WorldWideScience

Sample records for vehicle safety devices

  1. Universal Safety Distance Alert Device for Road Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matic Virant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Driving with too short of a safety distance is a common problem in road traffic, often with traffic accidents as a consequence. Research has identified a lack of vehicle-mountable devices for alerting the drivers of trailing vehicles about keeping a sufficient safe distance. The principal requirements for such a device were defined. A conceptual study was performed in order to select the components for the integration of the device. Based on the results of this study, a working prototype of a flexible, self-contained device was designed, built and tested. The device is intended to be mounted on the rear of a vehicle. It uses radar as the primary distance sensor, assisted with a GPS receiver for velocity measurement. A Raspberry Pi single-board computer is used for data acquisition and processing. The alerts are shown on an LED-matrix display mounted on the rear of the host vehicle. The device software is written in Python and provides automatic operation without requiring any user intervention. The tests have shown that the device is usable on almost any motor vehicle and performs reliably in simulated and real traffic. The open issues and possibilities for future improvements are presented in the Discussion.

  2. 76 FR 23255 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... petitions for reconsideration from Harley-Davidson Motor Company (January 18, 2008) and Ford Motor Company... [Docket No. NHTSA-2007-28322] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and... part, the petitions for reconsideration of the December 4, 2007, final rule reorganizing Federal Motor...

  3. 41 CFR 102-34.250 - Do Federal employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices and follow all...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... safety devices and follow all safety guidelines? Yes, Federal employees in Government motor vehicles have... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do Federal employees in Government motor vehicles have to use all safety devices and follow all safety guidelines? 102-34.250 Section...

  4. Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert J. Englar

    2000-01-01

    Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model

  5. Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Englar

    2000-06-19

    Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model.

  6. Connected vehicle applications : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure, vehicle-to-vehicle, : and vehicle-to-pedestrian data transmissions. Applications support advisor...

  7. 76 FR 78 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2007-26851] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter... occupants. IIHS stated that on-board electronic engine control modules (ECM) will maintain the desired speed... be equipped with an electronic control module (ECM) that is capable of limiting the maximum speed of...

  8. 76 FR 41181 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... to restore the blue and green color boundaries to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No... number in the heading of this document, by any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: Go... comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's...

  9. Wheeled mobility device transportation safety in fixed route and demand-responsive public transit vehicles within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Karen L; van Roosmalen, Linda; Bertocci, Gina; Cross, Douglas J

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the current status of wheelchair transportation safety in fixed route and demand-responsive, non-rail, public transportation vehicles within the US is presented. A description of each mode of transportation is provided, followed by a discussion of the primary issues affecting safety, accessibility, and usability. Technologies such as lifts, ramps, securement systems, and occupant restraint systems, along with regulations and voluntary industry standards have been implemented with the intent of improving safety and accessibility for individuals who travel while seated in their wheeled mobility device (e.g., wheelchair or scooter). However, across both fixed route and demand-responsive transit systems a myriad of factors such as nonuse and misuse of safety systems, oversized wheeled mobility devices, vehicle space constraints, and inadequate vehicle operator training may place wheeled mobility device (WhMD) users at risk of injury even under non-impact driving conditions. Since WhMD-related incidents also often occur during the boarding and alighting process, the frequency of these events, along with factors associated with these events are described for each transit mode. Recommendations for improving WhMD transportation are discussed given the current state of

  10. Connected vehicle application : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), and vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) data transmissions. Applications...

  11. Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  12. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  13. 75 FR 21567 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108; Lamp, Reflective Devices and Associated Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... the motorcycle headlighting system location requirements for a single headlamp with multiple light sources. The current standard requires that the light sources contained in a single motorcycle headlamp containing multiple light sources be located on the vertical centerline of the vehicle or horizontally...

  14. 77 FR 71717 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... compliance strategies, potentially imposing costs on manufacturers while not improving safety. V. Regulatory... tort cause of action is impliedly preempted. See Geier v. American Honda Motor Co., 529 U.S. 861 (2000...

  15. Vehicle track interaction safety standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-02

    Vehicle/Track Interaction (VTI) Safety Standards aim to : reduce the risk of derailments and other accidents attributable : to the dynamic interaction between moving vehicles and the : track over which they operate. On March 13, 2013, the Federal : R...

  16. Safety rod driving device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Kiyonobu; Kurosaki, Akira.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly insert safety rods for a criticality experiment device into a reactor core container to stop the criticality reaction thereby prevent reactivity accidents. Constitution: A cylinder device having a safety rod as a cylinder rod attached with a piston at one end is constituted. The piston is elevated by pressurized air and attracted and fixed by an electromagnet which is a stationary device disposed at the upper portion of the cylinder. If the current supply to the electromagnet is disconnected, the safety rod constituting the cylinder rod is fallen together with the piston to the lower portion of the cylinder. Since the cylinder rod driving device has neither electrical motor nor driving screw as in the conventional device, necessary space can be reduced and the weight is decreased. In addition, since the inside of the nuclear reactor can easily be shielded completely from the external atmosphere, leakage of radioactive materials can be prevented. (Horiuchi, T.)

  17. 75 FR 22317 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... 1300 [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0054] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of..., multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle...

  18. Safety device of thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Isao; Ueda, Shuzo; Seki, Yasushi; Sakurai, Akiko; Kasahara, Fumio; Obara, Atsushi; Yamauchi, Michinori.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a safety device against an event of intrusion of coolants in a vacuum vessel. Namely, a coolant supply system comprises cooling tubes for supplying coolants to main reactor structure components including a vacuum vessel. A detection means detects leakage of coolants in the vacuum vessel. A coolant supply control means controls the supply of coolants to the main reactor structural components based on the leakage detection signals of the detection means. A stagnated material discharging means discharges stagnated materials in the main reactor structural components caused by the leakage of coolants. The leakage of coolants (for example, water) in the vacuum vessel can thus be detected by the water detection device in the vacuum vessel. A control value of a coolant supply means is closed by the leakage detection signals. The supply of coolants to the main reactor structural components is restricted to suppress the leakage. The stagnated materials are discharged to a tank by way of a water draining valve. (I.S.)

  19. European vehicle passive safety network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Janssen, E.G.

    1999-01-01

    The general objective of the European Vehicle Passive Safety Network is to contribute to the reduction of the number of road traffic victims in Europe by passive safety measures. The aim of the road safety policy of the European Commission is to reduce the annual total of fatalities to 18000 in

  20. Pump safety device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermans, Francis; Vandervorst, Jean.

    1981-01-01

    Safety device for longitudinally leak proofing the shaft of a pump in the event of the fracture of the dynamic seal separating the pump fluid high pressure chamber from the low pressure chamber. It is designed for fitting to the primary pumps of nuclear reactors. It includes a hollow cyclindrical piston located coaxially around the pump shaft and normally housed in a chamber provided for this purpose in the fixed housing of the dynamic seal, and means for moving this piston coaxially so as to compress a safety O ring between the shaft and the piston in the event of the dynamic seal failing [fr

  1. Vehicle Awareness Device Data from Leesburg, Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The files in this data environment were produced using the Vehicle Awareness Device (VAD) installed on one test vehicle over a two month period. The VAD installed in...

  2. Statistical analysis of vehicle loads measured with three different vehicle weighing devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkhize, ZQP

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available MEASURED WITH THREE DIFFERENT VEHICLE WEIGHING DEVICES Z Q P MKHIZE and M DE BEER CSIR Transportek, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001 ABSTRACT This study introduces a new scale for weighing individual tyres of slow moving vehicles. The new technology... that vehicles exert on pavements plays a vital part in the deterioration of the structural and functional capacity of the road. It also influences the safety of the vehicles, especially when vehicles are operated under overloaded and/or inappropriately loaded...

  3. Medical Device Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    A medical device is any product used to diagnose, cure, or treat a condition, or to prevent disease. They ... may need one in a hospital. To use medical devices safely Know how your device works. Keep ...

  4. Autonomous system for launch vehicle range safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Bob; Haley, Sam

    2001-02-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is a launch vehicle subsystem whose ultimate goal is an autonomous capability to assure range safety (people and valuable resources), flight personnel safety, flight assets safety (recovery of valuable vehicles and cargo), and global coverage with a dramatic simplification of range infrastructure. The AFSS is capable of determining current vehicle position and predicting the impact point with respect to flight restriction zones. Additionally, it is able to discern whether or not the launch vehicle is an immediate threat to public safety, and initiate the appropriate range safety response. These features provide for a dramatic cost reduction in range operations and improved reliability of mission success. .

  5. Safety in Cryogenics – Safety device sizing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The calculation is separated in three operations: o The estimation of the loads arriving on the component to protect, o The calculation of the mass flow to evacuate, o And the sizing of the safety device.

  6. Study on high reliability safety valve for railway vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Chen, Ruikun; Zhang, Shixi; Xu, BuDu

    2017-09-01

    Now, the realization of most of the functions of the railway vehicles rely on compressed air, so the demand for compressed air is growing higher and higher. This safety valve is a protection device for pressure limitation and pressure relief in an air supply system of railway vehicles. I am going to introduce the structure, operating principle, research and development process of the safety valve designed by our company in this document.

  7. Safety device for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquelin, Roland.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to a safety device for a nuclear reactor, particularly a liquid metal (generally sodium) cooled fast reactor. This safety device includes an absorbing element with a support head connected by a disconnectable connector formed by the armature of an electromagnet at the end of an axially mobile vertical control rod. This connection is so designed that in the event of it becoming disconnected, the absorbing element gravity slides in a passage through the reactor core into an open container [fr

  8. 75 FR 76692 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ..., 510, 511, 512, 520, 523, 525, 526, and 571 [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0159] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... that specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers...

  9. Towards extended safety in connected vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben Othmane, L.; Al-Fuqaha, A.; Ben Hamida, E.; Brand, van den M.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Current standards for vehicle safety consider only accidental failures; they do not consider failures caused by malicious attackers. The standards implicitly assume that the sensors and Electronic Control Units (ECUs) of each vehicle compose a secure in-vehicle network because no external entity

  10. Reactor safety device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Yasumasa.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To scram control rods by processing signals from a plurality of temperature detectors and generating abnormal temperature warning upon occurrence of abnormal temperature in a nuclear reactor. Constitution: A temperature sensor comprising a plurality of reactors each having a magnetic body as the magnetic core having a curie point different from each other and corresponding to the abnormal temperature against which reactor core fuels have to be protected is disposed in an identical instrumentation well near the reactor core fuel outlet/inlet of a reactor. A temperature detection device actuated upon detection of an abnormal temperature by the abrupt reduction of the reactance of each of the reactors is disposed. An OR circuit and an AND circuit for conducting OR and AND operations for each of the abnormal temperature detection signals from the temperature detection device are disposed. The output from the OR circuit is used as the abnormal temperature warning signal, while the output from the AND circuit is utilized as a signal for actuating the scram operation of control rod drive mechanisms. Accordingly, it is possible to improve the reliability of the reactor scram system, particularly, improve the reliability under a high temperature atmosphere. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. Safety aspects for underwater vehicles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhan, R.; Navelkar, G.S.; Desa, E.S.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Prabhudesai, S.P.; Dabholkar, N.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Maurya, P.

    instrumentation is intelligent small Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV’s), autonomous profilers, gliders [1], etc. The ultimate aim in all autonomous platforms research and development is to reach the stage of unescorted missions with minimum failures...

  12. Research on charging and discharging control strategy for electric vehicles as distributed energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Dongqing; Tang, Pengcheng

    2018-02-01

    A large number of electric vehicles are connected to the family micro grid will affect the operation safety of the power grid and the quality of power. Considering the factors of family micro grid price and electric vehicle as a distributed energy storage device, a two stage optimization model is established, and the improved discrete binary particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to optimize the parameters in the model. The proposed control strategy of electric vehicle charging and discharging is of practical significance for the rational control of electric vehicle as a distributed energy storage device and electric vehicle participating in the peak load regulation of power consumption.

  13. Safety device for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhl, H.

    1974-01-01

    The safety device is used to capture fragments of the lid of a pressure vessel when this vessel ruptures. It consists of a catcher structure attached to the concrete vessel, which is open at the top, and surrounding the pressure vessel. The catcher structure in this case may be designed as a ring installed very close to the concrete vessel, as a closure plate or may be made of transverse beams arranged parallel to each other. It is anchored either rigidly or elastically to the concrete vessel by means of springs or to the foundation by means of steel stretching members. (DG) [de

  14. Commercial Motor Vehicle Driving Safety Website

    OpenAIRE

    Tidwell, Scott; Trimble, Tammy; Blanco, Myra

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the CMV Driving Safety website (http://cmvdrivingsafety.org/), which was created by the National Surface Transportation Safety Center for Excellence (NSTSCE) as an outreach effort to assist commercial motor vehicle (CMV) fleets and drivers, driver trainers, CMV training schools, and insurance companies. The website contains 15 unique pages and provides six downloadable training modules on driver distraction, driver health, hours of service, driver drowsiness and fatigue,...

  15. Safety of mechanical devices. Safety of automation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, G.; Schweizer, G.; Kapp, K.

    1985-01-01

    The paper deals with the classic procedures of safety engineering in the sectors mechanical engineering, electrical and energy engineering, construction and transport, medicine technology and process technology. Particular stress is laid on the safety of automation systems, control technology, protection of mechanical devices, reactor safety, mechanical constructions, transport systems, railway signalling devices, road traffic and protection at work in chemical plans. (DG) [de

  16. The design of infrared laser radar for vehicle initiative safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ping; Xu, Xi-ping; Li, Xiao-yu; Li, Tian-zhi; Liu, Yu-long; Wu, Jia-hui

    2013-09-01

    Laser radar for vehicle is mainly used in advanced vehicle on-board active safety systems, such as forward anti-collision systems, active collision warning systems and adaptive cruise control systems, etc. Laser radar for vehicle plays an important role in the improvement of vehicle active safety and the reduction of traffic accidents. The stability of vehicle active anti-collision system in dynamic environment is still one of the most difficult problems to break through nowadays. According to people's driving habit and the existed detecting technique of sensor, combining the infrared laser range and galvanometer scanning technique , design a 3-D infrared laser radar which can be used to assist navigation, obstacle avoidance and the vehicle's speed control for the vehicle initiative safety. The device is fixed to the head of vehicle. Then if an accident happened, the device could give an alarm to remind the driver timely to decelerate or brake down, by which way can people get the purpose of preventing the collision accidents effectively. To accomplish the design, first of all, select the core components. Then apply Zemax to design the transmitting and receiving optical system. Adopt 1550 nm infrared laser transmitter as emission unit in the device, a galvanometer scanning as laser scanning unit and an InGaAs-APD detector as laser echo signal receiving unit. Perform the construction of experimental system using FPGA and ARM as the core controller. The system designed in this paper can not only detect obstacle in front of the vehicle and make the control subsystem to execute command, but also transfer laser data to PC in real time. Lots of experiments using the infrared laser radar prototype are made, and main performance of it is under tested. The results of these experiments show that the imaging speed of the laser radar can reach up to 25 frames per second, the frame resolution of each image can reach 30×30 pixels, the horizontal angle resolution is about 6. 98

  17. 19 CFR 12.80 - Federal motor vehicle safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal motor vehicle safety standards. 12.80...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Equipment Manufactured on Or After January 1, 1968 § 12.80 Federal motor vehicle safety standards. (a) Standards...

  18. Materials for electrochemical device safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, Daniel R.; Amine, Khalil; Thackeray, Michael M.; Kahaian, Arthur J.; Johnson, Christopher S.

    2015-04-07

    An electrochemical device includes a thermally-triggered intumescent material or a gas-triggered intumescent material. Such devices prevent or minimize short circuits in a device that could lead to thermal run-away. Such devices may include batteries or supercapacitors.

  19. 29 CFR 500.100 - Vehicle safety obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... safety standards. Prima facie evidence that safety standards have been met will be shown by the presence... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle safety obligations. 500.100 Section 500.100 Labor... § 500.100 Vehicle safety obligations. (a) General obligations. Each farm labor contractor, agricultural...

  20. Safety lock for radiography exposure device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, T.M.

    1982-01-01

    A safety lock for securing a radiation source in a radiography exposure device is disclosed. The safety lock prevents the inadvertent extension of the radiation source from the exposure device. The exposure devices are used extensively in industry for nondestructive testing of metal materials for defect. Unnecessary exposure of the radiographer or operator occurs not infrequently due to operator's error in believing that the radiation source is secured in the exposure device when, in fact, it is not. The present invention solves this problem of unnecessary exposure by releasingly trapping the radiation source in the shield of the radiography exposure device each time the source is retracted therein so that it is not inadvertently extended therefrom without the operator resetting the safety lock, thereby releasing the radiation source. Further, the safety lock includes an indicator which indicates when the source is trapped in the exposure device and also when it is untrapped. The safety lock is so designed that it does not prevent the return of the source to the trapped, shielded position in the exposure device. Further the safety lock includes a key means for locking the radiation source in the trapped position. The key means cannot be actuated until said radiation source is in said trapped position to further insure the safety lock cannot be inadvertently locked with the source untrapped and thus still extendable from the exposure device

  1. 32 CFR 234.17 - Vehicles and traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicles and traffic safety. 234.17 Section 234...) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.17 Vehicles and traffic safety. (a) In general. Unless... an alcoholic beverage. (1) Each person within a vehicle is responsible for complying with the...

  2. 32 CFR 1903.4 - Vehicles and traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicles and traffic safety. 1903.4 Section 1903... CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.4 Vehicles and traffic safety. (a) Open container of alcoholic beverage. (1) Each person within the vehicle is responsible for complying with the provisions of this...

  3. Sharing data between mobile devices, connected vehicles and infrastructure - task 3: concept of operations : technical memorandum -final.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-13

    This report describes the concept of operation for the use of mobile devices in a connected vehicle environment. Specifically, it identifies the needs, conceptual system, and potential scenarios that serve as the basis for demonstrating both safety a...

  4. Creation of electromechanical device for electric vehicle traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Денис Юрьевич Зубенко

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems of creation of electromechanical device for electric vehicle traction are considered in the article. The aim of creation this design are the replacement of the internal combustion engine on electromechanical device. For this electromechanical device are constructed model, which describe processes that occur in the electric drive of electromechanical device. Characteristics of the main modes of motion were recorded. The introduction of electromechanical device will reduce the level of emissions and reduce noise in the cities

  5. 77 FR 24560 - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Electric Vehicle Safety Technical Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Electric Vehicle... discuss safety considerations for electric vehicles powered by lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. The... vehicles. Electric vehicles show great promise as an innovative and fuel- efficient option for American...

  6. Monitoring Device Safety in Interventional Cardiology

    OpenAIRE

    Matheny, Michael E.; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Resnic, Frederic S.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: A variety of postmarketing surveillance strategies to monitor the safety of medical devices have been supported by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, but there are few systems to automate surveillance. Our objective was to develop a system to perform real-time monitoring of safety data using a variety of process control techniques.

  7. How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaanie; Charlton, Judith; Fildes, Brian; Fitzharris, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Whilst there has been a significant increase in the amount of consumer interest in the safety performance of privately owned vehicles, the role that it plays in consumers' purchase decisions is poorly understood. The aims of the current study were to determine: how important vehicle safety is in the new vehicle purchase process; what importance consumers place on safety options/features relative to other convenience and comfort features, and how consumers conceptualise vehicle safety. In addition, the study aimed to investigate the key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase. Participants recruited in Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire about their new vehicle purchase. The findings from the questionnaire indicated that participants ranked safety-related factors (e.g., EuroNCAP (or other) safety ratings) as more important in the new vehicle purchase process than other vehicle factors (e.g., price, reliability etc.). Similarly, participants ranked safety-related features (e.g., advanced braking systems, front passenger airbags etc.) as more important than non-safety-related features (e.g., route navigation systems, air-conditioning etc.). Consistent with previous research, most participants equated vehicle safety with the presence of specific vehicle safety features or technologies rather than vehicle crash safety/test results or crashworthiness. The key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase were: use of EuroNCAP, gender and education level, age, drivers' concern about crash involvement, first vehicle purchase, annual driving distance, person for whom the vehicle was purchased, and traffic infringement history. The findings from this study are important for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion and publicity of vehicle safety features

  8. Nuclear reactor safety protection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okido, Fumiyasu; Noguchi, Atomi; Matsumiya, Shoichi; Furusato, Ken-ichiro; Arita, Setsuo.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention extremely reduces a probability of causing unnecessary scram of a nuclear reactor. That is, four control devices receive signals from each of four sensors and output four trip signals respectively in a quardruplicated control device. Each of the trip signals and each of trip signals via a delay circuit are inputted to a logical sum element. The output of the logical sum circuit is inputted to a decision of majority circuit. The decision of majority circuit controls a scram pilot valve which conducts scram of the reactor by way of a solenoid coils. With such procedures, even if surge noises of a short pulse width are mixed to the sensor signals and short trip signals are outputted, there is no worry that the scram pilot valve is actuated. Accordingly, factors of lowering nuclear plant operation efficiency due to erroneous reactor scram can be reduced. (I.S.)

  9. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems light-vehicle field operational test key findings report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    "This document presents key findings from the light-vehicle field operational test conducted as part of the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems program. These findings are the result of analyses performed by the University of Michigan Transportat...

  10. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems light-vehicle field operational test, methodology and results report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    "This document presents the methodology and results from the light-vehicle field operational test conducted as part of the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems program. These findings are the result of analyses performed by the University of Michi...

  11. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems (IVBSS) : light vehicle platform field operational test data analysis plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-22

    This document presents the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institutes plan to : perform analysis of data collected from the light vehicle platform field operational test of the : Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) progr...

  12. [Implementation of safety devices: biological accident prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán Gómez, M Teresa; Sol Vidiella, Josep; Castellà Castellà, Manel; Castells Bo, Carolina; Losada Pla, Nuria; Espuny, Javier Lluís

    2010-04-01

    Accidental exposures to blood and biological material were the most frequent and potentially serious accidents in healthcare workers, reported in the Prevention of Occupational Risks Unit within 2002. Evaluate the biological percutaneous accidents decrease after a progressive introduction of safety devices. Biological accidents produced between 2.002 and 2.006 were analyzed and reported by the injured healthcare workers to the Level 2b Hospital Prevention of Occupational Risk Unit with 238 beds and 750 employees. The key of the study was the safety devices (peripheral i.v. catheter, needleless i.v. access device and capillary blood collection lancet). Within 2002, 54 percutaneous biological accidents were registered and 19 in 2006, that represents a 64.8% decreased. There has been no safety devices accident reported involving these material. Accidents registered during the implantation period occurred because safety devices were not used at that time. Safety devices have proven to be effective in reducing needle stick percutaneous accidents, so that they are a good choice in the primary prevention of biological accidents contact.

  13. Safety status system for operating room devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédon, Annetje C P; Wauben, Linda S G L; Overvelde, Marlies; Blok, Joleen H; van der Elst, Maarten; Dankelman, Jenny; van den Dobbelsteen, John J

    2014-01-01

    Since the increase of the number of technological aids in the operating room (OR), equipment-related incidents have come to be a common kind of adverse events. This underlines the importance of adequate equipment management to improve the safety in the OR. A system was developed to monitor the safety status (periodic maintenance and registered malfunctions) of OR devices and to facilitate the notification of malfunctions. The objective was to assess whether the system is suitable for use in an busy OR setting and to analyse its effect on the notification of malfunctions. The system checks automatically the safety status of OR devices through constant communication with the technical facility management system, informs the OR staff real-time and facilitates notification of malfunctions. The system was tested for a pilot period of six months in four ORs of a Dutch teaching hospital and 17 users were interviewed on the usability of the system. The users provided positive feedback on the usability. For 86.6% of total time, the localisation of OR devices was accurate. 62 malfunctions of OR devices were reported, an increase of 12 notifications compared to the previous year. The safety status system was suitable for an OR complex, both from a usability and technical point of view, and an increase of reported malfunctions was observed. The system eases monitoring the safety status of equipment and is a promising tool to improve the safety related to OR devices.

  14. Florida DOT Orlando ITS World Congress Vehicle Awareness Device

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Florida DOT (FDOT) installed Vehicle Awareness Devices (VADs) on a set of Lynx transit buses as part of a demonstration for the ITS World Congress held in Orlando in...

  15. System analysis of vehicle active safety problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buznikov, S. E.

    2018-02-01

    The problem of the road transport safety affects the vital interests of the most of the population and is characterized by a global level of significance. The system analysis of problem of creation of competitive active vehicle safety systems is presented as an interrelated complex of tasks of multi-criterion optimization and dynamic stabilization of the state variables of a controlled object. Solving them requires generation of all possible variants of technical solutions within the software and hardware domains and synthesis of the control, which is close to optimum. For implementing the task of the system analysis the Zwicky “morphological box” method is used. Creation of comprehensive active safety systems involves solution of the problem of preventing typical collisions. For solving it, a structured set of collisions is introduced with its elements being generated also using the Zwicky “morphological box” method. The obstacle speed, the longitudinal acceleration of the controlled object and the unpredictable changes in its movement direction due to certain faults, the road surface condition and the control errors are taken as structure variables that characterize the conditions of collisions. The conditions for preventing typical collisions are presented as inequalities for physical variables that define the state vector of the object and its dynamic limits.

  16. Digital Signal Processing for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety

    CERN Document Server

    Boyraz, Pinar; Takeda, Kazuya; Abut, Hüseyin

    2012-01-01

    Compiled from papers of the 4th Biennial Workshop on DSP (Digital Signal Processing) for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety this edited collection features world-class experts from diverse fields focusing on integrating smart in-vehicle systems with human factors to enhance safety in automobiles. Digital Signal Processing for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety presents new approaches on how to reduce driver inattention and prevent road accidents. The material addresses DSP technologies in adaptive automobiles, in-vehicle dialogue systems, human machine interfaces, video and audio processing, and in-vehicle speech systems. The volume also features: Recent advances in Smart-Car technology – vehicles that take into account and conform to the driver Driver-vehicle interfaces that take into account the driving task and cognitive load of the driver Best practices for In-Vehicle Corpus Development and distribution Information on multi-sensor analysis and fusion techniques for robust driver monitoring and driver recognition ...

  17. Choice of teenagers' vehicles and views on vehicle safety: survey of parents of novice teenage drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinga, Laurie A; McCartt, Anne T; Haire, Emily R

    2007-01-01

    To examine parental decisions about vehicles driven by teenagers and parental knowledge of vehicle safety. About 300 parents were interviewed during spring 2006 in Minnesota, North Carolina, and Rhode Island while teenagers took their first on-road driving tests. Fewer than half of parents surveyed said teenagers would be the primary drivers of the chosen vehicles. Parents most often cited safety, existing family vehicle, and reliability when explaining the choices for their teenagers' vehicles. About half of the vehicles intended for teenagers were small/mini/sports cars, pickups, or SUVs - vehicles considered less safe for teenagers than midsize/large cars or minivans. A large majority of vehicles were 2001 models or earlier. Vehicles purchased in anticipation of adding a new driver to the family were more likely to be the sizes/types considered less safe than vehicles already owned. Few parents insisted on side airbags or electronic stability control, despite strong evidence of their safety benefits. Even when asked to identify ideal vehicles for their teenagers to drive, about half of parents identified less safe vehicle sizes/types. Most parents knew that midsize/large vehicles are safer than small vehicles, and at least half of parents said SUVs and pickups are not safe for teenage drivers, citing instability. The majority of parents understood some of the important criteria for choosing safe vehicles for their teenagers. However, parents actually selected many vehicles for teenagers that provide inferior crash protection. Vehicle safety varies substantially by vehicle size, type, and safety features. Many teenagers are driving inferior vehicles in terms of crashworthiness and crash avoidance.

  18. 77 FR 48105 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2012-0112] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets AGENCY: National... Vehicle Safety Standard for motorcycle helmets. Specifically, the final rule amended the helmet labeling... compliance test procedures of FMVSS No. 218, Motorcycle helmets, in order to make it more difficult to...

  19. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoph, M. Vis, M.A. Rackliff, L. & Stipdonk, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the ‘relative severity’ of individual collisions between different vehicle

  20. 77 FR 54836 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards CFR Correction 0 In Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations... read as follows: Sec. 571.119 Standard No. 119; New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a GVWR of...

  1. Auxetic foam for snowsport safety devices

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Tom; Duncan, Olly; Foster, Leon; Senior, Terry; Zampieri, Davide; Edeh, Victor; Alderson, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Skiing and snowboarding are popular snow-sports with inherent risk of injury. There is potential to reduce the prevalence of injuries by improving and implementing snow-sport safety devices with the application of advanced materials. This paper investigates the application of auxetic foam to snow-sport safety devices. Composite pads - consisting of foam covered with a semi-rigid shell - were investigated as a simple model of body armour and a large 70 x 355 x 355 mm auxetic foam sample was fa...

  2. Hot gas handling device and motorized vehicle comprising the device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Geltink, J.; Beukers, A.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.; Koussios, S.

    2012-01-01

    The invention relates to a device for handling hot exhaust gasses discharged from an internal combustion engine. The device comprises a housing (2), enclosing a space (3) for transporting the exhaust gasses. The housing (2) is provided with an entrance - opening (4) for the exhaust gasses discharged

  3. 78 FR 2797 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles; Draft Environmental Assessment for Rulemaking To Establish Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register...-0148] RIN 2127-AK93 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and...

  4. How important is vehicle safety for older consumers in the vehicle purchase process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Clark, Belinda; Hoareau, Effie; Charlton, Judith L; Newstead, Stuart V

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the importance of vehicle safety to older consumers in the vehicle purchase process. Older (n = 102), middle-aged (n = 791), and younger (n = 109) participants throughout the eastern Australian states of Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland who had recently purchased a new or used vehicle completed an online questionnaire about their vehicle purchase process. When asked to list the 3 most important considerations in the vehicle purchase process (in an open-ended format), older consumers were mostly likely to list price as their most important consideration (43%). Similarly, when presented with a list of vehicle factors (such as price, design, Australasian New Car Assessment Program [ANCAP] rating), older consumers were most likely to identify price as the most important vehicle factor (36%). When presented with a list of vehicle features (such as automatic transmission, braking, air bags), older consumers in the current study were most likely to identify an antilock braking system (41%) as the most important vehicle feature, and 50 percent of older consumers identified a safety-related vehicle feature as the highest priority vehicle feature (50%). When asked to list up to 3 factors that make a vehicle safe, older consumers in the current study were most likely to list braking systems (35%), air bags (22%), and the driver's behavior or skill (11%). When asked about the influence of safety in the new vehicle purchase process, one third of older consumers reported that all new vehicles are safe (33%) and almost half of the older consumers rated their vehicle as safer than average (49%). A logistic regression model was developed to predict the profile of older consumers more likely to assign a higher priority to safety features in the vehicle purchasing process. The model predicted that the importance of safety-related features was influenced by several variables, including older consumers' beliefs that they could protect themselves

  5. Safety Climate of Commercial Vehicle Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Enhancing the safety culture within trucking and motor coach industries has become a key area of concern given the potential impact it has on crashes and overall safety. Many organizations recognize that safety is compromised if the culture within th...

  6. Towards functional safety in drive-by-wire vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Bergmiller, Peter Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This book presents approaches to address key challenges based on a vehicle level view and with a special emphasis on Drive-by-Wire systems. The design and testing of modern vehicle electronics are becoming more and more demanding due to increasing interdependencies among components and the safety criticality of tasks. The development towards Drive-by-Wire functionalities in vehicles with multiple actuators for vehicle control further increases the challenge. The book explicitly takes into account the interactions between components  and aims at bridging the gap between the need to generate additional customer benefits and the effort to achieve functional safety. The book follows a twofold approach: on the one side, it presents a toolchain to support efficient further development of novel functionalities for Drive-by-Wire vehicles. The toolchain comprises appropriate software tools and scaled and full-scale experimental vehicles. On the other side, development towards functionally safe and flexible Drive-by-W...

  7. Investigations of safety risks in converted electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolech, M.; Foster, D.L.; Lange, R. de; Rodarius, C.

    2010-01-01

    Within the departments Environmentally Sustainable Transport and Automotive of TNO (Netherlands organisation for applied scientific research) several projects investigating safety aspects of electric vehicles have been conducted, including one in cooperation with KEMA and RDW of the Netherlands.

  8. 77 FR 20558 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... unrelated to the barrier's safety. Lift-U also questioned the agency's statement that it could be difficult... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket No. NHTSA-2012-0039] RIN 2127-AJ93 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for...

  9. Software used to size the safety devices

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    To avoid mistakes during the calculation, CEA/SBT has decided to write a software that take into account all the situations it is possible to encountered (subcritical state, supercritical state, …). The goal is to permit to the engineer in charge of a cryostat manufacturing to perform this calculation; he is the only person able to do the accidental analysis which is fundamental for the sizing of the safety device. The software performed will be presented.

  10. THESEUS - a research project to improve the safety standard of tank vehicles for dangerous goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, B.

    1992-01-01

    A research project reffered to as THESEUS was initiated by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology of Germany. The intent of the investigation is to generate measures designed to enhance the safety standard of commercial transports of dangerous goods in tank vehicles. Hereby, the analysis of real accidents by teams within the project will provide the relevant parameters for the experimental and theoretical investigation of vehicles, tank components and safety devices. The project started in summer 1990. This paper will focus main features and the work done so far. Special consideration will be made to the failure behaviour of tank components as the authors field of activity. (orig.)

  11. Studying the Safety Impact of Autonomous Vehicles Using Simulation-Based Surrogate Safety Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Morando, Mark Mario; Tian, Qingyun; Truong, Long T.; Vu, Hai L.

    2018-01-01

    Autonomous vehicle (AV) technology has advanced rapidly in recent years with some automated features already available in vehicles on the market. AVs are expected to reduce traffic crashes as the majority of crashes are related to driver errors, fatigue, alcohol, or drugs. However, very little research has been conducted to estimate the safety impact of AVs. This paper aims to investigate the safety impacts of AVs using a simulation-based surrogate safety measure approach. To this end, safety...

  12. Autonomous booster device of a safety valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namand, H.

    1983-01-01

    The invention concerns an autonomous booster device of a protection safety valve of a pressure vessel. The valve comprises a hollow structure, a seat connected with a mobile flap forming one piece with a stem and a calibration spring bearing on the stem and on the valve structure to maintain the flap bearing on the seat. The stem of the flap is prolongated in a box forming one piece with the valve structure and receives an added push of a spring. The box acts as a pressure device of which the piston can exercise on the stem a push opposite to and larger than the spring one. The feeding device of the pressure box is finally described in detail [fr

  13. 30 CFR 250.611 - Traveling-block safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traveling-block safety device. 250.611 Section... Traveling-block safety device. After May 31, 1989, all units being used for well-workover operations which have both a traveling block and a crown block shall be equipped with a safety device which is designed...

  14. 30 CFR 250.511 - Traveling-block safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traveling-block safety device. 250.511 Section... Traveling-block safety device. All units being used for well-completion operations that have both a traveling block and a crown block must be equipped with a safety device that is designed to prevent the...

  15. The Relationship between Vehicle Weight/Size and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Tom; Ross, Marc

    2008-09-01

    Light-duty vehicles account for about 20% of US CO2 emissions. However, new vehicle fuel economy standards have not been significantly tightened since they were first enacted three decades ago. A historical impediment to imposing tougher fuel economy standards has been the long-standing perception that reducing the mass of a car or truck would make it more dangerous to its occupants in a crash. One often hears that this perception is dictated by "simple physics:" that, all else being equal, you are at greater risk in a lighter vehicle than in a heavier one. Our research on driver fatality risk has found that, when it comes to vehicle safety, all else is never equal. Vehicle mass is not the most important variable in determining occupant safety, not even in frontal crashes between two vehicles. You are at no greater risk driving an average car than you are driving a much heavier (and less fuel efficient) truck-based SUV. And larger and heavier truck-based SUVs and pickups impose enormous risks on car occupants. We summarize the most recent research on the interplay between vehicle weight, size and safety, and what the implications are for new state and federal standards to reduce vehicle CO2 emissions.

  16. Safety Issues with Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Cadwallader; J. S. Herring

    1999-09-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel in automobiles. Several forms of hydrogen have been considered: gas, liquid, slush, and hydrides. The safety issues have been discussed, beginning with properties of hydrogen and the phenomenology of hydrogen combustion. Safety-related operating experiences with hydrogen vehicles have been summarized to identify concerns that must be addressed in future design activities and to support probabilistic risk assessment. Also, applicable codes, standards, and regulations pertaining to hydrogen usage and refueling have been identified and are briefly discussed. This report serves as a safety foundation for any future hydrogen safety work, such as a safety analysis or a probabilistic risk assessment.

  17. Safety Issues with Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Herring, James Stephen

    1999-10-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel in automobiles. Several forms of hydrogen have been considered: gas, liquid, slush, and hydrides. The safety issues have been discussed, beginning with properties of hydrogen and the phenomenology of hydrogen combustion. Safety-related operating experiences with hydrogen vehicles have been summarized to identify concerns that must be addressed in future design activities and to support probabilistic risk assessment. Also, applicable codes, standards, and regulations pertaining to hydrogen usage and refueling have been identified and are briefly discussed. This report serves as a safety foundation for any future hydrogen safety work, such as a safety analysis or a probabilistic risk assessment.

  18. Poster Abstract: Automatic Calibration of Device Attitude in Inertial Measurement Unit Based Traffic Probe Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa; Sharma, Kapil; Claudel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    to replace them with inertial measurement units onboard vehicles, to estimate vehicle location and attitude using inertial data only. While promising, this technology requires one to carefully calibrate the orientation of the device inside the vehicle

  19. Crewed Space Vehicle Battery Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Darcy, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    This requirements document is applicable to all batteries on crewed spacecraft, including vehicle, payload, and crew equipment batteries. It defines the specific provisions required to design a battery that is safe for ground personnel and crew members to handle and/or operate during all applicable phases of crewed missions, safe for use in the enclosed environment of a crewed space vehicle, and safe for use in launch vehicles, as well as in unpressurized spaces adjacent to the habitable portion of a space vehicle. The required provisions encompass hazard controls, design evaluation, and verification. The extent of the hazard controls and verification required depends on the applicability and credibility of the hazard to the specific battery design and applicable missions under review. Evaluation of the design and verification program results shall be completed prior to certification for flight and ground operations. This requirements document is geared toward the designers of battery systems to be used in crewed vehicles, crew equipment, crew suits, or batteries to be used in crewed vehicle systems and payloads (or experiments). This requirements document also applies to ground handling and testing of flight batteries. Specific design and verification requirements for a battery are dependent upon the battery chemistry, capacity, complexity, charging, environment, and application. The variety of battery chemistries available, combined with the variety of battery-powered applications, results in each battery application having specific, unique requirements pertinent to the specific battery application. However, there are basic requirements for all battery designs and applications, which are listed in section 4. Section 5 includes a description of hazards and controls and also includes requirements.

  20. Advanced Range Safety System for High Energy Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Jeffrey S.; Linton, Donald F.

    2002-01-01

    The advanced range safety system project is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the United States Air Force to develop systems that would reduce costs and schedule for safety approval for new classes of unmanned high-energy vehicles. The mission-planning feature for this system would yield flight profiles that satisfy the mission requirements for the user while providing an increased quality of risk assessment, enhancing public safety. By improving the speed and accuracy of predicting risks to the public, mission planners would be able to expand flight envelopes significantly. Once in place, this system is expected to offer the flexibility of handling real-time risk management for the high-energy capabilities of hypersonic vehicles including autonomous return-from-orbit vehicles and extended flight profiles over land. Users of this system would include mission planners of Space Launch Initiative vehicles, space planes, and other high-energy vehicles. The real-time features of the system could make extended flight of a malfunctioning vehicle possible, in lieu of an immediate terminate decision. With this improved capability, the user would have more time for anomaly resolution and potential recovery of a malfunctioning vehicle.

  1. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Michiel; Vis, Martijn Alexander; Rackliff, Lucy; Stipdonk, Henk

    2013-11-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the 'relative severity' of individual collisions between different vehicle types, and the share of those vehicle types within a country's fleet. The relative severity is a measure for the personal damage that can be expected from a collision between two vehicles of any type, relative to that of a collision between passenger cars. It is shown how this number can be calculated using vehicle mass only. A sensitivity analysis is performed to study the dependence of the indicator on parameter values and basic assumptions made. The indicator is easy to apply and satisfies the requirements for appropriate safety performance indicators. It was developed in such a way that it specifically scores the intrinsic safety of a fleet due to its composition, without being influenced by other factors, like helmet wearing. For the sake of simplicity, and since the required data is available throughout Europe, the indicator was applied to the relative share of three of the main vehicle types: passenger cars, heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles. Using the vehicle fleet data from 13EU Member States and Norway, the indicator was used to rank the countries' safety performance. The UK was found to perform best in terms of its fleet composition (value is 1.07), while Greece has the worst performance with the highest indicator value (1.41). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 77 FR 24764 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ...-0053] Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices AGENCY... proposed voluntary NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for in-vehicle electronic devices. The agency... Driver Distraction Guidelines for in-vehicle electronic devices (77 FR 11200). The proposed NHTSA...

  3. Introduction of Autonomous Vehicles: Roundabouts Design and Safety Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Deluka Tibljaš

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Driving experiences provided by the introduction of new vehicle technologies are directly impacting the criteria for road network design. New criteria should be taken into consideration by designers, researchers and car owners in order to assure traffic safety in changed conditions that will appear with, for example, introduction of Autonomous Vehicles (AVs in everyday traffic. In this paper, roundabout safety level is analysed on the originally developed microsimulation model in circumstances where different numbers of AVs vehicles are mixed with Conventional Vehicles (CVs. Field data about speed and traffic volumes from existing roundabouts in Croatia were used for development of the model. The simulations done with the Surrogate Safety Assessment Model (SSAM give some relevant highlights on how the introduction of AVs could change both operational and safety parameters at roundabouts. To further explore the effects on safety of roundabouts with the introduction of different shares of AVs, hypothetical safety treatments could be tested to explore whether their effects may change, leading to the estimation of a new set of Crash Modification Factors.

  4. Improving commercial motor vehicle safety in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This study addressed the primary functions of the Oregon Department of Transportations (ODOTs) Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP), which is administered by the Motor Carrier Transportation Division (MCTD). The study first documente...

  5. Vehicle safety telemetry for automated highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    The emphasis in current, automatic vehicle testing and diagnosis is primarily centered on the proper operation of the engine. Lateral and longitudinal guidance technologies, including speed control and headway sensing for collision avoidance, are reviewed. The principal guidance technique remains the buried wire. Speed control and headway sensing, even though they show the same basic elements in braking and fuel systems, are proceeding independently. The applications of on-board electronic and microprocessor techniques were investigated; each application (emission control, spark advance, or anti-slip braking) is being treated as an independent problem is proposed. A unified bus system of distributed processors for accomplishing the various functions and testing required for vehicles equipped to use automated highways.

  6. Safety problems in vehicles with adaptive cruise control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Arun K.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world automotive industries are still putting efforts towards more autonomous vehicles (AVs. The main concern of introducing the autonomous technology is safety of driver. According to a survey 90% of accidents happen due to mistake of driver. The adaptive cruise control system (ACC is a system which combines cruise control with a collision avoidance system. The ACC system is based on laser and radar technologies. This system is capable of controlling the velocity of vehicle automatically to match the velocity of car, bus or truck in front of vehicle. If the lead vehicle gets slow down or accelerate, than ACC system automatically matches that velocity. The proposed paper is focusing on more accurate methods of detecting the preceding vehicle by using a radar and lidar sensors by considering the vehicle side slip and by controlling the distance between two vehicles. By using this approach i.e. logic for calculation of former vehicle distance and controlling the throttle valve of ACC equipped vehicle, an improvement in driving stability was achieved. The own contribution results with fuel efficient driving and with more safer and reliable driving system, but still some improvements are going on to make it more safe and reliable.

  7. ISSUES AND RECENT TRENDS IN VEHICLE SAFETY COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadayuki TSUGAWA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the research on the applications of inter-vehicle communications, the issues of the deployment and technology, and the current status of inter-vehicle communications projects in Europe, the United States and Japan. The inter-vehicle communications, defined here as communications between on-board ITS computers, improve road traffic safety and efficiency by expanding the horizon of the drivers and on-board sensors. One of the earliest studies on inter-vehicle communications began in Japan in the early 1980s. The inter-vehicle communications play an essential role in automated platooning and cooperative driving systems developed since the 1990's by enabling vehicles to obtain data that would be difficult or impossible to measure with on-board sensors. During these years, interest in applications for inter-vehicle communications increased in the EU, the US and Japan, resulting in many national vehicle safety communications projects such as CarTALK2000 in the EU and VSCC in the US. The technological issues include protocol and communications media. Experiments employ various kinds of protocols and typically use infrared, microwave or millimeter wave media. The situation is ready for standardization. The deployment strategy is another issue. To be feasible, deployment should begin with multiple rather than single services that would work even at a low penetration rate of the communication equipment. In addition, non-technological, legal and institutional issues remained unsolved. Although inter-vehicle communications involve many issues, such applications should be promoted because they will lead to safer and more efficient automobile traffic.

  8. Natural Gas Vehicle Cylinder Safety, Training and Inspection Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hank Seiff

    2008-12-31

    Under the auspices of the National Energy Technology Laboratory and the US Department of Energy, the Clean Vehicle Education Foundation conducted a three-year program to increase the understanding of the safe and proper use and maintenance of vehicular compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel systems. High-pressure fuel systems require periodic inspection and maintenance to insure safe and proper operation. The project addressed the needs of CNG fuel containers (cylinders) and associated high-pressure fuel system components related to existing law, codes and standards (C&S), available training and inspection programs, and assured coordination among vehicle users, public safety officials, fueling station operators and training providers. The program included a public and industry awareness campaign, establishment and administration of a cylinder inspector certification training scholarship program, evaluation of current safety training and testing practices, monitoring and investigation of CNG vehicle incidents, evaluation of a cylinder recertification program and the migration of CNG vehicle safety knowledge to the nascent hydrogen vehicle community.

  9. Safety and Cost Assessment of Connected and Automated Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-29

    Many light-duty vehicle crashes occur due to human error and distracted driving. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) reports that ten percent of all fatal crashes and seventeen percent of injury crashes in 2011 were a result of...

  10. 33 CFR 159.131 - Safety: Incinerating device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.131 Safety.... Unitized incineration devices must completely burn to a dry, inert ash, a simultaneous defecation and...

  11. Evaluating the effectiveness of active vehicle safety systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunbi; Oh, Cheol

    2017-03-01

    Advanced vehicle safety systems have been widely introduced in transportation systems and are expected to enhance traffic safety. However, these technologies mainly focus on assisting individual vehicles that are equipped with them, and less effort has been made to identify the effect of vehicular technologies on the traffic stream. This study proposed a methodology to assess the effectiveness of active vehicle safety systems (AVSSs), which represent a promising technology to prevent traffic crashes and mitigate injury severity. The proposed AVSS consists of longitudinal and lateral vehicle control systems, which corresponds to the Level 2 vehicle automation presented by the National Highway Safety Administration (NHTSA). The effectiveness evaluation for the proposed technology was conducted in terms of crash potential reduction and congestion mitigation. A microscopic traffic simulator, VISSIM, was used to simulate freeway traffic stream and collect vehicle-maneuvering data. In addition, an external application program interface, VISSIM's COM-interface, was used to implement the AVSS. A surrogate safety assessment model (SSAM) was used to derive indirect safety measures to evaluate the effectiveness of the AVSS. A 16.7-km freeway stretch between the Nakdong and Seonsan interchanges on Korean freeway 45 was selected for the simulation experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of AVSS. A total of five simulation runs for each evaluation scenario were conducted. For the non-incident conditions, the rear-end and lane-change conflicts were reduced by 78.8% and 17.3%, respectively, under the level of service (LOS) D traffic conditions. In addition, the average delay was reduced by 55.5%. However, the system's effectiveness was weakened in the LOS A-C categories. Under incident traffic conditions, the number of rear-end conflicts was reduced by approximately 9.7%. Vehicle delays were reduced by approximately 43.9% with 100% of market penetration rate (MPR). These results

  12. The Role of Patient Safety in the Device Purchasing Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Todd R; Zhang, Jiajie; Patel, Vimla L; Keselman, Alla; Tang, Xiaozhou; Brixey, Juliana J; Paige, Danielle; Turley, James P

    2005-01-01

    To examine how patient safety considerations are incorporated into medical device purchase decisions, individuals involved in recent infusion pump purchasing decisions at three different health care...

  13. Fault classification method for the driving safety of electrified vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Daniel; Drugge, Lars; Stensson Trigell, Annika

    2014-05-01

    A fault classification method is proposed which has been applied to an electric vehicle. Potential faults in the different subsystems that can affect the vehicle directional stability were collected in a failure mode and effect analysis. Similar driveline faults were grouped together if they resembled each other with respect to their influence on the vehicle dynamic behaviour. The faults were physically modelled in a simulation environment before they were induced in a detailed vehicle model under normal driving conditions. A special focus was placed on faults in the driveline of electric vehicles employing in-wheel motors of the permanent magnet type. Several failures caused by mechanical and other faults were analysed as well. The fault classification method consists of a controllability ranking developed according to the functional safety standard ISO 26262. The controllability of a fault was determined with three parameters covering the influence of the longitudinal, lateral and yaw motion of the vehicle. The simulation results were analysed and the faults were classified according to their controllability using the proposed method. It was shown that the controllability decreased specifically with increasing lateral acceleration and increasing speed. The results for the electric driveline faults show that this trend cannot be generalised for all the faults, as the controllability deteriorated for some faults during manoeuvres with low lateral acceleration and low speed. The proposed method is generic and can be applied to various other types of road vehicles and faults.

  14. 76 FR 45436 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electric-Powered Vehicles; Electrolyte Spillage and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... prohibiting a plastic tie-wrap used to position a wiring harness to the vehicle from severing in a crash, a... in the June 14, 2010 final rule can be construed to include plastic tie-wraps used to position a... definitions of terms used in the standard, changed the energy storage/conversion device retention requirements...

  15. Interactive Safety Analysis Framework of Autonomous Intelligent Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui You Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 100,000 people were killed and around 2.6 million injured in road accidents in the People’s Republic of China (PRC, that is four to eight times that of developed countries, equivalent to 6.2 mortality per 10 thousand vehicles—the highest rate in the world. There are more than 1,700 fatalities and 840,000 injuries yearly due to vehicle crashes off public highways. In this paper, we proposed a interactive safety situation and threat analysis framework based on driver behaviour and vehicle dynamics risk analysis based on ISO26262…

  16. Investigation of Vehicle Rear Under Run Protection Device (RUPD) Using Aluminium Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj Goud, B.; pachori, Avinash

    2017-08-01

    Whenever the passenger cars meet with accidents with the heavy duty truck from rear, it will tend to penetrate under the truck bed called truck trailer under-ride crash. This is responsible for the thousands of accidents, causing severe injuries and spot death. This is mostly due to the lack of effective guarding system. The Present paper gives an importance on energy absorption mechanism of a Rear under Run Protection Device (RUPD) under crash effect of the truck. The aim of the study is to replace Steel RUPD with aluminum foam, which promises an improvement of vehicle crashworthiness as well as to reduce weight of the vehicle. The aluminum foam is selected due to the high specific strength and specific stiffness. This inborn character makes it a promising candidate in the modern lightweight structures in the automotive engineering which can contribute to the improvement of mileage in addition to safety of the occupants.

  17. Review of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) for Automated Vehicles : Identifying Potential Barriers and Challenges for the Certification of Automated Vehicles Using Existing FMVSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-11

    The purpose of this work is to identify instances where the existing Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards may pose challenges to the introduction of automated vehicles. It identifies standards requiring further review - both to ensure that existing...

  18. Safety syringes and anti-needlestick devices in orthopaedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbitt, Wilmer L; Band, Philip A; Kettwich, Lawrence G; Sibbitt, Cristina R; Sibbitt, Lori J; Bankhurst, Arthur D

    2011-09-07

    The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgery (AAOS), The Joint Commission, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act encourage the integration of safety-engineered devices to prevent needlestick injuries to health-care workers and patients. We hypothesized that safety syringes and needles could be used in outpatient orthopaedic injection and aspiration procedures. The study investigated the orthopaedic uses and procedural idiosyncrasies of safety-engineered devices, including (1) four safety needles (Eclipse, SafetyGlide, SurGuard, and Magellan), (2) a mechanical safety syringe (RPD), (3) two automatic retractable syringes (Integra, VanishPoint), (4) three manual retractable syringes (Procedur-SF, Baksnap, Invirosnap), and (5) three shielded syringes (Safety-Lok, Monoject, and Digitally Activated Shielded [DAS] Syringe). The devices were first tested ex vivo, and then 1300 devices were used for 425 subjects undergoing outpatient arthrocentesis, intra-articular injections, local anesthesia, aspiration biopsy, and ultrasound-guided procedures. During the clinical observation, there were no accidental needlesticks (0 needlesticks per 1300 devices). Safety needles could be successfully used on a Luer syringe but were limited to ≤1.5 in (≤3.81 cm) in length and the shield could interfere with sonography. The mechanical safety syringes functioned well in all orthopaedic procedures. Automatic retractable syringes were too small for arthrocentesis of the knee, and the plunger blew out and prematurely collapsed with high-pressure injections. The manual retractable syringes and shielded syringes could be used with conventional needles for most orthopaedic procedures. The most effective and reliable safety devices for orthopaedic syringe procedures are shielded safety needles, mechanical syringes, manual retractable syringes, and shielded syringes, but not automatic retractable syringes. Even when adopting

  19. 76 FR 17808 - Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2011-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0108] Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2011- 2013 AGENCY... availability. SUMMARY: This document announces the availability of the Final NHTSA Vehicle Safety and Fuel.... This Priority Plan is an update to the Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2009...

  20. 76 FR 55825 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0139] RIN 2127-AJ44 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems..., amends a provision in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 213, ``Child restraint systems,'' that... provision: When a motor vehicle safety standard is in effect under this chapter, a State or a political...

  1. An evaluation of sharp safety blood evacuation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Joanna; Phillips, Peter

    This article describes an evaluation of three sharp safety blood evacuation devices in seven Welsh NHS boards and the Welsh Blood Service. Products consisted of two phlebotomy needles possessing safety shields and one phlebotomy device with wings, tubing and a retractable needle. The device companies provided the devices and appropriate training. Participating healthcare workers used the safety device instead of the conventional device to sample blood during the evaluation period and each type of device was evaluated in random order. Participants filled in a questionnaire for each type of device and then a further questionnaire comparing the two shielded evacuation needles with each other Results showed that responses to all three products were fairly positive, although each device was not liked by everyone who used it. When the two shielded evacuation devices were compared with each other, most users preferred the device with the shield positioned directly above the needle to the device with the shield at the side. However, in laboratory tests, the preferred device produced more fluid splatter than the other shielded device on activation.

  2. Active and passive vehicle safety at Volkswagen accident research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungmichel, M.; Stanzel, M.; Zobel, R. [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Accident Analysis is an efficient means of improving vehicle passive safety and is used frequently and intensively. However, reliable data on accident causation is much more difficult to obtain. In most cases, one or more of the persons involved in an accident will face litigation and therefore are reluctant to provide the information that is essential to researchers. In addition, antilock brakes in almost every current vehicle have caused certain characteristic evidence, i.e. skid marks, to appear much less frequently than before. However, this evidence provides valuable information for assessing the reaction of the driver and his attempt to avoid the accident. In order to implement strategies of accident avoidance, accident causation must first be fully understood. Therefore, one of the assignments of the Volkswagen Accident Research Unit is to interpret global statistics, as well as to study single cases in order to come up with strategies for collision avoidance or mitigation. Currently, our primary concern is focused on active vehicle safety by researching vehicle behavior in the pre-crash phase. (orig.)

  3. Studying the Safety Impact of Autonomous Vehicles Using Simulation-Based Surrogate Safety Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Mario Morando

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous vehicle (AV technology has advanced rapidly in recent years with some automated features already available in vehicles on the market. AVs are expected to reduce traffic crashes as the majority of crashes are related to driver errors, fatigue, alcohol, or drugs. However, very little research has been conducted to estimate the safety impact of AVs. This paper aims to investigate the safety impacts of AVs using a simulation-based surrogate safety measure approach. To this end, safety impacts are explored through the number of conflicts extracted from the VISSIM traffic microsimulator using the Surrogate Safety Assessment Model (SSAM. Behaviours of human-driven vehicles (HVs and AVs (level 4 automation are modelled within the VISSIM’s car-following model. The safety investigation is conducted for two case studies, that is, a signalised intersection and a roundabout, under various AV penetration rates. Results suggest that AVs improve safety significantly with high penetration rates, even when they travel with shorter headways to improve road capacity and reduce delay. For the signalised intersection, AVs reduce the number of conflicts by 20% to 65% with the AV penetration rates of between 50% and 100% (statistically significant at p<0.05. For the roundabout, the number of conflicts is reduced by 29% to 64% with the 100% AV penetration rate (statistically significant at p<0.05.

  4. System safety engineering in the development of advanced surface transportation vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnzen, H. E.

    1971-01-01

    Applications of system safety engineering to the development of advanced surface transportation vehicles are described. As a pertinent example, the paper describes a safety engineering efforts tailored to the particular design and test requirements of the Tracked Air Cushion Research Vehicle (TACRV). The test results obtained from this unique research vehicle provide significant design data directly applicable to the development of future tracked air cushion vehicles that will carry passengers in comfort and safety at speeds up to 300 miles per hour.

  5. Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicle (AMTV) technology and safety study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.; Peng, T. K. C.; Vivian, H. C.; Wang, P. K.

    1978-01-01

    Technology and safety related to the implementation of an Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicle (AMTV) system are discussed. System concepts and technology status were reviewed and areas where further development is needed are identified. Failure and hazard modes were also analyzed and methods for prevention were suggested. The results presented are intended as a guide for further efforts in AMTV system design and technology development for both near term and long term applications. The AMTV systems discussed include a low speed system, and a hybrid system consisting of low speed sections and high speed sections operating in a semi-guideway. The safety analysis identified hazards that may arise in a properly functioning AMTV system, as well as hardware failure modes. Safety related failure modes were emphasized. A risk assessment was performed in order to create a priority order and significant hazards and failure modes were summarized. Corrective measures were proposed for each hazard.

  6. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L J; Hammel, C J

    1997-04-01

    Electrochemical capacitors are a candidate for traction power assists in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Other advanced automotive applications, while not the primary focus of current development efforts, are also possible. These include load leveling high-energy batteries, power conditioning electronics, electrically hated catalysts, electric power steering, and engine starter power. Higher power and longer cycle life are expected for electrochemical capacitors than for batteries. Evaluation of environmental, health, and safety (EH and S) issues of electrochemical capacitors is an essential part of the development and commercialization of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicles. This report provides an initial EH and S assessment. This report presents electrochemical capacitor electrochemistry, materials selection, intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of those hazards, environmental requirements, pollution control options, and shipping requirements. Most of the information available for this assessment pertains to commercial devices intended for application outside the advanced vehicle market and to experiment or prototype devices. Electrochemical capacitors for power assists in HEVs are not produced commercially now. Therefore, materials for advanced vehicle electrochemical capacitors may change, and so would the corresponding EH and S issues. Although changes are possible, this report describes issues for likely electrochemical capacitor designs.

  7. Safety considerations in the design of the fusion engineering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Safety considerations play a significant role in the design of a near-term Fusion Engineering Device (FED). For the safety of the general public and the plant workers, the radiation environment caused by the reacting plasma and the potential release of tritium fuel are the dominant considerations. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulations and guidelines for radiation protection have been reviewed and are being applied to the device design. Direct radiation protection is provided by the device shield and the reactor building walls. Radiation from the activated device components and the tritium fuel is to be controlled with shielding, contamination control, and ventilation. The potential release of tritium from the plant has influenced the selection of reactor building and plant designs and specifications. The safety of the plant workers is affected primarily by the radiation from the activated device components and from plasma chamber debris. The highly activated device components make it necessary to design many of the maintenance activities in the reactor building for totally remote operation. The hot cell facility has evolved as a totally remote maintenance facility due to the high radiation levels of the device components. Safety considerations have had substantial impacts on the design of FED. Several examples of safety-related design impacts are discussed in the paper. Feasible solutions have been identified for all outstanding safety-related items, and additional optimization of these solutions is anticipated in future design studies

  8. ADVANCED DRIVER SAFETY SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR THE URBAN TYPE VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna JEZIERSKA-KRUPA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Smart Power Team is currently working on the design of an urban electric vehicle designed to compete in the Shell Eco-marathon. One important aspect of this type of vehicle characteristics is it safety. The project of advanced driver assistance systems has included some proposals of such systems and the concept of their execution. The first concept, BLIS (Blind Spot Information System, is to build a system of informing a driver about vehicles appearing in the blind spot. The system constitutes a second concept, CDIS (Collision Detection and Information System, and it is designed to detect a vehicle collision and inform the team. Further systems are: DPMS (Dew Point Measurement System - a system which does not allow a situation, where the windows are fogged, OHRS (Overtaking Horn Reminder System - a system which checks overtaking and MSS (main supervision system - a supervisory system. These concepts are based on the assumption of the use of laser sensors, photoelectric, humidity and temperature, and other commercially available systems. The article presents a detailed description of driver assistance systems and virtual prototyping methodology for these systems, as well as the numerical results of the verification of one of the systems.

  9. Safety work with MRI devices in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivkovic, D.; Hrnjak, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives the basis of biological effects of physical factors which could affect personnel working on MRI devices and patients, and corresponding protection measures. Medical personnel working with MRI devices and patients could be exposed to static magnetic field, time varying fields and radiofrequency radiation, danger from electric current and chemical matters, and there is a high risk from moving metal objects which could wound the persons near-by. The protection from static magnetic field could be ensured by increasing the distance from the source. If MRI device is put in Faradays cage it could be corresponding protection of radiofrequency radiation. (author)

  10. Motorcycle safety device investigation: A case study on airbags

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    analysis methods for research evaluation of rider crash protective devices fitted to ... The safety evaluation is then based on simulation of the 200 impact types. ... with recording of ISO 13232 car-front impact tests to evaluate the qualitative.

  11. A comparison of safety belt use between commercial and noncommercial light-vehicle occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, David W; Fordyce, Tiffani A; Vivoda, Jonathon M

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an observational survey of safety belt use to determine the use rate of commercial versus noncommercial light-vehicle occupants. Observations were conducted on front-outboard vehicle occupants in eligible commercial and noncommercial vehicles in Michigan (i.e.. passenger cars, vans/minivans, sport-utility vehicles, and pickup trucks). Commercial vehicles that did not fit into one of the four vehicle type categories, such as tractor-trailers, buses, or heavy trucks, were not included in the survey. The study found that the restraint use rate for commercial light-vehicle occupants was 55.8% statewide. The statewide safety belt use rate for commercial light-vehicles was significantly lower than the rate of 71.2% for noncommercial light-vehicles. The safety belt use rate for commercial vehicles was also significantly different as a function of region, vehicle type, seating position, age group, and road type. The results provide important preliminary data about safety belt use in commercial versus noncommercial light-vehicles and indicate that further effort is needed to promote safety belt use in the commercial light-vehicle occupant population. The study also suggests that additional research is required in order to develop effective programs that address low safety belt use in the commercial light-vehicle occupant population.

  12. 76 FR 53660 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0078] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... integration of electrical signals from vehicle crash sensors would work with the requested mechanical seat... (350,000) of the vehicles were stopped in the traffic lane prior to the crash event (pg. 22, Table 7...

  13. 75 FR 15620 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... fully develop improved brake systems and also to ensure vehicle control and stability while braking... [Docket No. NHTSA 2009-0175] RIN 2127-AK62 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems... Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring substantial improvements in...

  14. 76 FR 44829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0175] RIN 2127-AK84 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems... final rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring... between Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems and Dana Corporation; and ArvinMeritor. The agency received four...

  15. 78 FR 9623 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... initial speeds, vehicle manufacturers will need to develop unique or complicated braking systems to comply... [Docket No. NHTSA-2013-0011] RIN 2127-AL11 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems... rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring...

  16. 78 FR 3843 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic and Certain Specialty Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... Approval Handbook for Japanese Certification, Safety Regulations for Road Vehicles, Technical Standards For... Technology Transfer and Advancement Act Section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act... vehicle safety, Motor vehicles, Rubber and rubber products, and Tires. In consideration of the foregoing...

  17. 77 FR 15351 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Theft Protection and Rollaway Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0174] RIN 2127-AK88 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Theft Protection and... (NPRM) to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 114, Theft Protection and Rollaway... requesting that certain information, including vehicle owner questionnaires (VOQs) referenced in the NPRM, be...

  18. Safety and feasibility research of CIPT-Ⅱ irradiation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhihua; Mi Xiangmiao; Li Rundong

    2014-01-01

    CITP-Ⅱ irradiation device, which is specially designed for fusion tritium breeder research, works in a thermal neutron reactor. With lithium orthosilicate as the breeder, the safety analysis was done to work out the device's influence on physical parameters of the reactor and get the breeder's temperature distribution and thermo-technical features in the n-γ field. The stiffness and strength were checked, and also the safety characters of the device were assessed. The feasibility of gap gas regulating the temperature and gas refueling the breeder was demonstrated. The calculation and analysis results provide data for comprehensive performance assessment. (authors)

  19. Connected vehicle pilot deployment program phase 1, safety management plan - Tampa (THEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This document presents the Safety Management Plan for the THEA Connected Vehicle (CV) Pilot Deployment. The THEA CV Pilot : Deployment goal is to advance and enable safe, interoperable, networked wireless communications among vehicles, the : infrastr...

  20. Fine-Tuning ADAS Algorithm Parameters for Optimizing Traffic Safety and Mobility in Connected Vehicle Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the development of Connected Vehicle Technology that facilitates wireless communication among vehicles and road-side infrastructure, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) can be adopted as an effective tool for accelerating traffic safety and mobility optimization at...

  1. Safety of railroad passenger vehicle dynamics : OMNISIM simulation and test correlations for passenger rail cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of the work is to validate the safety assessment methodology previously developed for passenger rail vehicle dynamics, which requires the application of simulation tools as well as testing of vehicles under different track scenarios. This...

  2. Rules of the Road for Transporting Children--Guidelines for Developing a Motor Vehicle Safety Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Bruce; Gearhart, Kentin

    1999-01-01

    Discusses safety issues for child care centers that provide transportation for children. Notes the importance of vehicle usage and control, driver qualifications, vehicle maintenance, child securement, accident procedures, and driver education and training. (JPB)

  3. Rumble devices for road traffic safety

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jobson, AJ

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available on the approaches to hazardous curves or intersections. City and town engineers had little to report on rumble installations but showed a keen interest in their potential usefulness. Each type of rumble device has certain merits and these are discussed...

  4. Agricultural vehicles and rural road safety: tackling a persistent problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Catharinus F; De Vries, Jasper R

    2014-01-01

    Crashes involving agricultural vehicles (AVs) on public roads are an increasing road safety problem. We aim to analyze developments in the appearance and severity of these accidents, identify influencing factors, and draw lessons for possible interventions for accident prevention within the context of modern mechanized agriculture. To analyze developments in the appearance of accidents we use a subset of accidents with AVs involved on public roads in The Netherlands aggregated per year for 1987-2010. To identify and explore preventive measures we use an in-depth study of the Dutch Safety Board. With a study of international literature we put our findings in a wider context. During this time span, Dutch annual averages show 15 registered fatal accidents involving AVs, 93 with hospitalization and 137 with slight injuries. For nonfatal accidents, the numbers are decreasing over time. This decrease is proportionate to the reduction in the total number of traffic victims. For fatalities, however, the number is stable, increasing its proportion in all traffic fatalities from 1 in 1987 to 2 percent in 2010. Related to the number of inhabitants, this number is 2 times the value in the UK and 3 times the value in the United States. Influencing factors can be related to the 3 road system components (AV, driver, and infrastructure). Weak points for AVs are the view from the driver's seat, visibility at night, permitted vehicle width, and crash aggressivity (large kinetic energy of the AV) that is transferred to other road users in case of a collision. Important factors identified for the driver are poor risk perception and high risk acceptance, in combination with speeding, dysfunctional use such as the use of AVs as modes of transport to and from school, and driving on public roads without protecting or removing protruding and sharp components. For infrastructure, the focus is on road design and separation of AVs from other motor vehicles. Lessons to be learned follow from

  5. The real-world safety potential of connected vehicle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doecke, Sam; Grant, Alex; Anderson, Robert W G

    2015-01-01

    This article estimates the safety potential of a current commercially available connected vehicle technology in real-world crashes. Data from the Centre for Automotive Safety Research's at-scene in-depth crash investigations in South Australia were used to simulate the circumstances of real-world crashes. A total of 89 crashes were selected for inclusion in the study. The crashes were selected as representative of the most prevalent crash types for injury or fatal crashes and had potential to be mitigated by connected vehicle technology. The trajectory, speeds, braking, and impact configuration of the selected in-depth cases were replicated in a software package and converted to a file format allowing "replay" of the scenario in real time as input to 2 Cohda Wireless MK2 onboard units. The Cohda Wireless onboard units are a mature connected vehicle technology that has been used in both the German simTD field trial and the U.S. Department of Transport's Safety Pilot project and have been tuned for low false alarm rates when used in the real world. The crash replay was achieved by replacing each of the onboard unit Global Positioning System (GPS) inputs with the simulated data of each of the involved vehicles. The time at which the Cohda Wireless threat detection software issued an elevated warning was used to calculate a new impact speed using 3 different reaction scenarios and 2 levels of braking. It was found that between 37 and 86% of the simulated crashes could be avoided, with highest percentage due a fully autonomous system braking at 0.7 g. The same system also reduced the impact speed relative to the actual crash in all cases. Even when a human reaction time of 1.2 s and moderate braking of 0.4 g was assumed, the impact speed was reduced in 78% of the crashes. Crash types that proved difficult for the threat detection engine were head-on crashes where the approach angle was low and right turn-opposite crashes. These results indicate that connected vehicle

  6. Road traffic safety in conjunction with in-vehicle ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja TOPOLŠEK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in Intelligent Transportation Systems comes from the problems caused by traffic congestion, road accidents and air pollution. Traffic congestion continues to grow worldwide as a result of increased motorization, population growth, changes in population density and urbanization. Interest in ITS can also be attributed to reducing road accidents and increasing traffic safety. The most common causes for road accidents are excessive speed, inattentive driving and ignorance of the right-of-way rules. To eliminate these causes, experience, knowledge of traffic regulations and a new car are not enough – vehicle safety systems have to take part as well. Therefore, the European Union issued a directive on the installation of intelligent systems, whose functions are active support during driving, warning the driver in dangerous situations and alerting passengers of the car in case of irregularities in motor function or actions carried out by the driver that may cause danger, such as swerving while falling asleep. These systems help drivers to avoid accidents, and in the event of a collision, an emergency call is automatically made. Furthermore, they can be used to regulate traffic patterns or to reduce engine performance, which would reduce pollution. With these benefits in mind, the EU has indicated to the automotive industry that installation of these new Intelligent Transportation Systems should be mandatory in their new vehicles.

  7. Tritium radioluminescent devices, Health and Safety Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traub, R.J.; Jensen, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    This document consolidates available information on the properties of tritium, including its environmental chemistry, its health physics, and safe practices in using tritium-activated RL lighting. It also summarizes relevant government regulations on RL lighting. Chapters are divided into a single-column part, which provides an overview of the topic for readers simply requiring guidance on the safety of tritium RL lighting, and a dual-column part for readers requiring more technical and detailed information.

  8. Tritium radioluminescent devices, Health and Safety Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traub, R.J.; Jensen, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    This document consolidates available information on the properties of tritium, including its environmental chemistry, its health physics, and safe practices in using tritium-activated RL lighting. It also summarizes relevant government regulations on RL lighting. Chapters are divided into a single-column part, which provides an overview of the topic for readers simply requiring guidance on the safety of tritium RL lighting, and a dual-column part for readers requiring more technical and detailed information

  9. Safety considerations in the design of the Fusion Engineering Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) regulations and guidelines for radiation protection have been reviewed and are being applied to the device design. Direct radiation protection is provided by the device shield and the reactor building walls. Radiation from the activated device components and the tritium fuel is to be controlled with shielding, contamination control, and ventilation. The potential release of tritium from the plant has influenced the selection of reactor building and plant designs and specifications. The safety of the plant workers is affected primarily by the radiation from the activated device components and from plasma chamber debris

  10. A safety control device for detecting undesirable conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-09-26

    The invention relates to safety control devices. It deals with a device adapted to transmit a warning signal and to the detection of an undesirable condition in an associated apparatus, said device comprising switching means comprising transistors mounted in a reaction path, feeding means for opening the switching means whenever an undesirable condition has been detected by sensors, whereby an oscillator is caused to stop oscillating, and an outlet device controlled by the oscillator stoppage. This can be applied to the supervision of nuclear reactor.

  11. Unmanned aerial vehicles in construction and worker safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir; Branche, Christine M

    2018-01-01

    Applications of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for military, recreational, public, and commercial uses have expanded significantly in recent years. In the construction industry, UAVs are used primarily for monitoring of construction workflow and job site logistics, inspecting construction sites to assess structural integrity, and for maintenance assessments. As is the case with other emerging technologies, occupational safety assessments of UAVs lag behind technological advancements. UAVs may create new workplace hazards that need to be evaluated and managed to ensure their safe operation around human workers. At the same time, UAVs can perform dangerous tasks, thereby improving workplace safety. This paper describes the four major uses of UAVs, including their use in construction, the potential risks of their use to workers, approaches for risk mitigation, and the important role that safety and health professionals can play in ensuring safe approaches to the their use in the workplace. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Driver perceptions of the safety implications of quiet electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocron, Peter; Krems, Josef F

    2013-09-01

    Previous research on the safety implications of quiet electric vehicles (EVs) has mostly focused on pedestrians' acoustic perception of EVs, and suggests that EVs are more difficult for pedestrians to hear and, therefore, compromise traffic safety. The two German field studies presented here examine the experiences of 70 drivers with low noise emissions of EVs and the drivers' long-term evaluation of the issue. Participants were surveyed via interviews and questionnaires before driving an EV for the first time, after 3 months of driving, and in the first study, again after 6 months. Based on participants' reports, a catalogue of safety-relevant incidents was composed in Study 1. The catalogue revealed that low noise-related critical incidents only rarely occur, and mostly take place in low-speed environments. The degree of hazard related to these incidents was rated as low to medium. In Study 1, driver concern for vulnerable road users as a result of low noise diminished with increasing driving experience, while perceived comfort due to this feature increased. These results were replicated in Study 2. In the second study, it was additionally examined, if drivers adjust their perceived risk of harming other road users over time. Results show that the affective assessment of risk also decreased with increased driving experience. Based on individual experience, drivers adjust their evaluation of noise-related hazards, suggesting that dangers associated with low noise emissions might be less significant than previously expected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 2007 motor vehicle occupant safety survey. Volume 3, air bags report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    The 2007 Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey was the sixth in a series of periodic national telephone surveys on occupant : protection issues conducted for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Data collection was conducted : b...

  14. Vision and commercial motor vehicle driver safety : vol. 1 : evidence report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-06

    The purpose of this evidence report is to address several key questions posed by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) that pertain to vision and commercial motor vehicle (CMV) driver safety. Each of these key questions was develope...

  15. Development of a method to rate the primary safety of vehicles using linked New Zealand crash and vehicle licensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keall, Michael D; Newstead, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Vehicle safety rating systems aim firstly to inform consumers about safe vehicle choices and, secondly, to encourage vehicle manufacturers to aspire to safer levels of vehicle performance. Primary rating systems (that measure the ability of a vehicle to assist the driver in avoiding crashes) have not been developed for a variety of reasons, mainly associated with the difficult task of disassociating driver behavior and vehicle exposure characteristics from the estimation of crash involvement risk specific to a given vehicle. The aim of the current study was to explore different approaches to primary safety estimation, identifying which approaches (if any) may be most valid and most practical, given typical data that may be available for producing ratings. Data analyzed consisted of crash data and motor vehicle registration data for the period 2003 to 2012: 21,643,864 observations (representing vehicle-years) and 135,578 crashed vehicles. Various logistic models were tested as a means to estimate primary safety: Conditional models (conditioning on the vehicle owner over all vehicles owned); full models not conditioned on the owner, with all available owner and vehicle data; reduced models with few variables; induced exposure models; and models that synthesised elements from the latter two models. It was found that excluding young drivers (aged 25 and under) from all primary safety estimates attenuated some high risks estimated for make/model combinations favored by young people. The conditional model had clear biases that made it unsuitable. Estimates from a reduced model based just on crash rates per year (but including an owner location variable) produced estimates that were generally similar to the full model, although there was more spread in the estimates. The best replication of the full model estimates was generated by a synthesis of the reduced model and an induced exposure model. This study compared approaches to estimating primary safety that could mimic

  16. Push Off 2000 : new oilfield safety device catching on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mowers, J.

    2006-12-15

    Fuel gas scrubbers use production gas to operate oil batteries, well separators, dehydrators, compressors, and pneumatic and pressure controls. Once an internal float gets stuck, production is stopped. The Push Off 2000 is a new safety device for fuel gas scrubbers which allows operators to easily dislodge a stuck internal float by activating the tool, which is mounted on top of the vessel. The device was developed after an operator suffered burns from a flash explosion that occurred after using a hammer to strike the fuel gas scrubber. The hammer method is the usual method of dealing with stuck internal floats, and can also jeopardize the integrity of the vessel, releasing gas or liquid hydrocarbons into the environment. The Push Off 2000 is expected to reduce costly facility downtime and increase revenue generating production time. Over 50 oil and gas companies have the Push Off 2000 device installed on fuel gas scrubber units at their facilities, and have recognized the safety and economic merits of the tool. The patented device has been approved by the Alberta Boilers Safety Association, the British Columbia Boiler and Elevator Safety Branch, and the Saskatchewan Boiler and Pressure Vessel Safety Unit. 1 fig.

  17. CFD Analysis of the Safety Injection Tank and Fluidic Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Oan; Nietiadi, Yohanes Setiawan; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Addad, Yacine [KUSTAR, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-05-15

    One of the most important components in the ECCS is the safety injection tank (SIT). Inside the SIT, a fluidic device is installed, which passively controls the mass flow of the safety injection and eliminates the need for low pressure safety injection pumps. As more passive safety mechanisms are being pursued, it has become more important to understand flow structure and the loss mechanism within the fluidic device. Current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations have had limited success in predicting the fluid flow accurately. This study proposes to find a more exact result using CFD and more realistic modeling to predict the performance during accident scenarios more accurately. The safety injection tank with fluidic device was analyzed thoroughly using CFD. The preliminary calculation used 60,000 meshes for the initial test calculation. The results fit the experimental results surprisingly despite its coarse grid. Nonetheless, the mesh resolution was increased to capture the vortex in the fluidic device precisely. Once a detailed CFD computation is finished, a small-scale experiment will be conducted for the given conditions. Using the experimental results and the CFD model, physical models can be improved to fit the results more accurately.

  18. NASA safety standard for lifting devices and equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    NASA's minimum safety requirements are established for the design, testing, inspection, maintenance, certification, and use of overhead and gantry cranes (including top running monorail, underhung, and jib cranes), mobile cranes, derrick hoists, and special hoist supported personnel lifting devices (these do not include elevators, ground supported personnel lifts, or powered platforms). Minimum requirements are also addressed for the testing, inspection, and use of Hydra-sets, hooks, and slings. Safety standards are thoroughly detailed.

  19. Effects of Hearing Protection Device Attenuation on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Audio Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    UAV ) Audio Signatures by Melissa Bezandry, Adrienne Raglin, and John Noble Approved for public release; distribution...Research Laboratory Effects of Hearing Protection Device Attenuation on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle ( UAV ) Audio Signatures by Melissa Bezandry...Aerial Vehicle ( UAV ) Audio Signatures 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Melissa Bezandry

  20. Poster Abstract: Automatic Calibration of Device Attitude in Inertial Measurement Unit Based Traffic Probe Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2016-04-28

    Probe vehicles consist in mobile traffic sensor networks that evolve with the flow of vehicles, transmitting velocity and position measurements along their path, generated using GPSs. To address the urban positioning issues of GPSs, we propose to replace them with inertial measurement units onboard vehicles, to estimate vehicle location and attitude using inertial data only. While promising, this technology requires one to carefully calibrate the orientation of the device inside the vehicle to be able to process the acceleration and rate gyro data. In this article, we propose a scheme that can perform this calibration automatically by leveraging the kinematic constraints of ground vehicles, and that can be implemented on low-end computational platforms. Preliminary testing shows that the proposed scheme enables one to accurately estimate the actual accelerations and rotation rates in the vehicle coordinates. © 2016 IEEE.

  1. 76 FR 49532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ...-0112] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the Effectiveness of Electronic Stability Control Systems for Cars and LTVs AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety..., Electronic Stability Control Systems. The report's title is: Crash Prevention Effectiveness in Light-Vehicle...

  2. 78 FR 15920 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Tire Selection and Rims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2013-0030] RIN 2127-AL24 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Tire Selection and Rims... Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 110 to make it clear that special trailer (ST) tires are permitted to be... also proposes to exclude these trailers from a vehicle testing requirement that a tire must be retained...

  3. 75 FR 6123 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... motor vehicle safety standard is in effect under this chapter, a State or a political subdivision of a... [Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0156] RIN 2127-AK57 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash...'s response to petitions for reconsideration of a November 12, 2008 final rule that amended the child...

  4. The risk of a safety-critical event associated with mobile device use in specific driving contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Gregory M; Hanowski, Richard J; Guo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    We explored drivers' mobile device use and its associated risk of a safety-critical event (SCE) in specific driving contexts. Our premise was that the SCE risk associated with mobile device use increases when the driving task becomes demanding. Data from naturalistic driving studies involving commercial motor vehicle drivers and light vehicle drivers were partitioned into subsets representative of specific driving contexts. The subsets were generated using data set attributes that included level of service and relation to junction. These attributes were selected based on exogenous factors known to alter driving task demands. The subsets were analyzed using a case-cohort approach, which was selected to complement previous investigations of mobile device SCE risk using naturalistic driving data. Both commercial motor vehicle and light vehicle drivers varied as to how much they conversed on a mobile device but did not vary their engagement in visual-manual subtasks. Furthermore, commercial motor vehicle drivers conversed less frequently as the driving task demands increased, whereas light vehicle drivers did not. The risk of an SCE associated with mobile device use was dependent on the subtask performed and the driving context. Only visual-manual subtasks were associated with an increased SCE risk, whereas conversing was associated with a decreased risk in some driving contexts. Drivers' engagement in mobile device subtasks varies by driving context. The SCE risk associated with mobile device use is dependent on the types of subtasks performed and the driving context. The findings of this exploratory study can be applied to the design of driver-vehicle interfaces that mitigate distraction by preventing visual-manual subtasks while driving.

  5. Product-based Safety Certification for Medical Devices Embedded Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, José Augusto; Figueiredo Damásio, Jemerson; Monthaler, Paul; Morais, Misael

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide medical device embedded software certification practices are currently focused on manufacturing best practices. In Brazil, the national regulatory agency does not hold a local certification process for software-intensive medical devices and admits international certification (e.g. FDA and CE) from local and international industry to operate in the Brazilian health care market. We present here a product-based certification process as a candidate process to support the Brazilian regulatory agency ANVISA in medical device software regulation. Center of Strategic Technology for Healthcare (NUTES) medical device embedded software certification is based on a solid safety quality model and has been tested with reasonable success against the Class I risk device Generic Infusion Pump (GIP).

  6. Large Scale System Safety Integration for Human Rated Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Michael J.

    2005-12-01

    Since the 1960s man has searched for ways to establish a human presence in space. Unfortunately, the development and operation of human spaceflight vehicles carry significant safety risks that are not always well understood. As a result, the countries with human space programs have felt the pain of loss of lives in the attempt to develop human space travel systems. Integrated System Safety is a process developed through years of experience (since before Apollo and Soyuz) as a way to assess risks involved in space travel and prevent such losses. The intent of Integrated System Safety is to take a look at an entire program and put together all the pieces in such a way that the risks can be identified, understood and dispositioned by program management. This process has many inherent challenges and they need to be explored, understood and addressed.In order to prepare truly integrated analysis safety professionals must gain a level of technical understanding of all of the project's pieces and how they interact. Next, they must find a way to present the analysis so the customer can understand the risks and make decisions about managing them. However, every organization in a large-scale project can have different ideas about what is or is not a hazard, what is or is not an appropriate hazard control, and what is or is not adequate hazard control verification. NASA provides some direction on these topics, but interpretations of those instructions can vary widely.Even more challenging is the fact that every individual/organization involved in a project has different levels of risk tolerance. When the discrete hazard controls of the contracts and agreements cannot be met, additional risk must be accepted. However, when one has left the arena of compliance with the known rules, there can be no longer be specific ground rules on which to base a decision as to what is acceptable and what is not. The integrator must find common grounds between all parties to achieve

  7. Safety Features of Material and Personnel Movement Devices. Module SH-25. Safety and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on safety features of material and personnel movement devices is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module covers safe conditions and operating practices for conveyors, elevators, escalators, moving walks, manlifts, forklifts, and motorized hand trucks. Following the introduction, 10 objectives (each…

  8. Factors affecting the utilization of safety devices by commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Motorcycle crashes are common causes of morbidity and mortality for both riders and passengers. To prevent and reduce the severity of injuries sustained through road traffic accidents (RTA) many countries enforce the use of safety devices while riding. Certain factors including non-enforcement of the existing ...

  9. Utilization of ocular safety devices among Sawmill workers in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study was carried out to assess the use of eye safety devices in sawmill workers in Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study of sawmill workers was carried out using pretested questionnaires. Ocular examination was done on site with a pen torch, portable hand-held slit lamp bio-microscope and direct ...

  10. Use of digital computing devices in systems important to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The incorporation of digital computing devices in systems important to safety now is progressing fast in several countries, including Canada, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, USA. There are now reactors with microprocessors in some trip systems. The major functions of those systems are: reactor trip initiation, display, monitoring, testing, re-calibration of detectors. The benefits of moving to a fully computerized shut-down system should be improved reliability, greater flexibility, better man-machine interface, improved testing, higher reactor output and lower overall cost. With the introduction of computer devices in systems important to safety, plant availability and safety are improved because disturbances are treated before they lead to safety action, in this way helping the operator to avoid errors. The Meeting presentations were divided into sessions devoted to the following topics: Needs for the use of digital devices (DCD) in safety important systems (SIS) (5 papers); Problems raised by the integration SIS in the NPP control (7 papers); Description and presentation of DCD of SIS (6 papers); Results of experiences in engineering, manufacture, qualification operation of DCD hardware and software (5 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  11. MRI with cardiac pacing devicesSafety in clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaasalainen, Touko, E-mail: touko.kaasalainen@hus.fi [HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340 (Haartmaninkatu 4), 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Pakarinen, Sami, E-mail: sami.pakarinen@hus.fi [HUS Department of Cardiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340 (Haartmaninkatu 4), 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Kivistö, Sari, E-mail: sari.kivisto@hus.fi [HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340 (Haartmaninkatu 4), 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Holmström, Miia, E-mail: miia.holmstrom@hus.fi [HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340 (Haartmaninkatu 4), 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Hänninen, Helena, E-mail: helena.hanninen@hus.fi [HUS Department of Cardiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340 (Haartmaninkatu 4), 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Peltonen, Juha, E-mail: juha.peltonen@hus.fi [HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340 (Haartmaninkatu 4), 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, School of Science, Aalto University, Helsinki (Finland); Lauerma, Kirsi, E-mail: kirsi.lauerma@hus.fi [HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340 (Haartmaninkatu 4), 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Sipilä, Outi, E-mail: outi.sipila@hus.fi [HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340 (Haartmaninkatu 4), 00290 Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-08-15

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to introduce a single centre “real life” experience of performing MRI examinations in clinical practice on patients with cardiac pacemaker systems. Additionally, we aimed to evaluate the safety of using a dedicated safety protocol for these patients. Materials and methods: We used a 1.5 T MRI scanner to conduct 68 MRI scans of different body regions in patients with pacing systems. Of the cardiac devices, 32% were MR-conditional, whereas the remaining 68% were MR-unsafe. We recorded the functional parameters of the devices prior, immediately after, and approximately one month after the MRI scanning, and compared the device parameters to the baseline values. Results: All MRI examinations were completed safely, and each device could be interrogated normally following the MRI. We observed no changes in the programmed parameters of the devices. For most of the participants, the distributions of the immediate and one-month changes in the device parameters were within 20% of the baseline values, although some changes approached clinically important thresholds. Furthermore, we observed no differences in the variable changes between MR-conditional and MR-unsafe pacing systems, or between scans of the thorax area and other scanned areas. Conclusion: MRI in patients with MR-conditional pacing systems and selected MR-unsafe systems could be performed safely under strict conditions in this study.

  12. Stakeholder challenges in purchasing medical devices for patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Saba; Dickerson, Terry; Clarkson, John

    2013-03-01

    This study identifies the stakeholders who have a role in medical device purchasing within the wider system of health-care delivery and reports on their particular challenges to promote patient safety during purchasing decisions. Data was collected through observational work, participatory workshops, and semi-structured qualitative interviews, which were analyzed and coded. The study takes a systems-based and engineering design approach to the study. Five hospitals took part in this study, and the participants included maintenance, training, clinical end-users, finance, and risk departments. The main stakeholders for purchasing were identified to be staff from clinical engineering (Maintenance), device users (Clinical), device trainers (Training), and clinical governance for analyzing incidents involving devices (Risk). These stakeholders display varied characteristics in terms of interpretation of their own roles, competencies for selecting devices, awareness and use of resources for purchasing devices, and attitudes toward the purchasing process. The role of "clinical engineering" is seen by these stakeholders to be critical in mediating between training, technical, and financial stakeholders but not always recognized in practice. The findings show that many device purchasing decisions are tackled in isolation, which is not optimal for decisions requiring knowledge that is currently distributed among different people within different departments. The challenges expressed relate to the wider system of care and equipment management, calling for a more systemic view of purchasing for medical devices.

  13. Wireless power transfer for electric vehicles and mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Rim, Chun T

    2017-01-01

    From mobile, cable-free re-charging of electric vehicles, smart phones and laptops to collecting solar electricity from orbiting solar farms, wireless power transfer (WPT) technologies offer consumers and society enormous benefits. Written by innovators in the field, this comprehensive resource explains the fundamental principles and latest advances in WPT and illustrates key applications of this emergent technology.

  14. Evaluation of semiconductor devices for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) ac-drive applications, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Chen, D. Y.; Jovanovic, M.; Hopkins, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    The results of evaluation of power semiconductor devices for electric hybrid vehicle ac drive applications are summarized. Three types of power devices are evaluated in the effort: high power bipolar or Darlington transistors, power MOSFETs, and asymmetric silicon control rectifiers (ASCR). The Bipolar transistors, including discrete device and Darlington devices, range from 100 A to 400 A and from 400 V to 900 V. These devices are currently used as key switching elements inverters for ac motor drive applications. Power MOSFETs, on the other hand, are much smaller in current rating. For the 400 V device, the current rating is limited to 25 A. For the main drive of an electric vehicle, device paralleling is normally needed to achieve practical power level. For other electric vehicle (EV) related applications such as battery charger circuit, however, MOSFET is advantageous to other devices because of drive circuit simplicity and high frequency capability. Asymmetrical SCR is basically a SCR device and needs commutation circuit for turn off. However, the device poses several advantages, i.e., low conduction drop and low cost.

  15. Description of light-vehicle pre-crash scenarios for safety applications based on vehicle-to-vehicle communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    This report describes pre-crash scenarios that might be addressed by vehicle-to-vehicle communications. The focus is on crashes involving at least 1 light vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 pounds or less. The 2004-2008 General Esti...

  16. Traffic Safety and Vehicle Choice: Quantifying the Effects of the "Arms Race" on American Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shanjun

    2009-01-01

    The increasing market share of light trucks in the U.S. in recent years has been characterized as an “arms race” where individual purchase of light trucks for better self-protection in collisions nevertheless leads to worse traffic safety for the society. This paper investigates the interrelation between traffic safety and vehicle choice by quantifying the effects of the arms race on vehicle demand, producer performance, and traffic safety. The empirical analysis shows that the accident exter...

  17. Motor Vehicle Safety (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In our highly mobile society, travel in vehicles is an almost daily occurrence for most Americans. Every trip places us at risk for serious injury. In this podcast, Dr. Gwen discusses ways to avoid serious injuries in motor vehicles.

  18. Advanced vehicle dynamics of heavy trucks with the perspective of road safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigell, Annika Stensson; Rothhämel, Malte; Pauwelussen, Joop; Kural, Karel

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents state-of-the art within advanced vehicle dynamics of heavy trucks with the perspective of road safety. The most common accidents with heavy trucks involved are truck against passenger cars. Safety critical situations are for example loss of control (such as rollover and lateral stability) and a majority of these occur during speed when cornering. Other critical situations are avoidance manoeuvre and road edge recovery. The dynamic behaviour of heavy trucks have significant differences compared to passenger cars and as a consequence, successful application of vehicle dynamic functions for enhanced safety of trucks might differ from the functions in passenger cars. Here, the differences between vehicle dynamics of heavy trucks and passenger cars are clarified. Advanced vehicle dynamics solutions with the perspective of road safety of trucks are presented, beginning with the topic vehicle stability, followed by the steering system, the braking system and driver assistance systems that differ in some way from that of passenger cars as well.

  19. Increasing the Fuel Economy and Safety of New Light-DutyVehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom; Ross, Marc

    2006-09-18

    One impediment to increasing the fuel economy standards forlight-duty vehicles is the long-standing argument that reducing vehiclemass to improve fuel economy will inherently make vehicles less safe.This technical paper summarizes and examines the research that is citedin support of this argument, and presents more recent research thatchallenges it. We conclude that the research claiming that lightervehicles are inherently less safe than heavier vehicles is flawed, andthat other aspects of vehicle design are more important to the on-roadsafety record of vehicles. This paper was prepared for a workshop onexperts in vehicle safety and fuel economy, organized by the William andFlora Hewlett Foundation, to discuss technologies and designs that can betaken to simultaneously improve vehicle safety and fuel economy; theworkshop was held in Washington DC on October 3, 2006.

  20. Safety of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Cardiac Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarian, Saman; Hansford, Rozann; Rahsepar, Amir A; Weltin, Valeria; McVeigh, Diana; Gucuk Ipek, Esra; Kwan, Alan; Berger, Ronald D; Calkins, Hugh; Lardo, Albert C; Kraut, Michael A; Kamel, Ihab R; Zimmerman, Stefan L; Halperin, Henry R

    2017-12-28

    Patients who have pacemakers or defibrillators are often denied the opportunity to undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) because of safety concerns, unless the devices meet certain criteria specified by the Food and Drug Administration (termed "MRI-conditional" devices). We performed a prospective, nonrandomized study to assess the safety of MRI at a magnetic field strength of 1.5 Tesla in 1509 patients who had a pacemaker (58%) or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (42%) that was not considered to be MRI-conditional (termed a "legacy" device). Overall, the patients underwent 2103 thoracic and nonthoracic MRI examinations that were deemed to be clinically necessary. The pacing mode was changed to asynchronous mode for pacing-dependent patients and to demand mode for other patients. Tachyarrhythmia functions were disabled. Outcome assessments included adverse events and changes in the variables that indicate lead and generator function and interaction with surrounding tissue (device parameters). No long-term clinically significant adverse events were reported. In nine MRI examinations (0.4%; 95% confidence interval, 0.2 to 0.7), the patient's device reset to a backup mode. The reset was transient in eight of the nine examinations. In one case, a pacemaker with less than 1 month left of battery life reset to ventricular inhibited pacing and could not be reprogrammed; the device was subsequently replaced. The most common notable change in device parameters (>50% change from baseline) immediately after MRI was a decrease in P-wave amplitude, which occurred in 1% of the patients. At long-term follow-up (results of which were available for 63% of the patients), the most common notable changes from baseline were decreases in P-wave amplitude (in 4% of the patients), increases in atrial capture threshold (4%), increases in right ventricular capture threshold (4%), and increases in left ventricular capture threshold (3%). The observed changes in lead parameters

  1. Energy storage devices for future hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karden, Eckhard; Ploumen, Serve; Fricke, Birger [Ford Research and Advanced Engineering Europe, Suesterfeldstr. 200, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Miller, Ted; Snyder, Kent [Ford Sustainable Mobility Technologies, 15050 Commerce Drive North, Dearborn, MI 48120 (United States)

    2007-05-25

    Powertrain hybridization as well as electrical energy management are imposing new requirements on electrical storage systems in vehicles. This paper characterizes the associated vehicle attributes and, in particular, the various levels of hybrids. New requirements for the electrical storage system are derived, including: shallow-cycle life, high dynamic charge acceptance particularly for regenerative braking and robust service life in sustained partial-state-of-charge usage. Lead/acid, either with liquid or absorptive glass-fibre mat electrolyte, is expected to remain the predominant battery technology for 14 V systems, including micro-hybrids, and with a cost-effective battery monitoring system for demanding applications. Advanced AGM batteries may be considered for mild or even medium hybrids once they have proven robustness under real-world conditions, particularly with respect to cycle life at partial-states-of-charge and dynamic charge acceptance. For the foreseeable future, NiMH and Li-ion are the dominating current and potential battery technologies for higher-functionality HEVs. Li-ion, currently at development and demonstration stages, offers attractive opportunities for improvements in performance and cost. Supercapacitors may be considered for pulse power applications. Aside from cell technologies, attention to the issue of system integration of the battery into the powertrain and vehicle is growing. Opportunities and challenges for potential ''battery pack'' system suppliers are discussed. (author)

  2. Energy storage devices for future hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karden, Eckhard; Ploumen, Servé; Fricke, Birger; Miller, Ted; Snyder, Kent

    Powertrain hybridization as well as electrical energy management are imposing new requirements on electrical storage systems in vehicles. This paper characterizes the associated vehicle attributes and, in particular, the various levels of hybrids. New requirements for the electrical storage system are derived, including: shallow-cycle life, high dynamic charge acceptance particularly for regenerative braking and robust service life in sustained partial-state-of-charge usage. Lead/acid, either with liquid or absorptive glass-fibre mat electrolyte, is expected to remain the predominant battery technology for 14 V systems, including micro-hybrids, and with a cost-effective battery monitoring system for demanding applications. Advanced AGM batteries may be considered for mild or even medium hybrids once they have proven robustness under real-world conditions, particularly with respect to cycle life at partial-states-of-charge and dynamic charge acceptance. For the foreseeable future, NiMH and Li-ion are the dominating current and potential battery technologies for higher-functionality HEVs. Li-ion, currently at development and demonstration stages, offers attractive opportunities for improvements in performance and cost. Supercapacitors may be considered for pulse power applications. Aside from cell technologies, attention to the issue of system integration of the battery into the powertrain and vehicle is growing. Opportunities and challenges for potential "battery pack" system suppliers are discussed.

  3. 49 CFR 575.301 - Vehicle Labeling of Safety Rating Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... providing them with safety rating information developed by NHTSA in its New Car Assessment Program (NCAP..., as specified at 15 U.S.C. 1231-1233. (2) Safety rating label means the label with NCAP safety rating... has approved an optional NCAP test that will cover that category, the manufacturer may depict vehicles...

  4. Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis for an Antifalling Safety Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxiang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a constant need for the safe operation and reliability of antifalling safety device (AFSD of an elevator. This paper reports an experimental study on rotation speed and catching torque monitoring and fault diagnosis of an antifalling safety device in a construction elevator. Denoising the signal using wavelet transform is presented in this paper. Based on the denoising effects for several types of wavelets, the sym8 wavelet basis, which introduces the high order approximation and an adaptive threshold, is employed for denoising the signal. The experimental result shows a maximum data error reduction of 7.5% is obtained and SNRs (signal-to-noise ratio of rotation speed and catching torque are improved for 3.9% and 6.4%, respectively.

  5. Light vehicle crash avoidance needs and countermeasure profiles for safety applications based on vehicle-to-vehicle communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    This report discusses light-vehicle crash countermeasure profiles and functions for five target pre-crash scenario groups based on vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications. Target pre-crash scenario groups include rear-end, lane change, opposite direc...

  6. A Vehicle Active Safety Model: Vehicle Speed Control Based on Driver Vigilance Detection Using Wearable EEG and Sparse Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zutao; Luo, Dianyuan; Rasim, Yagubov; Li, Yanjun; Meng, Guanjun; Xu, Jian; Wang, Chunbai

    2016-02-19

    In this paper, we present a vehicle active safety model for vehicle speed control based on driver vigilance detection using low-cost, comfortable, wearable electroencephalographic (EEG) sensors and sparse representation. The proposed system consists of three main steps, namely wireless wearable EEG collection, driver vigilance detection, and vehicle speed control strategy. First of all, a homemade low-cost comfortable wearable brain-computer interface (BCI) system with eight channels is designed for collecting the driver's EEG signal. Second, wavelet de-noising and down-sample algorithms are utilized to enhance the quality of EEG data, and Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) is adopted to extract the EEG power spectrum density (PSD). In this step, sparse representation classification combined with k-singular value decomposition (KSVD) is firstly introduced in PSD to estimate the driver's vigilance level. Finally, a novel safety strategy of vehicle speed control, which controls the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking after driver fatigue detection using the above method, is presented to avoid serious collisions and traffic accidents. The simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the feasibility of the vehicle active safety model.

  7. A Vehicle Active Safety Model: Vehicle Speed Control Based on Driver Vigilance Detection Using Wearable EEG and Sparse Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zutao Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a vehicle active safety model for vehicle speed control based on driver vigilance detection using low-cost, comfortable, wearable electroencephalographic (EEG sensors and sparse representation. The proposed system consists of three main steps, namely wireless wearable EEG collection, driver vigilance detection, and vehicle speed control strategy. First of all, a homemade low-cost comfortable wearable brain-computer interface (BCI system with eight channels is designed for collecting the driver’s EEG signal. Second, wavelet de-noising and down-sample algorithms are utilized to enhance the quality of EEG data, and Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT is adopted to extract the EEG power spectrum density (PSD. In this step, sparse representation classification combined with k-singular value decomposition (KSVD is firstly introduced in PSD to estimate the driver’s vigilance level. Finally, a novel safety strategy of vehicle speed control, which controls the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking after driver fatigue detection using the above method, is presented to avoid serious collisions and traffic accidents. The simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the feasibility of the vehicle active safety model.

  8. Using in-depth investigations to identify transportation safety issues for wheelchair-seated occupants of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lawrence W; Klinich, Kathleen D; Moore, Jamie L; MacWilliams, Joel B

    2010-04-01

    In-depth investigations of motor-vehicle crashes involve detailed inspection, measurement, and photodocumentation of vehicle exterior and interior damage, evidence of belt-restraint use, and evidence of occupant contacts with the vehicle interior. Results of in-depth investigations thereby provide the most objective way to identify current and emerging injury problems and issues in occupant safety and crash protection, and provide important feedback on the real-world performance of the latest restraint-system and vehicle crashworthiness technologies. To provide an objective understanding of real-world transportation safety issues for wheelchair-seated travelers, the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) has been conducting and assembling data from in-depth investigations of motor-vehicle crashes and non-crash adverse moving-vehicle incidents, such as emergency vehicle braking, turning, and swerving, in which there was at least one vehicle occupant sitting in a wheelchair. The results of 39 investigations involving 42 wheelchair-seated occupants have been assembled and entered into a wheelchair-occupant crash/injury database. In addition, a biomechanical analysis of each case has been performed to identify key safety issues for wheelchair-seated travelers. The wheelchairs of 34 of the 42 occupants who were seated in wheelchairs while traveling in motor vehicles were effectively secured by either a four-point, strap-type tiedown system or a docking securement device, and all but one of these properly secured wheelchairs remained in place during the crash or non-collision event. However, 30 of the 42 occupants were improperly restrained, either because of non-use or incomplete use of available belt restraints, or because the belt restraints were improperly positioned on the occupant's body. Twenty-six of the 42 occupants sustained significant injuries and 10 of these occupants died as a direct result of injuries sustained, or from

  9. 75 FR 60036 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... evaluates resistance to heat buildup when the tire is run at stepped-up loads at or near its rated load... that involves a tire running on the roadwheel under specified conditions to allow for tire growth. The... [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0132] RIN 2127-AK17 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for...

  10. 75 FR 15621 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Theft Protection and Rollaway Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... indication either in the text of the K.T. Safety Act or its associated legislative history that Congress... why a decision was made to operate these vehicles in this fashion. In short, we are not convinced that...

  11. Evaluating driver reactions to new vehicle technologies intended to increase safety and mobility across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Personal vehicle manufactures are introducing a wide range of new technologies that are : intended to increase the safety, comfort, and mobility of drivers of all ages. Examples range from : semi-autonomous technologies such as adaptive cruise contro...

  12. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems (IVBSS) : heavy truck platform field operational test data analysis plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-23

    This document presents the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institutes plan to perform : analysis of data collected from the heavy truck platform field operational test of the Integrated Vehicle- : Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) progra...

  13. Vehicle safety performance improvements using a performance-based standards approach: four case studies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available programme is to gain practical experience in the PBS approach and to quantify and evaluate the potential infrastructure preservation, safety and productivity benefits for road freight transport. The Smart Truck demonstration vehicles have been designed...

  14. U27 : real-time commercial vehicle safety & security monitoring final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Accurate real-time vehicle tracking has a wide range of applications including fleet management, drug/speed/law enforcement, transportation planning, traffic safety, air quality, electronic tolling, and national security. While many alternative track...

  15. Proving autonomous vehicle and advanced driver assistance systems safety : final research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The main objective of this project was to provide technology for answering : crucial safety and correctness questions about verification of autonomous : vehicle and advanced driver assistance systems based on logic. : In synergistic activities, we ha...

  16. Game Theoretic Analysis of Road User Safety Scenarios Involving Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Michieli, Umberto; Badia, Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    Interactions between pedestrians, bikers, and human-driven vehicles have been a major concern in traffic safety over the years. The upcoming age of autonomous vehicles will further raise major problems on whether self-driving cars can accurately avoid accidents; on the other hand, usability issues arise on whether human-driven cars and pedestrian can dominate the road at the expense of the autonomous vehicles which will be programmed to avoid accidents. This paper proposes some game theoretic...

  17. Acoustic characteristics of hybrid electric vehicles and the safety of pedestrians who are blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Quieter cars such as electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) may reduce auditory cues used by pedestrians to assess the state of nearby traffic and, as a result, their use may have an adverse impact on pedestrian safety. In order ...

  18. 75 FR 17605 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... that the challenge was to push to a level where the safety benefits are still reasonable in relation to... it is inequitable to those who travel in large vans and large sport utility vehicles (SUVs) for those... pickup trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles that have the capacity to seat three or more occupants...

  19. 75 FR 51521 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems; Technical Report on the Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ....121) mandates antilock braking systems (ABS) on all new air-braked vehicles with a GVWR of 10,000...-0116] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems; Technical Report on the Effectiveness of Antilock Braking Systems in Heavy Truck Tractors and Trailers AGENCY: National Highway Traffic...

  20. Motor Vehicle Safety (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-16

    In our highly mobile society, travel in vehicles is an almost daily occurrence for most Americans. Every trip places us at risk for serious injury. In this podcast, Dr. Gwen discusses ways to avoid serious injuries in motor vehicles.  Created: 10/16/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/16/2014.

  1. Evaluating and Predicting Patient Safety for Medical Devices With Integral Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    323 Evaluating and Predicting Patient Safety for Medical Devices with Integral Information Technology Jiajie Zhang, Vimla L. Patel, Todd R...errors are due to inappropriate designs for user interactions, rather than mechanical failures. Evaluating and predicting patient safety in medical ...the users on the identified trouble spots in the devices. We developed two methods for evaluating and predicting patient safety in medical devices

  2. Safety assessment of automated vehicle functions by simulation-based fault injection

    OpenAIRE

    Juez, Garazi; Amparan, Estibaliz; Lattarulo, Ray; Rastelli, Joshue Perez; Ruiz, Alejandra; Espinoza, Huascar

    2017-01-01

    As automated driving vehicles become more sophisticated and pervasive, it is increasingly important to assure its safety even in the presence of faults. This paper presents a simulation-based fault injection approach (Sabotage) aimed at assessing the safety of automated vehicle functions. In particular, we focus on a case study to forecast fault effects during the model-based design of a lateral control function. The goal is to determine the acceptable fault detection interval for pe...

  3. Prospects for the application of GaN power devices in hybrid electric vehicle drive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Ming; Chen, Chingchi; Rajan, Siddharth

    2013-01-01

    GaN, a wide bandgap semiconductor successfully implemented in optical and high-speed electronic devices, has gained momentum in recent years for power electronics applications. Along with rapid progress in material and device processing technologies, high-voltage transistors over 600 V have been reported by a number of teams worldwide. These advances make GaN highly attractive for the growing market of electrified vehicles, which currently employ bipolar silicon devices in the 600–1200 V class for the traction inverter. However, to capture this billion-dollar power market, GaN has to compete with existing IGBT products and deliver higher performance at comparable or lower cost. This paper reviews key achievements made by the GaN semiconductor industry, requirements of the automotive electric drive system and remaining challenges for GaN power devices to fit in the inverter application of hybrid vehicles. (invited review)

  4. Prospects for the application of GaN power devices in hybrid electric vehicle drive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming; Chen, Chingchi; Rajan, Siddharth

    2013-07-01

    GaN, a wide bandgap semiconductor successfully implemented in optical and high-speed electronic devices, has gained momentum in recent years for power electronics applications. Along with rapid progress in material and device processing technologies, high-voltage transistors over 600 V have been reported by a number of teams worldwide. These advances make GaN highly attractive for the growing market of electrified vehicles, which currently employ bipolar silicon devices in the 600-1200 V class for the traction inverter. However, to capture this billion-dollar power market, GaN has to compete with existing IGBT products and deliver higher performance at comparable or lower cost. This paper reviews key achievements made by the GaN semiconductor industry, requirements of the automotive electric drive system and remaining challenges for GaN power devices to fit in the inverter application of hybrid vehicles.

  5. Improvement of cosmic ray ruggedness of hybrid vehicles power semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Shuichi; Ohnishi, Toyokazu; Fujikawa, Touma; Nose, Noboru; Hamada, Kimimori; Shoji, Tomoyuki; Ishiko, Masayasu

    2010-01-01

    Power semiconductors which are used under high voltage conditions in HVs (Hybrid Vehicles) are required to have high destruction tolerance against cosmic rays as well as to meet conventional quality standards. In this paper, an SEB (Single Event Burnout) failure mechanism induced by cosmic rays in IGBTs (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors) was investigated. Through an optimized device design in which thyristor action was suppressed, the device destruction tolerance was greatly improved. (author)

  6. An examination of safety reports involving electronic flight bags and portable electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a better understanding of safety considerations with the use of Electronic Flight Bags (EFBs) and Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) by examining safety reports from Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS),...

  7. Effect of electronic device use on pedestrian safety : a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This literature review on the effect of electronic device use on pedestrian safety is part of a research project sponsored by the Office of Behavioral Safety Research in the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). An extensive literat...

  8. A Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential Brain-Computer Interface System Evaluation as an In-Vehicle Warning Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyahi, Pouria

    This thesis is part of current research at Center for Intelligence Systems Research (CISR) at The George Washington University for developing new in-vehicle warning systems via Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs). The purpose of conducting this research is to contribute to the current gap between BCI and in-vehicle safety studies. It is based on the premise that accurate and timely monitoring of human (driver) brain's signal to external stimuli could significantly aide in detection of driver's intentions and development of effective warning systems. The thesis starts with introducing the concept of BCI and its development history while it provides a literature review on the nature of brain signals. The current advancement and increasing demand for commercial and non-medical BCI products are described. In addition, the recent research attempts in transportation safety to study drivers' behavior or responses through brain signals are reviewed. The safety studies, which are focused on employing a reliable and practical BCI system as an in-vehicle assistive device, are also introduced. A major focus of this thesis research has been on the evaluation and development of the signal processing algorithms which can effectively filter and process brain signals when the human subject is subjected to Visual LED (Light Emitting Diodes) stimuli at different frequencies. The stimulated brain generates a voltage potential, referred to as Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP). Therefore, a newly modified analysis algorithm for detecting the brain visual signals is proposed. These algorithms are designed to reach a satisfactory accuracy rate without preliminary trainings, hence focusing on eliminating the need for lengthy training of human subjects. Another important concern is the ability of the algorithms to find correlation of brain signals with external visual stimuli in real-time. The developed analysis models are based on algorithms which are capable of generating results

  9. Applying Mechatronics to Improve the Safety of Children in Vehicles - What Can Be Done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazziq Zufar, Khairul; Jazlan, Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, the media have reported an increasing number of cases where children are accidentally being trapped in vehicles while they parents and guardians are away attending to other matters. In this paper we discuss the feasibility of applying Mechatronics to improve the safety of children in vehicles with the ultimate goal of developing a means for parents,guardians and authorities to be informed if ever there is a child trapped in a vehicle and in need of urgent assistance. We have also presented some preliminary experiments we have carried out for a safety alert system which is currently being developed in our lab.

  10. ACCIDENT WITH NEEDLESTICK: KNOWLEDGE AND USE OF SAFETY DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Souza da Silva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Health workers engaged in labour activities in environments surrounded the occupational hazards. Identify knowledge and use of safety devide for preventing accidents with sharp objects between nurses and nurse technicians, workers of the Intensive Care Unit, Emergency and Surgical Block, during the month of may 2015. Exploratory study, quantitative, developed in a teaching hospital in in Recife-PE. The data collection was conducted using a questionnaire prepared by the research authors. The results were submitted to descriptive statistical analysis, being evidenced that, although data indicate high rate of respondents know and use products with referencing safety devices to prevent accidents, cite gloves and masks as representatives of those materials, which requires clarification in discussion of the study. It is necessary to guide and clarify as to such mechanisms, through the permanent education, and training among workers.

  11. National connected vehicle field infrastructure footprint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The fundamental premise of the connected vehicle initiative is that enabling wireless connectivity among vehicles, the infrastructure, and mobile devices will bring about transformative changes in safety, mobility, and the environmental impacts in th...

  12. User choices regarding vehicle-driving automation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchau, V.A.W.J.; Molin, E.J.E.; Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der; Breddia, C.A.; Wadhwa, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) in motor vehicles is expected to improve traffic efficiency and safety significantly. These systems support the driver in controlling his vehicle applying advanced sensing, computing and controlling devices. Successful implementation of

  13. Advanced laser-based tracking device for motor vehicle lane position monitoring and steering assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachalo, William D.; Inenaga, Andrew; Schuler, Carlos A.

    1995-12-01

    Aerometrics is developing an innovative laser-diode based device that provides a warning signal when a motor-vehicle deviates from the center of the lane. The device is based on a sensor that scans the roadway on either side of the vehicle and determines the lateral position relative to the existing painted lines marking the lane. No additional markings are required. A warning is used to alert the driver of excessive weaving or unanticipated departure from the center of the lane. The laser beams are at invisible wavelengths to that operation of the device does not pose a distraction to the driver or other motorists: When appropriate markers are not present on the road, the device is capable of detecting this condition and warn the driver. The sensor system is expected to work well irrespective of ambient light levels, fog and rain. This sensor has enormous commercial potential. It could be marketed as an instrument to warn drivers that they are weaving, used as a research tool to monitor driving patterns, be required equipment for those previously convicted of driving under the influence, or used as a backup sensor for vehicle lateral position control. It can also be used in storage plants to guide robotic delivery vehicles. In this paper, the principles of operation of the sensor, and the results of Aerometrics ongoing testing will be presented.

  14. 78 FR 55137 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Ejection Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... in the fourth year; 75 percent in the fifth year; all vehicles (without use of credits) manufactured... restraint countermeasure would have to extend from the roof to the beltline (a vertical dimension of...

  15. 32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a muffler in good working order and in constant operation. (10) Mirror—every vehicle, from which the... obstructed by any sign, poster, or other nontransparent material. Windshields and rear windows will not have...

  16. 75 FR 67233 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Head Restraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... passenger vehicles, and vans). Of these whiplash injuries, 272,464 occurred as a result of rear impacts. For... approximately 18.5 inches with respect to the seat pan * * *. It appeared that an occupant whose sitting...

  17. A Review of Vehicles Speed on School Safety Zone Areas in Pekanbaru City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwi Putri, Lusi; Soehardi, Fitridawati; Saleh, Alfian

    2017-12-01

    School Safety Zone is a location or region on particular roads that are time-based speed zone to set the speed of the vehicle in the school environment. The maximum speed limit permits entering a School Safety Zone, especially in Pekanbaru City is 25 km / h and an outline of the speed limit permit vehicles that pass through the School Safety Zone in Indonesia is generally 20-30 km / h. However, the vehicles speeds that pass School Safety Zone are higher than permit speeds.To ensure the level of vehicle offense across the territory of the School Safety Zone so it is necessary a primary data which is taken randomly based on field survey for 3 days at schools that has that facility ie SDN 3 Jalan Kesehatan Pekanbaru City, SDN 68 Jalan Balam Ujung Kota Pekanbaru and SDN 143 Jalan Taskurun Kota Pekanbaru. Furthermore, the data were taken in good condition that is at 6:30 to 7:30 am and at 12:00 to 13:00 pm. In addition, the data obtained is mileage and travel time of the vehicle. Both of these data can generate good speed value that passes through the area of School Safety Zone. Based on the research findings, the vehicle speed passing through the area of School Safety Zone is incompatible with speed permit at 35 km / h with a maximum average percentage of the rate of offense in the area of the school zone is 91.7%. This indicates that the vehicle passes School Safety Zone not following the rules of the maximum limit area and can be potentially harmful to elementary school students.

  18. Depiction of priority light-vehicle pre-crash scenarios for safety applications based on vehicle-to-vehicle communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    A template of pre-crash scenarios is presented to depict national crash statistics and kinematic information of time-to-collision for the design of appropriate crash countermeasures based on vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications. This template serv...

  19. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...... be evaluated. Service composition mechanisms for pervasive computing are categorized and we discuss how the characteristics of pervasive computing can be supported by service composition mechanisms. Finally, we investigate how to make pervasive computing systems capable of being noticed and understood...

  20. Schoolbus driver performance can be improved with driver training, safety incentivisation, and vehicle roadworthy modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A van Niekerk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa (SA, the school transport industry provides millions of children with a means of travelling to and from school. The industry has, however, been reported to be plagued by widespread safety concerns. The consequent road traffic incidents have often been attributed to driver factors, including driving in excess of legal speeds or at inappropriate speeds; driving while under the influence of alcohol, while sleepy or fatigued; or driving without using protective equipment for vehicle occupants. There are currently very few SA interventions that specifically target this important industry role-player. The Safe Travel to School Programme was recently implemented by a national child safety agency, with a focus on driver road safety awareness, defensive driver training, eye- testing, vehicle roadworthy inspections with selected upgrades, incentives for safe performance, and implementation of a vehicle telematics tracking system with regular, individual driving behaviour information updates. This quasi-experimental study offers an evaluation of the initial impact on safety performance of this telematics-based driver and vehicle safety intervention in terms of speeding, acceleration, braking, cornering, and time-of-day driving, and compares the school transport driver performance with that of general motorists. Despite concerns that some school transport vehicles are used for multiple purposes outside of school transport duties, at night, and for longer distances, overall these vehicles recorded lower percentages of speeding, lower harsh braking, and lower average harsh cornering and acceleration than general drivers.

  1. Ares-I-X Vehicle Preliminary Range Safety Malfunction Turn Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, James R.; Starr, Brett R.; Gowan, John W., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Ares-I-X is the designation given to the flight test version of the Ares-I rocket (also known as the Crew Launch Vehicle - CLV) being developed by NASA. As part of the preliminary flight plan approval process for the test vehicle, a range safety malfunction turn analysis was performed to support the launch area risk assessment and vehicle destruct criteria development processes. Several vehicle failure scenarios were identified which could cause the vehicle trajectory to deviate from its normal flight path, and the effects of these failures were evaluated with an Ares-I-X 6 degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) digital simulation, using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories Version 2 (POST2) simulation framework. The Ares-I-X simulation analysis provides output files containing vehicle state information, which are used by other risk assessment and vehicle debris trajectory simulation tools to determine the risk to personnel and facilities in the vicinity of the launch area at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to develop the vehicle destruct criteria used by the flight test range safety officer. The simulation analysis approach used for this study is described, including descriptions of the failure modes which were considered and the underlying assumptions and ground rules of the study, and preliminary results are presented, determined by analysis of the trajectory deviation of the failure cases, compared with the expected vehicle trajectory.

  2. Mathematical modelling of active safety system functions as tools for development of driverless vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryazantsev, V.; Mezentsev, N.; Zakharov, A.

    2018-02-01

    This paper is dedicated to a solution of the issue of synthesis of the vehicle longitudinal dynamics control functions (acceleration and deceleration control) based on the element base of the vehicle active safety system (ESP) - driverless vehicle development tool. This strategy helps to reduce time and complexity of integration of autonomous motion control systems (AMCS) into the vehicle architecture and allows direct control of actuators ensuring the longitudinal dynamics control, as well as reduction of time for calibration works. The “vehicle+wheel+road” longitudinal dynamics control is complicated due to the absence of the required prior information about the control object. Therefore, the control loop becomes an adaptive system, i.e. a self-adjusting monitoring system. Another difficulty is the driver’s perception of the longitudinal dynamics control process in terms of comfort. Traditionally, one doesn’t pay a lot of attention to this issue within active safety systems, and retention of vehicle steerability, controllability and stability in emergency situations are considered to be the quality criteria. This is mainly connected to its operational limits, since it is activated only in critical situations. However, implementation of the longitudinal dynamics control in the AMCS poses another challenge for the developers - providing the driver with comfortable vehicle movement during acceleration and deceleration - while the possible highest safety level in terms of the road grip is provided by the active safety system (ESP). The results of this research are: universal active safety system - AMCS interaction interface; block diagram for the vehicle longitudinal acceleration and deceleration control as one of the active safety system’s integrated functions; ideology of adaptive longitudinal dynamics control, which enables to realize the deceleration and acceleration requested by the AMCS; algorithms synthesised; analytical experiments proving the

  3. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 4, In-vehicle safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark, J.

    1992-11-01

    This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD&D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers the in-vehicle safety issues of electric vehicles powered by Na/S batteries. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, and private industry. It has three major goals: (1) to identify the unique hazards associated with electric vehicle (EV) use; (2) to describe the existing standards, regulations, and guidelines that are or could be applicable to these hazards; and (3) to discuss the adequacy of the existing requirements in addressing the safety concerns of EVs.

  4. 76 FR 11418 - Rear Visibility; Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Rearview Mirrors; Federal Motor Vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) to expand the required field of view for all passenger cars, trucks, multipurpose passenger... rear-mounted video camera and an in- vehicle visual display. Adoption of this proposal would...

  5. Improving work zone safety for freight vehicles : effective design patterns for vehicle mounted attenuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report presents a study of driver perceptions using a driving simulator carried out on the effectiveness of : four markings which vary in striping patterns and color combinations used at the rear of vehicle mounted : attenuators (VMAs) in work z...

  6. 75 FR 71648 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems; Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... No. NHTSA-2010-0158 Regulation Identifier No. (RIN) 2127-AJ44 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems; Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child Test Dummy AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... (SNPRM). SUMMARY: This document proposes to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 213...

  7. Prediction equation for vehicle-pedestrian crash and safety analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrences of vehicle-pedestrian crashes at signalized intersections were investigated using a 3 year (2004-2006) crash records of 82 signalized intersections in Accra, Kumasi, Tema, Sekondi-Takoradi and Tamale. The data were analyzed using Micro-computer Accident Analysis Package. Traffic flow characteristics ...

  8. Motor Vehicle Safety (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-16

    Motor vehicle crashes are among the leading causes of injury in the U.S. This podcast discusses the importance of being sober and buckled up during ever automobile trip.  Created: 10/16/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/16/2014.

  9. Functionality of road safety devices – identification and analysis of factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeliński Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Road safety devices are designed to protect road users from the risk of injury or death. The principal type of restraint is the safety barrier. Deployed on sites with the highest risk of run-off-road accidents, safety barriers are mostly found on bridges, flyovers, central reservations, and on road edges which have fixed obstacles next to them. If properly designed and installed, safety barriers just as other road safety devices, should meet a number of functional features. This report analyses factors which may deteriorate functionality, ways to prevent this from happening and the thresholds for loss of road safety device functionality.

  10. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated With the Technical Challenges of the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    This analysis was conducted to support the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology (VSST) Project of the Aviation Safety Program (AVsP) milestone VSST4.2.1.01, "Identification of VSST-Related Trends." In particular, this is a review of incident data from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The following three VSST-related technical challenges (TCs) were the focus of the incidents searched in the ASRS database: (1) Vechicle health assurance, (2) Effective crew-system interactions and decisions in all conditions; and (3) Aircraft loss of control prevention, mitigation, and recovery.

  11. The useful field of view assessment predicts simulated commercial motor vehicle driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Benjamin; Heaton, Karen; Vance, David E; Stavrinos, Despina

    2016-10-02

    The Useful Field of View (UFOV) assessment, a measure of visual speed of processing, has been shown to be a predictive measure of motor vehicle collision (MVC) involvement in an older adult population, but it remains unknown whether UFOV predicts commercial motor vehicle (CMV) driving safety during secondary task engagement. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the UFOV assessment predicts simulated MVCs in long-haul CMV drivers. Fifty licensed CMV drivers (Mage = 39.80, SD = 8.38, 98% male, 56% Caucasian) were administered the 3-subtest version of the UFOV assessment, where lower scores measured in milliseconds indicated better performance. CMV drivers completed 4 simulated drives, each spanning approximately a 22.50-mile distance. Four secondary tasks were presented to participants in a counterbalanced order during the drives: (a) no secondary task, (b) cell phone conversation, (c) text messaging interaction, and (d) e-mailing interaction with an on-board dispatch device. The selective attention subtest significantly predicted simulated MVCs regardless of secondary task. Each 20 ms slower on subtest 3 was associated with a 25% increase in the risk of an MVC in the simulated drive. The e-mail interaction secondary task significantly predicted simulated MVCs with a 4.14 times greater risk of an MVC compared to the no secondary task condition. Subtest 3, a measure of visual speed of processing, significantly predicted MVCs in the email interaction task. Each 20 ms slower on subtest 3 was associated with a 25% increase in the risk of an MVC during the email interaction task. The UFOV subtest 3 may be a promising measure to identify CMV drivers who may be at risk for MVCs or in need of cognitive training aimed at improving speed of processing. Subtest 3 may also identify CMV drivers who are particularly at risk when engaged in secondary tasks while driving.

  12. Design for Safety - The Ares Launch Vehicles Paradigm Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safie, Fayssal M.; Maggio, Gaspare

    2010-01-01

    The lessons learned from the S&MA early involvement in the Ares I launch vehicle design phases proved that performing an in-line function jointly with engineering is critical for S&MA to have an effective role in supporting the system, element, and component design. These lessons learned were used to effectively support the Ares V conceptual design phase and planning for post conceptual design phases. The Top level Conceptual LOM assessment for Ares V performed by the S&MA community jointly with the engineering Advanced Concept Office (ACO) was influential in the final selection of the Ares V system configuration. Post conceptual phase, extensive reliability effort should be planned to support future Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV) design. In-depth reliability analysis involving the design, manufacturing, and system engineering communities is critical to understand design and process uncertainties and system integrated failures.

  13. Sharing Data between Mobile Devices, Connected Vehicles and Infrastructure Task 12 : D2X Hub Prototype Field Test, Evaluation Plan and Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-25

    Sharing Data between Mobile Devices, Connected Vehicles and Infrastructure was a U.S. DOT-sponsored research project to study the integration of mobile devices (such as smartphones) into the Connected Vehicle (CV) environment. Objectives includ...

  14. The Integration of GPS Navigator Device with Vehicles Tracking System for Rental Cars Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Omarah O. Alharaki; Fahad S. Alaieri; Akram M. Zeki

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to integrate the GPS tracking system (tracking device and web-based application) with GPS navigator for rental cars, allowing the company to use various applications to monitor and manage the cars. This is enable the firms and customers to communicate with each other via the GPS navigator. The system should be developed by applying new features in GPS tracking application devices in vehicles. This paper also proposes new features that can be applied to the GPS Navi...

  15. 78 FR 29392 - Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems Important to Safety, and Items Relied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0098] Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems Important to Safety, and Items Relied on for Safety AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... (NRC) is issuing for public comment Draft Regulatory Issue Summary (RIS) 2013-XX, ``Embedded Digital...

  16. Natural Gas Driven Vehicles Safety and Regulatory Regime - Challenges in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robiul Islam Rubel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas driven vehicles (NGV is common in Bangladesh first introduced around 1995. Be that as it may, situation has changed because of minimal effort of CNG as fuel. The legislature additionally empowered the change of private vehicles by making a few strategy activities as Bangladesh has natural gas reserve, cost economy, low emission. Now passenger automobile like car, bus, and even agricultural vehicles are utilizing CNG as fuel. Faulty cylinders or other CNG-related kits in NGV not only endanger the lives of the passengers of the vehicles, but also of others somehow remaining close to the accident spots. The safety aspect of CNG runs vehicles are beyond regular and strict monitoring, even out of consideration. The objective of this paper is to find out the present scenario of the NGV of Bangladesh and safety perspective in compare to the CNG safety act of Bangladesh. For this purpose, other CNG safety standard of first world country along with exporter country is under consideration. This paper reviews the options available to policy makers in their efforts to reduce the causalities associated with NGV transport. It provides a summary of the categories of negative impacts targeted together with the specific policy initiatives available. The actions for regulation taken by policy makers and foregoing challenges are underlined. To fight against the challenges a framework has proposed.

  17. Estimation of left-turning vehicle maneuvers for the assessment of pedestrian safety at intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael K.M. Alhajyaseen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Improving pedestrian safety at intersections remains a critical issue. Although several types of safety countermeasures, such as reforming intersection layouts, have been implemented, methods have not yet been established to quantitatively evaluate the effects of these countermeasures before installation. One of the main issues in pedestrian safety is conflicts with turning vehicles. This study aims to develop an integrated model to represent the variations in the maneuvers of left-turners (left-hand traffic at signalized intersections that dynamically considers the vehicle reaction to intersection geometry and crossing pedestrians. The proposed method consists of four empirically developed stochastic sub-models, including a path model, free-flow speed profile model, lag/gap acceptance model, and stopping/clearing speed profile model. Since safety assessment is the main objective driving the development of the proposed model, this study uses post-encroachment time (PET and vehicle speed at the crosswalk as validation parameters. Preliminary validation results obtained by Monte Carlo simulation show that the proposed integrated model can realistically represent the variations in vehicle maneuvers as well as the distribution of PET and vehicle speeds at the crosswalk.

  18. Impact of aftertreatment devices and driving conditions on unregulated emissions for Euro 5 vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, Yao; LOUIS, Cédric; GORIAUX, Mathieu; CHAUMOND, Agnès; TASSEL, Patrick; PERRET, Pascal; ANDRE, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic is a major contributor of air pollution in urban areas and particularly passenger cars. To reduce regulated emissions, new aftertreatment devices and new technologies were developed (catalysed or additived Diesel particle filter, direct injected gasoline vehicle...). These new technologies induce modifications of unregulated emissions (VOC, BTEX, PAH, NO2, black carbon, metals, ultrafine particles). Unregulated pollutants might induce many health effects regarding their toxicity ...

  19. Intelligent behaviors through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Richard D.; Sturgeon, Purser; Brown, Mike

    2012-06-01

    The last decade has seen a significant increase in intelligent safety devices on private automobiles. These devices have both increased and augmented the situational awareness of the driver and in some cases provided automated vehicle responses. To date almost all intelligent safety devices have relied on data directly perceived by the vehicle. This constraint has a direct impact on the types of solutions available to the vehicle. In an effort to improve the safety options available to a vehicle, numerous research laboratories and government agencies are investing time and resources into connecting vehicles to each other and to infrastructure-based devices. This work details several efforts in both the commercial vehicle and the private auto industries to increase vehicle safety and driver situational awareness through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. It will specifically discuss intelligent behaviors being designed to automatically disable non-compliant vehicles, warn tractor trailer vehicles of unsafe lane maneuvers such as lane changes, passing, and merging, and alert drivers to non-line-of-sight emergencies.

  20. All-terrain vehicle dealership point-of-sale child safety compliance in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, John W; Getz, Marjorie A; Begley, Brandon

    2012-08-01

    In 2008, an estimated 37,700 children younger than 16 were treated in US emergency departments for nonfatal all-terrain vehicle (ATV) injuries. This study identifies safety guidelines and recommendations dealers convey to consumers at the point of sale. A telephone survey of all 2004 licensed motorcycle dealers in Illinois was conducted. Trained investigators, using aliases and posing as a parent of a 13-year-old teenager, spoke with dealership personnel. Investigators indicated they wished to purchase an ATV with the dealership, but had no knowledge of ATV use or safety issues. The telephone call's true purpose was concealed during the survey. Specific responses from the salesperson, models and brands of ATVs, price quotes, engine sizes, and safety information/recommendations were recorded in a written survey instrument. One hundred twenty-seven ATV dealers completed the survey. A salesperson most often fielded the telephone interview (124/127). Telephone interviews by male investigators were longer than those by female interviewers (5 minutes 37 seconds vs 3 minutes 51 seconds; P = 0.001). Dealers recommended Consumer Product Safety Commission-based child-size ATVs (vehicles as "safe." Most dealers (83.5%) recommended some form of rider training, with half (49.6%) offered point-of-purchase training. All-terrain vehicle dealers in Illinois recommend child-size vehicles, safety training, and helmet use for the majority of telephone inquiries. Injury prevention efforts targeting ATV dealers may be less needed than those using other populations.

  1. Context-aware system for pre-triggering irreversible vehicle safety actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhmländer, Dennis; Dirndorfer, Tobias; Al-Bayatti, Ali H; Brandmeier, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    New vehicle safety systems have led to a steady improvement of road safety and a reduction in the risk of suffering a major injury in vehicle accidents. A huge leap forward in the development of new vehicle safety systems are actuators that have to be activated irreversibly shortly before a collision in order to mitigate accident consequences. The triggering decision has to be based on measurements of exteroceptive sensors currently used in driver assistance systems. This paper focuses on developing a novel context-aware system designed to detect potential collisions and to trigger safety actuators even before an accident occurs. In this context, the analysis examines the information that can be collected from exteroceptive sensors (pre-crash data) to predict a certain collision and its severity to decide whether a triggering is entitled or not. A five-layer context-aware architecture is presented, that is able to collect contextual information about the vehicle environment and the actual driving state using different sensors, to perform reasoning about potential collisions, and to trigger safety functions upon that information. Accident analysis is used in a data model to represent uncertain knowledge and to perform reasoning. A simulation concept based on real accident data is introduced to evaluate the presented system concept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 77 FR 51731 - All-Terrain Vehicle Safety Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ...; Physical sizing of ATVs 2. Consumer Awareness Suggested topics: Point-of-purchase information; on-product... safety require additional research that is beyond the Commission's current budget and resources. CPSC.... The Summit will take place over 2 days and will feature a mix of rulemaking and nonrulemaking topic...

  3. 77 FR 37477 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Glazing Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... items of glazing are also defined according to their construction characteristics. For example, item 1... a boil and a bake test to determine whether safety glazing can withstand exposure to high... (150[emsp14][deg]F) water for three minutes and then placed in boiling water for three hours. The bake...

  4. Integrated vehicle's lateral safety: the LATERAL SAFE experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amditis, A.; Floudas, N.; Kaiser-Dieckhoff, U.; Hackbarth, T.; Broek, S.P. van den; Miglietta, M.; Danielson, L.; Gemou, M.; Bekiaris, E.

    2008-01-01

    The applications developed and the evaluation results of the EU funded automotive safety PReVENT IP subproject LATERAL SAFE are described. The data synthesis algorithms that aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, in the lateral and rear fields of the host

  5. Evidence report : psychiatric disorders and commercial motor vehicle driver safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-29

    This report was prepared by ECRI Institute under subcontract to MANILA Consulting Group, Inc., which holds prime GS-10F-0177N/DTMC75-06-F-00039 with the Department of Transportations Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. ECRI Institute is a...

  6. Making the message meaningful: a qualitative assessment of media promoting all-terrain vehicle safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brann, Maria; Mullins, Samantha Hope; Miller, Beverly K; Eoff, Shane; Graham, James; Aitken, Mary E

    2012-08-01

    Millions of all-terrain vehicles (ATV) are used around the world for recreation by both adults and youth. This increase in use has led to a substantial increase in the number of injuries and fatalities each year. Effective strategies for reducing this incidence are clearly needed; however, minimal research exists regarding effective educational interventions. This study was designed to assess rural ATV riders' preferences for and assessment of safety messages. 13 focus group discussions with youth and adult ATV riders were conducted. 88 formative research participants provided feedback on existing ATV safety materials, which was used to develop more useful ATV safety messages. 60 evaluative focus group participants critiqued the materials developed for this project. Existing ATV safety materials have limited effectiveness, in part because they may not address the content or design needs of the target population. ATV riders want educational and action-oriented safety messages that inform youth and adult riders about their responsibilities to learn, educate and implement safety behaviours (eg, appropriate-sized ATV, safety gear, solo riding, speed limits, riding locations). In addition, messages should be clear, realistic, visually appealing and easily accessible. Newly designed ATV safety materials using the acronym TRIPSS (training, ride off-road, impairment, plan ahead, safety gear, single rider) meet ATV riders' safety messaging needs. To reach a target population, it is crucial to include them in the development and assessment of safety messages. Germane to this particular study, ATV riders provided essential information for creating useful ATV safety materials.

  7. Sending Safety Video over WiMAX in Vehicle Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Steed Huang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the design of an OPNET simulation platform to test the performance of sending real-time safety video over VANET (Vehicular Adhoc NETwork using the WiMAX technology. To provide a more realistic environment for streaming real-time video, a video model was created based on the study of video traffic traces captured from a realistic vehicular camera, and different design considerations were taken into account. A practical controller over real-time streaming protocol is implemented to control data traffic congestion for future road safety development. Our driving video model was then integrated with the WiMAX OPNET model along with a mobility model based on real road maps. Using this simulation platform, different mobility cases have been studied and the performance evaluated in terms of end-to-end delay, jitter and visual experience.

  8. Assessment of the safety benefits of vehicles' advanced driver assistance, connectivity and low level automation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Lishengsa; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Wu, Yina; Wang, Ling

    2018-04-11

    The Connected Vehicle (CV) technologies together with other Driving Assistance (DA) technologies are believed to have great effects on traffic operation and safety, and they are expected to impact the future of our cities. However, few research has estimated the exact safety benefits when all vehicles are equipped with these technologies. This paper seeks to fill the gap by using a general crash avoidance effectiveness framework for major CV&DA technologies to make a comprehensive crash reduction estimation. Twenty technologies that were tested in recent studies are summarized and sensitivity analysis is used for estimating their total crash avoidance effectiveness. The results show that crash avoidance effectiveness of CV&DA technology is significantly affected by the vehicle type and the safety estimation methodology. A 70% crash avoidance rate seems to be the highest effectiveness for the CV&DA technologies operating in the real-world environment. Based on the 2005-2008 U.S. GES Crash Records, this research found that the CV&DA technologies could lead to the reduction of light vehicles' crashes and heavy trucks' crashes by at least 32.99% and 40.88%, respectively. The rear-end crashes for both light vehicles and heavy trucks have the most expected crash benefits from the technologies. The paper also studies the effectiveness of Forward Collision Warning technology (FCW) under fog conditions, and the results show that FCW could reduce 35% of the near-crash events under fog conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of joint mechanism on vehicle redirectional capability of water-filled road safety barrier systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyahuddin, M I; Thambiratnam, D P; Gu, Y T

    2014-10-01

    Portable water-filled barriers (PWFBs) are roadside appurtenances that prevent vehicles from penetrating into temporary construction zones on roadways. PWFBs are required to satisfy the strict regulations for vehicle re-direction in tests. However, many of the current PWFBs fail to re-direct the vehicle at high speeds due to the inability of the joints to provide appropriate stiffness. The joint mechanism hence plays a crucial role in the performance of a PWFB system at high speed impacts. This paper investigates the desired features of the joint mechanism in a PWFB system that can re-direct vehicles at high speeds, while limiting the lateral displacement to acceptable limits. A rectangular "wall" representative of a 30m long barrier system was modeled and a novel method of joining adjacent road barriers was introduced through appropriate pin-joint connections. The impact response of the barrier "wall" and the vehicle was obtained and the results show that a rotational stiffness of 3000kNm/rad at the joints seems to provide the desired features of the PWFB system to re-direct impacting vehicles and restrict the lateral deflection. These research findings will be useful to safety engineers and road barrier designers in developing a new generation of PWFBs for increased road safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Safety analysis and evaluation of the next fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shigetada; Honda, Tsutomu; Ohmura, Hiroshi; Kawai, Masayoshi; Shimizu, Takeshi; Yamaoka, Mitsuaki; Nakahara, Katsuhiko; Seki, Yasushi.

    1988-12-01

    As a part of safety evaluation, a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been attempted for the Next Fusion Device system. Among the various events related to safety, a number of representative events have been selected for assessment, from the events in normal operation state, repair and maintenance state and accidental state. In the first chapter, in order to conduct the probabilistic risk assessment of the whole Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER), the data base required for the analysis was investigated in 1.1, the results on the failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), accident sequence, radioactive inventory leakage flow path, event tree analysis (ETA) and fault tree analysis (FTA) were summarized in 1.2 to 1.5, respectively. Based on these results, accident initiating events were evaluated in 1.6, and overall risk was assessed in 1.7 and the tasks for the future were summarized in 1.8. It is important to analyze and evaluate various events during normal operations, repair and maintenance and accidents. However, due to the large uncertainties in the modeling of phenomena or the data base, there are many events for which realistic analyses are difficult. Three such events were selected and studied in chapter two. In 2.1, the temperature rise in the reactor structure after the Loss-of-Coolant-Accident caused by the decay heat under various heat removal conditions were investigated. In 2.2, the radiation dose of personnel during repair and maintenance period caused by the release of activated dust were estimated. Lastly, in 2.3 tritium behavior in the stainless steel first wall and graphite armour were studied. (author)

  11. Sharing data between mobile devices, connected vehicles, and infrastructure task 3: system requirements specifications (SyRS) final.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-14

    This report describes the system requirements specifications (SyRS) for the use of mobile devices in a connected vehicle environment. Specifically, it defines the different types of requirements (functional, interface, performance, security, data, an...

  12. A hybrid multi-objective imperialist competitive algorithm and Monte Carlo method for robust safety design of a rail vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejlaoui, Mohamed; Houidi, Ajmi; Affi, Zouhaier; Romdhane, Lotfi

    2017-10-01

    This paper deals with the robust safety design optimization of a rail vehicle system moving in short radius curved tracks. A combined multi-objective imperialist competitive algorithm and Monte Carlo method is developed and used for the robust multi-objective optimization of the rail vehicle system. This robust optimization of rail vehicle safety considers simultaneously the derailment angle and its standard deviation where the design parameters uncertainties are considered. The obtained results showed that the robust design reduces significantly the sensitivity of the rail vehicle safety to the design parameters uncertainties compared to the determinist one and to the literature results.

  13. 78 FR 70415 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... single event, due in part to the high occupancy rate of the vehicles, the speed at which they travel, and..., ``NHTSA's Approach to Motorcoach Safety.'' \\2\\ In the plan, the term ``motorcoach'' referred to intercity... the first priority area of the NHTSA plan, to minimize intercity bus passenger and driver ejection by...

  14. 78 FR 21850 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Matters Incorporated by Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... to the 1985 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 05.04, ``Test Methods for Rating Motor, Diesel... for Rating Motor, Diesel, Aviation Fuels, A2. Reference Materials and Blending Accessories, (``ASTM... [Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0185] RIN 2127-AL25 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Matters Incorporated by...

  15. 77 FR 22637 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Accelerator Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... revise the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard for accelerator control systems (ACS) in two ways. First... Standard (FMVSS) No. 124, Accelerator Control Systems,\\2\\ in two ways. First, we are proposing to update... February 2011 final report ``Technical Assessment of Toyota Electronic Throttle Control Systems,'' the...

  16. Benchmarking promotion and deployment activities regarding intelligent vehicle safety systems in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kievit, M. de; Malone, K.M.; Zwijnenberg, H.; Arem, B. van

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a Benchmarking study performed in the European Union on Awareness and Promotion & Deployment activities related to Intelligent Vehicle Safety (IVS) systems (1). The study, commissioned by the European Commission under the Intelligent Car Initiative (a i2010

  17. Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA)/Department of Energy (DOE) cooperative agreement final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavich, Antoinette; Daust, James E.

    1999-01-01

    This S and T product is a culmination of the activities, including research of the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA) in developing and implementing inspection procedures and the out-of-service criteria for states and tribes to use when inspecting HRCQ and Transuranic shipments of radioactive materials. The report also contains the results of a pilot study to test the procedures

  18. 76 FR 55829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... April 2007 final rule described NHTSA's intent to begin formal work to develop a global technical... specifies two sizes of outriggers. The Alliance noted that European and Asian markets have a larger... requirements of the Vehicle Safety Act, the Regulatory Flexibility Act, Executive Order 13132 (Federalism...

  19. Benchmarking Promotion and Deployment Activities Regarding Intelligent Vehicle Safety Systems in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kievit, M.; Malone, K.M.; Zwijnenberg, H.; van Arem, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a Benchmarking study performed in the European Union on Awareness and Promotion & Deployment activities related to Intelligent Vehicle Safety (IVS) systems (1). The study, commissioned by the European Commission under the Intelligent Car Initiative (a i2010

  20. Research on the Effects of Hydropneumatic Parameters on Tracked Vehicle Ride Safety Based on Cosimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shousong Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ride safety of a tracked vehicle is the key focus of this research. The factors that affect the ride safety of a vehicle are analyzed and evaluation parameters with their criteria are proposed. A multibody cosimulation approach is used to investigate the effects of hydropneumatic parameters on the ride safety and aid with design optimization and tuning of the suspension system. Based on the cosimulation environment, the vehicle multibody dynamics (MBD model and the road model are developed using RecurDyn, which is linked to the hydropneumatic suspension model developed in Lab AMESim. Test verification of a single suspension unit is accomplished and the suspension parameters are implemented within the hydropneumatic model. Virtual tests on a G class road at different speeds are conducted. Effects of the accumulator charge pressure, damping diameter, and the track tensioning pressure on the ride safety are analyzed and quantified. This research shows that low accumulator charge pressure, improper damping diameter, and insufficient track tensioning pressure will deteriorate the ride safety. The results provide useful references for the optimal design and control of the parameters of a hydropneumatic suspension.

  1. System Interface for an Integrated Intelligent Safety System (ISS for Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahammad A. Hannan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the interface-relevant activity of a vehicle integrated intelligent safety system (ISS that includes an airbag deployment decision system (ADDS and a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS. A program is developed in LabWindows/CVI, using C for prototype implementation. The prototype is primarily concerned with the interconnection between hardware objects such as a load cell, web camera, accelerometer, TPM tire module and receiver module, DAQ card, CPU card and a touch screen. Several safety subsystems, including image processing, weight sensing and crash detection systems, are integrated, and their outputs are combined to yield intelligent decisions regarding airbag deployment. The integrated safety system also monitors tire pressure and temperature. Testing and experimentation with this ISS suggests that the system is unique, robust, intelligent, and appropriate for in-vehicle applications.

  2. Safety evaluation in the development of medical devices and combination products

    CERN Document Server

    Gad, Shayne C

    2008-01-01

    Capturing the growth of the global medical device market in recent years, this practical new guide is essential for all who are responsible for ensuring safety in the use and manufacture of medical devices. It has been extensively updated to reflect significant advances, incorporating combination products and helpful case examples of current real-life problems in the field.The Third Edition explores these key current trends:global device marketscontinually advancing technologythe increasing harmonization of device safety regulation worldwideEach aspect of safety evaluation is considered in ter

  3. Longitudinal safety evaluation of electric vehicles with the partial wireless charging lane on freeways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Wang, Wei; Xing, Lu; Fan, Qi; Wang, Hao

    2018-02-01

    As an environment friendly transportation mode, the electric vehicle (EV) has drawn an increasing amount of attention from governments, vehicle manufactories and researchers recently. One of the biggest issue impeding EV's popularization associates with the charging process. The wireless charging lane (WCL) has been proposed as a convenient charging facility for EVs. Due to the high costs, the application of WCL on the entire freeways is impractical in the near future, while the partial WCL (PWCL) may be a feasible solution. This study aims to evaluate longitudinal safety of EVs with PWCL on freeways based on simulations. The simulation experiments are firstly designed, including deployment of PWCL on freeways and distribution of state of charge (SOC) of EVs. Then, a vehicle behavior model for EVs is proposed based on the intelligent driver model (IDM). Two surrogate safety measures, derived from time-to-collision (TTC), are utilized as indicators for safety evaluations. Sensitivity analysis is also conducted for related factors. Results show that the distribution of EVs' SOC significantly affect longitudinal safety when the PWCL is utilized. The low SOC in traffic consisting of EVs has the negative effect on longitudinal safety. The randomness and incompliance of EV drivers worsens the safety performance. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the larger maximum deceleration rate results in the higher longitudinal crash risks of EVs, while the length of PWCL has no monotonous effect. Different TTC thresholds also show no impact on results. A case study shows the consistent results. Based on the findings, several suggestions are discussed for EVs' safety improvement. Results of this study provide useful information for freeway safety when EVs are applied in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Classification Of Road Accidents From The Perspective Of Vehicle Safety Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirovský Václav

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern road accident investigation and database structures are focused on accident analysis and classification from the point of view of the accident itself. The presented article offers a new approach, which will describe the accident from the point of view of integrated safety vehicle systems. Seven main categories have been defined to specify the level of importance of automated system intervention. One of the proposed categories is a new approach to defining the collision probability of an ego-vehicle with another object. This approach focuses on determining a 2-D reaction space, which describes all possible positions of the vehicle or other moving object in the specified amount of time in the future. This is to be used for defining the probability of the vehicles interacting - when the intersection of two reaction spaces exists, an action has to be taken on the side of ego-vehicle. The currently used 1-D quantity of TTC (time-to-collision can be superseded by the new reaction space variable. Such new quantity, whose basic idea is described in the article, enables the option of counting not only with necessary braking time, but mitigation by changing direction is then easily feasible. Finally, transparent classification measures of a probable accident are proposed. Their application is highly effective not only during basic accident comparison, but also for an on-board safety system.

  5. 77 FR 35745 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Screening Devices To Measure Alcohol in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ..., battery powered device with a semiconductor sensor. (2) Alcohol Countermeasure Systems Corp., submitted...-0062] Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Screening Devices To Measure Alcohol in... Screening Devices to Measure Alcohol in Bodily Fluids dated, March 31, 2008 (73 FR 16956). DATES: Effective...

  6. Does assisted driving behavior lead to safety-critical encounters with unequipped vehicles' drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuk, Katharina; Stemmler, Eric; Schießl, Caroline; Jipp, Meike

    2016-10-01

    With Intelligent Transport Systems (e.g., traffic light assistance systems) assisted drivers are able to show driving behavior in anticipation of upcoming traffic situations. In the years to come, the penetration rate of such systems will be low. Therefore, the majority of vehicles will not be equipped with these systems. Unequipped vehicles' drivers may not expect the driving behavior of assisted drivers. However, drivers' predictions and expectations can play a significant role in their reaction times. Thus, safety issues could arise when unequipped vehicles' drivers encounter driving behavior of assisted drivers. This is why we tested how unequipped vehicles' drivers (N=60) interpreted and reacted to the driving behavior of an assisted driver. We used a multi-driver simulator with three drivers. The three drivers were driving in a line. The lead driver in the line was a confederate who was followed by two unequipped vehicles' drivers. We varied the equipment of the confederate with an Intelligent Transport System: The confederate was equipped either with or without a traffic light assistance system. The traffic light assistance system provided a start-up maneuver before a light turned green. Therefore, the assisted confederate seemed to show unusual deceleration behavior by coming to a halt at an unusual distance from the stop line at the red traffic light. The unusual distance was varied as we tested a moderate (4m distance from the stop line) and an extreme (10m distance from the stop line) parameterization of the system. Our results showed that the extreme parametrization resulted in shorter minimal time-to-collision of the unequipped vehicles' drivers. One rear-end crash was observed. These results provided initial evidence that safety issues can arise when unequipped vehicles' drivers encounter assisted driving behavior. We recommend that future research identifies counteractions to prevent these safety issues. Moreover, we recommend that system developers

  7. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohi, J.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers cell design and engineering as the basis of safety for Na/S batteries and describes and assesses the potential chemical, electrical, and thermal hazards and risks of Na/S cells and batteries as well as the RD D performed, under way, or to address these hazards and risks. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, universities, and private industry. Subsequent volumes will address environmental, health, and safety issues involved in shipping cells and batteries, using batteries to propel electric vehicles, and recycling and disposing of spent batteries. The remainder of this volume is divided into two major sections on safety at the cell and battery levels. The section on Na/S cells describes major component and potential failure modes, design, life testing and failure testing, thermal cycling, and the safety status of Na/S cells. The section on batteries describes battery design, testing, and safety status. Additional EH S information on Na/S batteries is provided in the appendices.

  8. Safety effectiveness of pavement design treatment at intersections: Left turning vehicles and pedestrians on crosswalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasina Iasmin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users as they are more exposed than other road users. Pedestrian safety at road intersections still remains the most vital and yet unsolved issue. One of the critical points in pedestrian safety is the occurrence of accidents between left-turning vehicle and pedestrians on crosswalks at signalized intersections. A crosswalk is a place designated for pedestrians and cyclists to cross vehicular roads safely. Drivers are expected to give priority to pedestrians or cyclists during interactions between them on the crosswalk. If a driver exhibits non-yielding behavior, the interaction will turn into a collision. This study examined the safety effect of three crosswalks designed with different materials such as red-colored material or brick pavement based on a safety performance study. The safety performance study considered left-turning driver's gap acceptance behavior and the severity of traffic conflict events between left-turning vehicles and pedestrians. The results of the study indicates that using brick pavement on a crosswalk increases the safety level of the crosswalk. Drivers at such crosswalks are more acquiescent to the priority rule.

  9. Traffic collisions between electric mobility devices (wheelchairs) and motor vehicles: Accidents, hubris, or self-destructive behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBan, Myron M; Nabity, Thomas S

    2010-07-01

    This study had its genesis in a personally observed collision between a motor vehicle and a motorized wheelchair (electric mobility device) on a busy street in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing. To the observer, at the time, this appeared to be a suicidal act. This investigation was initiated to both delineate the number of these crashes nationally and understand this phenomena as a potentially planned act of self-destruction. An initial survey of police reports was immediately frustrated by an inability to separate motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions from the much larger group that involved ambulatory citizens because both types were classified together as "pedestrian" accidents. Instead, the search engine NexisLexis was used to identify 107 newspaper articles each of which described a motor vehicle and electric mobility device accident. In the motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions, men predominated women (3:1 ratio) with an average age of 56 yrs. Sixty of these accidents were fatal. Ninety-four percent involved an electric mobility device and 6% a manual wheelchair. In 50% of the cases, the motor vehicle was a truck, van, or sport utility vehicle. Fifty percent occurred at dusk or dawn or at night. The electric mobility device occupant was cited as the guilty party in 39% of the cases and the driver of the motor vehicle in 27%. Twenty percent were unwitnessed hit-and-run accidents, whereas "no fault" was found in 8% of the cases. Although many accidents do happen by chance, when an electric mobility device operator openly challenges busy traffic by attempting to traverse it in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing, predisposing psychosocial factors must also be considered. Hubris or premeditated self-destructive behavior or both need to be explored as preeminent issues with reference to the prodromal of the "accident process."

  10. The Practical Design of In-vehicle Telematics Device with GPS and MEMS Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Dramićanin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The latest generation of vehicle tracking devices relies not only on Global Positioning System (GPS but also uses low-cost Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS accelerometers. This combination supports new services such as driving style characterization and Automatic Crash Notification (ACN. Our focus will be on practical considerations of such a telematics unit. The paper will consider the boundaries of allowed errors and minimal requirements for sensors and mounting requirements. Sensor range for crash detection and impact angle estimation was tested on field trials with two units containing accelerometers range of 18g and 2g. The kinematic orientation of vehicle is evaluated in a series of field trials with a resulting standard deviation of estimation of 1.67°. The second run of experiments considers the dynamic range and sampling rate of sensors during collision. A sensor range of 8g (typical for present-day telematics devices can be used to detect crash without accurate knowledge of impact angle.

  11. A Witricity-Based High-Power Device for Wireless Charging of Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyu Dai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Witricity-based high-power device is proposed for wireless charging of electric vehicles. According to the specific requirements of three-stage charging for electric vehicles, four compensation modes of the Witricity system are analyzed by the Loosely Coupled Theory among transformer coils and the Substitution Theorem in circuit theory. In addition, when combining voltage withstand levels, the current withstand capability, the switching frequency of electronic switching tubes, and the features of the resonant circuit, the series-parallel (SP compensation mode is selected as the best compensation mode for matching the capacitor of the system. The performances of coils with different ferrite core arrangements are compared by simulations and models. The feasibility of the system is verified theoretically and the system functions are evaluated by the joint simulation of Simplorer and Maxwell. Finally, a Witricity-based high-power device is proposed as designed, and the correctness of theoretical analyses and simulation results are verified.

  12. IMPROVEMENT OF TRAFFIC SAFETY BY ROAD-VEHICLE COOPERATIVE SMART CRUISE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio HOSAKA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Hopes have been pinned on the development of intelligent systems for road traffic as a way of solving road traffic safety and other such issues. To be sure, work is moving ahead with the incorporation of intelligent systems into automobiles but, with automobiles alone, there are limits in areas such as environment recognition. Compensation for the limits imposed by automobiles can be provided by the support given to environment recognition and related areas of road infrastructure. This paper examines the special features of vehicles and road infrastructure, and describes what role is played by roads and what role is played by vehicles. On the basis of the observations made, road-vehicle cooperative support systems called “smart cruise systems”, which are currently being developed, will be introduced and the expected effects of these systems will be outlined.

  13. Evaluation of pedestrian safety at intersections: A theoretical framework based on pedestrian-vehicle interaction patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ying; Wang, Menglong; Sun, Jian; Li, Keping

    2016-11-01

    Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, and pedestrian safety has become a major research focus in recent years. Regarding the quality and quantity issues with collision data, conflict analysis using surrogate safety measures has become a useful method to study pedestrian safety. However, given the inequality between pedestrians and vehicles in encounters and the multiple interactions between pedestrians and vehicles, it is insufficient to simply use the same indicator(s) or the same way to aggregate indicators for all conditions. In addition, behavioral factors cannot be neglected. To better use information extracted from trajectories for safety evaluation and pay more attention on effects of behavioral factors, this paper develops a more sophisticated framework for pedestrian conflict analysis that takes pedestrian-vehicle interactions into consideration. A concept of three interaction patterns has been proposed for the first time, namely "hard interaction," "no interaction," and "soft-interaction." Interactions have been categorized under one of these patterns by analyzing profiles of speed and conflict indicators during the whole interactive processes. In this paper, a support vector machine (SVM) approach has been adopted to classify severity levels for a dataset including 1144 events extracted from three intersections in Shanghai, China, followed by an analysis of variable importance. The results revealed that different conflict indicators have different contributions to indicating the severity level under various interaction patterns. Therefore, it is recommended either to use specific conflict indicators or to use weighted indicator aggregation for each interaction pattern when evaluating pedestrian safety. The implementation has been carried out at the fourth crosswalk, and the results indicate that the proposed method can achieve a higher accuracy and better robustness than conventional methods. Furthermore, the method is helpful for better

  14. Antisideslip and Antirollover Safety Speed Controller Design for Vehicle on Curved Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Lie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When the drivers cannot be aware of the existing of forthcoming curved roads and fail to regulate their safety speeds accordingly, sideslip or rollover may occur with high probability. The antisideslip and antirollover control of vehicle on curved road in automatic highway systems is studied. The safety speed warning system is set before entering the curved road firstly. The speed adhesion control is adopted to shorten the braking distance while decelerating and to guarantee the safety speed. The velocity controller when decelerating on the straight path and the posture controller when driving on curved road are designed, respectively, utilizing integral backstepping technology. Simulation results demonstrate that this control system is characterized by quick and precise tracking and global stability. Consequently, it is able to avoid the dangerous operating conditions, such as sideslip and rollover, and guarantee the safety and directional stability when driving on curved road.

  15. Functional safety for road vehicles new challenges and solutions for e-mobility and automated driving

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Hans-Leo

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights the current challenges for engineers involved in product development and the associated changes in procedure they make necessary. Methods for systematically analyzing the requirements for safety and security mechanisms are described using examples of how they are implemented in software and hardware, and how their effectiveness can be demonstrated in terms of functional and design safety are discussed. Given today’s new E-mobility and automated driving approaches, new challenges are arising and further issues concerning “Road Vehicle Safety” and “Road Traffic Safety” have to be resolved. To address the growing complexity of vehicle functions, as well as the increasing need to accommodate interdisciplinary project teams, previous development approaches now have to be reconsidered, and system engineering approaches and proven management systems need to be supplemented or wholly redefined. The book presents a continuous system development process, starting with the basic requiremen...

  16. Motorcycle That See: Multifocal Stereo Vision Sensor for Advanced Safety Systems in Tilting Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced driver assistance systems, ADAS, have shown the possibility to anticipate crash accidents and effectively assist road users in critical traffic situations. This is not the case for motorcyclists, in fact ADAS for motorcycles are still barely developed. Our aim was to study a camera-based sensor for the application of preventive safety in tilting vehicles. We identified two road conflict situations for which automotive remote sensors installed in a tilting vehicle are likely to fail in the identification of critical obstacles. Accordingly, we set two experiments conducted in real traffic conditions to test our stereo vision sensor. Our promising results support the application of this type of sensors for advanced motorcycle safety applications.

  17. Motorcycles that See: Multifocal Stereo Vision Sensor for Advanced Safety Systems in Tilting Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Advanced driver assistance systems, ADAS, have shown the possibility to anticipate crash accidents and effectively assist road users in critical traffic situations. This is not the case for motorcyclists, in fact ADAS for motorcycles are still barely developed. Our aim was to study a camera-based sensor for the application of preventive safety in tilting vehicles. We identified two road conflict situations for which automotive remote sensors installed in a tilting vehicle are likely to fail in the identification of critical obstacles. Accordingly, we set two experiments conducted in real traffic conditions to test our stereo vision sensor. Our promising results support the application of this type of sensors for advanced motorcycle safety applications. PMID:29351267

  18. Motorcycle That See: Multifocal Stereo Vision Sensor for Advanced Safety Systems in Tilting Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Gustavo; Savino, Giovanni; Piantini, Simone; Pierini, Marco

    2018-01-19

    Advanced driver assistance systems, ADAS, have shown the possibility to anticipate crash accidents and effectively assist road users in critical traffic situations. This is not the case for motorcyclists, in fact ADAS for motorcycles are still barely developed. Our aim was to study a camera-based sensor for the application of preventive safety in tilting vehicles. We identified two road conflict situations for which automotive remote sensors installed in a tilting vehicle are likely to fail in the identification of critical obstacles. Accordingly, we set two experiments conducted in real traffic conditions to test our stereo vision sensor. Our promising results support the application of this type of sensors for advanced motorcycle safety applications.

  19. Comparing non-safety with safety device sharps injury incidence data from two different occupational surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A H; Parker, G B; Kanamori, H; Rutala, W A; Weber, D J

    2017-06-01

    The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Bloodborne Pathogens Standard as amended by the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act requiring the use of safety-engineered medical devices to prevent needlesticks and sharps injuries has been in place since 2001. Injury changes over time include differences between those from non-safety compared with safety-engineered medical devices. This research compares two US occupational incident surveillance systems to determine whether these data can be generalized to other facilities and other countries either with legislation in place or considering developing national policies for the prevention of sharps injuries among healthcare personnel. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Design of Hack-Resistant Diabetes Devices and Disclosure of Their Cyber Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackner-Bernstein, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    The focus of the medical device industry and regulatory bodies on cyber security parallels that in other industries, primarily on risk assessment and user education as well as the recognition and response to infiltration. However, transparency of the safety of marketed devices is lacking and developers are not embracing optimal design practices with new devices. Achieving cyber safe diabetes devices: To improve understanding of cyber safety by clinicians and patients, and inform decision making on use practices of medical devices requires disclosure by device manufacturers of the results of their cyber security testing. Furthermore, developers should immediately shift their design processes to deliver better cyber safety, exemplified by use of state of the art encryption, secure operating systems, and memory protections from malware.

  1. Research on Heat Dissipation of Electric Vehicle Based on Safety Architecture Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Guo, Yajuan; Huang, Wei; Jiang, Haitao; Wu, Liwei

    2017-10-01

    In order to solve the problem of excessive temperature in the discharge process of lithium-ion battery and the temperature difference between batteries, a heat dissipation of electric vehicle based on safety architecture optimization is designed. The simulation is used to optimize the temperature field of the heat dissipation of the battery. A reasonable heat dissipation control scheme is formulated to achieve heat dissipation requirements. The results show that the ideal working temperature range of the lithium ion battery is 20?∼45?, and the temperature difference between the batteries should be controlled within 5?. A cooling fan is arranged at the original air outlet of the battery model, and the two cooling fans work in turn to realize the reciprocating flow. The temperature difference is controlled within 5? to ensure the good temperature uniformity between the batteries of the electric vehicle. Based on the above finding, it is concluded that the heat dissipation design for electric vehicle batteries is safe and effective, which is the most effective methods to ensure battery life and vehicle safety.

  2. Is vehicle automation enough to prevent crashes? Role of traffic operations in automated driving environments for traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunbi; Oh, Cheol; Lee, Seolyoung

    2017-07-01

    Automated driving systems (ADSs) are expected to prevent traffic accidents caused by driver carelessness on freeways. There is no doubt regarding this safety benefit if all vehicles in the transportation system were equipped with ADSs; however, it is implausible to expect that ADSs will reach 100% market penetration rate (MPR) in the near future. Therefore, the following question arises: 'Can ADSs, which consider only situations in the vicinity of an equipped vehicle, really contribute to a significant reduction in traffic accidents?' To address this issue, the interactions between equipped and unequipped vehicles must be investigated, which is the purpose of this study. This study evaluated traffic safety at different MPRs based on a proposed index to represent the overall rear-end crash risk of the traffic stream. Two approaches were evaluated for adjusting longitudinal vehicle maneuvers: vehicle safety-based maneuvering (VSM), which considers the crash risk of an equipped vehicle and its neighboring vehicles, and traffic safety-based maneuvering (TSM), which considers the overall crash risk in the traffic stream. TSM assumes that traffic operational agencies are able to monitor all the vehicles and to intervene in vehicle maneuvering. An optimization process, which attempts to obtain vehicle maneuvering control parameters to minimize the overall crash risk, is integrated into the proposed evaluation framework. The main purpose of employing the optimization process for vehicle maneuvering in this study is to identify opportunities to improve traffic safety through effective traffic management rather than developing a vehicle control algorithm that can be implemented in practice. The microscopic traffic simulator VISSIM was used to simulate the freeway traffic stream and to conduct systematic evaluations based on the proposed methodology. Both TSM and VSM achieved significant reductions in the potential for rear-end crashes. However, TSM obtained much greater

  3. A market systems analysis of the U.S. Sport Utility Vehicle market considering frontal crash safety technology and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffenson, Steven; Frischknecht, Bart D; Papalambros, Panos Y

    2013-01-01

    Active safety features and adjustments to the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) consumer-information crash tests have the potential to decrease the number of serious traffic injuries each year, according to previous studies. However, literature suggests that risk reductions, particularly in the automotive market, are often accompanied by adjusted consumer risk tolerance, and so these potential safety benefits may not be fully realized due to changes in consumer purchasing or driving behavior. This article approaches safety in the new vehicle market, particularly in the Sport Utility Vehicle and Crossover Utility Vehicle segments, from a market systems perspective. Crash statistics and simulations are used to predict the effects of design and policy changes on occupant crash safety, and discrete choice experiments are conducted to estimate the values consumers place on vehicle attributes. These models are combined in a market simulation that forecasts how consumers respond to the available vehicle alternatives, resulting in predictions of the market share of each vehicle and how the change in fleet mixture influences societal outcomes including injuries, fuel consumption, and firm profits. The model is tested for a scenario where active safety features are implemented across the new vehicle fleet and a scenario where the U.S. frontal NCAP test speed is modified. While results exhibit evidence of consumer risk adjustment, they support adding active safety features and lowering the NCAP frontal test speed, as these changes are predicted to improve the welfare of both firms and society. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. How Safe is Vehicle Safety? The Contribution of Vehicle Technologies to the Reduction in Road Casualties in France from 2000 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Yves; Hermitte, Thierry; Cuny, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    In France, over the last 10 years, road fatalities have decreased dramatically by 48%. This reduction is somewhat close to the target fixed by the European Commision in 2001 for the whole of Europe (−50 %). According to the French govnerment, 75% of this reduction was due to the implementation of automatic speed cameras on the roadsides from 2003 onwards. Yet, during this period, there was also a significantly increase in safety technology, new regulations in front and side impacts, and developments in Euro NCAP to improve passive safety in the vehicles. This paper set out to estimate the extent that vehicle safety technologies contributed to the road safety benefits over this decade. Using a combination of databases and fitment rates, the number of fatalities and hospitalized injuries saved in passenger car crashes was estimated for a number of safety technologies, individually and as a package including a 5 star EuroNCAP rating. The additional benefits from other public safety measures were also similarly estimated. The results showed that overall safety measures during this decade saved 240,676 fatalities + serious injuries, of which 173,663 were car occupants. Of these, 27,365 car occupants and 1,083 pedestrian savings could be attributed directly to vehicle safety improvements (11% overall). It was concluded that while public safety measures were responsible for the majority of the savings, enhanced vehicle safety technologies also made a significant improvement in the road toll in France during the last decade. As the take-up rate for these technologies improves, is expected to continue to provide even more benefits in the next 10-year period. PMID:22105388

  5. How Safe is Vehicle Safety? The Contribution of Vehicle Technologies to the Reduction in Road Casualties in France from 2000 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Yves; Hermitte, Thierry; Cuny, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    In France, over the last 10 years, road fatalities have decreased dramatically by 48%. This reduction is somewhat close to the target fixed by the European Commision in 2001 for the whole of Europe (-50 %). According to the French govnerment, 75% of this reduction was due to the implementation of automatic speed cameras on the roadsides from 2003 onwards. Yet, during this period, there was also a significantly increase in safety technology, new regulations in front and side impacts, and developments in Euro NCAP to improve passive safety in the vehicles. This paper set out to estimate the extent that vehicle safety technologies contributed to the road safety benefits over this decade. Using a combination of databases and fitment rates, the number of fatalities and hospitalized injuries saved in passenger car crashes was estimated for a number of safety technologies, individually and as a package including a 5 star EuroNCAP rating. The additional benefits from other public safety measures were also similarly estimated. The results showed that overall safety measures during this decade saved 240,676 fatalities + serious injuries, of which 173,663 were car occupants. Of these, 27,365 car occupants and 1,083 pedestrian savings could be attributed directly to vehicle safety improvements (11% overall). It was concluded that while public safety measures were responsible for the majority of the savings, enhanced vehicle safety technologies also made a significant improvement in the road toll in France during the last decade. As the take-up rate for these technologies improves, is expected to continue to provide even more benefits in the next 10-year period.

  6. Improving heavy vehicle safety and road transport efficiency: a Performance-Based Standards approach in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available practical experience in the PBS approach and to quantify and evaluate the potential infrastructure preservation, safety and productivity benefits for road freight transport. To date, 450 permits for PBS demonstration vehicles (including 200 car...

  7. Self regulation initiative in heavy vehicle transport to address road safety, accelerated road deterioration and transport productivity in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy vehicle overloading and road safety continue to be major problems in South Africa notwithstanding efforts at more effective enforcement by the road and traffic authorities. Overloading causes premature road deterioration and, together...

  8. Inherent Risk or Risky Decision? Coach's Failure to Use Safety Device an Assumed Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Mark A.; Bochicchio, Kristi Schoepfer

    2013-01-01

    The court examined whether a coach's failure to implement a safety device during pitching practice enhanced the risk to the athlete or resulted in a suboptimal playing condition, in the context of the assumption of risk doctrine.

  9. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of nickel metal-hydride batteries for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D; Hammel, C J; Mark, J

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies important environment, health, and safety issues associated with nickel metal-hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and assesses the need for further testing and analysis. Among the issues discussed are cell and battery safety, workplace health and safety, shipping requirements, and in-vehicle safety. The manufacture and recycling of Ni-MH batteries are also examined. This report also overviews the ``FH&S`` issues associated with other nickel-based electric vehicle batteries; it examines venting characteristics, toxicity of battery materials, and the status of spent batteries as a hazardous waste.

  10. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of nickel metal-hydride batteries for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbus, D.; Hammel, C.J.; Mark, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies important environment, health, and safety issues associated with nickel metal-hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and assesses the need for further testing and analysis. Among the issues discussed are cell and battery safety, workplace health and safety, shipping requirements, and in-vehicle safety. The manufacture and recycling of Ni-MH batteries are also examined. This report also overviews the ''FH ampersand S'' issues associated with other nickel-based electric vehicle batteries; it examines venting characteristics, toxicity of battery materials, and the status of spent batteries as a hazardous waste

  11. Rear seat safety: Variation in protection by occupant, crash and vehicle characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Dennis R; Jermakian, Jessica S; Kallan, Michael J; McCartt, Anne T; Arbogast, Kristy B; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Myers, Rachel K

    2015-07-01

    Current information on the safety of rear row occupants of all ages is needed to inform further advances in rear seat restraint system design and testing. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics of occupants in the front and rear rows of model year 2000 and newer vehicles involved in crashes and determine the risk of serious injury for restrained crash-involved rear row occupants and the relative risk of fatal injury for restrained rear row vs. front passenger seat occupants by age group, impact direction, and vehicle model year. Data from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) and Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) were queried for all crashes during 2007-2012 involving model year 2000 and newer passenger vehicles. Data from NASS-CDS were used to describe characteristics of occupants in the front and rear rows and to determine the risk of serious injury (AIS 3+) for restrained rear row occupants by occupant age, vehicle model year, and impact direction. Using a combined data set containing data on fatalities from FARS and estimates of the total population of occupants in crashes from NASS-CDS, logistic regression modeling was used to compute the relative risk (RR) of death for restrained occupants in the rear vs. front passenger seat by occupant age, impact direction, and vehicle model year. Among all vehicle occupants in tow-away crashes during 2007-2012, 12.3% were in the rear row where the overall risk of serious injury was 1.3%. Among restrained rear row occupants, the risk of serious injury varied by occupant age, with older adults at the highest risk of serious injury (2.9%); by impact direction, with rollover crashes associated with the highest risk (1.5%); and by vehicle model year, with model year 2007 and newer vehicles having the lowest risk of serious injury (0.3%). Relative risk of death was lower for restrained children up to age 8 in the rear compared with passengers in the right

  12. An image-based method to measure all-terrain vehicle dimensions for engineering safety purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennissen, Charles A; Miller, Nathan S; Tang, Kaiyang; Denning, Gerene M

    2014-04-01

    All-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes are a serious public health and safety concern. Engineering approaches that address ATV injury prevention are critically needed. Avenues to pursue include evidence-based seat design that decreases risky behaviours, such as carrying passengers and operation of adult-size vehicles by children. The goal of this study was to create and validate an image-based method to measure ATV seat length and placement. Publicly available ATV images were downloaded. Adobe Photoshop was then used to generate a vertical grid through the centre of the vehicle, to define the grid scale using the manufacturer's reported wheelbase, and to determine seat length and placement relative to the front and rear axles using this scale. Images that yielded a difference greater than 5% between the calculated and the manufacturer's reported ATV lengths were excluded from further analysis. For the 77 images that met inclusion criteria, the mean±SD for the difference in calculated versus reported vehicle length was 1.8%±1.2%. The Pearson correlation coefficient for comparing image-based seat lengths determined by two independent measurers (20 models) and image-based lengths versus lengths measured at dealerships (12 models) were 0.95 and 0.96, respectively. The image-based method provides accurate and reproducible results for determining ATV measurements, including seat length and placement. This method greatly expands the number of ATV models that can be studied, and may be generalisable to other motor vehicle types. These measurements can be used to guide engineering approaches that improve ATV safety design.

  13. Accelerated Evaluation of Automated Vehicles Safety in Lane-Change Scenarios Based on Importance Sampling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ding; Lam, Henry; Peng, Huei; Bao, Shan; LeBlanc, David J; Nobukawa, Kazutoshi; Pan, Christopher S

    2017-03-01

    Automated vehicles (AVs) must be thoroughly evaluated before their release and deployment. A widely used evaluation approach is the Naturalistic-Field Operational Test (N-FOT), which tests prototype vehicles directly on the public roads. Due to the low exposure to safety-critical scenarios, N-FOTs are time consuming and expensive to conduct. In this paper, we propose an accelerated evaluation approach for AVs. The results can be used to generate motions of the other primary vehicles to accelerate the verification of AVs in simulations and controlled experiments. Frontal collision due to unsafe cut-ins is the target crash type of this paper. Human-controlled vehicles making unsafe lane changes are modeled as the primary disturbance to AVs based on data collected by the University of Michigan Safety Pilot Model Deployment Program. The cut-in scenarios are generated based on skewed statistics of collected human driver behaviors, which generate risky testing scenarios while preserving the statistical information so that the safety benefits of AVs in nonaccelerated cases can be accurately estimated. The cross-entropy method is used to recursively search for the optimal skewing parameters. The frequencies of the occurrences of conflicts, crashes, and injuries are estimated for a modeled AV, and the achieved accelerated rate is around 2000 to 20 000. In other words, in the accelerated simulations, driving for 1000 miles will expose the AV with challenging scenarios that will take about 2 to 20 million miles of real-world driving to encounter. This technique thus has the potential to greatly reduce the development and validation time for AVs.

  14. Evaluation of the Safety of the Taraklamp Male Circumcision Device ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SITWALA COMPUTERS

    an effective additional means of preventing transmission of the HIV virus from ... country and include: cultural tradition, pain, and safety, as ... effective. Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO) has ..... systematic review and meta-analysis.

  15. A Novel Series Connected Batteries State of High Voltage Safety Monitor System for Electric Vehicle Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Jiaxi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Batteries, as the main or assistant power source of EV (Electric Vehicle, are usually connected in series with high voltage to improve the drivability and energy efficiency. Today, more and more batteries are connected in series with high voltage, if there is any fault in high voltage system (HVS, the consequence is serious and dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the electric parameters of HVS to ensure the high voltage safety and protect personal safety. In this study, a high voltage safety monitor system is developed to solve this critical issue. Four key electric parameters including precharge, contact resistance, insulation resistance, and remaining capacity are monitored and analyzed based on the equivalent models presented in this study. The high voltage safety controller which integrates the equivalent models and control strategy is developed. By the help of hardware-in-loop system, the equivalent models integrated in the high voltage safety controller are validated, and the online electric parameters monitor strategy is analyzed and discussed. The test results indicate that the high voltage safety monitor system designed in this paper is suitable for EV application.

  16. A novel series connected batteries state of high voltage safety monitor system for electric vehicle application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaxi, Qiang; Lin, Yang; Jianhui, He; Qisheng, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Batteries, as the main or assistant power source of EV (Electric Vehicle), are usually connected in series with high voltage to improve the drivability and energy efficiency. Today, more and more batteries are connected in series with high voltage, if there is any fault in high voltage system (HVS), the consequence is serious and dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the electric parameters of HVS to ensure the high voltage safety and protect personal safety. In this study, a high voltage safety monitor system is developed to solve this critical issue. Four key electric parameters including precharge, contact resistance, insulation resistance, and remaining capacity are monitored and analyzed based on the equivalent models presented in this study. The high voltage safety controller which integrates the equivalent models and control strategy is developed. By the help of hardware-in-loop system, the equivalent models integrated in the high voltage safety controller are validated, and the online electric parameters monitor strategy is analyzed and discussed. The test results indicate that the high voltage safety monitor system designed in this paper is suitable for EV application.

  17. Parents' Depressive Symptoms and Gun, Fire, and Motor Vehicle Safety Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W

    2016-04-01

    This study examined associations between mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms and their parenting practices relating to gun, fire, and motor vehicle safety. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a nationally representative sample of children birth to age five, linear probability models were used to examine associations between measures of parents' depressive symptoms and their use of firearms, smoke detectors, and motor vehicle restraints. Parents reported use of smoke detectors, motor vehicle restraints, and firearm ownership and storage. Results suggest mothers with moderate or severe depressive symptoms were 2 % points less likely to report that their child always sat in the back seat of the car, and 3 % points less likely to have at least one working smoke detector in the home. Fathers' depressive symptoms were associated with a lower likelihood of both owning a gun and of it being stored locked. Fathers' depressive symptoms amplified associations between mothers' depressive symptoms and owning a gun, such that having both parents exhibit depressive symptoms was associated with an increased likelihood of gun ownership of between 2 and 6 % points. Interventions that identify and treat parental depression early may be effective in promoting appropriate safety behaviors among families with young children.

  18. SenSafe: A Smartphone-Based Traffic Safety Framework by Sensing Vehicle and Pedestrian Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accident involving vehicles is one of the most serious problems in the transportation system nowadays. How to detect dangerous steering and then alarm drivers in real time is a problem. What is more, walking while using smartphones makes pedestrian more susceptible to various risks. Although dedicated short range communication (DSRC provides the way for safety communications, most of vehicles have not been deployed with DSRC components. Even worse, DSRC is not supported by the smartphones for vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P communication. In this paper, a smartphone-based framework named SenSafe is developed to improve the traffic safety. SenSafe is a framework which only utilizes the smartphone to sense the surrounding events and provides alerts to drivers. Smartphone-based driving behaviors detection mechanism is developed inside the framework to discover various steering behaviors. Besides, the Wi-Fi association and authentication overhead is reduced to broadcast the compressed sensing data using the Wi-Fi beacon to inform the drivers of the surroundings. Furthermore, a collision estimation algorithm is designed to issue appropriate warnings. Finally, an Android-based implementation of SenSafe framework has been achieved to demonstrate the application reliability in real environments.

  19. Regenerative braking strategies, vehicle safety and stability control systems: critical use-case proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksowicz, Selim A.; Burnham, Keith J.; Southgate, Adam; McCoy, Chris; Waite, Gary; Hardwick, Graham; Harrington, Cian; McMurran, Ross

    2013-05-01

    The sustainable development of vehicle propulsion systems that have mainly focused on reduction of fuel consumption (i.e. CO2 emission) has led, not only to the development of systems connected with combustion processes but also to legislation and testing procedures. In recent years, the low carbon policy has made hybrid vehicles and fully electric vehicles (H/EVs) popular. The main virtue of these propulsion systems is their ability to restore some of the expended energy from kinetic movement, e.g. the braking process. Consequently new research and testing methods for H/EVs are currently being developed. This especially concerns the critical 'use-cases' for functionality tests within dynamic events for both virtual simulations, as well as real-time road tests. The use-case for conventional vehicles for numerical simulations and road tests are well established. However, the wide variety of tests and their great number (close to a thousand) creates a need for selection, in the first place, and the creation of critical use-cases suitable for testing H/EVs in both virtual and real-world environments. It is known that a marginal improvement in the regenerative braking ratio can significantly improve the vehicle range and, therefore, the economic cost of its operation. In modern vehicles, vehicle dynamics control systems play the principal role in safety, comfort and economic operation. Unfortunately, however, the existing standard road test scenarios are insufficient for H/EVs. Sector knowledge suggests that there are currently no agreed tests scenarios to fully investigate the effects of brake blending between conventional and regenerative braking as well as the regenerative braking interaction with active driving safety systems (ADSS). The paper presents seven manoeuvres, which are considered to be suitable and highly informative for the development and examination of H/EVs with regenerative braking capability. The critical manoeuvres presented are considered to be

  20. 78 FR 17415 - Medical Devices; Availability of Safety and Effectiveness Summaries for Premarket Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... its decision. The regulations provide that FDA publish a quarterly list of available safety and..., FDA-2012-M-1183, and FDA-2012-M-1184] Medical Devices; Availability of Safety and Effectiveness.... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing a list of premarket approval applications...

  1. 77 FR 60704 - Medical Devices; Availability of Safety and Effectiveness Summaries for Premarket Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... regulations provide that FDA publish a quarterly list of available safety and effectiveness summaries of PMA...-0638] Medical Devices; Availability of Safety and Effectiveness Summaries for Premarket Approval... Administration (FDA) is publishing a list of premarket approval applications (PMAs) that have been approved. This...

  2. 78 FR 35284 - Medical Devices; Availability of Safety and Effectiveness Summaries for Premarket Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... summaries of safety and effectiveness data to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket Nos. FDA-2013-M-0036... Devices; Availability of Safety and Effectiveness Summaries for Premarket Approval Applications AGENCY...

  3. 76 FR 31965 - Medical Devices; Availability of Safety and Effectiveness Summaries for Premarket Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... summaries of safety and effectiveness data to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket Nos. FDA-2011-M-0034... Devices; Availability of Safety and Effectiveness Summaries for Premarket Approval Applications AGENCY...

  4. Permitting product liability litigation for FDA-approved drugs and devices promotes patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, A S

    2010-06-01

    In 2008 and 2009, the Supreme Court reviewed the question of whether patients injured by dangerous prescription drugs or medical devices can bring tort lawsuits against pharmaceutical and device manufacturers. The Court ruled that claims against device manufacturers were preempted while claims against pharmaceutical manufacturers were not. The threat of product liability lawsuits promotes patient safety by encouraging manufacturers to take greater responsibility in providing clear warnings about known adverse effects of their products.

  5. Safety and efficiency of emergency department interrogation of cardiac devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, James F; Peacock, W Frank; Migeed, Madgy; Hunter, Sara A; Daughtery, John C; McCleese, Ian C; Hiestand, Brian C

    2016-12-01

    Patients with implanted cardiac devices may wait extended periods for interrogation in emergency departments (EDs). Our purpose was to determine if device interrogation could be done safely and faster by ED staff. Prospective randomized, standard therapy controlled, trial of ED staff device interrogation vs. standard process (SP), with 30-day follow-up. Eligibility criteria: ED presentation with a self-report of a potential device related complaint, with signed informed consent. SP interrogation was by company representative or hospital employee. Of 60 patients, 42 (70%) were male, all were white, with a median (interquartile range) age of 71 (64 to 82) years. No patient was lost to follow up. Of all patients, 32 (53%) were enrolled during business hours. The overall median (interquartile range) ED vs. SP time to interrogation was 98.5 (40 to 260) vs. 166.5 (64 to 412) minutes (P=0.013). While ED and SP interrogation times were similar during business hours, 102 (59 to 138) vs. 105 (64 to 172) minutes (P=0.62), ED interrogation times were shorter vs. SP during non-business hours; 97 (60 to 126) vs. 225 (144 to 412) minutes, P=0.002, respectively. There was no difference in ED length of stay between the ED and SP interrogation, 249 (153 to 390) vs. 246 (143 to 333) minutes (P=0.71), regardless of time of presentation. No patient in any cohort suffered an unplanned medical contact or post-discharge adverse device related event. ED staff cardiac device interrogations are faster, and with similar 30-day outcomes, as compared to SP.

  6. Research on safety evaluation model for in-vehicle secondary task driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lisheng; Xian, Huacai; Niu, Qingning; Bie, Jing

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a new method for evaluating in-vehicle secondary task driving safety. There are five in-vehicle distracter tasks: tuning the radio to a local station, touching the touch-screen telephone menu to a certain song, talking with laboratory assistant, answering a telephone via Bluetooth headset, and finding the navigation system from Ipad4 computer. Forty young drivers completed the driving experiment on a driving simulator. Measures of fixations, saccades, and blinks are collected and analyzed. Based on the measures of driver eye movements which have significant difference between the baseline and secondary task driving conditions, the evaluation index system is built. The Analytic Network Process (ANP) theory is applied for determining the importance weight of the evaluation index in a fuzzy environment. On the basis of the importance weight of the evaluation index, Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE) method is utilized to evaluate the secondary task driving safety. Results show that driving with secondary tasks greatly distracts the driver's attention from road and the evaluation model built in this study could estimate driving safety effectively under different driving conditions. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the safety of the Taraklamp male circumcision device ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Male circumcision has been proved to be an effective additional means of preventing transmission of the HIV virus from females to males in heterosexual relationships with efficacy of up to 60%. Many methods and devices for adult male circumcision have now been developed. However, there are still concerns ...

  8. A Wii-controlled safety device for electric chainsaws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gubiani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Forestry continues to represent one of the most hazardous economic sectors of human activity, and historically, the operation of chainsaws has mainly been restricted to professional lumberjacks. In recent years, because of low cost, chainsaws have become popular among unprofessionals, e.g. for cutting firewood and trimming trees. Serious or lethal lesions due to the use of chainsaws or electric chainsaws are often observed by traumatologists or forensic pathologists. Such serious accidents often occur during occupational activities and are essentially due to kickback or uncorrected use of the tool, or when the operator falls down losing the control of the implement. A new device in order to stop a cutting chain was developed and adapted to an electric chainsaw. The device is based on a Wiimote controller (Nintendo™, including two accelerometers and two gyroscopes for detecting rotation and inclination. A Bluetooth wireless technology is used to transfer data to a portable computer. The data collected about linear and angular acceleration are filtered by an algorithm, based on the Euclid norm, capable to distinguishing between normal movements and dangerous chainsaw movements. The result show a good answer to device and when happen a dangerous situation an alarm signal is sent back to the implement in order to stop the cutting chain. The device show a correct behavior in tested dangerous situations and is envisaged to extend to combustion engine chainsaws, as well as to other portable equipment used in agriculture and forestry operations and for this objectives were patented.

  9. 75 FR 45696 - Pipeline Safety: Personal Electronic Device Related Distractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... and operators of natural gas and hazardous liquid pipeline facilities are required to have and follow.... Advisory Bulletin (ADB-10-06) To: Owners and Operators of Hazardous Liquid and Natural Gas Pipeline Systems...

  10. The Safety of Transnational Imported Second-Hand Cars: A Case Study on Vehicle-to-Vehicle Crashes in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolie Coșciug

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Certain features of imported second-hand cars (e.g., age, degree of wear and tear, technical design can increase their likelihood for traffic crashes. Three official datasets which cover an eight year period (2008–2015 are used to test the connection between importation of second-hand cars and different types of traffic crashes. The traffic crashes database was provided by the Traffic Department of the General Inspectorate of Romanian Police (GIRPTD. The car registration database was provided by Driving-License and Vehicles-Registration Direction (DLVRD. Right-hand driving (RHD cars database was provided by the Romanian Automotive Registry (RAR. A spatio-temporal visualization of data was performed using Geographic Information System (GIS while for the statistical analysis we use regression models and Pearson-Correlation-coefficient. The analysis suggests that a significant part of the variation in the volume of traffic accidents can be explained by the volume of imported second-hand cars at the county level. Moreover, an even stronger direct relation exists between the number of imported second-hand cars and Severe Traffic Accidents but also in the case of RHD imported second-hand cars. The overall impact of imported second-hand cars on the traffic safety in Romania is significant but small in comparison to other types of car registration. Study results belong to the category of empirical evidence production which can improve the quality of existing traffic regulations focused both on organizing and ensuring traffic safety, and on the policy of sustainable transport infrastructure development.

  11. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications. Hydrogen vehicle safety report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This report reviews the safety characteristics of hydrogen as an energy carrier for a fuel cell vehicle (FCV), with emphasis on high pressure gaseous hydrogen onboard storage. The authors consider normal operation of the vehicle in addition to refueling, collisions, operation in tunnels, and storage in garages. They identify the most likely risks and failure modes leading to hazardous conditions, and provide potential countermeasures in the vehicle design to prevent or substantially reduce the consequences of each plausible failure mode. They then compare the risks of hydrogen with those of more common motor vehicle fuels including gasoline, propane, and natural gas.

  12. Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Experiments in ISS Resupply Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David

    2013-01-01

    Our understanding of the fire safety risk in manned spacecraft has been limited by the small scale of the testing we have been able to conduct in low-gravity. Fire growth and spread cannot be expected to scale linearly with sample size so we cannot make accurate predictions of the behavior of realistic scale fires in spacecraft based on the limited low-g testing to date. As a result, spacecraft fire safety protocols are necessarily very conservative and costly. Future crewed missions are expected to be longer in duration than previous exploration missions outside of low-earth orbit and accordingly, more complex in terms of operations, logistics, and safety. This will increase the challenge of ensuring a fire-safe environment for the crew throughout the mission. Based on our fundamental uncertainty of the behavior of fires in low-gravity, the need for realistic scale testing at reduced gravity has been demonstrated. To address this concern, a spacecraft fire safety research project is underway to reduce the uncertainty and risk in the design of spacecraft fire safety systems by testing at nearly full scale in low-gravity. This project is supported by the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Program Office in the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The activity of this project is supported by an international topical team of fire experts from other space agencies to maximize the utility of the data and to ensure the widest possible scrutiny of the concept. The large-scale space flight experiment will be conducted on three missions; each in an Orbital Sciences Corporation Cygnus vehicle after it has deberthed from the ISS. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew allows the fire products to be released into the cabin. The tests will be fully automated with the data downlinked at the conclusion of the test before the Cygnus vehicle reenters the

  13. 76 FR 11415 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Power-Operated Window, Partition, and Roof Panel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0027] RIN 2127-AK52 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Power-Operated Window, Partition, and Roof Panel Systems AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department... automatic reversal systems (ARS) for power windows and to make a final decision. The agency has decided not...

  14. Crash safety concerns for out-of-position occupant postures: A look toward safety in highly automated vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Timothy L; Poplin, Gerald S; Shaw, Greg; Panzer, Matthew B

    2018-04-09

    Highly automated vehicle occupants will all be passengers and may be free to ride while in postures for which existing occupant safety systems such as seat belts and airbags were not originally designed. These occupants could therefore face increased risk of injury when a crash occurs. Given that current vehicles are capable of supporting a variety of occupant postures outside of the normal design position, such as reclined or turned passengers, an evaluation of current field data was performed to better understand the risks of being out of position. We investigated the frequency, demographics, and injury outcomes for out-of-position occupants using NASS-CDS. A matched analysis was performed to compare injury outcomes for out-of-position passengers with in-position drivers involved in similar crashes. Finally, case studies for out-of-position occupants were examined in the Crash Injury Research (CIREN) database. Only 0.5% of occupants in NASS-CDS with a coded posture were out of position at the time of crash. Of the out-of-position occupants, being turned or seated sideways was almost as likely as being reclined. Out-of-position occupants were younger and less likely to be belted than their in-position counterparts. Analysis of the injury data indicated a trend that being out of position was associated with an elevated risk for serious injury. However, the number of out-of-position occupants was too small to provide a definitive or statistically significant conclusion on injury outcome. Though highly automated vehicles may eventually reduce the number of crashes and traffic fatalities in the future, there will be a transition period when these vehicles remain at risk from collisions with human-driven vehicles. These crashes could cause higher than anticipated rates of injury if occupants are less likely to be belted or tend to be in positions for which restraints are not optimized. This study highlights the need for future research on occupant response and

  15. 78 FR 43262 - Use of Wireless Mobile Data Devices as Transponders for the Commercial Motor Vehicle Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... FMCSA's regulations prohibiting texting and the use of hand-held wireless mobile phones by commercial... part 392 prohibiting texting and the use of hand-held wireless mobile phones by commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers. Benefits Use of wireless mobile data devices as transponders with CMRS provides...

  16. Device to position selectively a tool carried by a vehicle moving on the perforated plate of a tube bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, M.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of the invention is an examination device for a tube bundle of an apparatus such as, but not restrictively, a steam generator, situated in a dangerous zone, e.g. radioactive and designed to be introduced into the water box of the said and placed against the perforated plate of the tube bundle by an operator working outside of the said apparatus and able to operate whatever the vertical or horizontal position of the tube plate. The device has a selectively positionable tool - carrying vehicle comprising pistons positioning fingers extendable into the tubes and mounted on extendable supports perpendicular to the pistons and to each other, and an articulated telescopic arm fixed at one end to a rotary mounting on the vehicle and at the other end to an access opening in the vessel containing the tube plate, to hold the vehicle against the plate [fr

  17. Safety Design for Smart Electric Vehicle Charging with Current and Multiplexing Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ching-Yen; Youn, Edward; Chynoweth, Joshua; Qiu, Charlie; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

    2013-10-21

    As Electric Vehicles (EVs) increase, charging infrastructure becomes more important. When during the day there is a power shortage, the charging infrastructure should have the options to either shut off the power to the charging stations or to lower the power to the EVs in order to satisfy the needs of the grid. This paper proposes a design for a smart charging infrastructure capable of providing power to several EVs from one circuit by multiplexing power and providing charge control and safety systems to prevent electric shock. The safety design is implemented in different levels that include both the server and the smart charging stations. With this smart charging infrastructure, the shortage of energy in a local grid could be solved by our EV charging management system.

  18. Safety Performance Evaluations for the Vehicle Based Movable Barriers Using Full Scale Crash Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Minsoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to develop a prototype of large-size movable barriers to protect roadside workers from incoming vehicles to the road work area with the following functions: maximization of work space in the right and left directions, convenient mobility, and minimization of impact without modification of the inside of movable barriers into traffic lanes and perform safety performance assessment on passengers through full scale crash tests. The large movable barrier was divided into folder type and telescope type and the development stage was now at the prototype phase. A full scale crash test was conducted prior to certification test at a level of 90%. The full scale crash test result showed that both types of folder type movable barrier and telescope type movable barrier satisfied the standard of the passenger safety performance evaluation at a level of 90%.

  19. A Customized Vision System for Tracking Humans Wearing Reflective Safety Clothing from Industrial Vehicles and Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosberger, Rafael; Andreasson, Henrik; Lilienthal, Achim J.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a novel approach for vision-based detection and tracking of humans wearing high-visibility clothing with retro-reflective markers. Addressing industrial applications where heavy vehicles operate in the vicinity of humans, we deploy a customized stereo camera setup with active illumination that allows for efficient detection of the reflective patterns created by the worker's safety garments. After segmenting reflective objects from the image background, the interest regions are described with local image feature descriptors and classified in order to discriminate safety garments from other reflective objects in the scene. In a final step, the trajectories of the detected humans are estimated in 3D space relative to the camera. We evaluate our tracking system in two industrial real-world work environments on several challenging video sequences. The experimental results indicate accurate tracking performance and good robustness towards partial occlusions, body pose variation, and a wide range of different illumination conditions. PMID:25264956

  20. Evaluating the effectiveness of Behavior-Based Safety education methods for commercial vehicle drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuesong; Xing, Yilun; Luo, Lian; Yu, Rongjie

    2018-08-01

    Risky driving behavior is one of the main causes of commercial vehicle related crashes. In order to achieve safer vehicle operation, safety education for drivers is often provided. However, the education programs vary in quality and may not always be successful in reducing crash rates. Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) education is a popular approach found effective by numerous studies, but even this approach varies as to the combination of frequency, mode and content used by different education providers. This study therefore evaluates and compares the effectiveness of BBS education methods. Thirty-five drivers in Shanghai, China, were coached with one of three different BBS education methods for 13 weeks following a 13-week baseline phase with no education. A random-effects negative binomial (NB) model was built and calibrated to investigate the relationship between BBS education and the driver at-fault safety-related event rate. Based on the results of the random-effects NB model, event modification factors (EMF) were calculated to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of the methods. Results show that (1) BBS education was confirmed to be effective in safety-related event reduction; (2) the most effective method among the three applied monthly face-to-face coaching, including feedback with video and statistical data, and training on strategies to avoid driver-specific unsafe behaviors; (3) weekly telephone coaching using statistics and strategies was rated by drivers as the most convenient delivery mode, and was also significantly effective. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Safety device and machine system of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    It introduces principle and kinds of heat power including heat balance and nuclear power. It explains a lot of technical terms about the nuclear power system, which are primary loop, reactor, steam generator, primary coolant pump and pressurizer in PWR, chemical and volume control system, component cooling system, safety injection system, and spent fuel cooling and storage system in auxiliary system, liquid solid and gaseous waste disposal system in radwaste disposal, gland sealing system, turbine instrumentation, turning gear, hydrogen cooling system, condenser, feedwater heater, degenerate heater, auxiliary heat exchanger, centrifugal pump, rotary reciprocating and tank and pressure vessel.

  2. Reliability prediction for the vehicles equipped with advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS and passive safety systems (PSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbir S. Dhillon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The human error has been reported as a major root cause in road accidents in today’s world. The human as a driver in road vehicles composed of human, mechanical and electrical components is constantly exposed to changing surroundings (e.g., road conditions, environmentwhich deteriorate the driver’s capacities leading to a potential accident. The auto industries and transportation authorities have realized that similar to other complex and safety sensitive transportation systems, the road vehicles need to rely on both advanced technologies (i.e., Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS and Passive Safety Systems (PSS (e.g.,, seatbelts, airbags in order to mitigate the risk of accidents and casualties. In this study, the advantages and disadvantages of ADAS as active safety systems as well as passive safety systems in road vehicles have been discussed. Also, this study proposes models that analyze the interactions between human as a driver and ADAS Warning and Crash Avoidance Systems and PSS in the design of vehicles. Thereafter, the mathematical models have been developed to make reliability prediction at any given time on the road transportation for vehicles equipped with ADAS and PSS. Finally, the implications of this study in the improvement of vehicle designs and prevention of casualties are discussed.

  3. Implications of Functional Capacity Loss and Fatality for Vehicle Safety Prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Timothy L; Sherwood, Chris; Poplin, Gerald S; Seguí-Gómez, María; Crandall, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the use of the Functional Capacity Index (FCI) as a tool for establishing vehicle safety priorities by comparing the life year burden of injuries to the burden of fatality in frontal and side automotive crashes. We demonstrate FCI's utility by investigating in detail the resulting disabling injuries and their life year costs. We selected occupants in the 2000-2013 NASS-CDS database involved in frontal and side crashes, merged their injuries with FCI, and then used the merged data to estimate each occupant's overall functional loss. Lifetime functional loss was assessed by combining this measure of impairment with the occupants' expected future life spans, estimated from the Social Security Administration's Actuarial Life Table. Frontal crashes produce a large number of disabling injuries, particularly to the lower extremities. In our population, these crashes are estimated to account for approximately 400,000 life years lost to disability in comparison with 500,000 life years lost to fatality. Victims of side crashes experienced a higher rate of fatality but a significantly lower rate of disabling injury (0.3 vs. 1.0%), resulting in approximately 370,000 life years lost to fatality versus 50,000 life years lost to disability. The burden of disabling injuries to car crash survivors should be considered when setting vehicle safety design priorities. In frontal crashes this burden in life years is similar to the burden attributable to fatality.

  4. CRASH SAFETY OF A TYPICAL BAY TABLE IN A RAILWAY VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel MATSIKA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, urban and high speed trains are incorporating tables (workstations as common railway vehicle interior furniture because passengers prefer seating by bay tables. Among table design characteristics, the most challenging is meeting crashworthiness requirements. Past accident data and sled test results have shown that in the event of railway vehicle frontal impact, occupants located in the bay seating are exposed to chest and abdominal injuries upon contact with tables resulting from secondary collision. In some cases tables have tended to be structurally weak; they easily detach from the side walls and/or floor mounting. Subsequently these become unguided missiles that strike occupants, resulting in injuries. This paper presents an analysis of the crash performance of a typical bay table. The results provide some understanding of the table’s crash safety, giving an indication of its impact aggression. Table materials are characterised using quasi-static compressive tests. In addition, experimental dynamic (impact tests are conducted using a pendulum representing a body block (mass. The results provide information about the possible loading of the table on the occupant in the event of a crash. Contact forces are compared with chest and abdominal injury tolerance thresholds to infer the collision injury potential. Recommendations are then made on design of bay tables to meet the “functional-strength-and-safety balance”.

  5. 78 FR 24817 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Research Program 2 SUV Sport Utility Vehicle TEORT Total Eyes-Off-Road Time TGT Total Glance Time to Task... Critical Incidents, Driver Restart Period, Sleep Quantity, and Crash Countermeasures in Commercial Vehicle...

  6. A Microcontroller Based Car-Safety System Implementing Drowsiness Detection And Vehicle-Vehicle Distance Detection In Parallel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragyaditya Das.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Accidents due to drowsiness can be controlled and prevented with the help of eye blink sensor using IR rays. It consists of IR transmitter and an IR receiver. The transmitter transmits IR rays into the eye. If the eye is shut then the output is high. If the eye is open then the output is low. This output is interfaced with an alarm inside and outside the vehicle. This module can be connected to the braking system of the vehicle and can be used to reduce the speed of the vehicle. The alarm inside the vehicle will go on for a period of time until the driver is back to his senses. If the driver is unable to take control of the vehicle after that stipulated amount of time then the alarm outside the vehicle will go on to warn and tell others to help the driver.

  7. Baseline knowledge on vehicle safety and head restraints among Fleet Managers in British Columbia Canada: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desapriya, Ediriweera; Hewapathirane, D Sesath; Peiris, Dinithi; Romilly, Doug; White, Marc

    2011-09-01

    Whiplash is the most common injury type arising from motor vehicle collisions, often leading to long-term suffering and disability. Prevention of such injuries is possible through the use of appropriate, correctly positioned, vehicular head restraints. To survey the awareness and knowledge level of vehicle fleet managers in the province of British Columbia, Canada, on the topics of vehicle safety, whiplash injury, and prevention; and to better understand whether these factors influence vehicle purchase/lease decisions. A survey was administered to municipal vehicle fleet managers at a professional meeting (n = 27). Although many respondents understood the effectiveness of vehicle head restraints in the prevention of whiplash injury, the majority rarely adjusted their own headrests. Fleet managers lacked knowledge about the seriousness of whiplash injuries, their associated costs for Canada's healthcare system, and appropriate head restraint positions to mitigate such injuries. The majority of respondents indicated that fleet vehicle purchase/lease decisions within their organization did not factor whiplash prevention as an explicit safety priority. There is relatively little awareness and enforcement of whiplash prevention strategies among municipal vehicle fleet managers.

  8. Electromagnetic device of the safety screw-nut type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defaucheux, Jean; Guedj, Freddy.

    1981-01-01

    System providing for the vertical displacement of nuclear reactor control rods in a non-magnetic and cylindrical leak tight containment. This device is composed of a stator located around the upper part of the containment and, inside this containment, a rotor also in the upper part of this containment, which is free in axial translation along its shaft which it drives rotationally but which is fixed in translation. This shaft drives a threaded rod working in conjunction with a nut and able to slide vertically without turning inside the containment and supporting the reactor control rods. When the stator is not powered, the threaded rod and nut assembly falls to the bottom of the containment and may be easily raised by powering the stator [fr

  9. Italy: Analysis of Solutions for Passively Actuated Safety Shutdown Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgazzi, L.

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at different special shutdown systems specifically engineered for prevention of severe accidents, to be implemented on Fast Reactors, with main focus on the investigation of the performance of the self-actuated shutdown systems in Sodium Fast Reactors. The passive shut-down systems are designed to shut-down system only by inherent passive reactivity feedback mechanism, under unprotected accident conditions, implying failure of reactor protection system. They are conceived to be self-actuated without any signal elaboration, since the actuation of the system is triggered by the effects induced by the transient like material dilatation, in case of overheating of the coolant for instance, according to Fast Reactor design to meet the safety requirements

  10. FAST and SAFE Passive Safety Devices for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartanto, Donny; Kim, Chihyung; Kim, In-Hyung; Kim, Yonghee [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The major factor is the impact of the neutron spectral hardening. The second factor that affects the CVR is reduced capture by the coolant when the coolant voiding occurs. To improve the CVR, many ideas and concepts have been proposed, which include introduction of an internal blanket, spectrum softening, or increasing the neutron leakage. These ideas may reduce the CVR, but they deteriorate the neutron economy. Another potential solution is to adopt a passive safety injection device such as the ARC (autonomous reactivity control) system, which is still under development. In this paper, two new concepts of passive safety devices are proposed. The devices are called FAST (Floating Absorber for Safety at Transient) and SAFE (Static Absorber Feedback Equipment). Their purpose is to enhance the negative reactivity feedback originating from the coolant in fast reactors. SAFE is derived to balance the positive reactivity feedback due to sodium coolant temperature increases. It has been demonstrated that SAFE allows a low-leakage SFR to achieve a self-shutdown and self-controllability even though the generic coolant temperature coefficient is quite positive and the coolant void reactivity can be largely managed by the new FAST device. It is concluded that both FAST and SAFE devices will improve substantially the fast reactor safety and they deserve more detailed investigations.

  11. Safety catching device for pipes in missile shielding cylinders of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hering, S.; Doll, B.

    1976-01-01

    The safety catching device consists of a steel wire passed in U-shape around the pipe to be caught and supported by two anchor ties embedded in the concrete of the missile shielding cylinder. This flexible catching device is to cause the energy released in case of a pipe rupture to be absorbed and no dangerous bending shesses to be transferred to the walls of the missile shielding cylinder. (UWI) [de

  12. Performance Verification for Safety Injection Tank with Fluidic Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yune, Seok Jeong; Kim, Da Yong

    2014-01-01

    In LBLOCA, the SITs of a conventional nuclear power plant deliver excessive cooling water to the reactor vessel causing the water to flow into the containment atmosphere. In an effort to make it more efficient, Fluidic Device (FD) is installed inside a SIT of Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR 1400). FD, a complete passive controller which doesn't require actuating power, controls injection flow rates which are susceptible to a change in the flow resistance inside a vortex chamber of FD. When SIT Emergency Core Cooling (ECC) water level is above the top of the stand pipe, the water enters the vortex chamber through both the top of the stand pipe and the control ports resulting in injection of the water at a large flow rate. When the water level drops below the top of the stand pipe, the water only enters the vortex chamber through the control ports resulting in vortex formation in the vortex chamber and a relatively small flow injection. Performance verification of SIT shall be carried out because SITs play an integral role to mitigate accidents. In this paper, the performance verification method of SIT with FD is presented. In this paper, the equations for calculation of flow resistance coefficient (K) are induced to evaluate on-site performance of APR 1400 SIT with FD. Then, the equations are applied to the performance verification of SIT with FD and good results are obtained

  13. Youths operating all-terrain vehicles--implications for safety education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgus, Shari K; Madsen, Murray D; Sanderson, Wayne T; Rautiainen, Risto H

    2009-01-01

    All-terrain vehicle (ATV) use has increased in recent years. ATV injuries and deaths have also increased, particularly among youth. The authors administered a survey at a National FFA convention to identify safety-related behaviors, injuries, and effects of ATV safety training. There were 624 participants aged 12 to 20 with a median age of 16; 56% were male and 69% lived on a farm. The median age for first riding an ATV was 9. ATV size recommendations were rarely observed; nearly all ATVs operated by youth less than 16 years of age were over 90 cc. Safety-related behaviors were reported as follows: always wearing a helmet (24%), never taking passengers (12%), never riding as a passenger (16%), and never riding on paved road (19%). A small percentage (22%) had participated in ATV safety training; 41% were willing, but 46% said such training was not available. ATV training was positively associated with always wearing a helmet (odds ratio [OR]: 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-2.63), never taking passengers (OR: 2.31, 95% CI: 1.36-3.91), never riding as a passenger (OR: 3.02, 95% CI: 1.90-4.79), and never riding on paved road (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 0.99-2.50). However, training was also associated with an increase in injuries (OR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.31-2.94), although this effect was not found in multivariable models. It was not known if the injuries occurred before or after the training and no exposure time data were available. Gender differences were found in behaviors and injury rates (males 37%, females 20%). The results suggest ATV safety training improved behaviors. Gender differences in operation, behaviors, and injuries should be considered in training.

  14. White paper: Preliminary assessment of LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety issues (Revision 1). Topical report, April-August 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powars, C.; Lucher, D.; Moyer, C.; Browning, L.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the potential of LNG as a vehicle fuel, to determine market niches, and to identify needed technology improvements. The white paper is being issued when the work is approximately 30 percent complete to preview the study direction, draw preliminary conclusions, and make initial recommendations. Interim findings relative to LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety are presented. It is important to decide if heavier hydrocarbons should be allowed in LNG vehicle fuel. Development of suitable refueling couplings and vehicle fuel supply pressure systems are recommended. Initial economics analyses considered transit buses and pickup and delivery trucks fueled via onsite liquefiers and imported LNG. Net user costs were more than (but in some cases close to) those for diesel fuel and gasoline. Lowering the cost of small-scale liquefiers would significantly improve the economics of LNG vehicles. New emissions regulations may introduce considerations beyond simple cost comparisons. LNG vehicle safety and available accident data are reviewed. Consistent codes for LNG vehicles and refueling facilities are needed

  15. Probabilistic safety analysis about the radiation risk for the driver in a fast-scan container/vehicle inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junli; Zhu Guoping; Ming Shenjin; Cao Yanfeng

    2008-01-01

    A new Container/Vehicle Inspection System called fast-scan inspection system has been developed and used in some countries, which has a special advantage in scanning efficiency of 200 - 400 containers per hour. However, for its unique scanning mode, the fast-scan inspection system causes some worries about the radiation risk for the truck drivers, who will drive the container truck to pass through the scanning tunnel and might be exposed by the radiation beam in accidents. A PSA analysis, which has been widely used to evaluate the safety of nuclear power plant in the past, is presented here to estimate the probability of accidental exposure to the driver and evaluate the health risk. The fault tree and event tree analysis show that the probability of accidental exposure to the driver is pretty low and the main failure contributions are human errors and scanning control devices failures, which provides some recommendations for the further improvement about this product. Furthermore, on the basic of ICRP No.60 and 76 reports, the health risk to the truck driver is only about 4.0x10 -14 /a. Compared with the exempt level of 5x10 -7 /a, it can be concluded that the fast-scan system is safe enough for the truck driver. (author)

  16. Research Devices Maintenance Programs and Safety Network Infrastructures in Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainudin Jaafar; Muhammad Zahidee Taat; Ishak Mansor

    2015-01-01

    Instrumentation and Automation Center (PIA) is responsible in carrying out maintenance work for building safety infrastructure and area for nuclear scientific and research work. Care cycle and nuclear scientific tools starting from the preparation of specifications until devices disposal- to get the maximum output from devices therefore PIA has introduced Effective and Comprehensive Maintenance Plan under Management/ Trust/ Development/ Science Fund budgets and also user, Asset Management, caring and handling of the devices. This paper also discussed more on case study related to using and handling so that it can be guidance and standard when its involving mishandling, improper maintenance, inadequacy of supervision and others including improvement suggestion programs. (author)

  17. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  18. Risk assessment of medical devices: evaluation of microbiological and toxicological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorpema, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Safety assessment of medical devices includes sterilization and biological evaluation or biocompatability testing. Sterilization by ETO gas is criticised for their carcinogenic potency or even banned. Mutual acceptance of biological evaluation test results is promoted by a laboratory accreditation and qualification program. (Author)

  19. Safety motion increase of trains by improvement diagnostics process devices of railway automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M.Bondarenko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The complex use of methods of nondestructive check for the automated diagnostics electromagnetic relays of railway automation the first class reliability is offered. The methods determination of their mechanical parameters are resulted, that allows to exclude a human factor from the control, promote reliability of devices railway automation and safety motion of railway transport.

  20. The Challenges of Balancing Safety and Security in Implantable Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzis, Konstantinos; Jones, Richard W; Despotou, George

    2016-01-01

    Modern Implantable Medical Devices (IMDs), implement capabilities that have contributed significantly to patient outcomes, as well as quality of life. The ever increasing connectivity of IMD's does raise security concerns though there are instances where implemented security measures might impact on patient safety. The paper discusses challenges of addressing both of these attributes in parallel.

  1. Safety and effectiveness considerations for clinical studies of visual prosthetic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ethan D.

    2007-03-01

    With the advent of new designs of visual prostheses for the blind, FDA is faced with developing guidance for evaluating their engineering, safety and patient performance. Visual prostheses are considered significant risk medical devices, and their use in human clinical trials must be approved by FDA under an investigation device exemption (IDE). This paper contains a series of test topics and design issues that sponsors should consider in order to assess the safety and efficacy of their device. The IDE application includes a series of pre-clinical and clinical data sections. The pre-clinical section documents laboratory, animal and bench top performance tests of visual prostheses safety and reliability to support a human clinical trial. The materials used in constructing the implant should be biocompatible, sterile, corrosion resistant, and able to withstand any forces exerted on it during normal patient use. The clinical data section is composed of items related to patient-related evaluation of device performance. This section documents the implantation procedure, trial design, statistical analysis and how visual performance is assessed. Similar to cochlear implants, a visual prosthesis is expected to last in the body for many years, and good pre-clinical and clinical testing will help ensure its safety, durability and effectiveness.

  2. Connected vehicle assessment. Vehicle electrification and the smart grid : the supporting role of safety and mobility services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Electric Vehicles are the only type of cars that get cleaner over time, as electrical power generation begins to convert slowly over time to lower-polluting energy sources. Hybrids, plug-in hybrids, and battery electrics are conservatively esti...

  3. Noise abatement and traffic safety: The trade-off of quieter engines and pavements on vehicle detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, C; Freitas, E; Ferreira, J P; Raimundo, I D; Santos, J A

    2013-03-01

    Road traffic sounds are a major source of noise pollution in urban areas. But recent developments such as low noise pavements and hybrid/electric engine vehicles cast an optimistic outlook over such an environmental problem. However, it can be argued that engine, tire, and road noise could be relevant sources of information to avoid road traffic conflicts and accidents. In this paper, we analyze the potential trade-offs of traffic-noise abatement approaches in an experimental study, focusing for the first time on the impact and interaction of relevant factors such as pavement type, vehicle type, listener's age, and background noise, on vehicle detection levels. Results reveal that vehicle and pavement type significantly affect vehicle detection. Age is a significant factor, as both younger and older people exhibit lower detection levels of incoming vehicles. Low noise pavements combined with all-electric and hybrid vehicles might pose a severe threat to the safety of vulnerable road users. All factors interact simultaneously, and vehicle detection is best predicted by the loudness signal-to-noise ratio. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Device for generating auxiliary electrical energy on a vehicle. Anordnung zum Erzeugen elektrischer Hilfsenergie auf einem Fahrzeug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenberg, A

    1980-10-23

    The invention refers to a device for generating auxiliary electrical energy in a generator, which is situated in a vehicle, particularly a magnetic levitating vehicle (MAGLEV vehicle) connected to a magnetic pole rotor. This magnetic pole rotor is moved without touching relative to a fixed motor track made as a track, where, using the electro-dynamic interaction between the magnetic pole rotor and the track motor part, the torque generated by the magnetic pole rotor is transmitted to the generator. The purpose of the invention is to introduce the generation of auxiliary electrical energy on board vehicles without using propellers without contact and without a wandering field winding from vehicle movement. According to the invention, this is achieved by the track motor part being an inactive electrically conducting rail and the torque being transmitted using the eddy current effect. The magnetic pole rotor is made as a magnetic pole rotor without iron and is arranged above an electrically conducting support rail of an electrodynamic support system.

  5. All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) on the road: a serious traffic safety and public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Gerene; Jennissen, Charles; Harland, Karisa; Ellis, David; Buresh, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    On-road all-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes are frequent occurrences that disproportionately impact rural communities. These crashes occur despite most states having laws restricting on-road ATV use. A number of overall risk factors for ATV-related injuries have been identified (e.g., lack of helmet, carrying passengers). However, few studies have determined the relative contribution of these and other factors to on-road crashes and injuries. The objective of our study was to determine whether there were differences between on- and off-road ATV crashes in their demographics and/or mechanisms and outcomes of injuries. Data were derived from our statewide ATV injury surveillance database (2002-2009). Crash location and crash and injury mechanisms were coded using a modification of the Department of Transportation (DOT) coding system. Descriptive analyses and statistical comparisons (chi-square test) of variables were performed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine relative risk. 976 records were included in the final analysis, with 38 percent of the injured individuals from on-road crashes. Demographics were similar for crashes at each location, with approximately 80 percent males, 30 percent under the age of 16, and 15 percent passengers. However, females and youths under 16 were over 4 times more likely to be passengers (P ≤ 0.0001), regardless of crash location. Compared to those off-road, on-road crash victims were approximately 10 times more likely to be involved in a vehicle-vehicle collision (P road crashes were also twice as likely to test positive for alcohol as those off-road (P road victims were only half as likely to be helmeted (P road crashes involved a collision with another vehicle, suggesting that ATVs on the road represent a potential traffic safety concern. Of note, helmets were associated with reduced risk for the number and severity of brain injuries, providing further support for the importance of helmet use. Finally

  6. Automated and connected vehicle (AV/CV) test bed to improve transit, bicycle, and pedestrian safety : concept of operations plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This document presents the Concept of Operations (ConOps) Plan for the Automated and Connected Vehicle (AV/CV) Test Bed to Improve Transit, Bicycle, and Pedestrian Safety. As illustrated in Figure 1, the plan presents the overarching vision and goals...

  7. 10 CFR 32.101 - Schedule B-prototype tests for luminous safety devices for use in aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....101 Schedule B—prototype tests for luminous safety devices for use in aircraft. An applicant for a... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Schedule B-prototype tests for luminous safety devices for use in aircraft. 32.101 Section 32.101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES...

  8. U29: commercial vehicle secure network for safety and mobility applications final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    The main objective of this project is to develop a secure, reliable, high throughput and integrated wireless network for Vehicle-To-Vehicle (V2V), Vehicle-To-Infrastructure (V2I) and intra-vehicle communications. Novel techniques and communication pr...

  9. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

  10. Sharing Data between Mobile Devices, Connected Vehicles and Infrastructure Task 4 / Task 10 : System Architecture and Design Document (SA/DD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-27

    This report describes the system architecture and design of the Experimental Prototype System (EPS) for the demonstration of the use of mobile devices in a connected vehicle environment. Specifically, it defines the system structure and behavior, the...

  11. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 658 - Devices That Are Excluded From Measurement of the Length or Width of a Commercial Motor Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; (v) Tarp basket; (w) Tire carrier; and (x) Uppercoupler. 2. Devices excluded from length measurement... measurement are side rails running the length of the vehicle and rear doors, provided the only function of the...

  12. Passive safety device and internal short tested method for energy storage cells and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Matthew; Darcy, Eric; Long, Dirk; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-22

    A passive safety device for an energy storage cell for positioning between two electrically conductive layers of the energy storage cell. The safety device also comprising a separator and a non-conductive layer. A first electrically conductive material is provided on the non-conductive layer. A first opening is formed through the separator between the first electrically conductive material and one of the electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device. A second electrically conductive material is provided adjacent the first electrically conductive material on the non-conductive layer, wherein a space is formed on the non-conductive layer between the first and second electrically conductive materials. A second opening is formed through the non-conductive layer between the second electrically conductive material and another of the electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device. The first and second electrically conductive materials combine and exit at least partially through the first and second openings to connect the two electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device at a predetermined temperature.

  13. Framework conditions and requirements to ensure the technical functional safety of reprocessed medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Marc

    2008-09-03

    Testing and restoring technical-functional safety is an essential part of medical device reprocessing. Technical functional tests have to be carried out on the medical device in the course of the validation of reprocessing procedures. These ensure (in addition to the hygiene tests) that the reprocessing procedure is suitable for the medical device. Functional tests are, however, also a part of reprocessing procedures. As a stage in the reprocessing, they ensure for the individual medical device that no damage or other changes limit the performance. When determining which technical-functional tests are to be carried out, the current technological standard has to be taken into account in the form of product-specific and process-oriented norms. Product-specific norms primarily define safety-relevant requirements. The risk management method described in DIN EN ISO 14971 is the basis for recognising hazards; the likelihood of such hazards arising can be minimised through additional technical-functional tests, which may not yet have been standardised. Risk management is part of a quality management system, which must be bindingly certified for manufacturers and processors of critical medical devices with particularly high processing demands by a body accredited by the competent authority.

  14. Design and construction of safety devices utilizing methods of measurement and control engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, B; Weidlich, S

    1982-08-01

    This article considers a proposed concept for the design and construction of measurement and control devices for the safety of chemical plants with the aim of preventing danger to persons and the environment and damage. Such measurement and control devices are generally employed when primary measures adopted for plant safety, such as safety valves, collection vessels, etc. are not applicable or insufficient by themselves. The concept regards the new sheet no. 3 of the VDI/VDE code draft 2180 ''Safety of chemical engineering plant'' and proposes a further subdivision of class A into safety classes A0, A1, and A2. Overall, it is possible, on the basis of the measures for raising the availability of measurement and control equipment which are presented in this article, to make selection appropriate to the potential danger involved. The proposed procedure should not, however, be regarded as a rigid scheme but rather as leading to a systematic view and supporting decisions resting on sound operating experience.

  15. Safety evaluation of stamp type digital microneedle devices in hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kui Young; Jang, Woo Sun; Lim, Yun Young; Ahn, Joo Hee; Lee, Sang Jin; Kim, Chan Woong; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2013-02-01

    Microneedles provide a minimally invasive means to transport molecules into the skin. A number of specific strategies have been employed to use microneedles for transdermal delivery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety of two new digital microneedle devices (Digital Hand® and Digital Pro®; Bomtech Electronics Co., Ltd., Seoul, Korea) for the perforation of skin in skin-hairless-1 mice. This device replaces conventional needles and is designed specifically for intradermal delivery. We used two newly developed digital microneedle devices to perforate the skin of skin-hairless-1 mice. We conducted a comparative study of the two digital microneedle devices and DTS® (Disk type-microneedle Therapy System; DTS lab., Seoul, Korea). To evaluate skin stability, we performed visual and dermatoscopic inspections, measurements of transepidermal water loss, and biopsies. The two novel digital microneedle devices did not induce significant abnormalities of the skin on visual or dermatoscopic inspection, regardless of needle size (0.25~2.0 mm). No significant histopathological changes, such as inflammatory cell infiltration, desquamation of the stratum corneum, or disruption of the basal layer, were observed. The digital microneedle devices and microneedle therapy system produced similar results on measures of skin stability. These two novel digital microneedle devices are safe transdermal drug delivery systems.

  16. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 1, Cell and battery safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohi, J M

    1992-09-01

    This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD&D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers cell design and engineering as the basis of safety for Na/S batteries and describes and assesses the potential chemical, electrical, and thermal hazards and risks of Na/S cells and batteries as well as the RD&D performed, under way, or to address these hazards and risks. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, universities, and private industry. Subsequent volumes will address environmental, health, and safety issues involved in shipping cells and batteries, using batteries to propel electric vehicles, and recycling and disposing of spent batteries. The remainder of this volume is divided into two major sections on safety at the cell and battery levels. The section on Na/S cells describes major component and potential failure modes, design, life testing and failure testing, thermal cycling, and the safety status of Na/S cells. The section on batteries describes battery design, testing, and safety status. Additional EH&S information on Na/S batteries is provided in the appendices.

  17. An overview of review guidelines for HDL programmable devices in nuclear safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komanduri, Raghavan; Srivani, L.; Thirugnana Murthy, D.

    2013-01-01

    HDL programmable devices viz. CPLDs and FPGAs are increasingly being used to implement digital designs in the I and C systems performing safety functions of nuclear power plants. Synthesizable RTL descriptions manually written in HDLs are the first step in developing industry standard large scale digital designs. The reliability of the implementation is determined by the methodologies followed by the designer during development. Very few guidelines on HPD design practices, specific to nuclear industry are available. This paper presents an overview of the existing guidelines such as IEC 62566 and U.S. NRC's 'Review guidelines for FPGAs in nuclear power plant safety systems'. (author)

  18. An experimental study of the flow characteristics of fluidic device in a passive safety injection tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seok; Song, Chul Hwa; Won, Suon Yeon; Min, Kyong Ho; Chung, Moon Ki

    1998-01-01

    It is considered to adopt passive safety injection tank (SIT) as a enhanced safety feature in KNGR. Passive SIT employs a vortex chamber as a fluidic device, which control injection flow rate passively by the variation of flow resistance produced by vortex intensity within the vortex chamber. To investigate the flow characteristics of the vortex chamber many tests have been carried out by using small-scale test facility. In this report the effects of geometric parameters of vortex chamber on discharge flow characteristics and the velocity measurement result of flow field, measured by PIV, are presented and discussed. (author). 25 refs., 11 tabs., 31 figs

  19. Retrospective review of adverse incidents involving passengers seated in wheeled mobility devices while traveling in large accessible transit vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Karen L; Bertocci, Gina

    2010-04-01

    Characterize wheeled mobility device (WhMD) adverse incidents on large accessible transit vehicles (LATVs) based on vehicle motion, WhMD activity during incident, incident scenario and injury. Retrospective records review. WhMD passengers traveling on LATVs while remaining seated in their. Adverse incidents characterized based on vehicle motion, WhMD activity during incident, and incident scenario. Injury characterized based on outcome, medical attention sought, vehicle activity, WhMD activity and incident scenario. 115 WhMD-related incident reports for years 2000-2005 were analyzed. Most incidents occurred when the LATV was stopped (73.9%), during ingress/egress (42.6%), and at the securement station (33.9%) when the LATV was moving. The combination of WhMD tipping and passenger falling (43.4%) occurred most frequently, and was 1.8 times more likely to occur during ingress/egress than at the securement station. One-third (33.6%) of all incidents resulted in injury, and injuries were equally distributed between ingress/egress (43.6%) and at the securement station (43.6%). WhMD users have a greater chance of incurring injury during ingress/egress than during transit. Research is needed to objectively assess real world transportation experiences of WhMD passengers, and to assess the adequacy of existing federal legislation/guidelines for accessible ramps used in public transportation. Copyright 2009 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Safety and interaction of patients with implantable cardiac defibrillators driving a hybrid vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondato, Fernando; Bazzell, Jane; Schwartz, Linda; Mc Donald, Bruce W; Fisher, Robert; Anderson, S Shawn; Galindo, Arcenio; Dueck, Amylou C; Scott, Luis R

    2017-01-15

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) can affect the function of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD). Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) have increased popularity and are a potential source of EMI. Little is known about the in vivo effects of EMI generated by HEV on ICD. This study evaluated the in vivo interaction between EMI generated by HEV with ICD. Thirty patients (73±9 y/o; 80% male) with stable ICD function were exposed to EMI generated by a Toyota Prius Hybrid®. The vehicle was lifted above the ground, allowing safe changes in engine rotation and consequent variations in electromagnetic emission. EMI was measured (NARDA STS® model EHP-50C) and expressed in A/m (magnetic), Volts/m (electrical), and Hertz (frequency). Six positions were evaluated: driver, front passenger, right and left back seats, outside, at the back and front of the car. Each position was evaluated at idle, 30 mph, 60 mph and variable speeds (acceleration-deceleration-brake). All ICD devices were continuously monitored during the study. The levels of EMI generated were low (highest mean levels: 2.09A/m at right back seat at 30 mph; and 3.5V/m at driver seat at variable speeds). No episode of oversensing or inadvertent change in ICD programming was observed. It is safe for patients with ICD to interact with HEV. This is the first study to address this issue using an in vivo model. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the interaction of different models of HEV or electric engine with ICD or unipolar pacemakers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Safety, efficacy, and performance of implanted recycled cardiac rhythm management (CRM) devices in underprivileged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Reema; Ghanbari, Hamid; Feldman, Dustin; Menesses, Daniel; Rivas, Daniel; Zakhem, Nicole C; Duarte, Carlos; Machado, Christian

    2011-06-01

    Patients in underdeveloped nations have limited access to life-saving medical technology including cardiac rhythm management (CRM) devices. We evaluated alternative means to provide such technology to this patient population while assessing the safety and efficacy of such a practice. Patients in the United States with clinical indications for extraction of CRM devices were consented. Antemortem CRM devices were cleaned and sterilized following a protocol established at our institution. Surveillance in vitro cultures were performed for quality assurance. The functional status of pulse generators was tested with a pacing system analyzer to confirm at least 70% battery life. Most generators were transported, in person, to an implanting institution in Nicaragua. Recipients with a Class I indication for CRM implantation, and meeting economical criteria set forth, were consented for implantation of a recycled device. Between 2003 and 2009, implantation was performed in 17 patients with an average age of 42.1 ± 20.3 years. Of the 17 patients, nine were male and eight were female. Mean follow-up was 68 ± 38 months. Device evaluation occurred prior to discharge, 4 weeks post implantation, and every 6 months thereafter. There were three deaths during the follow-up period secondary to myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure. Hematoma formation occurred in one patient. No infections, early battery depletion, or device malfunction were identified during follow-up. Our case series is the longest follow-up of recipients of recycled antemortem CRM devices. Our findings support the feasibility and safety of this alternative acquisition of life-saving technology. ©2011, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Leaving patients to their own devices? Smart technology, safety and therapeutic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Anita; Quick, Oliver

    2018-03-06

    This debate article explores how smart technologies may create a double-edged sword for patient safety and effective therapeutic relationships. Increasing utilization of health monitoring devices by patients will likely become an important aspect of self-care and preventive medicine. It may also help to enhance accurate symptom reports, diagnoses, and prompt referral to specialist care where appropriate. However, the development, marketing, and use of such technology raise significant ethical implications for therapeutic relationships and patient safety. Drawing on lessons learned from other direct-to-consumer health products such as genetic testing, this article explores how smart technology can also pose regulatory challenges and encourage overutilization of healthcare services. In order for smart technology to promote safer care and effective therapeutic encounters, the technology and its utilization must be safe. This article argues for unified regulatory guidelines and better education for both healthcare providers and patients regarding the benefits and risks of these devices.

  3. Fuel cell powered vehicles using supercapacitors-device characteristics, control strategies, and simulation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, H.; Burke, A.F. [Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The fuel cell powered vehicle is one of the most attractive candidates for the future due to its high efficiency and capability to use hydrogen as the fuel. However, its relatively poor dynamic response, high cost and limited life time have impeded its widespread adoption. With the emergence of large supercapacitors (also know as ultracapacitors, UCs) with high power density and the shift to hybridisation in the vehicle technology, fuel cell/supercapacitor hybrid fuel cell vehicles are gaining more attention. Fuel cells in conjunction with supercapacitors can create high power with fast dynamic response, which makes it well suitable for automotive applications. Hybrid fuel cell vehicles with different powertrain configurations have been evaluated based on simulations performed at the Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California-Davis. The following powertrain configurations have been considered: (a)Direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) without energy storage (b)FCVs with supercapacitors directly connected in parallel with fuel cells (c)FCVs with supercapacitors coupled in parallel with fuel cells through a DC/DC converter (d)FCVs with fuel cells connected to supercapacitors via a DC/DC converter. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Analysis of the dynamics of movement of the landing vehicle with an inflatable braking device on the final trajectory under the influence of wind load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koryanov, V.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Harri, A.-M.; Heilimo, J.; Haukka, H.; Aleksashkin, S.

    2015-10-01

    This research work is devoted to analysis of angular motion of the landing vehicle (LV) with an inflatable braking device (IBD), taking into account the influence of the wind load on the final stage of the movement. Using methods to perform a calculation of parameters of angular motion of the landing vehicle with an inflatable braking device based on the availability of small asymmetries, which are capable of complex dynamic phenomena, analyzes motion of the landing vehicle at the final stage of motion in the atmosphere.

  5. Effect of vehicle color and background visibility for improving safety on rural Kansas highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The effect of vehicle color on crash involvement has been an interesting topic for several decades; however, the effect of a vehicles : color on its visibility to drivers has not been studied in detail, especially at rural intersections. There has...

  6. A Multi-dimensional Model for Vehicle Impact on Traffic Safety, Congestion, and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) has recently received great attention in the research : community. It offers a revolutionary vision of transportation, in which a full-scale : communication scheme between vehicles (V2V) and vehicles and in...

  7. Effect of vehicle color and background visibility for improving safety on rural Kansas highways : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The effect of vehicle color on crash involvement has been an interesting topic for several : decades; however, the effect of vehicle color on its visibility to drivers has not been : studied in detail, especially at rural intersections. There has bee...

  8. The design study of the JT-60SU device. No.8. Nuclear shielding and safety design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miya, Naoyuki; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Ushigusa, Kenkichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-03-01

    Results of nuclear shielding design study and safety analysis for the steady-state tokamak device JT-60SU are described. D-T operation (option) for two years is adopted in addition to ten years operation using deuterium. Design work has been done in accordance with general laws for radioisotopes handling in Japan as a guideline of safety evaluation, which is applied to the operation of present JT-60U device. Optimization of the shielding design for the device structure including vacuum vessel has been presented to meet with allowable limits of biological shielding determined in advance. It is shown that JT-60SU can be operated safely in the present JT-60 experimental building. It is planed to use 100g/year of tritium in D-T operation phase. A concept of multiple -barrier system is applied to the facility design to prevent propagation of tritium, in which the torus hall and the tritium removal room provide the tertiary confinement. From the design of atmosphere detritiation system for accidental tritium release, it is shown that tritium concentration level can be reduced to the allowable level after two weeks with reasonable compact size components. Safety assessment related to activation of coolant/air, and atmospheric tritium effluents are discussed. (author)

  9. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium polymer electric vehicle batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D; Hammel, C J

    1995-02-01

    Lithium solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) batteries are being investigated by researchers worldwide as a possible energy source for future electric vehicles (EVs). One of the main reasons for interest in lithium SPE battery systems is the potential safety features they offer as compared to lithium battery systems using inorganic and organic liquid electrolytes. However, the development of lithium SPE batteries is still in its infancy, and the technology is not envisioned to be ready for commercialization for several years. Because the research and development (R&D) of lithium SPE battery technology is of a highly competitive nature, with many companies both in the United States and abroad pursuing R&D efforts, much of the information concerning specific developments of lithium SPE battery technology is proprietary. This report is based on information available only through the open literature (i.e., information available through library searches). Furthermore, whereas R&D activities for lithium SPE cells have focused on a number of different chemistries, for both electrodes and electrolytes, this report examines the general environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues common to many lithium SPE chemistries. However, EH&S issues for specific lithium SPE cell chemistries are discussed when sufficient information exists. Although lithium batteries that do not have a SPE are also being considered for EV applications, this report focuses only on those lithium battery technologies that utilize the SPE technology. The lithium SPE battery technologies considered in this report may contain metallic lithium or nonmetallic lithium compounds (e.g., lithium intercalated carbons) in the negative electrode.

  10. The safety of non-incineration waste disposal devices in four hospitals of Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshad, Aliasghar; Gholami, Hamid; Farzadkia, Mahdi; Mirkazemi, Roksana; Kermani, Majid

    2014-01-01

    The safe management of hospital waste is a challenge in many developing countries. The aim of this study was to compare volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions and the microbial disinfectant safety in non-incineration waste disposal devices. VOC emissions and microbial infections were measured in four non-incineration waste disposal devices including: autoclave with and without a shredder, dry heat system, and hydroclave. Using NIOSH and US EPA-TO14 guidelines, the concentration and potential risk of VOCs in emitted gases from four devices were assessed. ProSpore2 biological indicators were used to assess the microbial analysis of waste residue. There was a significant difference in the type and concentration of VOCs and microbial infection of residues in the four devices. Emissions from the autoclave with a shredder had the highest concentration of benzene, ethyl benzene, xylene, and BTEX, and emissions from the hydroclave had the highest concentration of toluene. The highest level of microbial infection was observed in the residues of the autoclave without a shredder. There is an increased need for proper regulation and control of non-incinerator devices and for monitoring and proper handling of these devices in developing countries.

  11. The safety of non-incineration waste disposal devices in four hospitals of Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshad, Aliasghar; Gholami, Hamid; Farzadkia, Mahdi; Mirkazemi, Roksana; Kermani, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background: The safe management of hospital waste is a challenge in many developing countries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions and the microbial disinfectant safety in non-incineration waste disposal devices. Methods: VOC emissions and microbial infections were measured in four non-incineration waste disposal devices including: autoclave with and without a shredder, dry heat system, and hydroclave. Using NIOSH and US EPA-TO14 guidelines, the concentration and potential risk of VOCs in emitted gases from four devices were assessed. ProSpore2 biological indicators were used to assess the microbial analysis of waste residue. Results: There was a significant difference in the type and concentration of VOCs and microbial infection of residues in the four devices. Emissions from the autoclave with a shredder had the highest concentration of benzene, ethyl benzene, xylene, and BTEX, and emissions from the hydroclave had the highest concentration of toluene. The highest level of microbial infection was observed in the residues of the autoclave without a shredder. Conclusions: There is an increased need for proper regulation and control of non-incinerator devices and for monitoring and proper handling of these devices in developing countries. PMID:25000113

  12. 76 FR 55859 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards No. 121; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... during road tests for the braking system, a vehicle equipped with an interlocking axle system or a front... vehicle braking systems, tire characteristics related to lateral force and longitudinal force generation... stopping distance without activating the ABS system by braking the vehicle so that the brake pressure is...

  13. 77 FR 74144 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Event Data Recorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... strategies were used during the event. Additionally, the data can be used to assess whether the vehicle was... the agency regarding their 2010 vehicles and then weighting using 2010 corporate-level vehicle... advance notice of proposed rulemaking in the near future to explore the potential for, and future utility...

  14. Thermal-Responsive Polymers for Enhancing Safety of Electrochemical Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Leow, Wan Ru; Chen, Xiaodong

    2018-03-01

    Thermal runway constitutes the most pressing safety issue in lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors of large-scale and high-power density due to risks of fire or explosion. However, traditional strategies for averting thermal runaway do not enable the charging-discharging rate to change according to temperature or the original performance to resume when the device is cooled to room temperature. To efficiently control thermal runaway, thermal-responsive polymers provide a feasible and reversible strategy due to their ability to sense and subsequently act according to a predetermined sequence when triggered by heat. Herein, recent research progress on the use of thermal-responsive polymers to enhance the thermal safety of electrochemical storage devices is reviewed. First, a brief discussion is provided on the methods of preventing thermal runaway in electrochemical storage devices. Subsequently, a short review is provided on the different types of thermal-responsive polymers that can efficiently avoid thermal runaway, such as phase change polymers, polymers with sol-gel transitions, and polymers with positive temperature coefficients. The results represent the important development of thermal-responsive polymers toward the prevention of thermal runaway in next-generation smart electrochemical storage devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Device for removing hydrogen gas from the safety containment vessel of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiefel, M.

    1983-01-01

    The safe processing of all concentrations of gas mixtures should be possible with such a device using a thermal recombiner of compact construction. A recombiner consisting of a metal case and diverter sheets situated in it is heated by induction. The incoming pipe for the gas mixture enriched with hydrogen and the outgoing pipe for the gas mixture with low hydrogen content are connected together by a three way valve. The third connection to the safety valve takes the larger port of the gas mixture with low hydrogen content back to the safety containment vessel. Sufficient amount of the gas mixture with low hydrogen content is taken via the three way valve to the safety containment vessel to ensure that the hydrogen content of the gas mixture taken to the recombiner remains below the 4% by volume limit. (orig./PW)

  16. Active safety of industrial vehicles - status report 2003; Stand der aktiven Sicherheit von Nutzfahrzeugen - Statusreport 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasner, E.C. von [DaimlerChrysler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Systematic improvement of the safety of industrial vehicles will require the enhanced use of intelligent mechatronic systems, especially those that ensure higher directional stability. Further, improved tyres are required for making full use of these systems. Research on tyre improvements should focus on directional stability without neglecting classic parameters like wear, grip, and comfort. Last but not least, all systems should be available at reasonable cost. [German] Der systematische Weg, um die aktive Sicherheit von Nutzfahrzeugen weiter zu verbessern, wird mehr und mehr den Einsatz von intelligenten mechatronischen Systemen erfordern, besonders bei Systemen fuer die Verbesserung von Fahrstabilitaet von Einzelfahrzeugen und Lastzuegen. Hier spielt in kritischen fahrdynamischen Situationen aber auch die Leistungsfaehigkeit des Reifens eine grosse Rolle. Die Vorteile solcher Sicherheitssysteme koennen deshalb nur genutzt werden, wenn die Leistungsfaehigkeit der Reifen weiter gesteigert werden kann, d.h. die Betonung bei der Reifenentwicklung fuer Nutzfahrzeuge muss auf der Erhoehung der uebertragbaren Seiten- und Laengskraefte unter Beibehaltung des heutigen Schraegwinkel - und Schlupfniveaus liegen. Selbstverstaendlich darf eine solche Weiterentwicklung nicht die ueblichen Reifenparameter, wie z.B. Verschleiss, Rollwiderstand und Komfort negativ beeinflussen. Ein abschliessender Aspekt in diesem Prozess, den man nicht ignorieren kann, ist der Einsatz aller sicherheitsbezogenen Systeme zu einem vernuenftigen und akzeptablen Preis, wobei gleichzeitig die ganzheitliche Oekonomie des Nutzfahrzeugs positiv beeinflusst werden sollte. (orig.)

  17. Analysis of the Relationship Between Vehicle Weight/Size and Safety, and Implications for Federal Fuel Economy Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Thomas P.

    2010-03-02

    This report analyzes the relationship between vehicle weight, size (wheelbase, track width, and their product, footprint), and safety, for individual vehicle makes and models. Vehicle weight and footprint are correlated with a correlation coefficient (R{sup 2}) of about 0.62. The relationship is stronger for cars (0.69) than for light trucks (0.42); light trucks include minivans, fullsize vans, truck-based SUVs, crossover SUVs, and pickup trucks. The correlation between wheelbase and track width, the components of footprint, is about 0.61 for all light vehicles, 0.62 for cars and 0.48 for light trucks. However, the footprint data used in this analysis does not vary for different versions of the same vehicle model, as curb weight does; the analysis could be improved with more precise data on footprint for different versions of the same vehicle model. Although US fatality risk to drivers (driver fatalities per million registered vehicles) decreases as vehicle footprint increases, there is very little correlation either for all light vehicles (0.01), or cars (0.07) or trucks (0.11). The correlation between footprint and fatality risks cars impose on drivers of other vehicles is also very low (0.01); for trucks the correlation is higher (0.30), with risk to others increasing as truck footprint increases. Fatality risks reported here do not account for differences in annual miles driven, driver age or gender, or crash location by vehicle type or model. It is difficult to account for these factors using data on national fatal crashes because the number of vehicles registered to, for instance, young males in urban areas is not readily available by vehicle type or model. State data on all police-reported crashes can be used to estimate casualty risks that account for miles driven, driver age and gender, and crash location. The number of vehicles involved in a crash can act as a proxy of the number of miles a given vehicle type, or model, is driven per year, and is a

  18. Evaluation of the safety and usability of touch gestures in operating in-vehicle information systems with visual occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Huhn; Song, Haewon

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, many automobile manufacturers are interested in applying the touch gestures that are used in smart phones to operate their in-vehicle information systems (IVISs). In this study, an experiment was performed to verify the applicability of touch gestures in the operation of IVISs from the viewpoints of both driving safety and usability. In the experiment, two devices were used: one was the Apple iPad, with which various touch gestures such as flicking, panning, and pinching were enabled; the other was the SK EnNavi, which only allowed tapping touch gestures. The participants performed the touch operations using the two devices under visually occluded situations, which is a well-known technique for estimating load of visual attention while driving. In scrolling through a list, the flicking gestures required more time than the tapping gestures. Interestingly, both the flicking and simple tapping gestures required slightly higher visual attention. In moving a map, the average time taken per operation and the visual attention load required for the panning gestures did not differ from those of the simple tapping gestures that are used in existing car navigation systems. In zooming in/out of a map, the average time taken per pinching gesture was similar to that of the tapping gesture but required higher visual attention. Moreover, pinching gestures at a display angle of 75° required that the participants severely bend their wrists. Because the display angles of many car navigation systems tends to be more than 75°, pinching gestures can cause severe fatigue on users' wrists. Furthermore, contrary to participants' evaluation of other gestures, several participants answered that the pinching gesture was not necessary when operating IVISs. It was found that the panning gesture is the only touch gesture that can be used without negative consequences when operating IVISs while driving. The flicking gesture is likely to be used if the screen moving speed is slower or

  19. Economic benefits of safety-engineered sharp devices in Belgium - a budget impact model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanmore, Emma; Maclaine, Grant; Garin, Fiona; Alonso, Alexander; Leroy, Nicolas; Ruff, Lewis

    2013-11-25

    Measures to protect healthcare workers where there is risk of injury or infection from medical sharps became mandatory in the European Union (EU) from May 2013. Our research objective was to estimate the net budget impact of introducing safety-engineered devices (SEDs) for prevention of needlestick injuries (NSIs) in a Belgian hospital. A 5-year incidence-based budget impact model was developed from the hospital inpatient perspective, comparing costs and outcomes with SEDs and prior-used conventional (non-safety) devices. The model accounts for device acquisition costs and costs of NSI management in 4 areas of application where SEDs are currently used: blood collection, infusion, injection and diabetes insulin administration. Model input data were sourced from the Institut National d'Assurance Maladie-Invalidité, published studies, clinical guidelines and market research. Costs are discounted at 3%. For a 420-bed hospital, 100% substitution of conventional devices by SEDs is estimated to decrease the cumulative 5-year incidence of NSIs from 310 to 75, and those associated with exposure to blood-borne viral diseases from 60 to 15. Cost savings from managing fewer NSIs more than offset increased device acquisition costs, yielding estimated 5-year overall savings of €51,710. The direction of these results is robust to a range of sensitivity and model scenario analyses. The model was most sensitive to variation in the acquisition costs of SEDs, rates of NSI associated with conventional devices, and the acquisition costs of conventional devices. NSIs are a significant potential risk with the use of sharp devices. The incidence of NSIs and the costs associated with their management can be reduced through the adoption of safer work practices, including investment in SEDs. For a Belgian hospital, the budget impact model reports that the incremental acquisition costs of SEDs are offset by the savings from fewer NSIs. The availability of more robust data for NSI reduction

  20. The efficacy and safety of a novel posterior scleral reinforcement device in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Yongguang; Zong, Yao; Zheng, Qishan [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Qian, Garrett [University of New South Wales (Australia); Qian, Xiaobin; Li, Yujie; Shao, Wanwen [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Gao, Qianying, E-mail: gaoqy@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of posterior scleral reinforcement (PSR) device for myopia suppression in rabbits' eyes. Methods: PSR surgery was performed on the normal 12 8-week-old New Zealand white rabbits' right eyes. To determine efficacy of the device, ophthalmic examination would be taken at pre-operation and post-operation (1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year), such as A-ultrasound, diopter and B-ultrasound. Evaluation of safety were based on the following indicators: intraocular pressure (IOP), slit lamp, fundus photography, fundus fluorescein angiography and pathological examination after surgery. The efficacy and safety of PSR device were evaluated by comparison (treated eyes and contralateral eyes) of pre and post-operation. Results: The novel PSR device could significantly shorten axial length (preoperative axial length: 16.36 ± 0.14 mm, postoperative 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year axial lengths: 15.03 ± 0.28 mm, 15.23 ± 0.32 mm, 15.39 ± 0.31 mm, 15.45 ± 0.22 mm and 15.45 ± 0.22 mm; P = 0.00037 < 0.001) in the treated eyes (right eyes) after surgery. At different postoperative time points, the B-ultrasound images showed that the PSR located in appropriate position and supported the posterior sclera very well. At the same time, IOP of treated eyes kept a relatively stable level (preoperative IOP: 12.56 ± 2.01 mmHg, postoperative IOP: ranging from 11.33 ± 1.23 mmHg to 13.44 ± 2.19 mmHg, P > 0.05) post-operation 1 year. During observation period, there was no significant inflammatory reaction and complications such as anterior chamber flare, empyema, endophthalmitis, vitreous hemorrhage, retina detachment and retinal choroid neovascularization by slit lamp, fundus photography and fundus fluorescein angiography. In addition, there were no pathologic changes be found by comparison treated eyes group and contralateral group eyes based on pathological examinations. Conclusions: In vivo study

  1. Analytical method to evaluate fuel consumption of hybrid electric vehicles at balanced energy content of the electric storage devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katrasnik, Tomaz [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Askerceva 6, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-11-15

    Innovative analytically based method to calculate corrected fuel consumption of parallel and series hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) at balanced energy content of the electric storage devices is proposed and validated in the paper. The proposed analytical method is generally applicable and features highly accurate corrected fuel consumption results. It enables calculation of the corrected fuel consumption out of a single fuel consumption test run in a single analytic post-processing step. An additional fuel consumption test run might be needed to obtain highly accurate results if ratio of the energy content deviation of the electric storage devices to the energy used for vehicle propulsion over the test cycle is high. Proposed method enables consideration of non-linear energy flow changes and non-linear HEV component efficiency changes caused by the energy management strategy or by the component characteristics. The method therefore features highly accurate results out of the minimum number of fuel consumption test runs and thus optimizes workload for development or optimization of HEVs. The input data of the method are characteristic energy flows and efficiencies that are derived from the energy flows on selected energy paths of HEVs. (author)

  2. 77 FR 15452 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... proposed NHTSA Guidelines are meant to promote safety by discouraging the introduction of excessively... your statement or other material (e.g., film clips and slides) so that it can be placed into the docket...

  3. Investigations on the braking safety of utility vehicles with retarders; Untersuchungen zur Bremssicherheit von Nutzfahrzeugen mit Retardern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittius, R.

    1996-12-31

    When the use of retarders in utility vehicles increased in the middle of the 80s, the Forschungsvereinigung Automobiltechnik (FAT) commissioned a study on the safety aspect of this braking technology in trucks. Retarders are wear-free permanent brakes that are fitted in the drive transmission system of utility vehicles, thereby generating braking forces only at the wheels of the live shaft. The question of the possible overbraking of the live shafts was just as well investigated as the interaction between the retarder and service brake in so-called integrated braking systems, and both under conditions of low adhesion as well as in the border area of the dynamics of vehicle movement. This subject met with considerable joint interest on the part of the motor vehicle industry as well as of manufacturers of towed vehicles and unit sets. FAT, therefore, commissioned the Institut fuer Kraftfahrwesen of the University of Hannover to carry out a three-phase research project on the braking behaviour and dynamics of vehicle movement of two-axle, single vehicles as well as of two- and three-part trailer trains equipped with retarders. (orig.) [Deutsch] Als Mitte der 80er Jahre der Einsatz von Retardern in Nutzfahrzeugen zunahm, hat die Forschungsvereinigung Automobiltechnik e.V. (FAT) den Sicherheitsaspekt dieser Bremstechnik im Lastzug untersuchen lassen. Retarder sind verschleissfreie Dauerbremsen, die im Triebstrang von Nutzfahrzeugen eingebaut werden und somit Bremskraefte nur an den Raedern der Antriebsachsen erzeugen. Die Frage einer moeglichen Ueberbremsung der Antriebsachsen sollte ebenso untersucht werden wie die Wechselwirkungen zwischen Retarder und Betriebsbremsanlage in sogenannten integrierten Bremssystemen, und zwar sowohl bei niedrigen Kraftschlussbdingungen als auch im fahrdynamischen Grenzbereich. An dieser Thematik bestand ein erhebliches gemeinsames Interesse der Motorwagenindustrie sowie der Anhaenger- und Aggregathersteller. Die FAT hat deshalb das

  4. Field Safety Notes in Product Problems of Medical Devices for Use in Pulmonology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannig, Jürgen; Siekmeier, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    The current European system for medical devices is governed by three EC directives: the Medical Device Directive 93/42/EEC, the In-Vitro Diagnostic Directive 98/79/EC and the Active Implantable Medical Device Directive 90/385/EEC and regulates marketing and post-market surveillance of medical devices in the European Economic Area. In cases of incidents and field safety corrective actions (FSCA) manufacturers have to inform the responsible Competent Authority, which is the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) and the public by field safety notices (FSN). In this study we analyzed FSN of medical devices exclusively serving for diagnostics or treatment in pulmonology (e.g. nebulizers, oxygen concentrators, pulse oximeters, lung function analyzers, and non-active devices for treatment). FSCA and FSN publicized by BfArM in 2005-2013 were analyzed in respect to the MEDDEV 2.12-1 rev 8. In total 41 FSCA were publicized for the included products. German and English FSN were found in 36/35 cases, respectively. FSN were clearly characterized as FSN in 22/20 cases and declaration of the type of action was found in 27/26 cases, respectively. Product names were provided in all cases. Lot numbers or other information for product characterization were available in 7/8 and 26/24 cases, respectively. Detailed information regarding FSCA and product malfunction were found in 27/33 and 36/35 cases, respectively. Information on product related risks with previous use of the affected product was provided in 24/23 cases. In 34/34 cases manufacturers provided information to mitigate product related risks. Requests to pass FSN to persons needing awareness were found in 10/14 cases. Contact data were provided in 30/30 cases. Confirmation that the Competent Authority was informed was found in 12/14 cases and in 19/18 cases a customer confirmation was included. The obtained data suggest that there is an increasing annual number of FSCA and most FSN fulfill the criteria of

  5. Review of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations for Automated Commercial Vehicles: Preliminary Assessment of Interpretation and Enforcement Challenges, Questions, and Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    The Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe) reviewed the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSRs) to identify compliance and enforcement challenges related to the operation of automated commercial vehicles (CMVs) in interstate c...

  6. Comparative assessment of safety indicators for vehicle trajectories on the highway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullakkal Babu, F.A.; Wang, M.; Farah, H.; van Arem, B.; Happee, R.

    2017-01-01

    Safety measurement and analysis have been a challenging and well-researched topic in transportation. Conventionally, surrogate safety measures have been used as safety indicators in simulation models for safety assessment, in control formulations for driver assistance systems, and in data analysis

  7. Safety catching device for pipe lines in missile shielding cylinders of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hering, S.; Doll, B.

    1975-01-01

    The safety catching device for pipes in the missile shielding cylinders consists of a flexible steel cable surrounding the pipe in a distance in U-shape. The arrester cable - which works as a spring and is freely movable in all directions - is attached to the cylinder wall. For this, the ends of the cable are primarily fastened to anchor boxes which are then inserted in a stay tube with the same axis as the cable ends. The anchor boxes are fastened to the outer wall of the missile shielding cylinder by anchor bolts and holding plates. (DG/AK) [de

  8. Safety and efficacy of a low-cost glaucoma drainage device for refractory childhood glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Sushmita; Kataria, Pankaj; Raj, Srishti; Pandav, Surinder Singh; Ram, Jagat

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a low-cost glaucoma drainage device (GDD), Aurolab aqueous drainage implant (AADI), similar in design to the Baerveldt glaucoma implant (BGI), in refractory childhood glaucoma. This prospective interventional study was conducted in a tertiary care postgraduate teaching institute. Children aged glaucoma valve implant in children. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Device for increasing the safety in the environment of nuclear facilities in case of containment failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morlock, G.; Wiesemes, J.; Bachner, D.

    1978-01-01

    In order to increase the safety in the environment of nuclear facilities, e.g. in case of containment failure, with respect to released radioactive material new or existing facilities are covered with ground. The ground material has got a consistency very much reducing the permeability for liquids and gases. In addition irrigation devices for keeping the ground wet and/or intermediate layers of films pervious to water, e.g. perforated sheets, may be provided. Additionally the ground is protected against frost. Especially suited for ground material is clay. (DG) [de

  10. NEW NATURAL SUGAR-BASED SURFACTANTS INTENDED FOR STABILIZATION OF COSMETIC/DERMOPHARMACEUTICAL VEHICLESSAFETY AND EFFICACY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Tasić-Kostov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite a large number of different vehicles available nowadays, conventional emulsion systems remain one of the most commonly used for cosmetic and dermatological preparations. Popularly labelled as skin- and environmentally-friendly, alkyl polyglucoside (APG sugar-based emulsifiers have attracted considerable interest with regard to their dermatological properties, since irritation potential of commonly used emulsifiers could affect the functionality and safety of dermopharmaceutics. The aim of this study was to promote the emulsion based on C16/18 APG as a prospective vehicle for topical drugs and cosmetic actives assessing the safety for use and skin hydration capacity. In accordance with the requirements of newer legislation in vitro, acute skin irritation test was performed using cytotoxicity assay on artificial skin. The results were compared with in vivo data obtained by measuring the skin biophysical parameters, such as: stratum corneum hydration (SCH, erythema index (EI, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL. Parameters were measured prior to (baseline values and upon cessation of a 24-h occlusive treatment in 14 healthy human volunteers. In vivo moisturizing capacity of the emulsions was assessed in 16 healthy volunteers in a long-term trial measuring of SCH. This study showed, investigating the most frequently used APG, that emulsions based on these emulsifiers could probably be promoted as safe cosmetic/ dermopharmaceutical vehicles. Prospective safety for human use with the correlation between in vivo and in vitro findings was shown. In addition, the investigated vehicle per se showed an excellent skin moisturizing capacity which is essential in maintaining healthy skin, but also in improving dermatitis, which follows most pathological skin conditions.

  11. 76 FR 77183 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Theft Protection and Rollaway Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... stress and confusion relating to fundamental differences in how one operates a vehicle. This is... that are used to stop the vehicle engine or other propulsion system and that do not involve the use of...: Attempts to shut down the propulsion system without first moving the gear selection control to the ``park...

  12. 76 FR 15903 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ..., power train, steering system, suspension system, and braking system, in the state that those systems are..., Light Vehicle Brake Systems; 204, Steering Control Rearward Displacement; 201, Occupant Protection in... the incomplete vehicle by final-stage manufacturers, the regulatory system of ``pass-through...

  13. 77 FR 71752 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Optical Character Recognition (OCR) process, thus allowing the agency to search and copy certain portions of your submissions.\\9\\ \\9\\ Optical character recognition (OCR) is the process of converting an image...

  14. 76 FR 48009 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... (AAM), Ford Motor Company (Ford), Nissan North America (Nissan), Toyota Motor North America (Toyota... ``* * * of multiple compartment lamps or * * *''. Toyota requested that paragraph S14.3.1 be modified to use... photometric requirements of DRLs. Valeo claimed that there is no way to reconcile Table 1 of SAE J222 (DEC...

  15. 77 FR 40843 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108; Lamp, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... limiting the impacts of glare. Our current standard primarily treats a headlamp as a separate piece of...) at any time by going to http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the online instructions for accessing the dockets. You may also read the materials at the Docket Management Facility by going to the street address...

  16. 78 FR 54209 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... traffic management organizations use license plate recognition (reading) technology to read license plate... plate recognition technology to read license plate characters. NHTSA seeks comment as to whether... negatively affect the ability of license plate recognition technology to read license plate characters. \\6...

  17. Correct use of safety belts and child restraint devices in cars among children in Goiânia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Roberto Medeiros; Felisbino Júnior, Pedro; Braga, Felipe de Moura; da Costa Neto, Sílvio Dias; Belo, Felipe Marques; Reginaldo, Sandro da Silva; de Moraes, Frederico Barra

    2014-01-01

    to conduct an observational study, by means of campaigns, regarding the use of child restraint devices in cars in Goiânia. this was a cross-sectional study using a convenience sample built up as cases arose. The data were gathered into an Excel spreadsheet and were analyzed descriptively and statistically (SPSS 16.0), using chi-square and taking p vehicles were transporting children on the rear seats, and this was being done correctly in 214 vehicles, i.e. 46.72%. In 2006, of the 410 vehicles analyzed, only 90 of them (21.95%) were transporting children correctly (p vehicles, with an improvement of 25% (p media, and because of legal obligations.

  18. A validation study comparing self-reported travel diaries and objective data obtained from in-vehicle monitoring devices in older drivers with bilateral cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agramunt, Seraina; Meuleners, Lynn; Chow, Kyle Chi; Ng, Jonathon Q; Morlet, Nigel

    2017-09-01

    Advances in technology have made it possible to examine real-world driving using naturalistic data obtained from in-vehicle monitoring devices. These devices overcome the weaknesses of self-report methods and can provide comprehensive insights into driving exposure, habits and practices of older drivers. The aim of this study is to compare self-reported and objectively measured driving exposure, habits and practices using a travel diary and an in-vehicle driver monitoring device in older drivers with bilateral cataract. A cross-sectional study was undertaken. Forty seven participants aged 58-89 years old (mean=74.1; S.D.=7.73) were recruited from three eye clinics over a one year period. Data collection consisted of a cognitive test, a researcher-administered questionnaire, a travel diary and an in-vehicle monitoring device. Participants' driving exposure and patterns were recorded for one week using in-vehicle monitoring devices. They also completed a travel diary each time they drove a motor vehicle as the driver. Paired t-tests were used to examine differences/agreement between the two instruments under different driving circumstances. The data from the older drivers' travel diaries significantly underestimated the number of overall trips (ptravel diaries also significantly overestimated overall driving duration (ptravelled under any of the driving circumstances. The results of this study found that relying solely on self-reported travel diaries to assess driving outcomes may not be accurate, particularly for estimates of the number of trips made and duration of trips. The clear advantages of using in-vehicle monitoring devices over travel diaries to monitor driving habits and exposure among an older population are evident. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Traveling by Bus Instead of Car on Urban Major Roads: Safety Benefits for Vehicle Occupants, Pedestrians, and Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morency, Patrick; Strauss, Jillian; Pépin, Félix; Tessier, François; Grondines, Jocelyn

    2018-04-01

    Some studies have estimated fatality and injury rates for bus occupants, but data was aggregated at the country level and made no distinction between bus types. Also, injured pedestrians and cyclists, as a result of bus travel, were overlooked. We compared injury rates for car and city bus occupants on specific urban major roads, as well as the cyclist and pedestrian injuries associated with car and bus travel. We selected ten bus routes along major urban arterials (in Montreal, Canada). Passenger-kilometers traveled were estimated from vehicle counts at intersections (2002-2010) and from bus passenger counts (2008). Police accident reports (2001-2010) provided injury data for all modes. Injury rates associated with car and bus travel were calculated for vehicle occupants, pedestrians, and cyclists. Injury rate ratios were also computed. The safety benefits of bus travel, defined as the number of vehicle occupant, cyclist, and pedestrian injuries saved, were estimated for each route. Overall, for all ten routes, the ratio between car and bus occupant injury rates is 3.7 (95% CI [3.4, 4.0]). The rates of pedestrian and cyclist injuries per hundred million passenger-kilometers are also significantly greater for car travel than that for bus travel: 4.1 (95% CI [3.5, 4.9]) times greater for pedestrian injuries; 5.3 (95% CI [3.8, 7.6]) times greater for cyclist injuries. Similar results were observed for fatally and severely injured vehicle occupants, cyclists, and pedestrians. At the route level, the safety benefits of bus travel increase with the difference in injury rate associated with car and bus travel but also with the amount of passenger-kilometers by bus. Results show that city bus is a safer mode than car, for vehicle occupants but also for cyclists and pedestrians traveling along these bus routes. The safety benefits of bus travel greatly vary across urban routes; this spatial variation is most likely linked to environmental factors. Understanding the

  20. VEHIOT: Design and Evaluation of an IoT Architecture Based on Low-Cost Devices to Be Embedded in Production Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Jonatan Pajares; González, Lisardo Prieto; Guzman, Javier García; Boada, Beatriz L; Díaz, Vicente

    2018-02-06

    Nowadays, the current vehicles are incorporating control systems in order to improve their stability and handling. These control systems need to know the vehicle dynamics through the variables (lateral acceleration, roll rate, roll angle, sideslip angle, etc.) that are obtained or estimated from sensors. For this goal, it is necessary to mount on vehicles not only low-cost sensors, but also low-cost embedded systems, which allow acquiring data from sensors and executing the developed algorithms to estimate and to control with novel higher speed computing. All these devices have to be integrated in an adequate architecture with enough performance in terms of accuracy, reliability and processing time. In this article, an architecture to carry out the estimation and control of vehicle dynamics has been developed. This architecture was designed considering the basic principles of IoT and integrates low-cost sensors and embedded hardware for orchestrating the experiments. A comparison of two different low-cost systems in terms of accuracy, acquisition time and reliability has been done. Both devices have been compared with the VBOX device from Racelogic, which has been used as the ground truth. The comparison has been made from tests carried out in a real vehicle. The lateral acceleration and roll rate have been analyzed in order to quantify the error of these devices.

  1. VEHIOT: Design and Evaluation of an IoT Architecture Based on Low-Cost Devices to Be Embedded in Production Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Vicente

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, the current vehicles are incorporating control systems in order to improve their stability and handling. These control systems need to know the vehicle dynamics through the variables (lateral acceleration, roll rate, roll angle, sideslip angle, etc.) that are obtained or estimated from sensors. For this goal, it is necessary to mount on vehicles not only low-cost sensors, but also low-cost embedded systems, which allow acquiring data from sensors and executing the developed algorithms to estimate and to control with novel higher speed computing. All these devices have to be integrated in an adequate architecture with enough performance in terms of accuracy, reliability and processing time. In this article, an architecture to carry out the estimation and control of vehicle dynamics has been developed. This architecture was designed considering the basic principles of IoT and integrates low-cost sensors and embedded hardware for orchestrating the experiments. A comparison of two different low-cost systems in terms of accuracy, acquisition time and reliability has been done. Both devices have been compared with the VBOX device from Racelogic, which has been used as the ground truth. The comparison has been made from tests carried out in a real vehicle. The lateral acceleration and roll rate have been analyzed in order to quantify the error of these devices. PMID:29415507

  2. VEHIOT: Design and Evaluation of an IoT Architecture Based on Low-Cost Devices to Be Embedded in Production Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Pajares Redondo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the current vehicles are incorporating control systems in order to improve their stability and handling. These control systems need to know the vehicle dynamics through the variables (lateral acceleration, roll rate, roll angle, sideslip angle, etc. that are obtained or estimated from sensors. For this goal, it is necessary to mount on vehicles not only low-cost sensors, but also low-cost embedded systems, which allow acquiring data from sensors and executing the developed algorithms to estimate and to control with novel higher speed computing. All these devices have to be integrated in an adequate architecture with enough performance in terms of accuracy, reliability and processing time. In this article, an architecture to carry out the estimation and control of vehicle dynamics has been developed. This architecture was designed considering the basic principles of IoT and integrates low-cost sensors and embedded hardware for orchestrating the experiments. A comparison of two different low-cost systems in terms of accuracy, acquisition time and reliability has been done. Both devices have been compared with the VBOX device from Racelogic, which has been used as the ground truth. The comparison has been made from tests carried out in a real vehicle. The lateral acceleration and roll rate have been analyzed in order to quantify the error of these devices.

  3. 78 FR 4195 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Mercedes-Benz

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Mercedes-Benz AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with the parts marking requirements of the Theft Prevention..., Exemption from Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard, based on the installation of an antitheft device as...

  4. 75 FR 29812 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Volkswagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Volkswagen AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with the parts marking requirements of..., Exemption from Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard, based on the installation of an antitheft device as...

  5. NUMERICAL STUDY ON COOLING EFFECT POTENTIAL FROM VAPORIZER DEVICE OF LPG VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUJI SETIYO

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Over fuel consumption and increased exhaust gas due to the A/C system have become a serious problem. On the other hand, the LPG-fueled vehicle provides potential cooling from LPG phase changes in the vaporizer. Therefore, this article presents the potential cooling effect calculation from 1998 cm3 spark ignition (SI engine. A numerical study is used to calculate the potential heat absorption of latent and sensible heat transfer during LPG is expanded in the vaporizer. Various LPG compositions are also simulated through the engine speed range from 1000 to 6000 rpm. The result shows that the 1998 cm3 engine capable of generating the potential cooling effect of about 1.0 kW at 1000 rpm and a maximum of up to 1.8 kW at 5600 rpm. The potential cooling effects from the LPG vaporizer contributes about 26% to the A/C system works on eco-driving condition.

  6. Next generation safety performance monitoring at signalized intersections using connected vehicle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Crash-based safety evaluation is often hampered by randomness, lack of timeliness, and rarity of crash : occurrences. This is particularly the case for technology-driven safety improvement projects that are : frequently updated or replaced by newer o...

  7. A Novel Control Algorithm for Integration of Active and Passive Vehicle Safety Systems in Frontal Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wallner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates an approach to integrate active and passive safety systems of passenger cars. Worldwide, the introduction of Integrated Safety Systems and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS is considered to continue the today

  8. 76 FR 36615 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Nissan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Nissan AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... signal to inform the vehicle owner as to the status of the immobilizer device. When the ignition key is...

  9. Potential connected vehicle applications to enhance mobility, safety, and environmental security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The connected vehicle research initiative is the core of the U.S. Department of Transportations intelligent : transportation system research program. The initiative is beginning to gain momentum in the research : community because of the developme...

  10. Older drivers' acceptance of in-vehicle systems and the effect it has on safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Older drivers make up the fastest growing : segment of the : driving population and are : , : in general, unde : rrepresented in : vehicle crashes due to their self : - : restrictive driving habits. : However, as the baby : - : boomer generation : ag...

  11. Ensuring safety in autonomous vehicle legislation in Louisiana : [research project capsule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The states of Michigan, California, Nevada, and Florida, along with the District of Columbia, have : recently passed legislation to allow the use of autonomous motor vehicles on public roads in : their states under restricted conditions. Other states...

  12. Data and methods for studying commercial motor vehicle driver fatigue, highway safety and long-term driver health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Hal S; Blower, Daniel; Cohen, Michael L; Czeisler, Charles A; Dinges, David F; Greenhouse, Joel B; Guo, Feng; Hanowski, Richard J; Hartenbaum, Natalie P; Krueger, Gerald P; Mallis, Melissa M; Pain, Richard F; Rizzo, Matthew; Sinha, Esha; Small, Dylan S; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Wegman, David H

    2018-03-09

    This article summarizes the recommendations on data and methodology issues for studying commercial motor vehicle driver fatigue of a National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine study. A framework is provided that identifies the various factors affecting driver fatigue and relating driver fatigue to crash risk and long-term driver health. The relevant factors include characteristics of the driver, vehicle, carrier and environment. Limitations of existing data are considered and potential sources of additional data described. Statistical methods that can be used to improve understanding of the relevant relationships from observational data are also described. The recommendations for enhanced data collection and the use of modern statistical methods for causal inference have the potential to enhance our understanding of the relationship of fatigue to highway safety and to long-term driver health. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. 'The Closer'-percutaneous vascular suture device: evaluation of safety and performance in neuroangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henk, Christine B.; Grampp, Stephan; Heimberger, Karl; Czerny, Christian; Schindler, Erwin; Mostbeck, Gerhard H.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the use of the suture mediated vascular closure device concerning practicability and safety in clinical angiography practice. Material and methods: One hundred and seventeen patients (59 female, 58 male, mean age 40.9±13.4) underwent percutaneous closure of common femoral arterial puncture sites following diagnostic neuroangiography using the suture device 'the Closer' (Perclose Inc., Redwood City, CA, USA). Primary success, early problems (within 24 h) and late complications were evaluated. Complications were graded as minor and severe with or without need of surgical intervention and categorized by type. Parameters such as age, gender, sheath size and number of previous arterial punctures were evaluated with respect to complications. Results: Percutaneous closure was primary successful in 85% (100/117). The overall complication rate was 32% (28% mild n=35, 4% severe n=6, which needed surgical intervention). All but one problem occurred within the first 24 h after the suture. Additional manual compression was necessary in 32 cases (25%). There was no significant difference in age and gender between the groups with and without complications. Sheath size was significantly larger (P<0.01) and numbers of preceding angiograms were significantly higher (P<0.01) in the complications group compared with uncomplicated cases. Conclusion: The evaluated percutaneous vascular suture device is useful in clinical practice but limitations concerning patient selection seem to emerge in order to avoid complications

  14. Safety analysis of an irradiation device for 99Mo production in RA-3 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerner, Ana Maria; Madariaga, Marcelo; Waldman, Ricardo

    2000-01-01

    The Argentine RA-3 research reactor (5 MW) has been converted to LEU fuel more than nine years ago. Since then, it has been operating with LEU fuel, which has been designed and fabricated at the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) is the institution in charge of the installation safety control. It is under this framework that the ARN has elaborated a neutronic calculation model for the RA-3 core, paying special attention to the device presently used for the irradiation of (HEU) 235 U targets required to obtain 9 '9Mo as a fission product. A regulatory analysis of results is carried out in the framework of ARN standards for fixed experiments. For such purpose, calculated reactivity values associated with such device are compared with recently measured values at the installation. Finally, and according to guidelines established in the first part of this work, a calculation model for a new device proposed by CNEA for the irradiation of metallic (LEU) uranium targets and still at its design stage, is here analysed. (author)

  15. Nuclear criticality safety and time reactivity enhancement aspects of energy amplifier system devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, F [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Rotondelle, Matera (Italy). Direzione INFO

    1995-12-01

    As far as the Rubbia`s and colleagues proposal of innovating Energy Amplifier system (E.A.s.) device driven by a particle beam accelerator is concerned, four basic topics are comprised in the present paper: (1) A short outline of the nuclear aspects of Th-U and U-Pu fuel cycles regarding their general breeding and efficiency features. (2) The needed nuclear criticality control requirements have been studied in terms of safety regulating parameters on the basis of the ThO2 mixed oxides selected as fuel kind for the E.A.s. device technology development. Particular attention is devoted to time evolution of neutron multiplication factor since delayed development of the 233U buildup and so system reactivity are expected in the Th-U cycle. (3) Code E.A.s. device irradiation and post-irradiation modelling for determining higher actinides buildup, fission products formation and fuel consumption trends as function of time, system enrichment degree and flux level parameters. (4) The confirmation, on the basis of the same specific power irradiation, of expected actinides waste obtainment cleaner than the one deriving from the U-Pu cycle utilization. For this end, a model comparison of equivalent enriched fissile nuclides in both cycles has been devised as having, within the range of 0-700 days, ten irradiation periods of about 53 MW/ton specific power and equivalent cooling time post-irradiation periods.

  16. Hydrodynamics of Safety Injection Tank with Fluidic Device in Recent Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Young Seok; Yoo, Seung Hun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Safety Injection Tank (SIT) with Fluidic Device (FD) has been used in several APR1400 nuclear power plants. It was designed to provide a longer passive safety injection than the existing accumulator to improve the safety for Large Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) by changing the injected flow through the FD and the standpipe of the SIT. As a result, high flow injection phase and the subsequent low flow one can be achieved as longer than the existing accumulator. The present paper discusses the major concerns related to SIT hydrodynamics and the directions to resolution recently concerned. Modeling of SIT/FD by total hydraulic resistances, potential of nitrogen intrusion, and effect of initial pressure of SIT testing are included. Based on the discussion, a table of the important phenomena of the SIT/FD was proposed with the relevancy of the calculation models applied. The present paper discussed the SIT hydrodynamics including the modeling of SIT/FD by total hydraulic resistances, potential of nitrogen intrusion, and effect of initial pressure of SIT testing. Also a table of the important phenomena of the SIT/FD was proposed with the relevancy of the calculation models applied. The following conclusions are obtained uncertainty due to the assumption of the total Kfactor as constant for high flow, transition phase, and low flow phase should be considered and nitrogen intrusion phenomena during the transition phase should be considered with a conservatism, especially considering the current situation of nonmeasuring the standpipe level.

  17. Hydrodynamics of Safety Injection Tank with Fluidic Device in Recent Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Young Seok; Yoo, Seung Hun

    2016-01-01

    Safety Injection Tank (SIT) with Fluidic Device (FD) has been used in several APR1400 nuclear power plants. It was designed to provide a longer passive safety injection than the existing accumulator to improve the safety for Large Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) by changing the injected flow through the FD and the standpipe of the SIT. As a result, high flow injection phase and the subsequent low flow one can be achieved as longer than the existing accumulator. The present paper discusses the major concerns related to SIT hydrodynamics and the directions to resolution recently concerned. Modeling of SIT/FD by total hydraulic resistances, potential of nitrogen intrusion, and effect of initial pressure of SIT testing are included. Based on the discussion, a table of the important phenomena of the SIT/FD was proposed with the relevancy of the calculation models applied. The present paper discussed the SIT hydrodynamics including the modeling of SIT/FD by total hydraulic resistances, potential of nitrogen intrusion, and effect of initial pressure of SIT testing. Also a table of the important phenomena of the SIT/FD was proposed with the relevancy of the calculation models applied. The following conclusions are obtained uncertainty due to the assumption of the total Kfactor as constant for high flow, transition phase, and low flow phase should be considered and nitrogen intrusion phenomena during the transition phase should be considered with a conservatism, especially considering the current situation of nonmeasuring the standpipe level

  18. Cognitive Connected Vehicle Information System Design Requirement for Safety: Role of Bayesian Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Ata Khan

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) are gaining acceptance around the world and the connected vehicle component of ITS is recognized as a high priority research and development area in many technologically advanced countries. Connected vehicles are expected to have the capability of safe, efficient and eco-driving operations whether these are under human control or in the adaptive machine control mode of operations. The race is on to design the capability to operate in connected traffic ...

  19. Variable friction device for structural control based on duo-servo vehicle brake: Modeling and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liang; Downey, Austin; Laflamme, Simon; Taylor, Douglas; Ricles, James

    2015-07-01

    Supplemental damping can be used as a cost-effective method to reduce structural vibrations. In particular, passive systems are now widely accepted and have numerous applications in the field. However, they are typically tuned to specific excitations and their performances are bandwidth-limited. A solution is to use semi-active devices, which have shown to be capable of substantially enhanced mitigation performance. The authors have recently proposed a new type of semi-active device, which consists of a variable friction mechanism based on a vehicle duo-servo drum brake, a mechanically robust and reliable technology. The theoretical performance of the proposed device has been previously demonstrated via numerical simulations. In this paper, we further the understanding of the device, termed Modified Friction Device (MFD) by fabricating a small scale prototype and characterizing its dynamic behavior. While the dynamics of friction is well understood for automotive braking technology, we investigate for the first time the dynamic behavior of this friction mechanism at low displacements and velocities, in both forward and backward directions, under various hydraulic pressures. A modified 3-stage dynamic model is introduced. A LuGre friction model is used to characterize the friction zone (Stage 1), and two pure stiffness regions to characterize the dynamics of the MFD once the rotation is reversed and the braking shoes are sticking to the drum (Stage 2) and the rapid build up of forces once the shoes are held by the anchor pin (Stage 3). The proposed model is identified experimentally by subjecting the prototype to harmonic excitations. It is found that the proposed model can be used to characterize the dynamics of the MFD, and that the largest fitting error arises at low velocity under low pressure input. The model is then verified by subjecting the MFD to two different earthquake excitations under different pressure inputs. The model is capable of tracking the

  20. Regulatory Experience of the Embedded Digital Devices for Safety I and C Systems on Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. M.; Lee, H. K.; Park, H. S. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Conventional I and C(Instrumentation and Control) systems are tend to becoming unavailable and being replaced by smart equipment. These smart equipment is usually called embedded digital devices (EDDs) or industrial digital devices of limited functionality. Usually, some of these devices are found embedded in plant equipment such as sensing instrumentation, motors, pumps, actuators and breakers. They typically have a micro-processor, RAM, communication interface, a power source, etc. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) is concerning that these EDDs might exist in procured equipment used in safety systems without the devices having been explicitly identified in procurement documentation. This paper addresses the regulatory experiences of KINS of the EDDs for safety I and C systems and the future works for them. In this paper, we showed regulatory experiences of EDDs which used for safety grade equipment. EDDs might exist in safety grade procured equipment without explicit identification. Undetected defects of EDDs might be the potential safety concerns. EDDs should meet certain specific requirements in order to be selected and used in safety I and C system. We have plan to develop technical positions for identification and qualifying them. The technical position will address, but may not be limited to, quality and reliability, CCFs via software errors, EMC, and CGID for EDDs.

  1. [Road safety in Italy: epidemiology of two-wheeled motor vehicles accidents. National statistics 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Anna; Berzolari, Francesca Gigli; Marinoni, Alessandra

    2004-01-01

    to describe road accidents occurred in Italy focusing, in particular, on two-wheeled motor vehicles. Analysis of road accidents based on current data referring to year 2000. Italy. In Italy, 67,127 two-wheeled motor vehicle accidents occurred in 2000. Two crash types account for 75% of the accidents: side impact and front-side impact. Per one million kilometres travelled 0.4 cars and 1.3 two-wheeled vehicles are involved (0.7 motorcycles and 2.2 mopeds). In 2000 there were 1,229 deaths and 69,543 injured riders. Males up to forty years old are the most represented. The masculinity ratio presents a decreasing trend from motorcycles to mopeds and to cars both for killed people and for injured people. The lethality rate increases with age for all types of vehicles but for mopeds this trend is much more evident. Most of the accident occur in urban road while most of the deaths happen in extra-urban road. Mopeds and motorcycles, which are a small subset of all motor vehicles (approximately 20%), are greatly overrepresented in crashes. Considering the kilometres travelled, the risk to be involved in a crash for mopeds is estimated to be 32.6 times higher than the comparable risk for cars and for motorcycles it is 17 times higher. The risk of death for riders is two times the risk for cars.

  2. Cognitive Connected Vehicle Information System Design Requirement for Safety: Role of Bayesian Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata Khan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent transportation systems (ITS are gaining acceptance around the world and the connected vehicle component of ITS is recognized as a high priority research and development area in many technologically advanced countries. Connected vehicles are expected to have the capability of safe, efficient and eco-driving operations whether these are under human control or in the adaptive machine control mode of operations. The race is on to design the capability to operate in connected traffic environment. The operational requirements can be met with cognitive vehicle design features made possible by advances in artificial intelligence-supported methodology, improved understanding of human factors, and advances in communication technology. This paper describes cognitive features and their information system requirements. The architecture of an information system is presented that supports the features of the cognitive connected vehicle. For better focus, information processing capabilities are specified and the role of Bayesian artificial intelligence is defined for data fusion. Example applications illustrate the role of information systems in integrating intelligent technology, Bayesian artificial intelligence, and abstracted human factors. Concluding remarks highlight the role of the information system and Bayesian artificial intelligence in the design of a new generation of cognitive connected vehicle.

  3. Development of Advanced High Strength Steel for Improved Vehicle Safety, Fuel Efficiency and CO2 Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satendra; Singhai, Mrigandra; Desai, Rahul; Sam, Srimanta; Patra, Pradip Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Global warming and green house gas emissions are the major issues worldwide and their impacts are clearly visible as a record high temperatures, rising sea, and severe `flooding and droughts'. Motor vehicles considered as a major contributor on global warming due to its green house gas emissions. Hence, the automobile industries are under tremendous pressure from government and society to reduce green house gas emission to maximum possible extent. In present work, Dual Phase steel with boron as microalloying is manufactured using thermo-mechanical treatment during hot rolling. Dual phase steel with boron microalloying improved strength by near about 200 MPa than dual phase steel without boron. The boron added dual phase steel can be used for manufacturing stronger and a lighter vehicle which is expected to perform positively on green house gas emissions. The corrosion resistance behavior is also improved with boron addition which would further increase the life cycle of the vehicle even under corrosive atmosphere.

  4. Developments of radiation safety requirements for the management of radiation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Seock; Choi, Jin Ho; Cheong, Yuon Young

    2002-03-01

    The approach of the risk-informed regulatory options was studied to develop the radiation safety requirements for the managements for radiation devices. The task analysis, exposure, accident scenario development, risk analysis, and systematic approach for regulatory options was considered in full, based on the NRC report, 'NUREG/CR-6642', and the translation of its core part was conducted for ongoing research. In this methodology, the diamond tree that includes human factors, etc, additionally with normal event tree, was used. According to the analysis results of this approach, the risk analysis and the development of regulatory options were applied for the electron linear accelerators and the qualitative results were obtained. Because the field user groups were participated in this study could contribute to the basis establishment of the risk-informed regulation policy through securing consensus and inducing particle interests. It will make an important role of establishing the detail plan of ongoing research

  5. Safety implications of a graphite oxidation accident in the compact ignition tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, B.J.; O'Brien, M.H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the possible safety consequences of an air ingress accident for the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) device. An experimental program was undertaken to determine oxidation rates of four nuclear grade graphites in air at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1800 C and flow velocities from 3 to 7 m/s. On the basis of these test results, an analytic model was developed to assess the extent of first wall/divertor protective tile oxidation and the amount of energy released from this oxidation. For CIT, a significant restriction to vacuum vessel air inflow will be provided by the air seals and walls of the surrounding test cells. Under these conditions, the graphite oxidation reaction inside the vacuum vessel will become oxygen starved within minutes of the onset of this event. Since significant oxidation rates were not achieved, the heat release did not elevate structural temperatures to levels of concern with regard to activated material release. 7 refs., 9 figs

  6. Developments of radiation safety requirements for the management of radiation devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Seock [Pohang Accelerator Lab, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jin Ho [Gachun University of Medicine and science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Yuon Young [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2002-03-15

    The approach of the risk-informed regulatory options was studied to develop the radiation safety requirements for the managements for radiation devices. The task analysis, exposure, accident scenario development, risk analysis, and systematic approach for regulatory options was considered in full, based on the NRC report, 'NUREG/CR-6642', and the translation of its core part was conducted for ongoing research. In this methodology, the diamond tree that includes human factors, etc, additionally with normal event tree, was used. According to the analysis results of this approach, the risk analysis and the development of regulatory options were applied for the electron linear accelerators and the qualitative results were obtained. Because the field user groups were participated in this study could contribute to the basis establishment of the risk-informed regulation policy through securing consensus and inducing particle interests. It will make an important role of establishing the detail plan of ongoing research.

  7. Rapid Extrication versus the Kendrick Extrication Device (KED: Comparison of Techniques Used After Motor Vehicle Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucher, Joshua

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The goal of this study was to compare application of the Kendrick Extrication Device (KED versus rapid extrication (RE by emergency medical service personnel. Our primary endpoints were movement of head, time to extrication and patient comfort by a visual analogue scale. Methods: We used 23 subjects in two scenarios for this study. The emergency medical services (EMS providers were composed of one basic emergency medical technician (EMT, one advanced EMT. Each subject underwent two scenarios, one using RE and the other using extrication involving a commercial KED. Results: Time was significantly shorter using rapid extraction for all patients. Angles of head turning were all significantly larger when using RE. Weight marginally modified the effect of KED versus RE on the “angle to right after patient moved to backboard (p= 0.029 and on subjective movement on patient questionnaire (p=0.011. No statistical differences were noted on patient discomfort or pain. Conclusion: This is a small experiment that showed decreased patient neck movement using a KED versus RE but resulted in increased patient movement in obese patients. Further studies are needed to determine if the KED improves any meaningful patient outcomes in the era of increased evidence-based medicine in emergency medical services. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:453–458.

  8. The effect of stimulus modality on signal detection: implications for assessing the safety of in-vehicle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merat, Natasha; Jamson, A Hamish

    2008-02-01

    This study examined the effect of two in-vehicle information systems (IVIS) on signal detection in the visual, auditory, and tactile modalities; established whether the detrimental effects of an IVIS on driving could be quantified by these detection tasks; and examined the effect of stimulus modality on signal detection. The peripheral detection task has been used widely for assessing the effects of an IVIS on driving. However, performance on this task relies on drivers' ability to see a series of LEDs, which can be problematic in field tests (e.g., on sunny days). Participants responded to one of three detection tasks during a simulated driving experiment. The effect of IVIS interaction on these detection tasks was also measured. Reduced performance in the detection tasks was assumed to indicate a decline in drivers' ability to handle sudden events in the driving task. Response time to all detection tasks increased by around 200 ms when drivers performed the IVIS tasks, as compared with baseline driving. Analyses of variance and comparison of effect sizes showed the effects of these two IVISs to be the same across the three detection tasks. These detection tasks are useful for quantifying the safety of an IVIS during driving. The absence of a difference in signal detection by modality suggests that performance on these tasks relies on general attentional resources and is not modality specific. The signal detection tasks employed here should be further investigated for their suitability in assessing the safety of in-vehicle systems.

  9. 75 FR 50958 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcoach Definition; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... operated over 33,000 motorcoaches, they logged nearly 750 million passenger trips, and they traveled over 1..., and Puerto Rico. To be included in FARS, a crash must involve a motor vehicle traveling on a traffic...-occupant within 30 days of the crash. Motorcoaches are identified in FARS as ``cross-country intercity...

  10. 76 FR 2631 - Certification; Importation of Vehicles and Equipment Subject to Federal Safety, Bumper, and Theft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... Management receives them by February 28, 2011. ADDRESSES: Comments should refer to the docket and notice...://www.regulations.gov . Follow the online instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Docket Management... documentary proof of the vehicle's destruction, exportation, or abandonment within 15 days from the date of...

  11. 75 FR 7370 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Door Locks and Door Retention Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... parallel to the vertical plane which passes through the vehicle's longitudinal centerline. Agency Response... that had expressed concern about the opportunity for consumer organizations to be involved in the GTR... GTR process. NHTSA clarified in the final rule that consumer groups have an opportunity to be involved...

  12. 75 FR 17590 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ...-Stage Vehicles A. Introduction B. The Current Certification Scheme Is Not an Unlawful Delegation of...-stage manufacturers.\\20\\ As a group, final-stage manufacturers do not operate in an informational vacuum... that it demonstrated through the submission of IVDs with its petition that NHTSA's market forces theory...

  13. 77 FR 29247 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ...). On January 25, 2005, we received a request for interpretation from Toyota Motor North America, Inc. (Toyota) concerning S4.5.1(e).\\5\\ Toyota's concern was that S4.5.1(e)(1) makes an exception for S4.5.1(e... vehicles certified to meet certain advanced air bag requirements on or after December 1, 2003. Toyota...

  14. 75 FR 68663 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Rear Impact Guards; Rear Impact Protection; Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... nationwide downward trend in fatalities when a passenger vehicle rear-ends a tractor- trailer--neither in... total crashes. The Fatality Accident Reporting System does not list the model year of the trailer. In... submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete Privacy...

  15. 77 FR 71163 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Windshield Zone Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... fully determined. Those influences are more stringent U.S. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE... materials to meet CAFE standards, including materials in and around the hoods of vehicles. Hood design could... evolves in response to CAFE standards. Additionally, in November 2008, the World Forum for Harmonization...

  16. 78 FR 53386 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... ``on'' position (49 U.S.C. 30124). \\2\\ We note that the statutory prohibition restricting the use of... fuel efficient with lower emissions. The petitioner estimated that a 7 pound vehicle weight reduction (by removing knee bolsters) would result in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) savings between 274-406 metric tons...

  17. Safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the PrePex device for adult male circumcision in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Feldblum

    Full Text Available To assess the safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the PrePex device for adult medical male circumcision (MMC in routine service delivery in Kenya.We enrolled 427 men ages 18-49 at one fixed and two outreach clinics. Procedures were performed by trained clinical officers and nurses. The first 50 enrollees were scheduled for six follow-up visits, and remaining men were followed at Days 7 and 42. We recorded adverse events (AEs and time to complete healing, and interviewed men about acceptability and pain.Placement and removal procedures each averaged between 3 and 4 minutes. Self-reported pain was minimal during placement but was fleetingly intense during removal. The rate of moderate/severe AEs was 5.9% overall (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.8%-8.5%, all of which resolved without sequelae. AEs included 5 device displacements, 2 spontaneous foreskin detachments, and 9 cases of insufficient foreskin removal. Surgical completion of MMC was required for 9 men (2.1%. Among the closely monitored first 50 participants, the probability of complete healing by Day 42 was 0.44 (95% CI 0.30-0.58, and 0.90 by Day 56. A large majority of men was favorable about their MMC procedure and would recommend PrePex to friends and family.The PrePex device was effective for MMC in Kenya, and well-accepted. The AE rate was higher than reported for surgical procedures there, or in previous PrePex studies. Healing time is longer than following surgical circumcision. Provider experience and clearer counseling on post-placement and post-removal care should lead to lower AE rates.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01711411.

  18. Operating room fire prevention: creating an electrosurgical unit fire safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, William C; Kimbrough, Bradly A; Luna, Sarah; Maguddayao, Aris J

    2014-08-01

    To reduce the incidence of surgical fires. Operating room fires represent a potentially life-threatening hazard and are triggered by the electrosurgical unit (ESU) pencil. Carbon dioxide is a fire suppressant and is a routinely used medical gas. We hypothesize that a shroud of protective carbon dioxide covering the tip of the ESU pencil displaces oxygen, thereby preventing fire ignition. Using 3-dimensional modeling techniques, a polymer sleeve was created and attached to an ESU pencil. This sleeve was connected to a carbon dioxide source and directed the gas through multiple precisely angled ports, generating a cone of fire-suppressive carbon dioxide surrounding the active pencil tip. This device was evaluated in a flammability test chamber containing 21%, 50%, and 100% oxygen with sustained ESU activation. The sleeve was tested with and without carbon dioxide (control) until a fuel was ignited or 30 seconds elapsed. Time to ignition was measured by high-speed videography. Fires were ignited with each control trial (15/15 trials). The control group median ± SD ignition time in 21% oxygen was 3.0 ± 2.4 seconds, in 50% oxygen was 0.1 ± 1.8 seconds, and in 100% oxygen was 0.03 ± 0.1 seconds. No fire was observed when the fire safety device was used in all concentrations of oxygen (0/15 trials; P fire ignition was 76% to 100%. A sleeve creating a cone of protective carbon dioxide gas enshrouding the sparks from an ESU pencil effectively prevents fire in a high-flammability model. Clinical application of this device may reduce the incidence of operating room fires.

  19. Changes in speed distribution: Applying aggregated safety effect models to individual vehicle speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadeby, Anna; Forsman, Åsa

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of applying two aggregated models (the Power model and the Exponential model) to individual vehicle speeds instead of mean speeds. This is of particular interest when the measure introduced affects different parts of the speed distribution differently. The aim was to examine how the estimated overall risk was affected when assuming the models are valid on an individual vehicle level. Speed data from two applications of speed measurements were used in the study: an evaluation of movable speed cameras and a national evaluation of new speed limits in Sweden. The results showed that when applied on individual vehicle speed level compared with aggregated level, there was essentially no difference between these for the Power model in the case of injury accidents. However, for fatalities the difference was greater, especially for roads with new cameras where those driving fastest reduced their speed the most. For the case with new speed limits, the individual approach estimated a somewhat smaller effect, reflecting that changes in the 15th percentile (P15) were somewhat larger than changes in P85 in this case. For the Exponential model there was also a clear, although small, difference between applying the model to mean speed changes and individual vehicle speed changes when speed cameras were used. This applied both for injury accidents and fatalities. There were also larger effects for the Exponential model than for the Power model, especially for injury accidents. In conclusion, applying the Power or Exponential model to individual vehicle speeds is an alternative that provides reasonable results in relation to the original Power and Exponential models, but more research is needed to clarify the shape of the individual risk curve. It is not surprising that the impact on severe traffic crashes was larger in situations where those driving fastest reduced their speed the most. Further investigations on use of the Power and/or the

  20. Safety belt and mobile phone usage in vehicles in Barcelona (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Martínez-Sánchez

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Our study shows noticeably high prevalence of people not wearing safety belt in the rear seats. Moreover, four out of one hundred drivers still use the mobile phone while driving during a moment of the trip.

  1. A Novel Multi-Sensor Environmental Perception Method Using Low-Rank Representation and a Particle Filter for Vehicle Reversing Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zutao Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental perception and information processing are two key steps of active safety for vehicle reversing. Single-sensor environmental perception cannot meet the need for vehicle reversing safety due to its low reliability. In this paper, we present a novel multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety. The proposed system consists of four main steps, namely multi-sensor environmental perception, information fusion, target recognition and tracking using low-rank representation and a particle filter, and vehicle reversing speed control modules. First of all, the multi-sensor environmental perception module, based on a binocular-camera system and ultrasonic range finders, obtains the distance data for obstacles behind the vehicle when the vehicle is reversing. Secondly, the information fusion algorithm using an adaptive Kalman filter is used to process the data obtained with the multi-sensor environmental perception module, which greatly improves the robustness of the sensors. Then the framework of a particle filter and low-rank representation is used to track the main obstacles. The low-rank representation is used to optimize an objective particle template that has the smallest L-1 norm. Finally, the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking is under control of the proposed vehicle reversing control strategy prior to any potential collisions, making the reversing control safer and more reliable. The final system simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the validity of the proposed multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety.

  2. Securing Public Safety Vehicles: Reducing Vulnerabilities by Leveraging Smart Technology and Design Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    there are technologies available today that would reduce the risk of vehicle theft and misuse by fortifying vulnerabilities. They offer several levels...confirm identity by identify “what I am (what I do)” in the electronic context of “who am I?”80 Furthermore, biometrics is a digital representation of...can build a comprehensive and effective biometric identification system, improve overall performance, improve system robustness, and reduce the

  3. Endovenous mechanochemical ablation of great saphenous vein incompetence using the ClariVein device: a safety study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, R. van; Boersma, D.; Elias, S.; Holewijn, S.; Werson, D.A.; Vries, J.P. de; Reijnen, M.M.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of endovenous mechanochemical ablation (MOCA) for the treatment of great saphenous vein (GSV) incompetence. METHODS: The newly developed ClariVein device uses a technique that combines mechanical endothelial damage using a rotating wire with the

  4. Traffic sounds and cycling safety : the use of electronic devices by cyclists and the quietness of hybrid and electric cars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelling-Konczak, A. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Wee, B. van

    2015-01-01

    The growing popularity of electric devices and the increasing number of hybrid and electric cars have recently raised concerns about the use of auditory signals by vulnerable road users. This paper consolidates current knowledge about the two trends in relation to cycling safety. Both a literature

  5. Safety modelling and testing of lithium-ion batteries in electrified vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jie; Bae, Chulheung; Marcicki, James; Masias, Alvaro; Miller, Theodore

    2018-04-01

    To optimize the safety of batteries, it is important to understand their behaviours when subjected to abuse conditions. Most early efforts in battery safety modelling focused on either one battery cell or a single field of interest such as mechanical or thermal failure. These efforts may not completely reflect the failure of batteries in automotive applications, where various physical processes can take place in a large number of cells simultaneously. In this Perspective, we review modelling and testing approaches for battery safety under abuse conditions. We then propose a general framework for large-scale multi-physics modelling and experimental work to address safety issues of automotive batteries in real-world applications. In particular, we consider modelling coupled mechanical, electrical, electrochemical and thermal behaviours of batteries, and explore strategies to extend simulations to the battery module and pack level. Moreover, we evaluate safety test approaches for an entire range of automotive hardware sets from cell to pack. We also discuss challenges in building this framework and directions for its future development.

  6. Kinetic energy recovery systems in motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwiński, C.

    2016-09-01

    The article draws attention to the increasing environmental pollution caused by the development of vehicle transport and motorization. Different types of design solutions used in vehicles for the reduction of fuel consumption, and thereby emission of toxic gasses into the atmosphere, were specified. Historical design solutions concerning energy recovery devices in mechanical vehicles which used flywheels to accumulate kinetic energy were shown. Developmental tendencies in the area of vehicle manufacturing in the form of hybrid electric and electric devices were discussed. Furthermore, designs of energy recovery devices with electrical energy storage from the vehicle braking and shock absorbing systems were presented. A mechanical energy storing device using a flywheel operating under vacuum was presented, as were advantages and disadvantages of both systems, the limitations they impose on individual constructions and safety issues. The paper also discusses a design concept of an energy recovery device in mechanical vehicles which uses torsion springs as the main components of energy accumulation during braking. The desirability of a cooperation of both the mechanical- and electrical energy recovery devices was indicated.

  7. Feasibility and Safety of Endovascular Stripping of Totally Implantable Venous Access Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heye, Sam; Maleux, Geert; Goossens, G. A.; Vaninbroukx, Johan; Jerôme, M.; Stas, M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of percutaneous stripping of totally implantable venous access devices (TIVAD) in case of catheter-related sleeve and to report a technique to free the catheter tip from vessel wall adherence. Materials and Methods: A total of 37 stripping procedures in 35 patients (14 men, 40%, and 21 women, 60%, mean age 53 ± 14 years) were reviewed. Totally implantable venous access devices were implanted because of malignancy in most cases (85.7%). Catheter-related sleeve was confirmed as cause of persistent catheter dysfunction despite instillation of thrombolytics. A technique to mobilize the catheter tip from the vessel wall was used when stripping with the snare catheter was impossible. Technical success, complication rate, and outcome were noted. Results: A total of 55.9% (n = 19) of the 34 technically successful procedures (91.9%) could be done with the snare catheter. In 15 cases (44.1%), additional maneuvers to free the TIVAD’s tip from the vessel wall were needed. Success rate was not significantly lower before (72.4%) than after (96.7%) implementation of the new technique (P = 0.09). No complications were observed. Follow-up was available in 67.6% of cases. Recurrent catheter dysfunction was found in 17 TIVADs (78.3%) at a mean of 137.7 days and a median of 105 days. Conclusions: Stripping of TIVADs is technically feasible and safe, with an overall success rate of 91.9%. Additional endovascular techniques to mobilize the distal catheter tip from the wall of the superior vena cava or right atrium to allow encircling the TIVAD tip with the snare catheter may be needed in 44.1% of cases.

  8. Healthcare Provider Attitudes of Safety of Intrauterine Devices in the Postpartum Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh-Benoit, Lisa A; Tepper, Naomi K; Zapata, Lauren B; Whiteman, Maura K; Curtis, Kathryn M; Mandel, Michele G; Marchbanks, Polly A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2017-07-01

    Immediate postpartum intrauterine devices (IUDs) have been underutilized in the United States despite their known safety. Understanding how providers' attitudes contribute to underutilization is important in improving access. Our objective was to examine healthcare providers' perceptions of the safety of immediate postpartum IUDs before publication of United States contraceptive guidelines. We analyzed survey data collected from December 2009 to March 2010 from 635 office-based physicians and 1368 Title X clinic providers (overall response rate of 64.8%). Providers were asked how safe they thought copper and levonorgestrel (LNG) IUDs were in postpartum women (very safe, safe, unsafe, very unsafe, and unsure). Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for characteristics associated with considering immediate and delayed postpartum IUDs to be safe. Less than 40% of respondents considered immediate or delayed IUD insertion to be safe. Providers with postpartum IUD insertion to be safe compared with unsafe/unsure (aOR 0.18, 95% CI 0.04-0.84 for copper IUD and aOR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04-0.81 for LNG-IUD). Providers without training in postpartum or interval copper IUD insertion had decreased odds of considering immediate postpartum copper IUD insertion (aOR 0.40, 95% CI 0.16-0.79) and delayed postpartum insertion for both IUD types to be safe (aOR 0.34, 95% CI 0.18-0.66 for copper IUD and aOR 0.41, 95% CI 0.21-0.77 for LNG-IUD). Before United States contraceptive guidelines, a majority of providers perceived immediate postpartum IUDs to be unsafe.

  9. Draft evidence report : traumatic brain injury and commercial motor vehicle driver safety (comprehensive review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-30

    Purpose of this evidence report is to address several key questions posed by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration : Key question 1: What is the impact of traumatic brain injury on crash risk/driving performance? Key question 2: What factor...

  10. 78 FR 68748 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Designated Seating Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Justice (AAJ), Safety Research and Strategies (SRS), Toyota Motor North America (Toyota), Mitsubishi Motors R&D of America (Mitsubishi), and Public Citizen.\\2\\ Toyota also expressed its support for the Alliance's petition. The petitions filed by SAE International and Toyota were styled both as requests for...

  11. Should visually impaired people drive slow motorised vehicles? : Evaluation of driving safety in mobility scooters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordes, Christina; Melis-Dankers, Bart; Heutink, Joost; Brookhuis, Karel; Brouwer, Wiebo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mobility scooters may help people with motor impairments maintain independent mobility. However, many users have comorbid disorders that can influence their ability to drive safely. Over the past few years, the media have drawn much attention to mobility scooter safety. Visual disorders

  12. A clinical comparison of safety and efficacy in phacoemulsification with versus without ophthalmic viscoelastic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugu, Suleyman; Erdogan, Gurkan; Sahin Sevim, M; Ozerturk, Yusuf

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate in a comparative manner the safety and efficacy of 1.0% sodium-Hyaluronate used during capsulorhexis and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in phacoemulsification surgery. 1.0% sodium-Hyaluronate, which is commonly used as one of the ophthalmic viscoelastic devices, was compared to intraocular irrigating solution, which can bring up these effects. In addition, the effect of both methods on occurring corneal endothelial cell (CEC) loss was investigated. Each group comprised 19 eyes. The mean preoperative CEC density was 2525.68 ± 181.85 in Group H and 2514.16 ± 174.59 in Group V; no statistically significant difference was found between the groups (p > 0.05). Preoperative and postoperative first and twelfth week CEC densities were 2438.21 ± 198.12 (p  0.05). Although it was found that there was no statistically difference in terms of preventing CEC loss between 1.0% sodium-Hyaluronate and the irrigation method during phacoemulsification, it was observed clinically that 1.0% sodium-hyaluronate can make the procedure easy, safer, very helpful, especially for understanding phacoemulsification.

  13. The impact of different types of assistive devices on gait measures and safety in Huntington's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne D Kloos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gait and balance impairments lead to frequent falls and injuries in individuals with Huntington's disease (HD. Assistive devices (ADs such as canes and walkers are often prescribed to prevent falls, but their efficacy is unknown. We systematically examined the effects of different types of ADs on quantitative gait measures during walking in a straight path and around obstacles. METHODS: Spatial and temporal gait parameters were measured in 21 subjects with HD as they walked across a GAITRite walkway under 7 conditions (i.e., using no AD and 6 commonly prescribed ADs: a cane, a weighted cane, a standard walker, and a 2, 3 or 4 wheeled walker. Subjects also were timed and observed for number of stumbles and falls while walking around two obstacles in a figure-of-eight pattern. RESULTS: Gait measure variability (i.e., coefficient of variation, an indicator of fall risk, was consistently better when using the 4WW compared to other ADs. Subjects also walked the fastest and had the fewest number of stumbles and falls when using the 4WW in the figure-of-eight course. Subjects walked significantly slower using ADs compared to no AD both across the GAITRite and in the figure-of-eight. Measures reflecting gait stability and safety improved with the 4WW but were made worse by some other ADs.

  14. The impact of different types of assistive devices on gait measures and safety in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, Anne D; Kegelmeyer, Deborah A; White, Susan E; Kostyk, Sandra K

    2012-01-01

    Gait and balance impairments lead to frequent falls and injuries in individuals with Huntington's disease (HD). Assistive devices (ADs) such as canes and walkers are often prescribed to prevent falls, but their efficacy is unknown. We systematically examined the effects of different types of ADs on quantitative gait measures during walking in a straight path and around obstacles. Spatial and temporal gait parameters were measured in 21 subjects with HD as they walked across a GAITRite walkway under 7 conditions (i.e., using no AD and 6 commonly prescribed ADs: a cane, a weighted cane, a standard walker, and a 2, 3 or 4 wheeled walker). Subjects also were timed and observed for number of stumbles and falls while walking around two obstacles in a figure-of-eight pattern. Gait measure variability (i.e., coefficient of variation), an indicator of fall risk, was consistently better when using the 4WW compared to other ADs. Subjects also walked the fastest and had the fewest number of stumbles and falls when using the 4WW in the figure-of-eight course. Subjects walked significantly slower using ADs compared to no AD both across the GAITRite and in the figure-of-eight. Measures reflecting gait stability and safety improved with the 4WW but were made worse by some other ADs.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF EMISSIONS FROM MOVING VEHICLES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY OF TOWNSPEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovrigin Artur Arnol'dovich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider that in the majority of cities the percentage of emissions from mobile sources has increased and has now reached 80...90 %; in 2011 the total emission of pollutants from motor vehicles amounted to more than 1 million tons (more than 90 % of total emissions, so the negative impact from a moving vehicle is large. Hydrocarbons (CnHn are emitted into urban air, including benzo(αpyrene, carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx, particulate matter, soot, Pb, etc. Studies by various authors have shown that the impact of such air pollution results in the decrease of the weight of children at birth, the amount of development defects increase, preterm children are born more often, etc. The influence of motor transport contaminate urban soils and water, causing great damage to the biota. It was found out that the improvement of the environmental situation requires optimization of the planning structure of a city, proper organization of freight traffic due to construction of relief roads for and appropriate road junctions at intersections of streets and highways, and other measures.

  16. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Factsheet Traffic safety basic facts 2010 : heavy goods vehicles and buses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pace, J.-F. López de Cozar, E. Pérez-Fuster, P. Sanmartín, J. Kirk, A. Yannis, G. Evgenikos, P. Argyropoulou, E. Papantoniou, P. Broughton, J. Knowles, J. Brandstaetter, C. Candappa, N. Christoph, M. Vis, M. Haddak, M. & Moutengou, E.

    2012-01-01

    Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) are defined as goods vehicles of over 3,5 tons maximum permissible gross vehicle weight. Road traffic accidents involving HGVs tend to be more severe than other accidents because of the great size and mass of these vehicles. Buses and coaches are included in this Basic

  17. 75 FR 45697 - Safety Advisory Notice: Personal Electronic Device Related Distractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Stuart Streck by telephone at (404) 832-1140 or by e-mail at [email protected] drivers. Operators of vehicles transporting hazardous materials should guard against distraction, including the use of PEDs while operating a vehicle. All CMV drivers transporting hazardous materials should...

  18. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  19. Driver and vehicle type parameters' contribution to traffic safety in UAE

    OpenAIRE

    Alkheder,Sharaf A.; Sabouni,Reem; El Naggar,Hany; Sabouni,Abdul Rahim

    2013-01-01

    Former traffic safety studies showed clearly that driver or human factor is a major contributor to road accidents. Hence, to better understand the traffic accident nature it's so vital to analyze all characteristics related to drivers involved in these accidents. This article focuses on this aspect through using a dataset representing UAE traffic accidents in the time interval between 2007 and 2010. A major focus was given in this article to analyzing the relation between traffic accidents an...

  20. Sharps injuries in UK health care: a review of injury rates, viral transmission and potential efficacy of safety devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Alexander; Paterson, Caron

    2006-12-01

    To review the literature on sharps injuries and occupational bloodborne virus transmission in health care in the UK and the worldwide evidence for injury prevention of sharps safety devices. Literature review by online database and Internet resource search. Twenty-four relevant publications were identified regarding UK reported sharps injury rates. UK studies showed as much as a 10-fold difference between injuries reported through standard reporting systems (0.78-5.15 per 100 person-years) and rates estimated from retrospective questionnaires of clinical populations (30-284 per 100 person-years). National surveillance data from England, Wales and Northern Ireland gives a rate of 1.43 known hepatitis C virus or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmissions to health care workers per annum. When extrapolated, this suggests an approximate rate of 0.009 such viral transmissions per 1000 hospital beds per annum. Risk of infection from sources with no risk factors is extremely small (less than one in one million for HIV transmission based on Scottish data). Thirty-one studies on the efficacy of sharps safety devices showed evidence of a reduction in injuries, with the greatest reductions achieved by blunt suture needles and safety cannulae. Although injuries remain common, confirmed viral transmission in the UK has been relatively rare. The degree of under-reporting of sharps injuries may be as much as 10-fold. Safety-engineered devices are likely to be effective at injury reduction.

  1. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D.

    1992-09-01

    Recycling and disposal of spent sodium-sulfur (Na/S) batteries are important issues that must be addressed as part of the commercialization process of Na/S battery-powered electric vehicles. The use of Na/S batteries in electric vehicles will result in significant environmental benefits, and the disposal of spent batteries should not detract from those benefits. In the United States, waste disposal is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Understanding these regulations will help in selecting recycling and disposal processes for Na/S batteries that are environmentally acceptable and cost effective. Treatment processes for spent Na/S battery wastes are in the beginning stages of development, so a final evaluation of the impact of RCRA regulations on these treatment processes is not possible. The objectives of tills report on battery recycling and disposal are as follows: Provide an overview of RCRA regulations and requirements as they apply to Na/S battery recycling and disposal so that battery developers can understand what is required of them to comply with these regulations; Analyze existing RCRA regulations for recycling and disposal and anticipated trends in these regulations and perform a preliminary regulatory analysis for potential battery disposal and recycling processes. This report assumes that long-term Na/S battery disposal processes will be capable of handling large quantities of spent batteries. The term disposal includes treatment processes that may incorporate recycling of battery constituents. The environmental regulations analyzed in this report are limited to US regulations. This report gives an overview of RCRA and discusses RCRA regulations governing Na/S battery disposal and a preliminary regulatory analysis for Na/S battery disposal.

  2. Studies of vehicle lane-changing dynamics and its effect on traffic efficiency, safety and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2017-02-01

    Drivers often change lanes on the road to maintain desired speed and to avoid slow vehicles, pedestrians, obstacles and lane closure. Understanding the effect of lane-changing on the traffic is an important topic in designing optimal traffic control systems. This paper presents a comprehensive study of this topic. We review the theory of microscopic dynamic car-following models and the lane-changing models, propose additional lane-changing rules to deal with moving bottleneck and lane reduction, and investigate the effects of lane-changing on the traffic efficiency, traffic safety and fuel consumption as a function of different variables including the distance of the emergency sign ahead of the lane closure, speed limit, traffic density, etc. Extensive simulations of the traffic system have been carried out in different scenarios. A number of important findings of the effect of various factors on the traffic are reported. These findings provide guidance on the traffic management and are important to the designers and engineers of modern highway or inner city roads to achieve high traffic efficiency and safety with minimum environmental impact.

  3. Review and analysis of potential safety impacts of and regulatory barriers to fuel efficiency technologies and alternative fuels in medium- and heavy-duty vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report summarizes a safety analysis of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles (MD/HDVs) equipped with fuel efficiency (FE) technologies and/or using alternative fuels (natural gas-CNG and LNG, propane, biodiesel and power train electrification). The st...

  4. Safety data on 19 vehicles for use in 1 month oral rodent pre-clinical studies: administration of hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin causes renal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healing, Guy; Sulemann, Tabassum; Cotton, Peter; Harris, Jayne; Hargreaves, Adam; Finney, Rowena; Kirk, Sarah; Schramm, Carolin; Garner, Clare; Pivette, Perrine; Burdett, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Potential new drugs are assessed in pre-clinical in vivo studies to determine their safety profiles. The drugs are formulated in vehicles suitable for the route of administration and the physicochemical properties of the drug, aiming to achieve optimal exposure in the test species. The availability of safety data on vehicles is often limited (incomplete data, access restricted/private databases). Nineteen potentially useful vehicles that contained new and/or increased concentrations of excipients and for which little safety data have been published were tested. Vehicles were dosed orally once daily to HanWistar rats for a minimum of 28 days and a wide range of toxicological parameters were assessed. Only 30% (w/v) hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin was found unsuitable owing to effects on liver enzymes (AST, ALT and GLDH), urinary volume and the kidneys (tubular vacuolation and tubular pigment). 20% (v/v) oleic acid caused increased salivation and hence this vehicle should be used with caution. As 40% (v/v) tetraethylene glycol affected urinary parameters, its use should be carefully considered, particularly for compounds suspected to impact the renal system and studies longer than 1 month. There were no toxicologically significant findings with 10% (v/v) dimethyl sulphoxide, 20% (v/v) propylene glycol, 33% (v/v) Miglyol®812, 20% (w/v) Kolliphor®RH40, 10% (w/v) Poloxamer 407, 5% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 or 10% (v/v) Labrafil®M1944. All other vehicles tested caused isolated or low magnitude effects which would not prevent their use. The aim of sharing these data, including adverse findings, is to provide meaningful information for vehicle selection, thereby avoiding repetition of animal experimentation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A systematic review of light-based home-use devices for hair removal and considerations on human safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen-Petersen, D; Bjerring, P; Dierickx, C

    2012-01-01

    To systematically review and evaluate the efficacy and human safety of currently available home-based optical hair removal devices. Methods A comprehensive Pub Med literature search was conducted which systematically identified publications of relevance. Prospective clinical trials were included whether controlled......, uncontrolled or randomized and with a sample size of at least 10 individuals. Results We identified a total of seven studies: one controlled (CT) and six uncontrolled trials (UCTs). No randomized controlled trials (RCT) were recognized. The best evidence was found for IPL (intense pulsed light) (three devices...

  6. Improving Patient Safety with X-Ray and Anesthesia Machine Ventilator Synchronization: A Medical Device Interoperability Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, David; Goldman, Julian M.; Whitehead, Susan F.; Lee, Insup

    When a x-ray image is needed during surgery, clinicians may stop the anesthesia machine ventilator while the exposure is made. If the ventilator is not restarted promptly, the patient may experience severe complications. This paper explores the interconnection of a ventilator and simulated x-ray into a prototype plug-and-play medical device system. This work assists ongoing interoperability framework development standards efforts to develop functional and non-functional requirements and illustrates the potential patient safety benefits of interoperable medical device systems by implementing a solution to a clinical use case requiring interoperability.

  7. Improved Safety and Efficacy of Small-Bore Feeding Tube Confirmation Using an Electromagnetic Placement Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jan; Luebbehusen, Michael; Aguirre, Lillian; Cluff, Julia; David, Mary Ann; Holly, Vince; Linford, Lorraine; Park, Nancy; Brunelle, Rocco

    2018-04-01

    Early enteral nutrition has been shown to decrease complications and improve patient outcomes. Post pyloric feeding is recommended for patients with gastric intolerance or at high risk for aspiration. Feeding tube placement can be challenging and pose risk of pulmonary complications. Reliance on radiographic confirmation for feeding tube placement exposes the patient to radiation. Electromagnetic placement device (EMPD) may offer a method to minimize pulmonary complications, increase successful placement, and decrease radiation exposure to the patient. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of using EMPD verification, instead of routine abdominal radiographic confirmation, for small-bore feeding tube placement. Variables evaluated were adverse events, utilization of radiographs for confirmation, and success rate of feeding tube placement in the ordered location. Two time frames were reviewed. In a 1-year period, 3754 small-bore feeding tubes were placed using EMPD, with zero adverse events noted. Radiographic confirmation was utilized in 0%-29.2% of the EMPD placed tubes. Successful placement of feeding tubes using EMPD ranged from 94%-99.6%. During a 5-year period, 7081 EMPD feeding tubes were evaluated. One adverse event, pneumothorax, occurred during the placement of these 7081 tubes, for a rate of 0.014%. Feeding tube placement confirmation is safe and efficacious via EMPD providing an effective method of feeding tube placement with a success rate >94% into the desired location. EMPD is an accurate verification method of distal tip location, eliminating the need for routine abdominal radiographic confirmation. © 2018 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  8. A LiFePO4 battery pack capacity estimation approach considering in-parallel cell safety in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Limei; Cheng, Yong; Zhao, Xiuliang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Find the influence of in-parallel battery cell variations on battery pack capacity. • Redefine the battery module capacity with considering ANY battery cell safety. • Discuss the safety end-of-charge voltage for an aged in-parallel battery module. • Build an algorithm for battery pack capacity estimation with the charge curve. • Bench tests are used to verify the validity of the proposed algorithm. - Abstract: In electric vehicles (EVs), several battery cells are connected in parallel to establish a battery module. The safety of the battery module is influenced by inconsistent battery cell performance which causes uneven currents flowing through internal in-parallel battery cells. A battery cell model is developed based on the Matlab–Simscape platform and validated by tests. The battery cell model is used to construct simulation models for analyzing the effect of battery cell inconsistency on the performance of an in-parallel battery module. Simulation results indicate that the state-of-charge (SOC) of a battery module cannot characterize the SOC of ALL the internal battery cells in the battery module. When the battery management system (BMS) controls the end-of-charge (EOC) time according to the SOC of a battery module, some internal battery cells are over-charged. To guarantee the safety of ALL battery cells through the whole battery life, a safety EOC voltage of the battery module should be set according to the number of battery cells in the battery module and the applied charge current. Simulations reveal that the SOC of the “normal battery module” is related to its charge voltage when aged battery module is charged to the EOC voltage. Then, a function describing their relationship is established. Both the capacity and the charge voltage shift are estimated by comparing the measured voltage-to-capacity curve with the standard one provided by the manufactory. A battery pack capacity estimation method is proposed according to the SOC

  9. 49 CFR 571.131 - Standard No. 131; School bus pedestrian safety devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... purpose of this standard is to reduce deaths and injuries by minimizing the likelihood of vehicles passing... opened while the engine is running and the manual override is engaged. S6 Test Procedures. S6.1...

  10. Safety and effectiveness of repeat arterial closure using the AngioSeal device in patients with hepatic malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieb, Robert A; Neisen, Melissa J; Hohenwalter, Eric J; Molnar, Jim A; Rilling, William S

    2008-12-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the use of the AngioSeal device for repeat arterial closure in patients with hepatic malignancy. A retrospective analysis of patients with hepatic malignancy who had undergone repeated arterial closure with the AngioSeal device was performed. All charts for patients undergoing transarterial chemoembolization or TheraSphere radioembolization were reviewed for the method of hemostasis and the number of arterial closures. A total of 53 patients (58.5% men, 41.5% women; mean age, 58.7 years) had repeat AngioSeal arterial puncture closure after chemoembolization or TheraSphere treatment. Percutaneous closure of the common femoral artery with the AngioSeal device was performed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. The patients were examined for complications on follow-up. Effectiveness was defined by the ability to obtain satisfactory hemostasis. Safety was assessed by the absence of groin complications and by vessel patency on follow-up angiograms of the puncture site obtained at subsequent liver-directed therapy sessions. Fifty-three patients in this study group had a total of 203 common femoral artery punctures. There were a total of 161 closures with the AngioSeal device (79.3%): 58 (36%) single closures and 103 (64.0%) repeat closures. Of the 161 attempts at AngioSeal closure, there was one closure failure in the single-puncture group, yielding a success rate of 98.3%; and one closure failure in the repeat-puncture group, yielding a success rate of 99%. In these two patients, hemostasis was achieved with traditional manual compression without the need for any other device, and no complications were noted. The overall success rate of AngioSeal device closure was 98.7%. The repeat use of the AngioSeal closure device is safe and effective in patients with hepatic malignancy undergoing regional oncologic interventional procedures.

  11. Overview of the Safety Issues Associated with the Compressed Natural Gas Fuel System and Electric Drive System in a Heavy Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.C.

    2002-11-14

    This report evaluates the hazards that are unique to a compressed-natural-gas (CNG)-fueled heavy hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design compared with a conventional heavy vehicle. The unique design features of the heavy HEV are the CNG fuel system for the internal-combustion engine (ICE) and the electric drive system. This report addresses safety issues with the CNG fuel system and the electric drive system. Vehicles on U. S. highways have been propelled by ICEs for several decades. Heavy-duty vehicles have typically been fueled by diesel fuel, and light-duty vehicles have been fueled by gasoline. The hazards and risks posed by ICE vehicles are well understood and have been generally accepted by the public. The economy, durability, and safety of ICE vehicles have established a standard for other types of vehicles. Heavy-duty (i.e., heavy) HEVs have recently been introduced to U. S. roadways, and the hazards posed by these heavy HEVs can be compared with the hazards posed by ICE vehicles. The benefits of heavy HEV technology are based on their potential for reduced fuel consumption and lower exhaust emissions, while the disadvantages are the higher acquisition cost and the expected higher maintenance costs (i.e., battery packs). The heavy HEV is more suited for an urban drive cycle with stop-and-go driving conditions than for steady expressway speeds. With increasing highway congestion and the resulting increased idle time, the fuel consumption advantage for heavy HEVs (compared with conventional heavy vehicles) is enhanced by the HEVs' ability to shut down. Any increase in fuel cost obviously improves the economics of a heavy HEV. The propulsion system for a heavy HEV is more complex than the propulsion system for a conventional heavy vehicle. The heavy HEV evaluated in this study has in effect two propulsion systems: an ICE fueled by CNG and an electric drive system with additional complexity and failure modes. This additional equipment will result in a less

  12. Present status of promotion of advanced safety vehicle in phase 2 (ASV2); Dai 2 ki senshin anzen jidosha (ASV) suishin keikaku ni okeru kenkyu jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    For active safety enhancement, drivers will be provided with information and warning that will help them drive with safety. Studies are under way about functions to facilitate drivers' perception and to lighten the burdens imposed on them. As for accident avoidance techniques, onboard systems will perform controls involving vehicle maneuver for safety enhancement. This includes the improvement of vehicle maneuvering performance, in addition to brake control and steering control, for lightening drivers' burdens and for complementing their operating skill. Danger avoidance is based on the concept that the related system is to work in case warnings alone are not enough to avoid a collision. Full automation will be implemented by two ways, the autonomous way aided by the existing infrastructures such as GPS (Global Positioning System) or the way in which infrastructures to be newly built will be utilized. Passive safety technologies aim at minimizing damage upon collision, and involve structural improvement, air bags, etc. Disaster aggravation prevention means to prevent disaster from spreading after collision. Communication is one of safety-related elements on which studies will continue. Under the Phase 2 ASV program, research and development will be conducted for putting passenger cars to practical use, and the same will be conducted, in the case of large vehicles and motorcycles, for the construction of their prototypes. (NEDO)

  13. Recommended safety procedures for the selection and use of demonstration-type gas discharge devices in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A 1972 survey of 30 Ottawa secondary schools revealed a total of 347 actual or potential X-ray sources available in these schools. More than half of these sources were gas discharge tubes. Some gas discharge tubes, in particular the cold cathode type, can emit X-rays at significantly high levels. Unless such tubes are used carefully, and with regard for good radiation safety practices, they can result in exposures to students that are in excess of the maximum levels recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Several cases of the recommended dose being exceeded were found in the classes surveyed. This document has been prepared to assist science teachers and others using demonstration-type gas discharge devices to select and use such devices so as to present negligible risk to themselves and students. Useful information on safety procedures to be followed when performing demonstrations or experiments is included. (J.T.A.)

  14. Interinstrument comparison of remote-sensing devices and a new method for calculating on-road nitrogen oxides emissions and validation of vehicle-specific power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Christopher E; Tate, James E; Shepherd, Simon P; Carslaw, David C

    2018-02-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) by vehicles in real driving environments are only partially understood. This has been brought to the attention of the world with recent revelations of the cheating of the type of approval tests exposed in the dieselgate scandal. Remote-sensing devices offer investigators an opportunity to directly measure in situ real driving emissions of tens of thousands of vehicles. Remote-sensing NO 2 measurements are not as widely available as would be desirable. The aim of this study is to improve the ability of investigators to estimate the NO 2 emissions and to improve the confidence of the total NOx results calculated from standard remote-sensing device (RSD) measurements. The accuracy of the RSD speed and acceleration module was also validated using state-of-the-art onboard global positioning system (GPS) tracking. Two RSDs used in roadside vehicle emissions surveys were tested side by side under off-carriageway conditions away from transient pollution sources to ascertain the consistency of their measurements. The speed correlation was consistent across the range of measurements at 95% confidence and the acceleration correlation was consistent at 95% confidence intervals for all but the most extreme acceleration cases. VSP was consistent at 95% confidence across all measurements except for those at VSP ≥ 15 kW t -1 , which show a small underestimate. The controlled distribution gas nitric oxide measurements follow a normal distribution with 2σ equal to 18.9% of the mean, compared to 15% observed during factory calibration indicative of additional error introduced into the system. Systematic errors of +84 ppm were observed but within the tolerance of the control gas. Interinstrument correlation was performed, with the relationship between the FEAT and the RSD4600 being linear with a gradient of 0.93 and an R 2 of 0.85, indicating good correlation. A new method to calculate NOx emissions using fractional NO 2 combined with NO

  15. "20 years of progress in highway safety" : verslag van the Eleventh International Technical Conference on Experimental Safety Vehicles ESV, Washington D.C., 12-15 May 1987 : achtergronden en overzicht van de ontwikkelingen tot juli 1988.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van

    1988-01-01

    A report of a visit to the 'eleventh international conference on experimental safety vehicles, washington, 12-15 may 1987' is given in this publication. Some of the technical papers presented at the conference are described and commented upon: (the opening address, the status reports and the panel

  16. The technology applying of inflatable devices to access adaptation, movement and landing descent vehicle from Martian environment to the Earth conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koryanov, Vsevolod V.; Kazakovtsev, Victor P.

    2017-07-01

    At present, the idea has emerged to use special inflatable braking device (IBD) which permits to implement the landing vehicle (LV) "soft" landing on the planet's surface without a parachute system. Braking device (BD) unfolds still at the extra-atmospheric flight stage to provide the LV passive stabilisation, and the entire apparatus together with the braking device is twisted around its longitudinal axis. The advantage of an inflatable BD over traditional non-rigid brakes - parachutes is that it can be used at the atmospheric stage of the descent, starting from hypersonic speeds, and ending subsonic ones. These main theses are implemented in the project MetNet and its sequel project RITD, using Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) system [1].

  17. 49 CFR 595.7 - Requirements for vehicle modifications to accommodate people with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... feasible to retain the turn signal canceling device installed by the vehicle manufacturer. (3) S5.1.2 and... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for vehicle modifications to... Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  18. Vibration energy harvesting system for railroad safety based on running vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tianchen, Yuan; Jian, Yang; Ruigang, Song; Xiaowei, Liu

    2014-01-01

    This research is focused on energy harvesting from track vibration in order to provide power for the wireless sensors which monitor railroad health. Considering that track vibration has vibration energy, a new method is proposed in the paper to harvest energy based on the piezoelectric effect. The piezoelectric generator called drum transducer is the key part for track vibration energy harvesting. The model of drum transducer is established and the simulation results show that it can generate 100 mW in real track situation. In addition, an experiment rig is developed and its vibration model is also established. The simulation and experiment results show that peak open-circuit voltage of piezoelectric generator is about 50–70 V at the full load of the train. The whole track vibration energy harvesting system is analytically modeled, numerically simulated, and experimentally realized to demonstrate the feasibility and the reliability of the theoretical model. This paper is the theoretical basis of harvesting, recovering and recycling of the track vibration energy for track safety. (paper)

  19. Instructions included? Make safety training part of medical device procurement process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, James P

    2010-04-01

    Before hospitals embrace new technologies, it's important that medical personnel agree on how best to use them. Likewise, hospitals must provide the support to operate these sophisticated devices safely. With this in mind, it's wise for hospitals to include medical device training in the procurement process. Moreover, purchasing professionals can play a key role in helping to increase the amount of user training for medical devices and systems. What steps should you take to help ensure that new medical devices are implemented safely? Here are some tips.

  20. An in vitro method for detecting chemical sensitization using human reconstructed skin models and its applicability to cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and medical device safety testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, James M; Keller, Donald J; Gorski, Joel R

    2012-12-01

    Chemical sensitization is a serious condition caused by small reactive molecules and is characterized by a delayed type hypersensitivity known as allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Contact with these molecules via dermal exposure represent a significant concern for chemical manufacturers. Recent legislation in the EU has created the need to develop non-animal alternative methods for many routine safety studies including sensitization. Although most of the alternative research has focused on pure chemicals that possess reasonable solubility properties, it is important for any successful in vitro method to have the ability to test compounds with low aqueous solubility. This is especially true for the medical device industry where device extracts must be prepared in both polar and non-polar vehicles in order to evaluate chemical sensitization. The aim of this research was to demonstrate the functionality and applicability of the human reconstituted skin models (MatTek Epiderm(®) and SkinEthic RHE) as a test system for the evaluation of chemical sensitization and its potential use for medical device testing. In addition, the development of the human 3D skin model should allow the in vitro sensitization assay to be used for finished product testing in the personal care, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. This approach combines solubility, chemical reactivity, cytotoxicity, and activation of the Nrf2/ARE expression pathway to identify and categorize chemical sensitizers. Known chemical sensitizers representing extreme/strong-, moderate-, weak-, and non-sensitizing potency categories were first evaluated in the skin models at six exposure concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 2500 µM for 24 h. The expression of eight Nrf2/ARE, one AhR/XRE and two Nrf1/MRE controlled gene were measured by qRT-PCR. The fold-induction at each exposure concentration was combined with reactivity and cytotoxicity data to determine the sensitization potential. The results demonstrated that

  1. Process and device for reducing the presence in the safety containment of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiefel, M.

    1981-01-01

    If faults occur, the excess pressure in the safety containment has to be reduced. Part of the gas contents of the safety containment is drawn off for this purpose. Hydrogen up to a maximum of 3.5% by volume is added to the drawn-off gas. The gas enriched with hydrogen is taken through a recombiner, where part of the oxygen content of the gas burns with the hydrogen, producing water. The gas with reduced oxygen content is returned to the safety containment via the free end of an annular pipe. The pressure existing in the safety containment is reduced according to the reduction in oxygen content. (orig./HP) [de

  2. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  3. Automated and connected vehicle (AV/CV) test bed to improve transit, bicycle, and pedestrian safety : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Crashes involving transit vehicles, bicyclists, and pedestrians are a concern in Texas, especially in urban areas. This research explored the potential of automated and connected vehicle (AV/CV) technology to reduce or eliminate these crashes. The pr...

  4. Quieter Cars and the Safety of Blind Pedestrians, Phase 2 : Development of Potential Specifications for Vehicle Countermeasure Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This project performed research to support the development of potential specifications for vehicle : sounds, (i.e., audible countermeasures) to be used in vehicles while operating in electric mode in specific low speed : conditions. The purpose of th...

  5. An analysis of driving and working hour on commercial motor vehicle driver safety using naturalistic data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soccolich, Susan A; Blanco, Myra; Hanowski, Richard J; Olson, Rebecca L; Morgan, Justin F; Guo, Feng; Wu, Shih-Ching

    2013-09-01

    Current hours-of-service (HOS) regulations prescribe limits to commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers' operating hours. By using naturalistic-data-collection, researchers were able to assess activities performed in the 14-h workday and the relationship between safety-critical events (SCEs) and driving hours, work hours, and breaks. The data used in the analyses were collected in the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study and included 97 drivers and about 735,000 miles of continuous driving data. An assessment of the drivers' workday determined that, on average, drivers spent 66% of their shift driving, 23% in non-driving work, and 11% resting. Analyses evaluating the relationship between driving hours (i.e., driving only) and SCE risk found a time-on-task effect across hours, with no significant difference in safety outcomes between 11th driving hour and driving hours 8, 9 or 10. Analyses on work hours (i.e., driving in addition to non-driving work) found that risk of being involved in an SCE generally increased as work hours increased. This suggests that time-on-task effects may not be related to driving hours alone, but implies an interaction between driving hours and work hours: if a driver begins the day with several hours of non-driving work, followed by driving that goes deep into the 14-h workday, SCE risk was found to increase. Breaks from driving were found to be beneficial in reducing SCEs (during 1-h window after a break) and were effective in counteracting the negative effects of time-on-task. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficiency and safety of percuSurge distal protection device in acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-25

    Apr 25, 2011 ... myocardial infarction. The long-term effects of the distal protection device are still in controversy. The enhanced myocardial efficacy and recovery by aspiration of liberated debris (EMERALD) trial failed to show the effectiveness of the distal protection device in patients with AMI (Yamada and Topol, 2000).

  7. The working of RVNRL pilot plant of Rubber Board and it's safety devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britto, I.J.; Thomas, E.V.

    1996-01-01

    A pilot plant for producing radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL) was established at Rubber Board, India in 1992. Irradiation is done by a batch process in the plant. The plant has a versatile safety system for safety of operators and people working in and around the plant

  8. 75 FR 38532 - Medical Devices; Availability of Safety and Effectiveness Summaries for Premarket Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... summaries of safety and effectiveness data to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug... Safety and Effectiveness Summaries for Premarket Approval Applications AGENCY: Food and Drug... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket Nos. FDA-2010-M-0068...

  9. 78 FR 50422 - Medical Devices; Availability of Safety and Effectiveness Summaries for Premarket Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... summaries of safety and effectiveness data to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug... of Safety and Effectiveness Summaries for Premarket Approval Applications AGENCY: Food and Drug... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket Nos. FDA-2013-M-0462...

  10. 75 FR 36099 - Medical Devices; Availability of Safety and Effectiveness Summaries for Premarket Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... summaries of safety and effectiveness data to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug...; Availability of Safety and Effectiveness Summaries for Premarket Approval Applications AGENCY: Food and Drug... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket Nos. FDA-2009-M-0317...

  11. Medical devices, electronic health records and assuring patient safety : Future challenges?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, Cor J.

    2015-01-01

    The patient safety movement was triggered by publications showing that modern health care is more unsafe than road travel and that more patients are killed annually by avoidable adverse events than by breast cancer [1]. As a result, an urgent need to improve patient safety has dominated

  12. Estimating Safety Effects of Green-Man Countdown Devices at Signalized Pedestrian Crosswalk Based on Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety effects of Green-Man Countdown Device (GMCD at signalized pedestrian crosswalks are evaluated. Pedestrian behavior at GMCD and non-GMCD crosswalks is observed and analyzed. A microsimulation model is developed based on field observations to estimate safety performance. Simulation outputs allow analysts to assess the impacts of GMCD at various conditions with different geometric layout, traffic and pedestrian volumes, and the green time. According to simulation results, it is found that the safety impact of GMCD is affected by traffic condition as well as different time duration within green-man signal phase. In general, GMCD increases average walking velocity, especially during the last few seconds. The installation of GMCD improves safety performance generally, especially at more crowded crossings. Conflict severity is increased during last 10 s after GMCD installation. Findings from this study suggest that the current practice, which is to install GMCD at more crowded crosswalks or near the school zone, is effective. Moreover, at crosswalks with GMCD, longer all red signal phase is suggested to improve pedestrian safety during intergreen period.

  13. MEASURING SUNFLOWER NITROGEN STATUS FROM AN UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE-BASED SYSTEM AND AN ON THE GROUND DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Agüera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture recognizes the inherent spatial variability associated with soil characteristics, land morphology and crop growth, and uses this information to prescribe the most appropriate management strategy on a site-specific basis. To reach this task, the most important information related with crop growth is nutrient status, weed infestation, disease and pet affectation and water management. The application of fertilizer nitrogen to field crops is of critical importance because it determines plant's gro wth, vigour, colour and yield. Furthermore, nitrogen has been observed as a nutrient with high spatial variability in a single field, related to its high mobility. Some previous works have shown that is possible to measure crop nitrogen status with optical instruments. Since most leaf nitrogen is contained in chlorophyll molecules, there is a strong relationship between leaf nitrogen and leaf chlorophyll content, which is the basis for predicting crop nitrogen status by measuring leaf reflectance. So, sensors that can easily monitor crop nitrogen amount throughout the growing season at a high resolution to allow producers to reach their production goals, will give useful information to prescribe a crop management on a site-specific basis. Sunflower is a crop which is taking importance again because it can be used both for food and biofuel purposes, and it is widely cultivated in the South of Spain and other European countries.The aim of this work was to compare an index related with sunflower nitrogen status, deduced from multispectral images taken from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV, with optical data collected with a ground-based platform.An ADC Lite Tetracam digital cam was mounted on a md4-200 Microdrones to take pictures of a sunflower field during the crop season. ADC Lite Tetracam is a single sensor digital camera designed for capture of visible light wavelength longer than 520 nm and near-infrared wavelength up to 920 nm. The

  14. The Ex Hoc Infrastructure - Enhancing Traffic Safety through LIfe WArning Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kristensen, Lars Michael; Eskildsen, Toke

    2004-01-01

    New pervasive computing technologies for sensing and communication open up novel possibilities for enhancing traffic safety. We are currently designing and implementing the Ex Hoc infrastructure framework for communication among mobile and stationary units including vehicles. The infrastructure...... will connect sensing devices on vehicles with sensing devices on other vehicles and with stationary communication units placed alongside roads. The current application of Ex Hoc is to enable the collection and dissemination of information on road condition through LIfe Warning Systems (LIWAS) units....

  15. Toward a treaty on safety and cost-effectiveness of pharmaceuticals and medical devices: enhancing an endangered global public good

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faunce Thomas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract • Expert evaluations of the safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of pharmaceutical and medical devices, prior to marketing approval or reimbursement listing, collectively represent a globally important public good. The scientific processes involved play a major role in protecting the public from product risks such as unintended or adverse events, sub-standard production and unnecessary burdens on individual and governmental healthcare budgets. • Most States now have an increasing policy interest in this area, though institutional arrangements, particularly in the area of cost-effectiveness analysis of medical devices, are not uniformly advanced and are fragile in the face of opposing multinational industry pressure to recoup investment and maintain profit margins. • This paper examines the possibility, in this context, of States commencing negotiations toward bilateral trade agreement provisions, and ultimately perhaps a multilateral Treaty, on safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness analysis of pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Such obligations may robustly facilitate a conceptually interlinked, but endangered, global public good, without compromising the capacity of intellectual property laws to facilitate local product innovations.

  16. Optimal Design of Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) Systems for improving safety in NASA's Exploration Vehicles: A Two-Level Multidisciplinary Design Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Ali Farhang; Tumer, Irem; Barszcz, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Integrated Vehicle Health Management (ISHM) systems are used to detect, assess, and isolate functional failures in order to improve safety of space systems such as Orbital Space Planes (OSPs). An ISHM system, as a whole, consists of several subsystems that monitor different components of an OSP including: Spacecraft, Launch Vehicle, Ground Control, and the International Space Station. In this research, therefore, we propose a new methodology to design and optimize ISHM as a distributed system with multiple disciplines (that correspond to different subsystems of OSP safety). A paramount amount of interest has been given in the literature to the multidisciplinary design optimization of problems with such architecture (as will be reviewed in the full paper).

  17. Anthropometric comparison of Anthropometric Test Device (ATD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropometric test device (ATD) is surrogate used in automotive crash testing. Female ATDs used worldwide in the evaluation of vehicle safety performance was produced based on anthropometry of U.S. population. This work is aimed at assessing the difference between the anthropometric dimensions of Nigerian female ...

  18. FDA Proposes New Safety Measures for Indoor Tanning Devices: The Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Consumer Updates Indoor Tanning: The Risks of Ultraviolet Rays 5 Tips for a Healthy Vacation More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products ...

  19. Analysis of existing work-zone devices with MASH safety performance criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Crashworthy, work-zone, portable sign support systems accepted under NCHRP Report No. 350 were analyzed to : predict their safety peformance according to the TL-3 MASH evaluation criteria. An analysis was conducted to determine : which hardware param...

  20. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Nuclear safety; (2) Industrial and health safety; (3) Radiation safety; and Fire protection

  1. Patent foramen ovale closure using a bioabsorbable closure device: safety and efficacy at 6-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Branden, Ben J; Post, Martijn C; Plokker, Herbert W; ten Berg, Jurriën M; Suttorp, Maarten J

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mid-term safety and efficacy of percutaneous patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure using a bioabsorbable device (BioSTAR, NMT Medical, Boston, Massachusetts). Closure of PFO in patients with cryptogenic stroke has proven to be safe and effective using different types of permanent devices. All consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous PFO closure with the bioabsorbable closure device between November 2007 and January 2009 were included. Residual shunt was assessed using contrast transthoracic echocardiography. Sixty-two patients (55% women, mean age 47.7 ± 11.8 years) underwent PFO closure. The in-hospital complications were a surgical device retrieval in 2 patients (3.2%), device reposition in 1 (1.6%), and a minimal groin hematoma in 6 patients (9.7%). The short-term complications at 1-month follow-up (n = 60) were a transient ischemic attack in the presence of a residual shunt in 1 patient and new supraventricular tachycardia in 7 patients (11.3%). At 6-month follow-up (n = 60), 1 patient without residual shunt developed a transient ischemic attack and 1 developed atrial fibrillation. A mild or moderate residual shunt was noted in 51.7%, 33.9%, and 23.7% after 1-day, 1-month, and 6-month follow-up, respectively. A large shunt was present in 8.3%, 3.4%, and 0% after 1-day, 1-month, and 6-month follow-up. Closure of PFO using the bioabsorbable device is associated with a low complication rate and a low recurrence rate of embolic events. However, a relatively high percentage of mild or moderate residual shunting is still present at 6-month follow-up. Copyright © 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE CONCEPT OF "GREEN" CONSTRUCTION AS A VEHICLE TO ENSURE THE ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY OF CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benuzh Andrey Aleksandrovich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors demonstrate that the number of buildings in the world exceeds one billion according to the statistical data; their potential negative impact on the environment can be disastrous; moreover, the main cause of the ever-growing demand for buildings consists in the constant growth of the world population that makes the global environmental situation even more complicated. As a main conception, the authors focus on the concept of sustainable development. They consider that the core idea of this concept is that the present-day generation should do everything in their power to preserve the natural environment and its resources for the future generations. The authors mention that back in the middle of the 20th century academician V.I. Vernadsky formulated the concept of the noosphere closely linked to the notion of sustainable development. According to the authors, "green" construction can be considered as a vehicle for sustainable development of territories that accommodate construction sites. The authors define "green" construction as a comprehensive system of knowledge structured on the basis of design and construction standards. "Green" buildings demonstrate their high construction quality along with minimal costs and maximal comfort. Although a "green" technology is a new and not the simplest way of development, it has proven its incredible efficiency. The major achievement of the authors consists in the classification of principles, approaches and available technologies that can be applied or are applied in the "green" construction to ensure the environmental safety of construction activities. The authors have also selected environmental, economic and social benefits of "green" construction and provided their recommendations concerning the implementation of "green" technologies in Russia.

  3. Besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension 0.6% in patients with bacterial conjunctivitis: A multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-masked, vehicle-controlled, 5-day efficacy and safety study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpecki, Paul; Depaolis, Michael; Hunter, Judy A; White, Eric M; Rigel, Lee; Brunner, Lynne S; Usner, Dale W; Paterno, Michael R; Comstock, Timothy L

    2009-03-01

    Besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension 0.6% is a new topical fluoroquinolone for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis. Besifloxacin has potent in vitro activity against a broad spectrum of ocular pathogens, including drug-resistant strains. The primary objective of this study was to compare the clinical and microbiologic efficacy of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension 0.6% with that of vehicle (the formulation without besifloxacin) in the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis. This was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-masked, vehicle-controlled, parallel-group study in patients with acute bacterial conjunctivitis. Patients received either topical besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension or vehicle administered 3 times daily for 5 days. At study entry and on days 4 and 8 (visits 2 and 3), a clinical assessment of ocular signs and symptoms was performed in both eyes, as well as pinhole visual acuity testing, biomicroscopy, and culture of the infected eye(s). An ophthalmoscopic examination was performed at study entry and on day 8. The primary efficacy outcome measures were clinical resolution and eradication of the baseline bacterial infection on day 8 in culture-confirmed patients. The safety evaluation included adverse events, changes in visual acuity, and biomicroscopy and ophthalmoscopy findings in all patients who received at least 1 dose of active treatment or vehicle. The safety population consisted of 269 patients (mean [SD] age, 34.2 [22.3] years; 60.2% female; 82.5% white) with acute bacterial conjunctivitis. The culture-confirmed intent-to-treat population consisted of 118 patients (60 besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension, 58 vehicle). Significantly more patients receiving besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension than vehicle had clinical resolution of the baseline infection at visit 3 (44/60 [73.3%] vs 25/58 [43.1%], respectively; P suspension compared with vehicle at visit 3 (53/60 [88.3%] vs35/58 [60.3%]; P suspension 0.6% given 3 times daily for 5 days

  4. 76 FR 34286 - ITS Joint Program Office; Webinar on Connected Vehicle Infrastructure Deployment Analysis Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... communications devices to improve safety, mobility, and environmental sustainability. The program is the major research initiative of the ITS JPO, which is currently working with the eight major automotive companies to... safety, mobility and sustainability. There is also connected vehicle-related research in the areas of...

  5. A novel safety device with metal counter meshing gears discriminator directly driven by axial flux permanent magnet micromotors based on MEMS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiping; Chen, Wenyuan; Zhao, Xiaolin; Li, Shengyong; Jiang, Yong

    2005-08-01

    In a novel safety device based on MEMS technology for high consequence systems, the discriminator consists of two groups of metal counter meshing gears and two pawl/ratchet wheel mechanisms. Each group of counter meshing gears is onepiece and driven directly by an axial flux permanent magnet micromotor respectively. The energy-coupling element is an optical shutter with two collimators and a coupler wheel. The safety device's probability is less than 1/106. It is fabricated by combination of an LiGA-like process and precision mechanical engineering. The device has simple structure, few dynamic problems, high strength and strong reliability.

  6. Abandoned vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  7. 76 FR 47210 - Medical Devices; Availability of Safety and Effectiveness Summaries for Premarket Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... placed on the Internet. Section 10.33(b) provides that FDA may, for good cause, extend this 30-day period.......... Chestnut Medical Pipeline embolization device.... April 6, 2011. Technologies, Inc. P100034 FDA-2011-M-0295... Scientific Corp ION paclitaxel-eluting coronary April 22, 2011. stent system (monorail and over- the-wire...

  8. 78 FR 950 - Medical Devices; Availability of Safety and Effectiveness Summaries for Premarket Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ..., FDA- 2012-M-0965, FDA-2012-M-0968, FDA-2012-M-1011, and FDA-2012-M-1013] Medical Devices; Availability.... Glucose Monitoring System (TGMS). P000008/S017, FDA-2012-M-1013.. Allergan, Inc..... LAP-BAND \\TM\\ February 16, 2011. Adjustable Gastric Banding System. P100049, FDA-2012-M-0893....... Torax Medical, Inc...

  9. Analysis of solutions for passively activated safety shutdown devices for SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgazzi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Innovative systems for emergency shut down of fast reactors are proposed. • The concepts of inherent and passive safety are put forward. • The relative analysis in terms of safety and reliability is presented. • A comparative assessment among the concepts is performed. • Path forward is tracked. -- Abstract: In order to enhance the inherent safety of fast reactors, innovative reactivity control systems have been proposed for intrinsic ultimate shut-down instead of conventional scram rods, to cope with the potential consequences of severe unprotected transient accidents, such as an energetic core disruptive accident, as in case of sodium fast reactors. The passive shut-down systems are designed to shut-down system only by inherent passive reactivity feedback mechanism, under unprotected accident conditions, implying failure of reactor protection system. They are conceived to be self-actuated without any signal elaboration, since the actuation of the system is triggered by the effects induced by the transient like material dilatation, in case of overheating of the coolant for instance, according to fast reactor design to meet the safety requirements. This article looks at different special shutdown systems specifically engineered for prevention of severe accidents, to be implemented on fast reactors, with main focus on the investigation of the performance of the self-actuated shutdown systems in sodium fast reactors

  10. 75 FR 11624 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... X PBA 3000[dash]P X X PBA 3000C X X Alcohol Data Sensor X X Phoenix X X Phoenix 6.0 X X EV 30 X X FC...-0016] Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement... 71480) for instruments that conform to the Model Specifications for Evidential Breath Alcohol...

  11. Monitoring results of PBS vehicles in South Africa in terms of productivity, safety and road wear performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of a Performance-Based Standards (PBS) research programme for heavy vehicles in South Africa, a need was identified to design, manufacture and operate a number of PBS or Smart Truck demonstration vehicles in order to gain practical...

  12. 78 FR 16051 - Vehicle/Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ..., without the need for obtaining a waiver. In order to take advantage of high cant deficiency operations and... attention. In addition, to improve the process for analyzing data while vehicles are negotiating spiral... the last few decades, computer models of rail vehicles interacting with track have become practical...

  13. Practical implementation of the concept of converted electric vehicle with advanced traction and dynamic performance and environmental safety indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, K. M.; Yutt, V. E.; Grishchenko, A. G.; Golubchik, T. V.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the work presented in this paper is to describe the implementation of the technical solutions have been developed, with regard to structure, composition, and characteristics, for an experimental prototype of an electric vehicle which has been converted from a conventional vehicle. The methodology of the study results is based on the practical implementation of the developed concept of the conversion of conventional vehicles into electric vehicles. The main components of electric propulsion system of the experimental prototype of electric vehicle are developed and manufactured on the basis of computational researches, taking into account the criteria and principles of conversion within the framework of presented work. The article describes a schematic and a design of power conversion and commutation electrical equipment, traction battery, electromechanical transmission. These results can serve as guidance material in the design and implementation of electric propulsion system (EPS) components of electric vehicles, facilitate the development of optimal technical solutions in the development and manufacture of vehicles, including those aimed at autonomy of operation and the use of perspective driver assistance systems. As part of this work, was suggested a rational structure for an electric vehicle experimental prototype, including technical performance characteristics of the components of EPS.

  14. Efficacy and safety of diclofenac sodium 2% topical solution for osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, 4 week study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, L Tyler; Kent, Jeffrey D; Holt, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are standard therapy for osteoarthritis (OA). Topically applied NSAIDs reduce systemic exposure compared with oral NSAIDS, and European guidelines recommend their use. The NSAID diclofenac is available in a range of topical formulations. Diclofenac 1% gel and 1.5% four times daily and 2% twice daily (BID) solutions are approved to reduce pain from OA of the knee(s). The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of diclofenac sodium 2% topical solution BID versus vehicle control solution for treating pain associated with OA of the knee. A phase II, 4 week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, two-arm, vehicle-controlled study compared pain relief with diclofenac sodium 2% topical solution versus control (vehicle only) in patients aged 40 to 85 years with radiographically confirmed primary OA of the knee. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01119898. The primary efficacy outcome was change from baseline to the final visit in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale. Secondary outcomes included additional WOMAC subscales and patient global assessment of OA. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), skin irritation, and vital signs were assessed and collected throughout the study. Of 260 patients randomized, 259 received ≥1 dose of study drug. Significantly greater reductions in least-squares mean (standard error) WOMAC pain scores were observed for diclofenac-treated (-4.4 [0.4]) versus vehicle-treated patients (-3.4 [0.4]) at the final visit (p = 0.040). The most commonly reported TEAEs were administration site conditions. The vehicle-treated group experienced slightly more TEAEs than the active treatment group (38.8% vs. 31.5%). No serious adverse events were reported. Administration of diclofenac sodium 2% topical solution BID resulted in significantly greater improvement in pain reduction in patients with OA of the knee versus vehicle

  15. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of thrombectomy devices in acute stroke : a network meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Hamidreza; Rajah, Gary B; Kherallah, Riyad Y; Jadhav, Ashutosh P; Narayanan, Sandra

    2017-12-15

    Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) is increasingly used for large-vessel occlusions (LVO), but randomized clinical trial (RCT) level data with regard to differences in clinical outcomes of MT devices are limited. We conducted a network meta-analysis (NMA) that enables comparison of modern MT devices (Trevo, Solitaire, Aspiration) and strategies (stent retriever vs aspiration) across trials. Relevant RCTs were identified by a systematic review. The efficacy outcome was 90-day functional independence (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 0-2). Safety outcomes were 90-day catastrophic outcome (mRS 5-6) and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH). Fixed-effect Bayesian NMA was performed to calculate risk estimates and the rank probabilities. In a NMA of six relevant RCTs (SWIFT, TREVO2, EXTEND-IA, SWIFT-PRIME, REVASCAT, THERAPY; total of 871 patients, 472 Solitaire vs medical-only, 108 Aspiration vs medical-only, 178 Trevo vs Merci, and 113 Solitaire vs Merci) with medical-only arm as the reference, Trevo had the greatest functional independence (OR 4.14, 95% credible interval (CrI) 1.41-11.80; top rank probability 92%) followed by Solitaire (OR 2.55, 95% CrI 1.75-3.74; top rank probability 72%). Solitaire and Aspiration devices had the greatest top rank probability with respect to low sICH and catastrophic outcomes (76% and 91%, respectively), but without significant differences between each other. In a separate network of seven RCTs (MR-CLEAN, ESCAPE, EXTEND-IA, SWIFT-PRIME, REVASCAT, THERAPY, ASTER; 1737 patients), first-line stent retriever was associated with a higher top rank probability of functional independence than aspiration (95% vs 54%), with comparable safety outcomes. These findings suggest that Trevo and Solitaire devices are associated with a greater likelihood of functional independence whereas Solitaire and Aspiration devices appear to be safer. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  16. Safety and efficacy of cervical laminoplasty using a piezosurgery device compared with a high-speed drill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kunpeng; Zhang, Wen; Li, Bin; Xu, Hui; Li, Zhong; Luo, Dawei; Zhang, Jingtao; Ma, Jinzhu

    2016-09-01

    Piezosurgery is a relatively new osteotomy technique using microvibrations of scalpels at ultrasonic frequencies to perform safe and effective osteotomies without damage to adjacent soft tissue, which is widely used in spinal, oral, and maxillofacial surgery. We hypothesized that such a device could also be useful in cervical laminoplasty. The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of a piezosurgery device with those of a highspeed drill in cervical laminoplasty. A prospectively randomized clinical study was designed. Forty-two consecutive patients were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent modified expansive open-door laminoplasty and were randomly divided into 2 groups according to the instrument for transection of the lamina, using high-speed drill (drill group) or piezosurgery device (piezosurgery group). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative drainage were recorded. Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score and visual analogue scale (VAS) as clinical assessments were quantified. No significant difference was observed in the operation time between the 2 groups. In the piezosurgery group, there were less loss of the intraoperative blood and postoperative drainage compared with the drill group. However, clinical results (VAS and JOA scores) showed no significant difference between both groups during the all follow-up periods. The piezosurgery is a useful instrument and at least as safe and efficacious as the conventional high-speed drill in cervical laminoplasty.

  17. Neutronic, thermal-hydraulics and safety calculations of a Miniplate Irradiation Device (MID) of dispersion type fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingos, Douglas Borges

    2010-01-01

    Neutronic, thermal-hydraulics and accident analysis calculations were developed to estimate the safety of a Miniplate Irradiation Device (MID) to be placed in the IEA-R1 reactor core. The irradiation device is used to receive miniplates of U 3 O 8 -Al and U 3 Si 2 - Al dispersion fuels, LEU type (19.75 % 235 U) with uranium densities of, respectively, 3.2 gU/cm 3 and 4.8 gU/cm 3 . The fuel miniplates will be irradiated to nominal 235 U burnup levels of 50% and 80%, in order to qualify the above high-density dispersion fuels to be used in the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), now in the conception phase. For the neutronic calculation, the computer codes CITATION and 2DB were utilized. The computer code FLOW was used to calculate the coolant flow rate in the irradiation device, allowing the determination of the fuel miniplate temperatures with the computer model MTRCR-IEA-R1. A postulated Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) was analyzed with the computer codes LOSS and TEMPLOCA, allowing the calculation of the fuel miniplate temperatures after the reactor pool draining. The calculations showed that the irradiation should occur without adverse consequences in the IEA-R1 reactor. (author)

  18. The Development of Computer Code for Safety Injection Tank (SIT) with Fluidic Device(FD) Blowdown Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joo Hee; Kim, Tae Han; Choi, Hae Yun; Lee, Kwang Won; Chung, Chang Kyu

    2007-01-01

    Safety Injection Tanks (SITs) with the Fluidic Device (FD) of APR1400 provides a means of rapid reflooding of the core following a large break Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), and keeping it covered until flow from the Safety Injection Pump (SIP) becomes available. A passive FD can provide two operation stages of a safety water injection into the RCS and allow more effective use of borated water in case of LOCA. Once a large break LOCA occurs, the system will deliver a high flow rate of cooling water for a certain period of time, and thereafter, the flow rate is reduced to a lower flow rate. The conventional computer code 'TURTLE' used to simulate the blowdown of OPR1000 SIT can not be directly applied to simulate a blowdown process of the SIT with FD. A new computer code is needed to be developed for the blowdown test evaluation of the APR1400 SIT with FD. Korea Power Engineering Company (KOPEC) has developed a new computer code to analyze the characteristics of the SIT with FD and validated the code through the comparison of the calculation results with the test results obtained by Ulchin 5 and 6 units pre-operational test and VAlve Performance Evaluation Rig (VAPER) tests performed by The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI)

  19. Simulation experiments concerning functioning tests of technical safety devices with process computers. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawickhorst, W.

    1976-12-01

    Computerized inspection techniques of engineered safety systems improve the diagnosis capability, relative to the presently used techniques, even if anticipated system disturbances can only be qualitatively predicted. To achieve this, the system to be inspected must be partitioned into small subsystems, which can be treated independently from each other. This report contains the formulation of a standardized inspection concept based on system decomposition. Its performance is discussed by means of simulation experiments. (orig.) [de

  20. A randomized double-masked study to compare the ocular safety, tolerability, and efficacy of bromfenac 0.075% compared with vehicle in cataract surgery subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini K

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Kamran Hosseini,1 Thomas Walters,2 Robert DaVanzo,3 Richard L Lindstrom4 1InSite Vision Inc., Alameda, CA, 2Texan Eye, Austin, TX, 3Cornerstone Health Care, High Point, NC, 4Minnesota Eye Consultants, Bloomington, MN, USA Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of a low-dose version of bromfenac 0.075% in DuraSite® (bromfenac 0.075% compared with DuraSite® vehicle (vehicle alone for the treatment of postoperative inflammation and ocular pain after cataract surgery.Methods: A multicenter, double-masked, vehicle-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial of 240 subjects randomized in a 2:1 ratio to bromfenac 0.075% or vehicle was conducted. Subjects were dosed BID beginning 1 day before the cataract surgery, the day of surgery, and 14 days after surgery. A slit lamp biomicroscopy examination was performed to evaluate the signs of inflammation, including anterior chamber cells (ACC and anterior chamber flare (ACF. The primary efficacy variable was the proportion of subjects with an ACC grade of 0 at Day 15. Secondary efficacy endpoints included the proportion of subjects who achieved a pain score of 0 at each postsurgical visual analog scale (VAS assessment and the proportion of subjects with an ACF grade of 0 at Day 15.Results: At Day 15, proportionally more subjects in the bromfenac 0.075% group than in the vehicle group had an ACC grade of 0 (57.1% vs 18.8%, respectively; P<0.001. At each of the postsurgical time points (Days 1, 8, 15, and 29, proportionally more bromfenac 0.075%-treated subjects (76.8%, 90.5%, 92.9%, and 85.1%, respectively had no pain (a VAS score of 0 compared with the vehicle-treated subjects (48.2%, 38.8%, 42.4%, and 47.1%, respectively, and at each time point, these differences in proportions were statistically significant (P<0.001. More subjects in the bromfenac 0.075% group had complete ACF resolution (151/167; 90.4% compared to those in the vehicle group (54/85; 63