed control system can effectively suppress oscillations and hence improve drivability.

  9. Population and Activity of On road Vehicles in MOVES201X

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents changes to assumptions about the US national highway vehicle fleet population and activity data for the next version of the MOVES model. Fleet population and activity data is used to convert emission rates into emission inventory values and then is used to ...

  10. Student Activism as a Vehicle for Change on College Campuses: Emerging Research and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael T.; Tolliver, David V., III

    2017-01-01

    Civic engagement initiatives and activities are crucial to the progression of modern society. By raising awareness of social issues and problems, citizens can make a greater impact and have their voices be heard. "Student Activism as a Vehicle for Change on College Campuses: Emerging Research and Opportunities" is a critical source of…

  11. Wind and water tunnel testing of a morphing aquatic micro air vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddall, Robert; Ortega Ancel, Alejandro; Kovač, Mirko

    2017-02-06

    Aerial robots capable of locomotion in both air and water would enable novel mission profiles in complex environments, such as water sampling after floods or underwater structural inspections. The design of such a vehicle is challenging because it implies significant propulsive and structural design trade-offs for operation in both fluids. In this paper, we present a unique Aquatic Micro Air Vehicle (AquaMAV), which uses a reconfigurable wing to dive into the water from flight, inspired by the plunge diving strategy of water diving birds in the family Sulidae. The vehicle's performance is investigated in wind and water tunnel experiments, from which we develop a planar trajectory model. This model is used to predict the dive behaviour of the AquaMAV, and investigate the efficacy of passive dives initiated by wing folding as a means of water entry. The paper also includes first field tests of the AquaMAV prototype where the folding wings are used to initiate a plunge dive.

  12. FreedomCAR :electrical energy storage system abuse test manual for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Crafts, Chris C.

    2006-08-01

    This manual defines a complete body of abuse tests intended to simulate actual use and abuse conditions that may be beyond the normal safe operating limits experienced by electrical energy storage systems used in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The tests are designed to provide a common framework for abuse testing various electrical energy storage systems used in both electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications. The manual incorporates improvements and refinements to test descriptions presented in the Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practice SAE J2464 ''Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing'' including adaptations to abuse tests to address hybrid electric vehicle applications and other energy storage technologies (i.e., capacitors). These (possibly destructive) tests may be used as needed to determine the response of a given electrical energy storage system design under specifically defined abuse conditions. This manual does not provide acceptance criteria as a result of the testing, but rather provides results that are accurate and fair and, consequently, comparable to results from abuse tests on other similar systems. The tests described are intended for abuse testing any electrical energy storage system designed for use in electric or hybrid electric vehicle applications whether it is composed of batteries, capacitors, or a combination of the two.

  13. Steady-state and dynamic evaluation of the electric propulsion system test bed vehicle on a road load simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, M. O.

    1983-01-01

    The propulsion system of the Lewis Research Center's electric propulsion system test bed vehicle was tested on the road load simulator under the DOE Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. This propulsion system, consisting of a series-wound dc motor controlled by an infinitely variable SCR chopper and an 84-V battery pack, is typical of those used in electric vehicles made in 1976. Steady-state tests were conducted over a wide range of differential output torques and vehicle speeds. Efficiencies of all of the components were determined. Effects of temperature and voltage variations on the motor and the effect of voltage changes on the controller were examined. Energy consumption and energy efficiency for the system were determined over the B and C driving schedules of the SAE J227a test procedure.

  14. Standardization Activities in TMF Test Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrilli, M. J.; Castelli, M. G.; Bressers, J.; Oehmke, R. L. T.

    1996-01-01

    No standard test practice currently exists for strain-controlled thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) testing. This paper discusses recent activities which lay the foundation for standardization of TMF test methods. Specifically, the paper documents the results of two interlaboratory TMF test programs, identifies key TMF symposia and workshops, and discusses efforts toward drafting a TMF standard test practice.

  15. Length of Residence and Vehicle Ownership in Relation to Physical Activity Among U.S. Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Dale; Ornelas, India; Saelens, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Physical activity among U.S. immigrants over time is not well understood. Transportation may affect this trajectory. Using a survey of documented immigrants (N = 7240), we performed simple, then multivariable logistic regression to calculate ORs and 95 % CIs between length of residence (LOR) and both light-to-moderate (LPA) and vigorous (VPA) activity. We adjusted for demographic variables, then vehicle ownership to assess changes in ORs. Compared to new arrivals, all four LOR time-intervals were associated with lower odds of LPA and higher odds of VPA in simple analysis. All ORs for LPA remained significant after including demographics, but only one remained significant after adding vehicle ownership. Two ORs for VPA remained significant after including demographics and after adding vehicle ownership. Immigrants lower their light-to-moderate activity the longer they reside in the U.S., partly from substituting driving for walking. Efforts to maintain walking for transportation among immigrants are warranted.

  16. An apparatus to estimate the hydrodynamic coefficients of autonomous underwater vehicles using water tunnel testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, N M; Mostafapour, K; Bahadori, R

    2016-06-01

    Hydrodynamic coefficients or hydrodynamic derivatives of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) play an important role in their development and maneuverability. The most popular way of estimating their coefficients is to implement captive model tests such as straight line tests and planar motion mechanism (PMM) tests in the towing tanks. This paper aims to develop an apparatus based on planar experiments of water tunnel in order to estimate hydrodynamic derivatives due to AUVs' acceleration and velocity. The capability of implementing straight line tests and PMM ones using mechanical oscillators located in the downstream flow of the model is considered in the design procedure of the system. The hydrodynamic derivatives that resulted from the acceleration and velocity of the AUV model were estimated using the apparatus that we developed. Static and dynamics test results were compared for the similar derivatives. The findings showed that the system provided the basis for conducting static tests, i.e., straight-line and dynamic tests that included pure pitch and pure heave. By conducting such tests in a water tunnel, we were able to eliminate errors related to the time limitation of the tests and the effects of surface waves in the towing tank on AUVs with applications in the deep sea.

  17. Fast Charging and Smart Charging Tests for Electric Vehicles Batteries Using Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forero Camacho, Oscar Mauricio; Mihet-Popa, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EV) technologies are still relatively new and under strong development. Although some standardized solutions are being promoted and becoming a new trend, there is an outstanding need for common platforms and sharing of knowledge and core technologies. This paper presents......, and forced and pulsed power. The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of smart charging and fast charging on the power system, on the battery state of health and degradation, and to find out the limitations of the batteries for a Smart Grid. The paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages...

  18. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saakes, M.; Kluiters, E.; Schmal, D. [TNO Inst. of Environmental Sciences, Energy Research and Process Innovation, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Mourad, S. [TNO Road-Vehicles Research Inst., Delft (Netherlands); Have, P.T.J.H. ten [Centurion Accumulatoren, Venlo (Netherlands)

    1999-03-01

    An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module constructed, which is at the moment 2.5 times heavier than required for the HEV operation studied, can be optimised to meet the requirements. (orig.)

  19. Ares Launch Vehicles Development Awakens Historic Test Stands at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Burt, Richard K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper chronicles the rebirth of two national rocket testing assets located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center: the Dynamic Test Stand (also known as the Ground Vibration Test Stand) and the Static Test Stand (also known as the Main Propulsion Test Stand). It will touch on the historical significance of these special facilities, while introducing the requirements driving modifications for testing a new generation space transportation system, which is set to come on line after the Space Shuttle is retired in 2010. In many ways, America's journey to explore the Moon begins at the Marshall Center, which is developing the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, along with managing the Lunar Precursor Robotic Program and leading the Lunar Lander descent stage work, among other Constellation Program assignments. An important component of this work is housed in Marshall's Engineering Directorate, which manages more than 40 facilities capable of a full spectrum of rocket and space transportation technology testing - from small components to full-up engine systems. The engineers and technicians who operate these test facilities have more than a thousand years of combined experience in this highly specialized field. Marshall has one of the few government test groups in the United States with responsibility for the overall performance of a test program from conception to completion. The Test Laboratory has facilities dating back to the early 1960s, when the test stands needed for the Apollo Program and other scientific endeavors were commissioned and built along the Marshall Center's southern boundary, with logistics access by air, railroad, and barge or boat on the Tennessee River. NASA and its industry partners are designing and developing a new human-rated system based on the requirements for safe, reliable, and cost-effective transportation solutions. Given below are summaries of the Dynamic Test Stand and the Static Test Stand capabilities

  20. Application of Finite Element Based Simulation and Modal Testing Methods to Improve Vehicle Powertrain Idle Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polat Sendur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current practice of analytical and test methods related to the analysis, testing and improvement of vehicle vibrations is overviewed. The methods are illustrated on the determination and improvement of powertrain induced steering wheel vibration of a heavy commercial truck. More specifically, the transmissibility of powertrain idle vibration to cabin is investigated with respect to powertrain rigid body modes and modal alignment of the steering column/wheel system is considered. It is found out that roll mode of the powertrain is not separated from idle excitation for effective vibration isolation as well as steering wheel column mode is close to the 3rd engine excitation frequency order, which results in high vibration levels. Powertrain roll mode is optimized by tuning the powertrain mount stiffness to improve the performance. Steering column mode is also separated from the 3rd engine excitation frequency by the application of a mass absorber. It is concluded that the use of analytical and test methods to address the complex relation between design parameters and powertrain idle response is effective to optimize the system performance and evaluate the trade-offs in the vehicle design such as vibration performance and weight. Reference Number: www.asrongo.org/doi:4.2017.2.1.10

  1. Uniform Foam Crush Testing for Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle Impact Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Byron W.; Glaab, Louis J.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEVs) are blunt-body vehicles designed with the purpose of transporting payloads from outer space to the surface of the Earth. To achieve high-reliability and minimum weight, MMEEVs avoid use of limited-reliability systems, such as parachutes and retro-rockets, instead using built-in impact attenuators to absorb energy remaining at impact to meet landing loads requirements. The Multi-Mission Systems Analysis for Planetary Entry (M-SAPE) parametric design tool is used to facilitate the design of MMEEVs and develop the trade space. Testing was conducted to characterize the material properties of several candidate impact foam attenuators to enhance M-SAPE analysis. In the current effort, four different Rohacell foams are tested at three different, uniform, strain rates (approximately 0.17, approximately 100, approximately 13,600%/s). The primary data analysis method uses a global data smoothing technique in the frequency domain to remove noise and system natural frequencies. The results from the data indicate that the filter and smoothing technique are successful in identifying the foam crush event and removing aberrations. The effect of strain rate increases with increasing foam density. The 71-WF-HT foam may support Mars Sample Return requirements. Several recommendations to improve the drop tower test technique are identified.

  2. A LQR-Based Controller with Estimation of Road Bank for Improving Vehicle Lateral and Rollover Stability via Active Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Riofrio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR lateral stability and rollover controller has been developed including as the main novelty taking into account the road bank angle and using exclusively active suspension for both lateral stability and rollover control. The main problem regarding the road bank is that it cannot be measured by means of on-board sensors. The solution proposed in this article is performing an estimation of this variable using a Kalman filter. In this way, it is possible to distinguish between the road disturbance component and the vehicle’s roll angle. The controller’s effectiveness has been tested by means of simulations carried out in TruckSim, using an experimentally-validated vehicle model. Lateral load transfer, roll angle, yaw rate and sideslip angle have been analyzed in order to quantify the improvements achieved on the behavior of the vehicle. For that purpose, these variables have been compared with the results obtained from both a vehicle that uses passive suspension and a vehicle using a fuzzy logic controller.

  3. Forward Bay Cover Separation Modeling and Testing for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Yasmin; Chuhta, Jesse D.; Hughes, Michael P.; Radke, Tara S.

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft multi-body separation events during atmospheric descent require complex testing and analysis to validate the flight separation dynamics models used to verify no re-contact. The NASA Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) architecture includes a highly-integrated Forward Bay Cover (FBC) jettison assembly design that combines parachutes and piston thrusters to separate the FBC from the Crew Module (CM) and avoid re-contact. A multi-disciplinary team across numerous organizations examined key model parameters and risk areas to develop a robust but affordable test campaign in order to validate and verify the FBC separation event for Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). The FBC jettison simulation model is highly complex, consisting of dozens of parameters varied simultaneously, with numerous multi-parameter interactions (coupling and feedback) among the various model elements, and encompassing distinct near-field, mid-field, and far-field regimes. The test campaign was composed of component-level testing (for example gas-piston thrusters and parachute mortars), ground FBC jettison tests, and FBC jettison air-drop tests that were accomplished by a highly multi-disciplinary team. Three ground jettison tests isolated the testing of mechanisms and structures to anchor the simulation models excluding aerodynamic effects. Subsequently, two air-drop tests added aerodynamic and parachute elements, and served as integrated system demonstrations, which had been preliminarily explored during the Orion Pad Abort-1 (PA-1) flight test in May 2010. Both ground and drop tests provided extensive data to validate analytical models and to verify the FBC jettison event for EFT-1. Additional testing will be required to support human certification of this separation event, for which NASA and Lockheed Martin are applying knowledge from Apollo and EFT-1 testing and modeling to develop a robust human-rated FBC separation event.

  4. Aerothermal Protuberance Heating Design and Test Configurations for Ascent Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles E.; Neumann, Richard D.; Freeman, Delma

    2010-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to evaluate protuberance heating for the purposes of vehicle design and modification. These tests represent a state of the art approach to both testing and instrumentation for defining aerothermal protuberance effects on the protuberance and surrounding areas. The testing was performed with a number of wind tunnel entries beginning with the proof of concept "pathfinder" test in the Test Section 1 (TS1) tunnel in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). The TS1 section (see Figures 1a and 1b) is a lower Mach number tunnel and the Test Section 2 (TS2) has overlapping and higher Mach number capability as showin in Figure 1c. The pathfinder concept was proven and testing proceeded for a series of protuberance tests using an existing splitter aluminum protuberance mounting plate, Macor protuberances, thin film gages, total temperature and pressure gages, Kulite pressure transducers, Infra-Red camera imaging, LASER velocimetry evaluations and the UPWT data collection system. A boundary layer rake was used to identify the boundary layer profile at the protuberance locations for testing and helped protuberance design. This paper discusses the techniques and instrumentation used during the protuberance heating tests performed in the UPWT in TS1 and TS2. Runs of the protuberances were made Mach numbers of 1.5, 2.16, 2.65, and 3.51. The data set generated from this testing is for ascent protuberance effects and is termed Protuberance Heating Ascent Data (PHAD) and this testing may be termed PHAD-1 to distinguish it from future testing of this type.

  5. A semi-active control suspension system for railway vehicles with magnetorheological fluid dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiukun; Zhu, Ming; Jia, Limin

    2016-07-01

    The high-speed train has achieved great progress in the last decades. It is one of the most important modes of transportation between cities. With the rapid development of the high-speed train, its safety issue is paid much more attention than ever before. To improve the stability of the vehicle with high speed, extra dampers (i.e. anti-hunting damper) are used in the traditional bogies with passive suspension system. However, the curving performance of the vehicle is undermined due to the extra lateral force generated by the dampers. The active suspension systems proposed in the last decades attempt to solve the vehicle steering issue. However, the active suspension systems need extra actuators driven by electrical power or hydraulic power. There are some implementation and even safety issues which are not easy to be overcome. In this paper, an innovative semi-active controlled lateral suspension system for railway vehicles is proposed. Four magnetorheological fluid dampers are fixed to the primary suspension system of each bogie. They are controlled by online controllers for enhancing the running stability on the straight track line on the one hand and further improving the curving performance by controlling the damper force on the other hand. Two control strategies are proposed in the light of the pure rolling concept. The effectiveness of the proposed strategies is demonstrated by SIMPACK and Matlab co-simulation for a full railway vehicle with two conventional bogies.

  6. Analysis of the Effects of Vitiates on Surface Heat Flux in Ground Tests of Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuda, Vincent; Gaffney, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    To achieve the high enthalpy conditions associated with hypersonic flight, many ground test facilities burn fuel in the air upstream of the test chamber. Unfortunately, the products of combustion contaminate the test gas and alter gas properties and the heat fluxes associated with aerodynamic heating. The difference in the heating rates between clean air and a vitiated test medium needs to be understood so that the thermal management system for hypersonic vehicles can be properly designed. This is particularly important for advanced hypersonic vehicle concepts powered by air-breathing propulsion systems that couple cooling requirements, fuel flow rates, and combustor performance by flowing fuel through sub-surface cooling passages to cool engine components and preheat the fuel prior to combustion. An analytical investigation was performed comparing clean air to a gas vitiated with methane/oxygen combustion products to determine if variations in gas properties contributed to changes in predicted heat flux. This investigation started with simple relationships, evolved into writing an engineering-level code, and ended with running a series of CFD cases. It was noted that it is not possible to simultaneously match all of the gas properties between clean and vitiated test gases. A study was then conducted selecting various combinations of freestream properties for a vitiated test gas that matched clean air values to determine which combination of parameters affected the computed heat transfer the least. The best combination of properties to match was the free-stream total sensible enthalpy, dynamic pressure, and either the velocity or Mach number. This combination yielded only a 2% difference in heating. Other combinations showed departures of up to 10% in the heat flux estimate.

  7. Fuzzy Behavior Modulation with Threshold Activation for Autonomous Vehicle Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstel, Edward

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes fuzzy logic techniques used in a hierarchical behavior-based architecture for robot navigation. An architectural feature for threshold activation of fuzzy-behaviors is emphasized, which is potentially useful for tuning navigation performance in real world applications. The target application is autonomous local navigation of a small planetary rover. Threshold activation of low-level navigation behaviors is the primary focus. A preliminary assessment of its impact on local navigation performance is provided based on computer simulations.

  8. Force Limiting Vibration Tests Evaluated from both Ground Acoustic Tests and FEM Simulations of a Flight Like Vehicle System Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Waldon, James; Hunt, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center has conducted a series of ground acoustic tests with the dual goals of informing analytical judgment, and validating analytical methods when estimating vibroacoustic responses of launch vehicle subsystems. The process of repeatedly correlating finite element-simulated responses with test-measured responses has assisted in the development of best practices for modeling and post-processing. In recent work, force transducers were integrated to measure interface forces at the base of avionics box equipment. Other force data was indirectly measured using strain gauges. The combination of these direct and indirect force measurements has been used to support and illustrate the advantages of implementing the Force Limiting approach for equipment qualification tests. The comparison of force response from integrated system level tests to measurements at the same locations during component level vibration tests provides an excellent illustration. A second comparison of the measured response cases from the system level acoustic tests to finite element simulations has also produced some principles for assessing the suitability of Finite Element Models (FEMs) for making vibroacoustics estimates. The results indicate that when FEM models are employed to guide force limiting choices, they should include sufficient detail to represent the apparent mass of the system in the frequency range of interest.

  9. Active Disturbance Rejection Fuzzy Controller for Roll Stabilization of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle under Wave Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Lin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the case of autonomous underwater vehicle navigating with low speed near water surface, a new method for designing of roll motion controller is proposed in order to restrain wave disturbance effectively and improve roll stabilizing performance under different sea conditions. Active disturbance rejection fuzzy control is applied, which is based on nonlinear motion model of autonomous underwater vehicle and the principle of zero-speed fin stabilizer. Extended state observer is used for estimation of roll motion state and unknown wave disturbance. Wave moment is counteracted by introducing compensation term into the roll control law which is founded on nonlinear feedback. Fuzzy reasoning is used for parameter adjustment of the controller online. Simulation experiments on roll motion are conducted under different sea conditions, and the results show better robustness improved by active disturbance rejection fuzzy controller of autonomous underwater vehicle navigating near water surface.

  10. Test Methods for Telemetry Systems and Subsystems Volume 1: Test Methods for Vehicle Telemetry Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    relating to accelerometers , strain gages, servo types, variable capacitive , piezoelectric, piezoresistive - http://www.endevco.com/ Version 1.03...2-4 2.7 Gain Stability with Source Capacitance Test ....................................................... 2-5 2.8 Gain Stability with Temperature...deviation PCM Pulse code modulation PM Phase modulation PN Pseudo noise RC Resistance capacitance RCP Right circular polarization RF Radio

  11. Vehicle engine sound design based on an active noise control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, M. [Siemens VDO Automotive, Auburn Hills, MI (United States)

    2002-07-01

    A study has been carried out to identify the types of vehicle engine sounds that drivers prefer while driving at different locations and under different driving conditions. An active noise control system controlled the sound at the air intake orifice of a vehicle engine's first sixteen orders and half orders. The active noise control system was used to change the engine sound to quiet, harmonic, high harmonic, spectral shaped and growl. Videos were made of the roads traversed, binaural recording of vehicle interior sounds, and vibrations of the vehicle floor pan. Jury tapes were made up for day driving, nighttime driving and driving in the rain during the day for each of the sites. Jurors used paired comparisons to evaluate the vehicle interior sounds while sitting in a vehicle simulator developed by Siemens VDO that replicated videos of the road traversed, binaural recording of the vehicle interior sounds and vibrations of the floor pan and seat. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen einer Studie wurden Typen von Motorgeraeuschen identifiziert, die von Fahrern unter verschiedenen Fahrbedingungen als angenehm empfunden werden. Ein System zur aktiven Geraeuschbeeinflussung am Ansauglufteinlass im Bereich des Luftfilters modifizierte den Klang des Motors bis zur 16,5ten Motorordnung, und zwar durch Bedaempfung, Verstaerkung und Filterung der Signalfrequenzen. Waehrend der Fahrt wurden Videoaufnahmen der befahrenen Strassen, Stereoaufnahmen der Fahrzeuginnengeraeusche und Aufnahmen der Vibrationsamplituden des Fahrzeugbodens erstellt; dies bei Tag- und Nachtfahrten und bei Tagfahrten im Regen. Zur Beurteilung der aufgezeichneten Geraeusche durch Versuchspersonen wurde ein Fahrzeug-Laborsimulator mit Fahrersitz, Bildschirm, Lautsprecher und mechanischer Erregung der Bodenplatte aufgebaut, um die aufgenommenen Signale moeglichst wirklichkeitsgetreu wiederzugeben. (orig.)

  12. Impact Foam Testing for Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Agrawal, Paul; Hawbaker, James

    2013-01-01

    Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEVs) are blunt-body vehicles designed with the purpose of transporting payloads from outer space to the surface of the Earth. To achieve high-reliability and minimum weight, MMEEVs avoid use of limited-reliability systems, such as parachutes and retro-rockets, instead using built-in impact attenuators to absorb energy remaining at impact to meet landing loads requirements. The Multi-Mission Systems Analysis for Planetary Entry (M-SAPE) parametric design tool is used to facilitate the design of MMEEVs and develop the trade space. Testing was conducted to characterize the material properties of several candidate impact foam attenuators to enhance M-SAPE analysis. In the current effort, two different Rohacell foams were tested to determine their thermal conductivity in support of MMEEV design applications. These applications include thermal insulation during atmospheric entry, impact attenuation, and post-impact thermal insulation in support of thermal soak analysis. Results indicate that for these closed-cell foams, the effect of impact is limited on thermal conductivity due to the venting of the virgin material gas and subsequent ambient air replacement. Results also indicate that the effect of foam temperature is significant compared to data suggested by manufacturer's specifications.

  13. Vehicle test report: South Coast Technology electric Volkswagen Rabbit with developmental low-power armature chopper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marte, J. E.; Bryant, J. A.; Livingston, R.

    1983-01-01

    Dynamometer performance of a South Coast Technology electric conversion of a Volkswagen (VW) Rabbit designated SCT-8 was tested. The SCT-8 vehicle was fitted with a transistorized chopper in the motor armature circuit to supplement the standard motor speed control via field weakening. The armature chopper allowed speed control below the motor base speed. This low speed control was intended to reduce energy loss at idle during stop-and-go traffic; to eliminate the need for using the clutch below base motor speed; and to improve the drivability. Test results indicate an improvement of about 3.5% in battery energy economy for the SAE J227a-D driving cycle and 6% for the C-cycle with only a minor reduction in acceleration performance. A further reduction of about 6% would be possible if provision were made for shutting down field power during the idle phases of the driving cycles. Drivability of the vehicle equipped with the armature chopper was significantly improved compared with the standard SCT Electric Rabbit.

  14. 40 CFR 85.2203 - Short test standards for 1981 and later model year light-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Control System Performance Warranty Short Tests § 85.2203 Short test standards for 1981 and later model... 1982 and later model year vehicles at high altitude to which high altitude certification standards of 1... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short test standards for 1981 and...

  15. Combined of Lyapunov-stable and active disturbance rejection control for the path following of a small unmanned aerial vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a composite path following controller that allows the small fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle to follow a predefined path. Assuming that the vehicle is equipped with an autopilot for altitude and airspeed maintained well, the controller design adopts the hierarchical control structure. With the inner-loop controller design based on the notion of active disturbance rejection control which will respond to the desired roll angle command, the core part of the outer-loop controller is designed based on Lyapunov stability theorem to generate the desired course rate for the straight-line paths. The bank to turn maneuver is used to transform the desired course rate to the desired roll angle command. Both the hardware-in-the-loop simulation in the X-Plane simulator and actual experimental flight tests have been successfully achieved, which verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Numerical simulation of active track tensioning system for autonomous hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mȩżyk, Arkadiusz; Czapla, Tomasz; Klein, Wojciech; Mura, Gabriel

    2017-05-01

    One of the most important components of a high speed tracked vehicle is an efficient suspension system. The vehicle should be able to operate both in rough terrain for performance of engineering tasks as well as on the road with high speed. This is especially important for an autonomous platform that operates either with or without human supervision, so that the vibration level can rise compared to a manned vehicle. In this case critical electronic and electric parts must be protected to ensure the reliability of the vehicle. The paper presents a dynamic parameters determination methodology of suspension system for an autonomous high speed tracked platform with total weight of about 5 tonnes and hybrid propulsion system. Common among tracked vehicles suspension solutions and cost-efficient, the torsion-bar system was chosen. One of the most important issues was determining optimal track tensioning - in this case an active hydraulic system was applied. The selection of system parameters was performed with using numerical model based on multi-body dynamic approach. The results of numerical analysis were used to define parameters of active tensioning control system setup. LMS Virtual.Lab Motion was used for multi-body dynamics numerical calculation and Matlab/SIMULINK for control system simulation.

  17. Behavioral effects of "vehicle" microinjected into the dorsal periaqueductal grey of rats tested in the elevated plus maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus M.G.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the behavioral effects of different vehicles microinjected into the dorsal periaqueductal grey (DPAG of male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, tested in the elevated plus maze, animals were implanted with cannulas aimed at this structure. One week after surgery the animals received microinjections into the DPAG of 0.9% (w/v saline, 10% (v/v dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, 2% (v/v Tween-80, 10% (v/v propylene glycol, or synthetic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Ten min after the injection (0.5 µl the animals (N = 8-13/group were submitted to the elevated plus maze test. DMSO significantly increased the number of entries into both the open and enclosed arms when compared to 0.9% saline (2.7 ± 0.8 and 8.7 ± 1.3 vs 0.8 ± 0.3 and 5.1 ± 0.9, respectively, Duncan test, P<0.05, and tended to increase enclosed arm entries as compared to 2% Tween-80 (8.7 ± 1.3 vs 5.7 ± 0.9, Duncan test, P<0.10. In a second experiment no difference in plus maze exploration was found between 0.9% saline- or sham-injected animals (N = 11-13/group. These results indicate that intra-DPAG injection of some commonly used vehicles such as DMSO, saline or Tween-80 affects the exploratory activity of rats exposed to the elevated plus maze in statistically different manners

  18. Thermal Design and Analysis of the Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test Vehicle for the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropietro, A. J.; Pauken, Michael; Sunada, Eric; Gray, Sandria

    2013-01-01

    The thermal design and analysis of the experimental Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) vehicle is presented. The SFDT vehicle is currently being designed as a platform to help demonstrate key technologies for NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project. The LDSD project is charged by NASA's Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) with the task of advancing the state of the art in Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems by developing and testing three new technologies required for landing heavier payloads on Mars. The enabling technologies under development consist of a large 33.5 meter diameter Supersonic Ringsail (SSRS) parachute and two different types of Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) devices - a robotic class, SIAD-R, that inflates to a 6 meter diameter torus, and an exploration class, SIAD-E, that inflates to an 8 meter diameter isotensoid. As part of the technology development effort, the various elements of the new supersonic decelerator system must be tested in a Mars-like environment. This is currently planned to be accomplished by sending a series of SFDT vehicles into Earth's stratosphere. Each SFDT vehicle will be lifted to a stable float altitude by a large helium carrier balloon. Once at altitude, the SFDT vehicles will be released from their carrier balloon and spun up via spin motors to provide trajectory stability. An onboard third stage solid rocket motor will propel each test vehicle to supersonic flight in the upper atmosphere. After main engine burnout, each vehicle will be despun and testing of the deceleration system will begin: first an inflatable decelerator will be deployed around the aeroshell to increase the drag surface area, and then the large parachute will be deployed to continue the deceleration and return the vehicle back to the Earth's surface. The SFDT vehicle thermal system must passively protect the vehicle structure and its components from cold temperatures experienced during the

  19. Tests of an alternating current propulsion subsystem for electric vehicles on a road load simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, F. J.

    1982-12-01

    The test results of a breadboard version of an ac electric-vehicle propulsion subsystem are presented. The breadboard was installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center Road Load Simulator facility and tested under steady-state and transient conditions. Steady-state tests were run to characterize the system and component efficiencies over the complete speed-torque range within the capability of the propulsion subsystem in the motoring mode of operation. Transient tests were performed to determine the energy consumption of the breadboard over the acceleration and cruise portions of SAE J227 and driving schedules B, C, and D. Tests in the regenerative mode were limited to the low-gear-speed range of the two speed transaxle used in the subsystem. The maximum steady-state subsystem efficiency observed for the breadboard was 81.5 percent in the high-gear-speed range in the motoring mode, and 76 percent in the regenerative braking mode (low gear). The subsystem energy efficiency during the transient tests ranged from 49.2 percent for schedule B to 68.4 percent for Schedule D.

  20. Fast Charging and Smart Charging Tests for Electric Vehicles Batteries Using Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forero Camacho Oscar Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric Vehicles (EV technologies are still relatively new and under strong development. Although some standardized solutions are being promoted and becoming a new trend, there is an outstanding need for common platforms and sharing of knowledge and core technologies. This paper presents the development of a test platform, including three Li-ion batteries designed for EV applications, and three associated bi-directional power converters, for testing impacts on different advanced loadings of EV batteries. Different charging algorithms/profiles have been tested, including constant current and power, and forced and pulsed power. The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of smart charging and fast charging on the power system, on the battery state of health and degradation, and to find out the limitations of the batteries for a Smart Grid. The paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages of both tests in terms of regulation of the aggregated local power, power capacity and the power exchange with the grid. The smart charging tests performed have demonstrated that even with a simple control algorithm, without any forecasting, it is possible to provide the required charging and at the same time the power system services, reducing the peak power and the energy losses in the power connection line of the power exchange with the national grid.

  1. 78 FR 21191 - NHTSA Activities Under the United Nations World Forum for the Harmonization of Vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... the pollution of the environment, noise disturbances and conservation of energy (fuel consumption... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NHTSA Activities Under the United Nations World Forum for... upcoming scheduled meetings of the World Forum for the Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) and its...

  2. 77 FR 4618 - NHTSA Activities Under the United Nations World Forum for the Harmonization of Vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... conservation of energy (fuel consumption). Special Technical Considerations Informal Working Groups (IWGs) In... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NHTSA Activities Under the United Nations World Forum for... scheduled upcoming meetings under the World Forum for the Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) and...

  3. Low-water activity foods: increased concern as vehicles of foodborne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuchat, L.R.; Komitopoulou, E.; Beckers, H.; Betts, R.P.; Bourdichon, F.; Fanning, S.; Joosten, H.M.L.J.; Kuile, ter B.H.

    2013-01-01

    Foods and food ingredients with low water activity (aw) have been implicated with increased frequency in recent years as vehicles for pathogens that have caused outbreaks of illnesses. Some of these foodborne pathogens can survive for several months, even years, in low-aw foods and in dry food

  4. Low-water activity foods: increased concern as vehicles of foodborne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuchat, L.R.; Komitopoulou, E.; Beckers, H.; Betts, R.P.; Bourdichon, F.; Fanning, S.; Joosten, H.M.; ter Kuile, B.H.

    2013-01-01

    Foods and food ingredients with low water activity (a(w)) have been implicated with increased frequency in recent years as vehicles for pathogens that have caused outbreaks of illnesses. Some of these foodborne pathogens can survive for several months, even years, in low-a(w) foods and in dry food

  5. 77 FR 35993 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Container and Road Vehicle Certification for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Container and Road Vehicle Certification for Transport Under Customs Seal AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 30-Day notice and request for comments; Extension of an existing...

  6. FY2013 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    FY 2013 annual report focuses on the following areas: vehicle modeling and simulation, component and systems evaluations, laboratory and field evaluations, codes and standards, industry projects, and vehicle systems optimization.

  7. Evaluating effectiveness of real-time advanced traveler information systems using a small test vehicle fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    ADVANCE was an in-vehicle advanced traveler information system (ATIS) providing route guidance in real time that operated in the northwestern portion and northwest suburbs of Chicago, Illinois. It used probe vehicles to generate dynamically travel ti...

  8. Basophil-activation tests in hymenoptera allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, Anthony E. J.; van der Heide, Sicco

    The measurement of basophil-activation markers may be useful in detecting IgIE-mediated sensitization but the relevance for application of the basophil-activation test in prediction of clinical reactivity in Hymenoptera allergy is very limited. For this reason, this test currently has no established

  9. Cryo-Tracker® Mass Gauging System Testing in a Launch Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieb, Daniel J.; Haberbusch, Mark S.; Yeckley, Alexander J.

    2006-04-01

    Sierra Lobo successfully tested its patented Cryo-Tracker® probe and mass gauging system in an Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) liquid oxygen tank simulation for NASA's Launch Service Providers Directorate. The effort involved collaboration between Sierra Lobo, NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and Lockheed Martin personnel. Testing simulated filling and expulsion operations of Lockheed Martin's Atlas V liquid oxygen (LOX) tank and characterized the 10.06 m (33-ft) Cryo-Tracker's performance. Sierra Lobo designed a 9.14 m (30-ft) tall liquid nitrogen test tank to simulate the Atlas V LOX tank flow conditions and validate Cryo-Tracker® data via other sensors and visualization. This test package was fabricated at Sierra Lobo's Cryogenics Testbed at NASA KSC. All test objectives were met or exceeded. Key accomplishments include: fabrication of the longest Cryo-Tracker® probe to date; installation technique proven with only two attachment points at top and bottom of tank; probe survived a harsh environment with no loss of signal or structural integrity; probe successfully measured liquid levels and temperatures under all conditions and successfully demonstrated its feasibility as an engine cut-off signal.

  10. Active Vibration Control of a Railway Vehicle Carbody Using Piezoelectric Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molatefi, Habibollah; Ayoubi, Pejman; Mozafari, Hozhabr

    2017-07-01

    In recent years and according to modern transportation development, rail vehicles are manufactured lighter to achieve higher speed and lower transportation costs. On the other hand, weight reduction of rail vehicles leads to increase the structural vibration. In this study, Active Vibration Control of a rail vehicle using piezoelectric elements is investigated. The optimal control employed as the control approach regard to the first two modes of vibration. A simplified Car body structure is modeled in Matlab using the finite element theory by considering six DOF beam element and then the Eigen functions and mode shapes are derived. The surface roughness of different classes of rail tracks have been obtained using random vibration theory and applied to the secondary suspension as the excitation of the structure; Then piezoelectric mounted where the greatest moments were captured. The effectiveness of Piezoelectric in structural vibrations attenuation of car body is demonstrated through the state space equations and its effect on modal coefficient.

  11. Gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission from gasoline and diesel vehicles under real-world driving test cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Ha T; Imanishi, Katsuma; Morikawa, Tazuko; Hagino, Hiroyuki; Takenaka, Norimichi

    2017-04-01

    Reactive nitrogen species emission from the exhausts of gasoline and diesel vehicles, including nitrogen oxides (NOx) and nitrous acid (HONO), contributes as a significant source of photochemical oxidant precursors in the ambient air. Multiple laboratory and on-road exhaust measurements have been performed to estimate the NOx emission factors from various vehicles and their contribution to atmospheric pollution. Meanwhile, HONO emission from vehicle exhaust has been under-measured despite the fact that HONO can contribute up to 60% of the total hydroxyl budget during daytime and its formation pathway is not fully understood. A profound traffic-induced HONO to NOx ratio of 0.8%, established by Kurtenbach et al. since 2001, has been widely applied in various simulation studies and possibly linked to under-estimation of HONO mixing ratios and OH radical budget in the morning. The HONO/NOx ratios from direct traffic emission have become debatable when it lacks measurements for direct HONO emission from vehicles upon the fast-changing emission reduction technology. Several recent studies have reported updated values for this ratio. This study has reported the measurement of HONO and NOx emission as well as the estimation of exhaust-induced HONO/NOx ratios from gasoline and diesel vehicles using different chassis dynamometer tests under various real-world driving cycles. For the tested gasoline vehicle, which was equipped with three-way catalyst after-treatment device, HONO/NOx ratios ranged from 0 to 0.95 % with very low average HONO concentrations. For the tested diesel vehicle equipped with diesel particulate active reduction device, HONO/NOx ratios varied from 0.16 to 1.00 %. The HONO/NOx ratios in diesel exhaust were inversely proportional to the average speeds of the tested vehicles. Photolysis of HONO is a dominant source of morning OH radicals. Conventional traffic-induced HONO/NOx ratio of 0.8% has possibly linked to underestimation of the total HONO budget and

  12. Passive Thermal Control for the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Test Vehicle Spin Motors Sub-System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Matthew; Mastropietro, A. J.; Pauken, Michael; Mobley, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Future missions to Mars will require improved entry, descent, and landing (EDL) technology over the Viking-heritage systems which recently landed the largest payload to date, the 900 kg Mars Science Laboratory. As a result, NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project is working to advance the state of the art in Mars EDL systems by developing and testing three key technologies which will enable heavier payloads and higher altitude landing sites on the red planet. These technologies consist of a large 33.5 m diameter Supersonic Disk Sail (SSDS) parachute and two different Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) devices - a robotic class that inflates to a 6 m diameter torus (SIAD-R), and an exploration class that inflates to an 8 m diameter isotensoid (SIADE). All three technologies will be demonstrated on test vehicles at high earth altitudes in order to simulate the Mars EDL environment. Each vehicle will be carried to altitude by a large helium balloon, released, spun up using spin motors to stabilize the vehicle's trajectory, and accelerated to supersonic speeds using a large solid rocket motor. The vehicle will then be spun down using another set of spin motors, and will deploy either the SIAD-R or SIAD-E, followed by the SSDS parachute until the vehicle lands in the ocean. Component level testing and bounding analysis are used to ensure the survival of system components in extreme thermal environments and predict temperatures throughout the flight. This paper presents a general description of the thermal testing, model correlation, and analysis of the spin motor passive thermal control sub-system to maintain spin motor performance, prescribed vehicle trajectory, and structural integrity of the test vehicle. The spin motor subsystem is predicted to meet its requirements with margin.

  13. ATPD-2354 Revision 10 Verification Test, Disc Brake Version Only (16 NOV 06) Article Test of High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV-ECV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-23

    070169 ATPD-2354 REVISION 10 VERIFICATION TEST, DISC BRAKE VERSION ONLY (16 NOV 06) ARTICLE TEST OF HIGH MOBILITY MULTIPURPOSE WHEELED...Verification Test, Disc Brake Verson Only (16 NOV 06) Article Test of High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV-ECV) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...different characteristics critical to the proper field service of the brake pads and rotor combination, an assortment of tests was conducted to evaluate

  14. Foreign Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    3 4.19 Broadband Electromagnetic Interference ...... ........ 3 4.20 Gun Control Systems for Vehicle-Mounted Weapons...accordance with TOP 2-2-61333. 4.20 Gun Control Systems for Vehicle-Mounted Weapons. Characterize the angular-displacement type control handle used in tank...Main Weapon Firing Tests. Determine the ability of the test vehicle’s main armament and fire/ gun control system to hit its target. a. Artillery

  15. Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes the activities on the Hybrid Vehicle Program. The program objectives and the vehicle specifications are reviewed. The Hybrid Vehicle has been designed so that maximum use can be made of existing production components with a minimum compromise to program goals. The program status as of the February 9-10 Hardware Test Review is presented, and discussions of the vehicle subsystem, the hybrid propulsion subsystem, the battery subsystem, and the test mule programs are included. Other program aspects included are quality assurance and support equipment. 16 references, 132 figures, 47 tables.

  16. Design and testing of shape memory alloy actuation mechanism for flapping wing micro unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruzaman, N. F.; Abdullah, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator offers great solution for aerospace applications with low weight being its most attractive feature. A SMA actuation mechanism for the flapping micro unmanned aerial vehicle (MAV) is proposed in this study, where SMA material is the primary system that provides the flapping motion to the wings. Based on several established design criteria, a design prototype has been fabricated to validate the design. As a proof of concept, an experiment is performed using an electrical circuit to power the SMA actuator to evaluate the flapping angle. During testing, several problems have been observed and their solutions for future development are proposed. Based on the experiment, the average recorded flapping wing angle is 14.33° for upward deflection and 12.12° for downward deflection. This meets the required design criteria and objective set forth for this design. The results prove the feasibility of employing SMA actuators in flapping wing MAV.

  17. Optimized Method for Knee Displacement Measurement in Vehicle Sled Crash Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an optimized method for measuring dummy’s knee displacement in vehicle sled crash test. The proposed method utilizes completely new elements for measurement, which are acceleration and angular velocity of dummy’s pelvis, as well as the rotational angle of its femur. Compared with the traditional measurement only using camera-based high-speed motion image analysis, the optimized one can not only maintain the measuring accuracy, but also avoid the disturbance caused by dummy movement, dashboard blocking and knee deformation during the crash. An experiment is made to verify the accuracy of the proposed method, which eliminates the strong dependence on single target tracing in traditional method. Moreover, it is very appropriate for calculating the penetration depth to the dashboard.

  18. Methodology for testing a system for remote monitoring and control on auxiliary machines in electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrov Vasil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory system for remote monitoring and control of an asynchronous motor controlled by a soft starter and contemporary measuring and control devices has been developed and built. This laboratory system is used for research and in teaching. A study of the principles of operation, setting up and examination of intelligent energy meters, soft starters and PLC has been made as knowledge of the relevant software products is necessary. This is of great importance because systems for remote monitoring and control of energy consumption, efficiency and proper operation of the controlled objects are very often used in different spheres of industry, in building automation, transport, electricity distribution network, etc. Their implementation in electric vehicles for remote monitoring and control on auxiliary machines is also possible and very useful. In this paper, a methodology of tests is developed and some experiments are presented. Thus, an experimental verification of the developed methodology is made.

  19. Electrolysis activities at FCH Test Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Nielsen, Eva; Nygaard, Frederik Berg

    FCH Test Center for fuel cell and hydrogen technologies was established in 2010 at Risø DTU in Denmark. Today, the test center is part of DTU Energy Conversion. The center gives industry access to advanced testing and demonstration of components and systems. A number of national projects and EU p...... projects regarding water electrolysis involve FCH Test Center as a partner. This presentation gives an overview of the activities....

  20. L1 Adaptive Control Law for Flexible Space Launch Vehicle and Proposed Plan for Flight Test Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharisov, Evgeny; Gregory, Irene M.; Cao, Chengyu; Hovakimyan, Naira

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores application of the L1 adaptive control architecture to a generic flexible Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). Adaptive control has the potential to improve performance and enhance safety of space vehicles that often operate in very unforgiving and occasionally highly uncertain environments. NASA s development of the next generation space launch vehicles presents an opportunity for adaptive control to contribute to improved performance of this statically unstable vehicle with low damping and low bending frequency flexible dynamics. In this paper, we consider the L1 adaptive output feedback controller to control the low frequency structural modes and propose steps to validate the adaptive controller performance utilizing one of the experimental test flights for the CLV Ares-I Program.

  1. Active control of turbulent boundary layer sound transmission into a vehicle interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, A.; Alujević, N.; Pluymers, B.; Desmet, W.

    2016-09-01

    In high speed automotive, aerospace, and railway transportation, the turbulent boundary layer (TBL) is one of the most important sources of interior noise. The stochastic pressure distribution associated with the turbulence is able to excite significantly structural vibration of vehicle exterior panels. They radiate sound into the vehicle through the interior panels. Therefore, the air flow noise becomes very influential when it comes to the noise vibration and harshness assessment of a vehicle, in particular at low frequencies. Normally, passive solutions, such as sound absorbing materials, are used for reducing the TBL-induced noise transmission into a vehicle interior, which generally improve the structure sound isolation performance. These can achieve excellent isolation performance at higher frequencies, but are unable to deal with the low-frequency interior noise components. In this paper, active control of TBL noise transmission through an acoustically coupled double panel system into a rectangular cavity is examined theoretically. The Corcos model of the TBL pressure distribution is used to model the disturbance. The disturbance is rejected by an active vibration isolation unit reacting between the exterior and the interior panels. Significant reductions of the low-frequency vibrations of the interior panel and the sound pressure in the cavity are observed.

  2. Fuel Economy and Exhaust Emissions Characteristics of a Diesel Vehicle : Results of the Prototype Volkswagen 1.5 Liter Turbocharged Rabbit Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Tests were performed on a prototyple Vokswagen (VW) Turbocharged (TC) Rabbit diesel vehicle on a chassis dynamometer. The vheicle was tested for fuel economy and emissions on the urban Federal test Procedure (FTP), Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), C...

  3. Techniques for control of long-term reliability of complex integrated circuits. I - Reliability assurance by test vehicle qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vonno, N. W.

    1972-01-01

    Development of an alternate approach to the conventional methods of reliability assurance for large-scale integrated circuits. The product treated is a large-scale T squared L array designed for space applications. The concept used is that of qualification of product by evaluation of the basic processing used in fabricating the product, providing an insight into its potential reliability. Test vehicles are described which enable evaluation of device characteristics, surface condition, and various parameters of the two-level metallization system used. Evaluation of these test vehicles is performed on a lot qualification basis, with the lot consisting of one wafer. Assembled test vehicles are evaluated by high temperature stress at 300 C for short time durations. Stressing at these temperatures provides a rapid method of evaluation and permits a go/no go decision to be made on the wafer lot in a timely fashion.

  4. Dynamic stability test results on an 0.024 scale B-1 air vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    Dynamic longitudinal and lateral-directional stability characteristics of the B-1 air vehicle were investigated in three wind tunnels at the Langley Research Center. The main rotary derivatives were obtained for an angle of attack range of -3 degrees to +16 degrees for a Mach number range of 0.2 to 2.16. Damping in roll data could not be obtained at the supersonic Mach numbers. The Langley 7 x 10 foot high speed tunnel, the 8 foot transonic pressure tunnel, and the 4 foot Unitary Plan wind tunnel were the test sites. An 0.024 scale light-weight model was used on a forced oscillation type balance. Test Reynolds number varied from 474,000/ft to 1,550,000/ft. through the Mach number range tested. The results showed that the dynamic stability characteristics of the model in pitch and roll were generally satisfactory up to an angle attack of about +6 degrees. In the wing sweep range from 15 to 25 degrees the positive damping levels in roll deteriorated rapidly above +2 degrees angle of attack. This reduction in roll damping is believed to be due to the onset of separation over the wing as stall is approached.

  5. The Influence of Intersections on Fuel Consumption in Urban Arterial Road Traffic: A Single Vehicle Test in Harbin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Wu

    Full Text Available The calculating method for fuel consumption (FC was put forward and calibrated and the characteristics of the fuel consumption on intersections were analyzed based on 18 groups of vehicular operating data which were acquired from the test experiment of a single vehicle along the urban arterial roads in Harbin, China. The results obtained show that 50.36% of the fuel consumption for the test vehicle was used at the area of intersections compared with 28.9% of the influencing distance and 68.5% of the running time; and 78.4% of them was burnt at the stages of acceleration and idling. Meanwhile, the type

  6. Implementation of an Electric Vehicle Test Bed Controlled by a Virtual Power Plant for Contributing to Regulating Power Reserves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Sacchetti, Dario; Pedersen, Anders Bro

    2012-01-01

    and communication interfaces, is able to respond in real-time to smart grid control signals. The EV test bed is equipped with a Lithium-ion battery pack, a Battery Management System (BMS), a charger and a Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) unit for feeding power back to the grid. The designed solution serves......With the increased focus on Electric Vehicles (EV) research and the potential benefits they bring for smart grid applications, there is a growing need for an evaluation platform connected to the electricity grid. This paper addresses the design of an EV test bed, which using real EV components...

  7. Design and Implementation of a Control System for Testing an Experimental Electrical Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Bermejo, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The Research Institute of Vehicle Engines and Automotive Engineering (IVK) at the University of Stuttgart is developing an experimental electric vehicle. With that vehicle different research topics in the scope of e-mobility will be investigated. Some of these topics are range prediction and optimization issues, adapted control of inverter and electric motor, as well as, different battery charging techniques. The aim of this master thesis is to design and to implement the contr...

  8. The impact of active controls technology on the structural integrity of aeronautical vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Thomas E.; Austin, Edward; Donley, Shawn; Graham, George; Harris, Terry; Kaynes, Ian; Lee, Ben; Sparrow, James

    1993-01-01

    The findings of an investigation conducted under the auspices of The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP) to assess the impact of active controls technology on the structural integrity of aeronautical vehicles and to evaluate the present state-of-the-art for predicting loads caused by a flight-control system modification and the resulting change in the fatigue life of the flight vehicle are summarized. Important points concerning structural technology considerations implicit in applying active controls technology in new aircraft are summarized. These points are well founded and based upon information received from within the aerospace industry and government laboratories, acquired by sponsoring workshops which brought together experts from contributing and interacting technical disciplines, and obtained by conducting a case study to independently assess the state of the technology. The paper concludes that communication between technical disciplines is absolutely essential in the design of future high performance aircraft.

  9. Design and Testing of a Prototype Lunar or Planetary Surface Landing Research Vehicle (LPSLRV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gloria A.

    2010-01-01

    This handbook describes a two-semester senior design course sponsored by the NASA Office of Education, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), and the NASA Space Grant Consortium. The course was developed and implemented by the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department (MAE) at Utah State University. The course final outcome is a packaged senior design course that can be readily incorporated into the instructional curriculum at universities across the country. The course materials adhere to the standards of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), and is constructed to be relevant to key research areas identified by ESMD. The design project challenged students to apply systems engineering concepts to define research and training requirements for a terrestrial-based lunar landing simulator. This project developed a flying prototype for a Lunar or Planetary Surface Landing Research Vehicle (LPSRV). Per NASA specifications the concept accounts for reduced lunar gravity, and allows the terminal stage of lunar descent to be flown either by remote pilot or autonomously. This free-flying platform was designed to be sufficiently-flexible to allow both sensor evaluation and pilot training. This handbook outlines the course materials, describes the systems engineering processes developed to facilitate design fabrication, integration, and testing. This handbook presents sufficient details of the final design configuration to allow an independent group to reproduce the design. The design evolution and details regarding the verification testing used to characterize the system are presented in a separate project final design report. Details of the experimental apparatus used for system characterization may be found in Appendix F, G, and I of that report. A brief summary of the ground testing and systems verification is also included in Appendix A of this report. Details of the flight tests will be documented in a separate flight test

  10. Exciting New Take on a Classic: Crash Test Activity Puts the Egg in the Driver's Seat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Keith

    2011-01-01

    An excellent common activity in technology and engineering classes involves dropping an egg from a significant height in a protective device designed and built by students. This article describes how the author uses the classic "egg drop" as an inspiration to have students modify a small crash test vehicle that speeds down a track and crashes into…

  11. Exciting New Take on a Classic: Crash Testing Activity Puts the Egg in the Driver's Seat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Keith

    2011-01-01

    An excellent common activity in technology and engineering classes involves dropping an egg from a significant height in a protective device designed and built by students. This article describes how the author uses the classic "egg drop" as an inspiration to have students modify a small crash test vehicle that speeds down a track and crashes into…

  12. Active disturbance rejection attitude control for a hypersonic reentry vehicle with actuator saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjiu Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, nonlinear uncertainty has been investigated for a hypersonic reentry vehicle subject to actuator saturation via active disturbance rejection control technology. A nonlinear extended state observer is designed to estimate “total disturbances,” which is compensated with a linear controller. Both convergence of the nonlinear extended state observer and stabilization of the closed-loop system are studied in this article. Some simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Generation of the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle Aerodynamic Data Book and Comparison To Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Steven X.; Krist, Steven E.; Compton, William B.

    2011-01-01

    A 3.5-year effort to characterize the aerodynamic behavior of the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle (AIX FTV) is described in this paper. The AIX FTV was designed to be representative of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). While there are several differences in the outer mold line from the current revision of the CLV, the overall length, mass distribution, and flight systems of the two vehicles are very similar. This paper briefly touches on each of the aerodynamic databases developed in the program, describing the methodology employed, experimental and computational contributions to the generation of the databases, and how well the databases and underlying computations compare to actual flight test results.

  14. Absorbable energy monitoring scheme: new design protocol to test vehicle structural crashworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofochebe, Sunday M; Enibe, Samuel O; Ozoegwu, Chigbogu G

    2016-05-01

    In vehicle crashworthiness design optimization detailed system evaluation capable of producing reliable results are basically achieved through high-order numerical computational (HNC) models such as the dynamic finite element model, mesh-free model etc. However the application of these models especially during optimization studies is basically challenged by their inherent high demand on computational resources, conditional stability of the solution process, and lack of knowledge of viable parameter range for detailed optimization studies. The absorbable energy monitoring scheme (AEMS) presented in this paper suggests a new design protocol that attempts to overcome such problems in evaluation of vehicle structure for crashworthiness. The implementation of the AEMS involves studying crash performance of vehicle components at various absorbable energy ratios based on a 2DOF lumped-mass-spring (LMS) vehicle impact model. This allows for prompt prediction of useful parameter values in a given design problem. The application of the classical one-dimensional LMS model in vehicle crash analysis is further improved in the present work by developing a critical load matching criterion which allows for quantitative interpretation of the results of the abstract model in a typical vehicle crash design. The adequacy of the proposed AEMS for preliminary vehicle crashworthiness design is demonstrated in this paper, however its extension to full-scale design-optimization problem involving full vehicle model that shows greater structural detail requires more theoretical development.

  15. Absorbable energy monitoring scheme: new design protocol to test vehicle structural crashworthiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday M. Ofochebe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In vehicle crashworthiness design optimization detailed system evaluation capable of producing reliable results are basically achieved through high-order numerical computational (HNC models such as the dynamic finite element model, mesh-free model etc. However the application of these models especially during optimization studies is basically challenged by their inherent high demand on computational resources, conditional stability of the solution process, and lack of knowledge of viable parameter range for detailed optimization studies. The absorbable energy monitoring scheme (AEMS presented in this paper suggests a new design protocol that attempts to overcome such problems in evaluation of vehicle structure for crashworthiness. The implementation of the AEMS involves studying crash performance of vehicle components at various absorbable energy ratios based on a 2DOF lumped-mass-spring (LMS vehicle impact model. This allows for prompt prediction of useful parameter values in a given design problem. The application of the classical one-dimensional LMS model in vehicle crash analysis is further improved in the present work by developing a critical load matching criterion which allows for quantitative interpretation of the results of the abstract model in a typical vehicle crash design. The adequacy of the proposed AEMS for preliminary vehicle crashworthiness design is demonstrated in this paper, however its extension to full-scale design-optimization problem involving full vehicle model that shows greater structural detail requires more theoretical development.

  16. An Accurate and Generic Testing Approach to Vehicle Stability Parameters Based on GPS and INS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Miao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the vehicle industry, controlling stability has become more and more important. Techniques of evaluating vehicle stability are in high demand. As a common method, usually GPS sensors and INS sensors are applied to measure vehicle stability parameters by fusing data from the two system sensors. Although prior model parameters should be recognized in a Kalman filter, it is usually used to fuse data from multi-sensors. In this paper, a robust, intelligent and precise method to the measurement of vehicle stability is proposed. First, a fuzzy interpolation method is proposed, along with a four-wheel vehicle dynamic model. Second, a two-stage Kalman filter, which fuses the data from GPS and INS, is established. Next, this approach is applied to a case study vehicle to measure yaw rate and sideslip angle. The results show the advantages of the approach. Finally, a simulation and real experiment is made to verify the advantages of this approach. The experimental results showed the merits of this method for measuring vehicle stability, and the approach can meet the design requirements of a vehicle stability controller.

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    1999-01-25

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 240, Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, which is located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS).

  18. THE COMPLEX OF STANDS FOR TESTING THE AIR CUSHION CHASSIS OF AIRCRAFT AND VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a set of stands made in NIMK TSAGI for testing and creating the air cushion chassis for the aircraft and vehicles. It allows to fully embrace the process of developing and constructing the air cushion chassis for air- craft and solve problems relating to peculiarities of such aircraft on the takeoff, landing and movement in the elementary prepared and unprepared soil runways, flat terrain and water areas. The complex includes: the experimental installation to study aeroelasticity phenomena of the chassis in the extending and retracting process with simulation of aircraft and ekran- oplane takeoff and landing modes in the air flow, including the wind tunnels; the experimental stand with vertical screen for testing of ekranoplane models in T-5 wind tunnel of NIMC TsAGI, permitting to simultaneously vary the model’s posi- tion relatively to the screen, roll, pitch (angle of attack, and banking; mobile experimental stand with contact crawler gear, for experimental determination and comparative evaluation of the chassis with different patterns of formation and air cush- ion fences for all-year-round testing in natural conditions at elementary-prepared and unprepared sites and water areas. Based on mathematical simulation of flow past in the wind tunnel the possibility of use booth stand with vertical screen and experimental installation to study aeroelasticity phenomena of the chassis for experimental studies, respectively, by defini- tion of the aerodynamic characteristics of forces and moments of the air cushion aircraft and ekranoplanes models and the research of phenomena of aeroelasticity of flexible fencing is substantiated.

  19. Ride performance of a high speed rail vehicle using controlled semi active suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Anil

    2017-05-01

    The rail-wheel interaction in a rail vehicle running at high speed results in large amplitude vibration of carbody that deteriorates the ride comfort of travellers. The role of suspension system is crucial to provide an acceptable level of ride performance. In this context, an existing rail vehicle is modelled in vertical, pitch and roll motions of carbody and bogies. Additionally, nonlinear stiffness and damping parameters of passive suspension system are defined based on experimental data. In the secondary vertical suspension system, a magneto-rheological (MR) damper is included to improve the ride quality and comfort. The parameters of MR damper depend on the current, amplitude and frequency of excitations. At different running speeds, three semi-active suspension strategies with MR damper are analysed for periodic track irregularity and the resulting performance indices are juxtaposed with the nonlinear passive suspension system. The disturbance rejection and force tracking damper controller algorithms are applied to control the desired force of MR damper. This study reveals that the vertical vibrations of a vehicle can be reduced significantly by using the proposed semi-active suspension strategies. Moreover, it naturally results in improved ride quality and passenger’s comfort in comparison to the existing passive system.

  20. Development of new test methods for electric vehicles and charging stations; Entwicklung neuartiger Pruefverfahren fuer Elektrofahrzeuge und Ladesaeulen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peitz, Michael; Matrose, Claas; Schnettler, Armin [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochspannungstechnik; Hackmann, Markus [P3 Ingenieurgesellschaft, Aachen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    With increasing share of electric vehicles in German traffic also their connection on low voltage grid becomes more important due to their charging process. Several concepts are available for the charging operation. One opportunity is conductive charging with cable connection, whereat in public domain often charging stations are used for coupling car, grid and consumer. In general, several normative specifications dealing with connecting electrical components to the grid, but only few are related especially to electric vehicle. However specific requirements concerning the reliability of charging process exits on electric vehicle, because an interruption of the charging process due to grid actions, can't be tolerated if the charging process only restarts due to consumer action. Hence motivated, testing procedures for system emission and immunity against electrical disturbances, especially voltage dips and interruption events, are used and developed on a test center of the Institute for High Voltage Technology (IFHT). In this paper the current state of electric testing methods and research in grid integration of vehicles and charging stations are shown and discussed. (orig.)

  1. Design of a Maglev Vibration Test Platform for the Research of Maglev Vehicle-girder Coupled Vibration Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Danfeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The maglev vehicle-girder coupled vibration problem has been encountered in many maglev test or commercial lines, which significantly degrade the performance of the maglev train. In previous research on the principle of the coupled vibration problem, it has been discovered that the fundamental model of the maglev girder can be simplified as a series of mass-spring resonators of different but related resonance frequencies, and that the stability of the vehicle-girder coupled system can be investigated by separately examining the stability of each mass-spring resonator – electromagnet coupled system. Based on this conclusion, a maglev test platform, which includes a single electromagnetic suspension control system, is built for experimental study of the coupled vibration problem. The guideway of the test platform is supported by a number of springs so as to change its flexibility. The mass of the guideway can also be changed by adjusting extra weights attached to it. By changing the flexibility and mass of the guideway, the rules of the maglev vehicle-girder coupled vibration problem are to be examined through experiments, and related theory on the vehicle-girder self-excited vibration proposed in previous research is also testified.

  2. Crash test rating and likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injury in motor vehicle crashes: the new car assessment program side-impact crash test, 1998-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figler, Bradley D; Mack, Christopher D; Kaufman, Robert; Wessells, Hunter; Bulger, Eileen; Smith, Thomas G; Voelzke, Bryan

    2014-03-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) implemented side-impact crash testing on all new vehicles since 1998 to assess the likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injuries during a side-impact crash. Higher crash test rating is intended to indicate a safer car, but the real-world applicability of these ratings is unknown. Our objective was to determine the relationship between a vehicle's NCAP side-impact crash test rating and the risk of major thoracoabdominal injury among the vehicle's occupants in real-world side-impact motor vehicle crashes. The National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System contains detailed crash and injury data in a sample of major crashes in the United States. For model years 1998 to 2010 and crash years 1999 to 2010, 68,124 occupants were identified in the Crashworthiness Data System database. Because 47% of cases were missing crash severity (ΔV), multiple imputation was used to estimate the missing values. The primary predictor of interest was the occupant vehicle's NCAP side-impact crash test rating, and the outcome of interest was the presence of major (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] score ≥ 3) thoracoabdominal injury. In multivariate analysis, increasing NCAP crash test rating was associated with lower likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injury at high (odds ratio [OR], 0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-0.9; p crash severity (ΔV), but not at low ΔV (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.8-1.2; p = 0.55). In our model, older age and absence of seat belt use were associated with greater likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injury at low and medium ΔV (p crashes, a higher NCAP side-impact crash test rating is associated with a lower likelihood of major thoracoabdominal trauma. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  3. Development and Testing of Active Groundwater Samplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Bertel; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Andersen, Lars Jørgen

    1995-01-01

    Active groundwater sampling techniques are methods where the aquifer is flushed by pumping. The methods developed and tested represent non-dedicated methods for use in existing water wells. This paper describes two different sampling techniques: the Separation Pumping Technique (SP) and the Packer...... on numerical modelling and controlled laboratory experiments. Active groundwater sampling techniques can be used for remedial pumping optimization and in obtaining hydraulic data and represent a fast operational and reliable sampling tool, also under heterogeneous and low permeability conditions....

  4. MINIMAL HEPATIC ENCEPHALOPATHY IS ASSOCIATED WITH MOTOR VEHICLE CRASHES: THE REALITY BEYOND THE DRIVING TEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Jasmohan S; Saeian, Kia; Schubert, Christine M; Hafeezullah, Muhammad; Franco, Jose; Varma, Rajiv R; Gibson, Douglas P; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Stravitz, R Todd; Heuman, Douglas M; Sterling, Richard K; Shiffman, Mitchell; Topaz, Allyne; Boyett, Sherry; Bell, Debulon; Sanyal, Arun J

    2009-01-01

    Patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) have impaired driving skills, but association of MHE with motor vehicle crashes is unclear. Standard psychometric tests (SPT) or inhibitory control test (ICT) can be used to diagnose MHE. The aim was to determine the association of MHE with crashes and traffic violations over the preceding year and on 1-year follow-up. Cirrhotics were diagnosed with MHE by ICT (MHEICT) and SPT (MHESPT). Self and department-of-transportation (DOT)-reports were used to determine crashes and violations over the preceding year. Agreement between self and DOT-reports was analyzed. Patients then underwent 1 year follow-up for crash/violation occurrence. Crashes in those with/without MHEICT and MHESPT were compared. 167 cirrhotics had DOT-reports, of which 120 also had self-reports. A significantly higher proportion of MHEICT cirrhotics experienced crashes in the preceding year compared to those without MHE by self-report (17% vs. 0%, p=0.0004) and DOT-reports (17% vs. 3%, p=0.004, relative risk:5.77). SPT did not differentiate between those with/without crashes. A significantly higher proportion of patients with crashes had MHEICT compared to MHESPT, both self-reported (100% vs. 50%, p=0.03) and DOT-reported (89% vs. 44%, p=0.01). There was excellent agreement between self and DOT-reports for crashes and violations (Kappa 0.90 and 0.80). 109 patients were followed prospectively. MHEICT patients had a significantly higher future crashes/violations compared to those without (22% vs. 7%, p=0.03) but MHESPT did not. MHEICT (Odds ratio:4.51) and prior year crash/violation (Odds ratio:2.96) were significantly associated with future crash/violation occurrence. PMID:19670416

  5. First Design and Testing of an Unmanned Three-mode Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arhami; Khalid Hasnan; Abas Ab Wahab

    2012-01-01

    .... The vehicle feature’s built in four main components, whereby a coaxial rotor set, propeller, wheels, and pontoon mechanism allow work independently of one another when fly on the air, move on the land and capable...

  6. The Combat System Design and Test Criteria for Iguana TM Armored Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alper, Irfan

    1999-01-01

    ... acoustic/IR signatures. The Iguana(trademark), a tracked vehicle concept based on a recently patented suspension and track design, could deploy to hot spots world-wide on peacekeeping and combat missions which require extra flexibility to adapt...

  7. FY2011 Annual Progress Report for Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-15

    The VSST team's mission is to evaluate the technologies and performance characteristics of advanced automotive powertrain components and subsystems in an integrated vehicle systems context. These evaluations address light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle platforms. This work is directed toward evaluating and verifying the targets of the VTP R&D teams and to providing guidance in establishing roadmaps for achievement of these goals.

  8. Experimental Results from the Active Aeroelastic Wing Wind Tunnel Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeg, Jennifer; Spain, Charles V.; Florance, James R.; Wieseman, Carol D.; Ivanco, Thomas G.; DeMoss, Joshua; Silva, Walter A.; Panetta, Andrew; Lively, Peter; Tumwa, Vic

    2005-01-01

    The Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) program is a cooperative effort among NASA, the Air Force Research Laboratory and the Boeing Company, encompassing flight testing, wind tunnel testing and analyses. The objective of the AAW program is to investigate the improvements that can be realized by exploiting aeroelastic characteristics, rather than viewing them as a detriment to vehicle performance and stability. To meet this objective, a wind tunnel model was crafted to duplicate the static aeroelastic behavior of the AAW flight vehicle. The model was tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel in July and August 2004. The wind tunnel investigation served the program goal in three ways. First, the wind tunnel provided a benchmark for comparison with the flight vehicle and various levels of theoretical analyses. Second, it provided detailed insight highlighting the effects of individual parameters upon the aeroelastic response of the AAW vehicle. This parameter identification can then be used for future aeroelastic vehicle design guidance. Third, it provided data to validate scaling laws and their applicability with respect to statically scaled aeroelastic models.

  9. Autonomous Navigation for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Based on Information Filters and Active Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhong Yan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an autonomous navigation method for the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV C-Ranger applying information-filter-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM, and its sea trial experiments in Tuandao Bay (Shangdong Province, P.R. China. Weak links in the information matrix in an extended information filter (EIF can be pruned to achieve an efficient approach-sparse EIF algorithm (SEIF-SLAM. All the basic update formulae can be implemented in constant time irrespective of the size of the map; hence the computational complexity is significantly reduced. The mechanical scanning imaging sonar is chosen as the active sensing device for the underwater vehicle, and a compensation method based on feedback of the AUV pose is presented to overcome distortion of the acoustic images due to the vehicle motion. In order to verify the feasibility of the navigation methods proposed for the C-Ranger, a sea trial was conducted in Tuandao Bay. Experimental results and analysis show that the proposed navigation approach based on SEIF-SLAM improves the accuracy of the navigation compared with conventional method; moreover the algorithm has a low computational cost when compared with EKF-SLAM.

  10. Autonomous navigation for autonomous underwater vehicles based on information filters and active sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Zhang, Hongjin; Li, Chao; Zhang, Shujing; Liang, Yan; Yan, Tianhong

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses an autonomous navigation method for the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) C-Ranger applying information-filter-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), and its sea trial experiments in Tuandao Bay (Shangdong Province, P.R. China). Weak links in the information matrix in an extended information filter (EIF) can be pruned to achieve an efficient approach-sparse EIF algorithm (SEIF-SLAM). All the basic update formulae can be implemented in constant time irrespective of the size of the map; hence the computational complexity is significantly reduced. The mechanical scanning imaging sonar is chosen as the active sensing device for the underwater vehicle, and a compensation method based on feedback of the AUV pose is presented to overcome distortion of the acoustic images due to the vehicle motion. In order to verify the feasibility of the navigation methods proposed for the C-Ranger, a sea trial was conducted in Tuandao Bay. Experimental results and analysis show that the proposed navigation approach based on SEIF-SLAM improves the accuracy of the navigation compared with conventional method; moreover the algorithm has a low computational cost when compared with EKF-SLAM.

  11. A comparative study on the control strategies in vehicle active suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jie; Zheng, Ling; Li, Yi-nong

    2005-12-01

    The object of this research was to compare the performances of the active suspension system with three different control strategies. At first, a two degree-of-freedom vehicle model was established in order to study the basis feature of the active suspension system. Then three different control strategies including fuzzy control, optimal control and fuzzy-PID control were designed for the model. Each control strategy has its own characteristics. Therefore, their advantages and disadvantages were discussed in details. The simulation results show that the performances of the active suspension with three different control strategies are improved in riding comfort obviously and the fuzzy-PID control takes the advantages of both fuzzy control and PID control. It can be concluded that the fuzzy-PID control is a useful strategy for the active suspension system.

  12. Design of a New Integrated Structure of the Active Suspension System and Emergency Lane Change Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-bo; Liu, Hai-mei; Zhang, Lan-chun; Bei, Shao-yi

    2017-09-01

    An integrated structure of the active suspension system was proposed in order to solve the problem of the individual control of the height of the body or the adjustable damping of the active suspension system of the electric vehicle, which improve the vibration reduction performance of the vehicle. The air bag was used to replace the traditional spiral spring, and the traditional shock absorber was replaced by the damping adjustable shock absorber, and the control module received the body acceleration sensor and the horizontal height sensor signal. The system controlled adjustable damping coefficient of shock absorber through the height of the car body the output of the air pump relay and the height control valve and the output of the electromagnetic valve of the adjustable damping shock absorber, and the emergency lane change test was carried out under different modes of speed of 60km/h. The experimental results indicated that the damping value was greater, average roll angle, yaw angle and average vehicle lateral acceleration were small when vehicle body was in the state of emergency lane change, which verified the feasibility of the integrated control strategy and structure design of the active suspension system. The research has important theoretical research value and engineering application prospect for designing and controlling strategy of vehicle chassis integrated control system.

  13. Evaluation of the added mass for a spheroid-type unmanned underwater vehicle by vertical planar motion mechanism test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Keon Lee

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows added mass and inertia can be acquired from the pure heaving motion and pure pitching motion respectively. A Vertical Planar Motion Mechanism (VPMM test for the spheroid-type Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV was compared with a theoretical calculation and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD analysis in this paper. The VPMM test has been carried out at a towing tank with specially manufactured equipment. The linear equations of motion on the vertical plane were considered for theoretical calculation, and CFD results were obtained by commercial CFD package. The VPMM test results show good agreement with theoretical calculations and the CFD results, so that the applicability of the VPMM equipment for an underwater vehicle can be verified with a sufficient accuracy.

  14. Prediction of Military Vehicle’s Drawbar Pull Based on an Improved Relevance Vector Machine and Real Vehicle Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and effective prediction of drawbar pull is of great importance in the evaluation of military vehicle trafficability. Nevertheless, the existing prediction models have demonstrated lots of inherent limitations. In this framework, a multiple-kernel relevance vector machine model (MkRVM including Gaussian kernel and polynomial kernel is proposed to predict drawbar pull. Nonlinear decreasing inertia weight particle swarm optimization (NDIWPSO is employed for parameter optimization. As the relations between drawbar pull and its influencing factors have not been tested on real vehicles, a series of experimental analyses based on real vehicle test data are done to confirm the effective influencing factors. A dynamic testing system is applied to conduct field tests and gain required test data. Gaussian kernel RVM, polynomial kernel RVM, support vector machine (SVM and generalized regression neural network (GRNN are also used to compare with the MkRVM model. The results indicate that the MkRVM model is a preferable model in this case. Finally, the proposed novel model is compared to the traditional prediction model of drawbar pull. The results show that the MkRVM model significantly improves the prediction accuracy. A great potential of improved RVM is indicated in further research of wheel-soil interactions.

  15. Prediction of Military Vehicle’s Drawbar Pull Based on an Improved Relevance Vector Machine and Real Vehicle Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Sun, Wei; Lin, Guoyu; Zhang, Weigong

    2016-01-01

    The scientific and effective prediction of drawbar pull is of great importance in the evaluation of military vehicle trafficability. Nevertheless, the existing prediction models have demonstrated lots of inherent limitations. In this framework, a multiple-kernel relevance vector machine model (MkRVM) including Gaussian kernel and polynomial kernel is proposed to predict drawbar pull. Nonlinear decreasing inertia weight particle swarm optimization (NDIWPSO) is employed for parameter optimization. As the relations between drawbar pull and its influencing factors have not been tested on real vehicles, a series of experimental analyses based on real vehicle test data are done to confirm the effective influencing factors. A dynamic testing system is applied to conduct field tests and gain required test data. Gaussian kernel RVM, polynomial kernel RVM, support vector machine (SVM) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) are also used to compare with the MkRVM model. The results indicate that the MkRVM model is a preferable model in this case. Finally, the proposed novel model is compared to the traditional prediction model of drawbar pull. The results show that the MkRVM model significantly improves the prediction accuracy. A great potential of improved RVM is indicated in further research of wheel-soil interactions. PMID:26978359

  16. Study on Integrated Control of Active Front Steering and Direct Yaw Moment Based on Vehicle Lateral Velocity Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the vehicle lateral velocity is difficult to be measured at integration of chassis control in configuration of production vehicle, this study presents the vehicle lateral velocity estimation based on the extended Kalman filtering with the standard sensor information. The fuzzy control algorithm is proposed to integrate direct yaw moment control and active front steering with lateral velocity estimation. The integration controller produces direct yaw moment and front wheel angle compensation to control yaw rate and sideslip angle, which makes the actual vehicle yaw rate and sideslip angle follow desirable yaw rate and desirable sideslip angle. The simulation results show vehicle handling and stability are enhanced under different driving cycles by the proposed algorithm.

  17. Numerical simulation of shock absorbers heat load for semi-active vehicle suspension system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demić Miroslav D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic simulation, based on modelling, has a significant role during to the process of vehicle development. It is especially important in the first design stages, when relevant parameters are to be defined. Shock absorber, as an executive part of a semi-active suspension system, is exposed to thermal loads which can lead to its damage and degradation of characteristics. Therefore, this paper attempts to analyze a conversion of mechanical work into heat energy by use of a method of dynamic simulation. The issue of heat dissipation from the shock absorber has not been taken into consideration.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Thermal Performance in a Vehicle Cabin Test Setup With Pcm in the Roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purusothaman, M.; kota, Saichand; Cornilius, C. Sam; Siva, R.

    2017-05-01

    Heat flow from the roof with radiation through glass windows obviously high level that contributes to the total heat gained of a vehicle cabin. The cabin temperature of closed stationary vehicles in direct sunlight can quickly rise to a very level that may damage property and harm children or pets left in the vehicle. The problem that is faced by many car users today is very hot interior after certain minutes or hours of parking in open or un-shaded parking area. The heat accumulated inside the vehicle with undesired temperature rise would cause the parts of the car’s interior to degrade. Even the passengers are affected with the thermal condition inside the vehicle itself. The passenger has to wait for a certain time before getting into the car to cool down the interior condition either by lowering down the window or switching on the air conditioner at high speed that really affect the fuel consumption. A new roofing structure to improve its total thermal resistance is developed. Its uses phase change material properties to trap the heat from solar radiation and then release it back to the outer atmosphere by external convection when the vehicle is in use or during the nocturnal cycle. Phase change material, which has become an attractive means to store. Thermal energy, which has a wide range of applications, has been used. Phase change material has a high heat of fusion which is able to store and release large amount of energy. This PCM has been insulated in the roof of the vehicle to arrest the heat entering into the vehicle cabin. Experimental and numerical analyses have been conducted to compare the thermal performance of the new roofing structure and the normal roofing. By this experiment, the cooling process of the cabin could be much lower. The experimental investigation revealed that, on a hot day, the interior temperature of the vehicles cabin was approximately 22ºCe higher than the ambient temperature. The results show that the new roofing structure

  19. Development of Micro Air Reconnaissance Vehicle as a Test Bed for Advanced Sensors and Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Vranas, Thomas L.; Fox, Robert L.; Kuhn, Theodore R.; Ingham, John; Logan, Michael J.; Barnes, Kevin N.; Guenther, Benjamin F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Micro/Mini Air Reconnaissance Vehicle for advanced sensors and electronics at NASA Langley Research Center over the last year. This vehicle is expected to have a total weight of less than four pounds, a design velocity of 40 mph, an endurance of 15-20 minutes, and a maximum range of 5km. The vehicle has wings that are simple to detach yet retain the correct alignment. The upper fuselage surface has a quick release hatch used to access the interior and also to mount the varying propulsion systems. The sensor suite developed for this vehicle consists of a Pitot-static measurement system for determining air speed, an absolute pressure measurement for determining altitude, magnetic direction measurement, and three orthogonal gyros to determine body angular rates. Swarming GPS-guidance and in-flight maneuvering is discussed, as well as design and installation of some other advance sensors like MEMS microphones, infrared cameras, GPS, humidity sensors, and an ultrasonic sonar sensor. Also low cost, small size, high performance control and navigation system for the Micro Air Vehicle is discussed. At the end, laboratory characterization of different sensors, motors, propellers, and batteries will be discussed.

  20. Theoretical analysis and evaluation of an optimally controlled full-car vehicle model with a variable-damping semi-active vehicle suspension forced by measured road inputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ercan, Y [TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Sogutozu, 06560 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: yercan@etu.edu.tr

    2009-02-01

    This study aims to obtain the optimal control algorithm for a full-car model with a variable-damping semi-active suspension, such as a magnetorheological damper, by solving the linear quadratic regulator problem, and then to evaluate the system performance if the control inputs are constrained and delayed, and the vehicle is subjected to measured road inputs. A seven-degree of freedom full-car vehicle model was considered, and the state equations of the system were obtained in bilinear form. An integral performance index involving a weighted combination of the mean squares of average sprung mass acceleration and suspension deflections was defined. Trade-off curves were obtained between the sprung mass acceleration and suspension deflections of the optimally controlled system which is subjected to a measured road profile input. Performance of the optimally controlled system was compared to the performance of the corresponding optimum passive suspension system. For the vehicle parameters and the road input profile considered in this study, a reduction of 6.4% in the average vertical acceleration and 2.8% in the average suspension deflection was achieved by the semi-active suspensions. The response of the system to an initial condition has shown that its transient oscillations are damped out effectively by the semi-active suspension.

  1. Modeling the Launch Abort Vehicle's Subsonic Aerodynamics from Free Flight Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    An investigation into the aerodynamics of the Launch Abort Vehicle for NASA's Constellation Crew Launch Vehicle in the subsonic, incompressible flow regime was conducted in the NASA Langley 20-ft Vertical Spin Tunnel. Time histories of center of mass position and Euler Angles are captured using photogrammetry. Time histories of the wind tunnel's airspeed and dynamic pressure are recorded as well. The primary objective of the investigation is to determine models for the aerodynamic yaw and pitch moments that provide insight into the static and dynamic stability of the vehicle. System IDentification Programs for AirCraft (SIDPAC) is used to determine the aerodynamic model structure and estimate model parameters. Aerodynamic models for the aerodynamic body Y and Z force coefficients, and the pitching and yawing moment coefficients were identified.

  2. Combatting urban air pollution through Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) analysis, testing, and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Deteriorating urban air quality ranks as a top concern worldwide, since air pollution adversely affects both public health and the environment. The outlook for improving air quality in the world`s megacities need not be bleak, however, The use of natural gas as a transportation fuel can measurably reduce urban pollution levels, mitigating chronic threats to health and the environment. Besides being clean burning, natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are economical to operate and maintain. The current cost of natural gas is lower than that of gasoline. Natural gas also reduces the vehicle`s engine wear and noise level, extends engine life, and decreases engine maintenance. Today, about 700,000 NGVs operate worldwide, the majority of them converted from gasoline or diesel fuel. This article discusses the economic, regulatory and technological issues of concern to the NGV industry.

  3. Wright Brothers Lectureship in Aeronautics: Experience with HiMAT remotely piloted research vehicle - An alternate flight test approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deets, D. A.; Brown, L. E.

    1986-01-01

    The highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) program explored the various and complex interactions of advanced technologies, such as aeroelastic tailoring, close-coupled canard, and relaxed static stability. A 0.44-subscale remotely piloted research vehicle (RPRV) of a hypothetical fighter airplane was designed and flight-tested to determine the effects of these interactions and to define the design techniques appropriate for advanced fighter technologies. Flexibility and high maneuverability were provided by flight control laws implemented in ground-based computers and telemetered to the vehicle control system during flight tests. The high quality of the flight-measured data and their close correlation with the analytical design modeling proved that the RPRV is a viable and cost-effective tool for developing aerodynamic, structure, and control law requirements for highly maneuverable fighter airplanes of the future.

  4. The Influence of Intersections on Fuel Consumption in Urban Arterial Road Traffic: A Single Vehicle Test in Harbin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lina; Ci, Yusheng; Chu, Jiangwei; Zhang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The calculating method for fuel consumption (FC) was put forward and calibrated and the characteristics of the fuel consumption on intersections were analyzed based on 18 groups of vehicular operating data which were acquired from the test experiment of a single vehicle along the urban arterial roads in Harbin, China. The results obtained show that 50.36% of the fuel consumption for the test vehicle was used at the area of intersections compared with 28.9% of the influencing distance and 68.5% of the running time; and 78.4% of them was burnt at the stages of acceleration and idling. Meanwhile, the type (c) of the vehicular operating status was illustrated to be the worst way of reducing fuel consumption, the causes were analyzed and four improvement strategies were put forward.

  5. 40 CFR Appendix Xiv to Part 86 - Determination of Acceptable Durability Test Schedule for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light Light-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mileages at the proposed test points: Aprop = [∑(Xp)2 − ((∑Xp)2 / Np))prop Where: Xp = Individual mileages at which the vehicle will be tested. Np = Total number of tests (including before and after maintenance tests). (Subscript “p” refers to proposed test schedule). 3. Determine exhaust system mileage test...

  6. Determining Damping Trends from a Range of Cable Harness Assemblies on a Launch Vehicle Panel from Test Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; Davis, R. Ben; LaVerde, Bruce; Jones, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The team of authors at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been investigating estimating techniques for the vibration response of launch vehicle panels excited by acoustics and/or aero-fluctuating pressures. Validation of the approaches used to estimate these environments based on ground tests of flight like hardware is of major importance to new vehicle programs. The team at MSFC has recently expanded upon the first series of ground test cases completed in December 2010. The follow on tests recently completed are intended to illustrate differences in damping that might be expected when cable harnesses are added to the configurations under test. This validation study examines the effect on vibroacoustic response resulting from the installation of cable bundles on a curved orthogrid panel. Of interest is the level of damping provided by the installation of the cable bundles and whether this damping could be potentially leveraged in launch vehicle design. The results of this test are compared with baseline acoustic response tests without cables. Damping estimates from the measured response data are made using a new software tool that employs a finite element model (FEM) of the panel in conjunction with advanced optimization techniques. This paper will report on the \\damping trend differences. observed from response measurements for several different configurations of cable harnesses. The data should assist vibroacoustics engineers to make more informed damping assumptions when calculating vibration response estimates when using model based analysis approach. Achieving conservative estimates that have more flight like accuracy is desired. The paper may also assist analysts in determining how ground test data may relate to expected flight response levels. Empirical response estimates may also need to be adjusted if the measured response used as an input to the study came from a test article without flight like cable harnesses.

  7. Inductive power transmission for electric-driven vehicles in test operation; Induktive Energieuebertragung fuer Elektrofahrzeuge im Testbetrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binswanger, Martin; Granzer, Roland

    2012-08-15

    As part of a pilot project in Augsburg (Federal Republic of Germany), at the end of May 2012 Bombardier has demonstrated the operating principle of a system of inductive, that is non-contact power transmission to electric-powered vehicles and the realistic test of a tram train with this. In principle, the use of the system to regional trains does not pertain to the project objectives.

  8. A review of international abuse testing standards and regulations for lithium ion batteries in electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    RUIZ RUIZ VANESA; PFRANG ANDREAS; KRISTON AKOS; OMAR NOSHIM; VAN DEN BOSSCHE PETER; BRETT LOIS

    2015-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries are a proven technology for automotive applications and their continued use in the future electric vehicle fleet is undeniable. In addition to battery performance and durability, battery safety is paramount to ensure confidence and widespread adoption of electromobility in our society. This comprehensive review aims at presenting the various international standards and regulations for safety testing of lithium ion batteries in automotive applications under various abusiv...

  9. Multi-objective decoupling algorithm for active distance control of intelligent hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yugong; Chen, Tao; Li, Keqiang

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents a novel active distance control strategy for intelligent hybrid electric vehicles (IHEV) with the purpose of guaranteeing an optimal performance in view of the driving functions, optimum safety, fuel economy and ride comfort. Considering the complexity of driving situations, the objects of safety and ride comfort are decoupled from that of fuel economy, and a hierarchical control architecture is adopted to improve the real-time performance and the adaptability. The hierarchical control structure consists of four layers: active distance control object determination, comprehensive driving and braking torque calculation, comprehensive torque distribution and torque coordination. The safety distance control and the emergency stop algorithms are designed to achieve the safety and ride comfort goals. The optimal rule-based energy management algorithm of the hybrid electric system is developed to improve the fuel economy. The torque coordination control strategy is proposed to regulate engine torque, motor torque and hydraulic braking torque to improve the ride comfort. This strategy is verified by simulation and experiment using a forward simulation platform and a prototype vehicle. The results show that the novel control strategy can achieve the integrated and coordinated control of its multiple subsystems, which guarantees top performance of the driving functions and optimum safety, fuel economy and ride comfort.

  10. A contribution to the investigation of the heat load of shock absorbers of semi-active suspensions in motor vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav D. Demić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic simulation, based on modeling, has a significant role during the process of vehicle development. It is especially important in the first stages of vehicle design, when relevant vehicle parameters are to be defined. Shock absorbers as executive parts of vehicle semi-active suspension systems suffer thermal loads, which may result in damage and degradation of ther characteristics. Therefore,this paper shows an attempt to analyze converting of mechanical work into heat by using the dynamic simulation method. Introduction Shock absorbers are integral elements of semi-active suspension systems for vehicles (hereinafter SASS. They directly affect the active vehicle safety. The role of shock absorbers is to absorb mechanical vibrations transferred from the road and to ensure the safety of passengers in a vehicle. The kinetic energy of vehicle vibrations transforms into mechanical work or heat in shock absorbers. In practice, in the first stage of vehicle development, the shock absorber parameters are chosen from the condition of damping vibrations of vehicles, but their thermal shock loads should be also taken into account. Motor vehicles have complex dynamic characteristics manifested by spatial movement, parameters change during operation, a number of disturbing influences, backlash, friction, hysteresis, etc. The above-mentioned dynamic phenomena, especially vibration, lead to fatigue of driver and users, reduce the life of the vehicle and its systems, etc. The main objective of the system is to reduce the reliance of the above-mentioned negative effects, improving the vehicle behavior on the road and allow the exploitation of vehicles in a wide range of service conditions. Classical systems cannot satisfiy these conditions, so there was a need to introduce new suspension systems with controlled characteristics (briefly called "semi-active", or "active" systems. Oscillatory model of vehicle The differential equations of vibratory motion of

  11. Walkability parameters, active transportation and objective physical activity: moderating and mediating effects of motor vehicle ownership in a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Ulf; Arvidsson, Daniel; Gebel, Klaus; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Kristina

    2012-10-05

    Neighborhood walkability has been associated with physical activity in several studies. However, as environmental correlates of physical activity may be context specific, walkability parameters need to be investigated separately in various countries and contexts. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which walkability affects physical activity have been less investigated. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that vehicle ownership is a potential mediator. We investigated the associations between walkability parameters and physical activity, and the mediating and moderating effects of vehicle ownership on these associations in a large sample of Swedish adults. Residential density, street connectivity and land use mix were assessed within polygon-based network buffers (using Geographic Information Systems) for 2,178 men and women. Time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity was assessed by accelerometers, and walking and cycling for transportation were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Associations were examined by linear regression and adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics. The product of coefficients approach was used to investigate the mediating effect of vehicle ownership. Residential density and land use mix, but not street connectivity, were significantly associated with time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity and walking for transportation. Cycling for transportation was not associated with any of the walkability parameters. Vehicle ownership mediated a significant proportion of the association between the walkability parameters and physical activity outcomes. For residential density, vehicle ownership mediated 25% of the association with moderate to vigorous physical activity and 20% of the association with the amount of walking for transportation. For land use mix, the corresponding proportions were 34% and 14%. Vehicle ownership did not moderate any of the associations between the walkability

  12. Extraction-Separation Performance and Dynamic Modeling of Orion Test Vehicles with Adams Simulation: 3rd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Jose G.; Reddy, Satish; Moeller, Enrique; Anderson, Keith

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) Project is now in the qualification phase of testing, and the Adams simulation has continued to evolve to model the complex dynamics experienced during the test article extraction and separation phases of flight. The ability to initiate tests near the upper altitude limit of the Orion parachute deployment envelope requires extractions from the aircraft at 35,000 ft-MSL. Engineering development phase testing of the Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV) carried by the Carriage Platform Separation System (CPSS) at altitude resulted in test support equipment hardware failures due to increased energy caused by higher true airspeeds. As a result, hardware modifications became a necessity requiring ground static testing of the textile components to be conducted and a new ground dynamic test of the extraction system to be devised. Force-displacement curves from static tests were incorporated into the Adams simulations, allowing prediction of loads, velocities and margins encountered during both flight and ground dynamic tests. The Adams simulation was then further refined by fine tuning the damping terms to match the peak loads recorded in the ground dynamic tests. The failure observed in flight testing was successfully replicated in ground testing and true safety margins of the textile components were revealed. A multi-loop energy modulator was then incorporated into the system level Adams simulation model and the effect on improving test margins be properly evaluated leading to high confidence ground verification testing of the final design solution.

  13. Quantitative HPLC analysis of active pharmaceutical ingredients in syrup vehicle using centrifugal filter devices and determination of xanthan gum in syrup vehicle using rheometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Tadey, Tanya; Hu, Mougang; Carr, Geoff; Guo, Junan

    2010-02-01

    Using rapid centrifugal filtration (membrane prevented compounds with molecular weight higher than the nominal molecular weight limit (NMWL) from transporting through the membrane, thus separating them from compounds with molecular weight smaller than NMWL, which would pass through the membrane. The purpose of this study aims to remove high molecular weight matrix (such as xanthan gum) interferences while achieving a quantitative analysis of the active pharmaceutical ingradients of interest. Two model active pharmaceutical ingredients, L-arginine and amphotericin B, were quantitatively recovered from the diluted syrup vehicle after centrifugation with the filter devices. The reproducibility [% relative standard deviation (RSD), peak area] of the filtered samples was less than 0.5%. For amphotericin B samples. The linear range was 0.28 microg/mL to 28.2 microg/mL. The limit of detection was 0.06 microg/mL. The limit of quantification was 0.28 microg/mL. The viscosity of a syrup vehicle changed linearly with the concentration of xanthan gum. A method was thus developed to determine xanthan gum in the syrup vehicle. The accuracy was within 95.0% to 105.0% at different concentration levels.

  14. A test of an autonomous underwater vehicle as a monitoring tool in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The utility of micro-autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) to detect hydrographic features that concentrate phytoplankton cells was evaluated during a study in a shallow tidal estuary. This study represented the ... was equipped with a CTD sensor to measure depth, conductivity and temperature. They were programmed to ...

  15. FY2010 Annual Progress Report for Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slezak, Lee [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-01-15

    The VSST team evaluates the technologies and performance characteristics of advanced automotive powertrain components and subsystems in an integrated vehicle systems context, covering light to heavy platforms. This work is directed toward evaluating and verifying the targets of the VTP R&D teams and to provide guidance in establishing roadmaps for achievement of these goals.

  16. The Implementation and Testing of a Robotic Arm on an Autonomous Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    3 Figure 5. AGV (From [3...Autonomous Ground Vehicle ( AGV ), created by MAJ Ben Miller US Army. AGB was a wheeled platform and was equipped with acoustic and IR (infrared...detectors to detect motion. AGB had the capability to report images to remote monitoring stations via a web camera. The concept of operations for AGV was

  17. Notification: Evaluating the Internal Controls for EPA's Vehicle Emissions Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY17-0009, Mar 6, 2017. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research to determine whether the EPA’s existing internal controls are effective at detecting and preventing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty on-road vehicle emissions fraud.

  18. 40 CFR 80.48 - Augmentation of the complex emission model by vehicle testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...), technology type, and manufacturer; a description of the methods used to procure and prepare the vehicles; the... be determined separately, for each pollutant and for each technology group and emitter class category... parameter being extended, such a term should be added in a stepwise fashion after completing the model...

  19. Driver head displacement during (automatic) vehicle braking tests with varying levels of distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, L. van; Pauwelussen, J.; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Janssen, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Vehicle occupant behavior in emergency driving conditions has a large effect on traffic safety. Distraction is estimated to be the cause of 15-20% of all crashes. Additionally, the posture of the occupants prior to the possibly unavoidable crash is known to have a large effect on the injury reducing

  20. Sensitivity analyses of stopping distance for connected vehicles at active highway-rail grade crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Jen; Jones, Elizabeth G

    2017-02-01

    This paper performs sensitivity analyses of stopping distance for connected vehicles (CVs) at active highway-rail grade crossings (HRGCs). Stopping distance is the major safety factor at active HRGCs. A sensitivity analysis is performed for each variable in the function of stopping distance. The formulation of stopping distance treats each variable as a probability density function for implementing Monte Carlo simulations. The result of the sensitivity analysis shows that the initial speed is the most sensitive factor to stopping distances of CVs and non-CVs. The safety of CVs can be further improved by the early provision of onboard train information and warnings to reduce the initial speeds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. M109 Family of Vehicles, Paladin Integrated Management (PIM): Operational Assessment of the Initial Operational Test and Evaluation (IOT and E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Director, Operational Test and Evaluation M109 Family of Vehicles, Paladin Integrated Management (PIM) Operational Assessment of the... operational suitability, test adequacy, and survivability of the M109 Family of Vehicles (FoV), known as Paladin Integrated Management (PIM) Self...prevent the M109A7 SPH-equipped unit from completing its mission. The Paladin Integrated Management (PIM) Initial Operational Test and Evaluation

  2. TCV software test and validation tools and technique. [Terminal Configured Vehicle program for commercial transport aircraft operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straeter, T. A.; Williams, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes techniques for testing and validating software for the TCV (Terminal Configured Vehicle) program which is intended to solve problems associated with operating a commercial transport aircraft in the terminal area. The TCV research test bed is a Boeing 737 specially configured with digital computer systems to carry out automatic navigation, guidance, flight controls, and electronic displays research. The techniques developed for time and cost reduction include automatic documentation aids, an automatic software configuration, and an all software generation and validation system.

  3. Optimisation of active suspension control inputs for improved vehicle ride performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čorić, Mirko; Deur, Joško; Xu, Li; Tseng, H. Eric; Hrovat, Davor

    2016-07-01

    A collocation-type control variable optimisation method is used in the paper to analyse to which extent the fully active suspension (FAS) can improve the vehicle ride comfort while preserving the wheel holding ability. The method is first applied for a cosine-shaped bump road disturbance of different heights, and for both quarter-car and full 10 degree-of-freedom vehicle models. A nonlinear anti-wheel hop constraint is considered, and the influence of bump preview time period is analysed. The analysis is then extended to the case of square- or cosine-shaped pothole with different lengths, and the quarter-car model. In this case, the cost function is extended with FAS energy consumption and wheel damage resilience costs. The FAS action is found to be such to provide a wheel hop over the pothole, in order to avoid or minimise the damage at the pothole trailing edge. In the case of long pothole, when the FAS cannot provide the wheel hop, the wheel is travelling over the pothole bottom and then hops over the pothole trailing edge. The numerical optimisation results are accompanied by a simplified algebraic analysis.

  4. Aerodynamic control of NASP-type vehicles through Vortex manipulation. Volume 2: Static wind tunnel tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Kramer, Brian R.; Smith, Brooke C.; Malcolm, Gerald N.

    1993-01-01

    Forebody Vortex Control (FVC) was explored in this research program for potential application to a NASP-type configuration. Wind tunnel tests were conducted to evaluate a number of jet blowing schemes. The configuration tested has a slender forebody and a 78 deg swept delta wing. Blowing jets were implemented on the leeward side of the forebody with small circular tubes tangential to the surface that could be directed aft, forward, or at angles in between. The effects of blowing are observed primarily in the yawing and rolling moments and are highly dependent on the jet configuration and the angle of attack. Results show that the baseline flow field, without blowing activated, is quite sensitive to the geometry differences of the various protruding jets, as well as being sensitive to the blowing, particularly in the angle of attack range where the forebody vortices are naturally asymmetric. The time lag of the flow field response to the initiation of blowing was also measured. The time response was very short, on the order of the time required for the flow disturbance to travel the distance from the nozzle to the specific airframe location of interest at the free stream velocity. Overall, results indicate that sizable yawing and rolling moments can be induced with modest blowing levels. However, direct application of this technique on a very slender forebody would require thorough wind tunnel testing to optimize the jet location and configuration.

  5. Suggested Research Method for Testing Selected Tribological Properties of Friction Components in Vehicle Braking Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borawski Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The braking system is one of the most important systems in any vehicle. Its proper functioning may determine the health and life the people inside the vehicle as well as other road users. Therefore, it is important that the parameters which characterise the functioning of brakes changed as little as possible throughout their lifespan. Multiple instances of heating and cooling of the working components of the brake system as well as the environment they work in may impact their tribological properties. This article describes a method of evaluating the coefficient of friction and the wear speed of abrasive wear of friction working components of brakes. The methodology was developed on the basis of Taguchi’s method of process optimization.

  6. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  7. Multi-Resolution Rapid Prototyping of Vehicle Cooling Systems: Approach and Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    components within the system. 3. System-level: assembly of reduced-order models of components for rapid generation of results for the entire vehicle...using reduced-order models (with increased resolution) on specific components/ assemblies , while using regular reduced-order models for the remaining...Single and Multi-Evaporator Subcritical Vapor Compression Systems”, M.S. Thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign. Siegel, J., 2007, Corba

  8. Human Factors Lessons Learned from Flight Testing Wingless Lifting Body Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Peter William

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1960s, NASA, the Air Force, and now private industry have attempted to develop an operational human crewed reusable spacecraft with a wingless, lifting body configuration. This type of vehicle offers increased mission flexibility and greater reentry cross range than capsule type craft, and is particularly attractive due to the capability to land on a runway. That capability, however, adds complexity to the human factors engineering requirements of developing such aircraft.

  9. Design and Testing of a Thermal Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Mingyu [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; WolfeIV, Edward [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; Craig, Timothy [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Without the waste heat available from the engine of a conventional automobile, electric vehicles (EVs) must provide heat to the cabin for climate control using energy stored in the vehicle. In current EV designs, this energy is typically provided by the traction battery. In very cold climatic conditions, the power required to heat the EV cabin can be of a similar magnitude to that required for propulsion of the vehicle. As a result, the driving range of an EV can be reduced very significantly during winter months, which limits consumer acceptance of EVs and results in increased battery costs to achieve a minimum range while ensuring comfort to the EV driver. To minimize the range penalty associated with EV cabin heating, a novel climate control system that includes thermal energy storage has been designed for use in EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The system uses the stored latent heat of an advanced phase change material (PCM) to provide cabin heating. The PCM is melted while the EV is connected to the electric grid for charging of the electric battery, and the stored energy is subsequently transferred to the cabin during driving. To minimize thermal losses when the EV is parked for extended periods, the PCM is encased in a high performance insulation system. The electrical PCM-Assisted Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) was designed to provide enough thermal energy to heat the EV s cabin for approximately 46 minutes, covering the entire daily commute of a typical driver in the U.S.

  10. Macro Fiber Composite Actuated Unmanned Air Vehicles: Design, Development, and Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Bilgen, Onur

    2007-01-01

    The design and implementation of a morphing unmanned aircraft using smart materials is presented. Articulated lifting surfaces and articulated wing sections actuated by servos are difficult to instrument and fabricate in a repeatable fashion on thin, composite-wing micro-air-vehicles. Assembly is complex and time consuming. A type of piezoceramic composite actuator commonly known as Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) is used for wing morphing. The actuation capability of this actuator on fiberglas...

  11. Development of Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platform: Modeling, Simulating, and Flight Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    software, classical techniques given in ( Roskam , 1982:Ch 4), (Etkin and Reid, 1996:Ch 7 3), were used to aid in determining aerodynamic data. Then a...motion are readily available from noted authors such as Etkin, Roskam , Blakelock, and McRuer. A paper released by the Honeywell Technology Center in...Hill, 1998. Office of the Secretary of Defense. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Roadmap 2002-2027. Washington: HQ DOD, December, 2002. Roskam , Jan. Airplane

  12. Correlation Results for a Mass Loaded Vehicle Panel Test Article Finite Element Models and Modal Survey Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasha, Rumaasha; Towner, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    High-fidelity Finite Element Models (FEMs) were developed to support a recent test program at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The FEMs correspond to test articles used for a series of acoustic tests. Modal survey tests were used to validate the FEMs for five acoustic tests (a bare panel and four different mass-loaded panel configurations). An additional modal survey test was performed on the empty test fixture (orthogrid panel mounting fixture, between the reverb and anechoic chambers). Modal survey tests were used to test-validate the dynamic characteristics of FEMs used for acoustic test excitation. Modal survey testing and subsequent model correlation has validated the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the FEMs. The modal survey test results provide a basis for the analysis models used for acoustic loading response test and analysis comparisons

  13. Sharing Data between Mobile Devices, Connected Vehicles and Infrastructure Task 6: Prototype Acceptance Test Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-30

    The Task 6 Prototype Acceptance Test Summary Report summarizes the results of Acceptance Testing carried out at Battelle facilities in accordance with the Task 6 Acceptance Test Plan. The Acceptance Tests were designed to verify that the prototype sy...

  14. Regional brain electrical activity in posttraumatic stress disorder after motor vehicle accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, Sirko; Beauducel, André; Zöllner, Tanja; Maercker, Andreas; Karl, Anke

    2006-11-01

    This study examined whether patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) would show an abnormal pattern of electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha asymmetries, which has been proposed for particular types of anxiety. Patients with PTSD (n = 22) or subsyndromal PTSD (n = 21), traumatized controls without PTSD (non-PTSD with MVA; n = 21), and healthy controls without MVA (n = 23) underwent measurement of EEG activity during baseline and exposure to a neutral, a positive, a negative, and an accident-related picture. Differences in brain asymmetry between groups were observed only during exposure to trauma-related material. PTSD and subsyndromal PTSD patients showed a pattern of enhanced right anterior and posterior activation, whereas non-PTSD with MVA participants showed the opposite pattern. Furthermore, posterior asymmetry in nontraumatized healthy controls varied with gender, with female participants showing a pattern of higher right posterior activation. The results support the hypothesis that symptomatic MVA survivors are characterized by a pattern of right hemisphere activation that is associated with anxious arousal and symptoms of PTSD during processing of trauma-specific information. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Flight Reynolds Number Testing of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David T.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    A 6%-scale unpowered model of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) ALAS-11-rev3c configuration was tested in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility to obtain static aerodynamic data at flight Reynolds numbers. Subsonic and transonic data were obtained for Mach numbers between 0.3 and 0.95 for angles of attack from -4 to +22 degrees and angles of sideslip from -10 to +10 degrees. Data were also obtained at various intermediate Reynolds numbers between 2.5 million and 45 million depending on Mach number in order to examine the effects of Reynolds number on the vehicle. Force and moment data were obtained using a 6-component strain gauge balance that operated both at warm temperatures (+120 . F) and cryogenic temperatures (-250 . F). Surface pressure data were obtained with electronically scanned pressure units housed in heated enclosures designed to survive cryogenic temperatures. Data obtained during the 3-week test entry were used to support development of the LAV aerodynamic database and to support computational fluid dynamics code validation. Furthermore, one of the outcomes of the test was the reduction of database uncertainty on axial force coefficient for the static unpowered LAV. This was accomplished as a result of good data repeatability throughout the test and because of decreased uncertainty on scaling wind tunnel data to flight.

  16. Analysis of SRM model nozzle calibration test data in support of IA12B, IA12C and IA36 space shuttle launch vehicle aerodynamics tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, L. R., Jr.; Tevepaugh, J. A.; Penny, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    Variations of nozzle performance characteristics of the model nozzles used in the Space Shuttle IA12B, IA12C, IA36 power-on launch vehicle test series are shown by comparison between experimental and analytical data. The experimental data are nozzle wall pressure distributions and schlieren photographs of the exhaust plume shapes. The exhaust plume shapes were simulated experimentally with cold flow while the analytical data were generated using a method-of-characteristics solution. Exhaust plume boundaries, boundary shockwave locations and nozzle wall pressure measurements calculated analytically agree favorably with the experimental data from the IA12C and IA36 test series. For the IA12B test series condensation was suspected in the exhaust plumes at the higher pressure ratios required to simulate the prototype plume shapes. Nozzle calibration tests for the series were conducted at pressure ratios where condensation either did not occur or if present did not produce a noticeable effect on the plume shapes. However, at the pressure ratios required in the power-on launch vehicle tests condensation probably occurs and could significantly affect the exhaust plume shapes.

  17. Development of collision dynamics models to estimate the results of full-scale rail vehicle impact tests : Tufts University Master's Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    In an effort to study occupant survivability in train collisions, analyses and tests were conducted to understand and improve the crashworthiness of rail vehicles. A collision dynamics model was developed in order to estimate the rigid body motion of...

  18. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype Chrysler Volare, 225 CID (3.7-liter) automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The results obtained from fuel economy and emission tests conducted on a prototype Chrysler Volare diesel vehicle are documented. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. The fuel used, was a DOE/BETC referee fuel. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. The vehicle obtained 32.7 mpg for the FTP urban cycle and 48.8 mpg for the highway cycle. The emissions rates were 0.42/1.58/1.17/0.28 g/mile of HC, CO, NOx and particulates respectively.

  19. Setback distances as a conservation tool in wildlife-human interactions: testing their efficacy for birds affected by vehicles on open-coast sandy beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A; Weston, Michael A; Lynn, David; Connolly, Rod M

    2013-01-01

    In some wilderness areas, wildlife encounter vehicles disrupt their behaviour and habitat use. Changing driver behaviour has been proposed where bans on vehicle use are politically unpalatable, but the efficacy of vehicle setbacks and reduced speeds remains largely untested. We characterised bird-vehicle encounters in terms of driver behaviour and the disturbance caused to birds, and tested whether spatial buffers or lower speeds reduced bird escape responses on open beaches. Focal observations showed that: i) most drivers did not create sizeable buffers between their vehicles and birds; ii) bird disturbance was frequent; and iii) predictors of probability of flushing (escape) were setback distance and vehicle type (buses flushed birds at higher rates than cars). Experiments demonstrated that substantial reductions in bird escape responses required buffers to be wide (> 25 m) and vehicle speeds to be slow (wildlife, provided that they are carefully designed and derived from empirical evidence. No speed or distance combination we tested, however, eliminated bird responses. Thus, while buffers reduce response rates, they are likely to be much less effective than vehicle-free zones (i.e. beach closures), and rely on changes to current driver behaviour.

  20. Setback distances as a conservation tool in wildlife-human interactions: testing their efficacy for birds affected by vehicles on open-coast sandy beaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Schlacher

    Full Text Available In some wilderness areas, wildlife encounter vehicles disrupt their behaviour and habitat use. Changing driver behaviour has been proposed where bans on vehicle use are politically unpalatable, but the efficacy of vehicle setbacks and reduced speeds remains largely untested. We characterised bird-vehicle encounters in terms of driver behaviour and the disturbance caused to birds, and tested whether spatial buffers or lower speeds reduced bird escape responses on open beaches. Focal observations showed that: i most drivers did not create sizeable buffers between their vehicles and birds; ii bird disturbance was frequent; and iii predictors of probability of flushing (escape were setback distance and vehicle type (buses flushed birds at higher rates than cars. Experiments demonstrated that substantial reductions in bird escape responses required buffers to be wide (> 25 m and vehicle speeds to be slow (< 30 km h⁻¹. Setback distances can reduce impacts on wildlife, provided that they are carefully designed and derived from empirical evidence. No speed or distance combination we tested, however, eliminated bird responses. Thus, while buffers reduce response rates, they are likely to be much less effective than vehicle-free zones (i.e. beach closures, and rely on changes to current driver behaviour.

  1. Preflight transient dynamic analyses of B-52 aircraft carrying Space Shuttle solid rocket booster drop-test vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, W. L.; Schuster, L. S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper concerns the transient dynamic analysis of the B-52 aircraft carrying the Space Shuttle solid rocket booster drop test vehicle (SRB/DTV). The NASA structural analysis (NASTRAN) finite element computer program was used in the analysis. The B-52 operating conditions considered for analysis were (1) landing and (2) braking on aborted takeoff runs. The transient loads for the B-52 pylon front and rear hooks were calculated. The results can be used to establish the safe maneuver envelopes for the B-52 carrying the SRB/DTV in landings and brakings.

  2. Pre-flight transient dynamic analysis of B-52 carrying Space Shuttle solid rocket booster drop-test vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, W. L.; Schuster, L. S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper concerns the transient dynamic analysis of the B-52 aircraft carrying the Space Shuttle solid-rocket booster drop-test vehicle (SRB/DTV). The NASA structural analysis (NASTRAN) finite-element computer program was used in the analysis. The B-52 operating conditions considered for analysis were (1) landing and (2) braking on aborted takeoff runs. The transient loads for the B-52 pylon front and rear hooks were calculated. The results can be used to establish the safe maneuver envelopes for the B-52 carrying the SRB/DTV in landings and brakings.

  3. A theoretical and practical test of geographical profiling with serial vehicle theft in a U.K. context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, Matthew; Woodhams, Jessica; Bond, John W; Loe, Trudy

    2010-01-01

    Geographical profiling is an investigative methodology sometimes employed by the police to predict the residence of an unknown offender from the locations of his/her crimes. The validity of geographical profiling, however, has not been fully explored for certain crime types. This study, therefore, presents a preliminary test of the potential for geographical profiling with a sample of 145 serial vehicle thieves from the U.K. The behavioural assumptions underlying geographical profiling (distance decay and domocentricity) are tested and a simple practical test of profiling using the spatial mean is presented. There is evidence for distance decay but not domocentricity among the spatial behaviour of car thieves from the U.K. A degree of success was achieved when applying the spatial mean on a case-by-case basis. The level of success varied, however, and neither series length in days nor number of crimes could account for the variation. The findings question previously held assumptions regarding geographical profiling and have potential theoretical and practical implications for the study and investigation of vehicle theft in the U.K. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Testing the Logistics Model of Supplying Military Vehicles with Spare Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Spudić

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of advanced transport means understands alsotheir supply by spare and consumable parts. In order to solvethe problem of the required quantities, costs of purchase andstorage of the parts, it is necessary to solve the problem of stocksmanagement. The wear of tyres for military vehicles in extremeexploitation conditions is of random character. How fast thetyres will wear on the all-ten·ain and heavy motor vehicle dependson the driver's skill and the external conditions (weather,terrain. All the conditions are of random character and in orderto determine as accurately as possible the wear of tyres it isnecessary to monitor the wear of tyres within a certain time period,and to find the approximate probability of tyre wear in thefuture period of time. When the probability of tyre wear is determined,stochastic supply management model is used to calculatethe value of the stocks which allows optimal planning ofstocks of spare parts at minimal costs. The stochastic model allowsoptimal calculation for the purchase of consumable partsof transport means whose consumption depends on the randomconditions and events.

  5. Capacity Calculation of Shunt Active Power Filters for Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Based on Harmonic Parameter Estimation and Analytical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niancheng Zhou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of electric vehicle charging stations on power grid harmonics is becoming increasingly significant as their presence continues to grow. This paper studies the operational principles of the charging current in the continuous and discontinuous modes for a three-phase uncontrolled rectification charger with a passive power factor correction link, which is affected by the charging power. A parameter estimation method is proposed for the equivalent circuit of the charger by using the measured characteristic AC (Alternating Current voltage and current data combined with the charging circuit constraints in the conduction process, and this method is verified using an experimental platform. The sensitivity of the current harmonics to the changes in the parameters is analyzed. An analytical harmonic model of the charging station is created by separating the chargers into groups by type. Then, the harmonic current amplification caused by the shunt active power filter is researched, and the analytical formula for the overload factor is derived to further correct the capacity of the shunt active power filter. Finally, this method is validated through a field test of a charging station.

  6. Requirements for homologation, legislation and test cycles of vehicles with advanced powertrains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemersma, I.J.; Hendriksen, P.; Gense, N.L.J.; Smokers, R.T.M.

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, In-Use Compliance testing is closely related to homologation legislation, as in most cases the IUC test is a derivative from the type approval test. As it is the aim of this paper to explore the future of IUC testing, this can be studied best on the basis of expectations for future

  7. A novel vehicle tracking algorithm based on mean shift and active contour model in complex environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lei; Wang, Lin; Li, Bo; Zhang, Libao; Lv, Wen

    2017-06-01

    Vehicle tracking technology is currently one of the most active research topics in machine vision. It is an important part of intelligent transportation system. However, in theory and technology, it still faces many challenges including real-time and robustness. In video surveillance, the targets need to be detected in real-time and to be calculated accurate position for judging the motives. The contents of video sequence images and the target motion are complex, so the objects can't be expressed by a unified mathematical model. Object-tracking is defined as locating the interest moving target in each frame of a piece of video. The current tracking technology can achieve reliable results in simple environment over the target with easy identified characteristics. However, in more complex environment, it is easy to lose the target because of the mismatch between the target appearance and its dynamic model. Moreover, the target usually has a complex shape, but the tradition target tracking algorithm usually represents the tracking results by simple geometric such as rectangle or circle, so it cannot provide accurate information for the subsequent upper application. This paper combines a traditional object-tracking technology, Mean-Shift algorithm, with a kind of image segmentation algorithm, Active-Contour model, to get the outlines of objects while the tracking process and automatically handle topology changes. Meanwhile, the outline information is used to aid tracking algorithm to improve it.

  8. A Shock Mitigation of Pedestrian-Vehicle Impact Using Active Hood Lift System: Deploying Time Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hoon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the deploying time (or response time of an active hood lift system (AHLS of a passenger vehicle activated by gunpowder actuator. In this work, this is accomplished by changing principal design parameters of the latch part mechanism of the hood system. After briefly introducing the working principle of the AHLS operated by the gunpowder actuator, the governing equations of the AHLS are formulated for each different deploying motion. Subsequently, using the governing equations, the response time for deploying the hold lift system is determined by changing several geometric distances such as the distance from the rotational center of the pop-up guide to the point of the latch in the axial and vertical directions. Then, a comparison is made of the total response time to completely deploy the hood lift system with the existing conventional AHLS and proposed AHLS. In addition, the workable driving speed of the proposed AHLS is compared with the conventional one by changing the powder volume of the actuator.

  9. Wireless Power Transfer to a Microaerial Vehicle with a Microwave Active Phased Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shotaro Nako

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A wireless power transfer system using a microwave active phased array was developed. In the system, power is transferred to a circling microaerial vehicle (MAV by a microwave beam of 5.8 GHz, which is formed and directed to the MAV using an active phased array antenna. The MAV is expected to support observation of areas that humans cannot reach. The power beam is formed by the phased array with eight antenna elements. Input power is about 5.6 W. The peak power density at 1,500 mm altitude was 2.63 mW/cm2. The power is sent to a circling MAV. Therefore, the transfer beam should be polarized circularly to achieve a constant power supply independent of its yaw angle. To minimize the polarization loss, a sequentially routed antenna (SRA was applied to the transmitter antenna. Results show that the axial ratio of 0.440 dB was accomplished and that power fluctuation was kept below 1%.

  10. Design and test of a situation-augmented display for an unmanned aerial vehicle monitoring task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jen-Li; Horng, Ruey-Yun; Chao, Chin-Jung

    2013-08-01

    In this study, a situation-augmented display for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) monitoring was designed, and its effects on operator performance and mental workload were examined. The display design was augmented with the knowledge that there is an invariant flight trajectory (formed by the relationship between altitude and velocity) for every flight, from takeoff to landing. 56 participants were randomly assigned to the situation-augmented display or a conventional display condition to work on 4 (number of abnormalities) x 2 (noise level) UAV monitoring tasks three times. Results showed that the effects of situation-augmented display on flight completion time and time to detect abnormalities were robust under various workload conditions, but error rate and perceived mental workload were unaffected by the display type. Results suggest that the UAV monitoring task is extremely difficult, and that display devices providing high-level situation-awareness may improve operator monitoring performance.

  11. Cryo-Tracker mass gauging system testing in a large-scale expendable launch vehicle LOX tank simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieb, Daniel J.; Haberbusch, Mark S.; Yeckley, Alexander J.

    2006-05-01

    Sierra Lobo tested its patented Cryo-Tracker(R) probe and Mass Gauging System in a large scale Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) liquid oxygen tank simulation for NASA. Typical Liquid Oxygen (LOX) tank operations were simulated at Lockheed Martin's Engineering Propulsion Laboratory in Denver, Colorado. The Cryo-Tracker(R) probe is 33 feet long, the longest built to date. It was mounted in the tank at only two locations, separated by 26 feet. Each test simulated typical Lockheed Martin booster pre-launch tanking operations, including filling the tank with LOX at fill rates typically used at the launch pad, and maintaining the fill level for a period representative of a typical pad hold. The Cryo-Tracker(R) Mass Gauging System was the primary instrument used for monitoring the fill and controlling the topping operations. Each test also simulated a typical flight profile, expelling the LOX at representative pressures and expulsion flow rates. During expulsion, the Cryo-Tracker(R) System served to generate an Engine Cut-Off (ECO) signal. Test objectives were as follows: Cryo-Tracker(R) data will be validated by flight-like propellant instruments currently used in launch vehicles; the probe will survive the harsh environment (which will be documented by a digital video camera) with no loss of signal or structural integrity; the system will successfully measure liquid levels and temperatures under all conditions and calculate propellant mass in real-time; the system will successfully demonstrate its feasibility as a control sensor for LOX filling and topping operations, as well as for engine cut-off. All objectives were met and the test results are presented.

  12. Extraction-Separation Performance and Dynamic Modeling of Orion Test Vehicles with Adams Simulation: 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Anderson, Keith; Varela, Jose G.; Bernatovich, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project has advanced into the third generation of its parachute test campaign and requires technically comprehensive modeling capabilities to simulate multi-body dynamics (MBD) of test articles released from a C-17. Safely extracting a 30,000 lbm mated test article from a C-17 and performing stable mid-air separation maneuvers requires an understanding of the interaction between elements in the test configuration and how they are influenced by extraction parachute performance, aircraft dynamics, aerodynamics, separation dynamics, and kinetic energy experienced by the system. During the real-time extraction and deployment sequences, these influences can be highly unsteady and difficult to bound. An avionics logic window based on time, pitch, and pitch rate is used to account for these effects and target a favorable separation state in real time. The Adams simulation has been employed to fine-tune this window, as well as predict and reconstruct the coupled dynamics of the Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV) and Cradle Platform Separation System (CPSS) from aircraft extraction through the mid-air separation event. The test-technique for the extraction of CPAS test articles has evolved with increased complexity and requires new modeling concepts to ensure the test article is delivered to a stable test condition for the programmer phase. Prompted by unexpected dynamics and hardware malfunctions in drop tests, these modeling improvements provide a more accurate loads prediction by incorporating a spring-damper line-model derived from the material properties. The qualification phase of CPAS testing is on the horizon and modeling increasingly complex test-techniques with Adams is vital to successfully qualify the Orion parachute system for human spaceflight.

  13. Heavy vehicle simulator in accelerated pavement testing: a historical overview and new developments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, L

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available also been undertaken with Iceland to evaluate Icelandic base and subbase performance, and a proposed warranty pavement structure for Poland was tested. 14 Current testing involves evaluation of potential pavement upgrade and reinforcing...

  14. Test and evaluation of vehicle platooning proof-of-concept based on cooperative adaptive cruise control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    This report presents a high-level test and evaluation framework for cooperative driving automation systems that have the potential to significantly improve mobility and enhance traffic flow stability with better safety. It focuses on the test and eva...

  15. FEATURES OF RESOURCE TESTING OF THE HYDRAULIC BRAKE DRIVE ELEMENTS OF VEHICLES EQUIPPED WITH ABS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Revin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the resource testing facilities and methods of automobile brake cylinders in terms of ABS working process adequacy is carried out. A testing stand construction and a method of carrying out the resource testing of hydraulic drive elements of the automobile automated braking sys-tem is offered.

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1999-09-16

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Offices's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This corrective action investigation was conducted in accordance with the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 240 as developed under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 240 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-07-01, Vehicle Washdown Area (Propellant Pad); 25-07-02, Vehicle Washdown Area (F and J Roads Pad); and 25-07-03, Vehicle Washdown Station (RADSAFE Pad). In March 1999, the corrective action investigation was performed to detect and evaluate analyte concentrations against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified at CAS 25-07-01 or CAS 25-07-03; therefore, there was no need for corrective action at these two CASs. At CAS 25-07-02, diesel-range organics and radionuclide concentrations in soil samples from F and J Roads Pad exceeded PALs. Based on this result, potential CAAs were identified and evaluated to ensure worker, public, and environmental protection against potential exposure to COCs in accordance with Nevada Administrative Code 445A. Following a review of potential exposure pathways, existing data, and future and current operations in Area 25, two CAAs were identified for CAU 240 (CAS 25-07-02): Alternative 1 - No Further Action and Alternative 2 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. Alternative 2 was identified as the preferred alternative. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, compliance with all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site, as well as minimizing potential future exposure

  17. Viking entry vehicle aerodynamics at m equals 2 in air and some preliminary test data for flight in CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammonds, R. I.; Kruse, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    The static and dynamic aerodynamic characteristics of the Viking entry vehicle were determined experimentally in free flight in air at a Mach number near 2. Preliminary results were also obtained in CO2 at M infinity = 11. The low speed tests in air confirmed a region of dynamic instability previously observed. The instability was greatest at the smallest pitch amplitudes but decreased with increasing amplitude until a limit cycle was reached at about 8 deg. The tests in CO2 indicated increased drag coefficients of 3 percent with respect to those in air. Errors in the drag coefficient of this magnitude would significantly affect the reconstruction of the Martian atmosphere during entry of the Viking spacecraft.

  18. Testing of the permanent magnet material Mn-Al-C for potential use in propulsion motors for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnour, Z.; Mildrun, H.; Strant, K.

    1981-01-01

    The development of Mn-Al-C permanent magnets is reviewed. The general properties of the material are discussed and put into perspective relative to alnicos and ferrites. The traction motor designer's demands of a permanent magnet for potential use in electric vehicle drives are reviewed. Tests determined magnetic design data and mechanical strength properties. Easy axis hysteresis and demagnetization curves, recoil loops and other minor loop fields were measured over a temperature range from -50 to 150 C. Hysteresis loops were also measured for three orthogonal directions (the one easy and two hard axes of magnetization). Extruded rods of three different diameters were tested. The nonuniformity of properties over the cross section of the 31 mm diameter rod was studied. Mechanical compressive and bending strength at room temperature was determined on individual samples from the 31 mm rod.

  19. Design, fabrication and test of graphite/polyimide composite joints and attachments for advanced aerospace vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of an experimental program to develop several types of graphite/polyimide (GR/PI) bonded and bolted joints for lightly loaded flight components for advanced space transportation systems and high speed aircraft are presented. Tasks accomplished include: a literature survey; design of static discriminator specimens; design allowables testing; fabrication of test panels and specimens; small specimen testing; and standard joint testing. Detail designs of static discriminator specimens for each of the four major attachment types are presented. Test results are given for the following: (1) transverse tension of Celion 3000/PMR-15 laminate; (2) net tension of a laminate for both a loaded and unloaded bolt hole; (3) comparative testing of bonded and co-cured doublers along with pull-off tests of single and double bonded angles; (4) single lap shear tests, transverse tension and coefficient of thermal expansion tests of A7F (LARC-13 amide-imide modified) adhesive; and (5) tension tests of standard single lap, double lap, and symmetric step lap bonded joints. Also, included are results of a finite element analysis of a single lap bonded composite joint.

  20. Assessing the Potential of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Active Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ahmadi Kordkheili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-objective optimization algorithm is proposed in this paper to increase the penetration level of renewable energy sources (RESs in distribution networks by intelligent management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV storage. The proposed algorithm is defined to manage the reverse power flow (PF from the distribution network to the upstream electrical system. Furthermore, a charging algorithm is proposed within the proposed optimization in order to assure PEV owner’s quality of service (QoS. The method uses genetic algorithm (GA to increase photovoltaic (PV penetration without jeopardizing PEV owners’ (QoS and grid operating limits, such as voltage level of the grid buses. The method is applied to a part of the Danish low voltage (LV grid to evaluate its effectiveness and capabilities. Different scenarios have been defined and tested using the proposed method. Simulation results demonstrate the capability of the algorithm in increasing solar power penetration in the grid up to 50%, depending on the PEV penetration level and the freedom of the system operator in managing the available PEV storage.

  1. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Test Requirements for Launch, Upper-Stage and Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-05

    certain items the specified acceptance test environments could result in physical deterioration of materials or other damage. In those cases, less...parts mounting, board sizes and thickness, number of layers , thermal coefficients of expansion, or installation method, development tests should be...salt fog, and explosive atmosphere. Tests shall conform to the methods given in Reference 1 when applicable. Degradation due to fungus, ozone , and

  2. Composite Structures Materials Testing for the Orion Crew Vehicle Heat Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemani, Farah N.

    2011-01-01

    As research is being performed for the new heat shield for the Orion capsule, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing the first composite heat shield. As an intern of the Structures Branch in the Engineering Directorate (ES 2), my main task was to set up a test plan to determine the material properties of the honeycomb that will be used on the Orion Crew Module heat shield to verify that the composite is suitable for the capsule. Before conducting composite shell tests, which are performed to simulate the crush performance of the heat shield on the capsule, it is necessary to determine the compression and shear properties of the composite used on the shell. During this internship, I was responsible for developing a test plan, designing parts for the test fixtures as well as getting them fabricated for the honeycomb shear and compression testing. This involved work in Pro/Engineer as well as coordinating with Fab Express, the Building 9 Composite Shop and the Structures Test Laboratory (STL). The research and work executed for this project will be used for composite sandwich panel testing in the future as well. As a part of the Structures Branch, my main focus was to research composite structures. This involves system engineering and integration (SE&I) integration, manufacturing, and preliminary testing. The procedures for these projects that were executed during this internship included design work, conducting tests and performing analysis.

  3. Active disturbance rejection based trajectory linearization control for hypersonic reentry vehicle with bounded uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xingling; Wang, Honglun

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a novel compound control scheme combined with the advantages of trajectory linearization control (TLC) and alternative active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) for hypersonic reentry vehicle (HRV) attitude tracking system with bounded uncertainties. Firstly, in order to overcome actuator saturation problem, nonlinear tracking differentiator (TD) is applied in the attitude loop to achieve fewer control consumption. Then, linear extended state observers (LESO) are constructed to estimate the uncertainties acting on the LTV system in the attitude and angular rate loop. In addition, feedback linearization (FL) based controllers are designed using estimates of uncertainties generated by LESO in each loop, which enable the tracking error for closed-loop system in the presence of large uncertainties to converge to the residual set of the origin asymptotically. Finally, the compound controllers are derived by integrating with the nominal controller for open-loop nonlinear system and FL based controller. Also, comparisons and simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the control strategy. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A promising active anode material of Li-ion battery for hybrid electric vehicle use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Youh; Nagayama, Katsuhiro; Sato, Yuichi; Takamura, Tsutomu

    In an attempt to respond to the requirement to provide promising anode material of Li-ion battery for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) we examined mesophase-pitch-based cokes. The coke was heat treated at several temperatures where turbostratic structure is formed. Cyclic voltammograms (CV) were measured in 1:2 (v/v) mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) containing 1 M LiClO 4 for all the samples, and the peak height was plotted against the square root of the potential scanning rate. The slopes of the plotting differed depending on the heating temperature and 1800 °C heated sample gave the steepest slope implying the diffusion coefficient of Li is the highest. For activating the electrochemical reaction site of the prepared electrode we adopted a novel method to expose the coated electrode in the glow discharge field in the presence of small amount of oxygen. As the result the CV peak height was increased by about two times as compared with that before the treatment.

  5. Rapid prototyping of reflectors for vehicle lighting using laser activated remote phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmayer, Roland; Kloppenburg, Gerolf; Wolf, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Bright white light sources are of significant importance for automotive front lighting systems. Today's upper class vehicles mainly use HID or LED as light source. As a further step in this development laser diode based systems offer high luminance, efficiency and allow the realization of new styling concepts and new dynamic lighting functions. These white laser diode systems can either be realized by mixing different spectral sources or by combining diodes with specific phosphors. Based on the approach of generating light using a laser and remote phosphor, lighting modules are manufactured. Four blue laser diodes (450 nm) are used to activate a phosphor coating and thus to achieve white light. A segmented paraboloid reflector generates the desired light distribution for an additional car headlamp. We use high speed milling and selective laser melting to build the reflector system for this lighting module. We compare the spectral reflection grade of these materials. Furthermore the generated modules are analyzed regarding their efficiency and light distribution. The use of Rapid Prototyping technologies allows an early validation of the chosen concept and is supposed to reduce cost and time in the product development process significantly. Therefor we discuss costs and times of the applied manufacturing technologies.

  6. Active disturbance rejection control based robust output feedback autopilot design for airbreathing hypersonic vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiayi; Zhang, Shifeng; Zhang, Yinhui; Li, Tong

    2018-01-16

    Since motion control plant (y(n)=f(⋅)+d) was repeatedly used to exemplify how active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) works when it was proposed, the integral chain system subject to matched disturbances is always regarded as a canonical form and even misconstrued as the only form that ADRC is applicable to. In this paper, a systematic approach is first presented to apply ADRC to a generic nonlinear uncertain system with mismatched disturbances and a robust output feedback autopilot for an airbreathing hypersonic vehicle (AHV) is devised based on that. The key idea is to employ the feedback linearization (FL) and equivalent input disturbance (EID) technique to decouple nonlinear uncertain system into several subsystems in canonical form, thus it would be much easy to directly design classical/improved linear/nonlinear ADRC controller for each subsystem. It is noticed that all disturbances are taken into account when implementing FL rather than just omitting that in previous research, which greatly enhances controllers' robustness against external disturbances. For autopilot design, ADRC strategy enables precise tracking for velocity and altitude reference command in the presence of severe parametric perturbations and atmospheric disturbances only using measurable output information. Bounded-input-bounded-output (BIBO) stable is analyzed for closed-loop system. To illustrate the feasibility and superiority of this novel design, a series of comparative simulations with some prominent and representative methods are carried out on a benchmark longitudinal AHV model. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Design of a Tubular Permanent Magnet Actuator for Active Lateral Secondary Suspension of a Railway Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ho Yoon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the finite element (FE-based design of a slotted tubular permanent magnet actuator (TPMA used in railway vehicle active lateral secondary suspension that improves the actuator’s thrust and lowers its cogging force under thermal and geometric constraints. To consider the electromagnetic and thermal fields and the complex interactions among the design variables, design was carried out in an electromagnet and thermal field environment using accurate and time-effective FE analysis. A six-slot prototype model was fabricated to estimate critical thermal parameters, which are difficult to compute without experiments. Three-dimensional FE analysis using the determined thermal parameters was adopted to calculate the precise thermal distribution of the TPMA and verify the forced air-cooling effect. A prototype TPMA with a quasi-Halbach array of permanent magnets and a moving magnet was manufactured through the FE-based design process; the dynamic, electromagnetic, and thermal characteristics of the prototype TPMA were validated experimentally.

  8. Rosemary Essential Oil-Loaded Lipid Nanoparticles: In Vivo Topical Activity from Gel Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Montenegro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although rosemary essential oil (EO shows many biological activities, its topical benefits have not been clearly demonstrated. In this work, we assessed the effects on skin hydration and elasticity of rosemary EO after topical application via gel vehicles in human volunteers. To improve its topical efficacy, rosemary EO was loaded into lipid nanoparticles (NLCs consisting of cetyl palmitate as a solid lipid, and non-ionic surfactants. Such NLCs were prepared using different ratios of EO/solid lipid and those containing EO 3% w/w and cetyl pamitate 7% w/w were selected for in vivo studies, showing the best technological properties (small particle size, low polydispersity index and good stability. Gels containing free EO or EO-loaded NLCs were applied on the hand skin surface of ten healthy volunteers twice a day for one week. Skin hydration and elasticity changes were recorded using the instrument Soft Plus. Gels containing EO-loaded NLCs showed a significant increase in skin hydration in comparison with gels containing free EO. Skin elasticity increased, as well, although to a lesser extent. The results of this study point out the usefulness of rosemary EO-loaded NLCs for the treatment of cutaneous alterations involving loss of skin hydration and elasticity.

  9. Electric vehicle battery charging algorithm using PMSM windings and an inverter as an active rectifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaja, Mario; Oprea, Matei-lon; Suárez, Carlos Gómez

    2014-01-01

    A major setback for large scale electric vehicle market expansion compared to their internal combustion competitors consists in their high price and low driving range. One way of reducing the cost, dimensions and mass of electric vehicles is to eliminate the dedicated AC/DC converter used...... the battery gets discharged below the peak of the grid voltage, typically if the vehicle has not been used for a longer period of time. To avoid high currents that could damage the battery, a voltage suppression mode is introduced for safe depleted battery charging. This paper proposes and analyzes...

  10. Electrical Vehicle Batteries Testing in a Distribution Network Using Sustainable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forero Camacho, Oscar Mauricio; Nørgård, Per Bromand; Rao, Ningling

    2014-01-01

    of EV batteries. The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of smart charging and fast charging on the power system, on the battery state of health and degradation, and to find out the limitations of the batteries for a Smart Grid. The paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages of both tests...

  11. Conceptual Approach to Utilisation of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Diverse Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ćosić Lesičar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers current situation and development of software for group of mobile agents applicable on group of unmanned aerial vehicles. Generally, unmanned aerial vehicles are used for transfer of information, mass and energy and their group work enhances their success rate in comparison with the success rate of the use of a single unmanned aerial vehicle. Despite the constant daily use, their potential is realized only in a small portion. It is argued that software development is the natural further step in achieving considerably larger portion of realizations of their potential of groups of unmanned aerial vehicles. Starting requirements that such software must fulfill are rudimentariness of the code, openness regarding number of group members and closeness regarding information exchange. Prospective directions of development of that software are analyzed.

  12. Test of the electric vehicles at the roller bench; Prove al banco a rulli del veicolo elettrico porter Piaggio/Microvett

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervati, L.; Cipolletta, L.; De Andreis, L.; Indiano, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, RM (Italy). Dipt. Energia

    1999-07-01

    Starting from the existing international regulations on the test of the electric vehicles a series of specific test to carry out at the roller bench of ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) has been defined. The paper presents the numeric result applying such procedures to the test on an electric vehicles, whose main performances are described. [Italian] Partendo dalle normative internazionali esistenti sulla prova dei veicoli elettrici sono state definite una serie di prove specifiche da effettuare presso il banco a rulli dell'ENEA. Il presente lavoro riporta i risultati ottenuti applicando le procedure ad un veicolo elettrico. Le principali prestazioni sono messe in evidenza.

  13. Three decades of development and achievements: the heavy vehicle simulator in accelerated pavement testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, L

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available been evaluated. Collaborative studies have been performed with Iceland to evaluate Icelandic base- and subbase performance, and a proposed warranty pavement structure for Poland was tested. Detailed reports are available at www.vti.se Florida DOT...

  14. Design Guide for Aerodynamics Testing of Earth and Planetary Entry Vehicles in a Ballistic Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanoff, David W.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to aid in the design of an aerodynamics test of an earth or planetary entry capsule in a ballistic range. In this manual, much use is made of the results and experience gained in 50 years of ballistic range aerodynamics testing at the NASA Ames Research Center, and in particular, that gained in the last 27 years, while the author was working at NASA Ames. The topics treated herein include: Data to be obtained; flight data needed to design test; Reynolds number and dynamic similarity of flight trajectory and ballistic range test; capabilities of various ballistic ranges; Calculations of swerves due to average and oscillating lift and of drag-induced velocity decreases; Model and sabot design; materials, weights and stresses; Sabot separation; Launches at angle of attack and slapping with paper to produce pitch/yaw oscillations.

  15. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 02-2-546 Teleoperated Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) Latency Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-11

    minimum of three times for comparison purposes and to establish consistency of system performance. 4.2.2 LOS Measurement. a. Perform this test ...times for comparison purposes and to establish consistency of system performance. 4.2.3 NLOS Measurement. a. Perform this test in a NLOS...REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 The public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1

  16. The implementation and testing of a robotic arm on an autonomous vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Hyun Il.

    2007-01-01

    An articulated arm with three degrees of freedom is implemented and tested on an autonomous robot. Kinematic equations of motion for the arm are modeled and tested. A communication architecture is successfully implemented for wireless manual control of the arm. Visual and thermal cues are realized with an onboard camera and a collocated thermal sensor. Future work suggests investigations for full autonomous arm control without manual operator intervention based on sensor cues and visual s...

  17. An RFID-Based Intelligent Vehicle Speed Controller Using Active Traffic Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshué Pérez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS. One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC, which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver’s attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results.

  18. An RFID-Based Intelligent Vehicle Speed Controller Using Active Traffic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Joshué; Seco, Fernando; Milanés, Vicente; Jiménez, Antonio; Díaz, Julio C.; de Pedro, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC), which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver’s attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V) communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results. PMID:22219692

  19. Water tunnel results of leading-edge vortex flap tests on a delta wing vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfrate, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    A water tunnel flow visualization test on leading edge vortex flaps was conducted at the flow visualization facility of the NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility. The purpose of the test was to visually examine the vortex structures caused by various leading edge vortex flaps on the delta wing of an F-106 model. The vortex flaps tested were designed analytically and empirically at the NASA Langley Research Center. The three flap designs were designated as full-span gothic flap, full-span untapered flap, and part-span flap. The test was conducted at a Reynolds number of 76,000/m (25,000/ft). This low Reynolds number was used because of the 0.076-m/s (0.25-ft/s) test section flow speed necessary for high quality flow visualization. However, this low Reynolds number may have influenced the results. Of the three vortex flaps tested, the part-span flap produced what appeared to be the strongest vortex structure over the flap area. The full-span gothic flap provided the next best performance.

  20. Development of base pressure similarity parameters for application to space shuttle launch vehicle power-on aerodynamic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulyma, P. R.; Penny, M. M.

    1978-01-01

    A base pressure data correlation study was conducted to define exhaust plume similarity parameters for use in Space Shuttle power-on launch vehicle aerodynamic test programs. Data correlations were performed for single bodies having, respectively, single and triple nozzle configurations and for a triple body configuration with single nozzles on each of the outside bodies. Base pressure similarity parameters were found to differ for the single nozzle and triple nozzle configurations. However, the correlation parameter for each was found to be a strong function of the nozzle exit momentum. Results of the data base evaluation are presented indicating an assessment of all data points. Analytical/experimental data comparisons were made for nozzle calibrations and correction factors derived, where indicated for use in nozzle exit plane data calculations.

  1. Clogging evaluation of open graded friction course pavements tested under rainfall and heavy vehicle simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleri, Erdem; Kayhanian, Masoud; Harvey, John T; Yang, Kai; Boone, John M

    2013-11-15

    In this study a new procedure is developed to obtain core samples from field sections to assess clogging mechanisms of open graded friction course (OGFC) pavements using X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging. The approach compared X-ray computed tomography (CT) images taken before and after: (1) rainfall simulations without trafficking to investigate particle-related clogging and (2) full-scale accelerated pavement rutting tests (APT) to investigate deformation related clogging of OGFC layers. Rainfall simulations were performed with runoff water of known total suspended solids (TSS) and particle size distributions (PSDs). Full-scale accelerated rutting tests were performed under controlled temperature and loads. Both investigations were performed for three different OGFC pavements with different layer thicknesses and mix types. The clogging of rutting test sections were also evaluated by comparing the surface permeability measurements performed before and after APT testing. The results of X-ray CT image processing revealed a significant reduction in air-void content of core samples after APT rutting tests. The highest air-void reduction was concentrated at the bottom of the OGFC layers. Permeability measurements also showed a 40%-90% reduction in permeability after APT trafficking. X-ray CT image processing of core samples tested under simulated rainfall showed that air void content reduction is concentrated in the lower part (2-6 mm from the bottom) of the OGFC layers as a result of particle accumulation. Small changes in air void contents were observed in the upper part of the OGFC layers (10-15 mm) while these reductions in air void contents were not significant to cause surface overflow and hence it is expected that the tested OGFC pavements will have sufficient permeability to infiltrate water during most average storm events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 26 CFR 1.141-2 - Private activity bond tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... test and private security or payment test of section 141(b) or the private loan financing test of section 141(c). The private business use and private security or payment tests are described in §§ 1.141-3... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Private activity bond tests. 1.141-2 Section 1...

  3. Developmental Testing of Electric Thrust Vector Control Systems for Manned Launch Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Lisa B.; Young, David T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes recent developmental testing to verify the integration of a developmental electromechanical actuator (EMA) with high rate lithium ion batteries and a cross platform extensible controller. Testing was performed at the Thrust Vector Control Research, Development and Qualification Laboratory at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. Electric Thrust Vector Control (ETVC) systems like the EMA may significantly reduce recurring launch costs and complexity compared to heritage systems. Electric actuator mechanisms and control requirements across dissimilar platforms are also discussed with a focus on the similarities leveraged and differences overcome by the cross platform extensible common controller architecture.

  4. Cost Analysis of a Transition to Green Vehicle Technology for Light Duty Fleet Vehicles in Public Works Department Naval Support Activity Monterey (PWD Monterey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    between oxygen from the outside air and compressed hydrogen from a storage tank equipped on the vehicle to create the electricity required for... Hydrogen refueling stations are very expensive to build, costing an estimated $1.5 million for a station that can refuel as many as 100 vehicles per week...environment. Figure 12. FCEV Technology Source: Hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles : how fuel cells work. (2014, March 280. Retrieved from California

  5. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of Active Skin Antenna with 3D Printing Array Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhu Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An active skin antenna with structural load-bearing and electromagnetic functions is usually installed in the structural surface of mobile vehicles such as aircrafts, warships, and high-speed train. This paper presents the design, fabrication, and testing of a novel active skin antenna which consists of an encapsulation shell, antenna skin, and RF and beam control circuits. The antenna skin which consists of the facesheet, honeycomb, array framework, and microstrip antenna elements was designed by using Bayesian optimization, in order to improve the design efficiency. An active skin antenna prototype with 32 microstrip antenna elements was fabricated by using a hybrid manufacturing method. In this method, 3D printing technology was applied to fabricate the array framework, and the different layers were bonded to form the final antenna skin by using traditional composite process. Some experimental testing was conducted, and the testing results validate the feasibility the proposed antenna skin structure. The proposed design and fabrication technique is suitable for the development of conformal load-bearing antenna or smart skin antenna installed in the structural surface of aircraft, warships, and armored vehicles.

  6. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 02-2-603A Vehicle Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    electric drivelines. 2. FACILITIES AND INSTRUMENTATION. 2.1 Facilities. Item Requirement Level, Paved Road ( Dynamometer Test Course...gravel. Turns are lightly banked at 5 percent. Roadway Simulator (RWS) The ATC Roadway Simulator is a chassis dynamometer facility capable of full...Trailer/ towed loads free of damage to exterior surfaces that would affect aerodynamic drag. (7) Wheel alignment checked and properly adjusted

  7. De-Icing Systems of Flight Vehicles. Bases of Design Methods for Testing. Part 2,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-07

    BASES OF DESIGN METHODS F’OR TESTING by R.Kh. Tenishev, B.A. Strogaiov, et al Approved for public release; ditiuinulmtd FID - ID(RS)T-1163-79) UNEDITED...coefficients, which are the thermal characteristics of chamel in this section ASi: a AS, CPG = " (7.38) B, a -- _ ( -(7. 39a) It is mecessary to not. that

  8. Cost/Benefit Analysis of Reentry Vehicle Hardness Testing Using the Fast Methodology. Volume II. Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-30

    bounds on the estimated distribution can be com- puted based on the test data sample size and behaviour . These confidence bounds act as a buffer on...distributional assumptions give little indication of nonconformity of this data set. 38 6. . . . Figure 3 gives tabulated values of the estimated

  9. Evaluation of aromatic amines with different purities and different solvent vehicles in the Ames test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alexander P; Popelier, Paul L A; Harvey, James; Giddings, Amanda; Foster, Graham; Kranz, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Of all the in vitro mutagenicity assays, the Ames test displays the best correlation with rodent carcinogenicity and therefore carries significant weight with the food and drug regulatory bodies. Aromatic amines (AA) are ubiquitous structural groups in food and drug molecules despite the well-documented mutagenic and carcinogenic propensity for many representatives. Furthermore, recent regulatory guidelines (that is ICH M7) requires the hazard assessment of actual and potential impurities by two complementary (Q)SAR prediction methodologies if no carcinogenicity or bacterial mutagenicity data is available. One methodology should be expert-rule-based and the second should be statistics-based. Having encountered numerous reports of contradictory Ames results for members of this chemotype, we undertook systematic Ames tests on a diverse set of 14 AAs of differing purities in different solvents, and as free bases and their salts. The aim of this work was to investigate the reliability of the Ames test for this chemotype leading to the creation of a reference set of AAs for use by medicinal chemists and in silico modelling. Contrary to previous experience, which led to the investigations reported in this publication, the anticipated transformation from an Ames-positive to an Ames-negative after purification only occurred for one compound. Furthermore, this result proved inconclusive after testing as the HCl salt in DMSO and in water. The anticipated change in class from mutagen to non-mutagen, did not occur and this can be read as evidence for the reliability of the Ames test for AAs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous determination of active component and vehicle penetration from F-DPPC liposomes into porcine skin layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrhauser, Denise-Silvia; Reznicek, Gottfried; Gehrig, Sebastian; Geyer, Antonia; Ogris, Manfred; Kieweler, Ruth; Valenta, Claudia

    2015-11-01

    Liposomes have been used as innovative delivery vehicles on skin for a number of years due to their positive influence on skin penetration. However, until now it is not entirely clear how and by which mechanism enhancement is achieved. In the present study, the skin permeation of a model substance incorporated into liposomes and a control formulation was compared to study the influence of the vehicle in Franz-type diffusion cell experiments. Furthermore, the penetration depths of both components were studied by simultaneous determination of the active substance and the vehicle component during tape stripping studies and horizontal sectioning. For these purposes we prepared liposomes with 1-palmitoyl-2-(16-fluoropalmitoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (F-DPPC), the monofluorinated analogue of dipalmitoylphosphaditylcholine (DPPC) loaded with sodium fluorescein (SoFl). A sodium-fluorescein solution was used as control formulation. While the semi-solid F-DPPC liposomes and the SoFl-solution performed equally well with similar permeation profiles during skin diffusion experiments, superior penetrated amounts of SoFl into the stratum corneum (SC) from F-DPPC liposomes compared to the SoFl-solution were observed possibly due to a "push" exerted by the vehicle F-DPPC. We also showed that SoFl penetrated through SC into the viable epidermis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Electric Vehicle Fast Charging on Battery Life and Vehicle Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2015-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, four new 2012 Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles were instrumented with data loggers and operated over a fixed on-road test cycle. Each vehicle was operated over the test route, and charged twice daily. Two vehicles were charged exclusively by AC level 2 EVSE, while two were exclusively DC fast charged with a 50 kW charger. The vehicles were performance tested on a closed test track when new, and after accumulation of 50,000 miles. The traction battery packs were removed and laboratory tested when the vehicles were new, and at 10,000-mile intervals. Battery tests include constant-current discharge capacity, electric vehicle pulse power characterization test, and low peak power tests. The on-road testing was carried out through 70,000 miles, at which point the final battery tests were performed. The data collected over 70,000 miles of driving, charging, and rest are analyzed, including the resulting thermal conditions and power and cycle demands placed upon the battery. Battery performance metrics including capacity, internal resistance, and power capability obtained from laboratory testing throughout the test program are analyzed. Results are compared within and between the two groups of vehicles. Specifically, the impacts on battery performance, as measured by laboratory testing, are explored as they relate to battery usage and variations in conditions encountered, with a primary focus on effects due to the differences between AC level 2 and DC fast charging. The contrast between battery performance degradation and the effect on vehicle performance is also explored.

  12. Low intrinsic drug activity and dominant vehicle (placebo) effect in the topical treatment of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Win L

    2012-06-01

    In drug treatment for acne, topical products alone or in combination with systemic products are commonly prescribed. It was recently pointed out by Chiou that oral tetracyclines, the most commonly prescribed systemic drugs, may not be as effective as commonly assumed because the effect of placebo can approach drug effects during the 4 - 12 weeks of daily administration. The present work evaluated the percent contribution of vehicle (placebo) toward the reported efficacy of reduction in total (inflammatory and non-inflammatory) lesion counts of 8 commonly prescribed topical preparations at the end of 10 - 12 weeks of daily administration. These preparations included 0.1% tretinoin, 0.1% adapalene, 5% dapsone, 1% clindamycin, a combination of benzoyl peroxide with adapalene or clindamycin, and a clindamycin-tretinoin combination. The mean reduction from drugs and vehicles were 42 ± 7.1%, and 23 ± 5.0%, respectively; the mean contribution of vehicle toward drug effect was 55 ± 15% (range 35 - 82%). For 5 benzoyl peroxide preparations evaluated (2 for 2.5%, and 3 for 5.0%), their respective means were 40 ± 9%, and 25 ± 15%, and vehicle-toward-drug contribution was 58 ± 31% (range 9 - 89%). The present work shows the great importance of vehicle effects in topical therapy; in some cases this effect approached 90%. The potential significance of the above findings in the development of more effective topical anti-acne drugs was discussed.

  13. Using information Theory in Optimal Test Point Selection for Health Management in NASA's Exploration Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Ali Farhang; Tumer, Irem

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we will present a new methodology that measures the "worth" of deploying an additional testing instrument (sensor) in terms of the amount of information that can be retrieved from such measurement. This quantity is obtained using a probabilistic model of RLV's that has been partially developed in the NASA Ames Research Center. A number of correlated attributes are identified and used to obtain the worth of deploying a sensor in a given test point from an information-theoretic viewpoint. Once the information-theoretic worth of sensors is formulated and incorporated into our general model for IHM performance, the problem can be formulated as a constrained optimization problem where reliability and operational safety of the system as a whole is considered. Although this research is conducted specifically for RLV's, the proposed methodology in its generic form can be easily extended to other domains of systems health monitoring.

  14. Weathering Tests on Protective Helmets Approved to Australian Standard as 1698 (For Vehicle Users).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    wiped off and a reasonable gloss restored. The crowns of the helmets were affected most but the whole test area showed some evidence of weatherina...The polycarbonate helmets still had a good closs. * .R.P.: Glass fibre reinforced plastic. [4! ir .. . . . . . . . .. . . - The Standards Association...of te helmets. Neithor the depth of pervetration nor the sizes of the holes were measured. Deformation of the polycarbonate shells was ductile and

  15. Heavy vehicle simulator and laboratory testing of a light pavement structure for low-volume roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theyse, HL

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available for South Africa (NDoT, 2002) identified the provision of basic road infrastructure for rural access and urban mobility as one of the major challenges to the road infrastructure sector in South Africa. This infrastructure needs to be provided... 040 903 to 1 099 400 Both sections were in an excellent condition after completion of the test. No cracks were visible and the rutting was minimal. The surface was fairly uneven with small depressions occurring at regular intervals...

  16. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype fiat 131TC 2.4 liter automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quayle, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    The results obtained from fuel economy and emission tests conducted on a prototype Fiat 131 turbocharged diesel vehicle are presented. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. Two fuels were used, a United States number 2 diesel and a European diesel fuel. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. It was determined that turbocharging accompanied by complementary modifications results in small but substantial improvements in regulated emissions, fuel economy, and performance. Notably, particulate levels were reduced by 30 percent.

  17. Analysis, testing and verification of the behavior of composite pavements under Florida conditions using a heavy vehicle simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia Gutierrez, Patricio Enrique

    Whitetopping (WT) is a rehabilitation method to resurface deteriorated asphalt pavements. While some of these composite pavements have performed very well carrying heavy load, other have shown poor performance with early cracking. With the objective of analyzing the applicability of WT pavements under Florida conditions, a total of nine full-scale WT test sections were constructed and tested using a Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) in the APT facility at the FDOT Material Research Park. The test sections were instrumented to monitor both strain and temperature. A 3-D finite element model was developed to analyze the WT test sections. The model was calibrated and verified using measured FWD deflections and HVS load-induced strains from the test sections. The model was then used to evaluate the potential performance of these test sections under critical temperature-load condition in Florida. Six of the WT pavement test sections had a bonded concrete-asphalt interface by milling, cleaning and spraying with water the asphalt surface. This method produced excellent bonding at the interface, with shear strength of 195 to 220 psi. Three of the test sections were intended to have an unbonded concrete-asphalt interface by applying a debonding agent in the asphalt surface. However, shear strengths between 119 and 135 psi and a careful analysis of the strain and the temperature data indicated a partial bond condition. The computer model was able to satisfactorily model the behavior of the composite pavement by mainly considering material properties from standard laboratory tests and calibrating the spring elements used to model the interface. Reasonable matches between the measured and the calculated strains were achieved when a temperature-dependent AC elastic modulus was included in the analytical model. The expected numbers of repetitions of the 24-kip single axle loads at critical thermal condition were computed for the nine test sections based on maximum tensile stresses

  18. EMI Measurement and Mitigation Testing for the ARPA Hybrid Electric Vehicle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-27

    Magnetic Field Open-Field Test Setup MONOPOLE, BICONICAL OR LOG PERIODIC ANTENNA 5 Various electromagnetic receiving antennas were placed on a...1kHz Biconical Antenna 20 MHz-300 MHz V,H 10kHz, 11\\.1Hz Log Periodic Antenna 300 MHz - 1 GHz V,H 10 kHz, 11\\.1Hz V = Vertical; H = Horizontal To...Measurements were made with various calibrated antennas designed to detect electric and magnetic field emissions in various frequency ranges. Electric

  19. Active fault diagnosis based on stochastic tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on stochastic change detection applied in connection with active fault diagnosis (AFD). An auxiliary input signal is applied in AFD. This signal injection in the system will in general allow us to obtain a fast change detection/isolation by considering the output...

  20. Feasibility test on compounding the internal combustion engine for automotive vehicles, Task II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The organic Rankine bottoming cycle can be considered for various automobile and truck applications. The most attractive use, however, is in large, heavy-duty diesel trucks for long distance hauling. Here, the engine load and speed requirements are nearly constant over a large portion of the operating hours, and high mileages are accumulated. Thus, the potential fuel savings are sufficient to justify the added cost of a bottoming cycle system. A conceptual design study of compounding the diesel truck engine with an ORCS was made and the results of the study are presented. Based on the results of the conceptual design study which showed a 15 percent fuel economy improvement potential over the duty cycle, an early feasibility demonstration test of the system was initiated. The demonstration system uses a Mack ENDT 676 diesel engine with existing but nonoptimum ORCS hardware made available from an earlier automotive Rankine-cycle program. The results of these feasibility demonstration tests, both steady-state and transient, over the operating range of the diesel engine, are presented.

  1. Constrained structural dynamic model verification using free vehicle suspension testing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Mark A.; Vadlamudi, Nagarjuna

    1988-01-01

    Verification of the validity of a spacecraft's structural dynamic math model used in computing ascent (or in the case of the STS, ascent and landing) loads is mandatory. This verification process requires that tests be carried out on both the payload and the math model such that the ensuing correlation may validate the flight loads calculations. To properly achieve this goal, the tests should be performed with the payload in the launch constraint (i.e., held fixed at only the payload-booster interface DOFs). The practical achievement of this set of boundary conditions is quite difficult, especially with larger payloads, such as the 12-ton Hubble Space Telescope. The development of equations in the paper will show that by exciting the payload at its booster interface while it is suspended in the 'free-free' state, a set of transfer functions can be produced that will have minima that are directly related to the fundamental modes of the payload when it is constrained in its launch configuration.

  2. Orbital Transfer Vehicle Oxygen Turbopump Technology. Final Report, Volume 2.Nitrogen and Ambient Oxygen Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    instrumentation line connections. Figures 2.1-7 and 2.1-8 are examples of such photos . Additional photographs were taken of the stand during the test program. The...9f#O 9N40 to 94919Q0- O-004N00 9AuE’tN *04,4o 04 tefl 0 go M N NN . *4 4 9 90 0 4 @Uy’ A -*we *11 * 99 **4 OVNI *J04NO Oo - a 0. M N 99. 905%4 .NA 0 0...bearing surface is showiL in Figure 3.5-12. From the close up photo it appears that some of the silver plate may have been mechanically dislodged or smeared

  3. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype Fiat 131 NA 2.4 liter automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quayle, S. S.; Davis, M. M.; Walter, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. Two fuels were used, a U.S. no. 2 diesel and a European diesel fuel. The vehicle was tested with retarded timing and with and without an oxidation catalyst. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. It was determined that while the catalyst was generally effective in reducing hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide levels, it was also a factor in increasing particulate emissions. Increased particulate emission rates were particularly evident when the vehicle was operated on the European fuel which has a high sulfur content.

  4. Land surface reflectance retrieval from hyperspectral data collected by an unmanned aerial vehicle over the Baotou test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Si-Bo; Li, Zhao-Liang; Tang, Bo-Hui; Wu, Hua; Ma, Lingling; Zhao, Enyu; Li, Chuanrong

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the in-flight performance of a new hyperspectral sensor onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-HYPER), a comprehensive field campaign was conducted over the Baotou test site in China on 3 September 2011. Several portable reference reflectance targets were deployed across the test site. The radiometric performance of the UAV-HYPER sensor was assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the calibration accuracy. The SNR of the different bands of the UAV-HYPER sensor was estimated to be between approximately 5 and 120 over the homogeneous targets, and the linear response of the apparent reflectance ranged from approximately 0.05 to 0.45. The uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance was retrieved and validated using in situ measurements, with root mean square error (RMSE) of approximately 0.01-0.07 and relative RMSE of approximately 5%-12%. There were small discrepancies between the retrieved uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance over the homogeneous targets and under low aerosol optical depth (AOD) conditions (AOD = 0.18). However, these discrepancies must be taken into account when adjacent pixels had large land surface reflectance contrast and under high AOD conditions (e.g. AOD = 1.0).

  5. Validation of High-Fidelity CFD/CAA Framework for Launch Vehicle Acoustic Environment Simulation against Scale Model Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liever, Peter A.; West, Jeffrey S.; Harris, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid Computational Fluid Dynamics and Computational Aero-Acoustics (CFD/CAA) modeling framework has been developed for launch vehicle liftoff acoustic environment predictions. The framework couples the existing highly-scalable NASA production CFD code, Loci/CHEM, with a high-order accurate Discontinuous Galerkin solver developed in the same production framework, Loci/THRUST, to accurately resolve and propagate acoustic physics across the entire launch environment. Time-accurate, Hybrid RANS/LES CFD modeling is applied for predicting the acoustic generation physics at the plume source, and a high-order accurate unstructured mesh Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is employed to propagate acoustic waves away from the source across large distances using high-order accurate schemes. The DG solver is capable of solving 2nd, 3rd, and 4th order Euler solutions for non-linear, conservative acoustic field propagation. Initial application testing and validation has been carried out against high resolution acoustic data from the Ares Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) series to evaluate the capabilities and production readiness of the CFD/CAA system to resolve the observed spectrum of acoustic frequency content. This paper presents results from this validation and outlines efforts to mature and improve the computational simulation framework.

  6. Land Surface Reflectance Retrieval from Hyperspectral Data Collected by an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle over the Baotou Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Si-Bo; Li, Zhao-Liang; Tang, Bo-Hui; Wu, Hua; Ma, Lingling; Zhao, Enyu; Li, Chuanrong

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the in-flight performance of a new hyperspectral sensor onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-HYPER), a comprehensive field campaign was conducted over the Baotou test site in China on 3 September 2011. Several portable reference reflectance targets were deployed across the test site. The radiometric performance of the UAV-HYPER sensor was assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the calibration accuracy. The SNR of the different bands of the UAV-HYPER sensor was estimated to be between approximately 5 and 120 over the homogeneous targets, and the linear response of the apparent reflectance ranged from approximately 0.05 to 0.45. The uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance was retrieved and validated using in situ measurements, with root mean square error (RMSE) of approximately 0.01–0.07 and relative RMSE of approximately 5%–12%. There were small discrepancies between the retrieved uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance over the homogeneous targets and under low aerosol optical depth (AOD) conditions (AOD = 0.18). However, these discrepancies must be taken into account when adjacent pixels had large land surface reflectance contrast and under high AOD conditions (e.g. AOD = 1.0). PMID:23785513

  7. Design and Control of a Multi-Functional Energy Recovery Power Accumulator Battery Pack Testing System for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Long

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, aiming at the energy loss and harmonic problems in the conventional power accumulator battery pack testing system (PABPTS, an improved multi-functional energy recovery PABPTS (ERPABPTS for electric vehicles (EVs was proposed. The improved system has the functions of harmonic detection, suppression, reactive compensation and energy recovery. The ERPABPTS, which contains a bi-directional buck-boost direct current (DC-DC converter and a bi-directional alternating current (AC-DC converter with an inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL type filter interfacing to the AC-grid, is proposed. System configuration and operation principle of the combined system are discussed first, then, the reactive compensation and harmonic suppression controller under balanced grid-voltage condition are presented. Design of a fourth order band-pass Butterworth filter for current harmonic detection is put forward, and the reactive compensator design procedure considering the non-linear load is also illustrated. The proposed scheme is implemented in a 175-kW prototype in the laboratory. Simulation and experimental results show that the combined configuration can effectively realize energy recovery for high accuracy current test requirement, meanwhile, can effectively achieve reactive compensation and current harmonic suppression.

  8. Control of a Virtual Vehicle Influences Postural Activity and Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao; Yoshida, Ken; Stoffregen, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Everyday experience suggests that drivers are less susceptible to motion sickness than passengers. In the context of inertial motion (i.e., physical displacement), this effect has been confirmed in laboratory research using whole body motion devices. We asked whether a similar effect would occur in the context of simulated vehicles in a visual…

  9. Spanish reits as an investment vehicle and financing source of the real state activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Fernández Gimeno

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Analysis from a financial perspective of the SOCIMI, real estate investment vehicles regulated in Spain since 2009, which are equivalent to Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs.Design/methodology: It has been used the inductive-deductive and experimental methodology.Findings: From the investors point of view, SOCIMI are real estate investment vehicles competitive in terms of profitability and risk being affected not only by the evolution of financial markets, but also by its underlying assets which are subject to the real estate market cycle. On the other hand, SOCIMI are helpful for funding capture in real estate companies but it is foreseen that its quotation will incorporate significant discounts over the Net Asset Value (NAV of its underlying assets. For investors as well as for real estate company managers, the application of behavioral finance will enable a better investment and financing decision making in the real estate market with the contribution of analysis models which make possible the understanding of market inefficiencies.Originality/value: Further investigation over SOCIMI, the real estate investment vehicle, barely studied up to now, can help to improve decision making of investors as well as real estate companies interested in fund raising through this vehicle.

  10. Overview of recent endeavors on personal aerial vehicles: A focus on the US and Europe led research activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaolong; Kreimeier, Michael; Stumpf, Eike; Zhou, Yaoming; Liu, Hu

    2017-05-01

    Personal aerial vehicles, an innovative transport mode to bridge the niche between scheduled airliners and ground transport, are seen by aviation researchers and engineers as a solution to provide fast urban on-demand mobility. This paper reviews recent research efforts on the personal aerial vehicle (PAV), with a focus on the US and Europe led research activities. As an extension of the programmatic level overview, several enabling technologies, such as vertical/short take-off and landing (V/STOL), automation, distributed electric propulsion, which might promote the deployment of PAVs, are introduced and discussed. Despite the dramatic innovation in PAV concept development and related technologies, some challenging issues remain, especially safety, infrastructure and public acceptance. As such, further efforts by many stakeholders are required to enable the real implementation and application of PAVs.

  11. Vibration control in semi-active suspension of the experimental off-road vehicle using information about suspension deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasprzyk Jerzy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of vibration control in an automotive semi-active suspension system depends on the quality of information from sensors installed in the vehicle, including information about deflection of the suspension system. The control algorithm for vibration attenuation of the body takes into account its velocity as well as the relative velocity of the suspension. In this paper it is proposed to use the Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT unit to measure the suspension deflection and then to estimate its relative velocity. This approach is compared with a typical solution implemented in such applications, where the relative velocity is calculated by processing signals acquired from accelerometers placed on the body and on the chassis. The experiments performed for an experimental All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV confirm that using LVDT units allows for improving ride comfort by better vibration attenuation of the body.

  12. Prilog optimalnom projektovanju aktivnog sistema za oslanjanje vozila / A contribution to optimal design of vehicle active suspension system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Demić

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available U ovom radu prikazanje sistem za aktivno oslanjanje vozila, uz korišćenje ravanskog modela vozila, bez filtera u povratnim spregama sistema za regulaciju. Za optimizaciju parametara PI kontrolera korišćena je metoda stohastičke parametarske optimizacije. Cilj optimizacije bio je istovremeno minimiziranje vibracijskih ubrzanja oslonjene mase i standardnog odstupanja sila u kontaktima točkova i tla, što poboljšava udobnost i ponašanje vozila na putu. / In this paper, an active suspension system is developed by use of a vehicle plane model without feedback filters in control system. A method of stochastic parameters optimization has been utilized in order to optimize PI controller parameters. The basic optimization goal was a simultaneous minimization of sprung mass acceleration and standard deviation of forces in tire-to-ground contact area, so as to improve vehicle comfort and handling performances.

  13. Test methods for evaluating energy consumption and emissions of vehicles with electric, hybrid and fuel cell power trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smokers, R.T.M.; Ploumen, S.; Conte, M.; Buning, L.; Meier-Engel, K.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the MATADOR-project measurement methods have been developed for the evaluation of the energy consumption and emissions of vehicles with advanced propulsion systems, such as battery-electric, hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicles. Based on an inventory of existing and prospective standard

  14. Study of the feasibility aspects of flight testing an aeroelastically tailored forward swept research wing on a BQM-34F drone vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourey, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    The aspects of flight testing an aeroelastically tailored forward swept research wing on a BQM-34F drone vehicle are examined. The geometry of a forward swept wing, which is incorporated into the BQM-34F to maintain satisfactory flight performance, stability, and control is defined. A preliminary design of the aeroelastically tailored forward swept wing is presented.

  15. Vehicle to Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett Kempton; Meryl Gardner; Michael Hidrue; Fouad Kamilev; Sachin Kamboj; Jon Lilley; Rodney McGee; George Parsons; Nat Pearre; Keith Trnka

    2010-12-31

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of a two-year DOE-funded project on Grid-Integrated Vehicles (GIV) with vehicle to grid power (V2G). The project included several research and development components: an analysis of US driving patterns; an analysis of the market for EVs and V2G-capable EVs; development and testing of GIV components (in-car and in-EVSE); interconnect law and policy; and development and filing of patents. In addition, development activities included GIV manufacturing and licensing of technologies developed under this grant. Also, five vehicles were built and deployed, four for the fleet of the State of Delaware, plus one for the University of Delaware fleet.

  16. Severe Accident Test Station Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL

    2015-06-01

    Enhancing safety margins in light water reactor (LWR) severe accidents is currently the focus of a number of international R&D programs. The current UO2/Zr-based alloy fuel system is particularly susceptible since the Zr-based cladding experiences rapid oxidation kinetics in steam at elevated temperatures. Therefore, alternative cladding materials that offer slower oxidation kinetics and a smaller enthalpy of oxidation can significantly reduce the rate of heat and hydrogen generation in the core during a coolant-limited severe accident. In the U.S. program, the high temperature steam oxidation performance of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding solutions has been evaluated in the Severe Accident Test Station (SATS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 2012. This report summarizes the capabilities of the SATS and provides an overview of the oxidation kinetics of several candidate cladding materials. A suggested baseline for evaluating ATF candidates is a two order of magnitude reduction in the steam oxidation resistance above 1000ºC compared to Zr-based alloys. The ATF candidates are categorized based on the protective external oxide or scale that forms during exposure to steam at high temperature: chromia, alumina, and silica. Comparisons are made to literature and SATS data for Zr-based alloys and other less-protective materials.

  17. A randomized controlled clinical study to evaluate the effectiveness of an active moisturizing lotion with colloidal oatmeal skin protectant versus its vehicle for the relief of xerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaaji, Amer N; Wallo, Warren

    2014-10-01

    Xerosis is a common skin condition, occurring most often in the winter and in low relative humidity, which results in loss of moisture, cracking, and desquamation. Many emollient creams and lotions are available for use as preventive moisturizers. However, few controlled experiments have been published comparing the efficacy of active moisturizing products versus the vehicle used to deliver the products to the skin. Therefore, we conducted this randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical study to objectively compare a commercially available moisturizing product against its own vehicle. The active colloidal oatmeal moisturizer used in this study showed significant benefits versus its vehicle control in several dermatological parameters used to measure skin dryness.

  18. Assessing the Potential of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kordheili, Reza Ahmadi; Pourmousavi, Seyyed Ali; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    A multi-objective optimization algorithm is proposed in this paper to increase the penetration level of renewable energy sources (RESs) in distribution networks by intelligent management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) storage. The proposed algorithm is defined to manage the reverse power flow ...... demonstrate the capability of the algorithm in increasing solar power penetration in the grid up to 50%, depending on the PEV penetration level and the freedom of the system operator in managing the available PEV storage....

  19. Nonlinear fractional order proportion-integral-derivative active disturbance rejection control method design for hypersonic vehicle attitude control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jia; Wang, Lun; Cai, Guobiao; Qi, Xiaoqiang

    2015-06-01

    Near space hypersonic vehicle model is nonlinear, multivariable and couples in the reentry process, which are challenging for the controller design. In this paper, a nonlinear fractional order proportion integral derivative (NFOPIλDμ) active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) strategy based on a natural selection particle swarm (NSPSO) algorithm is proposed for the hypersonic vehicle flight control. The NFOPIλDμ ADRC method consists of a tracking-differentiator (TD), an NFOPIλDμ controller and an extended state observer (ESO). The NFOPIλDμ controller designed by combining an FOPIλDμ method and a nonlinear states error feedback control law (NLSEF) is to overcome concussion caused by the NLSEF and conversely compensate the insufficiency for relatively simple and rough signal processing caused by the FOPIλDμ method. The TD is applied to coordinate the contradiction between rapidity and overshoot. By attributing all uncertain factors to unknown disturbances, the ESO can achieve dynamic feedback compensation for these disturbances and thus reduce their effects. Simulation results show that the NFOPIλDμ ADRC method can make the hypersonic vehicle six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear model track desired nominal signals accurately and fast, has good stability, dynamic properties and strong robustness against external environmental disturbances.

  20. NASA Activity Update for the 2013 Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (UVSI) Yearbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    This year s report offers a high level perspective on some of the UAS related activities in which NASA is involved, both internal and external to the agency. Internally, NASA issued UAS operational policy on certification of NASA UAS and aircrew. A team of NASA UAS experts and operators analyzed all current procedures and best practices to design the policy. An update to the agencies Aircraft Operations Management Manual incorporated a new chapter to address UAS planning, preflight operations, flight operations, flight crew requirements, airworthiness and flight safety reviews. NASA UAS are classified into three categories based on weight and airspeed. Aircrews, including observers, are classified by how they interface with the UAS, and the policy defines qualifications, training, and currency. The NASA flight readiness approval process identifies risks and mitigations in order to reduce the likelihood and/or consequence of the risk to an acceptable level. The UAS operations process incorporates all aspects of airworthiness, flight standards and range safety exactly the same processes used for NASA manned aircraft operations. NASA has two internal organizations that routinely operate UAS. The Science Mission Directorate utilizes UAS as part of its Airborne Science Program and is the most frequent operator of NASA UAS in both national and international airspace. The Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate conducts UAS flight operations in addition to conducting research important to the UAS community. This past year the Science Mission Directorate supported the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentimental (HS3) Mission with two NASA Global Hawk platforms. HS3 is a five-year mission specifically targeted to investigate the processes that underlie hurricane formation. During the 2012 portion of this mission the Global Hawk overflew hurricanes Leslie and Nadine in the Atlantic Ocean completing 6 flights and accumulating more than 148 flight hours. Another multi-year mission

  1. Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Pad Abort Test Vehicle (PATV) II Attitude Control System (ACS) Integration and Pressurization Subsystem Dynamic Random Vibration Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekrami, Yasamin; Cook, Joseph S.

    2011-01-01

    In order to mitigate catastrophic failures on future generation space vehicles, engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have begun to integrate a novel crew abort systems that could pull a crew module away in case of an emergency at the launch pad or during ascent. The Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) is a recent test vehicle that was designed as an alternative to the baseline Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) to demonstrate the performance of a "tower-less" LAS configuration under abort conditions. The MLAS II test vehicle will execute a propulsive coast stabilization maneuver during abort to control the vehicles trajectory and thrust. To accomplish this, the spacecraft will integrate an Attitude Control System (ACS) with eight hypergolic monomethyl hydrazine liquid propulsion engines that are capable of operating in a quick pulsing mode. Two main elements of the ACS include a propellant distribution subsystem and a pressurization subsystem to regulate the flow of pressurized gas to the propellant tanks and the engines. The CAD assembly of the Attitude Control System (ACS) was configured and integrated into the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) design. A dynamic random vibration analysis was conducted on the Main Propulsion System (MPS) helium pressurization panels to assess the response of the panel and its components under increased gravitational acceleration loads during flight. The results indicated that the panels fundamental and natural frequencies were farther from the maximum Acceleration Spectral Density (ASD) vibrations which were in the range of 150-300 Hz. These values will direct how the components will be packaged in the vehicle to reduce the effects high gravitational loads.

  2. Radical advancement in multi-spectral imaging for autonomous vehicles (UAVs, UGVs, and UUVs) using active compensation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Brian F.; Bagwell, Brett E.; Wick, David Victor

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this LDRD was to demonstrate a compact, multi-spectral, refractive imaging systems using active optical compensation. Compared to a comparable, conventional lens system, our system has an increased operational bandwidth, provides for spectral selectivity and, non-mechanically corrects aberrations induced by the wavelength dependent properties of a passive refractive optical element (i.e. lens). The compact nature and low power requirements of the system lends itself to small platforms such as autonomous vehicles. In addition, the broad spectral bandwidth of our system would allow optimized performance for both day/night use, and the multi-spectral capability allows for spectral discrimination and signature identification.

  3. State-of-Charge Estimation and Active Cell Pack Balancing Design of Lithium Battery Power System for Smart Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. C. Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated state-of-charge (SOC estimation model and active cell balancing of a 12-cell lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 battery power system. The strong tracking cubature extended Kalman filter (STCEKF gave an accurate SOC prediction compared to other Kalman-based filter algorithms. The proposed groupwise balancing of the multiple SOC exhibited a higher balancing speed and lower balancing loss than other cell balancing designs. The experimental results demonstrated the robustness and performance of the battery when subjected to current load profile of an electric vehicle under varying ambient temperature.

  4. Modeling in the State Flow Environment to Support Launch Vehicle Verification Testing for Mission and Fault Management Algorithms in the NASA Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Berg, Peter; England, Dwight; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis methods and testing processes are essential activities in the engineering development and verification of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) new Space Launch System (SLS). Central to mission success is reliable verification of the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms for the SLS launch vehicle (LV) flight software. This is particularly difficult because M&FM algorithms integrate and operate LV subsystems, which consist of diverse forms of hardware and software themselves, with equally diverse integration from the engineering disciplines of LV subsystems. M&FM operation of SLS requires a changing mix of LV automation. During pre-launch the LV is primarily operated by the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) organization with some LV automation of time-critical functions, and much more autonomous LV operations during ascent that have crucial interactions with the Orion crew capsule, its astronauts, and with mission controllers at the Johnson Space Center. M&FM algorithms must perform all nominal mission commanding via the flight computer to control LV states from pre-launch through disposal and also address failure conditions by initiating autonomous or commanded aborts (crew capsule escape from the failing LV), redundancy management of failing subsystems and components, and safing actions to reduce or prevent threats to ground systems and crew. To address the criticality of the verification testing of these algorithms, the NASA M&FM team has utilized the State Flow environment6 (SFE) with its existing Vehicle Management End-to-End Testbed (VMET) platform which also hosts vendor-supplied physics-based LV subsystem models. The human-derived M&FM algorithms are designed and vetted in Integrated Development Teams composed of design and development disciplines such as Systems Engineering, Flight Software (FSW), Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) and major subsystems and vehicle elements

  5. 78 FR 8111 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... terms of physiological (auditory) impacts. The noise and visual disturbances from space launch vehicle... occurred. VAFB will also use monitoring surveys, audio-recording equipment, and time-lapse video to monitor...

  6. 77 FR 6086 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... terms of physiological (auditory) impacts. The noise and visual disturbances from space launch vehicle... occurred. VAFB will also use monitoring surveys, audio-recording equipment, and time-lapse video to monitor...

  7. 76 FR 6448 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... physiological (auditory) impacts. The noise and visual disturbances from space launch vehicle and missile.... VAFB will also use monitoring surveys, audio-recording equipment, and time-lapse video to monitor the...

  8. A Vehicle Detection Algorithm Based on Deep Belief Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vision based vehicle detection is a critical technology that plays an important role in not only vehicle active safety but also road video surveillance application. Traditional shallow model based vehicle detection algorithm still cannot meet the requirement of accurate vehicle detection in these applications. In this work, a novel deep learning based vehicle detection algorithm with 2D deep belief network (2D-DBN is proposed. In the algorithm, the proposed 2D-DBN architecture uses second-order planes instead of first-order vector as input and uses bilinear projection for retaining discriminative information so as to determine the size of the deep architecture which enhances the success rate of vehicle detection. On-road experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm performs better than state-of-the-art vehicle detection algorithm in testing data sets.

  9. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    As computing devices, sensors, and actuators pervade our surroundings, new applications emerge with accompanying research challenges. In the transportation domain vehicles are being linked by wireless communication and equipped with an array of sensors and actuators that make is possible to provide...... location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...... and governing the flow of data among them. In pervasive computing, composing services is, however, not the whole story. To fully realize their potential, applications must also deal with challenges such as device heterogeneity, context awareness, openendedness, and resilience to dynamism in network connectivity...

  10. Cooperative sentry vehicles and differential GPS leapfrog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FEDDEMA,JOHN T.; LEWIS,CHRISTOPHER L.; LAFARGE,ROBERT A.

    2000-06-07

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center is developing and testing the feasibility of using a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter, perform a surround task, and travel extended distances. This paper describes the authors most recent activities. In particular, this paper highlights the development of a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) leapfrog capability that allows two or more vehicles to alternate sending DGPS corrections. Using this leapfrog technique, this paper shows that a group of autonomous vehicles can travel 22.68 kilometers with a root mean square positioning error of only 5 meters.

  11. Unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV): Flight testing and evaluation of two-channel E-field very low frequency (VLF) instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Using VLF frequencies, transmitted by the Navy`s network, for airborne remote sensing of the earth`s electrical, magnetic characteristics was first considered by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) around the mid 1970s. The first VLF system was designed and developed by the USGS for installation and operation on a single engine, fixed wing aircraft used by the Branch of Geophysics for geophysical surveying. The system consisted of five channels. Two E-field channels with sensors consisting of a fixed vertical loaded dipole antenna with pre-amp mounted on top of the fuselage and a gyro stabilized horizontal loaded dipole antenna with pre-amp mounted on a tail boom. The three channel magnetic sensor consisted of three orthogonal coils mounted on the same gyro stabilized platform as the horizontal E-field antenna. The main features of the VLF receiver were: narrow band-width frequency selection using crystal filters, phase shifters for zeroing out system phase variances, phase-lock loops for generating real and quadrature gates, and synchronous detectors for generating real and quadrature outputs. In the mid 1990s the Branch of Geophysics designed and developed a two-channel E-field ground portable VLF system. The system was built using state-of-the-art circuit components and new concepts in circuit architecture. Small size, light weight, low power, durability, and reliability were key considerations in the design of the instrument. The primary purpose of the instrument was for collecting VLF data during ground surveys over small grid areas. Later the system was modified for installation on a Unmanned Airborne Vehicle (UAV). A series of three field trips were made to Easton, Maryland for testing and evaluating the system performance.

  12. Vehicle Dynamics Approach to Driver Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef A. Ghoneim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a concept for enhanced active safety by introducing a driver warning system based on vehicle dynamics that predicts a potential loss of control condition prior to stability control activation. This real-time warning algorithm builds on available technologies such as the Electronic Stability Control (ESC. The driver warning system computes several indices based on yaw rate, side-slip velocity, and vehicle understeer using ESC sensor suite. An arbitrator block arbitrates between the different indices and determines the status index of the driving vehicle. The status index is compared to predetermined stability levels which correspond to high and low stability levels. If the index exceeds the high stability level, a warning signal (haptic, acoustic, or visual is issued to alert the driver of a potential loss of control and ESC activation. This alert will remain in effect until the index is less than the low stability level at which time the warning signal will be terminated. A vehicle speed advisory algorithm is integrated with the warning algorithm to provide a desired vehicle speed of a vehicle traveling on a curve. Simulation results and vehicle tests were conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the warning algorithm.

  13. Improving Vehicle Ride and Handling Using LQG CNF Fusion Control Strategy for an Active Antiroll Bar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zulkarnain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses a comparison of performance for an active antiroll bar (ARB system using two types of control strategy. First of all, the LQG control strategy is investigated and then a novel LQG CNF fusion control method is developed to improve the performances on vehicle ride and handling for an active antiroll bar system. However, the ARB system has to balance the trade-off between ride and handling performance, where the CNF consists of a linear feedback law and a nonlinear feedback law. Typically, the linear feedback is designed to yield a quick response at the initial stage, while the nonlinear feedback law is used to smooth out overshoots in the system output when it approaches the target reference. The half car model is combined with a linear single track model with roll dynamics which are used for the analysis and simulation of ride and handling. The performances of the control strategies are compared and the simulation results show the LQG CNF fusion improves the performances in vehicle ride and handling.

  14. Reliable fuzzy H∞ control for active suspension of in-wheel motor driven electric vehicles with dynamic damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xinxin; Naghdy, Fazel; Du, Haiping

    2017-03-01

    A fault-tolerant fuzzy H∞ control design approach for active suspension of in-wheel motor driven electric vehicles in the presence of sprung mass variation, actuator faults and control input constraints is proposed. The controller is designed based on the quarter-car active suspension model with a dynamic-damping-in-wheel-motor-driven-system, in which the suspended motor is operated as a dynamic absorber. The Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is used to model this suspension with possible sprung mass variation. The parallel-distributed compensation (PDC) scheme is deployed to derive a fault-tolerant fuzzy controller for the T-S fuzzy suspension model. In order to reduce the motor wear caused by the dynamic force transmitted to the in-wheel motor, the dynamic force is taken as an additional controlled output besides the traditional optimization objectives such as sprung mass acceleration, suspension deflection and actuator saturation. The H∞ performance of the proposed controller is derived as linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) comprising three equality constraints which are solved efficiently by means of MATLAB LMI Toolbox. The proposed controller is applied to an electric vehicle suspension and its effectiveness is demonstrated through computer simulation.

  15. Background Pressure Profiles for Sonic Boom Vehicle Testing in the NASA Glenn 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond; Shaw, Stephen; Adamson, Eric; Simerly, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to identify test facilities that offer sonic boom measurement capabilities, an exploratory test program was initiated using wind tunnels at NASA research centers. The subject of this report is the sonic boom pressure rail data collected in the Glenn Research Center 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. The purpose is to summarize the lessons learned based on the test activity, specifically relating to collecting sonic boom data which has a large amount of spatial pressure variation. The wind tunnel background pressure profiles are presented as well as data which demonstrated how both wind tunnel Mach number and model support-strut position affected the wind tunnel background pressure profile. Techniques were developed to mitigate these effects and are presented.

  16. An Active Fault-Tolerant Control Method Ofunmanned Underwater Vehicles with Continuous and Uncertain Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqi Zhu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel thruster fault diagnosis and accommodation system for open-frame underwater vehicles with abrupt faults. The proposed system consists of two subsystems: a fault diagnosis subsystem and a fault accommodation sub-system. In the fault diagnosis subsystem a ICMAC(Improved Credit Assignment Cerebellar Model Articulation Controllers neural network is used to realize the on-line fault identification and the weighting matrix computation. The fault accommodation subsystem uses a control algorithm based on weighted pseudo-inverse to find the solution of the control allocation problem. To illustrate the proposed method effective, simulation example, under multi-uncertain abrupt faults, is given in the paper.

  17. Junction temperature estimation for an advanced active power cycling test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Jørgensen, S.

    2015-01-01

    estimation method using on-state VCE for an advanced active power cycling test is proposed. The concept of the advanced power cycling test is explained first. Afterwards the junction temperature estimation method using on-state VCE and current is presented. Further, the method to improve the accuracy...

  18. Durability and Reliability of Electric Vehicle Batteries under Electric Utility Grid Operations. Part 1: Cell-to-Cell Variations and Preliminary Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Devie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle-to-grid (V2G and grid-to-vehicle (G2V strategies are considered to help stabilize the electric grid but their true impact on battery degradation is still unknown. The intention of this study is to test the impact of such strategies on the degradation of commercial Li-ion batteries. This first part looks into the preliminary testing performed prior to the start of degradation studies to ensure that the selected cells are compatible. Both the thermodynamic and kinetic cell-to-cell variation within the selected batch and the diagnostic-ability of the cells were investigated. The cells were found to have low cell-to-cell variations and are thus consistent. Moreover, the emulation of the full cell from the half-cell data prepared from harvested electrodes was successful and the degradation forecast showed that the main degradation modes can be differentiated.

  19. Effects of Vigorous Intensity Physical Activity on Mathematics Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David S.; Hannon, James C.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an acute bout of physical activity on academic performance in school-based settings is under researched. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between a single, vigorous (70-85%) bout of physical activity completed during physical education on standardized mathematics test performance among 72, eighth grade students…

  20. Activities preceding a decline in the paratuberculosis test prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    . A challenge in evaluation of activities in a national programme it is essentially a sample size of one without a control group. Therefore, the apparent effect of activities on programme level can only be descriptive. Our objective was to describe the decline in the test-prevalence along with the activities...... for a “continuous” flow of diagnostic test information four times annually in each herd. This information can be used for detection and management of infectious animals and for prevalence monitoring....... preceding this decline. The cohort of herds enrolled in 2006-2007 had an average estimated within-herd test-prevalence of 10% at start. By January 2014 this had declined to 2%. The test-prevalence in the cohort of herds enrolled in 2008-2010 started at approximately 6% and by January 2014 was reduced...

  1. The test-retest reliability of habitual incidental physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Gavin; Giles-Corti, Billie; Milligan, Rex

    2003-01-01

    To determine the test-retest reliability of items measuring habitual incidental physical activity, incidental physical activity behaviour and sedentary behaviours. Eighty-four subjects aged 18-65 years were interviewed from randomly selected households within metropolitan and rural Western Australia. Subjects were administered the interview on two separate occasions 10 days apart. Subjects were asked about habitual incidental physical activity (i.e. bouts performed for 10 minutes or less) performed during the week and on weekends. Intraclass correlations performed for items measuring incidental physical activity were generally found to be low to moderate. The frequency of incidental physical activity was more reliably recalled than the average duration spent on short trips (ICC 0.582 to 0.872 compared with 273 to 0.551). Kappa coefficients for habitual incidental physical activity behaviour items were observed to have moderate-to-high (0.478 to 0.939) agreement between administrations. Sedentary behaviours overall showed high test-retest reliability (ICC 0.646 to 0.925). These findings demonstrate that adults can reliably recall the frequency, but not the duration, of habitual incidental physical activity. Thus, the frequency measured by these items could be used to determine the effectiveness of current Australian physical activity guidelines and possibly identify shifts in incidental physical activity behaviour over time. Measurement of physical activity in all domains including incidental physical activity is required to determine the effectiveness of current guidelines and implemented health promotion interventions.

  2. Active-charging based powertrain control in series hybrid electric vehicles for efficiency improvement and battery lifetime extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Mi, Chris Chunting; Yin, Chengliang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a powertrain control strategy for a series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV) based on the integrated design of an active charging scenario and fixed-boundary-layer sliding mode controllers (FBLSMCs). An optimized charging curve for the battery is predetermined rather than subject to engine output and vehicle power demand, which is a total inverse of normal SHEV powertrain control process. This is aimed to remove surge and high-frequency charge current, keep the battery staying in a high state-of-charge (SOC) region and avoid persistently-high charge power, which are positive factors to battery lifetime extension. Then two robust chattering-free FBLSMCs are designed to locate the engine operation in the optimal efficiency area. One is in charge of engine speed control, and the other is for engine/generator torque control. Consequently, not only fuel economy is improved but also battery life expectancy could be extended. Finally, simulation and experimental results confirm the validity and application feasibility of the proposed strategy.

  3. Comparison Study of Two Semi-Active Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications and Their Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Min

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Both the battery/supercapacitor (SC and SC/battery are two common semi-active configurations of hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs in hybrid electric vehicles, which can take advantage of the battery’s and supercapacitor’s respective characteristics, including the energy ability, power ability and the long lifetime. To explore in depth the characteristics and applicability of the two kinds of HESS, an analysis and comparison study is proposed in this paper. Based on the data collected from public transit hybrid electric bus (PTHEB with battery-only on-board energy storage, the range and distribution probability of electric power/energy demand is comprehensively statistically analyzed with the decomposing and normalizing methods. Accordingly, the performance of each topology under different parameter matching conditions but same mass, volume and cost values with battery-only energy storage, are presented and compared quantitatively. The results show that both HESS configurations can meet the electric power demand of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV through reasonable design. In particular, the SC/battery can make better use of the SC features resulting in high efficiency and long life cycles compared with the battery/SC. Equally, it proves that the SC/battery topology is a better choice for the HEV. Finally, an experimental validation of a real HEV is carried out, which indicated that a 7% fuel economy improvement can be achieved by a SC/battery system compared with battery-only topology.

  4. Stopping Accidents before They Happen: Perceiving Lane-Level Moving Vehicle Danger Regions to Warn Surrounding Drivers and Pedestrians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Perceiving the location of dangerous moving vehicles and broadcasting this information to vehicles nearby are essential to achieve active safety in the Internet of Vehicles (IOV. To address this issue, we implement a real-time high-precision lane-level danger region service for moving vehicles. A traditional service depends on static geofencing and fails to deal with dynamic vehicles. To overcome this defect, we devised a new type of IOV service that manages to track dangerous moving vehicles in real time and recognize their danger regions quickly and accurately. Next, we designed algorithms to distinguish the vehicles in danger regions and broadcast the information to these vehicles. Our system can simultaneously manipulate a mass of danger regions for various dangerous vehicles and broadcast this information to surrounding vehicles at a large scale. This new system was tested in Shanghai, Guangzhou, Wuhan, and other cities; the data analysis is presented in this paper as well.

  5. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Johnson, Stephen B.; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David

    2015-01-01

    The development of the Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The characteristics of these systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large complex systems engineering challenge being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance. Using traditional model based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms are crafted and vetted in specialized Integrated Development Teams composed of multiple development disciplines. NASA also has formed an M&FM team for addressing fault management early in the development lifecycle. This team has developed a dedicated Vehicle Management End-to-End Testbed (VMET) that integrates specific M&FM algorithms, specialized nominal and off-nominal test cases, and vendor-supplied physics-based launch vehicle subsystem models. The flexibility of VMET enables thorough testing of the M&FM algorithms by providing configurable suites of both nominal and off-nominal test cases to validate the algorithms utilizing actual subsystem models. The intent is to validate the algorithms and substantiate them with performance baselines for each of the vehicle subsystems in an independent platform exterior to flight software test processes. In any software development process there is inherent risk in the interpretation and implementation of concepts into software through requirements and test processes. Risk reduction is addressed by working with other organizations such as S

  6. Activation of electrical machinery. Supplement 1. [Preliminary evaluation; not applicable to ground tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolen, J.R.

    1963-11-15

    The following analysis of the induced radioactivity in SNAP-50/SPUR electrical machinery having a high cobalt content is submitted. Induced radioactivity in the flight vehicle will contribute negligibly to allowable radiation levels. This is especially so due to the low neutron to gamma ratio of assumed radiation damage tolerances to semiconductors. A calculation to estimate the order of magnitude of induced radioactivity in cobalt is attached. The calculation is based on a best guess of the neutron spectrum directly behind a lithium hydride shield. The resulting low cobalt activity and associated dose rate of about 1 mr/hr at 10 ft from a generator or a motor is insignificant. Although the evaluation indicates insignificant levels of induced radioactivity, this conclusion is not applicable to a ground test. Neutron moderation and scattering from a containment vessel and biological shield would greatly perturb the neutron environment behind the flight shield. Posttest handling of all components within the vacuum test chamber will undoubtedly be a problem. Notwithstanding the importance of limiting induced radioactivity, other considerations such as economy, cooling and vacuum requirements will largely dictate the final facility design. In summary, an activation analysis involves the overall facility design and will not be readily resolved. For a 10,000 hr. test the Co/sup 60/ activity may range from 100 curies per lb of cobalt where no shielding is provided to 10/sup -3/ curies per lb of cobalt where the equivalent of a flight shield is provided.

  7. 75 FR 5056 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... physiological (auditory) impacts. The noise and visual disturbances from space launch vehicle and missile.... VAFB will also use monitoring surveys, audio-recording equipment, and time-lapse video to monitor the... the digital audio tape (DAT) recording showed that no sonic boom had been recorded. Between 18 and 22...

  8. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASAs Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Johnson, Stephen B.; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David

    2015-01-01

    The engineering development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) new Space Launch System (SLS) requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The nominal and off-nominal characteristics of SLS's elements and subsystems must be understood and matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large and complex systems engineering challenge, which is being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems involved in the handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance with response management. Using traditional model-based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms for the vehicle are crafted and vetted in Integrated Development Teams (IDTs) composed of multiple development disciplines such as Systems Engineering (SE), Flight Software (FSW), Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) and the major subsystems and vehicle elements such as Main Propulsion Systems (MPS), boosters, avionics, Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC), Thrust Vector Control (TVC), and liquid engines. These model-based algorithms and their development lifecycle from inception through FSW certification are an important focus of SLS's development effort to further ensure reliable detection and response to off-nominal vehicle states during all phases of vehicle operation from pre-launch through end of flight. To test and validate these M&FM algorithms a dedicated test-bed was developed for full Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing (VMET). For addressing fault management (FM

  9. Active control rotor model testing at Princeton's Rotorcraft Dynamics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckillip, Robert M., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A description of the model helicopter rotor tests currently in progress at Princeton's Rotorcraft Dynamics Laboratory is presented. The tests are designed to provide data for rotor dynamic modeling for use with active control system design. The model rotor to be used incoporates the capability for Individual Blade Control (IBC) or Higher Harmonic Control through the use of a standard swashplate on a three bladed hub. Sample results from the first series of tests are presented, along with the methodology used for state and parameter identification. Finally, pending experiments and possible research directions using this model and test facility are outlined.

  10. Changes in brain electrical activity after cognitive behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in patients injured in motor vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, Sirko; Zoellner, Tanja; Beauducel, Andrë; Maercker, Andreas; Karl, Anke

    2008-01-01

    To explore changes for the first time in neural processing due to effective cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after severe motor vehicle accidents. Recent studies have highlighted the role of right hemisphere activation during withdrawal-related emotions (e.g., anxiety). There has been little research on changes in brain function due to cognitive-behavioral interventions in anxiety disorders. We conducted a randomized, controlled trial comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy with an assessment-only Wait-list condition. Spontaneous electroencephalographic activity was recorded from left and right anterior and posterior regions in participants with PTSD/subsyndromal PTSD receiving CBT (n = 17) before and after a CBT program. Wait-list controls (n = 18) were investigated before and after 3 months. At the pretreatment assessment, a pattern of increased right-sided activation during exposure to a trauma-related picture (relative to a neutral picture) was observed in both CBT and Wait-list participants. At posttreatment, there was a greater reduction of right anterior activation in the CBT group as compared with Wait-list controls. Across both groups, PTSD symptom reduction was significantly positively correlated with a decrease in right anterior activation to the trauma stimulus. These findings suggest that effective CBT treatment of PTSD may be accompanied by adaptive changes in asymmetrical brain function. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  11. Routing Vehicles with Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

    Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

  12. Active safety of industrial vehicles - status report 2003; Stand der aktiven Sicherheit von Nutzfahrzeugen - Statusreport 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasner, E.C. von [DaimlerChrysler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Systematic improvement of the safety of industrial vehicles will require the enhanced use of intelligent mechatronic systems, especially those that ensure higher directional stability. Further, improved tyres are required for making full use of these systems. Research on tyre improvements should focus on directional stability without neglecting classic parameters like wear, grip, and comfort. Last but not least, all systems should be available at reasonable cost. [German] Der systematische Weg, um die aktive Sicherheit von Nutzfahrzeugen weiter zu verbessern, wird mehr und mehr den Einsatz von intelligenten mechatronischen Systemen erfordern, besonders bei Systemen fuer die Verbesserung von Fahrstabilitaet von Einzelfahrzeugen und Lastzuegen. Hier spielt in kritischen fahrdynamischen Situationen aber auch die Leistungsfaehigkeit des Reifens eine grosse Rolle. Die Vorteile solcher Sicherheitssysteme koennen deshalb nur genutzt werden, wenn die Leistungsfaehigkeit der Reifen weiter gesteigert werden kann, d.h. die Betonung bei der Reifenentwicklung fuer Nutzfahrzeuge muss auf der Erhoehung der uebertragbaren Seiten- und Laengskraefte unter Beibehaltung des heutigen Schraegwinkel - und Schlupfniveaus liegen. Selbstverstaendlich darf eine solche Weiterentwicklung nicht die ueblichen Reifenparameter, wie z.B. Verschleiss, Rollwiderstand und Komfort negativ beeinflussen. Ein abschliessender Aspekt in diesem Prozess, den man nicht ignorieren kann, ist der Einsatz aller sicherheitsbezogenen Systeme zu einem vernuenftigen und akzeptablen Preis, wobei gleichzeitig die ganzheitliche Oekonomie des Nutzfahrzeugs positiv beeinflusst werden sollte. (orig.)

  13. Assessment of Bilateral Thoracic Loading on the Near-Side Occupant Due to Occupant-to-Occupant Interaction in Vehicle Crash Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnevång, Cecilia; Pipkorn, Bengt; Boström, Ola

    2015-01-01

    This study aims, by means of the WorldSID 50th percentile male, to evaluate thoracic loading and injury risk to the near-side occupant due to occupant-to-occupant interaction in combination with loading from an intruding structure. Nine vehicle crash tests were performed with a 50th percentile WorldSID male dummy in the near-side (adjacent to the intruding structure) seat and a THOR or ES2 dummy in the far-side (opposite the intruding structure) seat. The near-side seated WorldSID was equipped with 6 + 6 IR-Traccs (LH and RH) in the thorax/abdomen enabling measurement of bilateral deflection. To differentiate deflection caused by the intrusion, and the deflection caused by the neighboring occupant, time history curves were analyzed. The crash tests were performed with different modern vehicles, equipped with thorax side airbags and inflatable curtains, ranging from a compact car to a large sedan, and in different loading conditions such as car-to-car, barrier, and pole tests. Lateral delta V based on vehicle tunnel acceleration and maximum residual intrusion at occupant position were used as a measurement of crash severity to compare injury measurements. In the 9 vehicle crash tests, thoracic loading, induced by the intruding structure as well as from the far-side occupant, varied due to the size and structural performance of the car as well as the severity of the crash. Peak deflection on the thoracic outboard side occurred during the first 50 ms of the event. Between 70 to 150 ms loading induced by the neighboring occupant occurred and resulted in an inboard-side peak deflection and viscous criterion. In the tests where the target vehicle lateral delta V was below 30 km/h and intrusion less than 200 mm, deflections were low on both the outboard (20-40 mm) and inboard side (10-15 mm). At higher crash severities, delta V 35 km/h and above as well as intrusions larger than 350 mm, the inboard deflections (caused by interaction to the far-side occupant) were of the

  14. Test-Takers' Background, Literacy Activities, and Views of the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Klinger, Don A.; Cheng, Liying; Fox, Janna; Doe, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among students' background information and their in-school and after-school literacy activities, as well as the relationships between students' background and their views of the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT). The results showed that students' literacy activities could be grouped into three…

  15. Electric Vehicle Requirements for Operation in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Sacchetti, Dario; Træholt, Chresten

    2011-01-01

    Several European projects on smart grids are considering Electric Vehicles (EVs) as active element in future power systems. Both battery-powered vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles are expected to interact with the grid, sharing their energy storage capacity. Different coordination concepts...... for EVs are being investigated, in which vehicles can be intelligently charged or discharged feeding power back to the grid in vehicle-to-grid mode (V2G). To respond to such needs, EVs are required to share their battery internal data as well as respond to external control signals. In this paper......, the requirements for the interaction of EVs with the electrical grid are presented. The defined requirements have been implemented on an EV test bed, realized by using real EV components. Charging/V2G tests on the EV test bed have shown that the presented requirements are sufficient to ensure an intelligent...

  16. Improving of technical characteristics of launch vehicles with liquid rocket engines using active onboard de-orbiting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushlyakov, V.; Shatrov, Ya.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the analysis of technical requirements (TR) for the development of modern space launch vehicles (LV) with main liquid rocket engines (LRE) is fulfilled in relation to the anthropogenic impact decreasing. Factual technical characteristics on the example of a promising type of rocket ;Soyuz-2.1.v.; are analyzed. Meeting the TR in relation to anthropogenic impact decrease based on the conventional design approach and the content of the onboard system does not prove to be efficient and leads to depreciation of the initial technical characteristics obtained at the first design stage if these requirements are not included. In this concern, it is shown that the implementation of additional active onboard de-orbiting system (AODS) of worked-off stages (WS) into the onboard LV stages systems allows to meet the TR related to the LV environmental characteristics, including fire-explosion safety. In some cases, the orbital payload mass increases.

  17. Final payload test results for the RemoveDebris active debris removal mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshaw, Jason L.; Aglietti, Guglielmo S.; Salmon, Thierry; Retat, Ingo; Roe, Mark; Burgess, Christopher; Chabot, Thomas; Pisseloup, Aurélien; Phipps, Andy; Bernal, Cesar; Chaumette, François; Pollini, Alexandre; Steyn, Willem H.

    2017-09-01

    Since the beginning of the space era, a significant amount of debris has progressively been generated in space. Active Debris Removal (ADR) missions have been suggested as a way of limiting and controlling future growth in orbital space debris by actively deploying vehicles to remove debris. The European Commission FP7-sponsored RemoveDebris mission, which started in 2013, draws on the expertise of some of Europe's most prominent space institutions in order to demonstrate key ADR technologies in a cost effective ambitious manner: net capture, harpoon capture, vision-based navigation, dragsail de-orbiting. This paper provides an overview of some of the final payload test results before launch. A comprehensive test campaign is underway on both payloads and platform. The tests aim to demonstrate both functional success of the experiments and that the experiments can survive the space environment. Space environmental tests (EVT) include vibration, thermal, vacuum or thermal-vacuum (TVAC) and in some cases EMC and shock. The test flow differs for each payload and depends on the heritage of the constituent payload parts. The paper will also provide an update to the launch, expected in 2017 from the International Space Station (ISS), and test philosophy that has been influenced from the launch and prerequisite NASA safety review for the mission. The RemoveDebris mission aims to be one of the world's first in-orbit demonstrations of key technologies for active debris removal and is a vital prerequisite to achieving the ultimate goal of a cleaner Earth orbital environment.

  18. Test of hybrid power system for electrical vehicles using a lithium-ion battery pack and a reformed methanol fuel cell range extender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Ashworth, Leanne; Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    2014-01-01

    monoxide, the HTPEM fuel cell system can efficiently use a liquid methanol/water mixture of 60%/40% by volume, as fuel instead of compressed hydrogen, enabling potentially a higher volumetric energy density. In order to test the performance of such a system, the experimental validation conducted uses......This work presents the proof-of-concept of an electric traction power system with a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell range extender, usable for automotive class electrical vehicles. The hybrid system concept examined, consists of a power system where the primary power...... is delivered by a lithium ion battery pack. In order to increase the run time of the application connected to this battery pack, a high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack acts as an on-board charger able to charge a vehicle during operation as a series hybrid. Because of the high tolerance to carbon...

  19. Shuttle active thermal control system development testing. Volume 6: Water ejector plume tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcginnis, F. K.; Summerhays, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Results are given of vacuum testing of nozzles designed to eject water vapor away from the space shuttle to prevent contamination of the spacecraft surfaces and payload. The water vapor is generated by an active cooling system which evaporates excess fuel cell water to supplement a modular radiator system (MRS). The complete heat rejection system including the MRS, flash evaporator or sublimator and nozzle were first tested to demonstrate the system operational characteristics. The plume tests were performed in two phases and the objectives of this test series were: (1) to determine the effectiveness of a supersonic nozzle and a plugged nozzle in minimizing impingement upon the spacecraft of water vapor exhausted by an active device (flash evaporator or sublimator); and (2) to obtain basic data on the flow fields of exhaust plumes generated by these active devices, both with and without nozzles installed.

  20. Methanogenic activity tests by Infrared Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Cruz, Karla; Sepulveda-Jauregui, Armando; Escobar-Orozco, Nayeli; Thalasso, Frederic

    2012-10-01

    Methanogenic activity (MA) tests are commonly carried out to estimate the capability of anaerobic biomass to treat effluents, to evaluate anaerobic activity in bioreactors or natural ecosystems, or to quantify inhibitory effects on methanogenic activity. These activity tests are usually based on the measurement of the volume of biogas produced by volumetric, pressure increase or gas chromatography (GC) methods. In this study, we present an alternative method for non-invasive measurement of methane produced during activity tests in closed vials, based on Infrared Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (MA-TDLAS). This new method was tested during model acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic activity tests and was compared to a more traditional method based on gas chromatography. From the results obtained, the CH(4) detection limit of the method was estimated to 60 ppm and the minimum measurable methane production rate was estimated to 1.09(.)10(-3) mg l(-1) h(-1), which is below CH(4) production rate usually reported in both anaerobic reactors and natural ecosystems. Additionally to sensitivity, the method has several potential interests compared to more traditional methods among which short measurements time allowing the measurement of a large number of MA test vials, non-invasive measurements avoiding leakage or external interferences and similar cost to GC based methods. It is concluded that MA-TDLAS is a promising method that could be of interest not only in the field of anaerobic digestion but also, in the field of environmental ecology where CH(4) production rates are usually very low. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.