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Sample records for vegetazionali il caso

  1. Environmental quality evaluation. Indexing tools to evaluate environmental quality from biological data, floristic and vegetational data in Ponte Galeria (Rome, Italy); Rappresentazione sintetica della qualita' ambientale attraverso l'integrazione di indici floristici e vegetazionali: il caso di Macchia Grande di Ponte Galeria (Roma)

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    Mazzocchi, F.; Castorina, M.; De Mei, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    In the present work the study of indexing tools to evaluate environmental quality from biological data has been performed using a certain number of floristic and vegetational indices near Macchia Grande of Ponte Galeria (Rome, Italy). The indices have been applied on the basis of the data coming from a phyto sociological study of the area. Multivariate statistics methodologies have been utilized to obtain a synthetic evaluation of the indices. [Italian] Nel presente lavoro e' stato effettuato uno studio di alcuni strumenti di indicizzazione definiti sulla base di dati bioligici per la stima della qualita' ambientale, utilizzando una serie di indici floristici e vegetazionali dell'area di Macchia Grande di Ponte Galeria (Roma). Sono state analizzate le proprieta' espresse dagli indici come singole entita' ed in particolare le principali tendenze di variazione rispetto alla variazione di qualita' delle unita' ambientali e della loro integrabilita' reciproca. Sono state inoltre utilizzate le metodologie dell'analisi multivariata.

  2. Il caso Lautsi contro l’Italia

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    Grégor Puppinck

    2012-02-01

    SOMMARIO: 1. Premesse – 2. Il ragionamento della Seconda Sezione - 2.1. La ridefinizione dalla finalità del sistema educativo pubblico - 2.2. Il pluralismo educativo come finalità – 2.3. Sintesi del ragionamento della Sezione – 2.4.  Una sentenza contestata - 3.  Il ragionamento sviluppato dalla Grande Camera - 3.1. La sussidiarietà e il margine di apprezzamento – 3.2.  Il laicismo è una convinzione filosofica non neutra – 3.3. La neutralità si applica all’ “agire” e non all' "essere” dello  Stato – 3.4.  Democrazia, neutralità confessionale e laicità – 3.5.  L’educazione pubblica  nel senso della Grande Camera – 3.6.  Il crocefisso: un simbolo passivo – 3.7.  L’assenza d’ingerenza dello Stato - 4.  Gli sviluppi supplementari alla sentenza della Grande Camera – 4.1.  Il crocefisso e il velo islamico – 4.2.  La libertà negativa di religione dei non credenti – 4.3. La falsa soluzione bavarese – 4.4.  La tradizione – 4.5. La religione maggioritaria – 4.6.  Il dibattito religioso e politico – 4.7. Le conseguenze del caso Lautsi.

  3. Paesaggio agrario e metropoli. Il caso milanese

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    Giancarlo Consonni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La bellezza dei paesaggi agrari è il risultato della cura prestata alle capacità riproduttive della terra e alla possibilità di abitarla. Per una adeguata difesa di questa bellezza si rende necessaria la conoscenza dei processi costitutivi dei paesaggi come di quelli che hanno presieduto al loro disfacimento e alla perdita della bellezza. Il caso milanese è emblematico dell’impossibilità di isolare la campagna dalla città, i paesaggi agrari dalle dinamiche insediative e dunque dai sistemi di relazione, dai modi di abitare e dal modo di produzione. La riconquista per l’agricoltura della funzione originaria di costruttrice del paesaggio deve andare di pari passo con il controllo rigoroso della tendenza insediativa, contrastando quanto più possibile il consumo di suolo.

  4. UN CONFRONTO RICORRENTE NELLA CULTURA CATTOLICA: IL CASO GALILEI ED IL CASO ROSMINI

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    Luciano Malusa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Le espressioni "caso Galilei" e "questione galileiana" inducono gli studiosi a riflettere su un'analoga condanna, emessa dagli organismi repressivi della Chiesa cattolica, circa duecentocinquant'anni dopo la condanna di Galilei, contro un sacerdote il quale aveva cercato una conciliazione tra l'avanzamento nella riflessione filosofico-scientifica e la via della tradizione. Antonio Rosmini-Serbati fu condannato nel 1887 con il Decreto Post obitum del Santo Uffizio. A tale sentenza egli non poté sottomettersi come Galilei, in quanto era morto da ormai trentadue anni. Rosmini, prima della sua dipartita (1855, aveva avuto dalla Chiesa il dispiacere di una condanna all'Indice di due sue opere (1849;...

  5. Il gioco le leggi naturali governano il caso

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    Eigen, Manfred

    1986-01-01

    Manfred Eigen, Premio Nobel per la chimica nel 1967, e la sua collaboratrice Ruthild Winkler hanno voluto con questo libro uscire allo scoperto, esponendo in una trattazione complessa ma comprensibile per ogni lettore veramente interessato una teoria molto audace, basata su ricerche e scoperte di Eigen stesso e di altri (come per esempio Thom e Prigogine) che in questi ultimi anni sono al centro dell’attenzione degli scienziati, anche se non sempre sono filtrate al di fuori della loro cerchia. Questa teoria ha come perno la nozione di gioco: e non già in una o più delle innumerevoli accezioni della parola, ma in tutte, con l’aggiunta di una ulteriore accezione che sottende tutte le altre: il gioco come struttura intelligibile emergente dal divenire caotico, quindi come fenomeno «che ha guidato fin dall’inizio il corso dell’Universo». Gioco, in questo libro, è dunque un «fenomeno naturale», non specificamente umano. I giochi che noi tutti giochiamo sono soltanto la schiuma variegata di un flutto...

  6. UN CONFRONTO RICORRENTE NELLA CULTURA CATTOLICA: IL CASO GALILEI ED IL CASO ROSMINI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luciano Malusa

    2014-01-01

    Le espressioni "caso Galilei" e "questione galileiana" inducono gli studiosi a riflettere su un'analoga condanna, emessa dagli organismi repressivi della Chiesa cattolica, circa duecentocinquant'anni...

  7. La camorra e il caso Cirillo

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    A cura di Sarah Mazzenzana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available La sezione “Storia e Memoria” offre una selezione di brani tratti dal “Rapporto sulla Camorra” redatto dalla Commissione Parlamentare Antimafia nel 1993. Per la prima volta nella storia la Commissione rivolge la sua attenzione specificamente alla Camorra, fenomeno criminale fino a quel momento sottovalutato. Pubblichiamo qui la terza parte del rapporto, la quale offre uno spaccato degli eventi che hanno permesso la crescita imprenditoriale della Camorra: la ricostruzione delle aree colpite dal terremoto dell’Irpinia del 1980, l’ascesa della Nuova Camorra Organizzata di Raffaele Cutolo e infine il sequestro dell’allora assessore regionale ai lavori pubblici, Ciro Cirillo, episodio che sconvolse la politica e le istituzioni mettendone a nudo le complicità. Parole chiave: camorra; Commissione Parlamentare Antimafia; terremoto; sequestro Cirillo; imprenditoria The section “History and Memory” reports a selection of excerpts from the “Rapporto sulla Camorra”, issued by the Italian Parliamentary Anti-Mafia Commission in 1993. For the first time in its history, the Parliamentary Anti-Mafia Commission drew its attention specifically on a phenomenon which until that moment had been understimated. This document offers a significant  and thorough  understanding of the Camorra by dealing with the historical events that allowed the Campania criminal organisation’s entrepreneurial development, including the building reconstruction of the areas hit by the 1980 Irpinia earthquake , the growth of the Nuova Camorra Organizzata and the kidnapping of politician Ciro Cirillo.  Keywords: camorra; Italian Parliamentary Anti-mafia Commission; earthquake; Cirillo kidnapping; enterprise

  8. Come lavorava Boiardo volgarizzatore. Il caso della Pedia de Cyro.

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    Valentina Gritti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo esamina il caso della Pedia de Cyro di Boiardo dimostrando come il volgarizzamento raffrontato all’Historia de Cyri vita, la traduzione latina di Poggio Bracciolini della Ciropedia di Senofonte, offra un osservatorio privilegiato sul modo di lavorare del conte di Scandiano: poiché il testo è stato lasciato ad uno stadio intermedio tra l’abbozzo e la limatura definitiva, è stato possibile rintracciarvi i luoghi dell’intervento boiardesco e la sua riscrittura in chiave moderna. Il volgarizzamento presenta una narrazione meno vicina all’impianto per lo più dialogico dell’originale, mantenuto prevalentemente anche in Poggio, e più sciolta, che pone al centro del racconto l’azione. La riscrittura di interi passi permette di precisare il modo in cui Boiardo è intervenuto sulla primitiva traduzione del suo segretario, amplificandola con dovizia di particolari a partire da stilemi boccacciani, per trasformare il tono epico della vicenda in timbro cavalleresco e patetico. Si sono presentati alcuni casi significativi dell’azione versoria e dell’elaborazione letteraria del conte, proponendone sempre l’analisi linguistico-retorica, a dimostrazione di come la riscrittura boiardesca abbia eliminato il lato epico, ma anche divertente e lepido della Ciropedia, mantenuto da Poggio, a favore di un’atmosfera più patetica e moraleggiante, maggiormente consona all’interesse del duca di Ferrara. This article examines how Boiardo’s vernacular translation of the Pedia de Cyro offers insight into the Count of Scandiano’s modus operandi: whilst being somewhere between the draft and polishing stage, the Boiardo text reveals various degrees of translation. The vernacular translation presents a narrative far from the more dialogical structure of the original work and reproposed by Poggio Bracciolini in his translation. In fact, Boiardo’s work appears to be more light and free and places action at its core. Moreover, the

  9. LINGUA ITALIANA E IDENTITÀ: IL CASO DEL FUMETTO PANINARO

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    gergali degli anni Ottanta escludono la rivista a fumetti e citano esclusivamente il libro di. Letizia Mottica: All'infinito mondo paninaro, pubblicato nel 1988 da Arnoldo Mondadori. Editore. Eppure il libro in questione non rappresenta una scrittura fedele al dizionario del paninaro pubblicato nel 4° numero della rivista a fumetti.

  10. Nuovi territori di 'ndrangheta. Il caso di Reggio Emi

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    Federica Cabras

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available La ‘ndrangheta a Reggio Emilia rappresenta un fenomeno trentennale. Il presente articolo si propone di analizzare le tappe fondamentali della sua storia nella provincia emiliana, le sue caratteristiche strutturali e il graduale processo di integrazione socio-economica del clan sul territorio. Chiama in causa anche il sistema cooperativo emiliano, il quale – seppur mai coinvolto nelle inchieste della magistratura -  costituisce tradizionalmente il principale operatore economico in quei settori chiave dell’imprenditoria mafiosa.  Parole chiave: mafia, ‘ndrangheta, economia, Reggio Emilia, imprese cooperative   ‘Ndrangheta is a 30-year phenomenon in Reggio Emilia. This article aims to inquire   the fundamental steps of its development, identifying the structural features of the organization and analysing its spread within the socio-economic context. Moreover, this essay focuses on the role of cooperative ventures in the key sectors of mafia’s investments. The main findings put into light many links between mafia enterprises and Emilian cooperative system. Keywords: mafia, ‘ndrangheta, economy, Reggio Emilia, cooperative venture

  11. Consumo di suolo e degrado del territorio: il caso milanese

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    Francesco Vescovi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available La crescente scarsità di risorse pubbliche ha portato molti comuni italiani, complice una crescente cultura derogatoria nell’ambito della pianificazione, a diventare corresponsabili del degrado del paesaggio, alimentando artificiosamente il tasso di urbanizzazione del suolo. Mentre è evidente l’assoluta insostenibilità di un modello di “sviluppo” affidato ai meccanismi della speculazione immobiliare emerge chiaramente l’urgenza di una pianificazione strategica di scala intercomunale o metropolitana che sappia ottimizzare le sempre più scarse opportunità di rigenerazione di un territorio gravemente compromesso. I dati disponibili per il contesto milanese offrono la possibilità di indagare il fenomeno in maggior dettaglio.

  12. Proteste ed emancipazione alla frontiera europea. Il caso di Lampedusa

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    Annalisa Lendaro

    Full Text Available Riassunto Questo articolo si propone di approfondire a livello teorico i legami tra proteste ed emancipazione dei migranti senza status legale, che si trovano in situazione di detenzione amministrativa sull’isola italiana di Lampedusa. Il presente contributo mette in evidenza il fatto che l’agency dei migranti, seppur privi di libertà e di uno status legale, è determinante per sbloccare una situazione di crisi in un contesto simile allo stato di eccezione descritto da Agamben. Più precisamente, la protesta dei migranti di Lampedusa mostra in che modo la sospensione dello stato di diritto apra degli spiragli per, non solo denunciare l’ingiustizia di alcune norme, ma anche per agire.

  13. L’apertura della ricerca scientifica: il caso LUISS

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    Maria Teresa Nisticò

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available IT Il Movimento OA, nato all’interno del mondo accademico, facilita la condivisione e la crescita della conoscenza scientifica mediante il libero accesso ai risultati della ricerca. Tra le due strategie principali volte a garantire pubblicazioni ad accesso aperto, la Green road è pienamente rappresentata dagli Institutional Repositories. In Italia la storia degli archivi istituzionali è fortemente caratterizzata e guidata dall’attività dalla CRUI, in particolare dal Gruppo di lavoro per l’OA nato con lo scopo di dare attuazione ai principi della Dichiarazione di Berlino, punto cardine del movimento Open Access. In questo contesto, la LUISS partecipa al progetto di sperimentazione di harvesting automatico delle tesi di dottorato da parte delle Biblioteche Nazionali Centrali di Firenze e di Roma – Magazzini Digitali - ed attua una precisa politica di archiviazione per garantire il rispetto della normativa vigente in tema di Deposito legale. I suoi archivi istituzionali, LUISSearch e LUISSThesis, riguardano la descrizione e la documentazione rispettivamente della ricerca scientifica d’ateneo ad accesso aperto - con particolare riguardo per la collezione delle tesi di dottorato - e degli elaborati discussi nelle sedute di laurea dell’Università, offrendo l’accesso al testo integrale qualora consentito dai candidati.EN The purpose of OA movement, born within the academic world, is to facilitate the sharing and the growth of scientific knowledge through open access to research results. Between the two main strategies meant to ensure open access publishing, the Green road is fully represented by the Institutional Repositories. In Italy the history of institutional repositories is strongly characterized and driven by the activity of CRUI, in particular by the Working Group for OA formed with the purpose of giving effect to the principles of the Declaration of Berlin, cornerstone of the Open Access movement. In this context, LUISS

  14. L’indennità di espropriazione di terreni soggetti a usi civici. Il caso del Livello

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    Gianluigi De Mare

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available L’espropriazione di beni soggetti a uso civico costituisce una fattispecie particolare dell’istituto espropriativo la cui regolamentazione, nella parte in cui coinvolge le indennità e i diritti su esse vantate, va ricercata in normative speciali molto spesso anche lontane nel tempo o in pronunce giurisprudenziali. La questione diventa molto delicata quando il problema è l’individuazione di chi debba considerarsi il vero proprietario del fondo. Fondamentale è l’indagine sull’origine del gravame allo scopo di individuare se il suolo interessato dall’esproprio ha natura demaniale, o se la demanialità è solo del livello gravante sullo stesso. Lo studio prende spunto da un caso concreto il quale mostra come varia la condizione economica del livellario, variando la natura giuridica del livello e dunque i diritti vantati sul bene.

  15. Reclutamento e formazione dei poliziotti: il caso degli ufficiali della gendarmeria francese

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    François Dieu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Partendo dal caso degli ufficiali della gendarmeria francese, questo articolo illustra il modo in cui il reclutamento e la formazione possono contribuire, informalmente, alla ripartizione del potere nelle organizzazioni di polizia. Tramite la diversità delle vie di reclutamento si costituisce, di fatto, un vero e proprio sistema di "caste", con una stratificazione degli ufficiali in tre livelli gerarchici, che produce, al di là dei principi meritocratici, delle ineguaglianze manifeste nella ripartizione del potere nell'organizzazione della gendarmeria.

  16. Le politiche per la tutela della salute dei migranti: il contesto europeo e il caso Italia

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    Alessandro Rinaldi

    Full Text Available Intendendo la salute come un diritto umano fondamentale che non si esaurisce alla dimensione biologica ma si estende a quella sociale, economica e politica, gli autori, dopo aver descritto brevemente le politiche che a livello europeo sono state emanate per tutelare la salute dei migranti, analizzano l'esperienza italiana alla luce delle direttive internazionali. L'Italia rappresenta infatti un caso particolare ed avanzato di tutela della salute dei migranti; la sua politica sanitaria decisamente inclusiva riconosce parità di diritti e doveri ai cittadini regolarmente presenti ed ammette ampie possibilità di protezione ed assistenza anche per gli immigrati privi di permesso di soggiorno. Tuttavia, anche in un contesto avanzato come quello italiano, è necessaria un'evoluzione da un approccio di tipo assistenzialistico ad uno più ampio di promozione della salute attraverso politiche di natura intersettoriale, alla luce della teoria dei determinanti sociali di salute. Affrontare la tematica della salute del popolo migrante rappresenta un'occasione per rendere i servizi sanitari in particolare e le politiche migratorie in generale più attente ad ogni persona, alla sua storia e al contesto nel quale essa vive.

  17. Trasformazione urbana verso la mobilità dolce: il caso di Istanbul

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    Emilia Giovanna Trifiletti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Nell’articolo si descrivono le recenti trasformazioni urbane della città di Istanbul in Turchia in relazione all’implementazione di aree pedonali e all’utilizzo di mobilità dolce. Il sistema trasportistico è stato ampliato ed integrato di recente ed in tempi molto brevi: nei soli ultimi due anni è stata potenziata la linea tranviaria, sono state inaugurate una funicolare ed una teleferica ed è stata realizzata una stazione di interscambio gomma-ferro, ponendo grande attenzione all’integrazione del trasporto su ferro e/o gomma con la mobilità pedonale. Allo stesso modo sono state implementate le linee marittime che collegano le diverse sponde della città ed integrate alle linee su ferro e su gomma. Lo sviluppo e la riqualificazione della città sono dunque stati guidati dalla trasformazione del sistema trasportistico che ha rappresentato il vero motore della riqualificazione urbana. L’antico quartiere di Sultanahmet è stato interamente riqualificato e collegato, attraverso la linea tranviaria veloce che lo attraversa interamente, al resto della città fino ai quartieri più periferici. Allo stesso modo nel quartiere di Beyoglu che, dopo l’indipendenza era caduto in totale rovina, ha riacquistato l’antica eleganza che lo connotava. Il viale dell’Indipendenza (antica Rue De Pera che attraversa tutto il quartiere è stato reso pedonale e con un tram vintage che percorre tutto il viale sono stati collegati il nodo di interscambio Taksim, dotato di metropolitana e funicolare, con il nodo di interscambio Tünel, dotato di tram veloce e trasporto su gomma. Nell’articolo si è inteso evidenziare come la riqualificazione urbana della città sia stata guidata da interventi integrati trasporto/territorio e come i risultati ottenuti, nel caso-studio, siano stati anche il frutto di politiche attente alla sicurezza sociale.

  18. Strategie di occupazione dello spazio urbano: il caso delle chiese pentecostali di Kampala (Uganda

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    Alessandro Gusman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Basato su una ricerca di lungo periodo a Kampala (Uganda iniziata nel 2005, l’articolo si focalizza sulle strategie di occupazione dello spazio urbano da parte delle chiese pentecostali, le compara con le confessioni cristiane di epoca coloniale e le analizza nell’ottica teorica dello “spatial turn”. Negli ultimi tre decenni le chiese pentecostali sono sorte a centinaia in città, con strategie non centralizzate: in questo modo si osserva la compresenza di semplici strutture costruite con materiali di fortuna con altre di dimensioni maggiori e più stabili, per arrivare in alcuni casi alle dimensioni di “mega-churches”, con congregazioni di decine di migliaia di fedeli. Queste modalità differenziate di presenza nello spazio urbano sono considerate nell’articolo parte del processo di entrata progressiva del movimento pentecostale nella sfera pubblica ugandese. Attraverso l’analisi del caso di studio di Kampala, l’articolo mostra il ruolo delle religioni nel connotare e significare lo spazio urbano, sia attraverso la presenza fisica, sia con la retorica della lotta spirituale per la “conquista” di tale spazio.

  19. Le prescrizioni religiose ed il colera: Il caso della comunitá ebraica ferrarese durante l'epidemia del 1855

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    L. G. Menghin

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Per comprendere e valutare l’impatto che un’epidemia di colera poteva avere sulla società della metà dell’ottocento, è interessante studiare i comportamenti della morbosità e della mortalità, anche, secondo le norme igienico alimentari dettate dall’appartenenza ad un determinato credo religioso. La religione per il popolo ebraico, oltre a rappresentare un elemento culturale unificante, detta una serie di regole e di principi che permeano tutti gli aspetti della vita quotidiana. Queste regole, tra cui spiccano importanti norme igieniche ed alimentari, influirono positivamente nella prevenzione di quelle malattie epidemiche, come il colera, legate nella trasmissione al circuito oro-fecale. La ricerca si propone di evidenziare come il complesso di norme sociali, di valori morali, di imperativi religiosi e di tradizioni della comunità ebraica possano aver contribuito, se non a preservare dal contagio, a limitare i danni dell’epidemia di colera a differenza della popolazione non ebrea. I dati sull’epidemia sono stati raccolti da registri dell’epoca, mentre un’accurata analisi dei cinque libri della Toràh (Genesi, Esodo, Levitino, Numeri e Deuteronomio e del Talmud, ci ha permesso di estrapolare quelle norme che avrebbero potuto contribuire a ridurre la diffusione del morbo. In un’epoca dove ancora non si conoscevano con certezza le modalità con cui si diffondeva l’infezione, l’attenersi a particolari regole, alcune vere e proprie norme di prevenzione, ha verosimilmente permesso alla comunit�� ebraica di ridurre i rischi di contrarre la malattia. Anche se l’esigua numerosità dei casi di colera rilevati negli ebrei (n. 14 non ci consente di trarre conclusioni statisticamente accettabili dal punto di vista metodologico, appare comunque evidente come la morbosità e la mortalità per colera furono più elevate nei cristiani rispetto alla comunità ebraica (rispettivamente 5,1 vs 0,9% e 3,6 vs 0,8%. Al contrario, le

  20. Il crowdfunding finalizzato al co-finanziamento di progetti di valorizzazione di complessi di elevato valore storico architettonico: il caso di “Torino Esposizioni”

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    Paola Marinò

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo affronta il tema del finanziamento degli interventi di restauro e riuso delle grandi architetture del ‘900, in un momento storico in cui le risorse finanziarie pubbliche sono sempre più scarse e difficili da reperire. La ricerca affronta la possibilità di ricorrere al crowdfunding attraverso il caso studio del progetto di “Torino Esposizioni”, un’architettura del ‘900, parzialmente utilizzata, in stato di degrado, nonostante sia riconosciuta dalla critica internazionale come un’opera di eccezionale valore. A partire dal Master Plan, messo a punto dal Politecnico di Torino in collaborazione con la Città di Torino, è stata simulata l’applicabilità del crowdfunding attraverso un’indagine che valuta la disponibilità a contribuire da parte dei potenziali fruitori del complesso di “Torino Esposizioni” e, quindi, a comprendere l’interesse dei cittadini nei confronti del valore storico del complesso di “Torino Esposizioni” e del progetto di riuso che dovrebbe valorizzarlo. Gli esiti della ricerca, nell’evidenziare un’inattesa scarsa disponibilità a contribuire al finanziamento collettivo del progetto, hanno messo in evidenza, non solo la scarsa conoscenza del crowdfunding come strumento di finanziamento, ma anche la scarsa consapevolezza del valore storico architettonico del patrimonio moderno della città di Torino, di cui “Torino Esposizioni” rappresenta un esempio eccezionale, seppur non l’unico.

  1. Energy efficiency indicators. Case study, Liguria; Indicatori di efficienza energetica. Il caso Liguria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciarallo, M.A. [ENEA, Divisione Promozione degli Usi Efficienti e Diversificazione dell' Energia, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria Galeria, RM (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The report examines the trend in the Liguria Region's energy requirements over the period 1988-1996. The trend was analysed using the regional energy balances and energy efficiency indicators, both in aggregate form and on a single sector basis. The residential sector, in particular, was singled out for an in-depth analysis using publishing and processed data. [Italian] Il presente rapporto esamina l'evoluzione delle caratteristiche energetiche della Regione Liguria attraverso l'analisi degli indicatori di efficienza energetica. Tale analisi e' stata svolta sia a livello aggregato che con riferimento ai singoli settori di attivita'. Particolare attenzione e' stata dedicata al settore residenziale, per il quale e' stato svolto un esame piu' approfondito attraverso un lavoro di raccolta e di elaborazione dati. Il periodo di riferimento va dal 1988 al 1966 dal momento che questo e' l'ultimo anno per il quale sono disponibili i dati economici Istat utilizzati per il calcolo degli indicatori.

  2. Nuove prospettive tecnologiche a supporto della valutazione per l’apprendimento permanente: il caso degli Open Digital Badge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana E. Raffaghelli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Com’è noto, la relazione tra valutazione e tecnologie è rimasta legata a concezioni pedagogiche tradizionali, e cioè alla valutazione all’interno di uno specifico percorso di apprendimento formale. Meno esplorata è invece la relazione tra tecnologie e valutazione degli apprendimenti informali e non formali, attraverso percorsi di apprendimento permanente unici e personalizzati. Gli emergenti Open Digital Badge (ODB, che introdurremo in questo articolo, si configurano come soluzione tecnologica rispondente alla complessa problematica della valutazione dell’apprendimento e per l’apprendimento. Analizzeremo la definizione e le specifiche tecniche degli ODB nonché due brevi studi di caso che esemplificano modus operandi e impatto. Da quanto esaminato emerge che, sebbene il valore dei badge sia ancora a livello potenziale, formulato sul piano concettuale e supportato da soluzioni tecnologiche per l’effettiva implementazione, molto resta ancora da esplorare dal punto di vista della ricerca educativa e sperimentazione didattica.

  3. Premi letterari e traduzioni (1990-2012: il caso Spagna-Italia

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    Simone Cattaneo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In un contesto globalizzato, in cui l’industria culturale iberica e l’editoria italiana sono state al centro di cambi epocali che le hanno convertite in vasi comunicanti soggetti alle leggi dell’economia mondiale e della società dello spettacolo, può essere utile analizzare come le case editrici della nostra penisola abbiano accolto, negli ultimi vent’anni (dal 1990 al 2012, gli autori e i libri vincitori e finalisti di cinque storici premi letterari spagnoli (il Nadal, il Planeta, il Premio Herralde de Novela, il Nacional de Narrativa e il Nacional de la Crítica poiché, a partire da un quadro d’insieme delle opere tradotte, è possibile, basandosi sulle trame dei volumi e sulle pubblicazioni in lingua italiana che hanno preceduto o seguito la loro stampa, elaborare congetture in merito alle linee guida recentemente adottate da un buon numero di editori nostrani e, al contempo, stilare bilanci riguardo all’impatto della narrativa spagnola nell’attuale mercato librario italiano. In a globalized world, both Spanish and Italian publishing industries have been subjected to radical changes that transformed them into communicating vessels prone to economic laws and dependant on the mechanisms of the society of the spectacle. In such a context, it would be useful to analyse the interest showed in the last twenty years (from 1990 to 2012 by Italian publishing houses towards writers and books distinguished with some of the most notorious Spanish literary awards (Nadal, Planeta, Herralde de Novela, Nacional de Narrativa, Nacional de la Crítica. In this way, starting from a brief abstract of the awarded plots and from an overview of the existing Italian translations of their authors, it would be possible to conjecture some of the recent guidelines followed by Italian publishers and, at the same time, thus would allow us to evaluate the impact of Spanish narrative in our book market.

  4. Chirotteri carnivori in Europa? Il caso della Nottola gigante (Nyctalus lasiopterus

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    Simone Vergari

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Nel maggio 1994, iniziò uno studio sulla chirotterofauna forestale nella Riserva Biogenetica di Pian di Novello (Toscana, Pistoia, 44°07?N-10°42?E. La vegetazione della riserva è dominata essenzialmente dal faggio ed è governata ad alto fusto con una età media degli esemplari di 80-100 anni. Un totale di 90 bat-boxes furono distribuite all?interno della riserva. In questi anni sono state evidenziate le seguenti specie all?interno della foresta: Nyctalus leisleri, N. noctula, N. lasiopterus, Myotis bechsteinii, M. mystacinus, M. nattereri, Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. kuhlii, Hypsugo savii e Tadarida teniotis. Nel contesto della ricerca sono stati avviati approfondimenti per valutare la dieta delle varie specie e valutare l?eventuale sovrapposizione di nicchia trofica. L?analisi degli escrementi della nottola gigante (N. lasiopterus ha sorpreso non poco per la presenza di una cospicua presenza di residui appartenenti a piccoli passeriformi. La carnivoria nei pipistrelli è definita come una specializzazione a catturare e consumare altri vertebrati ad esclusione dei pesci. Ad oggi è stata documentata in circa 12 specie su circa 1000 descritte. In particolare: 1 specie di Nycteridae, 4 specie di Megadermatidae, 5 specie di Phyllostomidae, 1 specie di Vespertilionidae e 1 specie di Hipposideridae. La nottola gigante è presente nella riserva solo nel periodo tardo estivo-autunnale. Una approfondita indagine su di un certo numero di escrementi ha permesso di valutare che la dieta è basata principalmente su passeriformi come pettirosso (Erithacus rubecula e cinciarella (Parus caeruleus. Successivi rilievi hanno permesso di esaminare il comportamento predatorio da parte della nottola gigante, soprattutto le strategie alimentari in relazione alla termoregolazione. Viene inoltre confrontato la morfologia alare con le altre specie

  5. Polimorfismi nei geni metabolici come fattori dirischio per il carcinoma gastrico (GC: risultati preliminari di uno studio caso-controllo

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    S. Boccia

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: valutare le frequenze dei principali geni metabolici in un campione di casi di GC (Carcinoma Gastrico e di controlli, per determinare se esiste un’associazione con il rischio di GC, e considerare le possibili associazioni tra i genotipi studiati ed alcuni parametri clinico-patologici.

    Metodi: è stato condotto uno studio caso-controllo ospedaliero, tra novembre 1999 e maggio 2003 reclutando 48 pazienti con diagnosi di adenocarcinoma gastrico sottoposti a gastrectomia, e 48 controlli appaiati per sesso ed età presso il Policlinico Universitario “A. Gemelli” in Roma. Per genotipizzare gli individui rispetto ai geni GSTM1, NAT2, SULT1A1, CYP1A1, CYP2E1 (5’ flanking e introne 6, è stata usata la tecnica della PCR con analisi del profilo dei frammenti di restrizione (PCR-RFLP. L’analisi statistica ha previsto l’impiego di test non parametrici e della regressione logistica.

    Risultati: le frequenze dei polimorfismi nei geni metabolici sono risultate in alcuni casi differenti nei casi rispetto ai controlli sebbene non si evidenzi una differenza statisticamente significativa. In particolare il genotipo GSMT1 null è più elevato nei pazienti rispetto ai controlli (63.8% vs. 51% e gli individui NAT2 acetilatori lenti risultano più frequenti nei casi rispetto ai controlli (69.6% vs. 57.45%. L’istotipo diffuso di GC è associato significativamente ai pazienti eterozigoti per l’allele SULT1A1 (c_= 8.216; p= 0.018, ed i pazienti NAT2 acetilatori lenti tendono ad avere un grading tumorale alto (c_= 7.425; p= 0.006.

    Conclusioni: i risultati preliminari di questo studio evidenziano associazioni tra alcuni genotipi metabolici e parametri clinico-patologici, che se confermati potrebbero permettere di identificare sottogruppi con prognosi più sfavorevole di GC da indirizzare preventivamente verso trattamenti specifici.

  6. Lo stereotipo del Sud fra Otto e Novecento. Il caso della Sardegna

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    Maria Bonaria Urban

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Stereotype in the 19th and 20th Centuries. The Case of Sardinia   Following Italian unification, the North-South dichotomy which had for centuries been part of European tradition was reformulated in Italian culture, resulting in the definition of a homogeneous concept of the South and with it what is probably the most significant and persistent stereotype in the national collective imagination. This perspective stands as a constant in every text on Sardinia, since the national debate on the Southern Question placed the island firmly among the country's other Southern regions. In the early 20th century the traditional stock of images and stereotypes characterising literary discourse became an essential reservoir of characters, situations and places for film-makers. Following the method of imagology, this paper focuses on the strategies used in representing the stereotype of the South in the cinema, specifically in the film Cainà. L’isola e il continente (Righelli 1922. The working hypothesis is that films confirmed the centrality of the North-South dichotomy as the creative engine in the Italian cinematic imagination and the identification of Sardinian society with the South perceived as a model of archaic and primitive civilisation. Depicting Sardinia in accordance with an interpretative scheme considered absolute and unchanging, the new art form followed a route already laid down in literature. In addition, in a cultural phase dominated by the need to develop and disseminate a national consciousness, it contributed to the production of images and symbols standing in open contradiction to the ideal of a united Italy, revealing the contradictions that the Risorgimento had created rather than resolve.

  7. I microinquinanti organici emergenti nelle acque. Il caso degli interferenti endocrini e delle sostanze ad uso terapeutico-d’abuso

    OpenAIRE

    Tedesco, Pierpaolo

    2013-01-01

    La presente attività di ricerca ha avuto l’obiettivo di studiare il destino ed il comportamento di alcuni microinquinanti organici emergenti nelle acque reflue, con particolare riferimento alle due famiglie di composti considerate di maggiore e più recente interesse: gli interferenti endocrini (IE) e le sostanze ad uso terapeutico-d’abuso. Nel corso della sperimentazione sono stati monitorati il 4-Nonilfenolo (4-NP), il Bisfenolo A (BPA), l’Estrone (E1), il 17β-Estradiolo (E2) e il 17α-Eti...

  8. Problemi di traduzione della Politica di AristoteleIl caso della traduzione in francese di Nicole Oresme

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    Claudio Fiocchi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Necessità pratiche e riflessioni teoriche accompagnano il lavoro di Oresme, nella consapevolezza che la traduzione delle grandi opere è uno strumento fondamentale per la grandezza di un popolo.

  9. L’interconnessione dei registri europei della proprietà immobiliare: il caso italiano e spagnolo a confronto

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    Agostina Lodde

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available La necessità che le informazioni detenute dai Registri Immobiliari possano liberamente circolare all’interno dello spazio dell’Unione rappresenta un obiettivo prioritario nell’ambito della strategia delineata dal Consiglio UE in materia di giustizia elettronica europea 2014-2018, la quale prevede di incentrare l’azione “sulla interconnessione dei registri che presentino un interesse per i cittadini, le imprese, gli operatori della giustizia e i magistrati”. Pertanto, si afferma che “si dovrebbero assicurare i presupposti tecnici e giuridici necessari per rendere possibile tale interconnessione”. La realizzazione dei “presupposti tecnici” di cui si parla, grazie agli sviluppi straordinari delle tecnologie informatiche, rappresenta il traguardo meno difficile da raggiungere, mentre è di gran lunga più complicato risolvere le difficoltà giuridiche derivanti dalla storica diversità dei Registri, tenendo anche in considerazione il limite posto dall’art. 345 del Trattato sul Funzionamento dell’Unione Europea, secondo il quale “I trattati lasciano del tutto impregiudicato il regime di proprietà esistente negli Stati membri”. Per meglio comprendere le suddette diversità e facendo seguito alla panoramica sui diversi sistemi europei di registrazione immobiliare illustrata da Lodde (2016, si è cercato di fornire un quadro comparato dei sistemi di registrazione italiano e spagnolo, sistemi che poggiano su tradizioni giuridiche comuni (quelle di civil law ma che, per diversi percorsi evolutivi, sono pervenuti a una regolamentazione completamente differente dei rispettivi Registri.

  10. Tratamento cirúrgico do ameloblastoma com reconstrução de mandíbula com enxerto de crista ilíaca não vascularizado: estudo de sete casos

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    Daniela Venturoli Lunardi

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a validade do enxerto autólogo de crista ilíaca não vascularizado no tratamento cirúrgico do ameloblastoma de mandíbula. MÉTODO: Nos Serviços de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço e Semiologia Bucal do Complexo Hospitalar Heliópolis, de 1980 a 2000, foram tratados 31 pacientes com ameloblastoma de mandíbula, dos quais sete receberam enxerto de crista ilíaca autólogo, fixos com placa de titânio do sistema A-0 (quatro casos e aço inox (três casos, sendo portadores da variedade folicular (seis casos e plexiforme (um caso. RESULTADOS: Nesta análise, foi utilizado o Teste de Hipótese para a média populacional com a variança desconhecida, houve exposição da placa em três casos (40% quando a neoplasia ultrapassava a linha média e em quatro casos (60% não incidiu nenhuma complicação. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar da incidência de exposição de placa, o método é indicado na reconstrução da mandíbula de pacientes com ameloblastoma.

  11. Le condizioni di espressione dell'islamofobia : Oriana, un caso italiano. Come è nato il "fenomeno Fallaci" sui nostri giornali

    OpenAIRE

    Cousin, Bruno; Vitale, Tommaso

    2008-01-01

    Nel settembre del 2006 moriva Oriana Fallaci e sulla stampa italiana fiorivano omaggi e ricordi da parte dei suoi colleghi giornalisti. Quel momento di riflessività del giornalismo italiano consente di ricostruire, frammento per frammento, il contesto editoriale che ha reso possibile, all'indomani dell'11 settembre, la pubblicazione de La rabbia e l'orgoglio e degli altri pamphlet razzisti dell'ultima Fallaci (...).

  12. Cineturismo e valorizzazione del territorio: il caso Puglia / Cine-tourism and territory enhancement: the case of Puglia region

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    Michele Vigilante

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Il cineturismo rappresenta un fenomeno socio-culturale recente e in forte diffusione in Italia. Il suo legame con la valorizzazione del territorio è inscindibile dal momento in cui lo spettatore sceglie un determinato luogo da visitare, stimolato dalla visione di un film, di una fiction o di un cortometraggio. La valorizzazione del territorio attraverso il cinema non è automatica. Vi sono luoghi che grazie a dei film di successo hanno riscontrato un afflusso esponenziale di turisti e altri luoghi dove questo non è avvenuto. Predisporre spazi per l'accoglienza di produzioni cinematografiche o finanziare le produzioni cinematografiche in uno specifico territorio consente un maggiore interesse, da parte dei registi, nei confronti di quelle location che di quel territorio fanno parte.  The film tourism is a socio-cultural phenomenon recently and rapidly spread in Italy. His connection with the development of the area is inseparable from the moment when the viewer chooses a certain place to visit, stimulated by watching a movie, a drama or a short film. The development of the area through cinema is not automatic. There are places that thanks to the hit movie found an exponential influx of tourists and other places where this has not happened. Provide space for the reception of film productions or finance film productions in a specific area allows a greater interest on the part of directors, in respect of those locations that are part of that territory.

  13. I modelli istituzionali di integrazione musulmana in Europa e il caso dell’ “Islám italiano”

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    Salvatore Prisco

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Il testo (ultimato il 24 febbraio 2011 fonde - aggiornandoli nella considerazione degli sviluppi successivi alle circostanze che hanno dato occasione alle rispettive trattazioni originarie - i temi svolti durante l’intervento nella tavola rotonda finale sul tema La Carta dei valori della cittadinanza e dell’integrazione (alla quale parteciparono, con chi scrive, Michele Lepri Gallerano, Massimo Papa e Giuseppe Verde, moderatore Raffaele Coppola al Convegno delle Università di Bari e del Salento sul tema Libertà religiosa e Multiculturalismo (Gallipoli, 29 febbraio-1 marzo 2008, i cui Atti sono in corso di pubblicazione nel volume omonimo, a cura di R. Coppola, V. Tondi della Mura, V. Turchi, ESI, Napoli, e nella relazione al Convegno sul tema La tutela dei minori di cultura islamica nell’area mediterranea. Aspetti sociali, giuridici, medici, organizzato dalla Facoltà di Studi arabo-islamici e del Mediterraneo dell’Università L’Orientale (Napoli, 28-29 ottobre 2009, i cui Atti sono anch’essi in via di pubblicazione. Il presente lavoro è destinato alla pubblicazione anche negli Studi in onore di Aldo Lojodice.

  14. Aneurisma de artéria ilíaca interna roto: relato de caso Ruptured internal iliac artery aneurysm: case report

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    Cristina Toledo Afonso

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aneurismas isolados da artéria ilíaca interna são raros, acometem 0,1% da população e correspondem a 1% dos aneurismas aorto-ilíacos. Na maioria das vezes, os pacientes são assintomáticos, mas podem apresentar dor abdominal, massa pulsátil no hipogástrio ou na fossa ilíaca, sintomas compressivos urinários, gastrointestinais ou neurológicos. Podem ocasionar quadro de abdome agudo, principalmente quando há ruptura. O diagnóstico precoce dos aneurismas isolados de artéria ilíaca interna é incomum, sendo identificados quando mais volumosos ou rotos, o que aumenta significativamente sua morbimortalidade e torna seu prognóstico mais reservado. Dessa forma, representam um desafio terapêutico. A ligadura cirúrgica tem sido o tratamento mais comum, entretanto a cirurgia endovascular tem mostrado bons resultados, inclusive nos aneurismas rotos. É relatado caso de aneurisma de artéria ilíaca interna isolado roto diagnosticado durante laparotomia para abordagem de abdome agudo.Isolated internal iliac artery aneurysms are rare. They affect 0.1% of the population, and account for 1% of aortoiliac aneurysms. Patients are mostly asymptomatic, yet they can have abdominal pain, pulsatile mass in the hypogastrium or iliac fossa, or urinary, gastrointestinal or neurological compressive symptoms. Such aneurysms are likely to course with an acute abdomen, especially when ruptured. Early diagnosis of isolated internal iliac artery aneurysms is difficult, as they are more easily detected when larger or ruptured, which significantly raises their morbidity and mortality rate and determines a poor prognosis. Therefore, they are a therapeutic challenge. Surgical ligation has been the most common treatment; however, the endovascular approach has presented good outcomes, even in the event of ruptured aneurysms. A case of ruptured isolated iliac artery aneurysm diagnosed during a laparotomy (acute abdomen approach is reported.

  15. Action Research in the Library: Method, Experiences, and a Significant Case La ricerca-azione in biblioteca: il metodo, le esperienze e un caso significativo

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    Ilaria Moroni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to promoting action research in library contexts by illustrating the method and its applications in library, and by presenting a meaningful case.
    Action research, devised in 1950s, was spread in information sciences since 1990s, with results that have been interesting in promoting change of involved people and organizations. The method is based on engaging a group coordinated by a researcher. Problem analysis is functional to realizing improvement interventions, in a recursive process of reflection, action, evaluation, and result sharing.
    The action research case at the University Milano Bicocca Library is meaningful under various aspects: increase of motivation and awareness in the working group that was responsible of improving the perception of library services; complementary use of quantitative and qualitative research methods in order to analyze users' service utilization and satisfaction; realization of many interventions, coherent with research results, aimed to enhance service usage and perceived quality; self-reflection and reflection on the organizational context, benchmarking with other libraries and assessment of the realized activities in the perspective of continuing improvement; internal sharing and external diffusion of the project to the advantage of librarians, users, and researchers.

    L’articolo si propone di diffondere l’utilizzo della ricerca-azione nel contesto bibliotecario, illustrando il metodo e le sue applicazioni nelle biblioteche e presentando un caso significativo.

    La ricerca-azione, ideata negli anni Cinquanta, si è diffusa nell’ambito delle scienze dell’informazione a partire dagli anni Novanta con risultati interessanti per i cambiamenti promossi nelle persone e nelle organizzazioni coinvolte. Il metodo prevede il coinvolgimento di un gruppo di persone coordinate da un ricercatore e l’analisi del problema è funzionale alla realizzazione di interventi migliorativi, in

  16. Caso e caos

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    Ruelle, David

    1992-01-01

    Caso e caos – Il caso ha la sua ragione. Ma quale? E cos’è in realtà il caso? Da dove viene e come può fare irruzione nella nostra descrizione dell’universo? A tutte queste domande, in una chiara e lucida esposizione, cerca di dare risposta David Ruelle. Curiosando tra i risultati scientifici del XX secolo e soffermandosi anche su fenomeni e problemi estranei alla scienza tradizionale – le lotterie, gli oroscopi, la teoria dei giochi, la genesi della turbolenza – Ruelle ci guida a conoscere il caso avendo la matematica, la fisica e tutte le scienze naturali come compagne. Ancora oggi il modo in cui il caso irrompe nelle nostre vite e nel mondo può essere un mistero, ma grazie ai progressi della scienza, qui raccontati, riusciamo a saperne un poco di più.

  17. A Poetics of Plagiarism: The Case of Kathy Acker Per una poetica del plagio: il caso di Kathy Acker

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    Claudia Cao

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    After a brief introduction on the literary production of Kathy Acker and a brief overview on some essays where she shows the relation between writing and power, and between writing and desire, this paper analyzes the meaning of the act of plagiarism in one of her most experimental works: Great Expectation.

    By means of the concept of “desiring-machine” illustrated by Deleuze and Guattari in their essay L’Anti-Œdipe. Capitalisme et Schizophrénie, this paper intends to highlight the link between the use of plagiarism in Kathy Acker’s novel and the schizophrenic thought elaborated by the two French theorists.

    Dopo una breve introduzione intorno alla produzione letteraria di Kathy Acker e dopo una panoramica su alcuni saggi in cui l’autrice si sofferma sulla stretta relazione esistente tra scrittura e potere, e tra scrittura e desiderio, l’articolo esamina il significato assunto dal plagio in una delle sue opere più sperimentali: Great Expectations.

    Prendendo le mosse da un concetto centrale nella riflessione elaborata da Deleuze e Guattari all’interno del loro L’Anti-Œdipe. Capitalisme et Schizophrénie, come quello di “macchina desiderante”, questo contributo intende illustrare la relazione esistente tra l’atto del plagio e il pensiero schizofrenico elaborato dai due pensatori francesi.

  18. Lesão da artéria ilíaca esquerda durante laminectomia lombar: relato de caso Lesión de la arteria ilíaca izquierda durante laminectomia lombar: relato de caso Left iliac artery injury during lumbar laminectomy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderley Rodrigues Moreira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Lesão da artéria ilíaca é uma ocorrência rara em laminectomias, porém, muito grave. O objetivo deste relato é apresentar um caso de lesão da artéria ilíaca esquerda, em paciente submetido a laminectomia lombar sob raquianestesia, que se manifestou clinicamente no pós-operatório imediato, sete horas após o início da cirurgia. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, estado físico ASA I, 31 anos, 68 kg, foi submetido à laminectomia lombar em decúbito ventral sob raquianestesia em L2-L3, com bupivacaína hiperbárica a 0,5% (20 mg e fentanil 25 µg. A cirurgia transcorreu normalmente e sete horas após o seu início, já no pós-operatório, o paciente apresentou hipotensão arterial, taquicardia, agitação e dor abdominal difusa. A tomografia abdominal mostrou aspecto compatível com hematoma retroperitoneal e a laparotomia exploradora revelou lesão da artéria ilíaca comum esquerda. Após a laparotomia, o paciente evoluiu bem. CONCLUSÕES: Na dependência do posicionamento e do estado físico, técnicas de anestesia geral se impõem. O caso chama atenção para o fato de que qualquer técnica anestésica que tenha sido realizada, o sangramento no campo operatório pode não ser real, na vigência de uma lesão vascular, porque este sangramento pode ser tardio. No presente caso, a manifestação clínica ocorreu sete horas após o início da cirurgia, quando o paciente já estava recuperado da anestesia. No entanto, o fenômeno (hipotensão arterial poderia ter ocorrido no per-operatório.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Lesión de la arteria ilíaca es una ocurrencia rara en laminectomias, no obstante, muy grave. El objetivo de este relato es presentar un caso de lesión de la arteria ilíaca izquierda, en paciente sometido a laminectomia lombar sobre raquianestesia, que se manifestó clínicamente en el pós-operatorio inmediato, siete horas después del inicio de la cirugía. RELATO DEL CASO: Paciente

  19. LE CARATTERISTICHE LINGUISTICHE DELLE DIDASCALIE NELL’ARTE, ANALISI DI UN CASO: IL MUSEO DEL 900 DI MILANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Villa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Il lavoro cerca di sottolineare l’importanza dell’apparato para-testuale che accompagna le opere d’arte; in particolare sono state esaminate la struttura linguistica e le caratteristiche della didascalia. In primo luogo è stata analizzata brevemente la lingua della storia dell’arte, organizzando un’indagine di tipo linguistico condotta secondo quelli che sono considerati i tre livelli di analisi caratteristici delle lingue speciali: il lessico, la morfosintassi e la testualità. In secondo luogo, si è scelto di approfondire le caratteristiche dell’apporto para-testuale, fornendo un’analisi completa della didascalia e alcune notizie di tipo storico. In terzo luogo si sono esaminati casi particolari di didascalie; nello specifico, sono state scelte quelle che accompagnano i dipinti presenti nelle prime cinque sale del Museo del 900 a Milano e sono stati forniti degli esempi concreti a supporto dell’analisi linguistica. Linguistic characteristics of captions in art, a study case: the: Milan’s Museo del 900 (Museum of the Twentieth CenturyElena VillaThe aim of this work was to emphasize the importance of paratextual apparatus with which artworks are presented; in particular, the author analyzed the linguistic structure and the specific characteristics of captions. First of all, in order to briefly analyze the language of art history, linguistic research was conducted. It built on what are considered to be the three main levels of analysis when jargons is concerned: lexicon, morphosyntax and textuality. Secondly, the author chose to examine in depth the characteristics of the paratextual contribution, by making a complete analysis of captions and giving historical information. Thirdly, the author provided concrete examples of captions to support his previous linguistic observation choosing those associated with the paintings of the first five rooms of Milan’s Museo del 900. 

  20. L'uso del doppiaggio e del sottotitolaggio nell'insegnamento della L2: Il caso della piattaforma ClipFlair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupe Romero

    2016-01-01

    , where the users can find materials – including activities, clips and tutorials – collaborate through groups, send feedback through forums, etc.   Keywords: foreign learning language; translation; subtitling; dubbing; video.   Riassunto – Lo scopo di questo articolo è quello di presentare il progetto Clipflair, una piattaforma web per l'apprendimento delle lingue straniere (L2 attraverso la risonorizzazione (revoicing e il sottotitolaggio (captioning nei filmati. L’uso di materiale audiovisivo nelle aule di lingua è una pratica frequente per gli insegnanti in quanto introduce varietà linguistiche, mostra elementi culturali non verbali e, ciò che è più importante, presenta aspetti linguistici e culturali della comunicazione nel loro contesto. Tuttavia, gli insegnanti che usano gli audiovisivi hanno la difficoltà di trovare attività che permettano un ruolo attivo degli studenti al di là della semplice visione del film. ClipFlair permette di lavorare con materiale audiovisivo in modo produttivo e anche motivante, chiedendo agli studenti di fare il revoicing  o il sottotitolaggio di un filmato. Revoicing è un termine usato per riferirsi alla risonorizzazione di un filmato, come sarebbe il doppiaggio, il libero commento, l’audiodescrizione o il karaoke. Il termine captioning fa riferimento all’inserimento di un testo scritto sul filmato come nel caso dei sottotitoli convenzionali oppure i commenti o gli intertitoli. I filmati possono essere brevi file di video o audio, compresi i documentari, scene di film, notizie, animazioni e canzoni. ClipFlair sviluppa materiali che permettono agli studenti di lingue straniere di mettere in pratica le quattro abilità basilari del QCER: scrivere, parlare, ascoltare e leggere. Nell’ambito del progetto, sono state elaborate più di 350 attività di doppiaggio e/o sottotitolaggio. Queste attività sono state create per più di 16 lingue tra cui l’inglese, lo spagnolo e l’italiano, ma soprattutto ci sono attivit

  1. Osteoma osteoide no osso ilíaco: relato de dois casos Osteoid osteoma in the iliac bone: report on two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmano de Araújo Loures

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O osteoma osteoide é um tumor benigno do osso que se apresenta geralmente com dor noturna em adultos jovens, aliviada por repouso e salicilatos. Pode acometer qualquer osso, mas sua ocorrência no ilíaco é infrequente. Os autores descrevem dois casos de osteoma osteoide intramedular, localizado junto à articulação sacroilíaca, com sintomas que simulavam dor ciática e cujo diagnóstico se deu de forma tardia, apesar de o exame radiológico inicial mostrar lesão esclerótica em ambos os casos. O diagnóstico foi ratificado por tomografia computadorizada e o tratamento proposto foi a ressecção em bloco da lesão, com excisão do nidus. O diagnóstico definitivo foi confirmado pelo exame histopatológico. No seguimento de longo prazo, ambos estão assintomáticos e observou-se completa remodelação óssea no sítio cirúrgico. Os autores enfatizam as características típicas do tumor, a localização não usual, o diagnóstico diferencial e o tratamento.Osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor that generally presents with nighttime pain among young adults and is relieved by rest and salicylates. It can affect any bone, but occurrences in the iliac are unusual. The authors describe two cases of intramedullary osteoid osteoma next to the sacroiliac joint, with symptoms that simulated sciatic pain. The cases were diagnosed late, although the initial radiographs showed sclerotic lesions in both cases. The diagnosis was confirmed by means of CT scan and the nidus was excised surgically through en bloc resection. The definitive diagnosis was given by means of histopathological examination. Over long-term follow-up, both cases remained asymptomatic and complete bone remodeling at the surgical site was observed. The authors highlight the typical characteristics of the tumor, the unusual location, the differential diagnosis and the treatment.

  2. Ripensare le “Piattaforme Logistiche”: il Caso del Gateway dell’Alto Adriatico Rethinking “Logistics Platforms”: the case of the North Adriatic Gateway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Dean

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Nel presente paper si intende sostenere la necessità di un nuovo approccio alla pianificazione delle infrastrutture nazionali ed alla programmazione dei grandi assi multimodali, in modo da focalizzarsi maggiormente su quelle infrastrutture e quei territori che, in quanto posizionati lungo le principali direttrici di traffico europee, potrebbero caratterizzarsi, in tempi non “biblici”, come gateway europee in territorio italiano.

    Si sostiene che diversi strumenti programmatori che si sono alternati nell’ultimo decennio in Italia non hanno saputo individuare quei pochi veri hub portuali ed interportuali in grado di garantire effettivamente l’accesso ai grandi network internazionali e generare benefici economici già nel breve-medio termine, preferendo adottare, invece, visioni proiettate su scenari futuri, largamente incerti o mutevoli. E’ il caso del Friuli Venezia Giulia, inquadrato nella Piattaforma Logistica del Nord-Est, dove strategie infrastrutturali, logistiche ed industriali incardinate su un ipotetico Corridoio V, anziché sull’esistente (ma non ancora riconosciuto nelle mappe europee corridoio Adriatico-Baltico, hanno finito per trascurare fondamentali infrastrutture esistenti (ferrovia Pontebbana, Interporto di Cervignano e zone industriali.

    Il caso analizzato suggerisce l’ipotesi che il riaggancio del nostro paese all’intera rete europea dei trasporti e della logistica possa essere rappresentato, non tanto dal Corridoio V, quanto dagli assi che si sviluppano lungo la direttrice nord-sud (Corridoi 24, 1 ed Adriatico-Baltico e che connettono i potenziali gateway europei del Mediterraneo settentrionale (Alto Adriatico e Alto Tirreno alle aree più produttive d’Europa

    The objective of this paper is to explore more realistic and sustainable territorial and logistics strategies (see Fabbro, Mesolella, 2010 in order to reconnect the Italian infrastructural system to

  3. Video-testamento: come promuovere arte, teatro e territorio. Il caso di Gibellina / The video-testament: how to promote art, theatre and territory. The case of Gibellina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Garavaglia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Trattare di Gibellina significa considerare il senso del tempo, della memoria e della loro azione sia sul presente che sul futuro, e porlo in relazione con la reazione dell’uomo di fronte al tema delle rovine o meglio a quello delle macerie del terremoto del 1968 che cancellò paesi interi della valle del Belice. Da allora, Gibellina, per risollevarsi dalla tragedia, ha attivato un intenso programma di ricostruzione, che ha visto come protagonisti l’arte e il teatro. L’esperienza teatrale di Gibellina rappresenta il modello di un teatro totalizzante, che il video ha solo provato a raccontare, perché è solo lo spettatore, il turista, il visitatore partecipe e attivo che può comprendere la misura di uno spettacolo dove è l’essere umano coinvolto da un evento naturale, che fa da prologo e da epilogo a ogni rappresentazione. Quiproquo, il film documentario di Elisabetta Sgarbi, svela un’Italia piena di contraddizioni sconosciuta agli italiani stessi.   We cannot speak of Gibellina without addressing the idea of time, of memory and of their effects on the present and the future, of its relation to man confronted with ruins. More precisely, with the ruins left by the earthquake that struck the towns that had for centuries stood in the Belice Valley during the night between January 14 and 15, 1968. Since that time, to get back on its feet, Gibellina has engaged in an intensive process of reconstruction, with art and theater as leading players. The Gibellina theater experience is an example of total theater, which the video merely tries to describe, because only a spectator, a tourist, an active and participating visitor can fully comprehend the scope of a show in which the person is drawn in by a natural event, which serves as prologue and epilogue of each performance. Quiproquo, the documentary by Elisabetta Sgarbi, reveals an Italy full of contradictions Italians themselves are unaware of.

  4. Market based instruments for urban mobility management: the case of parking fees; Strumenti economici e governo della mobilita urbana: il caso delle tariffe di parcheggio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zatti, Andrea [Pavia Univ., Pavia (Italy). Dipartimento di economia pubblica e territoriale

    2005-05-15

    effects on through traffic, reduced variability according to distance, time and spatial collocation of trips) and from the point of view of the share of users obliged to pay. Many findings, confirmed by the specific case study carried on in the city of Pavia, show in fact a large amount of exemptions (residents, doctors, retailers) and not-chargeable lots: private garages, supermarket lots, company parking (including University) that, together with high levels of illegal parking, can seriously reduce the effectiveness and efficiency of the instrument. In this scenario, tariff values and typologies of users obliged to pay (mainly occasional visitors to the city centres) seem to show how parking fees can be considered more a revenue raising instrument (falling on non-resident) than a real environmental charge. In the conclusions of the paper some possible solutions (electronic road pricing, cash out, parking lots taxation, policy packaging) to the previous problems are briefly taken into consideration. [Italian] Un interesse crescente e stato rivolto sia dall'analisi teorica che dai regolatori pubblici all'utilizzo di strumenti economici per la gestione della mobilita motorizzata all'interno delle aree urbane. In tale ambito ha acquisito un rilievo particolare, soprattutto dal punto di vista della diffusione delle applicazioni, la tariffazione della sosta, interpretata sia come strumento di razionamento degli spazi urbani, che come forma indiretta di gestione della mobilita. Nella prima parte del lavoro, sulla base della letteratura esistente, vengono prese in considerazione le principali potenzialita del parking pricing, sia in termini di efficienza ed efficacia, che di accettabilita complessiva, evidenziandone contemporaneamente i principali vincoli applicativi. Nella seconda parte viene analizzata l'esperienza italiana, ove la diffusione della sosta a pagamento ha sperimentato una rapida e generalizzata ascesa nel corso degli ultimi anni. Il quadro

  5. Spazi sociali per l'apprendimento. Il caso della ETSA di Granada / Social Spaces of Learning. The case of ETSA in Granada

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael López-Toribio

    2015-01-01

    “Spazi Sociali per l‘Apprendimento” è un lavoro il cui proposito è la riflessione su come l’architettura deve affrontare le sfide poste dalle nuove teorie educative e dalle nuove necessità (come imparare, interagire con gli altri, lavorare, abitare etc.) nel contesto della Scuola di Architettura di Granada e nell’ambiente in cui sorge, il quartiere storico de El Realejo. A tale scopo, si analizzano realtà fisiche e sociali capaci di supportare nuovi modelli di insegnamento-apprendimento. Ques...

  6. Life saving surgery for ruptured pseudo aneurysm of external iliac artery: case report Cirurgia para salvamento de vida após ruptura de pseudoaneurisma da artéria ilíaca: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raafat Shalabi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of pseudo aneurysm after total hip arthroplasty is extremely rare. The most common mechanism of vascular injury is due to direct trauma during the operative procedure, and the most reported cases are acute in presentation. We reported an unusual case of ruptured pseudo aneurysm and control of life-threatening intra-operative hemorrhage of the external iliac artery in a male patient, 68 years old, with displaced total hip arthroplasty (THA, planned for removal, occurring 2 years after the last hip surgery, in Armed Forces hospital, Southern region, Saudi Arabia. This case highlights the importance of prompt recognition of life-threatening intra-operative hemorrhage to save the patient's life and the limb.A incidência de pseudoaneurisma após a artroplastia total de quadril é extremamente rara. O mecanismo mais comum de lesão vascular deve-se ao trauma direto durante o procedimento cirúrgico, e os casos mais relatados são de apresentação aguda. Relatamos um caso incomum de ruptura de pseudoaneurisma e controle de hemorragia intraoperatória com risco de morte da artéria ilíaca externa em um paciente do sexo masculino, de 68 anos, com artroplastia total do quadril deslocada, planejada para remoção, ocorrendo 2 anos depois da última cirurgia de quadril, no Hospital das Forças Armadas, região sul da Arábia Saudita. Este caso destaca a importância do pronto reconhecimento da hemorragia intraoperatória com risco de morte para salvar a vida e o membro do paciente.

  7. Supply of water from artificial reservoirs. The case of Genoa; Approvigionamento idrico da acque di bacini artificiali. Il caso di Genova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosello, R. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Ist. Italiano di Ideobiologia, Verbania Pallanza (Italy); Fabiano, M. [Genoa Univ., Genoa (Italy). Dipt. per lo Studio del Territorio e delle sue Risorse; Conio, O.; Palumbo, F.; Priano, F. [Azienda Mediterranea Gas ed Acqua SpA, Servizi Tecnologici e Ambientali, Genoa (Italy)

    2000-12-01

    This paper describes the system used for the distribution of drinking water managed by the AMGA (Mediterranean Gas and Water Company). First the various sources of the supply are described, as well as the treatments which make the water safe for drinking, and the quality controls applied to guarantee its purity. The limnological aspects of the two principal reservoirs in the Noci systems are then examinated. As the results reveal that Lake Brugneto is oligotrophic and Lake Val Noci mesotrophic, there is a low risk of any decrease in quality associated with algal booms. However, the need for continued monitoring is stressed, along with the advisability of limnological studies on the major sources of algal nutrients affecting the lakes. [Italian] Si descrive il sistema di distribuzione di acqua potabile gestito dall'Azienda Mediterranea Gas e Acqua (AMGA) per la citta' di Genova. Dapprima sono considerate le diverse fonti di approvigionamento, i trattamenti per la potabilizzazione ed i controlli per prevenire i fenomeni di eutrofizzazione. Sono quindi esaminati gli aspetti limnologici dei due laghi serbatoio che costituiscono le piu' importanti riserve d'acqua del sistema. I risultati indicano un livello di oligotrofia per il lago Brugneto e di mesotrofia per il lago Val Noci, comportando pertanto un rischio basso di insorgenza di problemi di qualita' legati a fioriture algali. Tuttavia si sottolinea la necessita' di continuare il monitoraggio e di svolgere studi limnologici sulle principali fonti di nutrienti che interessano i laghi.

  8. Radio contamination control on imported food. The bilberry case; Controlli sulla radiocontaminazione di prodotti alimentari in importazione. Il caso del mirtillo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zappa, S.; Calabrese, M.; Stancher, B. [Trieste Univ., Trieste (Italy). Dipt. di Economia e Merceologia delle Risorse Naturali e della Produzione

    2001-10-01

    In this paper was pointed out the European regulation concerning the permissible limits of {sup 137}Cs contamination in food importation, from countries affected by the consequences of the Chernobyl accident of 1986. A discussion about the control systems is lead and original data concerning the importation of the fruits of bilberry, a species particularly sensitive to radio contamination, are reported. [Italian] In questo lavoro viene analizzata la situzione delle disposizioni che riguardano il sistema dei controlli, e presentate alcune misurazioni in particolare riguardo alla specie del Mirtillo, il cui metabolismo appare essere particolarmente sensibile alla contaminazione da radiocesio, alla stregua di alcune varieta' di funghi. In seguito all'incidente di Chernobyl in Ucraina l'Unione Europea ha adottato un serie di disposizioni volte a controllare l'importazione di prodotti agro-zootecnici dalle zone contaminate da Cesio 137.

  9. Studi d'idoneità ambientale su grande scala a fini conservazionistici: il caso del Capriolo italico nel P.N. del Pollino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Massolo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Nonostante la loro grande diffusione negli ultimi decenni, i modelli di valutazione ambientale (MVA trovano tuttoggi scarsa applicazione pratica. Molte difficoltà s?incontrano non solo nel loro concreto utilizzo, ma anche nella validazione e applicazione. Spesso, il problema fondamentale consiste nella difficoltà di reperire dati biologici e geografici su grande scala che siano attendibili e omogenei. La gestione spesso però richiede valutazioni su grande scala e il problema diventa quindi rilevante. Nel presente lavoro sono descritte alcune procedure di modellizzazione e verifica a partire dai risultati di uno studio condotto sul capriolo nel Parco Nazionale del Pollino. A tale scopo, sono state utilizzate due delle più diffuse tecniche statistiche multivariate (Analisi della Funzione Discriminante e Regressione Logistica, confrontando modelli formulati con e senza l?uso di indici di complessità del paesaggio come variabili predittive. L?analisi è stata condotta a grande scala compatibilmente con le stime delle dimensioni degli home range della specie. Lo sviluppo di più modelli ha permesso di verificare l?adeguatezza delle tecniche utilizzate e l?efficacia dei più comuni indici di paesaggio, nel predire la distribuzione della specie. Le analisi ambientali sono state effettuate mediante l?uso di ArcView 3.2 e della sua estensione Patch Analyst, a partire da cartografia informatizzata come la carta di uso del suolo Corine Land Cover e i punti quotati IGMI. I modelli sono stati formulati da un set di dati provenienti dell?Appennino centro-settentrionale e validati con un set di dati locali (area di distribuzione e avvistamenti diretti, raccolti tra il 2001 e il 2003. Il confronto tra i modelli si è basato sulle loro capacità di classificazione (sensitività e sensibilità. Gli indici di paesaggio sono risultati critici nel predire correttamente la distribuzione della specie. Nella fase di validazione sui dati di partenza 3 dei 4 modelli

  10. Presenza di Volpe Vulpes vulpes in contesto fortemente urbanizzato di periferia metropolitana: il caso del quartiere Scampìa a Napoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Guglielmi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Il fenomeno dell'inurbamento della Volpe si rivela interessante sia da un punto di vista inerente la sua storia naturale che sotto il profilo sanitario, in quanto veicolo del virus della rabbia. A Napoli, dove è presente in estese aree boschive o coltivate quali i boschi dei Camaldoli e Capodimonte, e sulla collina di Monte Sant'Angelo (Fuorigrotta, è stata anche osservata in contesti più urbanizzati quali i vasti prati dell'aeroporto di Capodichino e il quartiere Scampìa, quest'ultimo sito alla periferia nord della città. Le osservazioni compiute in aeroporto riguardano individui solitari - attivi nelle prime ore del giorno, o nel tardo pomeriggio - i quali frequentano habitat prativi caratterizzati soprattutto da Graminacee e distese di Malva Malva sylvestris. Le osservazioni di Scampìa, alle quali si riferisce il presente lavoro, riguardano invece un quartiere di edilizia popolare, sorto alla fine degli anni '60 del secolo scorso, a seguito dell'attuazione della legge "167". L'area è caratterizzata da estesi lotti di case popolari, con palazzi alti fino a 12 piani, intervallati da ampli viali e da incolti ricoperti di rovi (Rubus spp.. L'intera zona aveva un'antica vocazione agricola; qui si rinvenivano, infatti, prima della trasformazione edilizia, colture arboree (ciliegi e vigneti con vitigni stesi in modo caratteristico, tra grossi tronchi di pioppi (Populus spp. capitozzati, a formare tradizionali filari (vite "maritata". Scampìa ospita attualmente una fauna di Vertebrati omeotermi composta prevalentemente da specie ornitiche tipiche di habitat prativi e arbustivi aperti, "adattate" a sopravvivere in contesti fortemente trasformati in chiave urbanistica. Tra queste, vi nidificano l'Averla piccola Lanius collurio e il Saltimpalo Saxicola torquata. L'area viene visitata saltuariamente anche da Gheppi Falco tinnunculus in caccia. Tra i Mammiferi presente anche la Donnola

  11. Rilievo e modellazione 3D per lo studio delle chiese a pianta ovale in Sicilia: il caso di Santa Chiara a Catania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Magnano di San Lio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lo studio presentato fa parte di una ricerca più ampia volta alla documentazione e all’analisi degli edifici a pianta centrale, ellittica e ovale, presenti sul territorio siciliano e realizzati a cavallo del Settecento. La complessa geometria e la spazialità di questi ambienti necessitano di una metodologia di indagine che si avvale delle tecnologie più avanzate per il rilievo e la modellazione 3D – laser scanning - al fine di approfondire la lettura e l’interpretazione del testo architettonico su un supporto metrico accurato e denso di informazioni e comprendere le geometrie utilizzate nel progetto e nel tracciamento in cantiere.

  12. Spazi sociali per l'apprendimento. Il caso della ETSA di Granada / Social Spaces of Learning. The case of ETSA in Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael López-Toribio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available “Spazi Sociali per l‘Apprendimento” è un lavoro il cui proposito è la riflessione su come l’architettura deve affrontare le sfide poste dalle nuove teorie educative e dalle nuove necessità (come imparare, interagire con gli altri, lavorare, abitare etc. nel contesto della Scuola di Architettura di Granada e nell’ambiente in cui sorge, il quartiere storico de El Realejo. A tale scopo, si analizzano realtà fisiche e sociali capaci di supportare nuovi modelli di insegnamento-apprendimento. Questo progetto indica spazi che offrano la possibilità di mettere in pratica azioni che favoriscano processi di integrazione e relazione città-università. / “Social Spaces of Learning” is an essay that aims to reflect on how the architecture should face the challenges that the new theories of education and certain needs (such as learning, establishing relationships, working, co-existing… pose in the Granada School of Architecture and its historic surroundings, El Realejo. To do this, it’s necessary to analyse physical and social realities providing support to new teaching-learning models. This project points out spaces of opportunity to put into practice actions designed to favour the integration and relationship between the city and the university.

  13. Urban Art: l’arte per il riscatto delle favelas. Il caso di Vila Brasilândia / Urban Art: the art for the redemption of favelas. The case of Vila Brasilândia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Sofia Di Sirio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sotto il nome di Urban art si indica una nuova ondata creativa che ha scelto come luogo privilegiato delle proprie espressioni le periferie delle città di tutto il mondo. Il binomio centro-periferia fa parte di quella terminologia che, nata agli inizi degli anni Settanta del Novecento, fu adoperata, prima di tutto, per descrivere le relazioni economiche fra aree più o meno sviluppate del sistema capitalistico. La periferia di oggi, invece, non è più “l’ombra” della città storica, essa è diventata sia luogo di accoglienza e convivenza di culture differenti, sia manifestazione di una volontà di riscatto dalla condizione di “non luogo” o di “luogo altro” rispetto ai centri storici. L’Urban art si affranca dagli interessi economici e urbanistici di cui sono espressione i centri cittadini, per rivolgere la propria attenzione a quelle zone strutturalmente più degradate e funzionalmente deboli attraverso operazioni di trasformazione, sviluppo e abbellimento. È quello che avviene per esempio in alcune aree del Brasile, note come favelas – vere e proprie concrezioni abitative, realizzate con semplici mattoni e altri materiali poveri o addirittura di scarto – dove negli ultimi anni vengono messi in atto interventi che mirano al miglioramento di queste realtà, semplicemente sul piano estetico. In quest’ottica di cambiamento si pongono gli interventi artistici del collettivo Boa Mistura, nato a Madrid nel 2001 dal lavoro di cinque artisti: Arkon, Derko, Pahg, Purone, rDick. It goes by the name of Urban Art which in recent years has broken a new wave of creativity of which to express itself has chosen the outskirts of all the cities in the world as its privileged locations. Its byname central border is part of the terminology born in the 1970's and adopted first and foremost to describe the areas somewhat developed under capitalistic system. Todays outskirts are no longer in the shadow of the city in fact they have become

  14. La sostenibilità finanziaria della cultura. Il caso delle istituzioni teatrali italiane / The financial sustainability of culture. The case of Italian theatres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Luigi Sacco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Il dibattito tra sostenitori del finanziamento pubblico all’arte e alla cultura e suoi oppositori ha origini lontane, ma mai come in questi mesi ha assunto un interesse così profondo, in funzione di un fondamentale trade-off che si acuisce sempre più: la restrizione dei budget di spesa a disposizione degli Stati occidentali da un lato, e i benefici sempre più marcati, anche di natura economica, che nuovi studi sembrano attribuire agli investimenti in arte e cultura dall’altro. Tramite un’analisi effettuata sui principali teatri italiani in termini di ricavi generati, il paper comprova l’impossibilità per le istituzioni culturali di potere conciliare in modo autonomo la propria mission di fondo con principi di sostenibilità finanziaria. Gli autori sostengono che il supporto al settore cultura rappresenta attualmente un’attività imprescindibile per uno Stato, non solo in funzione del carattere di meritorietà del bene culturale, ma soprattutto alla luce anche dei vantaggi di tipo economico, fino a pochi anni fa trascurati o meglio, difficilmente quantificabili, che la cultura è in grado di apportare per l’economia del «Sistema Paese»; vantaggi la cui quantificazione sarà possibile grazie al rapido sviluppo di metodologie valutative di prossima utilizzabilità.   Debates between advocates of public financing to arts and culture and its opponents have far-off roots, but they never gained such an importance like in these months, because of a crucial trade-off that has been exacerbating more and more: from the one hand, budget allowance restrictions available to Western States; on the other hand, the even more marked benefits – also in economic terms – that new studies attribute to investments in arts and culture. Through an analysis conducted on the main Italian theatres as for ticket sales, the paper proves the impossibility for the cultural institutions to mesh autonomously their main mission with financial sustainability

  15. Violenze allo stadio: il caso di Filippo Raciti / Violence in football stadiums: the case of Filippo Raciti / Violences au stade: l'affaire Filippo Raciti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziosi M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Afin d'aborder le sujet de la violence dans les stades, j'ai avant tout analysé brièvement les épisodes les plus graves pour lesquels la chronique sportive s'est colorée de noir, pour arriver enfin au meurtre de Filippo Raciti. Par le biais des 392 articles publiés au mois de février 2007 dans les quotidiens Il Corriere della Sera, la Repubblica, Il Resto del Carlino et l’Unità, j'ai examiné cette affaire criminelle de la manière suivante: premièrement une description du déroulement des faits du 2 février 2007, dans laquelle les séquences et les dynamiques qui ont entraînés la mort de l'inspecteur Raciti emergent, a été effectuée, suivie par une analyse de contenu communicatif des articles dans le but de mettre en évidence les modalités de traitement de l'information dans la presse. Cette analyse se compose d'un volet quantitatif et d'un volet qualitatif: ce dernier a été realisé par le biais d'une fiche de collecte des données divisée en sujets. De cet examen approfondi du language journalistique découlent des réfléxions sur la délicate affaire "Filippo Raciti" et sur la ville de Catane, sur le "système football" en général et sur la situation de la sécurité dans les stades. Enfin, des propositions qui, mettant en évidence les points faibles des lois actuelles, ont pour but d'envisager des interventions pour réduire le comportement violent des supporters.AbstractIn order to deal with the problems of violence in football stadiums, I have first of all shortly analysed the most serious episodes in which have darkened the sporting world and then explained the murder of Filippo Raciti. Through the reading of the 392 articles published on the daily papers Il Corriere della Sera, la Repubblica, Il Resto del Carlino and l'Unità in the month of February 2007, the criminal case is examined in the following way: to a first description of the course of events of February 2nd 2007, in which the sequences and the

  16. Cineturismo ed economia dei media: il caso dei film indiani girati in Italia / Cine-tourism and media economy: the case of Indian films shot in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cucco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A partire dalla fine degli anni Novanta l’industria audiovisiva indiana ha intensificato il numero di riprese effettuate all’estero, in particolar modo nei paesi occidentali. Questa migrazione di riprese rappresenta una grande occasione per i paesi ospitanti. L’industria cinematografica indiana, infatti, è la più prolifica al mondo e i suoi film riscuotono un ampio successo nel mercato domestico, con una quota di mercato stimata attorno al 90-95%. Ma il cinema indiano sta raccogliendo consensi anche all’estero, e i suoi spettatori non appartengono più solo alle classi popolari della società indiana, ma anche a quelle più facoltose, e dunque sono potenzialmente in grado di intraprendere viaggi verso i luoghi visti sul grande schermo. In virtù di queste considerazioni, il saggio analizza innanzitutto le ragioni che hanno spinto i produttori indiani a delocalizzare le proprie riprese all’estero, in particolar modo in Italia. Solo alla luce di questa analisi della domanda, infatti, è poi possibile comprendere come i territori possono aver intercettato le necessità dell’industria del cinema (e di riflesso anche i desideri del suo pubblico e divenire potenziali mete turistiche per gli spettatori indiani. Da un punto di vista metodologico, invece, il saggio ambisce a mostrare come gli studi condotti nell’ambito dell’economia dei media possano contribuire all’analisi dei fenomeni cineturistici e all’elaborazione di iniziative di successo in grado di intrecciare sviluppo territoriale e industrie creative.   Since the end of the 1990s Indian producers have been outsourcing an increasing number of film productions to Western countries, and this trend represents an important opportunity for the hosting territories. The Indian film industry is the main film producer in the world, and its movies achieve a wide success in the domestic market (where they hold a market share of about 90-95%. Moreover, from few years Indian films are

  17. Innovation and competitivity. The case of the districts of Faenza and Prato; Innovazione e competitivita'. Il caso dei distretti di Faenza e di Prato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traverso, A. [ENEA, Funzione Centrale Studi, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Market's globalization is quickly producing the review of the traditional and international competition orders. For this reason the industrial districts, which are the highest expression of an economic and productive tissue based on the small and medium enterprises, are forced to begin a new formulation of their own structural, organizational, technological and productive distinctive features. The object of this work is, at first, to explain the peculiarities of the distrectual events, and, consequently, to analyse the competitive situation and the future prospects of two italian highly specialized productive areas: the textile district of Prato and the ceramic territory of Faenza. A particular attention will be especially reserved on the role assumed by the innovative aspects (technological and organizational) which it can be noted in that transformation process of the main distrectual competitive paradigms. [Italian] La globalizzazione dei mercati sta velocemente imponendo una revisione delle tradizionali regole della competizione internazionale. Per questo motivo i distretti industriali, che sono la massima espressione di un tessuto economico e produttivo fondato sulla piccola e media impresa, sono stati costretti ad intraprendere un percorso di riformulazione delle proprie caratteristiche strutturali, organizzative, tecnologiche e produttive. Lo scopo di questo lavoro e' di illustrare, in un primo momento, i contorni del fenomeno distrettuale e, conseguentemente, di analizzare la situazione competitiva e le prospettive di sviluppo di due aree italiane fortemente specializzate dal punto di vista produttivo: il distretto tessile di Prato ed il comprensorio della ceramica di Faenza. Una particolare attenzione verra' riservata, nel corso dell'analisi, al ruolo assunto dagli aspetti innovativi (technologici ed innovativi) in questo processo di trasformazione dei principali paradigmi competitivi distrettuali.

  18. “Economic heritage impact assessment” come strumento per valutare gli impatti dei grandi progetti di riqualificazione delle città costiere siti Unesco. Il caso studio di Torre Annunziata nel golfo di Napoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariarosaria Angrisano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Quest’articolo parte dallo studio delle città portuali storiche, siti UNESCO, che oggi affrontano la sfida della riqualificazione dei waterfront urbani attraverso la conservazione del patrimonio culturale e paesaggistico. Le raccomandazioni sull’ “Historic Urban Landscape”, e gli strumenti operativi promossi dall’ICOMOS “Guidance on Heritage Impact Assessments for Cultural World Heritage Properties” del 2011, si configurano come le più recenti disposizioni concernenti la conservazione, protezione e valorizzazione del patrimonio culturale (Fusco Girard, 2010. La Guida ICOMOS è stata considerata lo strumento più adatto per valutare gli impatti dei grandi progetti di riqualificazione dei waterfront urbani sul patrimonio culturale. Per comprendere al meglio tale strumento è stata fatta un’applicazione per valutare gli impatti del Grande Progetto Pompei sul waterfront di Torre Annunziata, città costiera nel Golfo di Napoli sito UNESCO. A questa fase di analisi segue una riflessione su come migliorare l’Heritage Impact Assessment, come strumento capace di valutare non soltanto gli impatti culturali ma anche quelli economici, per parlare di “economia del patrimonio culturale”. La proposta ultima è quella di affiancare al processo di “Heritage Impact Assessment” una valutazione degli impatti economici, attraverso un’analisi costi-benefici, per quantificare in termini monetari la convenienza degli investimenti nella conservazione del patrimonio storico urbano delle città costiere, proponendo una “Economic Heritage Impact Assessment” (EHIA. Tale metodo, elaborato dall’autrice all’interno della tesi di dottorato “Il paesaggio storico urbano delle città costiere: sfide e opportunità. Il caso Torre Annunziata”, offre la possibilità di superare la sola valutazione degli impatti culturali proposta dall’ICOMOS.

  19. Fibroma osificante juvenil trabecular mandibular: presentación de un caso con reconstrucción inmediata mediante un injerto libre de la cresta ilíaca y costocondral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bravo Ahumada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El fibroma osificante juvenil (FOJ es una lesión fibro-ósea benigna pero con potencial biológico agresivo que afecta al esqueleto craneofacial. Su evolución clínica es rápida, manifestándose principalmente por una asimetría facial de poco tiempo de evolución. Radiográficamente es una lesión radiolúcida uni o multilocular bien definida con contenido radiopaco variable. El tratamiento puede variar dependiendo de las características clínicas, imagenológicas e histopatológicas específicas de cada lesión, sin embargo, un tratamiento agresivo con resección es el más indicado. Se presenta un caso de un niño con extenso FOJ trabecular (FOJT mandibular. Se realizó la resección completa de la lesión con un margen de seguridad y reconstrucción inmediata con un injerto de la cresta ilíaca y costocondral. Se realizaron controles postoperatorios durante 7 años en los que no se observaron signos de recidiva asociados a una reconstrucción funcional y estética exitosa.

  20. Il laser

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, William V

    1974-01-01

    Verso il 1960, il laser era ancora "una soluzione alla ricerca di un problema", ma fin dagli anni immediatamente successivi si è rivelato uno strumento insostituibile per le applicazioni più svariate.

  1. Sinergetica il segreto del successo della natura

    CERN Document Server

    Haken, Hermann

    1983-01-01

    Introduzione e sommario ; il disordine cresce sempre? la morte termica dell'universo ; i cristalli : strutture ordinate, ma morte ; strutture ordinate nei liquidi e nelle nubi e formazioni geologiche ; fiat lux! la luce del laser ; configurazioni chimiche ; l'evoluzione biologica e la sopravvivenza del migliore ; sopravvivi anche senza essere il migliore : specializzati, scavati una nicchia ecologica ; come si formano gli organismi biologici ; talvolta i conflitti sono ineluttabili ; il caos, il caso e la concezione meccanicistica del mondo ; gli effetti sinergetici nell'economia ; si possono prevedere le rivoluzioni ? ; le allucinazioni comprovano le teorie sul cervello.

  2. Il linguaggio artistico: il lessico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Vučetić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Il presente lavoro tratta della terminologia delle arti e in particolare del lessico della pittura, della scultura e dell' architettura. L' articolo discute ed esamina i principali procedimenti formativi dell' italiano contemporaneo, come la suffissazione , la prefissazione e la composizione delle parole, in relazione alla terminologia delle arti. La principale funzione di questi procedimenti formativi è permettere alla lingua di arricchirsi, di coniare nuove unità lessicali; laformazione delle parole e il prestito linguistico sono elementi non trascurabili di arricchimento lessicale.

  3. Il Gioco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Beronio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chi si occupa di teatro incontra il gioco innanzitutto come una categoria estetica insita nei processi che caratterizzano l’atto teatrale. Ma dall’approfondimento di tali meccanismi emerge anche la potenzialità conoscitiva del gioco, come condizione umana di profonda consapevolezza di sé. Attraverso un percorso che passa attraverso Breton, Platone, Huizinga, e Alessandro Fersen, viene qui proposta una lettura del gioco come carattere fondamentale dell’arte e della conoscenza.

  4. Vito Santoro, Calvino e il cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Maggitti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sul suo rapporto con il cinema, Calvino ha lasciato pagine bellissime che compongono il pur breve ma denso, Autobiografia di uno spettatore, posto a mo’ di prefazione nella raccolta einaudiana di sceneggiature dei film di Fellini e piuttosto recentemente ripubblicato nel volume Fare un film, sempre del regista di 8½. Scegliendo l’identità dello spettatore, Calvino denuncia fin dal titolo di preferire il ruolo di chi guarda il cinema e ne osserva le movenze, piuttosto di chi decide l’abito e ne indirizza il passo. Lo scritto memoriale si concentra, non a caso, sul periodo di formazione audiovisiva, sul suo apprendistato poi parzialmente interrotto dall’autarchia fascista.

  5. Ipotesi progettuale di rigenerazione urbana: il caso di studio dell’ex Caserma Monti già Convento di S. Maria della Ripa nella città di Forlì

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Castagnoli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Un’ampia area dismessa nel centro della città storica, è stata considerata l’opportunità strategica per valorizzare e rigenerare anche interi brani di tessuto urbano circostante con l’obiettivo di riammagliare gli sfrangiamenti materiali e immateriali nel complesso rapporto fra passato, presente e futuro.Questo caso di studio ha consentito di approfondire un approccio meta progettuale più generale, puntando sulla ricerca di una metodologia appropriata rispetto alla progettazione dello spazio architettonico in quanto tale, con l’obiettivo di sviluppare ragionamenti di compatibilità nell’ambito della vasta tematica del riuso urbano ed edilizio.

  6. IL RECUPERO DELLA RENDITA, IL LAND VALUE RECAPTURE NEGLI USA: IL CASO DI SAN FRANCISCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Calavita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During the period immediately after World War II, planning in North America and Europe followed highly centralized, top-down, command-and-control approaches that were based on the rational-comprehensive model of planning, which implies an all-knowing, all-powerful government. Part and parcel of this approach was the government’s control of development land and its value. Beginning in the 1970s, as the precepts of an all-knowing, interventionist state clashed with the reality of uncontrollable global forces driven by multinationals and international finance, it became clear that planning had become a market-driven process, a “servant of the market”, and that inflexible, detailed plans would not work in most real-life situations. Consequently, such plans were either ignored or overridden. This crisis of planning spurred a search for alternatives based on public-private partnerships, negotiation, and flexibility including ways to transfer increased land values to the public trough the development process. This approach is generally known as Land Value Recapture (LVR. This paper presents an example of LVR in the US, a rather unique example in the US. It concludes by suggesting that the belief that the increase in land values is not the result of the landowner’s activities, and are therefore “unearned” and should be recaptured for the public benefit, is not part of the American planning culture. LVR, then, might have a hard time supplanting other market-based regulatory strategies that are voluntary for developers and less restrictive of property rights for the landowner.

  7. CASO SOROS

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Rubio

    2005-01-01

    El caso analiza al inversor internacional George Soros y su entorno. Se pretende mostrar una serie de operaciones financieras que reflejen sus estrategias de inversión. Adicionalmente, se pretende que los alumnos asuman la figura del Administrador de un HEDGE FUND, especializado en inversiones internacionales y arbitraje financiero, de manera que resuelvan problemas relacionados con el ámbito del rol del director financiero, del análisis financiero, de las estrategias de inversión y la valuac...

  8. Optimal strategies for VOC emission abatement produced by solvent evaporation. The Italian case study; Strategie ottimali per la riduzione delle emissioni di composti organici volatili da uso di solventi: il caso italiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetrella, G.; Cirillo, M.C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    This work analyses technologies and costs of VOC (volatile organic compounds) abatement in the activities which belong to the solvent evaporation sector, and then it singles out the most successful strategies from the costs point of view to reduce the sector emissions on the base of fixed abatement objectives. The Italian case is discussed. [Italian] Il lavoro analizza tecnologie e costi di abbattimento dei COV (composti organici volatili) nel settore evaporazione solventi, e individua la strategia piu' efficace dal punto di vista dei costi per ridurre le emissioni del settore sulla base di prefissati obiettivi di abbattimento. Analizza la situazione italiana.

  9. Marco jurídico que controla el tráfico ilícito de migrantes y la trata de personas en Nicaragua. Estudio de caso: Puesto Fronterizo Peñas Blancas

    OpenAIRE

    Heydi José González Briones

    2007-01-01

    EN ESTE ARTÍCULO SE EXPONE UN ANÁLISIS DEL MARCO JURÍDICO – internacional y nacional – para combatir los delitos de tráfico ilícito de migrantes y trata de personas, que tienen lugar dentro del fenómeno de la migración irregular. Dicho análisis tiene como referencia las particularidades de la migración irregular dentro del territorio nicaragüense – como país emisor de migrantes y como zona de tránsito para migrantes extraregionales. En concreto, nos referimos a los flujos migratorios irregula...

  10. Il mondo dentro il mondo

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    1991-01-01

    Davvero esistono “lì fuori” leggi di natura, che stanno in attesa di essere scoperte, indipendenti dal nostro modo di pensare, o esse rappresentano soltanto la descrizione più conveniente di ciò che abbiamo visto? Come è nata l’idea stessa di “leggi di natura”? Queste costituiscono la realtà profonda o sono soltanto pezzi di un regolamento che ci siamo dati per organizzare meglio la nostra conoscenza del mondo? o semplici paletti che piantiamo e ci lasciamo alle spalle come segnali via via che procediamo nella giungla dell’esperienza? È possibile che non esistano affatto leggi di natura? Forse esse, e anche l’universo che da esse sembra regolato, sono del tutto creazioni della nostra mente: un’illusione che scompare appena cessiamo di pensarvi. Ma allora, che cosa accadrebbe, se non ci fossero osservatori dell’universo?». Interrogativi di questo genere, che incontriamo sulla soglia del Mondo dentro il mondo, sarebbero suonati eccentrici fino a qualche anno fa. Oggi, al contrario, circ...

  11. Il corpo, lo sport, le immagini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Porro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available E’ stato per primo Norbert Elias, nella sua critica al riduzionismo sociologico, a lamentare la difficoltà delle scienze sociali a misurarsi con le problematiche dello sport, così come delle emozioni, della sessualità, del gioco e della guerra. Attività umane che convergono in quell’autentico luogo sociale che è il corpo. Nel caso che ci interessa, si tratta di connettere il corpo, nella sua dimensione biologica, psichica e sociale, con quell’aspetto cruciale della civilizzazione che Elias definisce sportivizzazione.

  12. Il corpo, lo sport, le immagini

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Porro

    2009-01-01

    E’ stato per primo Norbert Elias, nella sua critica al riduzionismo sociologico, a lamentare la difficoltà delle scienze sociali a misurarsi con le problematiche dello sport, così come delle emozioni, della sessualità, del gioco e della guerra. Attività umane che convergono in quell’autentico luogo sociale che è il corpo. Nel caso che ci interessa, si tratta di connettere il corpo, nella sua dimensione biologica, psichica e sociale, con quell’aspetto cruciale della civilizzazione che Elias de...

  13. Le concordanze devianti nel portoghese popolare brasiliano (PPB. Il caso del parlato filmico dei favela movies e dei sertão movies nel Korpus PE/PB Unisalento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Morleo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – This research aims to describe the main aspects of the flexive morphology in the Brazilian-Portuguese language (spoken by the lower classes, following the results of the variationist sociolinguistics research carried out so far. In detail, the research will deal with the linguistic phenomenon of agreement violation, that is to say, the lack of agreement in number and person in the noun phrase and in the verb phrase. The corpus used for the research consists in 10 Brazilian movies selected among the audiovisual products of the “Corpus filmico PE/PB Unisalento”, composed of the transcriptions of Portuguese and Brazilian fictional movies and documentaries of the last decades (in progress. This research will analyse in detail the number of occurrences and the specific cases in which the linguistic phenomenon takes place. The agreement violation is typical of the sub-standard Brazilian Portuguese language and it is relevant for the debate on the origins of the Brazilian-Portuguese language and its differences with standard Portuguese. For this reason, the agreement violation is one of the most pertinent case studies from the sociolinguistic point of view, important to provide information about linguistic changes.Resumo –  Esta pesquisa tenta descrever os aspetos principais da morfologia flexional no Português Popular Brasileiro, seguindo os resultados obtidos pela pesquisa linguística varacionista. Especificatamente, esta pesquisa analisa o fenômeno linguístico da violação de concordância, isto é, a falta de concordância no sintagma nominal e no sintagma verbal. O corpus utilizado é composto por 10 filmes brasileiros selecionados entre os produtos audiovisuais presentes no “Corpus fílmico PE/PB Unisalento”, composto por transcrições de filmes ficcionais e documentários portugueses e brasileiros dos últimos anos (em construção. Esta pesquisa analisará em detalhe o número de ocorrências e os casos espec

  14. Seguridad nacional y drogas ilícitas: ¿un vínculo real o un problema abierto? Una reflexión a partir del caso de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gabriel TOKADIAN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Tokatlian intenta establecer la relación entre la existencia del negocio ilegal de las drogas psicoactivas de varios grupos criminales poderosos ligados a ese emporio y las consecuencias que tiene para la concepción de la seguridad nacional en el caso colombiano. Así, plantea el "dilema estratégico" colombiano en una doble dimensión: un enfrentamiento total contra el narco-crimen organizado debilita nacionalmente al gobierno de turno, pero el eludir la confrontación de la narco- criminalidad organizada debilita a Colombia internacionalmente.ABSTRACT: Tokatlian tries to establish the relationship between the existance of illegal business of psicoactive drugs, of various and powerful criminal groups linked to this business and the consequences for the perception of National Security in the Colombian case. Thus, he sets the colombian "strategic dilemma" in a double dimension: an absolute confrontation with the organized narco-crime weakens to the national government, but to elude the fight against drug dealers weakens Colombia in the international sphere.

  15. CARTOGRAFIA STORICA IN AMBIENTE GIS OPEN SOURCE (QUANTUM GIS E GVSIG PER L’ANALISI DELLE DINAMICHE DELL’UTILIZZAZIONE DEI TERRENI: IL CASO DELLA CITTÀ DI CURTEA DE ARGE NEL NOVECENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela OSACI-COSTACHE

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available L’obiettivo principale della ricerca è stato quello di controllare le capacità dei programmiGIS Open Source e, in questa fase dell’indagine, per raggiungere tale scopo ci siamo decisi diconcentrarci su una regione di 28 kmq intorno alla città di Curtea de Arge . Dato che le piùimportanti trasformazioni hanno interessato il ventesimo secolo, abbiamo scelto diapprofondire le dinamiche territoriali tra l’inizio e la fine del Novecento. La ricerca è partitadalle edizioni cartacee di due carte a grande scala stampate durante il Novecento: la cartatopografica in proiezione di Lambert (1929 e la carta topografica in proiezione di Gauss-Krüger (1980. La carta topografica in proiezione U.T.M. (1997 è stata utile solo per il suoreticolato, a causa della piccola scala. La copertura del suolo e le dinamiche dell’utilizzazionedei terreni sono state analizzate con l’aiuto dei programmi Liberi (Free & Open SourceSoftware Quantum GIS e gvSIG. Il presente lavoro è stato diviso in quattro fasi: a lascansione delle carte; b la georeferenziazione; c l’acquisizione dei dati contenuti nelle cartetopografiche, la realizzazione dei livelli vettoriali e la creazione di un DB; d l’analisi dei daticontenuti negli strati vettoriali o raster, grazie ai plugin GRASS (integrato in QGIS e Sextante(integrato in gvSIG. Sono stati applicati i metodi moderni della cartografia digitale, grazie aiprogrammi GIS. L’utilizzo della tecnologia GIS ci ha consentito di rendere coerenti econfrontabili i dati provenienti dalle due carte topografiche stampate nel Novecento, realizzatecon metodi differenti di rilevamento e di rappresentazione cartografica e in diverse proiezioni.La buona sovrapponibilità degli elaborati cartografici del Novecento, co-registrati nelmedesimo sistema di riferimento ci ha permesso la ricostituzione, in ambito GIS, delledinamiche territoriali. Si è ottenuta un’immagine qualitativa e quantitativa delle trasformazionidell’utilizzazione dei terreni

  16. Sentiment Analysis per analizzare gli effetti del cinema sulla percezione dei luoghi. Il caso pugliese / Sentiment Analysis to study the effects of cinema on the perception of places. The case of Puglia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Albanese

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Il film induced iourism è un fenomeno ormai indiscutibile e che va affrontato con sistematicità e metodologie sempre più raffinate per consentire ai policy makers di sfruttarne più consapevolmente le potenzialità. In Puglia la realizzazione di pellicole di successo ha provocato effetti turistici e territoriali notevoli. Per poter comprendere realmente se e quanto l’incoming turistico pugliese sia influenzato, nella sua dimensione quantitativa e qualitativa, dall’immagine veicolata dal cinema, si ipotizza qui l’utilizzo di una nuova metodologia di analisi: la Sentiment Analysis. Si intende passare al setaccio i Big Data tematici, tramite una scansione intelligente dei social network e poi riportare le valutazioni (sentiment sul territorio pugliese espresse nei diversi luoghi virtuali di conversazione da parte della domanda turistica. Questa tipologia di studio del dato è del tutto innovativa per il settore cineturistico e può portare ad esiti del tutto inattesi sovvertendo in alcuni casi le interpretazioni prettamente soggettive dei dati quantitativi più tradizionali. Film induced tourism is an undeniable phenomenon and it is necessary to study it sistematically and with sophisticated methods to allow policy makers to exploit, more consciously, its potentiality. In Apulia the successful movies maybe have caused tourism and territorial remarkable effects. In order to understand if and how incoming in Apulia is influenced, in quantitative and qualitative terms, from the image conveyed by cinema, we’ll use a new method of analysis: the Sentiment Analysis. It means making an intelligent scanning of social networks and then bring feedback (sentiment about Apulia expressed in different virtual places of conversation by the tourist demand. This kind of opinion mining study is totally innovative for film induced tourism and can lead to outcomes completely unexpected subverting, in some cases, subjective interpretations of the

  17. Enxerto autógeno de crista ilíaca na reconstrução do processo alveolar em portadores de fissura labiopalatina: estudo de 30 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Carlini

    Full Text Available A reconstrução do processo alveolar em pacientes portadores de fissuras labiopalatais (FLP é fundamental para erupção de dentes permanentes e para o restabelecimento estético através de implantes osteointegrados. Assim, considerado o alto grau de reabsorção do enxerto de osso autógeno puro e triturado, optou-se no Centro de Atendimento Integral ao Fissurado Labiopalatino, Curitiba, Paraná (1997 a 1999, pelo estabelecimento de dois grupos de 15 pacientes. No primeiro, foi utilizada crista ilíaca triturada e no outro combinada com hidroxiapatita biorreabsorvível. Ao fim de seis meses, os resultados cirúrgicos foram avaliados através de radiografia periapical digital, determinando quatro linhas limites para a reconstrução óssea. A primeira linha foi traçada na região cervical do dente adjacente à fissura que apresentava menor distorção. As outras linhas foram traçadas paralelamente à linha 1, distando 3mm entre cada uma delas. O espaço entre as linhas 1 e 2 foi denominado de A, entre 2 e 3 de B e 3 e 4 de C. Para critérios de avaliação, quando o enxerto permaneceu no espaço A, foi considerado de sucesso, em contraposição aos espaços B e C, quando foram denominados de procedimentos malsucedidos. Como resultados finais, o espaço A foi constatado em 46,7% dos pacientes submetidos ao procedimento controle com crista ilíaca e 80% para o grupo experimental, quando o enxerto ósseo foi empregado conjuntamente com o material aloplástico (hidroxiapatita.

  18. The environmental performance indicators in the sector of tourist services. The case of study about an international hotel group; Indicatori di performance ambientale nel settore dei servizi turistici. Il caso di studio di una catena alberghiera internazionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriola, L. [ENEA, Divisione Caratterizzazione dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Seminara, M.V.

    2001-07-01

    The environmental performance indicators in the tourism sector represents the necessary element to quantify and to simplify information about the environmental performance of a particular field in order to make the comprehension of the interactions between tourist activities and environment understood by the customers and decision makers. This indicators will have to be quantified in order to contribute to focus and explain improvements in environmental management. One of the most important elements to pursue a Sustainable Development is the definition of a series of the right indicators. Basically performance indicators can be applied in the environmental analyses effected for defining the politics of management of tourist development and, particularly, in the procedures of Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment disciplined by the European Directives 85/337/CEE, 97/11/CE, from the proposal of Directive on the SEA and from the relative national normative. This tools should allow to esteem environment conditions and the impacts caused by the tourist activities to find actions to balance the budget between the economic development and the social and environmental issues in a determined territorial context. [Italian] Gli indicatori di performance ambientale applicati settore del turismo costituiscono l'elemento necessario per quantificare e semplificare le informazioni sulle prestazioni ambientali del settore preso in considerazione, in modo da agevolare, sia da parte dei responsabili delle decisioni, sia da parte del pubblico e dei clienti, la comprensione delle interazioni tra le attivita' turistiche e l'ambiente e le relative criticita'. Tali indicatori dovranno essere quantificati per contribuire ad individuare e a spiegare i miglioramenti ottenuti nel tempo. La definizione di un quadro di indicatori adeguato costituisce pertanto uno degli elementi essenziali per il raggiungimento di uno Sviluppo Sostenibile. In

  19. The environmental performance indicators in the sector of tourist services. The case of study about an international hotel group; Indicatori di performance ambientale nel settore dei servizi turistici. Il caso di studio di una catena alberghiera internazionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriola, L. [ENEA, Div. Caratterizzazione dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Seminara, M.V.

    2000-07-01

    The environmental performance indicators in the tourism sector represents the necessary element to quantify and to simplify information about the environmental performance of a particular field in order to make the comprehension of the interactions between tourist activities and environment understood by the customers and decision makers. This indicators will have to be quantified in order to contribute to focus and explain improvements in environmental management. One of the most important elements to pursue a Sustainable Development is the definition of a series of the right indicators. Basically performance indicators can be applied in the environmental analyses effected for defining the politics of management of tourist development and, particularly, in the procedures of Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment disciplined by the European Directives 85/337/CEE, 97/11/CEE, from the proposal of Directive on the SEA and from the relative national normative. This tools should allow to esteem environmental conditions and the impacts caused by the tourist activities to find actions to balance the budget between the economic development and the social and environmental issues i a determined territorial context. [Italian] Gli indicatori di performance ambientale applicati al settore del turismo costituiscono l'elemento necessario per quantificare e semplificare le informazioni sulle prestazioni ambientali del settore preso in considerazione, in modo da agevolare, sia da parte dei responsabili delle decisioni, sia da parte del pubblico e dei clienti, la comprensione delle interazioni tra le attivita' turistiche e l'ambiente e le relative criticita'. Tali indicatori dovranno essere quantificati per contribuire ad individuare e a spiegare i miglioramenti ottenuti nel tempo. La definizione di un quadro di indicatori adeguato costituisce pertanto uno degli elementi essenziali per il raggiungimento di uno Sviluppo Sostenibile

  20. Marco jurídico que controla el tráfico ilícito de migrantes y la trata de personas en Nicaragua. Estudio de caso: Puesto Fronterizo Peñas Blancas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydi José González Briones

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available EN ESTE ARTÍCULO SE EXPONE UN ANÁLISIS DEL MARCO JURÍDICO – internacional y nacional – para combatir los delitos de tráfico ilícito de migrantes y trata de personas, que tienen lugar dentro del fenómeno de la migración irregular. Dicho análisis tiene como referencia las particularidades de la migración irregular dentro del territorio nicaragüense – como país emisor de migrantes y como zona de tránsito para migrantes extraregionales. En concreto, nos referimos a los flujos migratorios irregulares que tienen lugar en la frontera sur de Nicaragua – Costa Rica. En esta frontera existen dos tipos de flujos migratorios: flujo sur-norte, que corresponde a migrantes extra-regionales que se dirigen hacia Estados Unidos y flujo sur-sur, que corresponde a la emigración de nicaragüenses hacia Costa Rica. Estos flujos irregulares son propicios para la comisión de los delitos de tráfico ilícito de migrantes y trata de personas, ambos considerados parte del crimen internacional organizado. A nivel internacional, los instrumentos legales vigentes tienen por objeto reconocer que la migración en sí misma no es delito y por tanto, no está sujeta a enjuiciamiento penal. Asimismo, enfatizan en el respeto de los derechos y protección de las víctimas e insisten en la no criminalización del migrante. A nivel nacional, en este artículo, nos referimos con especial atención a la Ley 240 -513,Ley de Control del Tráfico de Migrantes Ilegales y la aplicabilidad de dicha normativa frente a la realidad de la migración irregular: existencia de las redes de traficantes y tratantes de migrantes, el “coyotaje”, la falta de experticia policial y judicial para combatir estos delitos, la vulnerabilidad de la población migrante irregular e indocumentada, las deficiencias estructurales y las políticas migratorias que vulneran los derechos humanos de la población migrante.

  1. Fractura por avulsión de la espina ilíaca anterosuperior (EIAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Ghisi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de mujer de 16 años de edad. Bailarina de danza clásica. Que consulta por dolor localizado en el borde anterosuperior de la cresta ilíaca izquierda, vinculado a la práctica de la danza. Se presntan imagenes y se discute el caso

  2. Il secondo principio

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, Peter W

    1988-01-01

    L'asimmetria della Natura ; l'indicatore di una trasformazione ; scivolando verso il caos ; la quantificazione del caos ; la potenzialità del caos ; le trasformazioni del caos ; il dominio della temperatura ; caos costtrutivo ; le strutture del caos.

  3. IL-17 and infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Y; Puel, A

    2014-10-01

    IL-17 immunity has been shown to be essential for mucocutaneous protection against Candida albicans in mice and humans. However, mice with defective IL-17 immunity display broader susceptibility, as they are also prone to infections with diverse infectious agents at various sites. Humans with genetic defects affecting their IL-17 immunity usually suffer from chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC): recurrent or persistent infections of the skin, nails, and mucosae with C. albicans, with or without other clinical signs. Most patients with autosomal dominant (AD) hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) due to STAT3 deficiency or AD STAT1 gain-of-function display impaired IL-17-producing T-cell development, and CMC is one of their principal clinical manifestations. Similarly, patients with autosomal recessive (AR) autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) caused by AIRE deficiency have high levels of neutralizing autoantibodies against IL-17A, IL-17F and/or IL-22 and present CMC as their only infectious disease. Finally, CMC is the main clinical phenotype observed in patients with inborn errors specifically affecting IL-17 immunity. Indeed, patients with AD IL-17F deficiency or AR IL-17RA or ACT1 deficiency display CMC and, to a lesser extent, superficial staphylococcal diseases. Candida infection was recently reported in psoriasis patients treated with anti-IL-17A antibodies. Careful monitoring for CMC is thus important during anti-IL-17 treatment.

  4. Limiti e potenzialità per lo sviluppo dell’heritage-based tourism nelle aree interne. Il caso di Fiordimonte (MC / Limitations and potentialities for the development of the heritage-based tourism in inner areas. The case of Fiordimonte (MC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Maroni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available L’obiettivo della ricerca è proporre una possibile strategia di sviluppo economico sostenibile del comune di Fiordimonte (MC, incardinata sulla valorizzazione a fini turistici delle risorse place e time specific, nell’ottica della resource-based theory. Nella prima parte il lavoro effettua una ricognizione dei contributi economico-manageriali sulla valorizzazione dei beni culturali e sul destination management, al fine di definire un framework teorico di riferimento da applicare al caso di studio. Successivamente, avvalendosi dell’analisi SWOT di Fiordimonte e del suo territorio, vengono individuati alcuni interventi funzionali all’avvio di un percorso di valorizzazione dello stock di capitale culturale, che assegnino un ruolo decisivo sia all’esplicitazione del potenziale informativo connesso al valore di testimonianza place e time specific, sia alla capacità dei vari attori locali responsabili innanzitutto dell’offerta culturale di stabilire efficaci forme di governance. The aim of this paper is to suggest a possible sustainable development plan for the territory of Fiordimonte (MC, focused on the touristic enhancement of its place and time specific assets, according to the resource-based theory. First, the work carries out a literature review on the management of cultural heritage and destination management, in order to build a theoretical framework to apply to the case study. Then, applying a SWOT analysis, the research identifies some interventions for the launching of a valorization process of Fiordimonte’s cultural heritage. The interventions assign a crucial role to the explanation of the place and time specific value of documentation and to the capability of the policy makers in charge of cultural heritage to establish an effective governance.

  5. Il toponimo friulano Nimis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gusmani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo si concentra sull'origine del toponimo Nimis, località a nord di Udine, il cui nome è attestato per la prima volta in Paolo Diacono. Per quanto riguarda l'etimo, l'unico in circolazione risulta esser quello proposto da F. Schürr (1930, secondo il quale il toponimo friulano risalirebbe ad una forma celtica affine alla denominazione in età classica della città di Nîmes (provenzale Nemse, cio è Nemausus. Contrariamente a tale interpretazione, l'autore raccoglie indizi a favore dell'eventualità che il toponimo sia di origine slava, riconducendolo ad un prototipo paleoslavo němici. La forma Nimis sarebbe il risultato della 'friulanizzazione' del lessema slavo presente nel dialetto sloveno della valle del Torre situata a poca distanza dalla località friulana in questione.

  6. Il problema del litio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antona, F.

    1995-03-01

    Contents: 1. Introduzione. 2. La nucleosintesi del Big Bang. 3. Il litio nelle stelle di popolazione II. 4. I modelli stellari standard. 5. Il litio negli ammassi aperti. 6. Meccanismi di distruzione "non standard". 7. I modelli non-standard applicati alla popolazione II. 8. L'evoluzione Galattica del litio. 9. Quali stelle producono litio? 10. Il litio come elemento chiave per dare un nome agli oggetti stellari più minuscoli. 11. Conclusioni.

  7. Essere madre tra bambole e rete: il caso delle Winx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Fabbri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The “Winx world”- made up of tv shows and cinema, dolls, and different gadgets- at the beginning was an Italian phenomenon. But now, because of its spread– in 131 Nations and about to widen in America- can be accounted as a multinational one. This paper deals with the behaviour of adults, educators and parents towards this phenomenon, through the analysis of participations posted on the internet forums and blogs. This analysis brings out different positions of cultural strictness and strong differences of pedagogical awareness. Through this complex analysis the author could find three dominant directions: the “apocalyctics”, who consider Winx phenomenon toxic and poisonous, something their children should be defended from in order to avoid educational and sociocultural corruption; the “conformers”, who consider the phenomenon just one of the many recreational and mediatic products without any dangerousness; the “dialectician” who see the phenomenon as something real and present in children daily universe and who think that a “critical balance” is the best way solve the problem. These different positions have been organized in a systematic and problematic proposal, with the aim of giving a picture of the possible educative interventions. The proposed model includes both preventive actions and alternative management of the problem. Preventive actions should be aimed to making children feeling comfortable, providing them with instrument of critical thinking and personal enterpreneurship. Alternative management instead could be focused on finding game modes different from that proposed by trade, with the aim of making the two typologies coexisting. The proposed actions refuse prohibitionist perspectives in order to encourage child’s critical and competent thinking, through game experiences which uderline his/her critical thinking.

  8. Una sintesi dialettica tra tradizioni differenti. Il caso Hegel

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    Howard Ponzer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A Dialectical Synthesis Between Different Traditions. The Case Hegel - The recent interest in Hegel by such thinkers as Robert Brandom and John McDowell in the United States and Pirmin Stekeler-Weithofer in Germany has inserted the dialectic into the long-standing debate between the analytic and continental traditions. This paper shows both that and how Hegel’s dialectic can function as a bridge between these conflicting traditions. The underlying intention of the paper, however, is to persuade those on both sides of the debate that the label of “genuine philosophy” belongs exclusively to neither the analytic nor the continental traditions. Rather, from the dialectical perspective, philosophy is the on-going dialogue and critical exchange between the two traditions. What is significant about the analytic and continental traditions is not that one is right and the other wrong, but that each participates in the dialogue and critical exchange that constitutes philosophy as it is today.

  9. Essere madre tra bambole e rete: il caso delle Winx

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Fabbri

    2011-01-01

    The “Winx world”- made up of tv shows and cinema, dolls, and different gadgets- at the beginning was an Italian phenomenon. But now, because of its spread– in 131 Nations and about to widen in America- can be accounted as a multinational one. This paper deals with the behaviour of adults, educators and parents towards this phenomenon, through the analysis of participations posted on the internet forums and blogs. This analysis brings out different positions of cultural strictness and strong d...

  10. Dinamiche del mercato televisivo e il caso Apple Tv

    OpenAIRE

    Gambaro Marco; Pilotti Luciano

    2014-01-01

    The history of Apple is quite clear in its strategies and trajectoriesabout competition in the global techno-media towards a radical evolution of multimedia devices as an eco-system with the transformation of a user's evolved, educated and socialized by the global community for sharing data, information and knowledge encapsulated in a proprietary model (almost) closed. The main focus is a large connecting trajectory of technology and content, with a global community of users. A story of succe...

  11. Accesso chiuso e mistificazione intellettuale: il caso di Diederik Stapel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Com’è possibile costruirsi una brillante carriera accademica sulla falsificazione dei dati sperimentali? La vicenda dello psicologo sociale olandese Diederik Stapel dà risposte istruttive. Ne parlo qui,  perché buona parte del materiale che ho dovuto usare viene da riviste ad accesso chiuso, fuori dalla competenza del  btfp.

  12. Il muro come galleria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duccio Dogheria

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Il muro, nel suo grigio rigore formale, nella sua fredda geometria, nel suo intento divisorio, nasconde spesso il cielo. Sovente il linguaggio dell’arte, ma non di meno quello della comunicazione, hanno interferito con le sue algide barriere. In molti casi, beninteso, non è che il potere in altre forme, che interferisce con se stesso: pensiamo ai bandi affissi agli angoli delle città, o le lettere d’indulgenza papali -spesso impreziosite da miniature al punto da poterle considerare antenate dal manifesto- che nel corso del medioevo venivano affisse sulle porte delle chiese.

  13. IL POETA E IL SUO TEMPO

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    Cheick Tidiane Gay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available La letteratura ha una funzione etica cui non può rinunciare. Il letterato, la figura più importante su un territorio, ha il compito di leggere la realtà, di interpretarla, di comunicarla. È il faro che si deve accendere e guidare le azioni degli uomini: un popolo che rinuncia ai suoi letterati e all’etica della letteratura, è un popolo che si perde. Così egli canta la Negritudine, la storia e il dolore della sua gente; e la sua poesia, con un forte impegno civile, si propone di dar voce a chi non ce l’ha.  The poet and his times Literature has an undeniable ethical function. The writer, the most important figure in a place, has the task of reading, interpreting and communicating reality. Literature is the beacon that one turns to and that guides the actions of people. A country that renounces its writers and the ethics of literature is a lost nation. Thus the writer sings of Negritude, the history and the pain of his people. Her poetry, with strong social commitment, aims to give voice to those who do not have one.

  14. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  15. Pensare con il cuore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Boella

    2008-07-01

    Si delinea così il rapporto fra l'io e il tu che, nella persona umana, costituisce l'essere come amore, in quanto la persona si viene costruendo a partire essenzialmente dall'incontro, secondo la logica della relazione che si rivela appunto come logica dell'amore.

  16. Raised IL-6 Levels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    cytokines which include IL-6 is caused by IL-2, these cytokines are known to increase acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and. 5, 6 activate pro-thrombotic pathways. With regard to the relationship of this cytokine to HIV, in vitro infection of normal monocyte/macrophages with. HIV-1 has been found to ...

  17. IL-17RD (Sef or IL-17RLM) interacts with IL-17 receptor and mediates IL-17 signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Rong, Zhili; Wang, Anan; Li, Zhiyong; Ren, Yongming; Cheng, Long; Li, Yinghua; Wang, Yinyin; Ren, Fangli; Zhang, Xiaoning; Hu, Jim; Chang, Zhijie

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17 or IL-17A) production is a hallmark of TH17 cells, a new unique lineage of CD4+ T lymphocytes contributing to the pathogenesis of multiple autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. IL-17 receptor (IL-17R or IL-17RA) is essential for IL-17 biological activity. Emerging data suggest that the formation of a heteromeric and/or homomeric receptor complex is required for IL-17 signaling. Here we show that the orphan receptor IL-17RD (Sef, similar expression to FGF genes or IL-17RL...

  18. Il colore delle cose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Vitiello

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tema di questo saggio è l’operare della riflessione. Vitiello, dopo essersi soffermato sulla «frattura» tra la riflessione (il «vedersi» e il suo operare in Valéry, si concentra sul processo, descritto da Hegel nella Fenomenologia dello spirito, dell’esperienza della coscienza che s’eleva a coscienza dell’esperienza. La conclusione è fortemente critica: Hegel fallisce la mèta nel punto stesso in cui la raggiunge. Infatti nel sapere assoluto, nella visione compiuta, perfetta di sé, della luce che vede luce, viene meno proprio l’esperienza della coscienza, il suo divenire, la sua «imperfezione». La critica a Hegel, passando attraverso Nietzsche, si amplia a critica del linguaggio, in particolare del linguaggio dell’«essere» e  dell’«è», e delle tautologie heideggeriane quali «das Ereignis ereignet», «das Ding dingt», «die Welt weltet». Un importante passaggio del testo è quello sul linguaggio teatrale in cui la parola sembra riacquistare il legame originale tra la voce e il gesto, che tuttavia restano divisi, perché proprio il medio che li lega, il «colore» della parola, è «fuori» della parola e del gesto. Resta la parola dell’agire, dei pragmata, in cui il fare si espone nella sua modalità più propria: nell’immediatezza del patire: il grido di dolore; o nella mediatezza riflessiva dell’imperativo morale: Handle! I due opposti «colori» delle cose.

  19. Il corpo narratore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivano Gamelli

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Sapere cosa provo attraverso il mio corpo di fronte all’altro mi permette non solo di capire cosa l'altro prova, soprattutto di generare naturalmente un’effettiva sintonizzazione, di evidenziare e nominare emozioni e sentimenti che in-formano la relazione con quel particolare bambino, adolescente o adulto che sia. Il rapporto con il linguaggio del corpo, prima ancora di divenire pratica psicopedagogica, è una 'pedagogia dell'esistenza'. Una pratica della nostra quotidianità che possiamo affinare oltre e prima che essa diventi pratica psicopedagogica.

  20. Il viaggio necessario: l'ottobre caldo della tragedia lampedusana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Viva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Era ottobre. L’ottobre caldo e triste della tragedia lampedusana, del lutto e delle parole. L’ottobre dei 366 cadaveri dei migranti di origine eritrea e dei 150, tra uomini e donne, recuperati e salvati. Non era ancora scoppiato il caso al Centro di Primo Soccorso di Contrada Imbriacola, non era ancora stato chiuso per le docce della vergogna, per i trattamenti da lager con cui i dipendenti della Cooperativa che gestiva il Centro di Primo Soccorso, si prendevano cura dei migranti. Io ero andata lì a vedere cosa restava di quelle vite, e di quelli che continuavano ad arrivare, anche dopo.

  1. TRACCIARE UN LABIRINTO DI MAIS CON IL GPS Il caso del Labirinto di HORT

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    Massimiliano Toppi

    2018-01-01

    HORT needed a new solution that would allow it to avoid performing ‘alignment and squares’ operations with old-fashioned optical instruments, and speed up manual path tracking, a solution that was found with Topcon Positioning Italy's contribution through the use of modern, multi-constellation GPS receivers.

  2. Il giallo-noir nella scrittura a quattro mani. Il caso di Acqua in bocca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Medaglia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Crime Fiction in Co-Authored Writing Practice. The Case Study of Acqua in bocca This article focuses on the issue of literary genres in relation to co-authored literature. In particular it analyzes the ways in which co-authored writing practice affects the authors’ choice of genre. In order to effectively investigate this issue, it surveys a set of literary works published by two or more authors in Western context from 1700 to 2013. This quantitative research leads to highlight some significant recurrent characteristics. In fact, it identifies crime novel and noir fiction as the most exploited ‘sub-genres’. To underline and exemplify this finding it analyzes Acqua in bocca by Andrea Camilleri and Carlo Lucarelli. This novel superbly underlines the main features of contemporary Italian crime-noir fiction: it is consumer-oriented, the authors’ style is creolized, and no more than two writers are involved. In addition, this work has other interesting features: the epistolary structure used in the text has the aim of charming the reader and well-known characters are used without altering their peculiarities beloved by their audience.

  3. Il PCI, Autonomia Operaia e l'emergenza terrorismo: il caso 7 aprile 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Pacifici

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the positions of the Italian Communist Party towards the large political movement that took action on its left, especially “Autonomia Operaia”, in the late seventies, during the terrorism emergency and the crisis of national solidarity governments. The debate, internal to the PCI and between the left parliamentary forces, is analyzed through the documents, the newspaper articles and the declarations about a specific counter-terrorism trial, known as the “7th April case". This trial caused a large and heated public debate on terrorism, democracy and public order that saw two main political positions in opposition to one another. On one side the so called guarantee position represented by the “Partito Radicale”, some intellectuals, journalist and magistrates and on the other those who endorsed the firmness position, especially the PCI. At the same time, within the same communist party, the firmness front wasn't completely unanimous. On 7th April 1979 the deputy public prosecutor of Padua, Pietro Calogero, issued an arrest warrant that led to prison more than a dozen militants from the extra-parliamentary leftist area, “Potere Operaio” and “Autonomia Operaia”, including among others Oreste Scalzone, Franco Piperno, Nanni Balestrini, Emilio Vesce and Antonio Negri.

  4. Il museo di antropologia come museo culturale: il caso del MOA di Vancouver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gualtieri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay will examine anthropology museums as cultural museums from the methodological approach of Cultural Studies. Within this frame, the museum acts as a mode of conservation of material culture thus revealing its immaterial consequences. In the museum, historical memories are preserved and re-enacted to articulate cultural identities in the present, to shed light on the past, and to illuminate future communal practices. After a brief survey on collections in the epoch of European geographical discoveries and on the birth of anthropology as a science in colonial times, the essay will consider the exhibition of cultural artefacts belonging to the First Nations of British Columbia in the Museum of Anthropology (MOA in Vancouver. References to native land claims will help to understand the links between time and place, history and geography, cultural memory and land that are central to native re-constructions of identity. Through a critical reading of conventional ethnographic and anthropological criteria in museum displays, the codes of conservation and repatriation will be introduced in relation to the notion of native title and cultural property. The MOA will be used as a case in point to explore practices of negotiation with native peoples. The indigenous worldview regarding the use of objects and the performance of a living culture will be presented as opposed to the conventional aesthetic appreciation and exhibition of cultural objects. The essay will then illustrate how museums are produced and organised according to ideologically relevant standpoints in specific times and places, and how visitor-oriented practices should address a critical reading of dynamics of power and knowledge control in contemporary societies.

  5. Il ponte e Heidegger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Giordani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Le considerazioni svolte in questa nota sono un modesto sommario rispetto alle opportunità offerte dal celebre scritto di Martin Heidegger “Costruire, abitare, pensare”. In quelle pagine il ponte (tema del primo numero di “Tria” è l’intrigante simbolo preso come esempio della ”essenza” dell’abitare, intesa come “tratto fondamentale” della condizione umana (abitare come “Sein” dell’uomo.La circostanza menzionata (il contenuto del numero di “Tria” può essere quindi suggerimento e occasione per una ri-cognizione - necessariamente approssimata - del testo di Heidegger. Ricognizione resa indubbiamente più avvincente dalla possibilità di un confronto derivato dall’intervallo temporale fra il climaterio del moderno (in cui è stato redatto lo scritto di Heidegger e il presente.

  6. Il dono del racconto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polito, Paola

    1998-01-01

    L'articolo indaga a vari livelli strutturali del romanzo "Il coraggio del pettirosso" (rete metaforica, dialogismo diegetico, dialogismo come fenomeno di voce, strategie discorsive messe in atto dalla voce narrante, stile colloquiale) la complessa realizzazione testuale del genere narrativo...

  7. Il teatro degli spiriti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Pussetti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Questo saggio è dedicato a un culto di possessione, in cui tutte ledonne, investite dagli spiriti degli uomini morti prima dell’iniziazione, compiono un percorso iniziatico parallelo a quello maschile, consentendo a queste anime, potenzialmente pericolose, di completare il cammino che non hanno potuto percorrere da vivi e quindi di raggiungere serenamente il mondo dei morti, come antenati protettori del villaggio

  8. Assessment of the effects of IL9 , IL9R , IL17A , and IL17F gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The rs731476 SNP in the IL9R was significantly associated with the AR phenotype in women. No association was found between any of the other SNPs in IL9, IL17A, and IL17F genes and AR. In the gene–gene interaction analysis, we found that IL9R/IL9 genotype rs731476 T‑/rs2069885 G conferred a higher risk ...

  9. Cytokines (interleukin-9, IL-17, IL-22, IL-25 and IL-33 and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Farahani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a reversible airway obstruction that is characterized by constriction of airway smooth muscle, hyper secretion of mucus, edema and airway hyper responsiveness (AHR, mucus secretion and thickening of the basement membrane underlying the airway epithelium. During the process of airway inflammation, complex interactions of innate and adaptive immune cells as well as structural cells and their cytokines have many important roles. It was believed that airway inflammation is orchestrated by allergen specific T helper (Th 2 cells, which recruit and accumulate in the lungs and produce a range of different effector cytokines. However, more recent studies have revealed the potential collaboration of other helper T cells and their cytokines in this process. Th17 cell may have a role in severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Interleukin (IL-9-producing subset called Th9 cell, Th22 cells which primarily secrete IL-22, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor-α and Th25 cells via producing IL-25 are believed to be important for initiating allergic reactions and developing airway inflammation. Cytokines are important in asthma and play a critical role in orchestrating the allergic inflammatory response, although the precise role of each cytokine remains to be determined. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the possible roles of newly identified helper T cells derived cytokines (IL-9, 17, 22, 25 and IL-33 in asthma. The potential therapeutic applications emerging from the roles of these cytokines will be discussed as well.

  10. Il corpo della strega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Bertin

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Come già evidenziato a proposito di altre pratiche, il sabba, attività ludica profana, religiosa, conferiva a ciascuno la possibilità di giocare efficacemente con la dinamica di un mondo da cui emergeva una figura archetipica, la strega, principale attore di questa danza in tondo. Il sabba era, dunque, uno dei luoghi ove si cristallizzavano le figure del proibito, questo per il suo carattere sacro, per la violenza istituzionale che presiedeva alla formazione dei rapporti sociali, e conferiva anche, per le caratteristiche di protesta che rivela, un'immagine sempre esaltante della capacità delle società a resistere. Il problema della nostra epoca ove rifioriscono le streghe nelle più svariate forme è, forse, quello di riallacciarsi con la dimensione gruppale dei nostri svaghi, nelle loro differenti forme e, contemporaneamente, con perdita di energia, a quanto presiedeva ai sabba e alla loro risoluzione sacrificale. In contro-corrente ai modelli meccanici che assegnano dei limiti precisi e funzionali ai corpi asserviti ad un ideale di controllo, il corpo sabbatico con la sua enfasi sulle posizioni limite (ciò che si rimproverava d'altronde alle streghe, era veramente corpo mistico.

  11. IL web tutorials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette; Lund, Haakon

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results from a study on information literacy in a higher education (HE) context based on a larger research project evaluating 3 Norwegian IL web tutorials at 6 universities and colleges in Norway. The aim was to evaluate how the 3 web tutorials served students’ information...... seeking and writing process in an study context and to identify barriers to the employment and use of the IL web tutorials, hence to the underlying information literacy intentions by the developer. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed. A clear mismatch was found between intention...... and use of the web tutorials. In addition, usability only played a minor role compared to relevance. It is concluded that the positive expectations of the IL web tutorials tend to be overrated by the developers. Suggestions for further research are presented....

  12. Il professor Mitja Skubic ottuagenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ožbot

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Incredibile ma vero: il professor Mitja Skubic si trova, questa volta lui stesso, al centro dell’attenzione anziché essere il motore, il perno dell’attività. La ragione per questo attimo di respiro è il suo ottantesimo compleanno, a dire il vero passato già da tempo. È pressoché una contingenza aneddotica quella per cui il volume dedicatogli per l’occasione viene pubblicato così tardi: il professore ha continuato a tener d’occhio la nostra rivista ben dopo aver nominato i nuovi direttori tanto che sarebbe stato impossibile sorprenderlo con una miscellanea di contributi in suo onore.

  13. Dostoevskij e il sillogismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Peace

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Si presenta di seguito la prima traduzione italiana del saggio di Richard Peace Dostoevsky and the Syllogism, pubblicato in lingua originale nel volume IX (2005 della collana Dostoevsky Studies, New Series. Il saggio è dedicato alla rielaborazione del sillogismo aristotelico da parte dei personaggi dostoevskiani nell’ambito del dibattito fra le due principali correnti filosofiche della Russia ottocentesca: l’ «occidentalismo» e lo «slavofilismo». Peace evidenzia come Dostoevskij miri a dimostrare che il ragionamento sillogistico sia estraneo alla forma mentis russa attraverso i fallimenti argomentativi dei suoi «ideofori»

  14. Descrizione di un caso clinico di morbo coitale maligno (MCM in un focolaio di malattia in Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Scacchia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Italia, nel maggio 2011, in seguito a controlli effettuati su uno stallone per la relativa approvazione alla monta, è stato di nuovo segnalato il morbo coitale maligno (MCM. Nel lavoro viene descritto il caso di una cavalla con sintomi clinici della malattia ritenuta verosimilmente all’origine dell’infezione dello stallone.

  15. Helping You Buy ILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibbarelli, Pamela R.

    2010-01-01

    This article is the fourth in a series of articles published annually by "Computers in Libraries" surveying integrated library systems and services (ILSs). The purpose of the annual survey is to enable comparison of the ILSs that are available. ILS vendors are in constant pursuit of an ever-changing, consistently vague definition of what the…

  16. Il pericolo degli ebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available I libri stampati: si possono acquistare anonimamente in contanti; quindi se ne è proprietari: non dobbiamo firmare una licenza che ne restringe l’uso: il loro formato è noto e per leggerli non occorrono tecnologie proprietarie; si possono dare, prestare o...

  17. Il diabete che migra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Infante

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Nel gennaio 2007 ha avuto inizio il “Corso di Counseling e Terapie Interculturali”; nello stesso gennaio il Servizio di Diabetologia Pediatrica dell’Azienda Universitaria Ospedaliera Policlinico Tor Vergata di Roma ha richiesto la mia collaborazione per un progetto relativo all’alleanza e all’aderenza terapeutica del minore straniero affetto da diabete mellito. Ho avuto l’opportunità di partecipare a questo progetto, poiché avevo avuto precedenti esperienze nel Servizio di Medicina Solidale e delle Migrazioni, progetto del medesimo Policlinico. Questo progetto riguarda tutti i minori autoctoni e migranti affetti dalla suddetta patologia, in cura presso l’Unità Operativa di Diabetologia Pediatrica. Il mio ruolo principale all’interno del progetto è quello di apportare un doppio ascolto medico-counselor durante le visite di controllo, che possono variare a seconda dell’andamento della patologia, da una cadenza mensile ad una quindicinale. Durante questi colloqui il mio primo intento è quello di approcciarmi alla famiglia in un’ottica sistemica, in seguito di affrontare una ricostruzione autobiografica della storia familiare e del processo migratorio.

  18. Il Carmide di Platone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available L’ipertesto dedicata al Carmide di Platone, composto per l’uso degli studenti dell’ateneo pisano, è a disposizione di tutti qui. Il Carmide è – canonicamente – un dialogo aporetico. Ma almeno dei suoi paradossi – quello di una superscienza che pretende...

  19. Il Simposio di Platone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pensate che i testi antichi siano semplicemente vecchi? Che l’amore platonico non vada mai  al sodo? Leggere il Simposio di Platone confrontandosi direttamente col testo, com’è possibile fare grazie al Perseus Project, vi farà cambiare idea.

  20. Th-17 regulatory cytokines IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 enhance neutrophil production of IL-17 cytokines during asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halwani, Rabih; Sultana, Asma; Vazquez-Tello, Alejandro; Jamhawi, Amer; Al-Masri, Abeer A; Al-Muhsen, Saleh

    2017-11-01

    In a subset of severe asthma patients, chronic airway inflammation is associated with infiltration of neutrophils, Th-17 cells and elevated expression of Th-17-derived cytokines (e.g., interleukin [IL]-17, IL-21, IL-22). Peripheral neutrophils from allergic asthmatics are known to express higher IL-17 cytokine levels than those from healthy subjects, but the regulatory mechanisms involved are not well understood. We hypothesize that Th-17 regulatory cytokines could modulate IL-17 expression in neutrophils. Peripheral blood neutrophils isolated from asthmatics were stimulated with IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 cytokines and their ability to produce IL-17A and IL-17F was determined relative to healthy controls. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation levels were measured in stimulated neutrophil using flow cytometry. The requirement for STAT3 phosphorylation was determined by blocking its activation using a specific chemical inhibitor. Stimulating asthmatic neutrophils with IL-21, 23, and 6 enhanced the production of IL-17A and IL-17F at significantly higher levels comparatively to healthy controls. Stimulating neutrophils with IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 cytokines enhanced STAT3 phosphorylation, in all cases. Interestingly, inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation using a specific chemical inhibitor dramatically blocked the ability of neutrophils to produce IL-17, demonstrating that STAT3 activation is the major factor mediating IL-17 gene expression. These findings suggest that neutrophil infiltration in lungs of severe asthmatics may represent an important source of pro-inflammatory IL-17A and -F cytokines, a production enhanced by Th-17 regulatory cytokines, and thus providing a feedback mechanism that sustains inflammation. Our results suggest that STAT3 pathway could be a potential target for regulating neutrophilic inflammation during severe asthma.

  1. Data on interleukin (IL)-2- and IL-15-dependent changes in IL-2Rβ and IL-2Rγ complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osinalde, Nerea; Sánchez-Quiles, Virginia; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2017-01-01

    We provide detailed datasets from our analysis of the proteins that associate with IL-2Rβ and IL-2Rγ in T-cells stimulated with IL-2 or IL-15 compared with resting T-cells, as identified by SILAC-based quantitative proteomics. We also include quantitative data regarding site-specific phosphorylat...... "Characterization of receptor-associated protein complex assembly in Interleukin (IL)-2- and IL-15-activated T-lymphocytes" (Osinalde et al., 2016 [1]). The mass spectrometry data have been deposited to the ProteomeEXchange Constorium with the identifier PXD002386....

  2. “To boldly go where no series has gone before”. Star Trek - The Original Series in Italia: il linguaggio della tecno-scienza, il doppiaggio, il fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Iannuzzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Al centro del saggio vi è un'analisi critica del doppiaggio italiano di Star Trek. The Original Series, andata in onda negli USA tra 1966 e 1969 e giunta in Italia nel 1979.L'analisi del doppiaggio affronta il problema della traduzione in senso ampiamente culturale  (sulla scorta di studi come quelli di Even-Zohar e Venuti, adoperando il caso di una delle serie fantascientifiche più famose nella storia del medium televisivo per esemplificare più ampie dinamiche traduttive della fantascienza statunitense in Italia, nonché il difficile rapporto - nel contesto culturale italiano - tra cultura umanistica e scientifica (si vedano su questo i contributi di Pierpaolo Antonello, a cui si può ricondurre il fenomeno di semplificazione e livellamento verso il basso del gergo tecno-scientifico che ha caratterizzato le prime traduzioni della serie.Il generale depotenziamento della sfera linguisto-lessicale tecnico-scientifica, tanto più rimarchevole vista l'importanza del linguaggio nella costruzione dell'identità e della fortuna della serie originale, si può far risalire in parte a un'idea di pubblico culturalmente più impreparato dell'omologo statunitense, in parte a una più generale trascuratezza nei processi produttivi dell'emittente e della cooperativa di doppiaggio coinvolte (TMC e ADC, entrambi sintomi di una visione del prodotto culturale televisivo in termini di mero consumo, tipica di un'epoca che precedeva la new golden age della televisione americana, e forse non ancora estranea al contesto italiano corrente (come hanno dimostrato, per altri casi, studi di Buonomo, Izzo e Scarpino, Ranzato.Il caso di studio è contestualizzato da alcuni cenni iniziali sul più ampio tema della traduzione delle serie televisive fantascientifiche americane in Italia tra anni Cinquanta e Settanta, e completato da una ricognizione delle prime fortune della serie a cavallo di diversi media nella penisola.Star Trek, al centro di un franchise tra i pi

  3. Il Raffrescamento per Ventilazione

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perino, Marco; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2016-01-01

    edifici, si è iniziato a rivolgere un crescente interesse verso la ventilazione, specie naturale, quale strumento per il raffrescamento passivo degli edifici. Le recenti evoluzioni del quadro normativo e legislativo, infatti, hanno portato nel cor-so del tempo a costruire edifici sempre più isolati...... termicamente e sempre più a tenuta d'aria. Tali misure hanno consentito indubbiamente di ridurre la domanda energetica per il riscaldamento invernale, ma hanno determinato delle crescenti problematiche di surriscaldamento dell'ambiente interno. Molti degli edifici ad alta efficienza energeti-ca di nuova......'aria per rimuovere i carichi ambiente e, dall'altro, incrementa lo scambio termico sul corpo umano, poiché aumenta la velocità locale dell'aria sulla pelle, modificando quindi e le sensazioni termiche. Permette, inoltre, di abbinare la funzione di controllo dell'IAQ con quella del controllo termico. Una...

  4. Il maxiprocesso di Palermo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A cura di Sarah Mazzenzana

    2016-04-01

    La Torre. La “Rivista” ripubblica qui alcuni stralci dell’ordinanza di rinvio a giudizio, alla quale Giovanni Falcone e Paolo Borsellino attesero, per ragioni di sicurezza, rifugiati nell’isola dell’Asinara. Viene ricostruita la realtà disvelata dai racconti di Leonardo Vitale, di Giuseppe Di Cristina e soprattutto di Tommaso Buscetta e Salvatore Contorno. Sono brani che, anche riletti oggi, mantengono una propria potenza narrativa, perfino una certa solennità. Il Maxiprocesso si sarebbe chiuso dopo alterne vicende, il 30 gennaio del 1992, con la condanna all’ergastolo in Cassazione della cosiddetta Cupola di Cosa nostra. Per la prima volta in centotrent’anni di storia nazionale i boss mafiosi avrebbero conosciuto la condanna a vita in via definitiva. Dopo pochi mesi avrebbero risposto con le stragi, uccidendo platealmente i due principali estensori dell’ordinanza.

  5. Il libro di fisica

    CERN Document Server

    Asimov, Isaac

    1986-01-01

    Isaac Asimov, illustre studioso e brillante divulgatore scientifico, ma anche grandissimo scrittore di science fiction, ha costruito questa volta una vera e propria «biografia delle scienze fisiche». Il presente volume, che nel mondo anglosassone è diventato una «bibbia della fisica», ci introduce, in forma semplice ma rigorosa, ai segreti dei quasar e dei buchi neri, dei quark e degli acceleratori di particelle, dell'intelligenza artificiale e delle fonti di energia, sia essa quella «sporca» sia quella «pulita». Un vero, completo manuale, ma anche un «romanzo» affascinante sia per il profano sia per l'uomo di scienza.

  6. Il diritto di abitazione

    OpenAIRE

    Iannoto, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    Il presente lavoro si prefigge la finalità di analizzare taluni aspetti legati al diritto reale di abitazione, con speciale riferimento al divieto di cessione del predetto diritto previsto dall’articolo 1024 del codice civile. Tale problematica, inoltre, è strettamente connessa anche ad altri aspetti pratici, quali l’ipotecabilità e l’espropriabilità del predetto diritto reale. In particolare è apparso opportuno approfondire preliminarmente taluni profili di carattere generale riguardanti ...

  7. Il crepuscolo delle idee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Segnalo questo dibattito non perché sia originale, ma perché non lo è per nulla: il suo tema è infatti quello, famosissimo, della critica alla scrittura contenuta nel mito platonico di Theuth, anche se non sempre chi discute ne è consapevole. Secondo Neal Gabler (* stiamo attualmente vivendo in un’età post-illuministica e “post-ideale”. Internet offre l’accesso [...

  8. IL-6 enhances plasma IL-1ra, IL-10, and cortisol in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensberg, Adam; Fischer, Christian Philip; Keller, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that a transient increase in plasma IL-6 induces an anti-inflammatory environment in humans. Therefore, young healthy volunteers received a low dose of recombinant human (rh)IL-6 or saline for 3 h. Plasma IL-6 levels during rhIL-6 infusion...... number without effects on plasma epinephrine, body temperature, mean arterial pressure, or heart rate. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that physiological concentrations of IL-6 induce an anti-inflammatory rather than an inflammatory response in humans and that IL-6, independently of TNF......-induced leukocyte trafficking....

  9. Data on interleukin (IL-2- and IL-15-dependent changes in IL-2Rβ and IL-2Rγ complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Osinalde

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We provide detailed datasets from our analysis of the proteins that associate with IL-2Rβ and IL-2Rγ in T-cells stimulated with IL-2 or IL-15 compared with resting T-cells, as identified by SILAC-based quantitative proteomics. We also include quantitative data regarding site-specific phosphorylation events observed both in IL-2Rβ and IL-2Rγ. Moreover, we provide results demonstrating the specific protein recruitment capacity of four of those site-specific phosphorylations. The proteomics and phosphoproteomics data described in this article is associated with a research article entitled “Characterization of receptor-associated protein complex assembly in Interleukin (IL-2- and IL-15-activated T-lymphocytes” (Osinalde et al., 2016 [1]. The mass spectrometry data have been deposited to the ProteomeEXchange Constorium with the identifier PXD002386.

  10. Estudio de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel-González-Durán, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo es un estudio de caso de acompañamiento emocional y psicoterapéutico. Se muestra el contexto general y el proceso de la consultante. El motivo principal de consulta fue una experiencia de secuestro y violación que ocasionó un cuadro de estrés post-traumático. Dentro del apartado del estudio de caso se hace referencia a las vivencias, significados y contexto de la consultante, se pretende demostrar el desarrollo que se fue llevando a cabo en la consultante, y se comparten f...

  11. Razonamiento rebatible por casos

    OpenAIRE

    Bodanza, Gustavo A.

    1996-01-01

    Este trabajo constituye un estudio de las dificultades de la incorporación de información disyuntiva en un sistema conteniendo reglas rebatibles. Se presenta una ampliación del sistema MTDR a fin de aumentar la capacidad de éste, permitiendo el razonamiento por casos mediante argumentos. En un artículo anterior ([BS95]) se brindaba una aproximación al problema introduciendo una relación de inferencia rebatible que incluía la prueba por casos. Tal solución presenta limitaciones en determ...

  12. ANTONIO CASO, EDUCADOR UNIVERSITARIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morelos Torres Aguilar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo es producto de una investigación sobre la trayectoria de Antonio Caso como educador universitario, y se centra en el período de la Revolución Mexicana y la posrevolución. En forma complementaria, se analizan algunas aportaciones del maestro Caso realizadas durante los años 30 del siglo pasado, en particular en el debate sobre la educación socialista y en la formación de intelectuales. El trabajo analiza las principales ideas y acciones de este educador mexicano, relacionadas directamente con las funciones educativas y universitarias.

  13. Il coraggio di essere giovani”: un progetto sulla Fgci di Modena degli anni Ottanta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Capelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available L’Istituto Storico di Modena promuove una ricerca sulla Fgci di Modena degli anni Ottanta con l'obiettivo di cominciare a riflettere sul decennio conclusivo della storia del Pci, un periodo di crisi profonda della cultura politica comunista che la storiografia non ha ancora affrontato in modo sistematico. Il caso modenese permette di osservare alcuni importanti elementi dell'esperienza della Fgci “rifondata”, come il nuovo approccio alla comunicazione politica e il rapporto con i movimenti sociali.

  14. Cesare Lombroso: il misoneismo e il martirio del folle

    OpenAIRE

    Bertani, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    Il testo illustra, attraversando alcuni dei più noti luoghi della patologia criminale e della devianza lombrosiana, il nesso fra la teoria del folle e il suo rapporto con il male, considerato uno dei punti più dibattuti di tutta la cultura dell’età del progresso. A dispetto dei lunghi anni d’oblio e soprattutto degli stereotipi con cui la figura e l’opera di Cesare Lombroso hanno attraversato il XX secolo, tornare a riflettere su di essi giova ad una miglior comprensione storica, facendo luce...

  15. IL-33 Enhanced the Proliferation and Constitutive Production of IL-13 and IL-5 by Fibrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako Hayashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-33 appears to play important roles in the induction of allergic airway inflammation. However, whether IL-33 is involved in airway remodeling remains unclear. Because fibrocytes contribute to tissue remodeling in the setting of chronic inflammation, we examined the effects of IL-33 on fibrocyte functions. Fibrocytes were generated in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by culturing in the presence of platelet derived growth factors and the cells were stimulated with IL-33. IL-33 enhanced cell proliferation, α-SMA expression, and pro-MMP-9 activity by the fibrocytes without increasing endogenous transforming growth factor-β1 production. Fibrocytes constitutively expressed IL-13 and IL-5, and their production was augmented by stimulation with IL-33. Dexamethasone inhibited the functions of fibrocytes, but IL-33 made fibrocytes slightly refractory to the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone in terms of IL-13 production. Montelukast suppressed IL-13 production by nonstimulated fibrocytes but not those stimulated by IL-33. These findings suggest that IL-33 is involved in the airway remodeling process through its modulation of fibrocyte function independent of antigen stimulation. IL-33 might partially reduce the therapeutic effects of glucocorticoid and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist on fibrocyte-mediated Th2 responses.

  16. Il potere euristico dell’agapismo nella filosofia di Peirce

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    Ivo Assad Ibri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La prima parte di questo saggio offre un’analisi del testo “La legge della mente”, in cui Peirce teorizza il potere di crescita e diffusione delle idee e formula la sua risposta alla classica domanda riguardo al modo in cui la mente possa influenzare la materia. A partire da un’analisi centrata sul duplice significato semantico della parola "affetto", il lavoro intende mostrare come la rottura da parte di Peirce con il dualismo cartesiano di mente e materia conduca a una sostanziale identità tra idealità e realtà per mezzo di una fusione metafisica di realismo e idealismo, in cui la materia viene considerata esclusivamente come un caso particolare della mente. La seconda parte mostra come le diverse forme di evoluzionismo discendano dalle tre categorie, ponendo in evidenza il concetto di agapismo, la dottrina dell’amore cosmico e creativo. Nella parte finale viene mostrato come il legame tra realismo e idealismo, così come le considerazioni di Peirce sull'evoluzionismo, costituiscano aspetti essenziali in vista di una giustificazione del successo storico della nostra capacità umana di elaborare congetture, ovvero di proporre ipotesi di successo per spiegare i fatti.

  17. Il muro nella mente:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Concilio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A 78 anni, Nadine Gordimer, premio Nobel per la letteratura nel 1991, è infaticabile: il suo ultimo romanzo The Pick up è stato pubblicato negli Stati Uniti e in Inghilterra, dove ha ricevuto però tiepida accoglienza,e ora anche in Italia1. Alcuni mesi fa, tuttavia, Nadine Gordimer veniva ricordata dai giornali per un’impresa non letteraria: si tratta di un film-documentario dal titolo Johannesburg-Berlin, The Wall in the Mind, che Gordimer ha scritto e che ha girato con suo figlio, Hugo Cassirer, nel 1995-1996.

  18. O CASO MOREL: UM CASO METAFICCIONAL

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    Renata Rocha Ribeiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo reflete sobre o romance O caso Morel (1973, de Rubem Fonseca, partindo de pressupostos referentes à metaficcionalidade. Para isso, comentará acerca da experimentação romanesca exposta por Monegal (1979 nos romances produzidos a partir da década de 1960. Serão usadas como base para a problematização da metaficcionalidade as considerações de Hutcheon (1984. Além disso, Dällenbach (1973 será lembrado a fim de se pensar sobre a presença diegética do escritor e do leitor no romance de Fonseca, ponto importante para a configuração da narrativa metaficcional.

  19. Il bilinguismo disegnato

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    Graziella Favaro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Il tema della diversità linguistica e del riconoscimento e della valorizzazione delle forme di bilinguismo dei bambini e dei ragazzi è cruciale nella scuola multiculturale e plurilingue. Ma quale rappresentazione della “mente bilingue” hanno i parlanti una o più lingue? Come immaginano la testa di chi e bilingue e dove collocano le diverse parole? Abbiamo chiesto agli alunni, piccoli e grandi, di alcune scuole di “disegnare il bilinguismo”: emergono in maniera vivida i “posti” diversi in cui le lingue si installano, i dubbi e le spiegazioni dei bambini, la necessità del controllo e la coloritura affettiva dell’uno e dell’altro idioma.  Drawing bilingualism The theme of linguistic diversity and the recognition and appreciation of forms of bilingualism in children and young people is crucial in a multilingual, multicultural school environment. But how do speakers of one or more languages imagine a “bilingual mind”? How do they imagine a bilingual person’s head and where are the different words located? We asked school children to “draw bilingualism”. The “placement” of the different languages, the children’s doubts and explanations and their need to check and the affective coloring of one and the other language emerged.

  20. Tradurre sotto il fascismo

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    Antonio Bibbò

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cesare Pavese, per primo, parlò degli anni Trenta come del decennio – italiano – delle traduzioni. Christopher Rundle parte da lì per un importante studio sul "problema delle traduzioni" durante il fascismo, Publishing Translations in Fascist Italy, Peter Lang, 2010. Riesce così a fornire un panorama convincente di uno dei dibattiti più caratteristici del Ventennio, e a ridiscutere alcuni assunti come la centralità della letteratura anglo-americana nelle preoccupazioni dei "censori". Perché di amministrazione della cultura si parla: della censura porosa e discontinua – o comunque tardiva – messa in atto dal fascismo per limitare “l’invasione delle traduzioni”. Un interesse, quello nei confronti della politica e della censura editoriale durante i fascismi che sembra ormai centrale negli studi di italianistica e traduttologia.Il secondo volume recensito - Christopher Rundle and Kate Sturge, Translation under Fascism, Palgrave Macmillan, 2010 presenta una serie di studi sullo statuto delle traduzioni durante i regimi totalitari. Questa collezione di saggi va oltre i confini italiani e tedeschi e si occupa delle politiche di traduzione dei regimi fascisti europei, contribuendo ad allargare e mettere in discussione non solo la nostra conoscenza delle pratiche censorie in diversi ambiti espressivi, ma anche la stessa idea di regime fascista. 

  1. Associations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist, and IL-10 with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogulu, Dilsah; Onay, Huseyin; Ozdemir, Yasemin; I Aslan, Gulcin; Ozkinay, Ferda; Kutukculer, Necil; Eronat, Cemal

    2015-03-01

    Streptococcus mutans is important in dental caries. Although the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of dental caries is not clear, components of S. mutans were found to stimulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We examined the associations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), and IL-10 with dental caries. Unstimulated whole saliva and blood samples were obtained from 108 children aged 6-12 years with high caries (decayed, missing, or filled teeth [dmft/DMFT] index >4, n = 37), moderate caries (dmft/DMFT = 1-4, n = 37), or caries-free (dmft/DMFT = 0, n = 34). S. mutans level was classified as low (Dental caries was not correlated with salivary or serum concentrations of the studied cytokines. S. mutans level positively correlated with saliva IL-1β concentration and inversely correlated with saliva IL-1ra concentration. There was no correlation of IL-1β, IL-1ra, or IL-10 gene polymorphisms with dental caries. S. mutans is important in stimulating saliva IL-1β and inhibiting IL-1ra. Future studies of associations between cytokines and dental caries should investigate additional cytokines and enroll a larger number of participants.

  2. Altered expression of IL-1β, IL-1RI, IL-1RII, IL-1RA and IL-4 could contribute to anovulation and follicular persistence in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassi, A F; Baravalle, M E; Belotti, E M; Amweg, A N; Angeli, E; Velázquez, M M L; Rey, F; Salvetti, N R; Ortega, H H

    2018-01-03

    Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is an important cause of infertility in dairy cattle. The main signs of this infertility are ovulation failure and follicular persistence. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-1RI, IL-1RII, IL-1RA and IL-4 in ovarian follicular structures at different times of persistence in a model of follicular persistence induced by prolonged administration of progesterone in dairy cows. Protein expression of IL-1β, IL-1RI, IL-1RII, IL-1RA and IL-4 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, IL-1β and IL-4 concentrations in follicular fluid and serum were determined by ELISA. In granulosa cells, IL1-RII and IL-4 expression was higher in follicles with different persistence times than in the control dominant follicles. IL-1RA expression was higher in persistent follicles of the P15 group (15 days of follicular persistence) than in those of the control group. In theca cells, IL-1RII expression was higher in persistent follicles of the P0 group (expected time of ovulation) than in dominant follicles from the control group (p follicular fluid within each group were detected only in P0 for IL-1β, and in the control, P10 and P15 groups for IL-4 (p cows is concurrent with an altered expression of cytokines in different ovarian follicular structures and may contribute to the follicular persistence and ovulation failure found in cattle with follicular cysts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced Expression of IL-18 and IL-18BP in Plasma of Patients with Eczema: Altered Expression of IL-18BP and IL-18 Receptor on Mast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalin Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available IL-18 has been found to be associated with eczema. However, little is known of the role of IL-18 binding protein (BP and IL-18 receptor (R in eczema. We therefore investigated the expression of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R on mast cells by using flow cytometry analysis and mouse eczema model. The results showed that plasma free IL-18 and free IL-18BP levels in eczema patients were higher than those in healthy controls. IL-18 provoked up to 3.1-fold increase in skin mast cells. IL-18 induced also an increase in IL-18BP+ mast cells, but a reduction of IL-18R+ mast cells in mouse eczema skin. It was found that house dust mite allergen Der p1 and egg allergen OVA induced upregulation of the expression of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R mRNAs in HMC-1 cells following 2 and 16 h incubation. In conclusion, correlation of IL-18 and IL-18BP in eczema plasma suggests an important balance between IL-18 and IL-18BP in eczema. The decrease in molar concentration ratio of plasma IL-18BP/IL-18 and allergen-induced upregulated expression of IL-18 and IL-18R in skin mast cells of the patients with eczema suggests that anti-IL-18 including IL-18BP therapy may be useful for the treatment of eczema.

  4. Il danno alla persona del lavoratore: il mobbing orizzontale

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    Riccardo Gentile

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sommario:1. Il mobbing tra diritto civile e diritto del lavoro – 2. Il fenomeno mobbing: gli studi iniziali e la definizione – 3. Le concrete condotte integranti fattispecie di mobbing – 4. Onere della prova – 5. Il mobbing orizzontale – 6. L’elemento soggettivo di colpevolezza del da­tore di lavoro nella responsabilità ex art. 2087 c.c. per mobbing orizzontale

  5. Interleukin-18 and IL-18 Binding Protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinarello, C.A.; Novick, D.; Kim, S.; Kaplanski, G.

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines. Similar to IL-1beta, IL-18 is synthesized as an inactive precursor requiring processing by caspase-1 into an active cytokine but unlike IL-1beta, the IL-18 precursor is constitutively present in nearly all cells in healthy humans

  6. Il bizzarro mondo dei quanti

    CERN Document Server

    Camejo, Silvia Arroyo

    2008-01-01

    Scritto prima dell'esame di maturità da una giovane di eccezionale talento, questo libro colma il vuoto esistente tra la letteratura divulgativa sulla fisica quantistica, che normalmente evita ogni formula matematica, e la letteratura specialistica, ben farcita, invece, di matematica avanzata. L'autrice, appena diciannovenne, con l'ausilio della sola matematica della scuola superiore, introduce il lettore ai principi della fisica dei quanti. Se ne ricava uno sguardo profondo sul microcosmo, il regno affascinante delle particelle elementari: oggetti il cui comportamento si distingue in modo drastico e fondamentale da tutto ciò a cui è avvezzo il nostro umano buonsenso. "Un libro... che avrei desiderato avere a 17 anni". Silvia Arroyo Camejo "In modo assolutamente preciso dal punto di vista fisico, l'autrice spiega con grande passione e divertimento i fondamenti della moderna fisica quantistica ... " Prof. Reinhold A. Bertlmann "Un libro stupefacente di un'autrice straordinaria! Si avverte il suo entusiasmo ...

  7. Dos estudios de casos

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    Hernán Guillermo Salazar Morales

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN A continuación se presenta dos casos de estudio en donde se puede apreciar a la forma  como se establecen  las relaciones en una organización y lo que una DECISION  puede llegar a incidir en el desarrollo de las operaciones de una empresa. Decisiones basadas en la intuición, o en corazonadas, frecuentemente conducen en dirección equivocada, ocasionando pérdidas en tiempo, personal y dinero. El proceso de toma de decisiones deben ser TAREAS ESTRUCTURADAS que se sustenten con hechos. Su ejecución debe hacerse secuencialmente y cumplir con cada uno de sus pasos. El diseño de los  casos está orientado para que  sirvan como material de aplicación en la asignatura de  taller de planeación.

  8. Il congiuntivo nel Goldoni

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    Mitja Skubic

    1970-11-01

    Full Text Available Nelle sue commeclie dialettali, Goldoni spesso ricorre al congiuntivo. La forma e tanto frequente e tanta è la coerenza nell'uso che ci testimonia della popolarita del congiuntivo nel veneziano parlato del suo tempo. E ancora non sapremmo elencarne tutte le forme, giacche, nel presente almeno, una speciale per il congiuntivo esiste quasi solo per la 3.a persona (come nell'indicativo, anche nel congiuntivo coincidono la 3.a del sg. e la 3.a del pl.. Pochi sono i verbi che mostrano una forma a parte per il congiuntivo nella La pers. sg. Citiamo dalla Casa nova: »fe conto che sia morto per vu«, I, 6; »E no le vol ehe maledissa sta casa e che diga roba de quel strambo de so fradelo«, II, 5; »se no volè che vaga, lasserò star«, II, 6; »bisognerà che dipenda da ela«, I, 6; »ghe son, bisogna che ghe staga, I, 2; »Bisognerà che m'inzegna da qualche altra banda«, I, 15. Quasi inesistente la 2.a pers. sg.; >>Siestu benedeta, dove che tu xe«, Rusteghi, II, 3. La scarsità della forma nel congiuntivo è da riconnettere alla scarsità della 2.a pers. in generale nelle commedie. Non ci sono forme del congiuntivo nel plurale: »avanti che lo spartimo, fevelo mostrare«, Baruffe, I, 5; »acciò che vegni a discreditar la mia casa«, Rusteghi, II, 3; »son vegnua a posta, acciò che parlè”, Rusteghi, III, 2.

  9. Simulazione della propagazione di difetti a fatica mediante il modello di zona coesiva

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    A.Pirondi, F.Moroni

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Le giunzioni incollate guadagnano sempre più mercato, nel campo delle costruzioni in genere, dove è necessario un alleggerimento delle strutture. Nel caso di geometrie di giunto semplici il dimensionamento avviene attraverso relazioni analitiche che restituiscono il valore massimo delle tensioni, il quale deve essere inferiore al limite di utilizzo dell’adesivo stesso. Quando le geometrie sono complesse l’approccio analitico diventa impraticabile, di conseguenza si provvede a verificare la correttezza della soluzione mediante analisi agli elementi finiti (EF. L’introduzione del modello di zona coesiva nell'analisi EF permette di simulare il danneggiamento ed il cedimento del giunto in condizioni quasi-statiche e impulsive. In questo articolo si vuole implementare il modello per la simulazione della propagazione a fatica di difetti, utilizzando il software agli elementi finiti ABAQUS assieme a subroutine esterne interagenti con il modello EF stesso. Un punto focale dell'implementazione sarà il calcolo automatico del tasso di rilascio di energia G in modo indipendente dalla geometria del difetto stesso. I parametri del modello ricavati da prove di tenacità a frattura e propagazione di difetti a fatica in modo I, saranno utilizzati come riferimento per la convalida dell'implementazione.

  10. La materia e il cielo

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    Paolo Zermani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Il testo che l’architetto Paolo Zermani propone per questo convegno si articola in tre parti. La prima è premessa ai due esempi proposti dalla propria vasta attività di progettista. Si tratta di mettere a sbalzo la liminalità dello spazio sacro, ossia il suo costruirsi al limite tra terra e cielo, confine materiale di più ampia significanza simbolica, tra fisica e metafisica, tra elementi evocativi, comunque materiali, e il “cielo dei cieli” di cui parla Agostino.  Intersezione di queste valenze è ancora il tipo architettonico, nella sintesi tra oriente ed occidente offerta dalla cultura romana e dalla forma della croce.Il significato del paesaggio nella composizione dell’architettura è esemplificato nella descrizione di due progetti: il Cimitero di Sansepolcro e il Nuovo Tempio per la Cremazione di Parma, il primo innestato nel Paesaggio Collinare di Piero della Francesca, il secondo incastonato nelle maglie della Limitatio Romana della pianura padana in prossimità di Valera, recinto sacro e nuovo altare della città di Parma. (abstract a cura di Luigi Bartolomei

  11. Increased number of IL-2, IL-2 receptor and IL-10 positive cells in premalignant lesions of the cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindiola, Raimy; Caulejas, Diana; Núñez-Troconis, José; Araujo, Mary; Delgado, Mariela; Mosquera, Jesús

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have shown the involvement of the immune response in the progression of human uterine cervix cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of Interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) and Interleukin 10 (IL-10) in different grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias of the exocervix (CIN 1, 2 and 3), and its relationship with the serum cytokine profiles and human papilomavirus (HPV) infection status. Indirect immunofluorescence was used to study the expression of IL-2, IL-2R and IL-10 in human cervical samples from 50 patients and 9 normal controls. Serum IL-2, IL-2R and IL-10 were measured by ELISA and HPV DNA and HPV types were identified by PCR. Increased number of IL-2, IL-2R and IL-10 positive cells were observed in the cervix from patients with CIN, associated with the grades of dysplasia. A significant correlation was observed between IL-2 and IL-2R (p>0.0001), IL-2 and IL-10 (p>0.0001), as well as IL-10 and IL-2R (p>0.0001). Twenty percent of patients were HPV positive and 84% of those patients were tissue cytokine positive. These results suggest that IL-2, IL-2R and IL-10 tissue expression may play a role in the development of cervical intraepithelial dysplasias.

  12. Relations Between Serum Essential Fatty Acids, Cytokines (IL-6 & IL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relations Between Serum Essential Fatty Acids, Cytokines (IL-6 & IL- 8), Apoptotic Marker (SFAS), And Free Radicals In Egyptian Patients With Autoimmune ... The patients suffered from different types of autoimmune diseases according to their criteria, Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), ...

  13. Evidence for a critical role for the cytoplasmic region of the interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor gamma chain in IL-2, IL-4, and IL-7 signalling.

    OpenAIRE

    Kawahara, A; Minami, Y; Taniguchi, T

    1994-01-01

    The high-affinity interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) consists of at least three distinct subunits: the IL-2R alpha chain (IL-2R alpha), beta chain (IL-2R beta), and gamma chain (IL-2R gamma). It has been shown that the cytoplasmic region of IL-2R beta, but not of IL-2R alpha, is essential for IL-2 signalling to the cell interior. In the present study, we examined the functional role of the IL-2R gamma cytoplasmic region in the IL-3-dependent mouse hematopoietic cell line BAF-B03, which expresses ...

  14. Identification of the IL-17 Receptor Related Molecule IL-17RC as the Receptor for IL-17F

    OpenAIRE

    Kuestner, Rolf E.; Taft, David W.; Haran, Aaron; Brandt, Cameron S.; Brender, Ty; Lum, Karen; Harder, Brandon; Okada, Shannon; Ostrander, Craig D.; Kreindler, James L.; Aujla, Shean J.; Reardon, Brian; Moore, Margaret; Shea, Pamela; Schreckhise, Randall

    2007-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokines IL-17A and IL-17F have a high degree of sequence similarity and share many biological properties. Both have been implicated as factors contributing to the progression of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Moreover, reagents that neutralize IL-17A significantly ameliorate disease severity in several mouse models of human disease. IL-17A mediates its effects through interaction with its cognate receptor, the IL-17 receptor (IL-17RA). We report here that the IL-1...

  15. IL-5 and IL-5 receptor in asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotsimbos ATC

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils, along with mast cells are key cells involved in the innate immune response against parasitic infection whereas the adaptive immune response is largely dependent on lymphocytes. In chronic parasitic disease and in chronic allergic disease, IL-5 is predominantly a T cell derived cytokine which is particularly important for the terminal differentiation, activation and survival of committed eosinophil precursors. The human IL-5 gene is located on chromosome 5 in a gene cluster that contains the evolutionary related IL-4 family of cytokine genes. The human IL-5 receptor complex is a heterodimer consisting of a unique a subunit (predominantly expressed on eosinophils and a beta subunit which is shared between the receptors for IL-3 & GM-CSF (more widely expressed. The a subunit is required for ligand-specific binding whereas association with the beta subunit results in increased binding affinity. The alternative splicing of the alphaIL-5R gene which contains 14 exons can yield several alphaIL-5R isoforms including a membrane-anchored isoform (alphaIL-5Rm and a soluble isoform (alphaIL-5Rs. Cytokines such as IL-5 produce specific and non-specific cellular responses through specific cell membrane receptor mediated activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways which, to a large part, regulate gene expression. The major intracellular signal transduction mechanism is activation of non-receptor associated tyrosine kinases including JAK and MAP kinases which can then transduce signals via a novel family of transcriptional factors named signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATS. JAK2, STAT1 and STAT 5 appear to be particularly important in IL-5 mediated eosinophil responses. Asthma is characterized by episodic airways obstruction, increased bronchial responsiveness, and airway inflammation. Several studies have shown an association between the number of activated T cells and eosinophils in the airways and abnormalities

  16. IL-1b, IL-6 and IL-8 Levels in Gyneco-Obstetric Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Basso

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. During pregnancy cytokines and inflammatory mediators stimulate the expression of prostaglandin, the levels of which determine the onset of labor. The aim of this work was to study interleukin IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 levels in the vaginal discharge, serum and urine of pregnant women with genitourinary infection before and after specific treatment. One hundred and fifty-one patients were studied during the second or third trimester of their pregnancy.

  17. Association between Acne and Serum Pro-inflammatory Cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 and RANTES) in Mustard Gas-Exposed Patients: Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Nayere; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Yaraee, Roya; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Soroush, Mohammad-Reza; Mohammad Hassan, Zuhair; Khodashenas, Zohre; Shams, Jalaleddin; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2017-02-01

    Acne vulgaris is a very common chronic inflammatory disorder, yet its pathogenesis is not clearly understood. As part of the SICS, this study was conducted to evaluate the association between the incidence of acne vulgaris in SM-exposed subjects (20 years after the exposure) and serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 and RANTES) in an attempt to better understand the pathogenesis of long-term skin disorders of these individuals. Serum concentrations of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 and RANTES) were measured using sandwich ELISA technique. The median of serum levels of IL-1β, IL-8 and RANTES were significantly higher in the exposed patients with acne than those without acne (P = 0.05, 0.03 and 0.001 respectively). There was no significant difference in serum levels of IL-1α, IL-1Ra and IL-6 between the exposed subgroups. We found a positive association between serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, IL-12 and RANTES) and acne among SM-exposed population.

  18. IL-1β suppresses innate IL-25 and IL-33 production and maintains helminth chronicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario M Zaiss

    Full Text Available Approximately 2 billion people currently suffer from intestinal helminth infections, which are typically chronic in nature and result in growth retardation, vitamin A deficiency, anemia and poor cognitive function. Such chronicity results from co-evolution between helminths and their mammalian hosts; however, the molecular mechanisms by which these organisms avert immune rejection are not clear. We have found that the natural murine helminth, Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hp elicits the secretion of IL-1β in vivo and in vitro and that this cytokine is critical for shaping a mucosal environment suited to helminth chronicity. Indeed in mice deficient for IL-1β (IL-1β(-/-, or treated with the soluble IL-1βR antagonist, Anakinra, helminth infection results in enhanced type 2 immunity and accelerated parasite expulsion. IL-1β acts to decrease production of IL-25 and IL-33 at early time points following infection and parasite rejection was determined to require IL-25. Taken together, these data indicate that Hp promotes the release of host-derived IL-1β that suppresses the release of innate cytokines, resulting in suboptimal type 2 immunity and allowing pathogen chronicity.

  19. Il coinvolgimento dei residenti nelle attività di promozione di un sito UNESCO (WHS. Un caso esplorativo sulla Costiera Amalfitana / The involvement of residents in the promotion of an UNESCO site (WHS. An exploratory case focusing on the Amalfi Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Vollero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Il coinvolgimento dei residenti, in particolare nei siti Unesco, costituisce uno degli elementi chiave per favorire lo sviluppo dei territori. In questa direzione, il lavoro intende esaminare quali fattori influenzino la propensione dei residenti a partecipare alle attività di promozione territoriale. Sulla base di un approccio di destination management di tipo collaborativo, è stata realizzata un’indagine esplorativa su un campione di 248 residenti della Costiera Amalfitana per analizzare la loro intenzione ad impegnarsi nella promozione del territorio. I valori della comunità e l’atteggiamento proattivo nei confronti dell’ambiente sembrano influenzare positivamente la volontà dei residenti a supportare le attività di comunicazione di marketing territoriale. Il riconoscimento Unesco, se associato ad aspetti positivi, può costituire un ulteriore stimolo alla partecipazione dei cittadini. Inoltre, la percezione di inefficacia delle attività implementate dagli attori locali sprona i residenti ad attivarsi nella promozione territoriale.   The involvement of residents is one of the key elements to promote the development of destinations, especially in Unesco sites. In this context, the study aims at examining the factors that can influence the propensity of residents to participate in place promotion. Based on an approach of collaborative destination management, an exploratory survey has been conducted on a sample of 248 residents of Amalfi Coast in order to examine their intentions to engage directly in place communication initiatives. Community values and environmental attitudes seem to positively affect the willingness of residents to engage in place marketing communications. If linked to positive effects, the Unesco recognition may be a further stimulus to the engagement of citizens. Moreover, the perception of ineffectiveness of actions implemented by local actors encourages residents to contribute directly to place promotion.

  20. IL-17RC: A partner in IL-17 signaling and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Allen W.; Gaffen, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    The IL-17 cytokine family members IL-17A and IL-17F mediate inflammatory activities via the IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) complex, comprised of the IL-17RA and IL-17RC subunits. Proper regulation of the IL-17 signaling axis results in effective host defense against extracellular pathogens, while aberrant signaling can drive autoimmune pathology. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying IL-17 signal transduction can yield an enhanced understanding of inflammatory immune processes and also cre...

  1. Tres casos de odontomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Javier Santos Medina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Los odontomas son los tumores odontogénicos más comunes, casi siempre se diagnostican accidentalmente, en exámenes radiográficos; pueden sospecharse al retardar el brote dentario o producir maloclusiones. Se clasifican en odontomas compuestos y complejos, ambos constituidos por estructuras dentales como: esmalte, dentina, cemento y tejido pulpar. Su eliminación quirúrgica y la biopsia es el tratamiento de elección. El propósito de este trabajo es reportar tres casos de pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Pediátrico de Las Tunas, todos remitidos previamente por el ortodoncista. El primero, tipo compuesto, en un escolar de 9 años de edad, masculino, asociado a un 31 retenido; el segundo caso se trata de un gran odontoma complejo en una escolar de 11 años de edad, femenina, que produjo interferencia en el brote del 11 y el tercero compuesto; en un escolar de 10 años, masculino, en la línea media entre 11 y 21, con producción de diastema y brote del 12 por palatino. De ellos uno fue descubierto por un examen radiográfico de rutina y los otros dos sospechados por la maloclusión secundaria; todos se trataron quirúrgicamente. Estos casos demuestran la frecuencia de estos tumores en la cavidad bucal y la importancia de la realización de exámenes clínicos y radiográficos para su detección y tratamiento precoz, así como la importancia de la interrelación entre el ortodoncista y el maxilofacial en la resolución satisfactoria de esta entidad

  2. Influence of depression and early adverse experiences on illicit drug dependence: a case-control study Influência de depressão e experiências adversas na dependência de drogas ilícitas: um estudo de caso-controle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Ferigolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between depression and illicit drug dependence among a Latin-American population. METHOD: illicit drug dependent patients (n = 137 and controls (n = 274 were interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, in order to detect lifetime and current depressive disorder and illicit (cocaine, cannabis or inhalants substance dependence. A regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio for drug dependence according to the diagnosis of depression. RESULTS: The lifetime diagnosis of depression (p = 0.001; OR = 4.9; 95% CI, 1.9-12.7 predicts illegal drugs dependence. Sociodemographic variables such as male gender (p OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a associação entre depressão e dependência de drogas ilícitas entre a população Latino-Americana. MÉTODO: Indivíduos dependentes de drogas ilícitas (n = 137 e controles (n = 274 foram entrevistados pela Entrevista Diagnóstica para Estudos Genéticos para investigar desordem depressiva corrente, ou durante sua vida, e dependência de drogas ilícitas (cocaína, maconha ou inalantes. Análise de regressão logística foi usada para estimar a razão de chances para dependência de drogas levando em conta o diagnóstico de depressão. RESULTADOS: O diagnóstico de depressão durante sua vida (p = 0,001; OR = 4,9; 95% CI, 1,9-12,7 prediz a dependência de drogas ilícitas. Os dados sociodemográficos sexo masculino (p < 0,001; OR = 36,8; 95% CI, 11,8-114 e situação ocupacional (p = 0,002; OR = 5,0; 95% CI, 1,8-13, e a dependência de álcool (p = 0,01; OR = 3,4; 95% CI, 1,3-8,7 influenciam significativamente a depressão e a dependência de drogas. Ainda, outros fatores importantes que influenciam são ter pais (p = 0,006; OR = 18,9; 95% CI, 2,3-158 ou amigos (p < 0,001; OR = 64,4; 95% CI, 6,5-636 dependentes de drogas ilícitas. CONCLUSÃO: O delineamento utilizado não possibilitou

  3. Il progetto SISTER per il comune di Lignano Sabbiadoro

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Poli

    2005-01-01

    Il comune di Lignano è stato recentemente invitato a Roma in qualità di relatore alla conferenza nazionale dei sistemi informativi territoriali organizzata da Esri, il maggior produttore mondiale di software per la gestione delle cartografie informatizzate. In tale occasione l’assessore AngeloBonelli ha presentato il progetto sperimentale di sistema informatico per la gestione del territorio, che è in corso da circa un anno. Ecco la sintesi della relazione del Sistema Informativo Integrato Te...

  4. Il progetto SISTER per il comune di Lignano Sabbiadoro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Poli

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Il comune di Lignano è stato recentemente invitato a Roma in qualità di relatore alla conferenza nazionale dei sistemi informativi territoriali organizzata da Esri, il maggior produttore mondiale di software per la gestione delle cartografie informatizzate. In tale occasione l’assessore AngeloBonelli ha presentato il progetto sperimentale di sistema informatico per la gestione del territorio, che è in corso da circa un anno. Ecco la sintesi della relazione del Sistema Informativo Integrato Territoriale (SISTER realizzato da Politecnica.

  5. um estudo de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Diana Raquel Santos de

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do grau de Mestre em Psicologia, ramo de Psicologia Clínica e da Saúde O presente trabalho assenta, em primeiro lugar, em pressupostos teóricos acerca da saúde mental e de algumas psicopatologias como é o caso da esquizofrenia, psicopatia e personalidade antissocial em crianças e adolescentes, fazendo-se uma caracterização das mesmas. De seguida, é apresentada a pesquisa realizada, que é de ...

  6. Oligodoncia: reporte de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Porras Castro, Ileana; Castillo Chan, Karen

    2011-01-01

    La ausencia clínica y radiológica de una pieza dental, temporal o permanente, en la cavidad oral, sin antecedentes de extracción, avulsión o exfoliación, se conoce como anodoncia y puede ser total o parcial. Si la ausencia es de hasta seis piezas dentarias, para definirla se utiliza el término hipodoncia, y oligodoncia cuando hay ausencia de más de seis dientes. El presente artículo describe un caso de oligodoncia en un paciente joven con antecedentes familiares de esta alteración. The cli...

  7. Tres casos de odontomas

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Javier Santos Medina; Haideé Tamara Díaz Méndez; Giselle Ávila Chiong

    2015-01-01

    Los odontomas son los tumores odontogénicos más comunes, casi siempre se diagnostican accidentalmente, en exámenes radiográficos; pueden sospecharse al retardar el brote dentario o producir maloclusiones. Se clasifican en odontomas compuestos y complejos, ambos constituidos por estructuras dentales como: esmalte, dentina, cemento y tejido pulpar. Su eliminación quirúrgica y la biopsia es el tratamiento de elección. El propósito de este trabajo es reportar tres casos de pacientes atendidos en ...

  8. Il margine del silenzio e l’agire comunicativo di Habermas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Tassoni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo indaga la funzione del silenzio nella teoria dell’agire comunicativo di Habermas. Se il mondo è Discorso, se è il linguaggio a creare la comunità, il silenzio è allora – ritengo – un elemento imbarazzante nell'ambito della comunicazione. È possibile trovare tracce significative di questa concezione nel brano in cui Habermas tratta le idee filosofiche più strettamente connesse alla figura dell’individuo dominatore. È vero, in questo caso specifico, che la funzione del silenzio risulta marginale o persino insignificante? È corretto affermare che il silenzio si istituisce nel dialogo al modo di una morte del linguaggio, contraria alla sua vita? Ed è vero che, dal momento che non viene condiviso, il silenzio appartiene esclusivamente all'Ego e non è altro che un egoistico atto di esclusione, vuoto e privo di senso? Sarà necessario orientarsi tra due alternative: o il silenzio non partecipa al discorso (il che ci riporta alla antica contrapposizione metafisica di assenza/presenza, silenzio/parola, oppure esso partecipa al discorso, e veicola all'interno di esso vari tipi di indicazioni, a seconda del contesto. In questo modo sarà possibile fornire una corretta interpretazione dell'assenso, del dissenso, dell'accettazione, della sospensione, dell'introduzione all'ascolto.

  9. IL-3 and IL-33 induces IL-9 secretion from human basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Britta C.; Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Blom, Lars

    Background IL-9 has been suggested to play an important role in chronic inflammation due to its effect on remodeling and cell recruitment. Since basophils can be found in inflamed tissue, we wanted to test if human basophils are capable of secreting IL-9 under the influence of growth or tissue...... factors like IL-3 or IL-33, respectively. Methods Basophils, purified from buffy coat blood by negative selection (purity > 95%), were cultured for 24 hours in RPMI culture medium (1x106 cells/ml) supplemented with 5% human serum, and IL-3 (10 ng/ml) and/or IL-33 (50 ng/ml). The cells were then analysed...... by FACS for ST2 expression where basophils were gated as FcεRIα+CD3-CD14-CD19-CD56-. The supernatant was tested for IL-9 using a multiplex magnetic bead assay. Results Human basophils have recently been described to express the IL-33 receptor ST2. In agreement with previous findings, our results showed...

  10. IL CAMPO GEOMAGNETICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. MOLINA

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Questo lavoro non è un trattato sul campo geomagnetico e nemmeno
    una rassegna sull'argomento, almeno nel significato che normalmente
    si attribuisce al termine « rassegna »; esso è semplicemente
    un tentativo di condensare in termini comprensibili agli studiosi non
    specializzati ciò che oggi si sa o si ipotizza sul magnetismo terrestre
    e sulle sue cause. Chi scrive si è sempre trovato a disagio di fronte
    alle richieste di una spiegazione sull'origine del campo magnetico
    terrestre: o si cerca di cavarsela con poche parole (« si tratta di correnti
    elettriche indotte nell'interno della Terra » che possono forse accontentare
    chi non si occupa in modo particolare di problemi scientifici
    ma non possono soddisfare un fisico, oppure ci si sente obbligati a
    tentare faticosamente di approfondire, sia per capirli personalmente
    che per poterli poi spiegare agli altri, argomenti e ragionamenti che
    sono in realtà accessibili solo a un fisico teorico ben preparato. Apparentemente
    non esiste una via di mezzo, come del resto in molti altri
    campi della fisica contemporanea.
    La presente monografia rappresenta appunto il tentativo di trovare
    questa via di mezzo: nel terzo capitolo, dedicato alle teorie sull'origine
    del campo geomagnetico, si cerca di descrivere qualitativamente
    i principali processi fisici proposti come sorgenti del campo,
    dopo un accenno ai fondamenti fisici e matematici sui quali sono state
    elaborate le varie teorie. Senza farmi soverchie illusioni di essere riuscito
    nell'intento, mi dichiarerei tuttavia soddisfatto se questo lavoro
    destasse sull'argomento l'interesse di qualche giovane ricercatore, incoraggiandolo
    ad un approfondimento.

  11. Approccio qualitativo e complessità sociale: il progetto editoriale dell'Osservatorio dei Processi Comunicativi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orazio Maria Valastro

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Il titolo che abbiamo scelto di dare alla Rivista Elettronica dell'Osservatorio evoca in modo esplicito il senso figurato del termine "magma", inteso dunque come un insieme caotico e indistinto. Il "magma" è considerato in questo caso come una realtà in continuo movimento ed è possibile, in effetti, partire da questa stessa immagine, per valutare il ruolo sempre più attuale dell'approccio qualitativo, della teoria e dell'analisi qualitativa, nella ricerca sociale e nell'applicazione delle metodologie qualitative nei contesti sociali. Una complessità sociale caratterizzata da processi sociali che si modellano nella temporalità delle nostre società contemporanee, dove questi stessi processi fluiscono come occorrenze e forme emergenti, determina la necessità di comprendere ed integrare delle prospettive eterogenee attraverso degli strumenti in grado di considerare l'intersoggettività.

  12. Il discreto e il continuo complementarita in matematica

    CERN Document Server

    Kuyk, Willem

    1982-01-01

    Nato dall'esperienza didattica dell'autore, il libro si presenta come un testo interdisciplinare di matematica e di filosofia, inteso a fornire un quadro complessivo dello stato attuale dei fondamenti della matematica.

  13. Carlo Caso (1940 - 2007)

    CERN Multimedia

    Leonardo Rossi

    Carlo Caso (1940 - 2007) Our friend and colleague Carlo Caso passed away on July 7th, after several months of courageous fight against cancer. Carlo spent most of his scientific career at CERN, taking an active part in the experimental programme of the laboratory. His long and fruitful involvement in particle physics started in the sixties, in the Genoa group led by G. Tomasini. He then made several experiments using the CERN liquid hydrogen bubble chambers -first the 2000HBC and later BEBC- to study various facets of the production and decay of meson and baryon resonances. He later made his own group and joined the NA27 Collaboration to exploit the EHS Spectrometer with a rapid cycling bubble chamber as vertex detector. Amongst their many achievements, they were the first to measure, with excellent precision, the lifetime of the charmed D mesons. At the start of the LEP era, Carlo and his group moved to the DELPHI experiment, participating in the construction and running of the HPC electromagnetic c...

  14. Coccidioidomicose: novo caso brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes Mário A.P.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available É descrito um caso de coccidioidomicose pulmonar oriundo da zona rural de Bertolínia, PI. A manifestação clínica principal consistiu em dor torácica e o diagnóstico teve por base o achado do agente3/4Coccidioides immitis3/4em cortes histológicos. Formas teciduais do microrganismo3/4esférulas imaturas e maduras3/4estavam presentes nas lesões observadas em fragmento pulmonar removido do paciente por biópsia a céu aberto. Este novo caso autóctone da doença, como os outros anteriormente descritos no Brasil, procedia do interior semi-árido da Região Nordeste. O ambiente quente e seco do sertão nordestino oferece, sem dúvida, condições propícias ao desenvolvimento de C. immitis, um habitante do solo. As pessoas e animais do local devem adquirir a infecção ao revolver a terra, ato que os expõe à poeira contendo os propágulos do fungo.

  15. IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-13 modulate responsiveness of human airway smooth muscle cells to IL-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michoud Marie-Claire

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IL-13 is a critical mediator of allergic asthma and associated airway hyperresponsiveness. IL-13 acts through a receptor complex comprised of IL-13Rα1 and IL-4Rα subunits with subsequent activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6. The IL-13Rα2 receptor may act as a decoy receptor. In human airway smooth muscle (HASM cells, IL-13 enhances cellular proliferation, calcium responses to agonists and induces eotaxin production. We investigated the effects of pre-treatment with IL-4, IL-13 and IFN-γ on the responses of HASM cells to IL-13. Methods Cultured HASM were examined for expression of IL-13 receptor subunits using polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Effects of cytokine pre-treatment on IL-13-induced cell responses were assessed by looking at STAT6 phosphorylation using Western blot, eotaxin secretion and calcium responses to histamine. Results IL-13Rα1, IL-4Rα and IL-13Rα2 subunits were expressed on HASM cells. IL-13 induced phosphorylation of STAT6 which reached a maximum by 30 minutes. Pre-treatment with IL-4, IL-13 and, to a lesser degree, IFN-γ reduced peak STAT6 phosphorylation in response to IL-13. IL-13, but not IFN-γ, pre-treatment abrogated IL-13-induced eotaxin secretion. Pre-treatment with IL-4 or IL-13 abrogated IL-13-induced augmentation of the calcium transient evoked by histamine. Cytokine pre-treatment did not affect expression of IL-13Rα1 and IL-4Rα but increased expression of IL-13Rα2. An anti-IL-13Rα2 neutralizing antibody did not prevent the cytokine pre-treatment effects on STAT6 phosphorylation. Cytokine pre-treatment increased SOCS-1, but not SOCS-3, mRNA expression which was not associated with significant increases in protein expression. Conclusion Pre-treatment with IL-4 and IL-13, but not IFN-γ, induced desensitization of the HASM cells to IL-13 as measured by eotaxin secretion and calcium transients to histamine

  16. IL6 and IL10 are genetic susceptibility factors of periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Scapoli

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The present investigation indicated that polymorphisms of IL6 and IL10 constitute risk factors for chronic periodontitis, while there was no evidence implicating a specific IL1A or IL1B genotype.

  17. Un modello di decisione per l'eugenetica: il criterio del maximin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Colombo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In un ipotetico scenario tecnologicamente molto più avanzato di quello attuale, in cui sia possibile modificare alcune caratteristiche di un feto attraverso interventi di ingegneria genetica, viene illustrato un possibile problema etico circa la legittimità di tali interventi. In particolare, nell’esempio trattato ci si chiede quando e se sia legittimo per un genitore autorizzare un intervento genetico su suo figlio. Il casus fictus è analizzato utilizzando gli strumenti della Teoria della Decisione Razionale (TDR, costruendo un opportuno modello di decisione che consenta di rispettare un vincolo di razionalità e un vincolo di giustizia. Il modello proposto si caratterizza come alternativo rispetto a quelli classici della TDR, poiché il problema in analisi non può essere risolto in una matrice di decisione individuale, che non tiene conto della componente interpersonale di una scelta riguardante l’eugenetica, né come un caso di Scelta Sociale, perché le preferenze di uno degli individui coinvolti sono indefinite al momento della decisione. La soluzione prospettata è l’utilizzo del criterio di decisione del maximin, formalizzato da Von Neumann e Morgenstern, in luogo della massimizzazione dell’utilità prevista. Tale criterio, attraverso astrazioni (sul problema e idealizzazioni (sull’agente consente di rispettare i due vincoli di razionalità e giustizia, imponendo al genitore di autorizzare solo quegli interventi genetici che non diminuiscano il successo del nascituro in un piano di vita possibile. Questo criterio di decisione, a differenza dei criteri di demarcazione tra terapia e avanzamento utilizzati frequentemente in letteratura, è solo procedurale, ma non vuoto perché risponde a istanze di giustizia. Inoltre, il problema dell’autorizzazione degli interventi genetici rappresenta un caso di applicazione giustificata di un criterio di decisione generalmente non ritenuto ragionevole, perché troppo conservativo e

  18. Cloning and characterization of IL-17B and IL-17C, two new members of the IL-17 cytokine family

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hanzhong; Chen, Jian; Huang, Arthur; Stinson, Jeremy; Heldens, Sherry; Foster, Jessica; Dowd, Patrick; Gurney, Austin L.; Wood, William I.

    2000-01-01

    IL-17 is a T cell-derived cytokine that may play an important role in the initiation or maintenance of the proinflammatory response. Whereas expression of IL-17 is restricted to activated T cells, the IL-17 receptor is found to be widely expressed, a finding consistent with the pleiotropic activities of IL-17. We have cloned and expressed two novel human cytokines, IL-17B and IL-17C, that are related to IL-17 (≈27% amino acid identity). IL-17B mRNA is expressed in adult pancreas, small intest...

  19. Appunti ... Curatela oltre il confine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Benčić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Il testo dà conto di esperienze e progetti di collaborazione italiana e croata che le due curatrici conducono da ormai cinque anni: Risque d’attente e Clueless. Inconcludenze quotidiane, che costituiscono un modello espositivo che coinvolge artisti di differenti nazionalità, una priorità per evitare il format delle mostre concepite in chiave nazionalistica e i modelli pragmatici di scambi bilaterali al livello nazionale.

  20. CRIPTOCOCOSE: RELATO DE CASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Alvarez GENTIL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Criptococose, doença infecciosa fúngica, oportunista, potencialmente fatal, que acomete animais silvestres e domésticos, principalmente cachorro e gato e o homem. Causada pela levedura, Cryptococcus neoformans. Mais frequente em adultos, comumente diagnosticada em pacientes imunodeprimidos, como os soropositivos, fator predisponente mais frequente. Outros fatores são: uso prolongado de medicações imunossupressoras, doenças como diabetes, sarcoidose, doença de Hodgkin e outras neoplasias hematológicas, lúpus eritematoso, artrite reumatoide, doença de Behçet, e transplante de vísceras sólidas. Geralmente adquirida pela inalação do agente etiológico. Objetivo: este estudo objetiva relatar o caso de um paciente portador de criptococose, que esteve invernado no Hospital São José do Avaí (HSJA de Itaperuna, no mês de setembro de 2016, corroborando na literatura descrita sobre o tema, justifica-se o tema pela raridade do caso. Metodologia: inicialmente realizou-se pesquisa bibliográfica através da seleção de autores que asseguraram uma fundamentação teórico-metodológica que serviu de arcabouço para o desenvolvimento do estudo. A metodologia apresentada refere-se a um relato de caso, realizado a partir do prontuário do paciente e dos exames disponíveis. Resultados: a Radiografia de tórax evidenciou massa pulmonar em lobo inferior direito e a Tomografia de tórax também demonstrou esse acometimento; sendo realizada biópsia desse fragmento, que consolidou o diagnóstico de criptococose. A lâmina do paciente, corada com hematoxilina-eosina demonstrou aspectos característicos do acometimento por esse fungo. Conclusão: para o tratamento, pode-se utilizar antifúngicos como a anfotericina B associado com 5-flucitosina, em infecções disseminadas; ou fluconazol e itraconazol, para infecções cutâneas. 

  1. Association study of functional polymorphisms in interleukins and interleukin receptors genes: IL1A, IL1B, IL1RN, IL6, IL6R, IL10, IL10RA and TGFB1 in schizophrenia in Polish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelski, Pawel; Skibinska, Maria; Maciukiewicz, Malgorzata; Wilkosc, Monika; Frydecka, Dorota; Groszewska, Agata; Narozna, Beata; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Czerski, Piotr; Pawlak, Joanna; Rajewska-Rager, Aleksandra; Leszczynska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Slopien, Agnieszka; Zaremba, Dorota; Twarowska-Hauser, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Schizophrenia has been associated with a large range of autoimmune diseases, with a history of any autoimmune disease being associated with a 45% increase in risk for the illness. The inflammatory system may trigger or modulate the course of schizophrenia through complex mechanisms influencing neurodevelopment, neuroplasticity and neurotransmission. In particular, increases or imbalance in cytokine before birth or during the early stages of life may affect neurodevelopment and produce vulnerability to the disease. A total of 27 polymorphisms of IL1N gene: rs1800587, rs17561; IL1B gene: rs1143634, rs1143643, rs16944, rs4848306, rs1143623, rs1143633, rs1143627; IL1RN gene: rs419598, rs315952, rs9005, rs4251961; IL6 gene: rs1800795, rs1800797; IL6R gene: rs4537545, rs4845617, rs2228145, IL10 gene: rs1800896, rs1800871, rs1800872, rs1800890, rs6676671; IL10RA gene: rs2229113, rs3135932; TGF1B gene: rs1800469, rs1800470; each selected on the basis of molecular evidence for functionality, were investigated in this study. Analysis was performed on a group of 621 patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia and 531 healthy controls in Polish population. An association of rs4848306 in IL1B gene, rs4251961 in IL1RN gene, rs2228145 and rs4537545 in IL6R with schizophrenia have been observed. rs6676671 in IL10 was associated with early age of onset. Strong linkage disequilibrium was observed between analyzed polymorphisms in each gene, except of IL10RA. We observed that haplotypes composed of rs4537545 and rs2228145 in IL6R gene were associated with schizophrenia. Analyses with family history of schizophrenia, other psychiatric disorders and alcohol abuse/dependence did not show any positive findings. Further studies on larger groups along with correlation with circulating protein levels are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuroacantocitose: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TROIANO ANDRÉ R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos o caso de um paciente de 45 anos com neuroacantocitose. O paciente apresenta crises parciais complexas com automatismos e crises generalizadas tônico-clônicas, assim como distúrbios do movimento caracterizados por coréia do tronco e membros superiores, e discinesia orofacial. Os exames complementares revelam acantocitose de 11%, eletrencefalograma com foco irritativo no lobo temporal direito, creatino fosfoquinase sérica de 101 U/L e imagem de ressonância magnética com redução volumétrica e hiper-intensidade do sinal no núcleo caudado e putâmen bilateralmente.

  3. El caso de Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Koberstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En Latinoamérica, el análisis de las Políticas de Comunicación formales e informales es presentado como método empírico para investigar los procesos de democratización. Este método se aplicó en Guatemala (1986-1998 y ahora se estudian las perspectivas de poner en práctica políticas de comunicación formales dirigidas a la democratización de la comunicación. El artículo concluye constatando una transición sin democratización en el caso de Guatemala

  4. El caso de Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Koberstein

    2015-01-01

    En Latinoamérica, el análisis de las Políticas de Comunicación formales e informales es presentado como método empírico para investigar los procesos de democratización. Este método se aplicó en Guatemala (1986-1998) y ahora se estudian las perspectivas de poner en práctica políticas de comunicación formales dirigidas a la democratización de la comunicación. El artículo concluye constatando una transición sin democratización en el caso de Guatemala

  5. Picnodisostose: relato de dois casos

    OpenAIRE

    Quezado,Rosana; Montenegro Jr.,Renan M.; Araripe,Fabiana F. A.; Corrêa,Rafaela Vieira; Montenegro,Renan M.

    2003-01-01

    Picnodisostose (PYCD) é uma rara displasia esquelética autossômica recessiva, decorrente de defeito no gene codificador da enzima catepsina K, caracterizada por baixa estatura (BE), osteoesclerose, acroosteólise, deformidades crânio-faciais e fragilidade óssea. Embora a BE seja característica, deficiência de GH tem sido relatada apenas em parte dos casos de PYCD. Apresentamos dois casos isolados, com quadros clínico-radiológicos característicos. Caso 1: 9 anos, masculino, pais consangüíneos, ...

  6. IL-1 and IL-23 mediate early IL-17A production in pulmonary inflammation leading to late fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paméla Gasse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a devastating as yet untreatable disease. We demonstrated recently the predominant role of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β expression in the establishment of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mice. METHODS: The contribution of IL-23 or IL-17 in pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis was assessed using the bleomycin model in deficient mice. RESULTS: We show that bleomycin or IL-1β-induced lung injury leads to increased expression of early IL-23p19, and IL-17A or IL-17F expression. Early IL-23p19 and IL-17A, but not IL-17F, and IL-17RA signaling are required for inflammatory response to BLM as shown with gene deficient mice or mice treated with neutralizing antibodies. Using FACS analysis, we show a very early IL-17A and IL-17F expression by RORγt(+ γδ T cells and to a lesser extent by CD4αβ(+ T cells, but not by iNKT cells, 24 hrs after BLM administration. Moreover, IL-23p19 and IL-17A expressions or IL-17RA signaling are necessary to pulmonary TGF-β1 production, collagen deposition and evolution to fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the existence of an early IL-1β-IL-23-IL-17A axis leading to pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and identify innate IL-23 and IL-17A as interesting drug targets for IL-1β driven lung pathology.

  7. Nuevos casos de Paracoccidioidomicosis

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    J Casquero

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La paracoccidioidomicosis es causada por el hongo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Esta infección es crónica y usualmente asintomática en niños. La distribución geográfica está limitada a Centroamérica y América del Sur. En el presente estudio se describen las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de 06 casos confirmados de paracoccidioidomicosis por el Instituto Nacional de Salud. Se observó la presencia del hongo por examen directo y cultivo en muestras de biopsias, absceso, y aspirado de ganglio. Las pruebas de inmunodifusión fueron realizadas en muestras de sangre provenientes de 04 pacientes. Todos los pacientes proceden de zonas tropicales o semitropicales (Tingo María, Oxapampa, Pucallpa y Chanchamayo que tienen una precipitación media anual de 1500 mm/año, humedad relativa del 82%, temperatura anual de 28°C - 30°C y altura inferior a 1814 m.s.n.m. Las principales características sintomatológicas encontradas incluyen aumento del tamaño de ganglios y tuberculosis pulmonar. P. brasiliensis fue aislado en 2/6 pacientes y en 4/6 de los casos se observó la presencia de anticuerpos precipitantes por inmunodifusión. Se concluye que el 83% de los pacientes presentaron linfoadenopatias y el laboratorio permite confirmar el diagnóstico.

  8. Il governo integrato del sistema trasporti-territorio nell’area vasta MTB Metropoli Terra di Bari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Papa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available  L’articolo propone il caso di studio dell’area vasta Metropoli Terra di Bari, e in particolare descrive come nella redazione del Piano Strategico BA2015 e nel piano della mobilità di Area Vasta PUM sia stato affrontato il tema della mobilità. La redazione in parallelo e congiunto dei due strumenti di pianificazione, uno generale per il governo del territorio ed uno settoriale per il governo della mobilità costituisce una best practice in Italia di governo integrato trasporti-territorio. L’articolo descrive i contenuti ed il processo per la redazione degli strumenti, evidenziando i punti di forza e i punti di debolezza dell’intero iter decisionale.

  9. IL-35 and Autoimmunity: a Comprehensive Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jinjung; Leung, Patrick S C; Bowlus, Christopher; Gershwin, M Eric

    2015-12-01

    Interleukin 35 (IL-35) is the most recently identified member of the IL-12 family of cytokines and offers the potential to be a target for new therapies for autoimmune, inflammatory, and infectious diseases. Similar to other members of the IL-12 family including IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27, IL-35 is composed of a heterodimer of α and β chains, which in the case of IL-35 are the p35 and Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) proteins. However, unlike its proinflammatory relatives, IL-35 has immunosuppressive effects that are mediated through regulatory T and B cells. Although there are limited data available regarding the role of IL-35 in human autoimmunity, several murine models of autoimmunity suggest that IL-35 may have potent effects in regulating immunoreactivity via IL-10-dependent mechanisms. We suggest that similar effects are operational in human disease and IL-35-directed therapies hold significant promise. In particular, we emphasize that IL-35 has immunosuppressive ability that are mediated via regulatory T and B cells that are IL-10 dependent. Further, although deletion of IL-35 does not result in spontaneous breach of tolerance, recombinant IL-35 can improve autoimmune responses in several experimental models.

  10. Quantitative Contribution of IL2Rγ to the Dynamic Formation of IL2-IL2R Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Luis F; García-Martínez, Karina; León, Kalet

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL2) is a growth factor for several immune cells and its function depends on its binding to IL2Rs in the cell membrane. The most accepted model for the assembling of IL2-IL2R complexes in the cell membrane is the Affinity Conversion Model (ACM). This model postulates that IL2R receptor association is sequential and dependent on ligand binding. Most likely free IL2 binds first to IL2Rα, and then this complex binds to IL2Rβ, and finally to IL2Rγ (γc). However, in previous mathematical models representing this process, the binding of γc has not been taken into account. In this work, the quantitative contribution of the number of IL2Rγ chain to the IL2-IL2R apparent binding affinity and signaling is studied. A mathematical model of the affinity conversion process including the γ chain in the dynamic, has been formulated. The model was calibrated by fitting it to experimental data, specifically, Scatchard plots obtained using human cell lines. This paper demonstrates how the model correctly explains available experimental observations. It was estimated, for the first time, the value of the kinetic coefficients of IL2-IL2R complexes interaction in the cell membrane. Moreover, the number of IL2R components in different cell lines was also estimated. It was obtained a variable distribution in the number of IL2R components depending on the cell type and the activation state. Of most significance, the study predicts that not only the number of IL2Rα and IL2Rβ, but also the number of γc determine the capacity of the cell to capture and retain IL2 in signalling complexes. Moreover, it is also showed that different cells might use different pathways to bind IL2 as consequence of its IL2R components distribution in the membrane.

  11. Quantitative Contribution of IL2Rγ to the Dynamic Formation of IL2-IL2R Complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F Ponce

    Full Text Available Interleukin-2 (IL2 is a growth factor for several immune cells and its function depends on its binding to IL2Rs in the cell membrane. The most accepted model for the assembling of IL2-IL2R complexes in the cell membrane is the Affinity Conversion Model (ACM. This model postulates that IL2R receptor association is sequential and dependent on ligand binding. Most likely free IL2 binds first to IL2Rα, and then this complex binds to IL2Rβ, and finally to IL2Rγ (γc. However, in previous mathematical models representing this process, the binding of γc has not been taken into account. In this work, the quantitative contribution of the number of IL2Rγ chain to the IL2-IL2R apparent binding affinity and signaling is studied. A mathematical model of the affinity conversion process including the γ chain in the dynamic, has been formulated. The model was calibrated by fitting it to experimental data, specifically, Scatchard plots obtained using human cell lines. This paper demonstrates how the model correctly explains available experimental observations. It was estimated, for the first time, the value of the kinetic coefficients of IL2-IL2R complexes interaction in the cell membrane. Moreover, the number of IL2R components in different cell lines was also estimated. It was obtained a variable distribution in the number of IL2R components depending on the cell type and the activation state. Of most significance, the study predicts that not only the number of IL2Rα and IL2Rβ, but also the number of γc determine the capacity of the cell to capture and retain IL2 in signalling complexes. Moreover, it is also showed that different cells might use different pathways to bind IL2 as consequence of its IL2R components distribution in the membrane.

  12. Crystal structure of human cytomegalovirus IL-10 bound to soluble human IL-10R1

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Brandi C.; Logsdon, Naomi J.; Josephson, Kristopher; Cook, Jennifer; Barry, Peter A.; Walter, Mark R.

    2002-01-01

    Human IL-10 (hIL-10) modulates critical immune and inflammatory responses by way of interactions with its high- (IL-10R1) and low-affinity (IL-10R2) cell surface receptors. Human cytomegalovirus exploits the IL-10 signaling pathway by expressing a functional viral IL-10 homolog (cmvIL-10), which shares only 27% sequence identity with hIL-10 yet signals through IL-10R1 and IL-10R2. To define the molecular basis of this virus–host interaction, we determined the 2.7-Å crysta...

  13. Quiste retroperitoneal: Reporte de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Moisés Tineo Araque

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los quistes retroperitoneales son tumoraciones benignas o malignas originadas en el espacio retroperitoneal, la gran mayoría de ellos presentan características de benignidad, predominan en el sexo femenino y se clasifican fundamentalmente en base a su tejido de origen. El tratamiento depende de la histopatología, sin embargo la mayoría de los autores coinciden en realizar resección quirúrgica. Se presenta el caso de paciente femenina de 48 años de edad quien acude a consulta por presentar dolor persistente en hemiabdomen derecho, a la evaluación paraclínica con ultrasonido abdominal se evidenció tumor quístico en flanco derecho de 12 por 14 centímetros. La tomografía axial computarizada reportó imagen retroperitoneal que se extiende desde la fosa ilíaca derecha hasta hipocondrio derecho. Se realizó laparotomía exploradora, hallándose quiste de retroperitoneo de 15 por 20 centímetros con cápsula definida y de contenido líquido (de consistencia gelatinosa que se clasifica posteriormente como un hamartoma retroperitoneal. Debido a su baja incidencia, el conocimiento y estudio de este tipo de patología se ha visto truncada en la práctica médica, razón por la cual es de difícil diagnóstico trayendo como consecuencia que en muchos casos el paciente es ingresado a quirófano con un diagnóstico errado.

  14. IL-2/anti-IL-2 mAb immunocomplexes: A renascence of IL-2 in cancer immunotherapy?

    OpenAIRE

    Tomala, Jakub; Kovar, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The in vivo biological activity of IL-2 can be dramatically increased by complexing with anti-IL-2 mAb. Moreover, IL-2/anti-IL-2 mAb immunocomplexes selectively stimulate different subsets of immune cells, depending on the clone of anti-IL-2 mAb that is used. Thus, IL-2/S4B6 mAb complexes strongly stimulate CD122high populations, namely NK and memory CD8+ T cells. They also intermediately stimulate Treg cells. Conversely, IL-2/JES6.1 mAb immunocomplexes have no stimulatory activity for CD122h...

  15. Infezione da Borrelia burgdorferi: descrizione di un caso clinico atipico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Ciarrocchi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available La borreliosi o Malattia di Lyme (ML è una malattia infettiva multisistemica causata da una spirocheta, Borrelia burgdorferi, trasmessa dal morso di una zecca del genere Ixodes.Viene descritto il caso clinico di una ragazza di venti anni. In un soggiorno estivo sul Monte Amiata, in Toscana, la giovane notò un arrossamento della pelle al fianco sinistro del corpo. Non osservò presenza della zecca nella zona di presumibile inoculo, da cui si sviluppò un eritema migrante (EM ad andamento centrifugo, fino a raggiungere un diametro di circa 10 centimetri. Nei giorni successivi e durante il follow up non sono mai comparsi sintomi collaterali generali riferibili ad astenia, febbricola, artralgie, malessere, né a carico di organi bersaglio. Dopo circa due settimane, persistendo l’EM, sono stati eseguiti esami sierologici specifici per Borrelia burgdorferi. Al riscontro positivo dei test ELISA e western-blot IgG e IgM, il clnico ha prescritto terapia antibiotica a base di Amoxicillina 2g/die per 20 giorni.Dopo 8-10 giorni di terapia è avvenuta la scomparsa completa dell’eritema. Viene mostrato l’andamento dei test sierologici al momento della diagnosi e durante il follow up, per un periodo di circa cinque mesi.

  16. Quando il legislatore predilige un punto di vista etico/religioso: il caso del divieto di donazione dei gameti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Di Cosimo

    2013-06-01

    SOMMARIO: 1. Laicità – 2. Eguaglianza e pluralismo – 3. La questione – 4. Strategie: riformulazione – 5. Parallelo – 6. Strategie: minimizzazione – 7. Controvertibilità – 8. Norme – 9. Paternalismo.

  17. Il prezzo dei farmaci orfani in Italia: il caso di Citarabina Depot (DepoCyte® nella meningite linfomatosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orietta Zaniolo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Orphan drugs definition should be related to prevalence criteria. In Europe the prevalence criterion is 5/10.000. These drugs are called “orphans” because the pharmaceutical industry has little interest under normal market conditions in developing and marketing products intended for only a small number of patients. For this reason governments have emphasized the need for economic incentives to encourage drug companies to develop and market orphan drugs. Aim of this study is the analysis of the contributing factors involved in the price definition of orphan drugs in Italy, focusing on the case of DepoCyte®, a new orphan drug recently approved by the European Medicines Agency. DepoCyte® is a slow-release formulation of cytarabine designed for intrathecal administration in the treatment of neoplastic meningitis due to metastatic cancers. It maintains cytotoxic concentrations of free cytarabine in the cerebrospinal fluid for more than 14 days following a single injection. In two randomized clinical trials DepoCyte® was compared to standard formulation of cytarabine, showing a better time to neurologic progression and survival trend in favor of DepoCyte®, associated with an improved mean change about quality of life in Karnofsky performance score. The innovative technology and the efficacy of DepoCyte® allow to frame some interesting pharmacoeconomical consequences: the results of the present work showed that DepoCyte® is more expensive but also more effective than standard formulation, and the new formulation-correlated improvement in the patients’ quality of life seems to justify the difference between the costs of the two alternatives.

  18. MOLECULAR AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATIONS OF IL-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    In mammals, the IL-17 family of cytokines (IL-17A-F) has a very distinct expression pattern and a different biological function. IL-17 is mainly secreted by activated CD4+ T cells and has been implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. IL-17 has been shown to exert an important role in host...

  19. Il Sole, il genoma e Internet strumenti delle revoluzioni scientifiche

    CERN Document Server

    Dyson, Freeman J

    2000-01-01

    In queste appassionate conferenze «di soglia» Dyson si sporge sul domani con la visionarietà di un Verne o di un Wells, consapevole però di abbozzare «solo uno dei corsi possibili, tra i milioni di altri che il futuro potrà riservarci». Il nuovo trivio di forze rivoluzionarie che, secondo il modello di Dyson, muoverà lo sviluppo ha nomi noti a tutti, e disputati da molti: energia solare, ingegneria genetica, rete di comunicazione globale. Un loro utilizzo flessibile e sinergico arriverebbe a ridisegnare il paesaggio sociale del pianeta, facendo affluire verso aree depresse risorse ora concentrate in pochi paesi, e ridando vita ovunque all'economia di villaggio. La raccolta di energia da una fonte equidistribuita come la luce solare potrebbe infatti avvenire attraverso coltivazioni arboree manipolate genetica mente allo scopo, con costi sostenibili e senza pregiudizio della ecodiversità. Sia che guardi al prossimo futuro terrestre sia che contempli la prospettiva non troppo lontana di insediamenti uma...

  20. Il potere di Prometeo e il dovere di Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Picchetti

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Kant ci suggerisce qualcosa che Prometeo e il mito greco avevano già accennato. L'imperativo che pone freno al fare, è già in sé nel soggetto ed è per questo che egli che egli è responsabile delle proprie azioni, indipendentemente dalla legge scritta.

  1. Il progetto SISTER per il comune di Lignano Sabbiadoro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Poli

    2005-10-01

    Bonelli ha presentato il progetto sperimentale di sistema informatico per la gestione del territorio, che è in corso da circa un anno. Ecco la sintesi della relazione del Sistema Informativo Integrato Territoriale (SISTER realizzato da Politecnica.

  2. Il Dio dell'Eriugena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Magnavacca

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In un universo interpretato come sogno da decifrare, la metafisica è lo strumento, secondo Borges, con cui l’uomo tenta di rendere coerente questo sogno. Il pensiero di Eriugena è particolarmente affascinante per Borges, in quanto accetta la sfida della veritigine: un Dio che dal nulla della sua indeterminatezza dà luogo al mondo, dispiegandosi negli archetipi che popolano il sogno dell’universo. Una fantastica metafisica che allontana dall’uomo lo sgomento per la condanna alla propria individualità.

  3. Il programma dell'universo

    CERN Document Server

    Lloyd, Seth

    2006-01-01

    Da quando l'universo ha avuto inizio, ha cominciato a calcolare il proprio comportamento. All'inizio il computer-universo produceva strutture semplici, particelle elementari e leggi elementari della fisica; col passare del tempo ha processato "informazioni" sempre più complesse, producendo strutture sempre più intricate (galassie, stelle, pianeti), ma sempre secondo leggi semplici. Ogni cosa deve quindi la propria esistenza alla capacità intrinseca della materia e dell'energia di processare informazione. Se si decifrasse fino in fondo si potrebbe, con un computer quantistico di dimensioni ridotte, comprendere l'universo nel suo insieme.

  4. El caso Augusto Pinochet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Guerrero Mayorga

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available El autor de este artículo presenta de manera sucinta la responsabilidad penal individual, en Derecho Internacional, a través del caso Augusto Pinochet. La dicotomía entre la jurisdicción extraterritorial, con la jurisdicción territorial chilena, es resuelta al no acceder el Ministro del Interior británico, Jack Straw, a conceder la extradición del General Augusto Pinochet a España, por motivos humanitarios, regresando éste a Chile para ser juzgado por su juez natural una vez levantada su inmunidad. Se le acusa de ser autor intelectual y coautor de supuestos delitos, de 18 secuestros y 57 homicidios, perpetrados por la llamada "caravana de la muerte", una comitiva militar que recorrió el país en 1973, exterminando opositores al régimen de Pinochet, quien ha quedado bajo arresto domiciliario tras habérsele efectuado exámenes mentales y tomada su declaración indagatoria por el juez Juan Guzmán.

  5. Il tempo. Considerazioni psico-antropologiche

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Licari,; Ivan Formica

    2016-01-01

    La riflessione che proponiamo in questo focus nasce dalle stimolazioni degli articoli presenti in questo numero. Una premessa di tipo antropologico e psicologico per introdurre il lettore ai diversi contributi proposti. Una riflessione che considera, innanzitutto, il ruolo della cultura e il contesto dove si sviluppano le azioni umane. Nonché il significato del tempo e della sua misurazione che delinea la nozione di durata a partire dalla comparsa della clessidra, nonché il tempo psicologico ...

  6. Evaluation of the IL2/IL21, IL2RA and IL2RB genetic variants influence on the endogenous non-anterior uveitis genetic predisposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cénit, María Carmen; Márquez, Ana; Cordero-Coma, Miguel; Fonollosa, Alejandro; Adán, Alfredo; Martínez-Berriotxoa, Agustín; Llorenç, Victor; Díaz Valle, David; Blanco, Ricardo; Cañal, Joaquín; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel; García Serrano, José Luis; de Ramón, Enrique; del Rio, María José; Begoña Gorroño-Echebarría, Marina; Martín-Villa, José Manuel; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Martín, Javier

    2013-05-15

    Recently, different genetic variants located within the IL2/IL21 genetic region as well as within both IL2RA and IL2RB loci have been associated to multiple autoimmune disorders. We aimed to investigate for the first time the potential influence of the IL2/IL21, IL2RA and IL2RB most associated polymorphisms with autoimmunity on the endogenous non-anterior uveitis genetic predisposition. A total of 196 patients with endogenous non-anterior uveitis and 760 healthy controls, all of them from Caucasian population, were included in the current study. The IL2/IL21 (rs2069762, rs6822844 and rs907715), IL2RA (2104286, rs11594656 and rs12722495) and IL2RB (rs743777) genetic variants were genotyped using TaqMan® allelic discrimination assays. A statistically significant difference was found for the rs6822844 (IL2/IL21 region) minor allele frequency in the group of uveitis patients compared with controls (P(-value)=0.02, OR=0.64 CI 95%=0.43-0.94) although the significance was lost after multiple testing correction. Furthermore, no evidence of association with uveitis was detected for the analyzed genetic variants of the IL2RA or IL2RB loci. Our results indicate that analyzed IL2/IL21, IL2RA and IL2RB polymorphisms do not seem to play a significant role on the non-anterior uveitis genetic predisposition although further studies are needed in order to clear up the influence of these loci on the non-anterior uveitis susceptibility.

  7. IL-32 and IL-17 interact and have the potential to aggravate osteoclastogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Interleukin (IL)-32 and IL-17 play critical roles in pro-inflammatory responses and are highly expressed in the synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated the relations between these two cytokines (IL-17 and IL-32) for their ability to induce each other and to stimulate osteoclasts in RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) and T cells. Methods FLSs were isolated through surgical synovectomy obtained from patients with RA or osteoarthritis (OA). Real-time PCR were performed to evaluate the expression of IL-32, IL-17 and osteoclast-related genes. Immunohistochemical staining and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining were performed to determine the distribution of inflammatory cytokines and the presence of osteoclastogenesis. Results IL-17 induced the expression of IL-32 in the FLSs from RA patients, as assessed by microarray. IL-32 production was increased by IL-17. IL-32 in the FLSs from RA patients induced the production of IL-17 in CD4+ T cells. IL-32 and IL-17 were colocalized near TRAP-positive areas in joint specimens. IL-17 and IL-32 synergistically induced the differentiation of osteoclasts, as demonstrated by the expression of osteoclast-related genes. IL-32 and IL-17 also could induce resorption by osteoclasts in a RANKL-dependent manner. Conclusions IL-17 affected the expression of IL-32 in FLSs of RA patients and IL-32 induced the production of IL-17 in CD4+ T cells. Both IL-17 and IL-32 cytokines can reciprocally influence each other's production and amplify the function of osteoclastogenesis in the in RA synovium. Separately, IL-17 and IL-32 each stimulated osteoclastogenesis without RANKL. Together, the two cytokines synergistically amplified the differentiation of osteoclasts, independent of RANKL stimulation. PMID:23148681

  8. The role of cytokines in seizures: interleukin (IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-8, and IL-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngah Youn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain insults, including neurotrauma, infection, and perinatal injuries such as hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, generate inflammation in the brain. These inflammatory cascades induce a wide spectrum of cytokines, which can cause neuron degeneration, have neurotoxic effects on brain tissue, and lead to the development of seizures, even if they are subclinical and occur at birth. Cytokines are secreted by the glial cells of the central nervous system and they function as immune system mediators. Cytokines can be proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory. Interleukin (IL-1?#10273;nd IL-8 are proinflammatory cytokines that activate additional cytokine cascades and increase seizure susceptibility and organ damage, whereas IL-1 receptor antagonist and IL-10 act as anti-inflammatory cytokines that have protective and anticonvulsant effects. Therefore, the immune system and its associated inflammatory reactions appear to play an important role in brain damage. Whether cytokine release is relevant for the processes of epileptogenesis and antiepileptogenesis, and whether epileptogenesis could be prevented by immunomodulatory treatment should be addressed in future clinical studies. Furthermore, early detection of brain damage and early intervention are essential for the prevention of disease progression and further neurological complications. Therefore, cytokines might be useful as biomarkers for earlier detection of brain damage in high-risk infants.

  9. Brain IL-6 and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H; Alberts, I; Li, X

    2013-11-12

    Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, deficits in verbal and non-verbal communication, and repetitive behavior and restricted interests. Emerging evidence suggests that aberrant neuroimmune responses may contribute to phenotypic deficits and could be appropriate targets for pharmacologic intervention. Interleukin (IL)-6, one of the most important neuroimmune factors, has been shown to be involved in physiological brain development and in several neurological disorders. For instance, findings from postmortem and animal studies suggest that brain IL-6 is an important mediator of autism-like behaviors. In this review, a possible pathological mechanism behind autism is proposed, which suggests that IL-6 elevation in the brain, caused by the activated glia and/or maternal immune activation, could be an important inflammatory cytokine response involved in the mediation of autism-like behaviors through impairments of neuroanatomical structures and neuronal plasticity. Further studies to investigate whether IL-6 could be used for therapeutic interventions in autism would be of great significance. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of the Effects of IL9, IL9R, IL17A, and IL17F Gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reverse: 5'-TTGCCTCTCATCCCTCTCAT-3' for IL9. The primers for ... The reverse primer was designed in such a way to create a new restriction ... rs2069885 SNP, rs2275913 SNP, and rs763780 SNP affect disease susceptibility, association test was conducted using genotypic combinations of these four SNPs. A logistic.

  11. GIS integrated application of distribution models and risk index to analyse the environmental compatibility of pesticide. The Lombardy's region case history; Applicazione integrata in ambiente GIS di modelli di distribuzione e indici di rischio per l'analisi della compatibilita' ambientale di prodotti fitosanitari su base territoriale. Il caso della regione Lombardia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verro, R.; Sala, S.; Finizio, A. [Milan Univ. Bicocca, Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio; Auteri, D. [International Centre for Pesticide Safety, Busto Garolfo, MI (Italy)

    2001-10-01

    In this study the application of a methodology is proposed to assess the hazard and a risk's index for surface water due to pesticide use in agriculture. The work's aim is to evaluate the impact of nine molecules used in pre and post-emergence period on corn referring to the 77 principal rivers in the Lombardia region. The methodology is based on an integration of database, mathematical models of pesticide distribution and risks index, using Geographical Information System for managing models input data and results in a distributed way on the territory. Molecular properties, as chemical-physical and toxicological data of active ingredients, and environmental characteristics, as land use, crop distribution, meteorological data, hydrography, Digital Terrain Model, are stored in two distinct and elaborated to develop a realistic scenario of application. The tiered methodology allows to calculate the masses lost by drift and runoff, and the Predicted Environmental Concentration in water bodies, afterwards to assess the hazard and a risks index. Using GIS is possible to calculate and map the spatial distribution of results, underlining the importance of a synergic and integrated evaluation between the active ingredients and land characteristics. The results are useful to make a comparison between the active ingredients to draft a classification based on environmental sustainability of their use and to defense the aquatic ecosystem. [Italian] Nel presente lavoro viene illustrata l'applicazione di una metodologia per il calcolo e la mappatura di un indice di rischio per l'ecosistema acque superficiali, connesso all'utilizzo di prodotti fitoiatrici in agricoltura. Lo scopo di tale applicazione consiste nell'esaminare l'impatto dovuto a nove molecole utilizzate nei trattamenti in pre e post emergenza su mais, in relazione ai 77 principali corsi d'acqua della regione Lombardia. L'applicazione della metodologia prevede l

  12. Role of IL-38 and Its Related Cytokines in Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianli Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin- (IL- 38 is a recently discovered cytokine and is the tenth member of the IL-1 cytokine family. IL-38 shares structural features with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra and IL-36Ra. IL-36R is the specific receptor of IL-38, a partial receptor antagonist of IL-36. IL-38 inhibits the production of T-cell cytokines IL-17 and IL-22. IL-38 also inhibits the production of IL-8 induced by IL-36γ, thus inhibiting inflammatory responses. IL-38-related cytokines, including IL-1Ra and IL-36Ra, are involved in the regulation of inflammation and immune responses. The study of IL-38 and IL-38-related cytokines might provide new insights for developing anti-inflammatory treatments in the near future.

  13. y casos de estudios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Valenzuela Van Treek

    2006-01-01

    latinoamericanas, adentrándose en las problemáticas de la más relevantes, así como reflexionar sobre el presente de ellas, tomando para esto algunos casos de estudio.. “En el caso de las áreas metropolitanas, la concentración y el crecimiento de las grandes ciudades con fenómenos de nuevas barriadas, de municipios limítrofes y de ciudades dormitorios, dentro o fuera del término de la gran ciudad, demandan soluciones administrativas de conjunto que superen los esquemas municipales tradicionales” (Barrero, 1993. Esto lleva a definir el problema de estudio de como la aglomeración de población en áreas superiores a las ciudades tradicionales en América Latina, constituyen formas diferentes a los planos nacionales y municipales, por lo que urge crear condiciones para el bienestar de sus ciudadanos. Es necesario para esto, el comprender el sistema político de manera dinámica y variable, el cual esta íntimamente ligado a la constitución a la deriva estructural de las sociedades, pero sobretodo al gobierno de la ciudad, elemento fundante de la civilización occidental en la cual estamos situados.

  14. MEXCODE* CASO DE ESTUDIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Arturo García Gómez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El caso plantea la reactivación de un proyecto que se presentó en el año 1995 como alternativa para el desarrollo del centro del Valle y mejora de la eficiencia en el manejo del comercio exterior de la Cuenca Pacífica. El proyecto se revivió a raíz de la necesidad de la compañía patrocinadora de mejorar sus flujos de caja proyectados y la reciente autorización para su funcionamiento. El proyecto es el popularmente denominado “Puerto Seco” de la ciudad de Guadalajara de Buga, internamente nombrado Mexcode. Los estudios iniciales estaban encaminados a que el proyecto fuera manejado por el municipio de Buga, sin embargo, posteriormente se vio la necesidad de buscar que pasara a manos de la empresa privada. El municipio, después de analizar las propuestas de varios inversionistas de la región en las cuales se evaluaba la ubicación dentro de la zona de los predios de sus empresas, su área, proximidad a la línea férrea y a la doble calzada Buga-Tuluá (sitio de paso del 80% de la carga de importación y exportación por Buenaventura y evaluar aspectos relativos a su trayectoria empresarial y compromiso con el desarrollo de la región, decidió otorgarle el proyecto al Grupo Empresarial Agri-Supplies S.A.

  15. COMENTARIO AL CASO PINOCHET

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    Alberto Contreras Clunes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El fallo en el caso Pinochet tiene distintas formas de ser analizado. De partida, desde un punto de vista político, también constitucional, del derecho penal. Sin embargo, nos abocaremos al estudio desde el punto de vista procesal, en especial a lo referido al Debido Proceso. Para ello se analizará los presupuestos, la solución dada por la Excma. Corte Suprema y las consecuencias del mismo. Además, se criticará la solución dada, desde la óptica de las garantías procesales del imputado, contenidas en el nuevo proceso penal y lo dispuesto en la Constitución y la Convención Americana de Derechos Humanos. Finalmente, se argumentará en favor de una interpretación finalista y armónica de la Constitución y los tratados internacionales de derechos humanos.The verdict of the Pinochet Case has different ways of being analyzed: from the political, the constitutional, and the penal law points of view. However, we will approach this study from the legal point of view, especially to that referred to as the Proper Process. To do this, the budgets, the solution given by the Most Excellent Supreme Court, and its consequences will be analyzed. Furthermore, the given solution will be criticized from the point of view of the legal guarantees of the accused contained in the new penal process and what is contained in the Constitution and in the American Convention of Human Rights. In conclusion, we will argue in favor of a final and harmonious interpretation of the Constitution and the international agreement of human rights.

  16. El caso Moro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Hernández Chinarro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se cumple el trigésimo tercer aniversario del secuestro y asesinato de Aldo Moro, todavía persisten muchos interrogantes sobre el caso. La historiografía de los últimos 20 años ha explicado la muerte de Moro como un hecho ineludible. La ratificación del Compromiso Histórico presentada por Berlinguer determinó que la CIA organizase una acción punitiva cuya finalidad era la eliminación física de Moro. El presente artículo intenta desmitificar el papel jugado por los servicios secretos norteamericanos y centra su atención en las Brigadas, planteando una nueva hipótesis para entender que ocurrió durante esos 55 días y que determinó la muerte de MoroPalabras claves: Aldo Moro, Brigadas Rojas, Italia, 1978, Democracia Cristiana, Mario Moretti, Estados Unidos _________________________AbstractUpon completion of the thirty-third anniversary the kidnapping and murder of Aldo Moro, there are still many questions about the case. The historiography of the last 20 years explained Moro's death as an inescapable fact. Ratification of Historic Commitment by Berlinguer determined that the CIA organize a punitive action was aimed at the physical elimination of Moro. This article attempts to demystify the role played by the U.S. secret services and focuses on the Brigades, proposing a new hypothesis to understand what happened during those 55 days and determined the death of Moro.Keywords: Aldo Moro, Red Brigades, Italy, 1978, Christian democracy,  Mario Moretti, United States

  17. Studio caso-controllo multicentrico su distacco di retina e movimentazione manuale di carichi

    OpenAIRE

    Zanardi, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Obiettivo Valutare l’ipotesi secondo cui la movimentazione manuale di carichi possa essere un fattore di rischio per il di distacco di retina. Metodi Si è condotto uno studio caso-controllo ospedaliero multicentrico, a Bologna, (reparto di Oculistica del policlinico S. Orsola Malpighi, Prof. Campos), e a Brescia (reparto di oculistica “Spedali Civili” Prof. Semeraro). I casi sono 104 pazienti operati per distacco di retina. I controlli sono 173 pazienti reclutati tra l’utenza degli ambulatori...

  18. Altered expression of cytokines IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α in bovine follicular persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassi, A F; Baravalle, M E; Belotti, E M; Rey, F; Gareis, N C; Díaz, P U; Rodríguez, F M; Leiva, C J; Ortega, H H; Salvetti, N R

    2017-07-15

    In dairy cattle, cystic ovarian disease (COD) is an important cause of subfertility, and two of the main signs are ovulation failure and follicular persistence. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the cytokines IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α in ovarian follicular structures at different times of persistence in a model of follicular persistence induced by prolonged treatment with progesterone in dairy cows. Protein expression of IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, IL-6 concentration in follicular fluid and serum was determined by ELISA. IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α expression was increased in follicles with different persistence times in relation to the control dominant follicles, in granulosa cells. For IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α, this increase was detected early (P0: expected time of ovulation and/or P5: 5 days of follicular persistence). Additionally, theca cells showed an increase in IL-6 in antral (groups P10 and P15) and persistent follicles (group P10) related to dominant follicles from the control group (p cows (p cows is concurrent with altered expression of these cytokines in different ovarian follicular structures and may contribute to the follicular persistence and endocrine changes found in cattle with follicular cysts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Elevated levels of circulating IL-7 and IL-15 in patients with early stage prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachmann Alexander

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic inflammation has been suggested to favour prostate cancer (PCA development. Interleukins (IL represent essential inflammation mediators. IL-2, IL-7, IL-15 and IL-21, sharing a common receptor γ chain (c-γ, control T lymphocyte homeostasis and proliferation and play major roles in regulating cancer-immune system interactions. We evaluated local IL-2, IL-7, IL-15 and IL-21 gene expression in prostate tissues from patients with early stage PCA or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. As control, we used IL-6 gene, encoding an IL involved in PCA progression. IL-6, IL-7 and IL-15 titres were also measured in patients' sera. Methods Eighty patients with BPH and 79 with early (1 to 2c stage PCA were enrolled. Gene expression in prostate tissues was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Serum IL concentrations and acute phase protein titres were evaluated by ELISA. Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon and χ2 tests were used to compare IL gene expression and serum titers in the two groups of patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were constructed to evaluate the possibility to distinguish sera from different groups of patients based on IL titers. Results IL-2 and IL-21 gene expression was comparably detectable, with low frequency and at low extents, in PCA and BPH tissues. In contrast, IL-6, IL-7 and IL-15 genes were expressed more frequently (p Conclusions Expression IL-7 and IL-15 genes in prostate tissues and corresponding serum titres are significantly increased in patients with early stage PCA as compared with patients with BPH.

  20. Neuroblastomicose: registro de três casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrenfried O. Wittig

    1968-03-01

    Full Text Available São relatados três casos de neuroblastomicose de sintomatologia variada (urna forma tumoral cerebelar, urna forma abscedante troncular e cerebral e urna forma granulomatosa difusa. No caso da forma tumoral cerebelar havia associação com cisticercose cerebral. Alterações medulares não foram evidenciadas no único caso em que foi possível examinar êste setor do sistema nervoso central (caso 2.

  1. Aloin Inhibits Interleukin (IL)-1β-Stimulated IL-8 Production in KB Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hee Sam; Song, Yu Ri; Kim, Seyeon; Heo, Jun-Young; Chung, Hae-Young; Chung, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1β, which is elevated in oral diseases including gingivitis, stimulates epithelial cells to produce IL-8 and perpetuate inflammatory responses. This study investigates stimulatory effects of salivary IL-1β in IL-8 production and determines if aloin inhibits IL-1β-stimulated IL-8 production in epithelial cells. Saliva was collected from volunteers to determine IL-1β and IL-8 levels. Samples from volunteers were divided into two groups: those with low and those with high IL-1β levels. KB cells were stimulated with IL-1β or saliva with or without IL-1 receptor agonist or specific mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors. IL-8 production was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). MAPK protein expression involved in IL-1β-induced IL-8 secretion was detected by Western blot. KB cells were pretreated with aloin, and its effect on IL-1β-induced IL-8 production was examined by ELISA and Western blot analysis. Saliva with high IL-1β strongly stimulated IL-8 production in KB cells, and IL-1 receptor agonist significantly inhibited IL-8 production. Low IL-1β-containing saliva did not increase IL-8 production. IL-1β treatment of KB cells induced activation of MAPK signaling molecules as well as nuclear factor-kappa B. IL-1β-induced IL-8 production was decreased by p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor treatment. Aloin pretreatment inhibited IL-1β-induced IL-8 production in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited activation of the p38 and ERK signaling pathway. Finally, aloin pretreatment also inhibited saliva-induced IL-8 production. Results indicated that IL-1β in saliva stimulates epithelial cells to produce IL-8 and that aloin effectively inhibits salivary IL-1β-induced IL-8 production by mitigating the p38 and ERK pathway. Therefore, aloin may be a good candidate for modulating oral inflammatory diseases.

  2. IL-15-Induced IL-10 Increases the Cytolytic Activity of Human Natural Killer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Ju Yeong; Lee, Suk Hyung; Yoon, Suk-Ran; Park, Young-Jun; Jung, Haiyoung; Kim, Tae-Don; Choi, Inpyo

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates diverse functions of immune cells. Natural killer (NK) cells express the IL-10 and IL-10 receptor, but little is known about the function of IL-10 on NK cell activation. In this study, we show the expression and role of IL-10 in human NK cells. Among the cytokines tested, IL-15 was the most potent inducer of IL-10, with a maximal peak expression at 5 h after treatment. Furthermore, IL-10 receptor was shown to be expressed in ...

  3. Identification and Characterization of a Novel IL-4 Receptor α Chain (IL-4Rα Antagonist to Inhibit IL-4 Signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayyar Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In recent times, allergy has become a financial, physical and psychological burden to the society as a whole. In allergic cascades, cytokine IL-4 binds to IL-4 receptor (IL-4R, consequently producing allergen-specific IgE antibodies by B cells. In addition, among other functions, IL-4 is also responsible for B and T cell proliferation and differentiation. Hence, characterization of novel antagonists that inhibit IL-4 signalling forms the overall aim of this study. Methods: Phage display was used to screen a random 12-mer synthetic peptide library with a human IL-4Rα to identify peptide candidates. Once identified, the peptides were commercially synthesized and used for in vitro immunoassays. Results: We have successfully used phage display to identify M13 phage clones that demonstrated specific binding to IL-4Rα. The peptide N1 was synthesized for use in ELISA, demonstrating significant binding to IL-4Rα and inhibiting interaction with cytokine IL-4. Furthermore, the peptide was tested in a transfected HEK-Blue IL-4 reporter cell line model, which produces alkaline phosphatase (AP. QUANTI-Blue, a substrate, breaks down in the presence of AP producing a blue coloration. Using this colorimetric analysis, >50% inhibition of IL-4 signalling was achieved. Conclusion: We have successfully identified and characterised a synthetic peptide antagonist against IL-4Rα, which effectively inhibits IL-4 interaction with the IL-4Rα in vitro. Since IL-4 interaction with IL-4Rα is a common pathway for many allergies, a prophylactic treatment can be devised by inhibiting this interaction for future treatment of allergies.

  4. Tumorigenicity of IL-1α- and IL-1β-Deficient Fibrosarcoma Cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarenko, Irina; Marhaba, Rachid; Reich, Eli; Voronov, Elena; Vitacolonna, Mario; Hildebrand, Dagmar; Elter, Elena; Rajasagi, Mohini; Apte, Ron N; Zöller, Margot

    2008-01-01

    Analyzing the growth of fibrosarcoma lines derived from IL-1α-, IL-1β- , or IL-1αβ-knockout (-/-) mice in the immunocompetent host revealed that tumor-derived IL-1α and IL-1β exert strong and opposing effects on immune response induction, which prohibited the evaluation of a potential impact on tumorigenicity. Therefore, in vivo growth of IL-1-deficient tumor lines was evaluated in nu/nu mice and was compared with in vitro growth characteristics. All IL-1-deficient fibrosarcoma lines grow in immunocompromised mice. However, IL-1α-/-β-competent (comp) lines grow more aggressively, efficiently induce angiogenesis, and recruit inflammatory cells. Despite stronger tumorigenicity of IL-1βcomp lines, IL-1α strengthens anchorage-independent growth, but both IL-1α and IL-1β support drug resistance. Corresponding to the aggressive growth, IL-1βcomp cells display increased matrix adhesion, motility, and cable formation on matrigel, likely supported by elevated αv/β3 and matrix metalloroteinase expression. Recruitment of myeloid cells requires IL-1β but is regulated by IL-1α, because inflammatory chemokine and cytokine expression is stronger in IL-1α-/-βcomp than in IL-1wt lines. This regulatory effect of tumor-derived IL-1α is restricted to the tumor environment and does not affect systemic inflammatory response induction by tumor-derived IL-1β. Both sarcoma cell-derived IL-1α and IL-1β promote tumor growth. However, IL-1α exerts regulatory activity on the tumor cell-matrix cross-talk, and only IL-1β initiates systemic inflammation. PMID:18516292

  5. Il cambiamento in psicoterapia psicoanalitica

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    Valentina Tramis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Quali sono i criteri in riferimento ai quali è possibile parlare di cambiamento in psicoterapia psicoanalitica? Cosa lo determina? Quali sono i meccanismi coinvolti nel processo? Per rispondere a queste domande occorre accordarsi su cosa si intenda per cambiamento. Si parla di cambiamento, infatti, sia in riferimento all'esito finale del percorso psicoterapico che relativamente alle modificazioni e agli obiettivi che caratterizzano il processo in itinere. Intendendolo l'esito di una serie di modificazioni strutturali, durature nel tempo, esso si produce attraverso il contributo di numerose variabili tecniche e teoriche, tutte inserite in una logica bi-personale: dalla lettura della modalità relazionale del paziente quale derivato dei Modelli Operativi Interni, all'interiorizzazione di una nuova esperienza relazionale, dal ruolo giocato dall'alleanza terapeutica quale premessa ed esito del lavoro psicoterapico, all'interpretazione e agli interventi del continuum supportivo-espressivo etc. In questa direzione il concetto di cambiamento, nel promuovere una presa di coscienza circa le modalità relazionali che avrebbero determinato la richiesta di intervento psicologico, starebbe per l'acquisizione, da parte della persona, degli strumenti necessari a massimizzare l'espressione di sé e la valorizzazione della propria autonomia e risorse, ai fini del raggiungimento di un più funzionale adattamento all'ambiente, proprio di una condizione di benessere e di un atteggiamento ad essa orientato.

  6. Involvement of IL17A, IL17F and IL23R Polymorphisms in Colorectal Cancer Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Omrane

    Full Text Available IL23/IL17 pathway plays an important role in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. In general, the genes encoding the cytokines are genetically polymorphic and polymorphisms in genes IL23R and IL17 have been proved to be associated with its susceptibility to inflammatory diseases as well as cancer including colorectal cancer. Moreover, it has been shown that these interleukins are involved in anti-tumor or pro-tumor effects of various cancers. Previously, we showed that there is a significant association between IL17A, IL17F and IL23R polymorphisms as well as the occurrence of colorectal cancer and the clinical features of the disease. The purpose of the present work is to investigate an association between IL17A, IL17F and IL23R polymorphisms in 102 Tunisian patients with colorectal cancer treatment. The association was analyzed by statistical tools. We found that patients with mutated genotypes of IL17A G197A SNP could be a risk factor for the inefficiency of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Unlike IL17F variant, patients with wild type genotypes require surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. On the one hand, we found no evidence that supports a significant association between IL23R polymorphism and the combined genotypes of these three genes and the colorectal cancer treatment. On the other hand, we showed that there is an important interaction between IL17A/IL17F polymorphisms and the stage of the disease as well as its treatment. Finally, patients with IL17F wild type genotype highlighted that there is a valid longer OS without all treatments and with radiotherapy and a neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In contrast, we observed that there are no relationships between IL17A, IL23R and the survival of these patients neither with nor without the treatment. Our results suggest that polymorphisms in IL17A and IL17F genes may be a predictive source of colorectal cancer therapy type. Therefore, IL17F may serve as an independent prognostic factor

  7. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) Regulates the Accessibility of the IL-2-Responsive Enhancer in the IL-2 Receptor α Gene to Transcription Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Rusterholz, Corinne; Henrioud, Patricia Corthésy; Nabholz, Markus

    1999-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) responsiveness of T lymphocytes is controlled through transcription of the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) α subunit by antigen and by IL-2 itself. IL-2 induces IL-2Rα transcription via an IL-2-responsive enhancer (IL-2rE), whose activity depends on the cooperative binding of IL-2-induced STAT5 to two sites and of constitutively active Elf-1 to a third one. Here we describe the changes in IL-2rE chromatin that occur in normal T lymphocytes upon activation of IL-2Rα expression. In c...

  8. Prototecosis Informe de tres casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guzmán

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan tres casos clínicos de prototecosis vistos y estudiados en el lnstituto Nacional de Salud. Uno corresponde a la forma tegumentaria y los otros dos a formas de bursitis del olécranon. Se discuten los aspectos biológicos, clínicos y de laboratorio de esta rara entidad causada por algas.

  9. IL-1: discoveries, controversies and future directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinarello, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Although there has been a great amount of progress in the 25 years since the first reporting of the cDNA for IL-1alpha and IL-1beta, the history of IL-1 goes back to the early 1940s. In fact, the entire field of inflammatory cytokines, TLR and the innate immune response can be found in the story of

  10. Il Generale e il professore. Roma-Lubiana 1942

    OpenAIRE

    Sala, Teodoro

    2004-01-01

    Durante l'estate del 1942 l'XI Corpo d'armata scatenò la sua offensiva mettendo a ferro e fuoco la Slovenia annessa. Fungeva da vademecum la circolare di Roatta: esecuzioni sommarie anche collettive, incendio di centri abitati, deportazione di nuclei sempre più consistenti di civili, distruzione di opere pubbliche, requisizioni di bestiame e derrate, furono all'ordine del giorno. Impegnati nelle operazioni sessantamila soldati di quattro divisioni più complementi. Il comandante del Corpo d'ar...

  11. IL-25 or IL-17E protects against high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis in mice dependent upon IL-13 activation of STAT6

    Science.gov (United States)

    IL-25 is a member of IL-17 cytokine family and has immune-modulating activities. The role of IL-25 in maintaining lipid metabolic homeostasis remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous IL-25 or deficiency of IL-25 on lipid accumulation in the liver. Mice were injected with IL-25...

  12. Cord Blood Cells Responses to IL2, IL7 and IL15 Cytokines for mTOR Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadian, Anahita; Naderali, Elahe; Mohammadi, Seyedeh Momeneh; Movasaghpour, Aliakbar; Valipour, Behnaz; Nouri, Mohammad; Nozad Charoudeh, Hojjatollah

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)is important in hematopoiesis and affect cell growth,differentiation and survival. Although previous studies were identified the effect of cytokines on the mononuclear cells development however the cytokines effect on mTOR in cord blood mononuclear cells was unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate mTOR expression in cord blood mononuclear and cord blood stem cells (CD34+ cells) in culture conditions for lymphoid cell development. Methods: Isolation of The mononuclear cells (MNCs) from umbilical cord blood were done with use of Ficollpaque density gradient. We evaluated cultured cord blood mononuclear and CD34+ cells in presece of IL2, IL7 and IL15 at distinct time points during 21 days by using flow cytometry. In this study, we presented the role of IL2, IL7 and IL15 on the expression of mTOR in cord blood cells. Results: mTOR expression were increased in peresence of IL2, IL7 and IL15 in day 14 and afterword reduced. However in persence of IL2 and IL15 expression of mTOR significantly reduced. mTOR expression in CD34+ cells decreased significantly from day7 to day 21 in culture. Conclusion: cytokines play important role in mTOR expression during hematopoiesis and development of cord blood mononuclear cells.

  13. Cord Blood Cells Responses to IL2, IL7 and IL15 Cytokines for mTOR Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Mohammadian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORis important in hematopoiesis and affect cell growth,differentiation and survival. Although previous studies were identified the effect of cytokines on the mononuclear cells development however the cytokines effect on mTOR in cord blood mononuclear cells was unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate mTOR expression in cord blood mononuclear and cord blood stem cells (CD34+ cells in culture conditions for lymphoid cell development. Methods: Isolation of The mononuclear cells (MNCs from umbilical cord blood were done with use of Ficollpaque density gradient. We evaluated cultured cord blood mononuclear and CD34+ cells in presece of IL2, IL7 and IL15 at distinct time points during 21 days by using flow cytometry. In this study, we presented the role of IL2, IL7 and IL15 on the expression of mTOR in cord blood cells. Results: mTOR expression were increased in peresence of IL2, IL7 and IL15 in day 14 and afterword reduced. However in persence of IL2 and IL15 expression of mTOR significantly reduced. mTOR expression in CD34+ cells decreased significantly from day7 to day 21 in culture. Conclusion: cytokines play important role in mTOR expression during hematopoiesis and development of cord blood mononuclear cells.

  14. IL-23 Limits the Production of IL-2 and Promotes Autoimmunity in Lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hong; He, Fan; Tsokos, George C; Kyttaris, Vasileios C

    2017-08-01

    The IL-23/IL-17 pathway is important in multiple autoimmune diseases, but its effect on lupus pathology remains unclear, with opposing trials in murine models of the disease. In this study, we show a disease activity-related upregulation of serum IL-23 and IL-23 receptor in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) as compared with healthy controls. When added in SLE T cell in vitro cultures, IL-23 induced IL-17 and limited IL-2 production, whereas T follicular helper and double negative (DN) T cells significantly expanded. To further dissect the role of IL-23 in the expression of autoimmunity and related pathology, we generated IL-23 receptor-deficient MRL.lpr mice. These IL-23R-/-MRL.lpr mice displayed attenuated lupus nephritis with a striking decrease in the accumulation of DN T cells in the kidneys and secondary lymphoid organs. Moreover, T cells from IL-23R-/-MRL.lpr mice produced increased amounts of IL-2 and reduced amounts of IL-17 compared with T cells from wild type animals. In vitro IL-23 treatment promoted IL-17 production and downregulated IL-2 production. The IL-23R-/-MRL.lpr had fewer T follicular helper cells, B cells, and plasma cells, leading to decreased production of anti-dsDNA Abs. Our results show that IL-23 accounts for the main aspects of human and murine lupus including the expansion of DN T cells, decreased IL-2, and increased IL-17 production. We propose that blockade of IL-23 should have a therapeutic value in patients with SLE. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. Role of interleukin-23 (IL-23) receptor signaling for IL-17 responses in human Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosting, Marije; ter Hofstede, Hadewych; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Sturm, Patrick; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; van der Meer, Jos W M; Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B

    2011-11-01

    Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is known to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of T helper 17 cells. It has been previously demonstrated that IL-17 is involved in experimental Lyme arthritis, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria. However, the precise role of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) for the B. burgdorferi-induced IL-17 responses or human Lyme disease has not yet been elucidated. IL-23R single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11209026 was genotyped using the TaqMan assay. Functional studies were performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and cytokines were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Dose-dependent production of IL-23 and IL-17 by B. burgdorferi could be observed. Interestingly, when IL-23 bioactivity was inhibited by a specific antibody against IL-23p19, IL-17 production was significantly downregulated. In contrast, production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) was not affected after the blockade of IL-23 activity. Moreover, individuals bearing a single nucleotide polymorphism in the IL-23R gene (Arg381Gln) produced significantly less IL-17 after B. burgdorferi stimulation compared with that of the individuals bearing the wild type. Despite lower IL-17 production, the IL-23R gene polymorphism did not influence the development of chronic Lyme disease in a cohort of patients with Lyme disease. This study demonstrates that IL-23R signaling is needed for B. burgdorferi-induced IL-17 production in vitro and that an IL-23R gene SNP leads to impaired IL-17 production. However, the IL-23R gene polymorphism is not crucial for the pathogenesis of chronic Lyme.

  16. New insights in the immunobiology of IL 1 family members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Van De Veerdonk

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The interleukin-1 (IL 1 family of ligands is associated with acute and chronic inflammation, and plays an essential role in the non-specific innate response to infection. The biological properties of IL 1 family ligands are typically pro-inflammatory. The IL 1 family has 11 family members and can be catagorized into subfamilies according to the length of their precursor and the length of the propiece for each precursor (Figure 1. The IL 1 subfamily consists of IL 1α, IL 1β and IL 33, with the longest propieces of the IL 1 family. IL 18 and IL 37 belong to the IL 18 subfamily and contain smaller propieces then IL 1 and IL-33. Since IL 37 binds to the IL 18Rα chain it is part of the IL 18 subfamily, however it remains to be elucidated how the propiece of IL 37 is removed. IL 36α, β and γ as well as IL 36 Ra belong to the IL 36 subfamily. In addition, IL 38 likely belongs to this family since it has the ability to the IL 36R. The IL 36 subfamily has the shortest propiece. The one member of the IL 1 family that cannot be catagorized in these subfamilies is IL 1 receptor antagonist (IL 1Ra, which has a signal peptide and is readily secreted. In the present review we will describe the biological functions of the IL-1F members and new insights in their biology.

  17. Role of interleukin-23 (IL-23) receptor signaling for IL-17 responses in human Lyme disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, M.; Hofstede, H.J.M. ter; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Sturm, P.D.J.; Kullberg, B.J.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is known to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of T helper 17 cells. It has been previously demonstrated that IL-17 is involved in experimental Lyme arthritis, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria. However, the precise role of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R)

  18. Structure of IL-22 Bound to Its High-Affinity IL-22R1 Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B.C.; Logsdon, N.J.; Walter, M.R. (UAB)

    2008-09-29

    IL-22 is an IL-10 family cytokine that initiates innate immune responses against bacterial pathogens and contributes to immune disease. IL-22 biological activity is initiated by binding to a cell-surface complex composed of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains and further regulated by interactions with a soluble binding protein, IL-22BP, which shares sequence similarity with an extracellular region of IL-22R1 (sIL-22R1). IL-22R1 also pairs with the IL-20R2 chain to induce IL-20 and IL-24 signaling. To define the molecular basis of these diverse interactions, we have determined the structure of the IL-22/sIL-22R1 complex. The structure, combined with homology modeling and surface plasmon resonance studies, defines the molecular basis for the distinct affinities and specificities of IL-22 and IL-10 receptor chains that regulate cellular targeting and signal transduction to elicit effective immune responses.

  19. Phoenix : Complex Adaptive System of Systems (CASoS) engineering version 1.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Thomas W.; Quach, Tu-Thach; Detry, Richard Joseph; Conrad, Stephen Hamilton; Kelic, Andjelka; Starks, Shirley J.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Sunderland, Daniel J.; Mitchell, Michael David; Ames, Arlo Leroy; Maffitt, S. Louise; Finley, Patrick D.; Russell, Eric Dean; Zagonel, Aldo A.; Reedy, Geoffrey E.; Mitchell, Roger A.; Corbet, Thomas Frank, Jr.; Linebarger, John Michael

    2011-08-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex ecological, sociological, economic and/or technical systems which we must understand to design a secure future for the nation and the world. Perturbations/disruptions in CASoS have the potential for far-reaching effects due to pervasive interdependencies and attendant vulnerabilities to cascades in associated systems. Phoenix was initiated to address this high-impact problem space as engineers. Our overarching goals are maximizing security, maximizing health, and minimizing risk. We design interventions, or problem solutions, that influence CASoS to achieve specific aspirations. Through application to real-world problems, Phoenix is evolving the principles and discipline of CASoS Engineering while growing a community of practice and the CASoS engineers to populate it. Both grounded in reality and working to extend our understanding and control of that reality, Phoenix is at the same time a solution within a CASoS and a CASoS itself.

  20. Complex Adaptive System of Systems (CASoS) Engineering Applications. Version 1.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linebarger, John Michael; Maffitt, S. Louise (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Albuquerque, NM); Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brown, Theresa Jean; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2011-10-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex eco-socio-economic-technical systems which we must understand to design a secure future for the nation and the world. Perturbations/disruptions in CASoS have the potential for far-reaching effects due to highly-saturated interdependencies and allied vulnerabilities to cascades in associated systems. The Phoenix initiative approaches this high-impact problem space as engineers, devising interventions (problem solutions) that influence CASoS to achieve specific aspirations. CASoS embody the world's biggest problems and greatest opportunities: applications to real world problems are the driving force of our effort. We are developing engineering theory and practice together to create a discipline that is grounded in reality, extends our understanding of how CASoS behave, and allows us to better control those behaviors. Through application to real-world problems, Phoenix is evolving CASoS Engineering principles while growing a community of practice and the CASoS engineers to populate it.

  1. Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems (CASoS) engineering and foundations for global design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Nancy S.; Finley, Patrick D.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brown, Theresa Jean; Linebarger, John Michael; Moore, Thomas W.; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Maffitt, S. Louise; Mitchell, Michael David; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2012-01-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex ecological, sociological, economic and/or technical systems which must be recognized and reckoned with to design a secure future for the nation and the world. Design within CASoS requires the fostering of a new discipline, CASoS Engineering, and the building of capability to support it. Towards this primary objective, we created the Phoenix Pilot as a crucible from which systemization of the new discipline could emerge. Using a wide range of applications, Phoenix has begun building both theoretical foundations and capability for: the integration of Applications to continuously build common understanding and capability; a Framework for defining problems, designing and testing solutions, and actualizing these solutions within the CASoS of interest; and an engineering Environment required for 'the doing' of CASoS Engineering. In a secondary objective, we applied CASoS Engineering principles to begin to build a foundation for design in context of Global CASoS

  2. Il tempo. Considerazioni psico-antropologiche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Licari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La riflessione che proponiamo in questo focus nasce dalle stimolazioni degli articoli presenti in questo numero. Una premessa di tipo antropologico e psicologico per introdurre il lettore ai diversi contributi proposti. Una riflessione che considera, innanzitutto, il ruolo della cultura e il contesto dove si sviluppano le azioni umane. Nonché il significato del tempo e della sua misurazione che delinea la nozione di durata a partire dalla comparsa della clessidra, nonché il tempo psicologico riferibile più direttamente ai contributi che compaiono in questo numero.

  3. Biological significance of soluble IL-2 receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Caruso

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A NUMBER of receptors for growth factors and differentiation antigens have been found to be secreted or released by cells. Following mononuclear cell (MNC activation and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R expression, a soluble form of the Alpha;-chain of IL-2R (sIL-2R is released. The sIL-2R has been shown to be present in the culture supernatants of activated MNCs as well as in normal sera and, in higher amounts, in sera from subjects affected by several diseases including neoplastic, infectious and autoimmune ones, and in sera from transplanted patients suffering allograft rejection. The blood sIL-2R levels depend on the number of producing cells and the number of molecules per cell, so that sIL-2R blood values may represent an index of the number and the functional state of producing cells, both normal and neoplastic. Thus, monitoring of the immune system, mostly T-cells and haematological malignancies might be targets for the measurement of sIL-2R. Since many conditions may influence sIL-2R production, little diagnostic use may result from these measurements. However, since blood sIL-2R levels may correlate with disease progression and/or response to therapy, their measurement may be a useful index of activity and extent of disease. The precise biological role of the soluble form of the IL-2R is still a matter of debate. However, we know that increased sIL-2R levels may be observed in association with several immunological abnormalities and that sIL-2R is able to bind IL-2. It is conceivable then that in these conditions the excess sIL-2R released in vivo by activated lymphoid cells or by neoplastic cells may somehow regulate IL-2-dependent processes. On the other hand, it cannot exclude that sIL-2R is a by-product without biological significance. Finally, it is puzzling that in many conditions in which an increase of blood sIL-2R values has been observed, MNCs display a decreased in vitro capacity to produce sIL-2R. These seemingly contrasting

  4. Improved IL-2 immunotherapy by selective stimulation of IL-2 receptors on lymphocytes and endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Krieg, Carsten; Létourneau, Sven; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Boyman, Onur

    2010-01-01

    IL-2 immunotherapy is an attractive treatment option for certain metastatic cancers. However, administration of IL-2 to patients can lead, by ill-defined mechanisms, to toxic adverse effects including severe pulmonary edema. Here, we show that IL-2–induced pulmonary edema is caused by direct interaction of IL-2 with functional IL-2 receptors (IL-2R) on lung endothelial cells in vivo. Treatment of mice with high-dose IL-2 led to efficient expansion of effector immune cells expressing high leve...

  5. Architettura delle informazioni e architettura informatica sul caso studio di Appignano del Tronto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ippoliti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available L’attività di ricerca è stata condotta con l’obiettivo generale di sperimentare ed individuare procedure, metodi e dispositivi per utilizzare appieno i Sistemi Informativi Geografici nel segmento dei beni urbani e ambientali, nell’ambito free e open source, incrementandone l’accezione rappresentativa. In particolare, il presente articolo vuole riferire della fase finalizzata a definire le relazioni tra l’architettura informatica e l’architettura delle informazioni, attraverso la sperimentazione condotta su uno specifico caso studio. Il fulcro di tale attività è stato quello di formulare nuovi possibili campi di applicazione delle tecnologie DBMS in ambiente GIS, sempre all’interno di una corretta ed attenta gestione scientifica e critica dei dati e nell’ottica generale di una divulgazione il più ampia possibile della conoscenza.

  6. IL-17 family: cytokines, receptors and signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chunfang; Wu, Ling; Li, Xiaoxia

    2013-01-01

    The interleukin 17 (IL-17) family, a subset of cytokines consisting of IL-17A-F, plays crucial roles in host defense against microbial organisms and in the development of inflammatory diseases. Although IL-17A is the signature cytokine produced by T helper 17 (Th17) cells, IL-17A and other IL-17 family cytokines have multiple sources ranging from immune cells to non-immune cells. The IL-17 family signals via their correspondent receptors and activates downstream pathways that include NFκB, MAPKs and C/EBPs to induce the expression of anti-microbial peptides, cytokines and chemokines. The proximal adaptor Act1 is a common mediator during the signaling of all IL-17 cytokines so far and is thus involved in IL-17 mediated host defense and IL-17-driven autoimmune conditions. This review will give an overview and recent updates on the IL-17family, the activation and regulation of IL-17 signaling as well as diseases associated with this cytokine family PMID:24011563

  7. Avaliação da expressão de interleucina 1 beta (IL-1β e antagonista do receptor de interleucina 1 (IL-1Ra em pacientes com hanseníase Evaluation of the expression of interleukin 1 beta(IL-1β and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra in leprosy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Dias Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A hanseníase é uma doença infectocontagiosa espectral que acompanha-se por uma série de eventos imunológicos desencadeados pela resposta do hospedeiro frente ao agente etiológico, o Mycobacterium leprae. Evidências sugerem que a indução e manutenção da resposta imune/inflamatória na hanseníase estão vinculadas a interações de múltiplas células e fatores solúveis, particularmente através da ação de citocinas. Nesse estudo, foram mensurados níveis de IL-1β e IL-1Ra de 37 casos novos de hanseníase acompanhados ao longo do tratamento e 30 controles sadios pelo teste ELISA. A coleta de sangue periférico foi realizada em quatro tempos para os casos de hanseníase (pré-tratamento com PQT, 2ª dose, 6ª dose e pós-PQT e em único momento para os controles. Na comparação dos níveis das moléculas de casos no pré-PQT e controles, houve diferença estatisticamente significativa somente para IL-1β. Nossos resultados sugerem a participação dessa citocina no processo imune/inflamatório.Leprosy is an infectious and contagious spectral disease accompanied by a series of immunological events triggered by the host's response to the etiologic agent, Mycobacterium leprae. Evidence suggests that the induction and maintenance of the immune/inflammatory response in leprosy are linked to multiple cell interactions and soluble factors, mainly through the action of cytokines. The ELISA test was used to measure the levels of IL-1β and IL-1Ra in 37 new leprosy patients followed-up during treatment and 30 healthy controls. Peripheral blood was collected four times during the treatment of leprosy patients (MDT pretreatment, 2nd dose, 6th dose and post-MDT, and only once from the controls. The comparison of molecular levels in pre-MDT patients and controls showed a statistically significant difference for IL-1β. The results suggest the participation of this cytokine in the genesis of the immune/inflammatory process.

  8. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) inhibits Borrelia burgdorferi-induced IL-17 production and attenuates IL-17-mediated Lyme arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Emily S; Medić, Velinka; Kuo, Joseph; Warner, Thomas F; Schell, Ronald F; Nardelli, Dean T

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that cells and cytokines associated with interleukin-17 (IL-17)-driven inflammation are involved in the arthritic response to Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Here, we report that IL-17 is a contributing factor in the development of Lyme arthritis and show that its production and histopathological effects are regulated by interleukin-10 (IL-10). Spleen cells obtained from B. burgdorferi-infected, "arthritis-resistant" wild-type C57BL/6 mice produced low levels of IL-17 following stimulation with the spirochete. In contrast, spleen cells obtained from infected, IL-10-deficient C57BL/6 mice produced a significant amount of IL-17 following stimulation with B. burgdorferi. These mice developed significant arthritis, including erosion of the bones in the ankle joints. We further show that treatment with antibody to IL-17 partially inhibited the significant hind paw swelling and histopathological changes observed in B. burgdorferi-infected, IL-10-deficient mice. Taken together, these findings provide additional evidence of a role for IL-17 in Lyme arthritis and reveal an additional regulatory target of IL-10 following borrelial infection.

  9. IL2-IL21 gene cluster polymorphism is not associated with allograft function after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Domanski, Leszek; Kłoda, Karolina; Pawlik, Andrzej; Safranow, Krzysztof; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz

    2014-12-01

    Cytokines are key mediators of the immune response after transplantation. The interleukin (IL)-2 cytokine family, which includes IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15, and IL-21, is of particular interest because of its importance in the allogenic response. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the rs6822844 gene polymorphism in the IL2-IL21 region and allograft function after kidney transplantation. The study enrolled 270 Caucasian kidney allograft recipients (166 males and 104 females, mean age 47.63 ± 12.96 years). Following parameters were recorded in each case: recipient's age, delayed graft function (DGF), occurrence and number of episodes of acute rejection (AR), and chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD). Genotyping of the rs6822844 IL2-IL21 cluster gene polymorphism was performed using real-time PCR assay. There were no statistically significant differences in the genotypes and alleles of the rs6822844 IL2-IL21 cluster gene polymorphism among patients with DGF (p = 0.72), AR (p = 0.69) and CAD (p = 0.77), or in creatinine concentrations 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 or 36 months after transplantation (p = 0.46, p = 0.58, p = 0.6, p = 0.72, p = 0.7, p = 0.76, respectively). It seems that the rs6822844 IL2-IL21 gene cluster polymorphism is of little importance in allograft function after kidney transplantation.

  10. SÍNDROME DE LERICHE – RELATO DE CASO

    OpenAIRE

    Fagundes da Costa Jr., Antônio; Alves da Silva, Silvio; Oliveira Mendes, Gabriella; Veiga Garbelini, Diogo; Martins Freitas Albuquerque, Wania; Nimrichter Valle, Carolina; Beltran Gondo, Fernando Hirohito; Barros Prehl, Vinícius

    2016-01-01

    O relato a seguir traz o caso de um paciente de 49 anos que apresentava a tríade: claudicação de coxas, diminuição ou ausência de pulsos femorais e disfunção erétil. Paciente foi diagnosticado com síndrome de Leriche, sendo que além do acometimento aorto-ilíaco, também apresentava lesão multissegmentar de artérias de membros inferiores, incluindo o acometimento difuso da artéria femoral profunda, em um paciente relativamente jovem. Para a realização do diagnóstico foi utilizado somente um exa...

  11. Expanding Diversity in Molecular Structures and Functions of the IL-6/IL-12 Heterodimeric Cytokine Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Hasegawa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The interleukin (IL-6/IL-12 family cytokines have pleiotropic functions and play critical roles in multiple immune responses. This cytokine family has very unique characteristics in that they are composed of two distinct subunits forming a heterodimer and each cytokine and receptor subunit shares with each other. The members of this cytokine family are increasing; currently, there are more than 6 cytokines, including the tentatively named cytokines IL-Y (p28/p40, IL-12 (p35/p40, IL-23 (p19/p40, IL-27 p28/Epstein-Barr virus-induced protein 3 (EBI3, IL-35 (p35/EBI3, and IL-39 (p19/EBI3. This family of cytokines covers a very broad range of immune responses, including pro-inflammatory responses such as helper T (Th1, Th2, and Th17 to anti-inflammatory responses such as regulatory T (Treg cells and IL-10-producing Treg cells. IL-12 is the first member of this family, and IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27 are mainly produced by activated antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells and macrophages. IL-12 plays a critical role in the promotion of Th1 immune responses by inducing interferon-γ production to combat pathogens and malignant tumors. IL-23 induces IL-17 production and is necessary to maintain pathogenic Th17 cells that cause inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. IL-27 was initially reported to play a critical role in promotion of Th1 differentiation; however, subsequent studies revealed that IL-27 has broader stimulatory and inhibitory roles by inducing IL-10-producing Treg cells. IL-35 is produced by forkhead box P3+ Treg cells and activated B cells and has immunosuppressive functions to maintain immune tolerance. The most recently identified cytokine, IL-39, is produced by activated B cells and has pro-inflammatory functions. The cytokine tentatively named IL-Y seems to have anti-inflammatory functions by inhibiting Th1 and Th17 differentiation. In addition, individual cytokine subunits were also shown to have self-standing activities. Thus

  12. I lectores medioevali tra il libro e il testo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Riviello

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available L’intento del lavoro è di problematizzare alcuni aspetti, generalmente ritenuti emblematici, della relazione tra i litterati medievali e il libro – nelle sue declinazioni di Testo sacro, Libro della natura e auctoritates. L’impiego, come strumenti di lavoro, di concetti di recente elaborazione e di osservazioni di pensatori contemporanei sull’argomento, non è finalizzato ad attualizzare tale relazione, quanto piuttosto ad ampliare i punti di vista su di essa e a metterne alla prova la capacità di offrire originali spunti di riflessione. Le proposte teoriche di Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault e Roland Barthes sono qui adoperate come esemplificazioni di un’interpretazione che ha storicamente reso quasi paradigmatico il modo di leggere dei docti, specialmente altomedievali. Tuttavia, alcune definizioni della Scrittura – il libro per eccellenza – proposte da questi ultimi, nonché la teorizzazione del suo quadruplice senso sembrano smussare la radicalità di queste osservazioni. Concetti quali “funzione-autore” di Foucault e “testo” di Barthes sono invece adottati per considerare all’interno di una diversa cornice teorica il confronto dei doctores, in particolare bassomedievali, con le cosiddette auctoritates. Nella visione ordinaria la reverenza nei confronti dell’autore, divino o umano, la ricerca e la riproposizione fedele di un significato univoco dell’opera aldilà dei segni, naturali o culturali, che lo veicolano costituiscono tratti tipici dell’atteggiamento dei lettori medievali. A fronte di questi aspetti, tuttavia, è possibile sottolinearne altri eterodossi e perlopiù trascurati, quali la rilevanza attribuita all’interpretazione, prassi ineludibile e da disciplinare, al ruolo del lettore e alla sua fruizione attiva e produttiva dei testi. The aim of the work is to problematize some aspects generally considered representative of the relationship between medieval savants and the book - in its variations

  13. Casos Gettier y razonadores normales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Emilio García

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Como bien se sabe, la caracterización del conocimiento en términos de "creencia verdadera justificada" (CVJ se ha considerado fallida desde la popularización de contraejemplos tipo Gettier. En este artículo se revisa el trabajo seminal de Gettier y sus argumentos. Se sostiene que los contraejemplos de Gettier se basan en movidas de sustitución ilegítimas, que uno de sus argumentos luce persuasivo porque confunde validez sintáctica con verdad, que por tales razones su caso es más débil de lo que aparenta, y que en realidad hay una salida para el partidario de la CVJ. Se sostiene que los casos tipo Gettier no constituyen contraejemplos genuinos para la caracterización del conocimiento en términos de CVJ, y que, en consecuencia, dicha caracterización no resulta seriamente amenazada.

  14. IL-12 protects from psoriasiform skin inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulig, Paulina; Musiol, Stephanie; Freiberger, Sandra Nicole; Schreiner, Bettina; Gyülveszi, Gabor; Russo, Giancarlo; Pantelyushin, Stanislav; Kishihara, Kenji; Alessandrini, Francesca; Kündig, Thomas; Sallusto, Federica; Hofbauer, Günther F L; Haak, Stefan; Becher, Burkhard

    2016-11-28

    Neutralization of the common p40-subunit of IL-12/23 in psoriasis patients has led to a breakthrough in the management of moderate to severe disease. Aside from neutralizing IL-23, which is thought to be responsible for the curative effect, anti-p40 therapy also interferes with IL-12 signalling and type 1 immunity. Here we dissect the individual contribution of these two cytokines to the formation of psoriatic lesions and understand the effect of therapeutic co-targeting of IL-12 and IL-23 in psoriasis. Using a preclinical model for psoriatic plaque formation we show that IL-12, in contrast to IL-23, has a regulatory function by restraining the invasion of an IL-17-committed γδT (γδT17) cell subset. We discover that IL-12 receptor signalling in keratinocytes initiates a protective transcriptional programme that limits skin inflammation, suggesting that collateral targeting of IL-12 by anti-p40 monoclonal antibodies is counterproductive in the therapy of psoriasis.

  15. IL-21 Receptor Expression in Human Tendinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail L. Campbell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying tendinopathy remain unclear, with much debate as to whether inflammation or degradation has the prominent role. Increasing evidence points toward an early inflammatory infiltrate and associated inflammatory cytokine production in human and animal models of tendon disease. The IL-21/IL-21R axis is a proinflammatory cytokine complex that has been associated with chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. This project aimed to investigate the role and expression of the cytokine/receptor pair IL-21/IL-21R in human tendinopathy. We found significantly elevated expression of IL-21 receptor message and protein in human tendon samples but found no convincing evidence of the presence of IL-21 at message or protein level. The level of expression of IL-21R message/protein in human tenocytes was significantly upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα/IL-1β in vitro. These findings demonstrate that IL-21R is present in early human tendinopathy mainly expressed by tenocytes and macrophages. Despite a lack of IL-21 expression, these data again suggest that early tendinopathy has an inflammatory/cytokine phenotype, which may provide novel translational targets in the treatment of tendinopathy.

  16. La tesis del caso especial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexy, Robert

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    A partir de la comprensión de la tesis del caso especial como un intento por dar cuenta de la doble vertiente de la argumentación jurídica (su carácter autoritativo, institucional o real, por un lado, y su dimensión libre, discursiva o ideal, por otro Alexy se propone defender esta tesis frente a las críticas tomadas en consideración o realizadas por Jürgen Habermas en su libro Facticidad y validez. En primer lugar, Alexy defiende su tesis frente a la crítica que sostiene que las limitaciones que existen en los procedimientos judiciales excluirían su comprensión en términos de teoría del discurso. En segundo lugar, el autor hace hincapié en que la tesis del caso especial que él defiende implica que la argumentación jurídica ha de entenderse como un caso especial del discurso práctico general y no meramente del discurso moral tal y como es definido por Habermas. Y por último, defiende la tesis del caso especial contra la objeción de que los argumentos prácticos generales cambiarían su carácter al pasar a formar parte del Derecho; para ello propugna concebir de manera procedimental la integración de los argumentos prácticos generales en el contexto jurídico.

  17. Il caso della letteratura ucronica italiana. Ucronia e propaganda nella narrativa italiana.

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    Emiliano Marra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The matter of this essay is Italian alternative history tales published after the Second World War, linked to Italian extreme right-wing movements and compared with the main novels of the same kind written in English. The topic is explained with a historical approach and the considered works of fiction are matched with the foreign models in a comparative viewpoint. The first section offers a general and synthetic perspective of the current studies about this kind of tales, the second section concerns the historical description of the genre in Italy, whereas the third section is focused on the ideological controversies raised by some novels and on the comparison between these works and their main English and American models. The essay intends to be an original contribution to this topic and results from a documentary research, besides considering the thematic analysis of the examined works.

  18. Con Annibale alle porte. L’internazionalizzazione del sistema bancario e il caso italiano

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    Lorenzo Esposito

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the process of internationalisation of the banking sector from the perspective of firms' strategies under conditions of oligopoly. The Italian case is interesting from this point of view for its simultaneous dynamics of entry of several foreign players in the market and internationalisation of domestic groups. The work discusses the appropriate industrial policy in terms of armonization of the supernational legislation and the development needs of the domestic market.

  19. Lingua Italiana e identità: Il caso del fumetto paninaro | Capasso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From 1986 to 1989, Paninaro was the best selling comic magazine in Italy. Beside being a comic magazine, it represented also the link between identity and language in the second half of the 1980s. For the Italian youth, Paninaro served as model of behaviour showing them how to talk, what to wear, how to live.

  20. Movimenti contadini, spazi rurali e genere: il caso del Fondo Itali-CILSS in Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Migliardi, Agnese

    2013-01-01

    African rural spaces – and namely their capabilities and vocation to produce – have recently come up again in international debates of academics, politicians, civil society and development practitioners. The current food crisis in the Sahel region (and the past one of 2008), the growing investments in bio-fuels and the so-called “land-grab”, the gender inequalities in accessing natural and productive resources, brought the attention back to the challenges facing African rural economies, na...

  1. Cultura politica di partito e cultura politica nazionale: il caso del Pci nella Prima Repubblica

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    Andrea Millefiorini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we are explaining those aspects of the Italian Communist Party, that, thanks to the particular organized structure, contributed, in a meaningful way, to outline some characteristic features of the Italian political culture. There are four aspects of them: the first one was represented by a strong level of ideologism that for reaction and contamination passed from its main centre of diffusion (which was just the P.C.I to the other actors of the Italian party system, whose high level of ideologization produced models of interpretation of problems and of decisions, elaboration and planning, about not so much pragmatic plans; on the contrary, concerning rhetoric or propagandistic approaches.A second, relevant effect to which contributed in this case not only the political communist culture, we are analyzing above all from this point of view: it was constituted by the leadership exerced by the political parties that acquired in the symbolic values of the Italians universe as regards the other components of the Political system; the consequences of this situation we are going to analyze in the paper.A third element was the strong statalism which constituted the political culture of the country at least till the end of seventies.The fourth factor spread by the political communist culture was given by the egualitarianism. It assumed a relevant role at the organizing and structural level concerning the burocratic machinery; the values connected to it not always produced good results in efficiency, in resources optimization and productivity.

  2. Partiti, leadership e consenso agli albori del social networking (2005-2010: il caso italiano

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    Luca Mori

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, political communication has faced drastic changes in the media landscape. This paper examines, through the Italian casa, the parallel evolution of media landscape and political communication, focusing on how parties and politicians have tried to improve their methods of ‘voter contact’, by redesigning leadership, creating ‘virtual communities’, and attempting to mobilize supporters in order to get and maintain voters’approval. The Italian case is interesting because of its extreme conditions: while a media tycoon has been the most influential political leader since nearly twenty years, the political movement born around Beppe Grillo’s blog gets ready to run in General Elections.

  3. IMMIGRAZIONE, CRIMINOLOGIA CRITICA E DISOBBEDIENZA CIVILE: IL CASO DI VIA ANELLI A PADOVA

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    Carlos Andrés Orozco Arcieri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso de la perspectiva macro-sociológica en función teórica y práctica, en el estudio y en la interpretación de los resultados de la investigación acerca del ghetto de Via Anelli, además de desenmascarar las condiciones de marginalización de los inmigrantes, nos permite el desarrollo de conceptos normativos que hacen posible el reconocimiento y la defensa de los derechos constitucionales de los más vulnerables.

  4. Riconoscere la criminalità d’impresa: il caso Eternit di Casale Monferrato

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    Rebecca Paraciani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Some crimes, in particular white-collar crimes, are rarely and with many difficulties perceived as crimes. Despite the known potential social and economic damage they cause, it seems as though they were declassified, considered “less criminal” than other kinds of crimes, and therefore punished in a different way. Many specific characteristics make them less perceived and easier to tolerate than other crimes, so much that a white collar perpetrator will be easily defined as a “dishonest” person rather than a “criminal”. This article presents the redefinition of the harmful event occurred in Casale Monferrato (Italy where one of the Eternit plants was located. The “asbestos war” begins here starting from inside the factory spreading to citizens who are not indifferent to choices which are exclusively dictated by profit motive.

  5. Pluralismo giuridico e pratica giuridica indigena: il caso dei Guaranì del Chaco Boliviano

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    Francesca Scionti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article ethnographically explores the form and the content of juridical practices of Guarani people living in the Capitanías of Charagua Norte and Alto Isoso, Bolivia. Starting from the Bolivian legal pluralism main field and through the analysis of some juridical case study, I answer some questions about how the Guarani people act and interpret the legal field in a plural legal context. I argue that such guarani people practice is both rooted in an interlegal field of sense and meaning and product of a legal and political strategy useful to hide and protect the indigenous juridical habitus.

  6. Forme galeniche e qualità di vita: il caso di tramadolo

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    Orietta Zaniolo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Tramadol is a weak opioid analgesic used for moderate to severe pain control in acute and chronic diseases. Two new formulations of tramadol are recently admitted for marketing: once-daily (OD controlled-release and fast-release orodispersible tablets. OD tramadol with its special lipophilic matrix permits to prolong drug effect up to 24 hours with a steady-state bioavailability comparable to that of immediate-release formulations. The efficacy and safety of this formulation of tramadol was evaluated in several trials on patients with moderate to severe chronic pain from osteoarthritis. These studies show similar effect of OD tramadol compared to standard formulation in pain control, quality of sleep, physical and mental functions, dropouts due to insufficient therapeutic effect and adverse events. Specially in the elderly and in chronic pain patients, frequency and complexity of dosing regimen remarkably affects quality of life. Furthermore, several studies show that a high number of daily administrations is one of the main factors that reduce patient compliance. For these reasons, OD tablets of tramadol seem to improve quality of life and acceptability of the therapy. Tramadol orodispersible tablets are useful for acute pain control, in the titration phase and for breakthrough pain control in chronic diseases. The manifacturing process of this formulation allows for rapid disintegration (20-30 seconds, once placed into the mouth, secondary to contact with salivary enzymes. This property facilitates its administration (in every place, without need of water, primarily for people with difficulty in swallowing tablets. Furthermore, respect to drops, it decreases the risk of misdosage. A open, randomized crossover study shows that, even although the galenics of tramadol in orodispersible and conventional fast-release capsules are different, they are bioequivalent and have similar pharmacokinetic parameters.

  7. La fan fiction e la politica. Il caso Eymerich e la critica alla Chiesa cattolica

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    Alberto Sebastiani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the fan fiction related to the Eymerich novels written by Valerio Evangelisti. The aim is to identify which stories resume the mode of representation of political discourse that underlies the original novels, criticizing the contemporary Catholic Church. Empirical research has identified 26 texts published in books and online. They compose the corpus. The analysis has placed them from an historical and typological point of view, in connection with the recent scientific production on fan fiction and adaptations, relating them to the original novels both chronologically and thematically. Two texts in particular seem to assume the same mode of representation of the political discourse in the novels. A linguistic and stylistic analysis has identified how they build a relationship with current events, history, news and political reality, and how they move a critical reflection about the Catholic Church. Research has provided never collected data, allowing to reflect upon fandom reception, the practices of rewriting texts and the attention to the political discourse

  8. L’efficacia del crime mapping per la sicurezza urbana: il caso di Enfield (Londra

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    Fabio Bravo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Having discussed the main criminological theories on modern «crime mapping systems», this article aims to show their real effectiveness using a case study concerning burglaries committed in Enfield (London between 2003 and 2011.

  9. Strategie di documentazione per la ricerca e la comunicazione archeologica. Il caso di Faragola (Foggia, Italia

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    Giuliano De Felice

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Computer technology has allowed us to rethink the process of archaeological documentation by introducing important innovations in all phases of research, from recovery of data to analysis, interpretation, reconstruction and communication of results. Nowadays archaeological teams have direct access to new tools and methods on site, but often without a clear and precise purpose; the methodological chaos that reigns over the application of computer technology to the practice of archaeology is clearly visible. Without any pretense of presenting a model, this paper describes a series of field experiments conducted on Faragola site, and reflections based on the growing use of computers in the various phases of our research

  10. LA FATTIBILITÀ FINANZIARIA DI UN PROGETTO IMMOBILIARE: IL CASO DELL’EX TESSITORIA SCHIATTI

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    Leopoldo Sdino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, Italian real estate market has been characterized by a steady decline in prices and housing demand; the phenomenon, conjunctural to a broader crisis of the European and global economy, has affected all intended uses and localizations, but mainly the residential sector. When the market is characterized by a strong uncertainty about the future of its prices and, consequently, about the risk on the use of capital, the assessment of economic and financial sustainability of real estate projects becomes crucial in order to operate the right investment choices. Both in public and private sectors, an intervention is considered sustainable when it is able to generate a total balance of the positive cash flows, and an annual percentage of return, that are greater than the ones that can be generated by alternative investments at low (or no risk. Therefore, this contribution is the result of valuations of the economic and financial sustainability of some recovery and renovation’s projects, on the area of the former Tessitoria Schiatti, in Lentate sul Seveso (Italy, that have been carried out by students of Politecnico di Milano. Results that have been obtained confirm that, specifically because of the higher costs of the intervention determined by the reclamation of the soil, the feasibility of each proposed project cannot exclude the need of a public financial contribution that will be able to cover just their higher costs.

  11. Lo stereotipo del Sud fra Otto e Novecento: il caso della Sardegna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    Following Italian unification, the North-South dichotomy which had for centuries been part of European tradition was reformulated in Italian culture, resulting in the definition of a homogeneous concept of the South and with it what is probably the most significant and persistent stereotype in the

  12. ABUSO DEL DIRITTO AL BREVETTO E ABUSO DI POSIZIONE DOMINANTE: IL CASO PFIZER

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    Gustavo Ghidini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Even the acquisition – not just the exercise – of a patent (as any other IPR may amount to a misuse if the achievement thereof runs in contrast with the rules governing its entitlement. And if the patent owner enjoys a dominant position, the patent misuse may translate into an abuse of such position under art. 102 TFEU. This appears to be the core of the decision of Council of State as of February 12, 2014, n.693, which settled the Pfizer Italian case, overturning the opposite ruling of Tar Lazio, and thus upholding the previous ICA’ finding of such an abuse. In particular, the circumstances of the case showed that Pfizer’s request and obtainment a European divisional patent – in truth, a divisional patent of another divisional patent – with effects for Italy and Spain (countries where such request had not been filed, was not intended at legitimately acquiring an exclusive right on a self-standing portion of the parental patent, in compliance with the rule of patent ‘unity’, but was actually aimed at achieving, thirteen years after the filing of the parental patent and in contrast with the said rule, a Complementary Protection Certificate (CPC in Italy and Spain, in order to prolong exclusive rights on an active principle which had emerged as de facto standard (hence, the assessment of a dominant position, and which prospective competitors in the Italian market had legitimately come to consider “off patent” from 2009, consequently preparing to enter the market with their “generic” substitutes. The article supports the position of Council of State and the Italian Authority, particularly replying to the critiques expressed by an authoritative scholar, also a lawyer of Pfizer in the captioned case. The Authors, finally, hint to the enforceability, even in absence of a dominant position in strict sense, of patent misuses in the legal perspective of both “relative dominance” and unfair competition.

  13. Oltre la musica: il caso degli aborigen australiani. Un esempio di applicazione del sapera etnomusicologico

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    Gracia P. Tuzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El texto presenta una reflexión teórica sobre las posibilidades de aplicación del saber etnomusicologico. A partir de un examen meticuloso de algunas de las más recientes teorías relativas a los distintos ámbitos de aplicación de la disciplina, el artículo analiza un ejemplo concreto de etnomusicología aplicada en el cual se ve al investigador como posible “defensor” de derechos negados y se considera el “retorno del saber producido” en la comunidad misma como uno de los principales objetivos del trabajo de investigación. En el texto se examina la cuestión relacionada con the land rights y la reivindicación, por parte de los aborígenes australianos, de sus propias tierras.  Examinar los procesos de identificación y restitución de los derechos de propiedad a los aborígenes significa analizar el papel que cumple la música dentro de tales procesos. De hecho, los cantos se utilizan como prueba directa de la relación que existe entre los clanes y sus tierras, representando la prueba evidente de su derecho de propiedad sobre éstas.Palabras Clave: etnomusicología aplicada, identidad, aborígenes australianos, land rights._____________________Abstract:The text offers a theoretical reflexion on the possible applications of ethnomusicological knowledge. After a short review of some of the most recent theories on different domains of application of the discipline, the article analyzes a concrete example of applied ethnomusicology in which the author acts as eventual “defender” of denied rights and considers the “return of the knowledge produced” in the same community one of the main objectives of the research work. The text examines the question of “land rights” and the request of the restitution of their lands from Australian aborigines. For the character of definite proof offered by the music in the legal trial, the Australian case represents a unique example and therefore revealing of possible applications of ethnomusicological knowledge.Keywords: applied ethnomusicology, identity, australian natives, land rights

  14. Oltre la musica: il caso degli aborigen australiani. Un esempio di applicazione del sapera etnomusicologico

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    Gracia P. Tuzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El texto presenta una reflexión teórica sobre las posibilidades de aplicación del saber etnomusicologico. A partir de un examen meticuloso de algunas de las más recientes teorías relativas a los distintos ámbitos de aplicación de la disciplina, el artículo analiza un ejemplo concreto de etnomusicología aplicada en el cual se ve al investigador como posible “defensor” de derechos negados y se considera el “retorno del saber producido” en la comunidad misma como uno de los principales objetivos del trabajo de investigación. En el texto se examina la cuestión relacionada con the land rights y la reivindicación, por parte de los aborígenes australianos, de sus propias tierras.  Examinar los procesos de identificación y restitución de los derechos de propiedad a los aborígenes significa analizar el papel que cumple la música dentro de tales procesos. De hecho, los cantos se utilizan como prueba directa de la relación que existe entre los clanes y sus tierras, representando la prueba evidente de su derecho de propiedad sobre éstas.Palabras Clave: etnomusicología aplicada, identidad, aborígenes australianos, land rights._____________________Abstract:The text offers a theoretical reflexion on the possible applications of ethnomusicological knowledge. After a short review of some of the most recent theories on different domains of application of the discipline, the article analyzes a concrete example of applied ethnomusicology in which the author acts as eventual “defender” of denied rights and considers the “return of the knowledge produced” in the same community one of the main objectives of the research work. The text examines the question of “land rights” and the request of the restitution of their lands from Australian aborigines. For the character of definite proof offered by the music in the legal trial, the Australian case represents a unique example and therefore revealing of possible applications of ethnomusicological knowledge.Keywords: applied ethnomusicology, identity, australian natives, land rights

  15. Miti e leggende sulla riforma degli ordinamenti universitari: il caso dell’offerta formativa in Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Bagnoli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This research work started in a small university group that it is part of a bigger organisation named Coordinamento Ricercatori Università di Firenze. In Italy, the Universty System is changing after new laws from July 2008 and Januray 2009. As researchers and assistant professors, the authors try reflecting about the sweeping changing of the Italian University Sistem from a scientific and methodological point of view.

  16. Qualità della vita e benessere psicologico: il caso dell'acalasia esofagea

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    Manuela Nicoletta Di Masi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Quality of Life and Psychological Well-being: The Case of Achalasia - The theoretical reflection on people, particularly on those affected by a rare illness, requires a multidisciplinar analysis. This shared reflection allows to gather the common denominator of the individual histories: a call for well-being even before health. During the 6th Meeting of Amae Onlus it was talked about Quality of the Life (QOL for achalasia patients according to a biopsychosocial approach, tackling topics like the management of pain, the smart feeding, the doctor-patient relationship and the role of psychological cares in affecting the QOL of patients. Scholars converged on the need to overcome the strong paternalism in favour of the nudge: accompaning somebody to move towards a good choice. A path towards extraordinarium auxilium in which the final word is left to the individual and to his personal and indisputable choice of quality of life.

  17. Inquinamento elettromagnetico e salute fra controversie, ricerca indipendente ed associazionismo Il caso del movimento degli elettrosensibili

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    Milena Greco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This intervention is going to consider the main debate points and controversies connected withthe fallout the rising levels of electromagnetic pollution have on health, within the framework of medical anthropology. After retracing the main terms and viewpoints of the political and scientific debate revolving around these issues, the focus of the debate will move on describing the implications ofelectrohypersensitivity, a contentious syndrome and on the role played by those movements and associations pushing for this illness to be recognized as a debilitating environmental disease.  

  18. La spesa pubblica ambientale e la sostenibilità del territorio: il caso della Regione Basilicata

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    Severino Romano

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth in Basilicata region has been notable over the past 15 years, and has determinated a notable impacts on environmental. In particular the principal effects were the rising pollution in urban areas and the degradation of natural resource with potential effects on public health. This paper show the evolution of the environmental investments of the Regione Basilicata in triennial period (gen 2003-Dec 2005 by an analisys of environmental indicators (SERIEE. It includes an assessment of the resources resulting by annual programmation documents and economic budgets giving indications about how the Regione Basilicata might better fulfill its mission improving its performance in the environmental.

  19. Testo e assolutezza perlocutiva: il caso de La persuasione e la rettorica di Carlo Michelstaedter

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    Marco Carmello

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this article is to put the interpretation of Carlo Michelstaedter’s La persuasione e la Rettorica on the basis of a textual application of the pragmatical category of perlocutivity. Starting from the assumption that the concept of “persuasion” (persuasione is inexpressible, in accord with the formal/linguistic sense of “inexpressible” defined by Moritz Schlick, we assume that the notion of perlocutivity is useful to discuss the Michelstaedter’s work. We try to define an hermeneutical approach able to explain the text and also to solve some illusory aporias entailed by the work of the Author. At the same time our approach can be useful to discuss some relevant theoretical aspects of literary modernity

  20. Barnaba Maj (ed., Il Gattopardo nel flusso del tempo. Il romanzo di Tomasi e il film di Visconti

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    Paola Fallerini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Il Seminario di Teoria della Narrazione dell’Università di Bologna, organizzato e curato da Barnaba Maj, propone una analisi collettiva del romanzo di Lampedusa la cui riflessione si sofferma sul tempo interno alla narrazione e il tempo che travalica le coordinate del racconto e della collocazione storica. Il tempo si manifesta perciò come elemento pluridimensionale, all’interno del quale si impone la connotazione atemporale dello spazio mitico in stretta connessione con quello storico.

  1. Uveomeningencefalites: registro de dois casos

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    Wilson Luiz Sanvito

    1982-03-01

    Full Text Available Após considerações a propósito das manifestações clínicas das uveomeningencefalites, são relatados dois casos com características clínicas ligeiramente diferentes. No caso 1 tratava-se da doença de Harada, tendo o paciente apresentado quadro meningítico agudo acompanhado de confusão mental. O exame do líquido cefalorraquidiano evidenciou um quadro inflamatório do tipo linfo-monocitário e o paciente evoluiu com distúrbios acentuados da memória e uveíte bilateral. Após alguns meses de evolução, a doença deixou como seqüelas uma síndrome de Korsakoff e ambliopia acentuada no olho esquerdo. No caso 2 tratava-se de doença de Behcet, tendo o paciente apresentado dois surtos de meningite do tipo linfomonocitário, lesões herpetiformes na genitalia e uveíte no olho direito que evoluiu para amaurose. São feitas considerações sobre os aspectos etiopatogênicos destas afecções e sobre o controvertido uso dos corticosteróides em seu tratamento.

  2. Caso Electroencefalográfico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Aires

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O Síndrome de Panayiotopoulos é a segunda epilepsia focal idiopática infantil mais comum, com um pico de incidência aos 4-5 anos. A sua incidência é subestimada devido às manifestações clínicas atípicas, caracterizando-se por crises com predomínio de sintomas autonómicos. Caso clínico: Descreve-se um caso clássico de Síndrome de Panayiotopoulos, com crises recorrentes, com boa resposta à terapêutica antiepiléptica e remissão após alguns anos. Conclusão: Salienta-se a importância da suspeição clínica deste síndrome epiléptico e a utilidade do registo electroencefalográfico que inclua um período de sono. Na maioria dos casos o prognóstico é bom, apesar de ser necessário manter o tratamento por um período de tempo variável.

  3. IL-28 and IL-29 as protective markers in subject with dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chih-Hsing; Huang, Chung-Hao; Wang, Lin; Huang, Chun-Chi; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Chin, Yi-Ying; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chang, Ko; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2017-06-01

    About 400 million people every year are estimated to contract dengue virus infection, which causes prolonged morbidity and sometimes mortality. Interleukin (IL)-28 and IL-29 are relatively newly discovered cytokines and play an important role in our immune defense against pathogens, especially for viral infection. In the present study, we investigated serum IL-28 and IL-29 expression and the relationship to clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with dengue virus infection. Adult patients with dengue (n = 45) and control group (n = 24) were included prospectively. Clinical symptoms and laboratory data were collected from every patient. We investigated IL-28 and IL-29 levels in serum by ELISA. The concentrations of serum IL-28 and IL-29 were significantly higher in subjects with dengue when compared to those of control group. The patients with higher serum IL-28 and IL-29 levels had significantly lower ALAT and peripheral blood neutrophil percentage, but higher peripheral platelet, total white blood cell (WBC), monocyte, and lymphocyte counts. Patients with higher serum IL-28 and IL-29 levels also had more flu-like symptoms, but less vomiting. Increased level of IL-28 and IL-29 was associated with better liver function, platelet and WBC numbers and clinical symptom in subjects with dengue and could potentially serve as a protective marker.

  4. IL-15 deficient tax mice reveal a role for IL-1α in tumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Daniel A; Harding, John C; Ratner, Lee

    2014-01-01

    IL-15 is recognized as a promising candidate for tumor immunotherapy and has been described as both a promoter of cancer and a promoter of anti-cancer immunity. IL-15 was discovered in cells transformed by HTLV-1, the etiologic agent of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and the human retrovirus that carries the Tax oncogene. We have developed the TAX-LUC mouse model of ATL in which Tax expression drives both malignant transformation and luciferase expression, enabling non-invasive imaging of tumorigenesis in real time. To identify the role of IL-15 in spontaneous development of lymphoma in vivo, an IL-15(-/-) TAX-LUC strain was developed and examined. The absence of IL-15 resulted in aggressive tumor growth and accelerated mortality and demonstrated that IL-15 was not required for Tax-mediated lymphoma but was essential for anti-tumor immunity. Further analysis revealed a unique transcriptional profile in tumor cells that arise in the absence of IL-15 that included a significant increase in the expression of IL-1α and IL-1α-regulated cytokines. Moreover, anti-IL-1α antibodies and an IL-1 receptor antagonist (Anakinra) were used to interrogate the potential of IL-1α targeted therapies in this model. Taken together, these findings identify IL-15 and IL-1α as therapeutic targets in lymphoma.

  5. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, IL-31, and IL-33 in Children with Allergic Disease of the Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bonanno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low vitamin D is involved in allergic asthma and rhinitis. IL-31 and IL-33 correlate with Th2-associated cytokines in allergic disease. We investigated whether low vitamin D is linked with circulating IL-31 and IL-33 in children with allergic disease of the airways. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH Vit D], IL-31, and IL-33 plasma levels were measured in 28 controls (HC, 11 allergic rhinitis (AR patients, and 35 allergic asthma with rhinitis (AAR patients. We found significant lower levels of 25(OH Vit D in AR and in AAR than in HC. IL-31 and IL-33 plasma levels significantly increased in AAR than HC. IL-31 and IL-33 positively correlated in AR and AAR. 25(OH Vit D deficient AAR had higher levels of blood eosinophils, exacerbations, disease duration, and total IgE than patients with insufficient or sufficient 25(OH Vit D. In AAR 25(OH Vit D levels inversely correlated with total allergen sIgE score and total atopy index. IL-31 and IL-33 did not correlate with 25(OH Vit D in AR and AAR. In conclusion, low levels of 25(OH Vit D might represent a risk factor for the development of concomitant asthma and rhinitis in children with allergic disease of the airways independently of IL-31/IL-33 Th2 activity.

  6. The Possible Role of the Novel Cytokines IL-35 and IL-37 in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin- (IL- 35 and IL-37 are newly discovered immune-suppressing cytokines. They have been described in inflammatory diseases such as collagen-induced arthritis and asthma. However, their expressions in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patients have not been yet explored. Our aim was to evaluate serum and inflamed mucosal levels in IBD patients. In 20 ulcerative colitis (UC patients, 7 Crohn’s disease (CD patients, and 15 healthy subjects, cytokine levels in serum were determined using ELISA and mucosal expression studies were performed by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR, and Western blot. The results showed that serums IL-35 and IL-37 levels were significantly decreased in UC and CD patients compared with healthy subjects. The cytokines levels correlated inversely with UC activity. IL-35 was expressed in infiltrating immune cells while IL-37 in intestinal epithelial cells as well as inflammatory cells. IBD patients had significantly higher Ebi3, p35 (two subunits of IL-35, and IL-37b gene expressions; IL-35 and IL-37 protein expressions were higher in IBD patients compared with controls. The study showed that serums IL-35 and IL-37 might be potentially novel biomarkers for IBD. Intestinal IL-35 and IL-37 proteins are upregulated, suggesting that regulating the expression of the two cytokines may provide a new possible target for the treatment of IBD.

  7. IL-15 deficient tax mice reveal a role for IL-1α in tumor immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Rauch

    Full Text Available IL-15 is recognized as a promising candidate for tumor immunotherapy and has been described as both a promoter of cancer and a promoter of anti-cancer immunity. IL-15 was discovered in cells transformed by HTLV-1, the etiologic agent of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL and the human retrovirus that carries the Tax oncogene. We have developed the TAX-LUC mouse model of ATL in which Tax expression drives both malignant transformation and luciferase expression, enabling non-invasive imaging of tumorigenesis in real time. To identify the role of IL-15 in spontaneous development of lymphoma in vivo, an IL-15(-/- TAX-LUC strain was developed and examined. The absence of IL-15 resulted in aggressive tumor growth and accelerated mortality and demonstrated that IL-15 was not required for Tax-mediated lymphoma but was essential for anti-tumor immunity. Further analysis revealed a unique transcriptional profile in tumor cells that arise in the absence of IL-15 that included a significant increase in the expression of IL-1α and IL-1α-regulated cytokines. Moreover, anti-IL-1α antibodies and an IL-1 receptor antagonist (Anakinra were used to interrogate the potential of IL-1α targeted therapies in this model. Taken together, these findings identify IL-15 and IL-1α as therapeutic targets in lymphoma.

  8. IL-17 mediates immunopathology in the absence of IL-10 following Leishmania major infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gonzalez-Lombana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, resulting from infection with the protozoan parasite Leishmania, consists of a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, from healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral infections. A particularly severe form of cutaneous leishmaniasis, termed mucosal leishmaniasis, exhibits decreased IL-10 levels and an exaggerated inflammatory response that perpetuates the disease. Using a mouse model of leishmaniasis, we investigated what cytokines contribute to increased pathology when IL-10-mediated regulation is absent. Leishmania major infected C57BL/6 mice lacking IL-10 regulation developed larger lesions than controls, but fewer parasites. Both IFN-γ and IL-17 levels were substantially elevated in mice lacking the capacity to respond to IL-10. IFN-γ promoted an increased infiltration of monocytes, while IL-17 contributed to an increase in neutrophils. Surprisingly, however, we found that IFN-γ did not contribute to increased pathology, but instead regulated the IL-17 response. Thus, blocking IFN-γ led to a significant increase in IL-17, neutrophils and disease. Similarly, the production of IL-17 by cells from leishmaniasis patients was also regulated by IL-10 and IFN-γ. Additional studies found that the IL-1 receptor was required for both the IL-17 response and increased pathology. Therefore, we propose that regulating IL-17, possibly by downregulating IL-1β, may be a useful approach for controlling immunopathology in leishmaniasis.

  9. Il Gambling Compulsivo: rilevanza epidemiologica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coacci

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduzione: il gioco d’azzardo ha profonde radici nella storia e nella cultura di ogni popolo. Si stima che circa l’80% della popolazione adulta nel nostro Paese giochi d’azzardo. Esso, pur rappresentando per la maggior parte di queste persone solo un innocuo passatempo, si trasforma talora in una vera e propria malattia (gambling compulsivo, con comportamenti che denotano forme estreme di rischio, sino a forme che portano alla distruzione della famiglia e persino della propria vita.

    Si tratta un disturbo poco conosciuto e spesso non diagnosticato. Infatti, benché sia largamente diffuso e comporti rilevanti costi umani e sociali, il gambling compulsivo solo di recente è stato incluso nelle classificazioni diagnostiche internazionali.

    Obiettivi: valutare l’impatto epidemiologico del gambling compulsivo (gioco d’azzardo patologico in una ASL/provincia.

    Materiali e metodi: è stato inviato un questionario ai 190 Medici di Medicina Generale della provincia di Grosseto (ASL 8, per raccogliere informazioni su: sistema di cura, numero di soggetti che si sono rivolti al proprio medico di famiglia per tale problema, eventuale coesistenza di problemi e comportamenti di dipendenza e di abuso (alcool, psicofarmaci, droghe illegali, ecc.

    Risultati: sono pervenuti 127 (pari al 66,8% questionari compilati. L’elaborazione dei dati è tuttora in corso.

    Conclusioni: dai risultati preliminari sembra emergere che il numero di persone che chiede aiuto al medico e al SSN, differentemente da quanto accade per i tossicodipendenti, è molto limitato e, quindi, intuitivamente poco indicativo della massa di soggetti realmente coinvolti dalla problematica studiata. Si discute del ruolo nella promozione della salute potenzialmente svolto dai Medici di Medicina Generale. Per quanto la tecnica di rilevazione appaia relativamente poco sensibile

  10. “Senza dubbio è il diavolo”. Racconti da un percorso terapeutico di comunità

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Alba

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Attraverso il racconto del caso clinico di Francesca, ospite di una comunità terapeutica per adulti con disturbi psichici, vengono illustrate specifiche dinamiche che si verificano nel trattamento residenziale delle psicosi.I processi di cambiamento, mobilitati dall'entrare in relazione con gli altri ospiti, comportano un “ammalarsi” del campo terapeutico che accoglie la paziente. Tale fenomeno, dovuto al funzionamento psicotico che sposta nelle menti e negli spazi esterni la vita psichica che viene vissuta come troppo dolorosa, permette all'equipe curante di esperire lo stato di malattia e di elaborarlo assieme alla paziente nel corso del trattamento comunitario.

  11. The Causal Role of IL-4 and IL-13 in Schistosoma mansoni Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rahul; Mickael, Claudia; Chabon, Jacob; Gebreab, Liya; Rutebemberwa, Alleluiah; Garcia, Alexandra Rodriguez; Koyanagi, Daniel E; Sanders, Linda; Gandjeva, Aneta; Kearns, Mark T; Barthel, Lea; Janssen, William J; Mauad, Thais; Bandeira, Angela; Schmidt, Eric; Tuder, Rubin M; Graham, Brian B

    2015-10-15

    The etiology of schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a major cause of PAH worldwide, is poorly understood. Schistosoma mansoni exposure results in prototypical type-2 inflammation. Furthermore, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling is required for experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH) caused by Schistosoma exposure. We hypothesized type-2 inflammation driven by IL-4 and IL-13 is necessary for Schistosoma-induced TGF-β-dependent vascular remodeling. Wild-type, IL-4(-/-), IL-13(-/-), and IL-4(-/-)IL-13(-/-) mice (C57BL6/J background) were intraperitoneally sensitized and intravenously challenged with S. mansoni eggs to induce experimental PH. Right ventricular catheterization was then performed, followed by quantitative analysis of the lung tissue. Lung tissue from patients with schistosomiasis-associated and connective tissue disease-associated PAH was also systematically analyzed. Mice with experimental Schistosoma-induced PH had evidence of increased IL-4 and IL-13 signaling. IL-4(-/-)IL-13(-/-) mice, but not single knockout IL-4(-/-) or IL-13(-/-) mice, were protected from Schistosoma-induced PH, with decreased right ventricular pressures, pulmonary vascular remodeling, and right ventricular hypertrophy. IL-4(-/-)IL-13(-/-) mice had less pulmonary vascular phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) and phospho-Smad2/3 activity, potentially caused by decreased TGF-β activation by macrophages. In vivo treatment with a STAT6 inhibitor and IL-4(-/-)IL-13(-/-) bone marrow transplantation also protected against Schistosoma-PH. Lung tissue from patients with schistosomiasis-associated and connective tissue disease-associated PAH had evidence of type-2 inflammation. Combined IL-4 and IL-13 deficiency is required for protection against TGF-β-induced pulmonary vascular disease after Schistosoma exposure, and targeted inhibition of this pathway is a potential novel therapeutic approach for patients with

  12. [Value of IL-6 and IL-8 in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng-Xia; Liu, Guang-Hui; Zhang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    To explore the significance of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. This was a prospective study conducted between August 2014 and February 2015. A total of 140 neonates who were suspected infectious were enrolled and classified into a sepsis group (n=49) and a local infection group (n=91). Sixty-one neonates who were non-infectious served as the control group. Serum levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were measured before treatment and 3 days after treatment. The value of serum IL-6 and IL-8 for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Before treatment, serum levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in the sepsis group were higher than those in the local infection and control groups (Psepsis group remained higher than that in the local infection and control groups (Pneonatal sepsis were 87.8%, 79.6% and 81.6% respectively; when the cut-off value of serum IL-8 was 54 pg/mL, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of serum IL-6 for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis were 77.6%, 63.8% and 67.2% respectively. With the combination of serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis were 71.4%, 86.2% and 82.6% respectively. IL-6 and IL-8 participate in the inflammatory response and the serum levels of both vary with the severity of infection. The diagnostic value of IL-6 for neonatal sepsis is higher than IL-8. The combined detection of serum levels IL-6 and IL-8 may increase the accuracy of diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.

  13. Macrophage function in tissue repair and remodeling requires IL-4 or IL-13 with apoptotic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bosurgi, Lidia; Cao, Y. Grace; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Tucci,Andrea; Hughes, Lindsey D.; Kong, Yong; Weinstein, Jason S.; Licona-Limon, Paula; Schmid, Edward T.; Pelorosso, Facundo; Gagliani, Nicola; Craft, Joseph E.; Flavell, Richard A.; Ghosh, Sourav; Rothlin, Carla V.

    2017-01-01

    Tissue repair is a subset of a broad repertoire of interleukin-4 (IL-4)- and IL-13-dependent host responses during helminth infection. Here we show that IL-4 or IL-13 alone was not sufficient, but IL-4 or IL-13 together with apoptotic cells induced the tissue repair program in macrophages. Genetic ablation of sensors of apoptotic cells impaired the proliferation of tissue-resident macrophages and the induction of anti-inflammatory and tissue repair genes in the lungs after helminth infection ...

  14. Stimulation of B lymphocytes by cmvIL-10 but not LAcmvIL-10

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer, Juliet V.; Cadaoas, Jaclyn; Castillo, Patricia R.; Saini, Vandana; Slobedman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a widespread pathogen that establishes lifelong latent infection facilitated by numerous mechanisms for modulating the host immune system. The UL111A region encodes a homolog of human cellular IL-10 (hIL-10). The viral cytokine, cmvIL-10, exhibits many of the immunosuppressive properties of hIL-10. However, hIL-10 is also known to have stimulatory effects on B lymphocytes. We found that cmvIL-10 has the ability to enhance B cell proliferation, despite having on...

  15. La vocazione territoriale tra approccio sistemico e situazionista: analisi di una collaborazione culture driven tra aziende del made in Italy attraverso il caso del Contratto di Rete Polo Alta Moda Area Vestina / The territorial vocation between the “systemic” approach and the “situationist” approach: analysis of a culture-driven collaboration between Made-in-Italy firms. The case of the network contract of “Polo Alta Moda Area Vestina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cedrola

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Il presente lavoro si propone di mostrare come una collaborazione culture driven tra aziende del made in Italy possa innescare un processo virtuoso capace di alimentare la competitività d’impresa. Nello specifico, intende verificare la validità di una nuova chiave di lettura dei processi di governance del territorio, detta situazionista, che affianca la concezione prevalente in letteratura, definita unitaria o sistemica. Il punto di discrepanza principale tra le due visioni sembra essere quello della vocazione territoriale. Pur riconoscendo entrambe la presenza di interessi condivisi tra gli attori, la visione situazionista non riconosce alla vocazione la funzione “razionalizzante” riscontrabile nell’approccio sistemico. A seguito di una sintetica review della letteratura sui temi del territorio come cultura condivisa, sulla dimensione reticolare territoriale ed extraterritoriale e sul contratto di rete, verrà introdotto lo studio di un contratto di rete stipulato l’8 giugno 2010 tra le aziende che costituiscono il Polo Alta Moda Area Vestina. Attraverso le evidenze emerse da alcune interviste in profondità, sarà indagato il ruolo dell’azienda Brioni nella duplice veste di key player del territorio e di impresa capofila del contratto di rete analizzato e saranno esaminati gli altri attori che compongono il Polo Alta Moda. Le interviste realizzate hanno coinvolto i manager dell’impresa capofila del contratto di rete, il vice presidente Confindustria Pescara e presidente della Sezione Unificata Sistema Moda Chieti Pescara e il direttore delle fondazioni partecipanti al contratto.   This case study aims to validate how a culture-driven collaboration between firms could trigger the competitiveness of a Country, starting from a specific territorial culture. Specifically, it intends to investigate the validity of a new interpretation of the territorial governance processes, named “situationist”, that supports the prevailing

  16. Google e il patrimonio culturale italiano

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Bonacini

    2014-01-01

    ITIn questo lavoro si intende ricostruire il ruolo svolto dal motore di ricerca google nella moderna società culturale e, soprattutto, il ruolo svolto da google nella comunicazione e valorizzazione del patrimonio culturale italiano attraverso il cultural institute e tutti i software e gli applicativi che google mette a disposizione della cultura.ENAim of this paper is the reconstruction of google’s role in modern cultural society and, above all, its role through the google cultural institute ...

  17. Il fuoco della fusione termonucleare controllata

    CERN Document Server

    Caldirola, Piero; Sindoni, Elio

    1984-01-01

    Per realizzare la fusione termonucleare controllata, cioè catturare e dominare il fuoco che accende gli astri, e ottenere così una nuova fonte di energia praticamente illimitata e a basso costo, si richiede uno sforzo collettivo e unitario globale: non esiste infatti nazione al mondo che sia in grado, singolarmente presa, di affrontare il problema, sia per le risorse finanziarie necessarie all'impresa sia per il numero dei ricercatori che dovranno dedicarvisi.

  18. VULCANOLOGIA E SISMOLOGIA: IL GIAPPONE E NAPOLI

    OpenAIRE

    E. Cubellis

    2012-01-01

    Il Giappone dista da Napoli 10.000 km ma l’arcipelago giapponese ha in comune con il Golfo di Napoli e la Campania Felix dei Romani la genesi geologica, in quanto sono stati formati da processi geodinamici del tutto simili, come la natura vulcanica dei suoli, il morbido paesaggio dei coni e dei crateri vulcanici, le manifestazioni fumaroliche delle «solfatare» ed il termalismo quali spie della presenza di masse di magma intrappolate nella crosta a piccola profondità, la sism...

  19. Filosofia naturale della causalità e del caso

    CERN Document Server

    Born, Max

    1962-01-01

    Introduzione ; causalità e determinismo ; esemplificazione : l'astronomia e la meccanica delle particelle ; contiguità ; principio di antecedenza e termodinamica ; caso ; caso e antecedenza ; materia ; caso ; conclusioni metafisiche.

  20. DMPD: Signaling by IL-12 and IL-23 and the immunoregulatory roles of STAT4. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15546391 Signaling by IL-12 and IL-23 and the immunoregulatory roles of STAT4. Watf...html) (.csml) Show Signaling by IL-12 and IL-23 and the immunoregulatory roles of STAT4. PubmedID 15546391 T...itle Signaling by IL-12 and IL-23 and the immunoregulatory roles of STAT4. Author

  1. Potential of IL-1, IL-18 and Inflammasome Inhibition for the Treatment of Inflammatory Skin Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Fenini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, intracellular protein complexes known as the inflammasomes were discovered and were shown to have a crucial role in the sensing of intracellular pathogen- and danger-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and DAMPs. Activation of the inflammasomes results in the processing and subsequent secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Several autoinflammatory disorders such as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes and Familial Mediterranean Fever have been associated with mutations of genes encoding inflammasome components. Moreover, the importance of IL-1 has been reported for an increasing number of autoinflammatory skin diseases including but not limited to deficiency of IL-1 receptor antagonist, mevalonate kinase deficiency and PAPA syndrome. Recent findings have revealed that excessive IL-1 release induced by harmful stimuli likely contributes to the pathogenesis of common dermatological diseases such as acne vulgaris or seborrheic dermatitis. A key pathogenic feature of these diseases is IL-1β-induced neutrophil recruitment to the skin. IL-1β blockade may therefore represent a promising therapeutic approach. Several case reports and clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of IL-1 inhibition in the treatment of these skin disorders. Next to the recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra Anakinra and the soluble decoy Rilonacept, the anti-IL-1α monoclonal antibody MABp1 and anti-IL-1β Canakinumab but also Gevokizumab, LY2189102 and P2D7KK, offer valid alternatives to target IL-1. Although less thoroughly investigated, an involvement of IL-18 in the development of cutaneous inflammatory disorders is also suspected. The present review describes the role of IL-1 in diseases with skin involvement and gives an overview of the relevant studies discussing the therapeutic potential of modulating the secretion and activity of IL-1 and IL-18 in such diseases.

  2. Evidence for Involvement of IL-9 and IL-22 in Cows' Milk Allergy in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Karina V; Flor Silveira, Vera L; Laranjeira, Marisa S; Wandalsen, Neusa F; Passeti, Susana; de Oliveira, Roberta; Munekata, Regina V; Noakes, Paul S; Miles, Elizabeth A; Calder, Philip C

    2017-09-21

    Although allergic inflammation is characterized by a T helper (Th) 2-dominant immune response, the discovery of a role for new T cell subsets in inflammatory diseases has added an additional layer of complexity to the understanding of the pathogeneses of allergic diseases. We evaluated plasma cytokine profiles in infants with cows' milk allergy (CMA), who were being treated with an elimination diet. In a prospective, randomized and controlled study, infants (aged 8.4 ± 3.9 months) with CMA were treated with an elimination diet for 120 days, which replaced cows' milk with a hydrolysed soy protein formula ( n = 26) or a free amino acid formula ( n = 20). Blood samples were collected before treatment during active disease (T0) and after 120 days, when symptoms were absent (T1). Plasma cytokine concentrations were measured. Infants with CMA had higher plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 and lower concentrations of IL-9, IL-17A and interferon-γ, compared with healthy breast-fed infants. At T0, there was a positive correlation between blood eosinophil numbers and plasma concentrations of IL-4, IL-9, IL-17A and IL-22. Treatment with a cows' milk elimination diet resulted in a decrease in plasma IL-4, IL-9, IL-13 and IL-22 and an increase in plasma IL-17A. We conclude that IL-4 and IL-13 are elevated in active CMA. The association of IL-9 and IL-22 with eosinophilia, and the decrease in these two cytokines with cows' milk elimination, suggests that they both play a role in the symptoms observed in CMA and may be important targets for future interventions.

  3. Evidence for Involvement of IL-9 and IL-22 in Cows’ Milk Allergy in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina V. Barros

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although allergic inflammation is characterized by a T helper (Th 2-dominant immune response, the discovery of a role for new T cell subsets in inflammatory diseases has added an additional layer of complexity to the understanding of the pathogeneses of allergic diseases. We evaluated plasma cytokine profiles in infants with cows’ milk allergy (CMA, who were being treated with an elimination diet. In a prospective, randomized and controlled study, infants (aged 8.4 ± 3.9 months with CMA were treated with an elimination diet for 120 days, which replaced cows’ milk with a hydrolysed soy protein formula (n = 26 or a free amino acid formula (n = 20. Blood samples were collected before treatment during active disease (T0 and after 120 days, when symptoms were absent (T1. Plasma cytokine concentrations were measured. Infants with CMA had higher plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL-4 and IL-13 and lower concentrations of IL-9, IL-17A and interferon-γ, compared with healthy breast-fed infants. At T0, there was a positive correlation between blood eosinophil numbers and plasma concentrations of IL-4, IL-9, IL-17A and IL-22. Treatment with a cows’ milk elimination diet resulted in a decrease in plasma IL-4, IL-9, IL-13 and IL-22 and an increase in plasma IL-17A. We conclude that IL-4 and IL-13 are elevated in active CMA. The association of IL-9 and IL-22 with eosinophilia, and the decrease in these two cytokines with cows’ milk elimination, suggests that they both play a role in the symptoms observed in CMA and may be important targets for future interventions.

  4. IL-15 and IL-17F are differentially regulated and expressed in mycosis fungoides (MF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev-Olsen, Andreas; Litvinov, Ivan V; Fredholm, Simon M

    2014-01-01

    Skin lesions from mycosis fungoides (MF) patients display an increased expression of interleukin-15 (IL-15), IL-17F, and other cytokines implicated in inflammation and malignant cell proliferation in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). In the leukemic variant of CTCL, Sézary syndrome (SS), IL-2...... and IL-15 trigger activation of the Jak-3/STAT3 pathway and transcription of IL17A gene, whereas it is unknown what causes IL-15 expression, Jak3/STAT3 activation, and production of IL-17F in MF. Here, we studied the expression and regulation of IL-15 and its relation to IL-17F in MF cell lines and skin...... lesions from 60 MF patients. We show that: (1) the spontaneous IL-15 mRNA expression is resistant to Jak3 and STAT3 inhibitors at concentrations that profoundly inhibit STAT3 activation and IL-17F mRNA expression; (2) anti-IL-15 antibody blocks STAT3 activation induced by exogenous IL-15 in non...

  5. The impact of the IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 gene polymorphisms on the development of Behcet's disease and their association with the phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barış, Savaş; Akyürek, Ömer; Dursun, Ahmet; Akyol, Mesut

    2016-05-06

    This trial was designed to investigate the effects of the interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 gene polymorphisms on Behcet's disease (BD) occurrence and the association between the polymorphisms and the phenotype. The study population consisted of 71 patients and 70 age and gender-matched healthy subjects. Each of the participants had 2cc of blood withdrawn, which was placed into a whole blood tube, and the DNA was obtained using the NucleoSpin(®) Blood DNA Isolation kit. To display the band lengths, the products were amplified using the primary pairs of the interleukins investigated and developed in a 2% agarose gel. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to the IL-1Ra, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and the IL-10 gene polymorphism distributions. In the patient group the IL-1RN2 gene polymorphism was detected to be statistically correlated with the presence of articular involvement (p=0.0283) and the IL-1β gene polymorphism was statistically correlated with the presence of an ocular lesion (p=0.0178). The evaluation of the IL-2 gene polymorphism (p=0.0065) and IL-10 gene polymorphism (p=0.0483) distributions with respect to age of BD onset revealed a statistically significant distribution. The statistical correlations between the articular involvement and IL-1RN, the ocular involvement and the IL-1β, and the age of disease onset and the IL-2 and IL-10 gene polymorphisms, detected for the first time in the literature, suggest that these polymorphisms could be statistically associated with the disease symptoms and used as prognostic factors. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Psoriasis is not associated with IL-12p70/IL-12p40 production and IL12B promoter polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litjens, Nicolle H R; van der Plas, Mariena J A; Ravensbergen, Bep

    2004-01-01

    Psoriasis is a type-1 T cell-mediated, chronic inflammatory disease. Since interleukin (IL)-12p70 promotes the development of type-1 T cells, we investigated whether psoriasis is associated with an increased production of this cyctokine by blood cells. Results revealed that the production of IL-1...

  7. L’infragilimento da idrogeno. Un caso di studio in una barra di comandi di un velivolo dell’aviazione generale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Aiello

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available La degradazione delle caratteristiche meccaniche di un materiale di impiego aeronautico ha pesanti ricadute sulla sicurezza del volo. Tale degradazione si può manifestare sia per l’effetto combinato tra l’ambiente nel quale il velivolo opera e le sollecitazioni cui è sottoposto sia che a causa di anomalie avvenute in fase produttiva che, dopo un periodo di incubazione, manifestano il loro pericoloso effetto: è questo il caso dell’infragilimento da idrogeno che, nel presente articolo che esamina sia i punti critici del processo di produzione che possono indurlo che la morfologia delle superfici di rottura che ad esso si possono ricondurre. Viene infine presentato un caso di studio che ha interessato un velivolo dell’aviazione generale nel quale è stato individuato l’infragilimento da idrogeno di un componente in acciaio AISI 4130 è stata individuata quale causa primaria dell’incidente.

  8. Il nuovo server per il calcolo parallelo al CILEA: HP 9000 Enterprise Server K580

    OpenAIRE

    Bonini, Francesca

    1999-01-01

    In questo articolo è presentato il nuovo server ad alte prestazioni, per il calcolo parallelo, disponibile al Cilea. In particolare, viene fornita una breve descrizione dei pacchetti software disponibili, della configurazione e delle modalità di utilizzo della macchina.

  9. Macrophage function in tissue repair and remodeling requires IL-4 or IL-13 with apoptotic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosurgi, Lidia; Cao, Y. Grace; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Tucci, Andrea; Hughes, Lindsey D.; Kong, Yong; Weinstein, Jason S.; Licona-Limon, Paula; Schmid, Edward T.; Pelorosso, Facundo; Gagliani, Nicola; Craft, Joseph E.; Flavell, Richard A.; Ghosh, Sourav; Rothlin, Carla V.

    2017-01-01

    Tissue repair is a subset of a broad repertoire of interleukin-4 (IL-4)- and IL-13-dependent host responses during helminth infection. Here we show that IL-4 or IL-13 alone was not sufficient, but IL-4 or IL-13 together with apoptotic cells induced the tissue repair program in macrophages. Genetic ablation of sensors of apoptotic cells impaired the proliferation of tissue-resident macrophages and the induction of anti-inflammatory and tissue repair genes in the lungs after helminth infection or in the gut after induction of colitis. By contrast, the recognition of apoptotic cells was dispensable for cytokine-dependent induction of pattern recognition receptor, cell adhesion, or chemotaxis genes in macrophages. Detection of apoptotic cells can therefore spatially compartmentalize or prevent premature or ectopic activity of pleiotropic, soluble cytokines such as IL-4 or IL-13. PMID:28495875

  10. Increased IL-10 mRNA and IL-23 mRNA expression in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, Martin; Sorensen, P; Khademi, M

    2008-01-01

    volunteers served to confirm initial findings. mRNA was analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: We found elevated expression of interleukin (IL)-23 and IL-10 in untreated MS patients. IFN-beta therapy increased IL-10 and decreased IL-23 expression independently...... of the regulatory cytokine IL-10. The elevated IL-23 mRNA levels in MS patients are noteworthy in view of the newly discovered IL-23-driven Th17 T-cell subset, which is crucial in animal models of MS. Since IFN-beta therapy resulted in decreased IL-23 mRNA levels, the Th17 axis could be another target of IFN...

  11. Transcytosis of IL-11 and Apical Redirection of gp130 Is Mediated by IL-11α Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloufar Monhasery

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-11 signaling is involved in various processes, including epithelial intestinal cell regeneration and embryo implantation. IL-11 signaling is initiated upon binding of IL-11 to IL-11R1 or IL-11R2, two IL-11α-receptor splice variants, and gp130. Here, we show that IL-11 signaling via IL-11R1/2:gp130 complexes occurs on both the apical and basolateral sides of polarized cells, whereas IL-6 signaling via IL-6R:gp130 complexes is restricted to the basolateral side. We show that basolaterally supplied IL-11 is transported and released to the apical extracellular space via transcytosis in an IL-11R1-dependent manner. By contrast, IL-6R and IL-11R2 do not promote transcytosis. In addition, we show that transcytosis of IL-11 is dependent on the intracellular domain of IL-11R1 and that synthetic transfer of the intracellular domain of IL-11R1 to IL-6R promotes transcytosis of IL-6. Our data define IL-11R as a cytokine receptor with transcytotic activity by which IL-11 and IL-6:soluble IL-6R complexes are transported across cellular barriers.

  12. Eccrine Sweat Contains IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-31 and Activates Epidermal Keratinocytes as a Danger Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiuju; Okazaki, Hidenori; Hanakawa, Yasushi; Murakami, Masamoto; Tohyama, Mikiko; Shirakata, Yuji; Sayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Eccrine sweat is secreted onto the skin's surface and is not harmful to normal skin, but can exacerbate eczematous lesions in atopic dermatitis. Although eccrine sweat contains a number of minerals, proteins, and proteolytic enzymes, how it causes skin inflammation is not clear. We hypothesized that it stimulates keratinocytes directly, as a danger signal. Eccrine sweat was collected from the arms of healthy volunteers after exercise, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the sweat were quantified by ELISA. We detected the presence of IL-1α, IL-1β, and high levels of IL-31 in sweat samples. To investigate whether sweat activates keratinocytes, normal human keratinocytes were stimulated with concentrated sweat. Western blot analysis demonstrated the activation of NF-κB, ERK, and JNK signaling in sweat-stimulated keratinocytes. Real-time PCR using total RNA and ELISA analysis of supernatants showed the upregulation of IL-8 and IL-1β by sweat. Furthermore, pretreatment with IL-1R antagonist blocked sweat-stimulated cytokine production and signal activation, indicating that bioactive IL-1 is a major factor in the activation of keratinocytes by sweat. Moreover, IL-31 seems to be another sweat stimulator that activates keratinocytes to produce inflammatory cytokine, CCL2. Sweat is secreted onto the skin's surface and does not come into contact with keratinocytes in normal skin. However, in skin with a defective cutaneous barrier, such as atopic dermatitis-affected skin, sweat cytokines can directly act on epidermal keratinocytes, resulting in their activation. In conclusion, eccrine sweat contains proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1 and IL-31, and activates epidermal keratinocytes as a danger signal. PMID:23874436

  13. Eccrine sweat contains IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-31 and activates epidermal keratinocytes as a danger signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuju Dai

    Full Text Available Eccrine sweat is secreted onto the skin's surface and is not harmful to normal skin, but can exacerbate eczematous lesions in atopic dermatitis. Although eccrine sweat contains a number of minerals, proteins, and proteolytic enzymes, how it causes skin inflammation is not clear. We hypothesized that it stimulates keratinocytes directly, as a danger signal. Eccrine sweat was collected from the arms of healthy volunteers after exercise, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the sweat were quantified by ELISA. We detected the presence of IL-1α, IL-1β, and high levels of IL-31 in sweat samples. To investigate whether sweat activates keratinocytes, normal human keratinocytes were stimulated with concentrated sweat. Western blot analysis demonstrated the activation of NF-κB, ERK, and JNK signaling in sweat-stimulated keratinocytes. Real-time PCR using total RNA and ELISA analysis of supernatants showed the upregulation of IL-8 and IL-1β by sweat. Furthermore, pretreatment with IL-1R antagonist blocked sweat-stimulated cytokine production and signal activation, indicating that bioactive IL-1 is a major factor in the activation of keratinocytes by sweat. Moreover, IL-31 seems to be another sweat stimulator that activates keratinocytes to produce inflammatory cytokine, CCL2. Sweat is secreted onto the skin's surface and does not come into contact with keratinocytes in normal skin. However, in skin with a defective cutaneous barrier, such as atopic dermatitis-affected skin, sweat cytokines can directly act on epidermal keratinocytes, resulting in their activation. In conclusion, eccrine sweat contains proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1 and IL-31, and activates epidermal keratinocytes as a danger signal.

  14. IL-8 dictates glycosaminoglycan binding and stability of IL-18 in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2010-02-01

    Dysregulation of airway inflammation contributes to lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF). Inflammation is mediated by inflammatory cytokines, including IL-8, which illustrates an increase in biological half-life and proinflammatory activity when bound to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The aim of this project was to compare IL-8 and IL-18 for their relative stability, activity, and interaction with GAGs, including chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, and heparan sulfate, present in high quantities in the lungs of patients with CF. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected from patients with CF (n = 28), non-CF controls (n = 14), and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 12). Increased levels of IL-8 and reduced concentrations of IL-18 were detected in bronchial samples obtained from CF individuals. The low level of IL-18 was not a defect in IL-18 production, as the pro- and mature forms of the molecule were expressed and produced by CF epithelial cells and monocytes. There was, however, a marked competition between IL-8 and IL-18 for binding to GAGs. A pronounced loss of IL-18 binding capacity occurred in the presence of IL-8, which displaced IL-18 from these anionic-matrices, rendering the cytokine susceptible to proteolytic degradation by neutrophil elastase. As a biological consequence of IL-18 degradation, reduced levels of IL-2 were secreted by Jurkat T lymphocytes. In conclusion, a novel mechanism has been identified highlighting the potential of IL-8 to determine the fate of other inflammatory molecules, such as IL-18, within the inflammatory milieu of the CF lung.

  15. IL-22 Restrains Tapeworm-Mediated Protection against Experimental Colitis via Regulation of IL-25 Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L Reyes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-22, an immune cell-derived cytokine whose receptor expression is restricted to non-immune cells (e.g. epithelial cells, can be anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory. Mice infected with the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta are protected from dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS-induced colitis. Here we assessed expulsion of H. diminuta, the concomitant immune response and the outcome of DNBS-induced colitis in wild-type (WT and IL-22 deficient mice (IL-22-/- ± infection. Interleukin-22-/- mice had a mildly impaired ability to expel the worm and this correlated with reduced or delayed induction of TH2 immunity as measured by splenic and mesenteric lymph node production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 and intestinal Muc-2 mRNA and goblet cell hyperplasia; in contrast, IL-25 increased in the small intestine of IL-22-/- mice 8 and 12 days post-infection compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments revealed that H. diminuta directly evoked epithelial production of IL-25 that was inhibited by recombinant IL-22. Also, IL-10 and markers of regulatory T cells were increased in IL-22-/- mice that displayed less DNBS (3 mg, ir. 72h-induced colitis. Wild-type mice infected with H. diminuta were protected from colitis, as were infected IL-22-/- mice and the latter to a degree that they were almost indistinguishable from control, non-DNBS treated mice. Finally, treatment with anti-IL-25 antibodies exaggerated DNBS-induced colitis in IL-22-/- mice and blocked the anti-colitic effect of infection with H. diminuta. Thus, IL-22 is identified as an endogenous brake on helminth-elicited TH2 immunity, reducing the efficacy of expulsion of H. diminuta and limiting the effectiveness of the anti-colitic events mobilized following infection with H. diminuta in a non-permissive host.

  16. The Relationship of Cytokines IL-13 and IL-17 with Autoantibodies Profile in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Siloşi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. In the present study, we aimed to assess the concentrations of IL-13 and IL-17 in serum of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (eRA, the investigation of correlation between the concentrations of these cytokines and disease activity score, and the concentration of some autoantibodies and the evaluation of the utility of IL-13 and -17 concentration measurements as markers of disease activity. Materials and Methods. Serum samples were collected from 30 patients and from 28 controls and analysed parameters. Results. The serum concentrations of IL-13, IL-17, anti-CCP, and IgM-RF were statistically significantly higher in patients with eRA, compared to the controls. IL-13 concentrations in the severe and moderate groups with eRA were statistically higher than in the mild and control groups. Also, in the case of IL-17, serum concentrations increased proportionally with the disease activity of eRA. We observe that concentrations of IL-13 and -17 did not correlate with autoantibodies. IL-17 concentration significantly positively correlated with CRP, while IL-13 concentration significantly negatively correlated with CRP. Disease activity score, DAS28, was strongly positively correlated with levels of ESR and weakly positively correlated with concentrations of anti-RA33 autoantibodies. IL-13 has a higher diagnostic utility than IL-17, CRP, ESR, IgM-RF, and anti-CCP as markers of disease activity. Conclusions. The presence of higher IL-13 and IL-17 serum levels in patients, compared with those of controls, confirms that these markers, found with high specificity, might be involved in the pathogenesis of eRA. IL-13 and IL-17 might be of better usefulness in the prediction of eRA activity status than IgM-RF and anti-CCP.

  17. Leucinose: estudo de um caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Valeriana L. Moura-Ribeiro

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Apresentação de um caso de leucinose em recém-nascido do sexo feminino, diagnosticado no 26º dia de vida. O quadro neurológico se caracterizava por alteração do tono muscular, convulsões, letargia e dificuldade respiratória. A demonstração do aumento de aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada através do aminoacidograma constituiu o teste diagnóstico mais importante e o tratamento com MSUD resultou na boa evolução da paciente.

  18. Neurofibromatosis : reporte de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Serna, Francisco Levi; Ramírez Usuga, Omar Alberto

    2010-01-01

    La neurofibromatosis tipo I (NF1) es una alteración autosómica dominante que se manifiesta con múltiples lesiones cutáneas, llamadas neurofibromas. Las manifestaciones orales han sido reportadas en porcentajes bajos, siendo la lengua el lugar afectado con mayor frecuencia. Presentamos el caso de una paciente afectada por neurofibromas que invaden cavidad oral y lengua que fue tratada en el servicio de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial del Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl. Type I Neurof...

  19. IL6 and IL10 are genetic susceptibility factors of periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scapoli, Luca; Girardi, Ambra; Palmieri, Annalisa; Carinci, Francesco; Testori, Tiziano; Zuffetti, Francesco; Monguzzi, Riccardo; Lauritano, Dorina

    2012-12-01

    Periodontitis is a disease mainly caused by a chronic infection of tissues that support the teeth. Several factors, such as diabetes, smoking and oral care, as well as genetic susceptibility can influence both the risk to develop periodontitis and its progression. The aim of the investigation was to test whether alleles of candidate genes were associated with periodontitis. A case control study was performed with a cohort of 184 patients with chronic periodontitis and 231 healthy controls from the Italian population. A total of six single nucleotide polymorphisms from five candidate genes, i.e., IL1A, IL1B, IL6, IL10 and vitamin D receptor, were investigated. Evidence of association were obtained for rs1800795 mapping in IL6 (P value = 0.01) as well as for the rs1800872 mapping in IL10 (P = 0.04). The rarer variant allele lowered the risk to develop periodontitis at IL6 (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.69 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.51-0.93]) and increased the risk at IL10 (OR = 1.38 [95% CI 1.01-1.86]). The present investigation indicated that polymorphisms of IL6 and IL10 constitute risk factors for chronic periodontitis, while there was no evidence implicating a specific IL1A or IL1B genotype.

  20. IL-2 loaded dextran microspheres with attractive histocompatibility properties for local IL-2 cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, JW; Van Luyn, MJA; Cade, JA; Hennink, WE; Bijleveld, C; Den Otter, W

    2003-01-01

    Biodegradable dextran microspheres (MS) were developed as a slow-release system for interleukin-2 (IL-2) to apply them for local IL-2 therapy of cancer. We describe the tissue reactions induced by these MS without or with IL-2 in rats. Dextran MS stain bright red-purple with the periodic acid Schiff

  1. Interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-17F and asthma in Saudi Arabia: mRNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win-07

    3The Asthma Research chair, Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi .... Social Sciences (SPSS) program version 17. ... Table 2. Relative levels of IL17A and IL17F transcripts in asthmatic patients and control subjects. Parameter. Case. Mean. SD. SEM. P-value. IL17A/GAPDH.

  2. IL-2 and IL-15 regulate CD154 expression on activated CD4 T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, S; Bonyhadi, M; Odum, Niels

    2000-01-01

    activated CD4 T cells could respond to IL-2, or the related cytokine IL-15, by de novo CD154 production and expression without requiring an additional signal from CD3 and CD28. These results provide evidence that CD28 costimulation of CD4 T cells, through autocrine IL-2 production, maintains high levels...

  3. Monoclonal Antibodies Against IL-13 and IL-31RA in Development for Atopic Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Carsten R; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-01-01

    The IL-13 and IL-31 cytokines and inflammatory pathways have been identified as important for atopic dermatitis (AD) pathophysiology. Monoclonal antibodies against IL-13 have been studied for the treatment of asthma since 2011. More recently, two phase two trials have been completed with these an...

  4. Effects of HV-CRRT on PCT, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 in patients with pancreatitis complicated by acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changbo; Li, Mu; Cao, Shixiong; Wang, Jianzhong; Huang, Xiaoqiong; Zhong, Weizhen

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of high-volume continuous renal replacement therapy (HV-CRRT) on procalcitonin (PCT), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 in acute pancreatitis complicated by acute renal failure. Eighty-six patients with acute pancreatitis complicated with acute renal failure were selected from September 2014 to September 2016 in our hospital, and were treated by continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH). The patients were randomly divided into the observation group, treated by the HV-CVVH model with a displacement rate of 4 l/h, and the control group, treated by the normal capacity model with a displacement rate of 2 l/h. The levels of PCT, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 in serum were measured by ELISA before and 2, 6 and 12 h after treatment, and 12 h after CVVH. The serum PCT and TNF-α levels in the two groups were decreased at 2 h after treatment. The lowest levels appeared at 6 h after treatment, and then recovered, but remained lower than those before treatment (pacute renal failure. Additionally, replacement of the blood filter at appropriate time-points can improve the treatment efficacy.

  5. Knocking out IL-6 by vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Pia; Hougs, Lotte; Barington, Torben

    2004-01-01

    Inappropriate expression of IL-6 plays a role in various inflammatory conditions, degenerative diseases, and cancers. Several model systems have been developed that can specifically block IL-6-receptor interactions. Here we present a simple and highly effective approach based on vaccination...

  6. IL-6 Receptor Isoforms and Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    prepared by phenol/chloroform extraction and digested overnight with restriction enzymes. Samples were loaded onto a 0.8% agarose gel in tris-acetate EDTA...previously described [11]. The transfection of human IL6 and IL6Ra sequences (ATCC) cloned into pcDNA plasmid ( Invitro - gen) or empty vector (pcDNA

  7. Association study of IL2/IL21 and FcgRIIa: significant association with the IL2/IL21 region in Scandinavian coeliac disease families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovic, S; Amundsen, S S; Lie, B A; Gudjónsdóttir, A H; Ascher, H; Ek, J; van Heel, D A; Nilsson, S; Sollid, L M; Torinsson Naluai, A

    2008-06-01

    The first genome-wide association study performed in a UK coeliac disease (CD) case-control cohort revealed association with a linkage disequilibrium block containing the KIAA1109/Tenr/IL2/IL21 genes. Also recently, an association with a non-synonymous polymorphism in FcgammaRIIa (CD32a) was reported in CD with an unusually strong P-value. We aimed to replicate the reported associations with the single nucleotide polymorphisms rs13119723 A>G and rs6822844 G>T in the KIAA1109/Tenr/IL2/IL21 region and rs1801274 G>A in the FcgammaRIIa gene in a family sample consisting of 325 Swedish/Norwegian families using the robust transmission disequilibrium test. The family sample used in this study included 100 families with two or more children affected by CD and 225 families with one affected child. We could confirm significant association between the polymorphisms rs13119723 A>G and rs6822844 G>T located in the KIAA1109/Tenr/IL2/IL21 region and CD (P-value 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). However, we found no association with the FcgammaRIIa rs1801274 G>A polymorphism (P-value=0.3). In conclusion, our results support the KIAA1109/Tenr/IL2/IL21 region as a true CD susceptibility region.

  8. Autocrine IL-6 mediates pituitary tumor senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Mariana; Ajler, Pablo; Carrizo, Guillermo; Cervio, Andrés; Sevlever, Gustavo; Stalla, Günter K.; Arzt, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a stable proliferative arrest state. Pituitary adenomas are frequent and mostly benign, but the mechanism for this remains unknown. IL-6 is involved in pituitary tumor progression and is produced by the tumoral cells. In a cell autonomous fashion, IL-6 participates in oncogene-induced senescence in transduced human melanocytes. Here we prove that autocrine IL-6 participates in pituitary tumor senescence. Endogenous IL-6 inhibition in somatotroph MtT/S shRNA stable clones results in decreased SA-β-gal activity and p16INK4a but increased pRb, proliferation and invasion. Nude mice injected with IL-6 silenced clones develop tumors contrary to MtT/S wild type that do not, demonstrating that clones that escape senescence are capable of becoming tumorigenic. When endogenous IL-6 is silenced, cell cultures derived from positive SA-β-gal human tumor samples decrease the expression of the senescence marker. Our results establish that IL-6 contributes to maintain senescence by its autocrine action, providing a natural model of IL-6 mediated benign adenoma senescence. PMID:27902467

  9. Il valore del microblogging nei processi formativi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Freedman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In questo articolo, Terry Freedman guarda alle modalità con cui servizi di microblogging come Twitter, Edmodo e Cirip vengono utilizzati nei processi formativi, sia in aula sia per lo sviluppo professionale. Sebbene il microblogging, a prima vista, non si presenti particolarmente utile per l'insegnamento e l'apprendimento, si dimostra vero esattamente il contrario.

  10. [Effect of various combinations of IL2, IL12 and IL15 on function of human peripheral blood derived NK cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Ma, Jian; Wu, Xiao-Xiong; Li, Meng; Wang, Fei-Fei; DA, Wan-Ming; Yu, Li; Gao, Chun-Ji

    2009-08-01

    This study was purposed to explore the changes in biological functions of human peripheral blood derived NK Cells after ex vivo expansion with different combinations of interleukin IL2 and/or IL12, IL15. According to different combination of cytokines, cultured NK cells were divided into 4 groups: group IL2, group IL2 + IL12, group IL2 + IL15 and group IL2 + IL15 + IL12. The group in which NK cells were cultured without cytokines was used as control. The cytotoxicity of cultured NK cells to target K562 cells was determined by using cell counting kit-8; the level of IFN-gamma in supernatants of NK cell culture was detected by ELISA; the perforin and granzyme B mRNA expressions were assayed by competitive quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that the cytotoxicity of expanded NK cells in groups cultured with cytokines at different E:T ratio was significantly higher than that in group without cytokines (p IL2 + IL15 + IL12 group seem to be slightly higher than that in IL2 + IL15 group, but there was no statistic difference (p > 0.05). The IFN-gamma levels in the supernatants of NK cell culture in the presence of cytokines significantly increased, and the IFN-gamma levels in IL2 + IL15 + IL12 group and IL2 + IL12 group were significantly higher than that in others (p IL2 and IL15 have synergistic effect on strengthening cytotoxicity of NK cells and promoting cell expansion. However, the main function of IL12 promotes NK cells to secrete IFN-gamma, which plays a role in immunoregulation.

  11. Synergistic effects of IL-7 and IL-12 on human T cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, P T; Grant, A J; Siegel, J P

    1995-05-15

    We have previously demonstrated that human rIL-12 alone can augment the development of cytotoxic activity in stimulated CD8+ T cells. The present study was undertaken to examine the interactions of rIL-7 and rIL-12 on human peripheral blood T cell activation and CTL differentiation. Purified T lymphocytes were pulsed overnight with immobilized alpha-CD3 and then cultured for 3 additional days with IL-7 and/or IL-12. The combination of IL-7 and IL-12 synergistically enhanced the proliferation of either fresh CD3+ T cells or an IL-2-dependent CD4+ T cell line, Kit-225-K6. This synergy was seen on both subsets of T cells; however, CD8+ T cells were usually more responsive to IL-7 and IL-12 at lower concentrations than were CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, these cytokines additively/synergistically augmented the cytotoxic activity of CD8+ T cells. Abs to IL-2 and IL-2R alpha blocked the synergistic effect on proliferation of CD4+ T cells, but had a minimal effect on the synergistic response of the proliferative and cytotoxic activity of CD8+ T cells. Examination of the effects of IL-7 and IL-12 on the expression of IL-12 receptor on T cells revealed an increase in the subunit of IL-12R by IL-7 as determined by flow cytometric analysis. We analyzed the effects on IFN-gamma production by CD8+ T cells and found that IL-7 alone did not induce detectable levels of IFN-gamma production but together with IL-12 it synergistically enhanced the production of IFN-gamma. We also found that IFN-gamma was probably not required for enhanced CTL activity of CD8+ T cells, because Ab to human IFN-gamma did not block additive/synergistic effects of either cytokine. The synergistic stimulatory activity of IL-7 and IL-12 may be of significance in vivo and may provide an alternative mechanism of stimulating T cells for use in immunotherapy.

  12. Regulation of inflammatory responses by IL-17F

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xuexian O.; Chang, Seon Hee; Park, Heon; Nurieva, Roza; Shah, Bhavin; Acero, Luis; Wang, Yi-Hong; Schluns, Kimberly S.; Broaddus, Russell R.; Zhu, Zhou; Dong, Chen

    2008-01-01

    Although interleukin (IL) 17 has been extensively characterized, the function of IL-17F, which has an expression pattern regulated similarly to IL-17, is poorly understood. We show that like IL-17, IL-17F regulates proinflammatory gene expression in vitro, and this requires IL-17 receptor A, tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated factor 6, and Act1. In vivo, overexpression of IL-17F in lung epithelium led to infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages and mucus hyperplasia, similar to obse...

  13. Un caso de sindrome de Rett

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rojas, Daicy; Omana, Atilio; Salinas, Pedro Jose

    2000-01-01

    ... de sindrome de Rett, cumpliendo con los criterios de diagnostico para el sindrome de Rett clasico, segun Baden-Baden. Este caso es de gran interes, tanto por la baja frecuencia de los casos y lo poco conocido para los profesionales de la salud, como por la gran diversidad de manifestaciones clinicas que se presentan en los diferentes estadios de la evolucion...

  14. IL-1 family members IL-18 and IL-33 upregulate the inflammatory potential of differentiated human Th1 and Th2 cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Lars; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2012-01-01

    The IL-1 family members IL-1ß, IL-18, and IL-33 are potent cytokines in relationship to amplifying the CD4(+) T cell cytokine production. To evaluate their impact on in vitro-differentiated human Th1 and Th2 cultures, such cultures were established from naive T cells, purified from healthy blood...... had an increased IL-5 secretion. Interestingly, E4BP4 gene expression and the percentage of E4BP4(+) cells of the recently shown IL-10 transcriptional regulator E4BP4 correlated with IL-10 gene expression and protein secretion in Th1 cultures. Taken together, we report that the IL-1 family "alarmins...

  15. Increased plasma levels of IL-21 and IL-23 in spondyloarthritis are not associated with clinical and MRI findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Rasmussen, Tue Kruse; Hvid, Malene

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the role of the Th17-related cytokines interleukin-17A (IL-17A), IL-21, and IL-23 in spondyloarthritis (SpA) by examining their association with disease activity and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with SpA (n = 80). Furthermore, to investigate...... the cellular origins of the cytokines, paired mononuclear cells from blood and synovial fluid were examined for the expression of IL-17A, IL-21, and IL-23R using multicolor flow cytometry. Both IL-21 and IL-23 levels were increased in plasma from SpA patients compared with healthy volunteers (P ....05), whereas IL-17A was not. A significant correlation was observed between individual levels of IL-21 and IL-23 (r = 0.7, P IL-17A, IL-21, and IL-23 with C-reactive protein (CRP), MRI changes, and clinical scoring (BASMI, BASFI, and BASDAI) were observed...

  16. Regulation of inflammatory responses by IL-17F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuexian O.; Chang, Seon Hee; Park, Heon; Nurieva, Roza; Shah, Bhavin; Acero, Luis; Wang, Yi-Hong; Schluns, Kimberly S.; Broaddus, Russell R.; Zhu, Zhou; Dong, Chen

    2008-01-01

    Although interleukin (IL) 17 has been extensively characterized, the function of IL-17F, which has an expression pattern regulated similarly to IL-17, is poorly understood. We show that like IL-17, IL-17F regulates proinflammatory gene expression in vitro, and this requires IL-17 receptor A, tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated factor 6, and Act1. In vivo, overexpression of IL-17F in lung epithelium led to infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages and mucus hyperplasia, similar to observations made in IL-17 transgenic mice. To further understand the function of IL-17F, we generated and analyzed mice deficient in IL-17F or IL-17. IL-17, but not IL-17F, was required for the initiation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Mice deficient in IL-17F, but not IL-17, had defective airway neutrophilia in response to allergen challenge. Moreover, in an asthma model, although IL-17 deficiency reduced T helper type 2 responses, IL-17F–deficient mice displayed enhanced type 2 cytokine production and eosinophil function. In addition, IL-17F deficiency resulted in reduced colitis caused by dextran sulfate sodium, whereas IL-17 knockout mice developed more severe disease. Our results thus demonstrate that IL-17F is an important regulator of inflammatory responses that seems to function differently than IL-17 in immune responses and diseases. PMID:18411338

  17. Insulinoma canino: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Padovani

    Full Text Available RESUMO O insulinoma é um tumor das células β do pâncreas, que têm a função de produzir e secretar insulina e, geralmente são malignos em cães. O presente trabalho descreve o diagnóstico e o manejo terapêutico de três casos de insulinoma. Os sinais clínicos dos animais relatados variaram de acordo com a severidade e a duração da hipoglicemia. O diagnóstico presuntivo se deu através dos sinais clínicos e da dosagem de insulina sérica no momento de mais intensa hipoglicemia e, o diagnóstico definitivo foi obtido por meio de exame histopatológico nos três casos relatados. O tratamento realizado variou de acordo com a intensidade dos sinais clínicos.

  18. Structural Characterisation Reveals Mechanism of IL-13-Neutralising Monoclonal Antibody Tralokinumab as Inhibition of Binding to IL-13Rα1 and IL-13Rα2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, B; Breed, J; Rees, D G; Gardener, M J; Vinall, L M K; Kemp, B; Spooner, J; Keen, J; Minter, R; Uddin, F; Colice, G; Wilkinson, T; Vaughan, T; May, R D

    2017-01-20

    Interleukin (IL)-13 is a pleiotropic T helper type 2 cytokine frequently associated with asthma and atopic dermatitis. IL-13-mediated signalling is initiated by binding to IL-13Rα1, which then recruits IL-4Rα to form a heterodimeric receptor complex. IL-13 also binds to IL-13Rα2, considered as either a decoy or a key mediator of fibrosis. IL-13-neutralising antibodies act by preventing IL-13 binding to IL-13Rα1, IL-4Rα and/or IL-13Rα2. Tralokinumab (CAT-354) is an IL-13-neutralising human IgG4 monoclonal antibody that has shown clinical benefit in patients with asthma. To decipher how tralokinumab inhibits the effects of IL-13, we determined the structure of tralokinumab Fab in complex with human IL-13 to 2 Å resolution. The structure analysis reveals that tralokinumab prevents IL-13 from binding to both IL-13Rα1 and IL-13Rα2. This is supported by biochemical ligand-receptor interaction assay data. The tralokinumab epitope is mainly composed of residues in helices D and A of IL-13. It is mostly light chain complementarity-determining regions that are driving paratope interactions; the variable light complementarity-determining region 2 plays a key role by providing residue contacts for a network of hydrogen bonds and a salt bridge in the core of binding. The key residues within the paratope contributing to binding were identified as Asp50, Asp51, Ser30 and Lys31. This study demonstrates that tralokinumab prevents the IL-13 pharmacodynamic effect by binding to IL-13 helices A and D, thus preventing IL-13 from interacting with IL-13Rα1 and IL-13Rα2. Copyright © 2016 AstraZeneca. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Vaccination with IL-6 analogues induces autoantibodies to IL-6 and influences experimentally induced inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Pia; Jensen, Lene; Andersson, Christina

    2007-01-01

    ; yet they appear healthy and do not exhibit overt clinical or laboratory abnormalities. We induced comparable levels of aAb-IL-6 in different mouse strains by vaccination with immunogenic IL-6 analogues. We observed that the induced aAb-IL-6 protected against collagen-induced arthritis and experimental...... allergic encephalitis. Furthermore, aAb-IL-6 carrying mice displayed increased plasma TNFalpha concentrations upon challenge with LPS. Taken together, induction of IL-6 autoantibodies was possible in different mouse strains. The autoantibodies influenced experimental inflammation. This immunotherapeutic...

  20. Apendagitis epiploica primaria: Clínica y evolución de 73 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela M Vázquez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La apendagitis epiploica primaria es una enfermedad relativamente infrecuente dentro de los diagnósticos diferenciales del abdomen agudo. Describimos las características clínicas y evolución de una serie de 73 casos de apendagitis epiploica primaria. Se realizó una búsqueda de imágenes ecográficas y tomográficas con diagnóstico de apendagitis en el sistema de información hospitalario electrónico del Hospital Alemán entre abril del 2007 y julio del 2013 y posteriormente se revisaron sus historias clínicas. Se incluyeron 73 casos; la edad promedio fue de 45 años (± 16, 54 (74% eran varones. El motivo de consulta fue dolor abdominal: en fosa ilíaca izquierda en 65 (el 89% de los casos; en fosa ilíaca derecha en seis (8% y en otras localizaciones en dos (3%. Se les realizó ecografía abdominal a 44 (60%, tomografía computarizada a 21 (29%, y ambos estudios a 8 (11%. En el 49% de los casos se solicitó interconsulta con el servicio de cirugía. Recibieron tratamiento con antibióticos 15 (21% pacientes, de los cuales el 73% fue indicado por un médico clínico. Recibieron tratamiento ambulatorio con antiinflamatorios no esteroides 67 (92%; dos requirieron cirugía laparoscópica, dos internación y dos opiáceos. La apendagitis epiploica es infrecuente dentro de los diagnósticos diferenciales de abdomen agudo, pero es una entidad que no debe ser desconocida por los médicos para prevenir intervenciones innecesarias y el uso excesivo de antibióticos.

  1. The Unique Functions of the Type-II IL-4 Receptor are revealed in IL-13R¿1-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The IL-4 receptor is a central mediator of Th2-mediated diseases and associates with either the common gamma chain (type-I IL-4R) or IL-13Ra1 (type-II IL-4R) to form two receptor complexes. Here, using IL-13Ra1-/- mice, we characterized the distinct functions of the type-II IL-4R. In contrast to IL-...

  2. Influence of IL-18 and IL-10 Polymorphisms on Tacrolimus Elimination in Chinese Lung Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Xu, Jiandong; Fan, Junwei; Zhang, Tao; Li, Yuping; Xie, Boxiong; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Shengtao; Ye, Ling; Liu, Yuan; Jiang, Gening

    2017-01-01

    Aims. The influence of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) polymorphisms on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics had been described in liver and kidney transplantation. The expression of cytokines varied in different kinds of transplantation. The influence of IL-10 and IL-18 genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetic parameters of tacrolimus remains unclear in lung transplantation. Methods. 51 lung transplant patients at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital were included. IL-18 polymorphisms (rs5744247 and rs1946518), IL-10 polymorphisms (rs1800896, rs1800872, and rs3021097), and CYP3A5 rs776746 were genotyped. Dose-adjusted trough blood concentrations (C/D ratio, mg/kg body weight) in lung transplant patients during the first 4 postoperative weeks were calculated. Results. IL-18 rs5744247 allele C and rs1946518 allele A were associated with fast tacrolimus metabolism. Combined analysis showed that the numbers of low IL-18 mRNA expression alleles had positive correlation with tacrolimus C/D ratios in lung transplant recipients. The influence of IL-18 polymorphisms on tacrolimus C/D ratios was observed in CYP3A5 expresser recipients, but not in CYP3A5 nonexpresser recipients. No clinical significance of tacrolimus C/D ratios difference of IL-10 polymorphisms was found in our data. Conclusions. IL-18 polymorphisms may influence tacrolimus elimination in lung transplantation patients.

  3. Influence of IL-18 and IL-10 Polymorphisms on Tacrolimus Elimination in Chinese Lung Transplant Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The influence of interleukin-10 (IL-10 and interleukin-18 (IL-18 polymorphisms on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics had been described in liver and kidney transplantation. The expression of cytokines varied in different kinds of transplantation. The influence of IL-10 and IL-18 genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetic parameters of tacrolimus remains unclear in lung transplantation. Methods. 51 lung transplant patients at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital were included. IL-18 polymorphisms (rs5744247 and rs1946518, IL-10 polymorphisms (rs1800896, rs1800872, and rs3021097, and CYP3A5 rs776746 were genotyped. Dose-adjusted trough blood concentrations (C/D ratio, mg/kg body weight in lung transplant patients during the first 4 postoperative weeks were calculated. Results. IL-18 rs5744247 allele C and rs1946518 allele A were associated with fast tacrolimus metabolism. Combined analysis showed that the numbers of low IL-18 mRNA expression alleles had positive correlation with tacrolimus C/D ratios in lung transplant recipients. The influence of IL-18 polymorphisms on tacrolimus C/D ratios was observed in CYP3A5 expresser recipients, but not in CYP3A5 nonexpresser recipients. No clinical significance of tacrolimus C/D ratios difference of IL-10 polymorphisms was found in our data. Conclusions. IL-18 polymorphisms may influence tacrolimus elimination in lung transplantation patients.

  4. Il diritto all’autobiografia: il progetto “NarrazionItineranti”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Portis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available L’autobiografia è una tipologia di scrittura di sé che si può definire come costruzione narrativa di sé che una persona sviluppa sulle vicende del proprio passato (ma che può riguardare anche il presente ed il futuro e nella quale il narratore e il protagonista coincidono. E’ una costruzione longitudinale del sé che tiene conto delle trasformazioni identitarie verificatesi nel tempo. Tutto ciò in un’autobiografia viene descritto da sé; il soggetto narrante diventa il personaggio del suo racconto, il protagonista definisce i confini della propria storia. Il mondo della migrazione, così come l’alterità esotica, è sempre stato descritto da chi intendeva prendere la parola per capire meglio, per indagare fenomeni e per comprendere le culture. I protagonisti, i soggetti sottoposti all’analisi, hanno difficilmente avuto la possibilità di descriversi da sé. La proposta dialogica consiste nel rovesciamento di questa prospettiva: il dialogo include l’osservatore, lo fa diventare uno dei soggetti presenti nel contesto. L’altro ha il diritto di definirsi, il diritto all’autobiografia.

  5. Expression of IL-18, IL-18 Binding Protein, and IL-18 Receptor by Normal and Cancerous Human Ovarian Tissues: Possible Implication of IL-18 in the Pathogenesis of Ovarian Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liat Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proinflammatory cytokine IL-18 has been shown to be elevated in the sera of ovarian carcinoma patients. The aim of the study was to examine the levels and cellular origin of IL-18, IL-18 binding protein, and IL-18 receptor in normal and cancerous ovarian tissues. Ovarian tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemical staining for IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R and mRNA of these cytokines was analyzed with semiquantitative PT-PCR. IL-18 levels were significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P=0.0007, IL-18BP levels were significantly higher in normal ovarian tissues (P=0.04, and the ratio of IL-18/IL-18BP was significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P=0.036. Cancerous ovarian tissues expressed significantly higher IL-18 mRNA levels (P=0.025, while there was no difference in the expression of IL-18BP mRNA and IL-18R mRNA between cancerous and normal ovarian tissues. IL-18 and IL-18BP were expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of both cancerous and normal ovarian tissues, while IL-18R was expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of cancerous ovarian tissues but expressed similarly in the epithelial and stromal cells of normal cancerous tissues. This study indicates a possible role of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

  6. Competition of IL-1 and IL-1ra determines lymphocyte response to delayed stimulation with PHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, M P; Stankiewicz, W; Płusa, T; Chciałowski, A; Szmigielski, S

    2001-06-01

    Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) left in microcultures for 24h without mitogen do not respond to subsequent stimulation with PHA. They regain reactivity if the native culture medium is absorbed with other party lymphocytes or partially replaced with the medium from a PHA-stimulated culture. The observations suggest that, during the incubation, some inhibitory agent had accumulated in the culture medium. The study was performed to determine the nature of the observed phenomenon in respect of the possible role of monocytes and their products IL-1 and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), and to test for immunodiagnostic purposes the significance of quantifying the lymphocyte response to delayed stimulation with PHA in patients suffering from inflammatory prosesses. Lymphocyte response to delayed stimulation with PHA, calculated as the lymphocyte-monokine interaction (LM) index, was determined in the microcultures of PBMC isolated from the blood of healthy donors or of patients with acute tonsilitis. The values of LM indices were compared with the ratios of IL-1ra/IL-1beta concentration estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method in the culture supernatants. The influences of exogenous IL-1beta, IL-1ra, anti-IL1ra antibodies and antibiotic cefaclor on the monokine concentrations and on the values of LM index were tested. The results show that the level of lymphocyte response to delayed stimulation with PHA (LM index) is inversely proportional to the ratio of IL-1ra/IL-1beta concentration in the culture. The low LM values at high IL-1ra/IL-1beta ratios in PBMC cultures from healthy donors, reversed proportions found in patients' PBMC (acute tonsilitis), and the cefaclor-induced reduction of LM value with correlated increase of the IL-1ra/IL-1beta ratio suggest that the LM assay may prove to be useful for immunodiagnostic purposes.

  7. IL-17/IL-17 receptor system in autoimmune disease: mechanisms and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu; Qian, Youcun

    2012-06-01

    IL-17 (interleukin-17), a hallmark cytokine of Th17 (T-helper 17) cells, plays critical roles in host defence against bacterial and fungal infections, as well as in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. The present review focuses on current knowledge of the regulation, functional mechanisms and targeting strategies of IL-17 in the context of inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Evidence shows that IL-17 is highly up-regulated at sites of inflammatory tissues of autoimmune diseases and amplifies the inflammation through synergy with other cytokines, such as TNF (tumour necrosis factor) α. Although IL-17 was originally thought to be produced mainly by Th17 cells, a newly defined T-cell subset with a specific differentiation programme and tight regulation, several other cell types (especially innate immune cells) are also found as important sources for IL-17 production. Although IL-17 activates common downstream signalling, including NF-κB (nuclear factor κB), MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases), C/EBPs (CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins) and mRNA stability, the immediate receptor signalling has been shown to be quite unique and tightly regulated. Mouse genetic studies have demonstrated a critical role for IL-17 in the pathogenesis of variety of inflammatory autoimmune diseases, such as RA (rheumatoid arthritis) and MS (multiple sclerosis). Importantly, promising results have been shown in initial clinical trials of monoclonal antibodies against IL-17 or its receptor (IL-17R) to block IL-17-mediated function in treating autoimmune patients with psoriasis, RA and MS. Therefore targeting IL-17/IL-17R, IL-17-producing pathways or IL-17-mediated signalling pathways can be considered for future therapy in autoimmune diseases.

  8. Caravaggio e il Maccheronico di Teofilo Folengo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Piciché

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Il presente studio ipotizza un’affinità tra Caravaggio e Teofilo Folengo, argomentando che la pittura del primo presenta analogie estetiche e etiche con la produzione in latino maccheronico del secondo. Il Baldus costituisce un tipico esempio di quella che Genette definirà come «parodia seria»: attraverso il rovesciamento e la irrisione beffarda Folengo ingaggia tenzone contro l’arte paludata e il travisamento dei valori cristiani. Non si tratta qui di stabilire un’influenza di Folengo su Caravaggio, bensì un’analogia, in virtù di un filo di congiunzione ideale, la cui presumibilità viene corroborata anche dal substrato biografico-culturale e da comune spirito religioso. Sia in Folengo che in Caravaggio sono stati individuati i caratteri di un certo modo della cultura lombarda di essere “contro” al punto che il duo Folengo-Caravaggio sembra epitomizzare l’antitesi al decorum curialcortigianesimo di Castiglione e Raffaello. Il Cristo-paradosso costituisce la vera fonte ispiratrice per entrambi. La comparazione tra due arti deve tenere conto dei diversi strumenti espressivi, e questo costituirà uno dei soggetti di riflessione nel testo. Se l’ipotesi della consentaneità viene ragionevolmente difesa, perché non individuare una componente maccheronica anche nell’arte di Caravaggio? Agli storici d’arte, tuttavia, decidere se si possa considerare il maccheronico come categoria pittorica

  9. IL-2 Shapes the Survival and Plasticity of IL-17-Producing γδ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpuz, Theresa M; Vazquez-Lombardi, Rodrigo; Luong, Jason K; Warren, Joanna; Stolp, Jessica; Christ, Daniel; King, Cecile; Brink, Robert; Sprent, Jonathan; Webster, Kylie E

    2017-10-01

    IL-17-producing γδ T (γδT-17) cells have proved to be an important early source of IL-17 in many inflammatory settings and are emerging as an important participant in protumor immune responses. Considering that their peripheral activation depends largely on innate signals rather than TCR ligation, it is important to understand what mechanisms exist to curb unwanted activation. Expression of the high-affinity IL-2R on γδT-17 cells prompted us to investigate a role for this cytokine. We found γδT-17 cells to be enriched, not depleted, in IL-2-deficient mice. The absence of IL-2 also resulted in higher IL-17 production and the emergence of IL-17 + IFN-γ + double producers. Furthermore, the addition of IL-2 to in vitro cultures of sorted γδT-17 cells was able to moderate IL-17 and affect differentiation into polyfunctional cytokine-producing cells. Interestingly, the Vγ6 + subset was more susceptible to the effects of IL-2 than Vγ4 + γδT-17 cells. We also found that unlike other γδ T cells, γδT-17 cells do not produce IL-2, but express Blimp-1, a known transcriptional repressor of IL-2. Although IL-2 was able to induce robust proliferation of γδT-17 cells, it did not sustain viability, negatively impacting their survival via downregulation of the IL-7R. Taken together, these data indicate that IL-2 can augment the γδT-17 response in favor of short-lived effectors with limited plasticity, particularly in the presence of IL-1β and IL-23. In this way, IL-2 may act to curtail the innate-like response of γδT-17 cells upon arrival of IL-2-producing adaptive immune cells at the site of inflammation. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Osservazioni sui Catari e il potere

    OpenAIRE

    Zambon, Francesco

    2000-01-01

    L’interesse per il catarismo risvegliatosi a partire dal XIX secolo ha riguardato soprattutto gli aspetti politici, mentre quelli religiosi sono stati trascurati fino all’intervento di Simone Weil nel 1942. Tuttavia la dogmatica è la base della politica catara. Per i Catari il mondo materiale è opera di un creatore maligno. Il potere terreno ha quindi natura malvagia, e viene perciò rifiutato in tutti i suoi aspetti, compresa la regalità biblica, compendiata nel motto Rex imago Dei. Nell’oppo...

  11. Google e il patrimonio culturale italiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bonacini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ITIn questo lavoro si intende ricostruire il ruolo svolto dal motore di ricerca google nella moderna società culturale e, soprattutto, il ruolo svolto da google nella comunicazione e valorizzazione del patrimonio culturale italiano attraverso il cultural institute e tutti i software e gli applicativi che google mette a disposizione della cultura.ENAim of this paper is the reconstruction of google’s role in modern cultural society and, above all, its role through the google cultural institute and its many softwares and applications, for communication and dissemination of italian cultural heritage.

  12. Ascite meconial - relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste Gomez Sardinha Oshiro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A ascite meconial resultante da perfuração intestinal fetal tem baixa incidência (1:30.000 nascimentos e elevada mortalidade (50%. Os achados ecográficos fetais incluem ascite e calcificações intra-abdominais. OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de ascite meconial neonatal no Conjunto Hospitalar de Sorocaba. METODOLOGIA: Descrição do referido caso e revisão de literatura. RELATO DE CASO: Recém-nascido de J.A.P., masculino, de parto cesáreo por iteratividade em 12/05/2016, cuja mãe com 44 anos, sem intercorrências no pré-natal, negou consanguinidade, vícios e infecções; ultrassonografia obstétrica evidenciou ascite moderada, circunferência abdominal >p95, hepatomegalia e hidrocele. Ao nascimento, idade gestacional 3 8 2 /7 semanas, peso=3630g, comprimento=49 cm, Apgar 8/9. Apresentava abdome globoso, fígado a 4 cm do rebordo costal direito e hidrocele volumosa. Realizada paracentese com saída de 310 ml de líquido esverdeado (meconial. No 5o dia de vida, durante laparotomia, observou-se aderência de alças intestinais, perfuração de íleo terminal a 8 cm da vávula íleo-cecal, sendo realizada ileostomia. O anátomo-patológico de apêndice cecal evidenciou processo inflamatório crônico, neovascularização e fibrose. Paciente recebeu nutrição parenteral por 14 dias; houve progressão da dieta do 6o ao 36o dia de vida, recebendo alta em aleitamento materno e boa recuperação clínica. CONCLUSÃO: A ascite meconial por perfuração intestinal deve ser considerada no diagnóstico diferencial de ascite fetal. O diagnóstico ecográfico pré-natal é fundamental para o prognóstico pós-natal.

  13. Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems (CASOS) engineering environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detry, Richard Joseph; Linebarger, John Michael; Finley, Patrick D.; Maffitt, S. Louise; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2012-02-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex physical-socio-technical systems which we must understand to design a secure future for the nation. The Phoenix initiative implements CASoS Engineering principles combining the bottom up Complex Systems and Complex Adaptive Systems view with the top down Systems Engineering and System-of-Systems view. CASoS Engineering theory and practice must be conducted together to develop a discipline that is grounded in reality, extends our understanding of how CASoS behave and allows us to better control the outcomes. The pull of applications (real world problems) is critical to this effort, as is the articulation of a CASoS Engineering Framework that grounds an engineering approach in the theory of complex adaptive systems of systems. Successful application of the CASoS Engineering Framework requires modeling, simulation and analysis (MS and A) capabilities and the cultivation of a CASoS Engineering Community of Practice through knowledge sharing and facilitation. The CASoS Engineering Environment, itself a complex adaptive system of systems, constitutes the two platforms that provide these capabilities.

  14. Relationship Between Cysteine, Interleukin (Il-2, and Interleukin (Il-10 in Children with Marasmus Type Malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Wahyudi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is one of the health issues in developing countries. The most commonly found malnutrition is the marasmus type. Infection in marasmus patient is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In marasmus, there is a decrease in protein level such as cysteine which is one of the glutathione forming components that plays a significant role in immune system. In malnutrition, there is a disturbance of lymphocyte in the form of down-regulation of type 1 cytokine (IL-2 and IFN-γ and up-regulation of type 2 cytokine (IL-4 and IL-10. IL-2 is needed for the development of regulatory T produced by thymus and for NK cell cytotoxicity which plays a role in infection process, while IL-10 inhibits activation of lymphocyte T so the cellular immunity reaction ends. Several studies about the relationship between cysteine, IL-2, and IL-10 have been done in malnutrition-patients, but there is no study focusing on patients with marasmus. This study is to find out the relationship between cysteine, IL-2, and IL-10 in patients with marasmus type malnutrition. This study was an observational analytic study using cross-sectional design consisting of 20 children with marasmus type malnutrition and 20 well-nourished children treated in Saiful Anwar Hospital Malang. The cysteine, IL-2, and IL-10 level then measured using Elisa method. Normality and the various test were done. The Pearson correlation test was done to find out the relationship between cysteine and IL-2 level, cysteine and IL-10 level, and IL-2 and IL-10. The standard of cysteine and IL-2 level in children with marasmus is significantly lower than the control group, which was 1.616 ± 1.039 vs 3.298 ± 0.519 pg/mL; p = 0.000 dan 12.38±4.94 vs. 16.58 ± 4.80 pg/mL; p = 0.010, respectively. IL-10 in children with marasmus was significantly higher than control group (19.08± 5.93 vs 10.46 ± 3.90 pg/mL; p = 0.000. The cysteine level was positively correlated to the IL-2 level

  15. Gene variation in IL-7 receptor (IL-7R)α affects IL-7R response in CD4+ T cells in HIV-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Hans Jakob; Ryder, Lars P.; Ullum, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    ’ individuals had a higher proportion of proliferating CD4+ T cells after 7 days of culture with IL-7 + sIL-7RA compared to ‘CC’ individuals. No differences between ‘TT’ and ‘CC’ in binding of biotinylated IL-7 were found. In conclusion, increased signal transduction and proliferation in response to IL-7...

  16. Differential effects of IL-4 and IL-10 on IL-2-induced IFN-gamma synthesis and lymphokine-activated killer activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, D. H.; Moore, K. W.; Spits, H.

    1992-01-01

    Culture of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with IL-2 stimulates synthesis of cytokines and generation of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) activity. Both IL-4 and IL-10 [cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF)] inhibit IL-2-induced synthesis of IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor

  17. Serum IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations in bitches with pyometra undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Roman; Pastor, Josep; Szczubiał, Marek; Piech, Tomasz; Bochniarz, Mariola; Wawron, Władysław; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta

    2015-09-26

    Pyometra is a serious bacterial infection of the uterus affecting female dogs and manifests as an accumulation of pus in the uterine lumen. The aim of the study was to assess changes in serum interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 concentrations in bitches with pyometra undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Blood samples were collected from healthy bitches (controls) and bitches with pyometra before surgery, and 3 and 10 days after ovariohysterectomy. Before surgery, bitches with pyometra had significantly higher serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10 than the controls. After surgery, the serum concentration of IL-6 and IL-10 decreased significantly. In healthy dogs, the concentration of IL-6 and IL-10 showed a significant increase 3 days after surgery followed by a decrease on day 10. An increase in serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10 was present before surgery in bitches with pyometra and 3 days after ovariohysterectomy in healthy controls. Concentrations decreased after ovariohysterectomy and/or proper healing, suggesting that these cytokines can be useful for assessment of the postoperative period in bitches.

  18. IL-18 induces airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary inflammation via CD4+ T cell and IL-13.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Sawada

    Full Text Available IL-18 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary inflammatory diseases including pulmonary infection, pulmonary fibrosis, lung injury and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, it is unknown whether IL-18 plays any role in the pathogenesis of asthma. We hypothesized that overexpression of mature IL-18 protein in the lungs may exacerbate disease activities of asthma. We established lung-specific IL-18 transgenic mice on a Balb/c genetic background. Female mice sensitized- and challenged- with antigen (ovalbumin were used as a mouse asthma model. Pulmonary inflammation and emphysema were not observed in the lungs of naïve transgenic mice. However, airway hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammatory cells accompanied with CD4(+ T cells, CD8(+ T cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, and macrophages were significantly increased in ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged transgenic mice, as compared to wild type Balb/c mice. We also demonstrate that IL-18 induces IFN-γ, IL-13, and eotaxin in the lungs of ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged transgenic mice along with an increase in IL-13 producing CD4(+ T cells. Treatment with anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody or deletion of the IL-13 gene improves ovalbumin-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and reduces airway inflammatory cells in transgenic mice. Overexpressing the IL-18 protein in the lungs induces type 1 and type 2 cytokines and airway inflammation, and results in increasing airway hyperresponsiveness via CD4(+ T cells and IL-13 in asthma.

  19. Photodynamic therapy affects the expression of IL-6 and IL-10 in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollnick, Sandra O.; Musser, David A.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    1998-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), which can effectively destroy malignant tissue, also induces a complex immune response which potentiates anti-tumor immunity, but also inhibits skin contact hypersensitivity (CHS) and prolongs skin graft survival. The underlying mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood, but are likely to involve meditation by cytokines. We demonstrate in a BALB/c mouse model that PDT delivered to normal and tumor tissue in vivo causes marked changes in the expression of cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10. IL-6 mRNA and protein are rapidly and strongly enhanced in the PDT treated EMT6 tumor. Previous studies have shown that intratumoral injection of IL- 6 or transduction of the IL-6 gene into tumor cells can enhance tumor immunogenicity and inhibit tumor growth in experimental murine tumor systems. Thus, PDT may enhance local anti-tumor immunity by up-regulating IL-6. PDT also results in an increase in IL-10 mRNA and protein in the skin. The same PDT regime which enhances IL-10 production in the skin has been shown to strongly inhibit the CHS response. The kinetics of IL-10 expression coincide with the known kinetics of PDT induced CHS suppression and we propose that the enhanced IL-10 expression plays a role in the observed suppression of cell mediated responses seen following PDT.

  20. Endometriosis Vulvar. Reporte de Caso

    OpenAIRE

    Duly Torres Cepeda; Eduardo Reyna Villasmil; Joel Santos Bolívar

    2014-01-01

    La endometriosis es una patología ginecológica común caracterizada por el crecimiento de glándulas y estroma endometrial fuera del endometrio. Los implantes se encuentran comúnmente en la pelvis, pero pueden aparecer en diferentes sitios. La afección vulvar de la endometriosis es rara. Se presenta el caso de paciente de 19 años de edad quien consultó por presentar dolor e inflamación en la zona vulvar por más de dos años, síntomas que se hacían más persistentes durante la menstruación. Vu...

  1. El caso de Buzios - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana A. Norrild

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La relación entre sexo y turismo ha seguido diferentes caminos, desde el turismo para GLS hasta el turismo nudista o la prostitución. No obstante aún son pocas las iniciativas que tienden a interrumpir el flagelo, que deja grandes secuelas sociales y escandaliza a la opinión pública. Probablemente por el tabú que históricamente ha significado el sexo, suele ser problemática toda relación en la que esté implicado. Este artículo describe un estudio de caso realizado en el centro turístico de Buzios, en Brasil, donde se aplicaron tres variables en las cuales se encuentra involucrada la mujer, el turismo aparece como revelador del sexismo existente en la sociedad y queda manifiesta la eficacia de una política social de concientización en dos de las variables.

  2. Un caso inusual de rabdomiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad Verdecia Cañizares

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Los sarcomas de partes blandas aparecen a cualquier edad, aunque son más frecuentes en la cuarta década de la vida. Se denominan así a aquellos tumores que se originan en las estructuras que soportan el cuerpo o envuelven los órganos y tejidos, y es el rabdomiosarcoma el tumor de partes blandas más frecuente en edad pediátrica. Es rara la condición de intratabilidad, mientras que son frecuentes las recaídas tempranas y tardías después del tratamiento. Presentamos un caso de una paciente diagnosticada en etapa de recién nacida con una mala respuesta al tratamiento, con progresión en el curso de este (algo no habitual, pues, generalmente, existe una buena respuesta inicial y después puede haber recaídas.

  3. Carcinoma hepatocelular canino: Reporte de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Edwin Buriticá G; Ximena Barbosa S; Diego Echeverry B

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Presentar el caso de un paciente canino, con enfermedad hepática, asociada a carcinoma hepatocelular. Materiales y métodos Fue estudiado el caso de un paciente canino de raza Pitt bull de 10 años de edad, al que se le encontraron múltiples nódulos distribuidos en todo el parénquima hepático, con diagnostico histopatológico de carcinoma hepatocelular. Resultados Se expone el caso clínico de un paciente canino de raza Pitt bull, que es presentado a consulta externa por presentar de...

  4. Raquitismo carencial: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porto, Juliana Antola et al.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O raquitismo é uma doença do tecido ósseo em formação, onde há falha na calcificação e conseguinte acúmulo de tecido osteóide. O raquitismo carencial é decorrente da deficiência dos precursores da vitamina D, sendo a causa de raquitismo mais facilmente evitável e tratável. Objetivo: Relatar um caso, revisar a etiopatogenia e o tratamento do raquitismo carencial. Relato de caso: Paciente masculino com 2 anos de idade, previamente hígido, consulta com dificuldade de deambular progressiva, até incapacidade total da marcha. A criança tinha exposição aos raios solares regularmente, recebeu aleitamento materno até os 8 meses, mas não fez uso de vitamina D profilática. Ao exame havia deformidade óssea evidente em membros superiores e inferiores, principalmente com alargamento das metáfises distais e encurvamento das epífises dos ossos longos. A investigação laboratorial e de imagem confirmaram raquitismo carencial. Discussão: Há uma grande variedade nas possíveis etiologias do raquitismo, sendo doenças renais, hepáticas, distúrbios primários ou deficiências no metabolismo do cálcio e fósforo algumas delas. A maioria dessas patologias exige um longo período de investigação e tratamento. O raquitismo carencial, entretanto, é uma condição de relativa facilidade para diagnóstico, manejo, e profilaxia, derivando daí, a importância do artigo.

  5. Clinical Significance of IL-23 Regulating IL-17A and/or IL-17F Positive Th17 Cells in Chronic Periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenhua Luo; Hui Wang; Yunlong Wu; Zheng Sun; Yafei Wu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the expression level and clinical significance of (IL-17A+ and/or IL-17F+) Th17 cells under IL-23 regulation in patients of chronic periodontitis (CP) and healthy controls (HC). Materials and Methods. The whole peripheral blood samples were collected from 30 CP patients and 25 healthy controls. Flow cytometry was used to test the (IL-17A+ and/or IL-17F+) Th17 expression level. Recombinant human IL-23 (rhIL-23) was used to detect Th17 differentiation and expansion. Co...

  6. Tecnologia italiana per il vuoto spinto

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Ancora una volta ad aggiudicarsi un ambito riconoscimento internazionale e' un fisico italiano: Cristoforo Benvenuti ritirera' tra pochi giorni a Denver il premio Gaede-Langmuir che viene assegnato dalla American vacuum society" (1/2 page).

  7. Michel Foucault e il problema della genealogia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Abeni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "Si j'étais prétentieux, je donnerais comme titre général à ce que je fais : généalogie de la morale." Dietro questa affermazione, rilasciata nel contesto colloquiale di un'intervista, è possibile scorgere il segno di una confessione intellettuale e il compendio di un pensiero. In primo luogo, allusivamente, rinvia alla figura di Nietzsche e alla traccia indelebile che il suo pensiero ha lasciato nella filosofia e nella ricerca di Foucault. In secondo luogo, autorizza a osservare nella riflessione foucaultiana la filigrana di quella genealogia che il presente lavoro si propone di affrontare come stile d'interrogazione filosofica.

  8. Il punto di vista dei docenti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Admiraal

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available L'esperienza di un "docente pionere" nel contesto del progetto europeo ULEARN dedicato alla disseminazione dell'innovazione nel sistema scolastico europeo, rafforzando il ruolo dei docenti pionieri all'interno delle loro istituzioni.

  9. Il volto cosmopolita dell’Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Taglioli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio intende leggere l’Europa attraverso il concetto di cosmopolitismo che ne riflette la natura, la storia e le possibilità future. Idea e ideale etico-normativo di comunanza e di apertura alla differenza la nozione si trasforma in modalità ibride nel corso della storia europea e permette di visualizzare le dinamiche di resistenza e di mutamento che vanno componendo il percorso di unificazione. Da imperativo e progetto razionale il cosmopolitismo va riconfigurandosi come nuova modalità percettiva, acquista un valore empirico-analitico in una realtà che sembra farsi strutturalmente cosmopolita e apre la riflessione sulle trasformazioni democratiche dell’Unione e sul ruolo che è chiamata ad assolvere per rispondere alla sfide della contemporaneità.

  10. IL-9 induces VEGF secretion from human mast cells and IL-9/IL-9 receptor genes are overexpressed in atopic dermatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Sismanopoulos

    Full Text Available Interleukin 9 (IL-9 has been implicated in mast cell-related inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, where vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is involved. Here we report that IL-9 (10-20 ng/ml induces gene expression and secretion of VEGF from human LAD2. IL-9 does not induce mast cell degranulation or the release of other mediators (IL-1, IL-8, or TNF. VEGF production in response to IL-9 involves STAT-3 activation. The effect is inhibited (about 80% by the STAT-3 inhibitor, Stattic. Gene-expression of IL-9 and IL-9 receptor is significantly increased in lesional skin areas of atopic dermatitis (AD patients as compared to normal control skin, while serum IL-9 is not different from controls. These results imply that functional interactions between IL-9 and mast cells leading to VEGF release contribute to the initiation/propagation of the pathogenesis of AD, a skin inflammatory disease.

  11. Il viaggio gastronomico di Paolo Monelli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Salarelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Il ghiottone errante di Paolo Monelli, pubblicato nel 1935, rappresenta uno dei primi esempi di narrativa di viaggio in tema di enogastronomia, un genere destinato a grande successo nel secondo dopoguerra. In questo articolo, oltre a ripercorrere la vicenda biografica di Monelli, si sottolineano le relazioni tra Il ghiottone e la cultura gastronomica del regime fascista, e si evidenziano alcuni tratti caratteristici del suo stile di scrittura.

  12. Tratamento cirúrgico de um aneurisma primário de veia ilíaca externa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Luís Lucas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumoAneurismas primários da veia ilíaca são extremamente raros e podem complicar com trombose, embolia pulmonar ou ruptura. Acredita-se que existam apenas 14 casos descritos na literatura. Neste artigo, descrevemos um caso de um jovem de 25 anos, que apresentava edema e cianose do membro inferior esquerdo. A ecografia vascular revelou uma massa cística em fossa ilíaca esquerda. A angiotomografia confirmou o diagnóstico de um aneurisma da veia ilíaca externa esquerda de 3,8 cm, no maior diâmetro. O paciente foi submetido ao tratamento cirúrgico através da ressecção do aneurisma seguida de venorrafia longitudinal. Teve boa evolução pós-operatória, com um seguimento clínico de 44 meses. Houve uma melhora do edema no membro inferior esquerdo, sem complicações tardias.

  13. Ionizing radiation enhances IL-6 and IL-8 production by human endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Van Der Meeren

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Irradiation exposure is known to induce an inflammatory reaction. Endothelial cells play a crucial role both in the inflammatory process and in radiation damage. Therefore, supernatants and cell lysates of 60Co-irradiated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC have been assessed for the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines. After gamma irradiation, interleukin (IL-1α, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α remained undetectable in both cell supernatants and cell lysates. However, a dose-dependent increase in the production of IL-6 and IL-8 has been demonstrated up to 6 days after exposure. These data indicate that the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 may be involved in the inflammatory response of vascular endothelium induced by exposure to ionizing radiation.

  14. Cytokine vaccination: neutralising IL-1alpha autoantibodies induced by immunisation with homologous IL-1alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, M; Hansen, M B; Thomsen, A R

    2000-01-01

    High-affinity IgG autoantibodies (aAb) to IL-1alpha are among the most frequently found aAb to cytokines in humans. To establish an animal model with aAb to IL-1alpha, we immunised mice with recombinant murine IL-1alpha. Unprimed and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-primed BALB/cA mice were vaccinated...... in mice by vaccination with recombinant murine IL-1alpha conjugated to PPD. Studies of the effects of IL-1alpha aAb in such animals may help clarify the importance of naturally occurring IL-1alpha aAb in humans and permit the evaluation of future therapies with cytokine aAb in patients...... with immunoinflammatory diseases and cytokine-dependent tumours....

  15. Il processo Andreotti. Il confine labile fra la partecipazione e il concorso esterno nei reati associativi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Intoccia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Prendendo in esame un procedimento penale d’eccezione nel presente elaborato ci si propone di condurre uno studio sul diritto penale ‘in azione’ allo scopo di verificare i meccanismi di applicazione dei reati di associazione per delinquere ‘semplice’ (a. 416 c.p. e di tipo mafioso (a. 416 bis c.p.. La seguente analisi ricostruisce, infatti, l’intensa trafila giudiziaria che ha visto protagonista Giulio Andreotti – dal 4 marzo 1993 chiamato a rispondere, prima a titolo di concorrente esterno e successivamente in qualità di partecipe, dei due reati associativi sopra richiamati a fronte di un apparato accusatorio qualitativamente complesso e temporalmente imponente. Sarà in tal modo possibile verificare quanto possa essere labile, specie ove si discuta della condotta di fiancheggiamento di un soggetto politico ad un sodalizio di tipo mafioso (qui Cosa Nostra, il confine tra la fenomenologia partecipativa (nel ruolo di intraneus all’associazione e quella concorsuale eventuale (nel ruolo di cd. concorrente esterno nei delitti associativi di cui agli artt. 416 e 416 bis c.p. Parole chiave: Andreotti, Cosa Nostra, zona grigia, reati associativi, mala informazione   By examining an exceptional criminal proceeding in this paper we propose to conduct a study on criminal law ‘in action’ in order to verify the mechanisms of application of two associative offenses (‘simple’ criminal conspiracy and mafia-type criminal conspiracy. As a matter of fact the analysis reconstructs the intense trial about Giulio Andreotti’s working with Cosa Nostra – Andreotti, starting from March 4 1993, is accused of being at first an external competitor and subsequently a participant of Cosa Nostra in connection with a qualitatively complex accusatory apparatus. As a result of this analysis we come to ascertain how fleeting the boundary between the role of partecipant and external competitor in a criminal conspiracy can be, especially in case of

  16. Cytokine vaccination: neutralising IL-1alpha autoantibodies induced by immunisation with homologous IL-1alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, M; Hansen, M B; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2000-01-01

    High-affinity IgG autoantibodies (aAb) to IL-1alpha are among the most frequently found aAb to cytokines in humans. To establish an animal model with aAb to IL-1alpha, we immunised mice with recombinant murine IL-1alpha. Unprimed and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-primed BALB/cA mice were vaccinated...

  17. Angina bullosa hemorragica: reporte de un caso

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luna Otalora, Sergio; Molano Valencia, Pablo Emilio; Vasquez Valencia, Mauricio Andres

    2017-01-01

    .... Se presenta el caso de una paciente para realizar cirugia de alargamiento coronal para corregir erupcion pasiva alterada tipo IB, a las dos semanas del posquirurgico presenta una lesion de aparicion...

  18. Critical appraisal of four IL-6 immunoassays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana K Thompson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 (IL-6 contributes to numerous inflammatory, metabolic, and physiologic pathways of disease. We evaluated four IL-6 immunoassays in order to identify a reliable assay for studies of metabolic and physical function. Serial plasma samples from intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs, with expected rises in IL-6 concentrations, were used to test the face validity of the various assays. METHODS AND FINDINGS: IVGTTs, administered to 14 subjects, were performed with a single infusion of glucose (0.3 g/kg body mass at time zero, a single infusion of insulin (0.025 U/kg body mass at 20 minutes, and frequent blood collection from time zero to 180 minutes for subsequent Il-6 measurement. The performance metrics of four IL-6 detection methods were compared: Meso Scale Discovery immunoassay (MSD, an Invitrogen Luminex bead-based multiplex panel (LX, an Invitrogen Ultrasensitive Luminex bead-based singleplex assay (ULX, and R&D High Sensitivity ELISA (R&D. IL-6 concentrations measured with MSD, R&D and ULX correlated with each other (Pearson Correlation Coefficients r = 0.47-0.94, p<0.0001 but only ULX correlated (r = 0.31, p = 0.0027 with Invitrogen Luminex. MSD, R&D, and ULX, but not LX, detected increases in IL-6 in response to glucose. All plasma samples were measurable by MSD, while 35%, 1%, and 4.3% of samples were out of range when measured by LX, ULX, and R&D, respectively. Based on representative data from the MSD assay, baseline plasma IL-6 (0.90 ± 0.48 pg/mL increased significantly as expected by 90 minutes (1.29 ± 0.59 pg/mL, p = 0.049, and continued rising through 3 hours (4.25 ± 3.67 pg/mL, p = 0.0048. CONCLUSION: This study established the face validity of IL-6 measurement by MSD, R&D, and ULX but not LX, and the superiority of MSD with respect to dynamic range. Plasma IL-6 concentrations increase in response to glucose and insulin, consistent with both an early glucose-dependent response (detectable at 1

  19. Profile of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN- ? , TNF- ? and KC-like cytokines in pregnant bitches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.R. Feliciano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the profile of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α cytokines and KC-like cells (natural killer in pregnant bitches, unpublished values for the species. A total of 27 females of the Shi Tzu, Pug, English Bulldog and French breeds, weighing 4-20kg and aged 4-6 years were used. Blood samples were collected from bitches during the anestrous and on the 2nd, 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th week of pregnancy. Serum levels of cytokines were measured by panel MILLIPLEX MAP (CCYTO-90K, MILLIPORE, Billerica, Massachusetts, USA validated for dogs. Twenty four females showed physiological pregnancy and three bitches showed pathological pregnancy. There was no difference between cytokine values during anestrous and gestational weeks of bitches (P>0.05. However, it was possible to verify the physiological behavior of serum levels during modulation of immune response in the gestational process of animals. In animals with gestational disorders, abnormal values for IL-2, IL-4 and INF-y were noted. It was concluded that serum levels of cytokines evaluated in pregnant bitches can help the better understanding of physiological and pathological gestational processes and correlated immunology in this species.

  20. Riconoscimento in Italia di sentenza straniera di adozione da parte di un single con effetti legittimanti: il Tribunale per i minorenni di Bologna supera la Cassazione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Astone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available L’adozione del minore da parte di una persona singola torna all’attenzione della giurisprudenza che, ancora una volta, viene investita della questione relativa al riconoscimento ed efficacia di una sentenza straniera di adozione con effetti legittimanti. Tribunale per i minorenni Bologna 17 aprile 2013 si è trovato ad affrontare il caso di un genitore single, non coniugato, cittadino italiano, che, avendo ottenuto negli Stati Uniti d’America, una sentenza di adozione di minore, ne ha chiesto il riconoscimento. Due i problemi sottoposti al Tribunale: il primo, relativo alla competenza territoriale del giudice adito, positivamente risolto ai sensi degli articoli 40 e 41 della legge n. 218 del 1995 ; il secondo, invece, più complesso, legato agli effetti che il riconoscimento della sentenza avrebbe avuto in Italia. In particolare, per il giudice di merito si è trattato di stabilire se il provvedimento straniero di adozione potesse produrre anche in Italia gli effetti legittimanti dell’adozione ordinaria dei minori, già prodottisi negli Stati Uniti d’America.

  1. O dedo em baioneta e o uso de drogas ilícitas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borini Paulo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência do "dedo em baioneta", sinal semiológico do distúrbio de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (DHDA, foi determinada em pacientes do sexo masculino usuários de drogas ilícitas, internados em hospital psiquiátrico. Grupo controle, pareado quanto ao sexo, idade e classe social, foi selecionado da população geral. O sinal foi observado em 165/345 (47,8% dos usuários de drogas e 13/50 (26% dos controles, a diferença sendo estatisticamente significativa. Os portadores da anormalidade têm risco estimado de 2,61, risco relativo de 1,84 e probabilidade de 92,7% de usarem drogas ilícitas. As observações sugerem que, para homens: (1 o DHDA e síndromes correlatas estariam presentes em aproximadamente metade dos casos de usuários de drogas ilícitas e representariam fator de vulnerabilidade para o uso de tais drogas; (2 indivíduos portadores de "dedo em baioneta", especialmente adolescentes, deveriam merecer especial atenção para prevenção de uso de drogas.

  2. Endocarditis infecciosa activa: 152 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía R. Kazelian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa es una enfermedad de baja incidencia que en las últimas décadas mostró modificaciones respecto de su presentación, posibilidad diagnóstica y tratamiento. A pesar de estos avances, la mortalidad hospitalaria sigue siendo muy elevada. Nuestro objetivo fue analizar las características de los pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa activa y su relación con la mortalidad hospitalaria a lo largo de 16 años. Se realizó un registro prospectivo entre 1994 y 2010 de pacientes ingresados con endocarditis. Se analizaron características clínicas, evolución y tratamiento y se registraron los eventos intrahospitalarios. Ingresaron 152 pacientes, 64.5% varones, edad 45 ± 16 años, las causas más frecuentes de cardiopatía de base fueron: congénita 32 (21% y reumática 20 (13.2%. Los motivos de internación fueron síndrome febril 116 (76.3% e insuficiencia cardíaca 61 (40.1%. Se identificó el agente infeccioso en 106 (69.7% de los casos, el más frecuente fue Streptococcus viridans. El ecocardiograma mostró vegetaciones en 123 (80.9% de los pacientes y 88 (57.8% presentaron complicaciones durante su internación, siendo la más frecuente la insuficiencia cardíaca. Se indicó tratamiento quirúrgico en 96 (63.1% de los casos, fundamentalmente por insuficiencia cardíaca en 66. La mortalidad hospitalaria global fue 46 (30.2%. El desarrollo de complicaciones en la internación, la indicación de cirugía y la presencia de insuficiencia cardíaca refractaria al tratamiento fueron predictores independientes de mortalidad hospitalaria, mientras que la presencia de vegetaciones resultó un predictor independiente de mejor supervivencia. La identificación temprana de estos predictores descriptos podría ayudar a mejorar los resultados.

  3. Expression of IL-6, IL-10, IL-17 and IL-33 in the peri-implant crevicular fluid of patients with peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, Viviane Oliveira; Beghini, Marcela; de Araújo, Márcia Fernandes; de Melo, Marcelo Luiz Ribeiro; Miguel, Camila Botelho; Rodrigues, Wellington Francisco; de Lima Pereira, Sanivia Aparecida

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-17 and IL-33 in the peri-implantar crevicular fluid (PICF) and in parotid gland saliva (PGS) of healthy patients, and peri-implantitis and peri-implant mucositis patients. The PICF was collected from 40 implants as follows: 10 peri-implant mucositis patients, 20 peri-implantitis patients and 10 healthy patients. The PICF and PGS samples collected from each patient were quantified for IL-6, IL-10, IL-17 and IL-33 by enzymatic immunosorbent assay (ELISA). IL-6, IL-17 and IL-33 levels on PIFC were significantly higher in peri-implantitis group when compared to healthy group. IL-17 and IL-33 levels in PIFC were significantly higher in peri-implant mucositis group than in healthy group. There was no significant difference when comparing IL-6, IL-10, IL-17 and IL-33 levels in PGS among healthy, peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis groups. Therefore, as in patients with peri-implantitis there were significantly higher levels of IL-6, IL-17 and IL-33 in PICF, we believe that these cytokines were intensifying local inflammatory process, and contributing to clinical aspects such as increased marginal bleeding and probing depth found in patients with peri-implantitis. Furthermore, as IL-17 and IL-33 were increased in patients with peri-implant mucositis, hypothesized that these cytokines were also contributing to the inflammatory process observed in this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer Patients: Rise in Interleukin 6 (IL-6) but not IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, Tumor Necrosis Factor-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Lopes, Carlos [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Centro de Oncologia Radioterapica do Vale do Paraiba, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Callera, Fernando, E-mail: fcallera@gmail.com [Centro de Hematologia Onco-hematologia e Transplantes de Medula Ossea do Vale do Paraiba, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of radiotherapy (RT) on serum levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-{alpha}), macrophage inflammatory protein-1-alpha (MIP-1-{alpha}) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty eight patients with prostate cancer received three-dimensional conformal blocking radiation therapy with a linear accelerator. IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF levels were measured by the related immunoassay kit 1 day before the beginning of RT and during RT at days 15 and 30. Results: The mean IL-2 values were elevated before and during the RT in contrast with those of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF, which were within the normal range under the same conditions. Regarding markers IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF, comparisons among the three groups (before treatment and 15 and 30 days during RT) did not show significant differences. Although values were within the normal range, there was a significant rise in IL-6 levels at day 15 of RT (p = 0.0049) and a decline at day 30 to levels that were similar to those observed before RT. Conclusions: IL-6 appeared to peak after 15 days of RT before returning to pre-RT levels. In contrast, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF levels were not sensitive to irradiation. The increased levels of IL-6 following RT without the concurrent elevation of other cytokines involved in the acute phase reaction did not suggest a classical inflammatory response to radiation exposure. Further studies should be designed to elucidate the role of IL-6 levels in patients with prostate cancer treated with RT.

  5. The interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R): the IL-2R alpha subunit alters the function of the IL-2R beta subunit to enhance IL-2 binding and signaling by mechanisms that do not require binding of IL-2 to IL-2R alpha subunit.

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, A J; Roessler, E; Ju, G; Tsudo, M; Sugamura, K; Waldmann, T A

    1992-01-01

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2)-mediated signaling through its high-affinity receptor involves a complex interrelationship between IL-2 and two IL-2-binding chains, IL-2R alpha and beta chains. Previously with the reagents available it was difficult to define functional interactions between these two IL-2R subunits involved in IL-2 binding and signal transduction. To extend our understanding of the interplay between the two binding subunits we have done studies with the monoclonal antibody HIEI, which i...

  6. Endogenous IL-1 in cognitive function and anxiety: a study in IL-1RI-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol L Murray

    Full Text Available Interleukin-1 (IL-1 is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine, produced predominantly by peripheral immune cells but also by glia and some neuronal populations within the brain. Its signalling is mediated via the binding of IL-1α or IL-1β to the interleukin-1 type one receptor (IL-1RI. IL-1 plays a key role in inflammation-induced sickness behaviour, resulting in depressed locomotor activity, decreased exploration, reduced food and water intake and acute cognitive deficits. Conversely, IL-1 has also been suggested to facilitate hippocampal-dependent learning and memory: IL-1RI(-/- mice have been reported to show deficits on tasks of visuospatial learning and memory. We sought to investigate whether there is a generalised hippocampal deficit in IL-1RI(-/- animals. Therefore, in the current study we compared wildtype (WT mice to IL-1RI(-/- mice using a variety of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks, as well as tests of anxiety and locomotor activity. We found no difference in performance of the IL-1RI(-/- mice compared to WT mice in a T-maze working memory task. In addition, the IL-1RI(-/- mice showed normal learning in various spatial reference memory tasks including the Y-maze and Morris mater maze, although there was a subtle deficit in choice behaviour in a spatial discrimination, beacon watermaze task. IL-1RI(-/- mice also showed normal memory for visuospatial context in the contextual fear conditioning paradigm. In the open field, IL-1RI(-/- mice showed a significant increase in distance travelled and rearing behaviour compared to the WT mice and in the elevated plus-maze spent more time in the open arms than did the WT animals. The data suggest that, contrary to prior studies, IL-1RI(-/- mice are not robustly impaired on hippocampal-dependent memory and learning but do display open field hyperactivity and decreased anxiety compared to WT mice. The results argue for a careful evaluation of the roles of endogenous IL-1 in hippocampal

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logsdon, Naomi J.; Allen, Christopher E.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Walter, Mark R. (Cornell); (UAB)

    2012-02-08

    Interleukin-20 (IL-20) is an IL-10-family cytokine that regulates innate and adaptive immunity in skin and other tissues. In addition to protecting the host from various external pathogens, dysregulated IL-20 signaling has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of human psoriasis. IL-20 signals through two cell-surface receptor heterodimers, IL-20R1-IL-20R2 and IL-22R1-IL-20R2. In this report, crystals of the IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 ternary complex have been grown from polyethylene glycol solutions. The crystals belonged to space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 111, c = 135 {angstrom}, and diffracted X-rays to 3 {angstrom} resolution. The crystallographic asymmetric unit contains one IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 complex, corresponding to a solvent content of approximately 54%.

  8. A Brief History of IL-1 and IL-1 Ra in Rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Dayer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of what, in 1979, was called interleukin-1 (IL-1, orchestrator of leukocyte inter-communication, began many years before then, initially by the observation of fever induction via the endogenous pyrogen (EP (1974 and then in rheumatology on the role in tissue destruction in rheumatoid diseases via the induction of collagenase and PGE2 in human synovial cells by a mononuclear cell factor (MCF (1977. Since then, the family has exploded to presently 11 members as well as many membrane-bound and soluble receptor forms. The discovery of a natural Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra in human biological fluids has highlighted the importance of IL-1 and IL-1Ra in human diseases. Evidence delineating its role in autoinflammatory syndromes and the elucidation of the macromolecular complex referred to as “inflammasome” have been instrumental to our understanding of the link with IL-1. At present, the IL-1blockade as therapeutic approach is crucial for many hereditary autoinflammatory diseases, as well as for adult-onset Still’s disease, crystal-induced arthropathies, certain skin diseases including neutrophil-triggered skin diseases, Behçet’s disease and deficiency of IL-1Ra and other rare fever syndromes. Its role is only marginally important in rheumatoid arthritis and is still under debate with regard to osteoarthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. This brief historical review focuses on some aspects of IL-1, mainly IL-1β and IL-Ra, in rheumatology. There are many excellent reviews focusing on the IL-1 family in general or with regard to specific diseases or biological discoveries.

  9. Impact of IL2 and IL2RB genetic polymorphisms in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S J; Yoon, Y C; Kang, S W; Kim, T H; Kim, Y W; Joo, H; Kim, H J; Jeong, K H; Lee, D Y; Lee, S S; Chung, J H; Kim, Y H

    2011-01-01

    Patient genetic make-up may contribute to a higher risk for acute rejection episodes (AREs). Because interleukin-2 (IL2) and IL2 receptor β (IL2RB) play key roles in immune modulation, we investigated the effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL2 gene (rs2069762; T>G, promoter; and rs2069763; G>T, exon 1, Leu38Leu) and IL2RB gene (rs228942: C>A, exon 1, Asp391Glu; and rs228953: C>T, exon 8, Gly250Gly) on renal ARE risk in 61 ARE patients and 276 control renal allograft recipients in Korea. The genotype frequencies of the IL2 and IL2RB SNPs showed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both ARE and control groups. No significant difference in the genotype frequencies of the 2 IL2 SNPs was detected between non-ARE and ARE subjects (P > .05). The occurrence of AREs was significantly associated with genetic variants of the IL2RB gene (rs228942: odds ratio [OR] 2.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-3.74; P = .0096, dominant model; rs228953: OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.04-2.38; P = .029, codominant model). In the haplotype-based analysis, the AC haplotype of IL2RB (χ(2) = 4.738; P = .0295) showed associations with ARE. Our results demonstrate that genetic variants of IL2RB may be associated with the development of AREs and may help predict ARE risk in kidney transplantation patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Antitumor Efficacy of IL2/IL21-Cultured Polyfunctional Neu-Specific T Cells Is TNFα/IL17 Dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan-Lai, Vy; Dang, Yushe; Gad, Ekram; Childs, Jennifer; Disis, Mary L

    2016-05-01

    Infusion of HER2-specific T cells, derived from vaccine-primed patients and expanded with IL2/IL12, has induced tumor regression in a minority of patients with metastatic treatment-refractory HER2(+) breast cancer. We questioned whether alteration of cytokine growth factors used to culture vaccine-primed T cells could improve antitumor activity. Using the TgMMTV-neu murine mammary tumor model, we cultured T cells derived from mice immunized with a previously defined neu class II peptide, p98-114 (neu p98), and evaluated different cytokine combinations for expansion. Infusion of neu p98-specific T-cell lines derived from all cytokine conditions evaluated resulted in significant antitumor activity compared with infused naïve splenocytes (P IL2/IL21 could uniquely mediate complete regression of spontaneous mammary tumors. IL2/IL21 cultured neu-specific T cells demonstrated a different cytokine secretion pattern as compared with other cultured T cells; secreting high levels of TNFα and IL17 (P IL2/IL21 cultured T cells as compared with tumors treated with T cells expanded under other cytokine conditions (P IL2/IL21 cultured cells was mediated by CD8 T cells. Depletion of TNFα or IL17, but not IFNγ, abrogated the tumor growth inhibition induced by the IL2/IL21 T cells and markedly decreased the influx of CD8 into tumors. Finally, IL2/IL21-cultured human antigen specific T cells also displayed a similar polyfunctional Th1/Th17 phenotype. Expansion of HER2 vaccine-primed T cells with IL2/IL21 may have the potential to effectively mediate tumor regression when used in adoptive transfer. Clin Cancer Res; 22(9); 2207-16. ©2015 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Genetic variations of IL-12B, IL-12Rβ1, IL-12Rβ2 in Behcet's disease and VKH syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Li

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of three genes (IL-12B, IL-12Rβ1 and IL-12Rβ2 in Behcet's disease (BD and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH syndrome in a Chinese Han population. METHODS: A total of 806 BD cases, 820 VKH patients, and 1600 healthy controls were involved in this study. The first investigation included 400 BD patients, 400 VKH cases, and 600 healthy individuals. A second confirmatory study included a separate set of 406 BD patients, 420 VKH cases and another 1000 normal controls. Genotyping was carried out by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay and results were validated by using direct sequencing. The χ2 test was performed to compare the allele and genotype frequencies between cases and healthy controls. RESULTS: This study comprised two phases. In the first phase study, a significantly increased frequency of the rs3212227/IL-12B genotype CC and C allele was found in BD patients as compared to controls (Bonferroni corrected p value (pc = 0.009, OR 1.8; pc = 0.024, OR 1.3, respectively. Moreover, the frequency of the C allele of rs3212227/IL-12B was also significantly increased in VKH patients (pc = 0.012, OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.6. No associations were found for the other seven tested SNPs either in BD or VKH disease. The second study as well as the combined data confirmed the significant association of rs3212227/IL-12B with BD (CC genotype: combined pc = 6.3×10(-7, OR = 1.8; C allele: combined pc = 2.0×10(-5, OR = 1.3, respectively and the C allele frequency of rs3212227/IL-12B as the risk factor to VKH patients (combined pc = 2.5×10(-5, OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.5. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that the IL-12B gene is involved both in the susceptibility to BD as well as VKH syndrome.

  12. Entomoftoromicose intestinal: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia Aparecida Carvalho

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam um caso de entomoftoromicose intestinal causada por Entomophthorales, em indivíduo de 19 anos, agricultor e sem doença associada. O paciente foi submetido a ressecção intestinal e o diagnóstico foi feito após análise da peça cirúrgica. Após revisão da literatura, são discutidos a evolução clínica, as características clinicopatológicas, as dificuldades no diagnóstico e o tratamento dessa entidade rara.A case of intestinal entomophthoramycosis caused by Entomophthorales in a man with 19 years-old, farmer and without associated disease. The patient was submitted to a intestinal ressection and diagnosis was carried through after analisys of the surgical specimen. After a review of the literature, the clinical evolution, clinico-pathologic features, difficulties in diagnosis and treatment are discussed.

  13. DERMATITIS PELAGROSA. REPORTE DE CASO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C. Alvarez-Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La pelagra es una enfermedad cada vez menos frecuente. Debida a una deficiencia de niacina en la dieta, principalmente, en áreas donde la alimentación es muy deficiente y/o el consumo de alcohol es importante. La pelagra o síndrome de las tres D, se caracteriza por demencia, dermatitis y diarrea.Se reporta un caso donde predominaron las lesiones localizadas en la piel de la cara, región anterior del cuello, brazos, antebrazos, dorso de las manos, tercio distal de las piernas y dorso de los pies, de tipo eritematoescamosas, con zonas agrietadas y descamación de la piel y despigmentación en otras áreas bien delimitadas en relación con la piel normal.El tratamiento con Nicotinamida produjo notable mejoría de las lesiones en piel. En evaluación posterior al alta las lesiones en piel habían desaparecidos.

  14. Effect of IL-1β and IL-1RN polymorphisms in carcinogenesis of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of IL-1β and IL-1RN polymorphisms in carcinogenesis of the gastric mucosa in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori in Algeria. Amine El-Mokhtar Drici, Soraya Moulessehoul, Abdelkarim Tifrit, Mustapha Diaf, Douidi Kara Turki, Meryem Bachir, Abdenacer Tou ...

  15. IL-8/IL-17 gene variations and the susceptibility to severe viral bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, L A; DE Azeredo Leitão, L A; Mocellin, M; Acosta, P; Caballero, M T; Libster, R; Vargas, J E; Polack, F; Comaru, T; Stein, R T; DE Souza, A P

    2017-03-01

    Clinical manifestations of acute bronchiolitis (AB) vary from minimal disease to severe respiratory failure. The response to respiratory viral infections is possibly influenced by genetic polymorphisms linked to the regulation of the inflammatory response. In the present study, we investigated whether interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) genetic variants are associated with the severity of AB. A group of Brazilian infants hospitalized with AB and a control group (infants with no or mild AB, without hospitalization) were genotyped for four IL-8/IL-17 variations. For replication, we studied an Argentinean population sample of infants with mild and severe AB. IL-8 polymorphism (rs 2227543) and IL-17 (rs2275913) variants showed significant associations with the severity of AB. The effect of the IL-8 variation could be replicated in the Argentinean sample. This finding suggests that IL-8 variations may influence the severity of AB in young infants. Further genetic association studies in low- or middle-income populations are necessary with the aim of expanding knowledge in this area.

  16. Diagnostic significance of IL-6 and IL-8 in tubal ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendiran, Soundravally; Senthil Kumar, G P; Nimesh, Archana; Dhiman, Pooja; Shivaraman, K; Soundararaghavan, S

    2016-10-01

    As there are no specific non-invasive markers for the diagnosis of tubal ectopic pregnancy, our objective in the present study was to explore the role of inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 in the diagnosis of ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy. Twenty-eight women with tubal ectopic pregnancy, 31 patients with intrauterine abortion and 29 gestational age matched women having normal intrauterine pregnancy were included in the study. Five millilitre of blood was collected at the time of admission, serum was separated and stored at -70 °C for subsequent analysis of β hCG, IL-6 and IL-8 levels. The level of IL-6 was a significant increase in the women with tubal ectopic pregnancy compared to intrauterine abortion and normal pregnancy. IL-8 levels decrease significantly in the tubal ectopic pregnancy and in intrauterine abortion patients when compared with the normal pregnancy group. At the cutoff of 26.48 pg/ml IL-6 level predicted the tubal ectopic pregnancy with moderate accuracy. Therefore, it can be concluded that measurement of IL-6 may have relevance in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy as a novel inflammatory serum biomarkers.

  17. [Plasma IL-18 levels are related to insulin and are modulated by IL-18 gene polymorphisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Martínez-Barquero, Vanesa; Nuñez Savall, Ester; Lendínez, Verónica; Olivares, Laura; Benito, Esther; Real, Jose T; Chaves, F Javier; Ascaso, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory chronic disease influenced by multiple factors. Different prospective studies have shown that plasmatic levels of inflammatory markers were related to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. To evaluate whether plasmatic levels of interleukin 18 (IL-18) are modulated by SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) of the IL 18 gene and its possible association with insulin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors. 746 individuals were studied for a period of two years by opportunistic selection in the metropolitan area of Valencia. Parameters of lipid and glucose metabolism were analyzed by standard methodology. IL-18 was measured by ELISA. Individuals with insulin resistance showed significant higher levels of IL-18. IL 18 was significantly correlated with insulin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors. The CC genotype of the rs1834481 SNP was significantly associated with lower levels of IL-18. However, the GG genotype of the rs7559479 was associated with significant higher levels of IL-18. IL-18 is associated with insulin resistance and other cardiovascular risk factors, being those levels genetically regulated. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. IL-6, IL-17 and STAT3: a holy trinity in auto-immunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporeale, Annalisa; Poli, Valeria

    2012-06-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in the regulation of the cross talk between haematopoietic/immune cells and stromal cells, including the onset and resolution of inflammation, responses to infection, tissue remodelling and cancer. It is produced, among others, by fibroblasts, endothelial cells, macrophages and lymphocytes. IL-6 can interact with both membrane-bound and soluble forms of its ligand-binding receptor, the IL-6Ralpha, triggering signalling via dimerization of gp130, the signalling subunit of the IL-6 receptor complex. This leads to the activation of the JAK/STAT pathway and mainly culminates in the activation of the STAT3 transcription factor. Both IL-6 and STAT3 have recently emerged as main regulators of the differentiation and function of Th17 cells, via a positive feedback loop enhancing expression and/or activation of IL-6 itself, IL-17 and STAT3. Dysregulated IL-6 production and signalling are associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, auto-immunity and cancer, and are the object of intense translational research as promising therapeutic targets.

  19. Contribution of the IL-17/IL-23 axis to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cătană, Cristina-Sorina; Berindan Neagoe, Ioana; Cozma, Vasile; Magdaş, Cristian; Tăbăran, Flaviu; Dumitraşcu, Dan Lucian

    2015-05-21

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic disorders of modern society, requiring management strategies aimed at prolonging an active life and establishing the exact etiology and pathogenesis. These idiopathic diseases have environmental, genetic, immunologic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress components. On the one hand, recent advances have shown that abnormal immune reactions against the microorganisms of the intestinal flora are responsible for the inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals. On the other hand, in addition to T helper cell-type (Th) 1 and Th2 immune responses, other subsets of T cells, namely regulatory T cells and Th17 maintained by IL-23 are likely to develop IBD. IL-23 acts on innate immune system members and also facilitates the expansion and maintenance of Th17 cells. The IL-17/IL-23 axis is relevant in IBD pathogenesis both in human and experimental studies. Novel biomarkers of IBD could be calprotectin, microRNAs, and serum proinflammatory cytokines. An efficient strategy for IBD therapy is represented by the combination of IL-17A and IL-17F in acute IL-17A knockout TNBS-induced colitis, and also definite decrease of the inflammatory process in IL-17F knockout, DSS-induced colitis have been observed. Studying the correlation between innate and adaptive immune systems, we hope to obtain a focused review in order to facilitate future approaches aimed at elucidating the immunological mechanisms that control gut inflammation.

  20. IL-1 signaling inhibits Trichophyton rubrum conidia development and modulates the IL-17 response in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Fábio Seiti Yamada; Ferreira, Lucas Gonçalves; de Almeida, Sandro Rogério

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytosis are one of the most common fungal infections in the world. They compromise keratinized tissues and the main etiological agent is Trichophyton rubrum. Macrophages are key cells in innate immunity and prominent sources of IL-1β, a potent inflammatory cytokine whose main production pathway is by the activation of inflammasomes and caspase-1. However, the role of inflammasomes and IL-1 signaling against T.rubrum has not been reported. In this work, we observed that bone marrow-derived macrophages produce IL-1β in response to T.rubrum conidia in a NLRP3-, ASC- and caspase-1-dependent fashion. Curiously, lack of IL-1 signaling promoted hyphae development, uncovering a protective role for IL-1β in macrophages. In addition, mice lacking IL-1R showed reduced IL-17 production, a key cytokine in the antifungal defense, in response to T.rubrum. Our findings point to a prominent role of IL-1 signaling in the immune response to T.rubrum, opening the venue for the study of this pathway in other fungal infections.

  1. Improved antitumour immunity in murine neuroblastoma using a combination of IL-2 and IL-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siapati, K E; Barker, S; Kinnon, C; Michalski, A; Anderson, R; Brickell, P; Thrasher, A J; Hart, S L

    2003-05-19

    Neuroblastoma immunotherapy using cytokine-modified tumour cells has been tested in clinical trials. However, because of the complex nature of antitumour immune responses, a number of therapies may be required for complete tumour eradication and generation of systemic immunity. We report here the improved antitumour effect of two cytokines, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-12 (IL-12), when coexpressed by neuroblastoma cell lines. Initially, transfection of human and mouse neuroblastoma cell lines resulted in high expression levels of biologically active IL-2 and IL-12 in vitro. These cytokines when expressed by transfected Neuro-2A cells completely abolished their in vivo tumorigenicity in a syngeneic neuroblastoma model. Vaccination of established tumours with IL-12-producing cells exhibited a clear effect with reduced tumour growth in the presence of IL-2. In vivo depletion studies showed that CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells mediate the response against cytokine-producing cells. These results suggest that IL-2 and IL-12, when cotransfected in tumour cells, are effective against established disease and provide a promising immunotherapeutic approach for the treatment of neuroblastoma.

  2. Cocaine abuse and effects in the serum levels of cytokines IL-6 and IL-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Fernanda Pedrotti; Medeiros, João Ricardo Carvalho; Lhullier, Alfredo Cardoso; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Jansen, Karen; Portela, Luis Valmor; Lara, Diogo R; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Wiener, Carolina David; Oses, Jean Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine abuse is capable of activating the innate immune system in the CNS resulting in deregulation of homeostasis between pro and antiinflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study was to investigate serum levels of pro and antiinflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and IL-10 respectively, in cocaine users from a young population-based sample. This is a case-control study nested in a cross-sectional population-based survey, with individuals of 18 and 35 years old. Two groups were selected: 24 healthy controls and 12 subjects who reported cocaine use. Serum IL-6 and IL-10 were measured by ELISA using a commercial kit. There was a statistically significant increase in IL-6 (p=0.037) and decrease in IL-10 (p=0.007) serum levels, between cocaine users and the control group. There was also an increase in the ratio IL-6/IL-10 (p=0.013) among cocaine users individuals, when compared to the control group. Our results suggest that cocaine users showed an activation of the immune system when compared a control group, demonstrating a disruption in the balance of pro and antiinflammatory cytokines. Thus, peripheral cytokines may represent a putative biomarkers for cocaine users, contributing to the development of diagnosis and effective treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Differential regulation of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-12 by glucocorticoids in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.; Boxel-Dezaire, A. van; Methorst, D.; Brunt, T.; Kloet, E.R. de; Nagelkerken, L.

    1998-01-01

    Antigen-presenting cells are thought to modulate the development of Th1 and Th2 cells by the secretion of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-12. Because glucocorticoids (GC) favor the development of Th2 responses, we determined whether dexamethasone (DEX) and hydrocortisone (HC) have differential effects

  4. Signaling through IL-17C/IL-17RE is dispensable for immunity to systemic, oral and cutaneous candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Heather R; Whibley, Natasha; Coleman, Bianca M; Garg, Abhishek V; Jaycox, Jillian R; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungal microbe of the human orogastrointestinal tract and skin. C. albicans causes multiple forms of disease in immunocompromised patients, including oral, vaginal, dermal and disseminated candidiasis. The cytokine IL-17 (IL-17A) and its receptor subunits, IL-17RA and IL-17RC, are required for protection to most forms of candidiasis. The importance of the IL-17R pathway has been observed not only in knockout mouse models, but also in humans with rare genetic mutations that impact generation of Th17 cells or the IL-17 signaling pathway, including Hyper-IgE Syndrome (STAT3 or TYK2 mutations) or IL17RA or ACT1 gene deficiency. The IL-17 family of cytokines is a distinct subclass of cytokines with unique structural and signaling properties. IL-17A is the best-characterized member of the IL-17 family to date, but far less is known about other IL-17-related cytokines. In this study, we sought to determine the role of a related IL-17 cytokine, IL-17C, in protection against oral, dermal and disseminated forms of C. albicans infection. IL-17C signals through a heterodimeric receptor composed of the IL-17RA and IL-17RE subunits. We observed that IL-17C mRNA was induced following oral C. albicans infection. However, mice lacking IL-17C or IL-17RE cleared C. albicans infections in the oral mucosa, skin and bloodstream at rates similar to WT littermate controls. Moreover, these mice demonstrated similar gene transcription profiles and recovery kinetics as WT animals. These findings indicate that IL-17C and IL-17RE are dispensable for immunity to the forms of candidiasis evaluated, and illustrate a surprisingly limited specificity of the IL-17 family of cytokines with respect to systemic, oral and cutaneous Candida infections.

  5. Anti-IL-1alpha autoantibodies in early rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forslind, K; Svensson, Birte; Svenson, M

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the potential predictive value of autoantibodies against IL1-alpha (anti-IL-1alpha) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA).......To investigate the potential predictive value of autoantibodies against IL1-alpha (anti-IL-1alpha) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA)....

  6. IL-8 as antibody therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Lone; Beurskens, Frank J; Zachariae, Claus O C

    2008-01-01

    IL-8 is a chemokine that has been implicated in a number of inflammatory diseases involving neutrophil activation. HuMab 10F8 is a novel fully human mAb against IL-8, which binds a discontinuous epitope on IL-8 overlapping the receptor binding site, and which effectively neutralizes IL-8-dependen...

  7. Therapeutic Applications of Interleukin 24 (IL24): A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fisher's group identified melanoma differentiation-associated protein-7 (MDA-7) upon discovery of cell surface receptor MDA-7 renamed Interleukin 24 (IL24).It has three N-glycosylation sites. IL24 signals through receptors. Binding of IL24 to receptors leads to the activation of STAT-3 and STAT-1. IL 24 induces the ...

  8. Jing Tong Yu Shu , a traditional Chinese medicine, suppresses IL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After four weeks of treatment with JTYS, the volume of the endometriotic explants was measured, and the levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in peritoneal fluid and serum were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The production of cytokine IL-1β and IL-6 by peritoneal macrophages was also measured for ...

  9. Endogenous IL-10 protects mice from death during septic peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poll, T.; Marchant, A.; Buurman, W. A.; Berman, L.; Keogh, C. V.; Lazarus, D. D.; Nguyen, L.; Goldman, M.; Moldawer, L. L.; Lowry, S. F.

    1995-01-01

    IL-10 production during endotoxic shock is part of a protective mechanism that involves IL-10-induced inhibition of TNF synthesis. We sought to determine the role of IL-10 in septic peritonitis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). CLP led to a rapid induction of IL-10 mRNA in various organs

  10. Registration of annual ryegrass genetic stock IL2

    Science.gov (United States)

    A diploid (2n=2x=14) Lolium multiflorum, designated IL2, represents a single plant selection from an IL1 population segregating for male-sterility. IL2 exhibits an elevated level of pollen sterility compared to individuals comprising the IL1 population and has been evaluated and identified to produc...

  11. Genome-wide association study of genetic variants in LPS-stimulated IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1ra and TNF-α cytokine response in a Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Margit Hørup; Albrechtsen, Anders; Thørner, Lise Wegner

    2013-01-01

    Cytokine response plays a vital role in various human lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infectious and inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to find genetic variants that might affect the levels of LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1ra and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α cytokine production....

  12. Family based association analysis of the IL2 and IL15 genes in allergic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Haagerup, Annette; Binderup, Helle G

    2006-01-01

    Allergic diseases affect an increasing number of individuals and are a major global health problem. A substantial genetic contribution in the aetiology of allergic diseases is well documented. We have previously reported linkage of allergic diseases and atopy to the region harbouring the IL2 gene...... (4q27). IL15 is located approximately 20 Mb distal to IL2. The two genes encode cytokines that are structurally and functionally related, both inducing T-cell activation and proliferation. We screened the two genes for sequence variation and applied the seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs......) identified in a family based association study of two Danish samples comprising a total of 235 families with allergic diseases. None of the IL15 SNPs showed significant association and the haplotype analysis yielded inconsistent results in the two samples. In contrast, the two IL2 SNPs showed association...

  13. Spinelli: un artista racconta il popolo rom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Mario Gillio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Spinelli è un musicista affermato e con la sua fisarmonica ha girato il mondo. Quando ci incontriamo per l’intervista è appena rientrato da Bruxelles dove si è esibito davanti al presidente della Commissione Europea Martin Schulz. Di rientro da Bruxelles, l’artista ha fatto tappa in Sicilia dove ha suonato per la popolazione sciclitana e tenuto una lezione per i ragazzi del liceo locale. La bella giornata soleggiata invita i nostri occhi a guardare il mondo che ci circonda, il cielo azzurro, le persone piccole piccole che come formiche si muovono nelle piazze, autobus e auto che sembrano immobili da quella distanza, un piccolo plastico. Quel mondo, che solitamente frequentiamo e attraversiamo distrattamente e freneticamente ci appare nuovo: una prospettiva diversa forse dovuta all’altezza, certamente una posizione privilegiata.

  14. Il rumore elettrico Dalla fisica alla progettazione

    CERN Document Server

    Pallottino, Giovanni Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    L’opera fornisce una trattazione chiara, agile ed essenziale, ma completa, del rumore elettrico, argomento considerato generalmente oscuro e specialistico. Molto più breve (circa 275mila battute) dei testi attualmente disponibili. Il contenuto copre gli aspetti essenziali della matematica e della fisica del rumore (termico, shot. 1/f, …), e della sua rappresentazione nei circuiti. Discute quindi il rumore nei dispositivi passivi e attivi, e introduce i criteri di progettazione a basso rumore. Affronta infine brevemente questioni quali l’estrazione del segnale dal rumore e gli impieghi utili del rumore. L’attenzione è generalmente rivolta alla strumentazione fisica a bassa frequenza, in relazione alla pluridecennale esperienza specifica dell’autore. Si tratta di una estensione delle dispense, utilizzate per anni, di un corso universitario. Pertanto la trattazione è fortemente didattica, con particolare attenzione a rimuovere ambiguità e incertezze, discutendo il materiale in termini fisici intuit...

  15. Factors Associated With Plasma IL-6 Levels During HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; O'Connor, Jemma L; Phillips, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels have been linked to cardiovascular disease, cancer and death. Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection receiving treatment have higher IL-6 levels, but few data are available on factors associated with circulating IL-6. METHODS...... education, whereas black race was associated with lower IL-6. Higher HIV RNA levels were associated with higher IL-6 levels, and higher nadir CD4(+) cell counts with lower IL-6 levels. Compared with efavirenz, protease inhibitors were associated with higher and nevirapine with lower IL-6 levels. Smoking...

  16. Expression of IL-8, IL-6 and IL-1β in Tears as a Main Characteristic of the Immune Response in Human Microbial Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacruz, Concepcion; Linares, Marisela; Garfias, Yonathan; Loustaunau, Luisa M.; Pavon, Lenin; Perez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra; Jimenez-Martinez, Maria C.

    2015-01-01

    Corneal infections are frequent and potentially vision-threatening diseases, and despite the significance of the immunological response in animal models of microbial keratitis (MK), it remains unclear in humans. The aim of this study was to describe the cytokine profile of tears in patients with MK. Characteristics of ocular lesions such as size of the epithelial defect, stromal infiltration, and hypopyon were analyzed. Immunological evaluation included determination of interleukine (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in tear samples obtained from infected eyes of 28 patients with MK and compared with their contralateral non-infected eyes. Additionally, frequency of CD4+, CD8+, CD19+ and CD3−CD56+ cells was also determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with MK, and compared with 48 healthy controls. Non-significant differences were observed in the size of the epithelial defect, stromal infiltration, and hypopyon. Nevertheless, we found an immunological profile apparently related to MK etiology. IL-8 > IL-6 in patients with bacterial keratitis; IL-8 > IL-6 > IL-1β and increased frequency of circulating CD3−CD56+ NK cells in patients with gram-negative keratitis; and IL-8 = IL-6 > IL-1β in patients with fungal keratitis. Characterization of tear cytokines from patients with MK could aid our understanding of the immune pathophysiological mechanisms underlying corneal damage in humans. PMID:25741769

  17. Predictive value of IL-35 and IL-17 in diagnosis of childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Amira Ibrahim; Abd Almonaem, Eman Rateb; Behairy, Ola Galal; Gouda, Tahany Mahmoud

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between serum levels of IL-17 and IL-35 and the presence and severity of childhood asthma. The study was performed on 60 diagnosed asthmatic children, who were further classified into four groups according to the Global Initiative for Asthma Guidelines for Asthma Severity and Control (GINA) 2016, plus 30 age- and sex-matched apparently healthy children. All participants were subjected to full medical history, clinical examination, pulmonary function tests and laboratory evaluation in the form of complete blood count (CBC), serum total IgE, IL-17 and IL-35 by ELISA. Our results revealed that eosinophils count, IgE and IL-17 were significantly higher in the asthmatic group than the control group (p 35 levels were significantly lower in asthmatics than control (p 35; a positive correlation was found between serum IL-17 and both of serum total IgE and eosinophils counts in atopic asthmatic patients, and serum IL-35 showed significant negative correlations with both. ROC analysis of the data showed that the cut-off value of IL-35 level was 13.1 pg/mL; this value could predict childhood asthma with sensitivity of 81.7% and 83.3%, and specificity of 76.7% and 70%, respectively. A combination of both cytokines yielded an increase in sensitivity to 95%. In conclusion, in the current study, IL-17 is upregulated while IL-35 is downregulated in childhood asthma with a significant negative correlation between both. These results suggest that both may play an important role in the pathogenesis of childhood asthma.

  18. IL17eScan: A Tool for the Identification of Peptides Inducing IL-17 Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheer Gupta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available IL-17 cytokines are pro-inflammatory cytokines and are crucial in host defense against various microbes. Induction of these cytokines by microbial antigens has been investigated in the case of ischemic brain injury, gingivitis, candidiasis, autoimmune myocarditis, etc. In this study, we have investigated the ability of amino acid sequence of antigens to induce IL-17 response using machine-learning approaches. A total of 338 IL-17-inducing and 984 IL-17 non-inducing peptides were retrieved from Immune Epitope Database. 80% of the data were randomly selected as training dataset and rest 20% as validation dataset. To predict the IL-17-inducing ability of peptides/protein antigens, different sequence-based machine-learning models were developed. The performance of support vector machine (SVM and random forest (RF was compared with different parameters to predict IL-17-inducing epitopes (IIEs. The dipeptide composition-based SVM-model displayed an accuracy of 82.4% with Matthews correlation coefficient = 0.62 at polynomial (t = 1 kernel on 10-fold cross-validation and outperformed RF. Amino acid residues Leu, Ser, Arg, Asn, and Phe and dipeptides LL, SL, LK, IL, LI, NL, LR, FK, SF, and LE are abundant in IIEs. The present tool helps in the identification of IIEs using machine-learning approaches. The induction of IL-17 plays an important role in several inflammatory diseases, and identification of such epitopes would be of great help to the immunologists. It is freely available at http://metagenomics.iiserb.ac.in/IL17eScan/ and http://metabiosys.iiserb.ac.in/IL17eScan/.

  19. Serum levels of IL-17, IL-4, and INFγ in Serbian patients with early rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voja Pavlovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic, systemic, inflammatory disease with autoimmune etiology, characterized by synovial inflammation and destruction of joint cartilage and bone. There are controversial data about the profile of interleukin-17 (IL-17A, interleukin-4 (IL-4, and interferon-gamma (INFγ, indicating in some studies the key role of IL-17, while in others the Th1 cytokines. Materials and Methods: Serum samples of 31 early RA patients were evaluated for erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR, rheumatoid factor (RF, C-reactive protein (CRP, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP, and for the tested cytokines (IL-17A, IL-4, and INFγ. Disease activity score (DAS28 calculation was done for all patients. Control serum samples were obtained from 29 healthy volunteers. Results: The levels of tested cytokines were significantly higher (IL-17A, p < 0.001; INFγ, p < 0.001; IL-4, p < 0.01 in patients with early RA, compared to the healthy controls. In early RA patients, a strong correlation of serum IL-17A was found with DAS28, ESR, and CRP. Also, significant negative correlation was found between serum INFγ levels and the DAS28 score, indicating that INFγ may play a key role in maintaining immune homeostasis in patients with RA. Conclusion: The mean serum IL-17A levels in patients with early RA, corresponded with the disease activity and severity. This might highlight the usefulness of the serum IL-17A level in defining the activity and predictive patterns, for aggressive disease therapy, and it might express specific therapeutically targets.

  20. Genetic variants in the region harbouring IL2/IL21 associated with ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festen, E A M; Goyette, P; Scott, R; Annese, V; Zhernakova, A; Lian, J; Lefèbvre, C; Brant, S R; Cho, J H; Silverberg, M S; Taylor, K D; de Jong, D J; Stokkers, P C; Mcgovern, D; Palmieri, O; Achkar, J-P; Xavier, R J; Daly, M J; Duerr, R H; Wijmenga, C; Weersma, R K; Rioux, J D

    2009-06-01

    Genetic susceptibility is known to play a large part in the predisposition to the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) known as Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The IL2/IL21 locus on 4q27 is known to be a common risk locus for inflammatory disease (shown in coeliac disease, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and psoriasis), while the roles that interleukin 2 (IL2) and IL21 play in the immune response also make them attractive candidates for IBD. The objective of this study was to test for association between the IL2/IL21 locus and the IBDs. The four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL2/IL21 locus most associated with coeliac disease were genotyped in 1590 subjects with IBD and 929 controls from The Netherlands, and then replicated in a North American cohort (2387 cases and 1266 controls) and an Italian cohort (805 cases and 421 controls), yielding a total of 4782 cases (3194 UC, 1588 CD) and 2616 controls. Allelic association testing and a pooled analysis using a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test were performed. All four SNPs were strongly associated with UC in all three cohorts and reached genome-wide significance in the pooled analysis (rs13151961 p = 1.35 x 10(-10), rs13119723 p = 8.60 x 10(-8), rs6840978 p = 3.0 7x 10(-8), rs6822844 p = 2.77 x 10(-9)). A moderate association with CD was also found in the pooled analysis (p value range 0.0016-9.86 x 10(-5)). A strong association for the IL2/IL21 locus with UC was found, which also confirms it as a general susceptibility locus for inflammatory disease.

  1. Serum levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1α, IL-1β in patients with alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emina Kasumagić-Halilovic

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alopecia areata (AA is disease characterized by focally, nonscarring hair loss on the scalp or other parts of the body. It affects 1-2% population of both genders and occurs at all age groups. The etiology is unknown, although most evidence supports the hypothesis that AA is a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the hair follicle and that cytokines play an important role.Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate serum concentrations of IL-1α and IL-1β in patients with AA and healthy subjects and also to asses a possible association between these cytokines and duration of the disease.Methods: Forty six patients with AA and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Serum concentrations of IL-1α and IL-1β were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay techniques.Results: The serum level of IL-1α in patients with AA was significantly higher than that in the control group (4.34±0.86 pg/mL vs 3.66±0.35 pg/mL, respectively. IL-1β levels were greater in patients with AA than in controls (2.35±0.17 pg/mL vs 2.24±0.30, respectively but the difference was not significant (p>0.05. No correlations were found between duration of disease and the serum levels of IL-1α and IL-1β.Conclusion: Our results have demonstrated the importance of determining IL-1a concentration in serum in patients with AA. This research could contribute to the interpretation of insufficiently well known views of the pathogenesis role and significance of IL-1α in AA.

  2. Playware e robotica modulare per il gioco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik H. Lund

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In questo contributo presentiamo e usiamo il concetto di building block robotico per la creazione di playware. Il concetto tecnologico di building block programmabili e dotati di input e output (ivi inclusa la comunicazione e dell'intelligenza artificiale embodied, che enfatizza la relazione fra morfologia e controllo.Per dare un esempio concreto del concetto di building block robotico, proponiamo le mattonelle che abbiamo creato, come elementi che compongono un nuovo tipo di campo giochi sul quale i bambini possono sperimentare un feedback immediato ai loro movimenti.

  3. Il marchio che gode di rinomanza

    OpenAIRE

    Caselli, Sara

    2014-01-01

    I marchi famosi sono quei marchi che, essendo riusciti ad affermarsi sul mercato, esprimono più di tutti i segni distintivi il significato attribuito al marchio inteso come strumento di comunicazione. Da ciò deriva la necessità di riconoscere loro una tutela adeguata contro usi che possano pregiudicare il loro selling power. La tutela dei marchi che godono di rinomanza ha conosciuto, dalla sua introduzione avvenuta nel '92 con l'attuazione della Direttiva 104/89/CEE ad oggi, per effetto sopra...

  4. “A chiare lettere” – Confronti * Osservazioni per il Progetto di legge sulla libertà religiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Onida

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ringrazio Roberto Zaccaria per avere avuto la buona idea di riunire intorno a un tavolo studiosi e politici nella speranza di riuscire a preparare al meglio una legge politicamente difficile e di grande impatto ideologico. In effetti credo che riunioni di questo tipo possano dare buoni frutti, se ognuno farà la sua parte con buona volontà senza cercare d’invadere il campo dell’altro. Come ammoniva l’avvocato Azzeccagarbugli “All’avvocato bisogna raccontar le cose chiare: tocca a lui poi a imbrogliarle”; ovvero nel nostro caso “Compito della dottrina è di illustrare un problema nei suoi termini più chiari ed estremi; tocca poi al politico mediare con le altre componenti, selezionando tra le argomentazioni proposte quelle più utili al raggiungimento di un accettabile compromesso”. Dirò dunque il mio pensiero per intero, senza adattamenti tendenti a renderlo più accettabile.

  5. Association of polymorphisms in the IL1B and IL2 genes with susceptibility and severity of systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattuzzi, Silvia; Barbi, Stefano; Carletto, Antonio; Ravagnani, Viviana; Moore, Patrick S; Bambara, Lisa Maria; Scarpa, Aldo

    2007-05-01

    To investigate possible associations of 9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the IL10, IL1B, IL1A, IL1RN, IL2, LTA, and IL6 genes with susceptibility to systemic sclerosis (SSc), and with clinical subtype of SSc patients. A total of 78 patients with SSc [diffuse SSc (dcSSc), n = 31; limited SSc, (lcSSc), n = 47] and 692 healthy blood donors were genotyped for the following polymorphisms: IL10 T-3575A, IL10 A-1082G, IL1B C-31T, IL1B C-511T, IL1A C-889T, IL1RN A9589T, IL2 T-384G, LTA T-91G, and IL6 G-174C. Alleles in IL1B-31 and IL1B-511 showed a significantly different distribution between cases and controls. Carriers of at least one copy of the IL1B-31-C allele had an increased risk of SSc [odds ratio (OR) 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-5.2, p IL2-384-G allele were significantly more frequent among patients with lcSSc (80.8%), compared to patients with the diffuse subtype (45.1%) (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.8-14.3, p = 0.001) and in subjects positive to anticentromere antibodies (OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.5-11.9, p = 0.007). Lastly, the distribution of the IL2-384 genotype showed statistically significant differences between controls and patients with lcSSc (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.7-7.4, p IL2 gene polymorphisms may be involved in susceptibility to SSc. Moreover, the IL2-384-G allele may be a marker for the limited phenotype of SSc.

  6. Role of Interleukin-23 (IL-23) Receptor Signaling for IL-17 Responses in Human Lyme Disease ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosting, Marije; ter Hofstede, Hadewych; van de Veerdonk, Frank L.; Sturm, Patrick; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; Netea, Mihai G.; Joosten, Leo A. B.

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is known to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of T helper 17 cells. It has been previously demonstrated that IL-17 is involved in experimental Lyme arthritis, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria. However, the precise role of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) for the B. burgdorferi-induced IL-17 responses or human Lyme disease has not yet been elucidated. IL-23R single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11209026 was genotyped using the TaqMan assay. Functional studies were performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and cytokines were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Dose-dependent production of IL-23 and IL-17 by B. burgdorferi could be observed. Interestingly, when IL-23 bioactivity was inhibited by a specific antibody against IL-23p19, IL-17 production was significantly downregulated. In contrast, production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) was not affected after the blockade of IL-23 activity. Moreover, individuals bearing a single nucleotide polymorphism in the IL-23R gene (Arg381Gln) produced significantly less IL-17 after B. burgdorferi stimulation compared with that of the individuals bearing the wild type. Despite lower IL-17 production, the IL-23R gene polymorphism did not influence the development of chronic Lyme disease in a cohort of patients with Lyme disease. This study demonstrates that IL-23R signaling is needed for B. burgdorferi-induced IL-17 production in vitro and that an IL-23R gene SNP leads to impaired IL-17 production. However, the IL-23R gene polymorphism is not crucial for the pathogenesis of chronic Lyme. PMID:21896776

  7. Recombinant human growth-regulated oncogene-alpha induces T lymphocyte chemotaxis. A process regulated via IL-8 receptors by IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinquan, T; Frydenberg, Jane; Mukaida, N

    1995-01-01

    receptors on the cells. This process can be augmented by IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, and inhibited by IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13. In addition, we also document that on T lymphocytes there exist IL-8 receptors that can be up-regulated by IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-2. Our results demonstrate that rhGRO-alpha gene...

  8. IL-23 promotes CD4(+) T cells to produce IL-17 in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chi, W.; Yang, P.Z.; Li, B.; Wu, C.Y.; Jin, H.L.; Zhu, X.F.; Chen, L.N.; Zhou, H.Y.; Huang, X.K.; Kijlstra, A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease is a systemic refractory autoimmune disease. IL-23 has been thought to play a critical role in autoimmune disease through inducing the development of IL-17-producing CD4(+) T cells. Objective: To investigate the expression of IL-23 and IL-17 and the

  9. CD4(+) T cells producing interleukin (IL)-17, IL-22 and interferon-? are major effector T cells in nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyring Andersen, Beatrice; Skov, Lone; Løvendorf, Marianne B

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22 play important roles in the elicitation of human allergic contact dermatitis; however, the frequencies of T cell subtypes producing IL-17 and IL-22 in human allergic contact dermatitis are unknown. Objectives To determine...

  10. DMPD: Differential responses of human monocytes and macrophages to IL-4 and IL-13. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10534111 Differential responses of human monocytes and macrophages to IL-4 and IL-1...):575-8. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Differential responses of human monocytes and macrophages to IL-...4 and IL-13. PubmedID 10534111 Title Differential responses of human monocytes an

  11. Giordano Bruno e il Problema della Modernita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ulliana

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Il testo viene pubblicato per gentile concessione della casa editrice ESI ed e’ tratto dal libro di Stefano Ulliana “Il concetto creativo e dialettico dello Spirito nei Dialoghi Italiani di Giordano Bruno. Il confronto con la tradizione neoplatonico-aristotelica: il testo bruniano De l’Infinito, Universo e mondi”, Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane, Napoli, 2003. Le argomentazioni presentate ne Il concetto creativo e dialettico dello Spirito nei Dialoghi Italiani di Giordano Bruno (Il confronto con la tradizione neoplatonico-aristotelica: il testo bruniano De l’Infinito, Universo e mondi costituiscono le conclusioni ultime e definitive di un lavoro di ricerca che ha investito l’insieme dei Dialoghi Italiani, riuscendo a reperire ed a far emergere quello che pare il nucleo più profondo ed importante—il vero e proprio elevato fondamento—della speculazione bruniana: la presenza attiva di un concetto triadico teologico-politico—il Padre, il Figlio e lo Spirito della tradizione trinitaria cristiana—però riformulato attraverso il capovolgimento rivoluzionario di questa stessa tradizione, attuato attraverso il concetto creativo e dialettico dell’infinito. In questo modo la stessa tradizione platonica pare subire una trasformazione essenziale, abbandonando qualunque forma di alienazione e negazione, per riaprirsi invece verso soluzioni che paiono riprendere moniti ed osservazioni suscitati dalle prime, grandi e maestose, speculazioni dei filosofi presocratici. Parmenide, Eraclito ed Empedocle sembrano rivivere nei testi bruniani, riproponendo una soluzione ben diversa a quei nodi e problemi teoretico-pratici—fondamentale il rapporto Uno-molti e tutto ciò che da esso consegue, sia sul piano naturale che politico—apparentemente risolti e codificati dal pensiero postsocratico, prima platonico e poi aristotelico. L’inscindibilit� del principio di libert� (la figura teologica del Padre ed eguaglianza (il Figlio, attraverso

  12. A human IL10 BAC transgene reveals tissue-specific control of IL-10 expression and alters disease outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Ranatunga, Dilini; Hedrich, Christian M.; Wang, Fengying; McVicar, Daniel W.; Nowak, Nathan; Joshi, Trupti; Feigenbaum, Lionel; Grant, Lindsay R.; Stäger, Simona; Bream, Jay H.

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-10 is an immunoregulatory cytokine that is produced by diverse cell populations. Studies in mice suggest that the cellular source of IL-10 is a key determinant in various disease pathologies, yet little is known regarding the control of tissue-specific human IL-10 expression. To assess cell type-specific human IL-10 regulation, we created a human IL-10 transgenic mouse with a bacterial artificial chromosome (hIL10BAC) in which the IL10 gene is positioned centrally. Since huma...

  13. Il Lago di Celluloide: immagini e pratiche di una meta turistica d'élite nelle rappresentazioni cinematografiche dai fratelli Lumière a Geogrge Clooney / The “Celluloid Lake”: images and practices of an elitist tourism destination in film productions from Lumière Brothers to George Clooney

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Muti

    2016-01-01

    Il lago di Como è un caso di studio paradigmatico per l'unicità della dotazione ambientale e culturale, per la storia turistica lunga oltre duecento anni, per la forza dell'immagine che comprende alcune icone globali. Letterarie, poetiche, narrative, pittoriche, figurative, le immagini ricreative del lago di Como si modificano e si moltiplicano dall'età classica a quella romantica, presentandosi già definite e consolidate agli albori delle tecnologie fotografiche e cinematografiche. Il lago d...

  14. Il reale in finzione. L'ibridazione di fiction e non-fiction nella letteratura contemporanea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mongelli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Questo saggio propone un breve excursus della storia dell’ibridazione di fiction e non-fiction in ambito occidentale, a partire dal new journalism e dal nonfiction novel fino all’attuale proliferazione di oggetti narrativi in cui è presente una finzionalizzazione del reale. A partire da alcuni faction contemporanei si illustreranno le diverse intenzioni e i diversi risultati estetici a cui possono giungere i tentativi di ibridare la fiction con il reportage giornalistico, il racconto di un caso di cronaca o di un pezzo di Storia, la biografia e il diario. Nelle forme sempre specifiche in cui ogni testo pensa e mette in scena il reale è spesso presente la convinzione che una verità ulteriore, più “vera”, si dia attraverso la menzogna letteraria, ovvero la fiction. This paper provides a brief account of the history of hybridization between fiction and non-fiction within Western literature, from the origins – the new journalism and the non-fiction novel – to the contemporary hypertrofia of “narrative objects” in which we can trace a process of fictionalization. Starting from contemporary factions we will illustrate the different intentions and the different aesthetic results of the attempts to hybridize fiction with journalistic reportage, true crime report, narrative history, diary or biography. Although each text thinks and depicts reality in a very specific form, it will clearly emerge that all factions share the belief that narrative fiction might be used as a key to achieve a more  authentic truth.

  15. The polymorphisms of IL-4, IL-4R and IL-13 genes and bladder cancer risk in a Chinese population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Haiyan; Ma, Lan; Wang, Meilin; Shi, Danni; Qin, Chao; Yuan, Lin; Yin, Changjun; Zhang, Zhengdong

    2012-05-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammatory process may play a role in bladder carcinogenesis. However, the exact mechanisms of how the inflammatory factors associate with bladder cancer risk are still unknown. In this study, we explored whether polymorphisms (i.e. IL-4 C-590T, IL-4R Ile50Val, IL-4R Ser478Pro, IL-4R Gln551Arg, IL-13 C-1055T and IL-13 Arg130Gln) of IL-4, IL-4R and IL-13 genes predicted Chinese bladder cancer risk in 817 bladder cancer and 1,141 controls. Genotyping was performed by using the TaqMan method. We did not find any overall association between these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and bladder cancer susceptibility in a Chinese population. However, in the classification and regression tree (CART) analysis, we found that carriers of IL-13 C-1055T variant genotype in smokers had a 2.57-fold increased bladder cancer risk with a 55% patient rate (OR = 2.57; 95% CI = 1.93-3.43), comparing with non-smokers. Similar result was also observed in combination of IL-13 C-1055T and IL-13 Arg130Gln in smokers. By multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis, the best interaction model was the two-factor model that smokers with the IL-13 C-1055T genotypes were the subgroup to predict bladder cancer risk. The results suggested that the genetic variants in IL-4, IL-4R and IL-13 genes might modulate the bladder cancer risk in a Chinese population.

  16. Biological therapy targeting the IL-23/IL-17 axis in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstockt, Bram; Van Assche, Gert; Vermeire, Séverine; Ferrante, Marc

    2017-01-01

    As many inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients do not benefit from long-term anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment, new anti-inflammatories are urgently needed. After the discovery of the interleukin (IL) 23/17 axis being pivotal in IBD pathogenesis, many different compounds were developed, targeting different components within this pathway. Areas covered: A literature search to March 2016 was performed to identify the most relevant reports on the role of the IL-23/IL-17 axis in IBD and on the different molecules targeting this pathway. First, the authors briefly summarize the immunology of the IL-23/IL-17 pathway to elucidate the mode of action of all different agents. Second, they describe all different molecules targeting this pathway. Besides discussing efficacy and safety data, they also explore immunogenicity, exposure during pregnancy and pharmacokinetics. Expert opinion: A new era in IBD treatment has recently been initiated: besides immunomodulators and TNF-antagonists, anti-adhesion molecules and monoclonal antibodies targeting the IL-23/IL-17 pathway have been developed. Biomarkers for personalized medicine are urgently needed. This therapeutic (r)evolution will further improve disease-related and patient-reported outcome, though a lot of questions should still be addressed in future years.

  17. A change of IL-2 and IL-4 production in patients with Helicobactor pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. G. Fan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobactor pylori is the most common cause of gastroduodenal inflammation. However, the exact immune pathogenesis is not fully understood. To look for evidence of the immunological mechanism in H. pylori associated disease, we measured cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2 and IL-4 levels produced by peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL and gastric biopsies in 20 subjects with or without H. pylori infection. H. pylori can stimulate IL-2 and IL-4 production from PBL in H. pylori negative as well as H. pylori positive individuals. The spontaneous IL-2 production by PBL and gastric biopsies was greater (p < 0.0025, <0.001in H. pylori negative individuals than that in H. pylori infected patients. Increased IL-4 levels from PBL in H. pylori infected patients were found in the presence of H. pylori (p < 0.0025. An increased spontaneous production of IL-4 from gastric biopsies was also observed in H. pylori infected patients (p < 0.025. In conclusion, an enhanced type 2 cytokine production was observed in H. pylori infected patients, which may be responsible for H. pylori chronic infection.

  18. Enhanced prostaglandin E2 production by monocytes in atopic dermatitis (AD) is not accompanied by enhanced production of IL-6, IL-10 or IL-12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, A.; van der Pouw Kraan, T. C.; Engel, M.; Wormmeester, J.; Widjaja, P.; Zonneveld, I. M.; Bos, J. D.; Kapsenberg, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    AD is associated with a bias of the T helper cells to show increased IL-4 and reduced interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production. The production of IFN-gamma and IL-4 and the development of Th cells into either high IFN-gamma or high IL-4 producers is strongly influenced by factors produced by

  19. Serum IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α Levels in Early Diagnosis and Management of Neonatal Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nese Citak Kurt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine serum IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels in neonatal sepsis at the time of diagnosis and after therapy, and to show the meaningful on the follow up. Methods. This prospective study was performed on newborns who were hospitalized for neonatal sepsis and who were classified as culture-proven sepsis (n=12, as culture-negative sepsis (n=21, and as healthy newborns (n=17. Results. At the time of diagnosis, serum IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels of culture-proven sepsis were significantly higher than those of the control groups (P<.05. At the time of diagnosis, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels of culture-proven sepsis and culture-negative sepsis were significantly higher than levels at the seventh day after antibiotic treatment. Conclusion. Serum IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α are mediators of inflammation and can be used at the diagnosis and at the evaluation of the therapeutic efficiency in neonatal sepsis.

  20. Il progetto Virgo, Einstein e i computer

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Virgo sta accendendo i suoi laser: mercoledi e stato inaugurato a Pisa il piu potente rivelatore di onde gravitazionali al mondo, capace eventualmente di segnalare l'arrivo di un'onda dal cosmo, con una sensibilita di un miliardesimo di miliardesimo di metro" (1/2 page)

  1. Supervising and leading teams in ILS

    CERN Document Server

    Allan, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Provides a practical guide to supervisory skills, suitable for team leaders and supervisors in library and information work. Illustrated by examples and case studies from different types of ILS, this book offers self-assessment audits and other activities to enable the reader to relate the tools and techniques to their own work situation.

  2. Il significato della relatività

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    1955-01-01

    La prima edizione di questo libro, pubblicata bel 1922, comprendeva il testo delle Stafford Little Lectures tenute da Einstein nel maggio 1921 alla Università di Princeton. Nel 1945 Einstein aggiunse un'appendice sulla sua teoria generalizzata della gravitazione. Nel 1953 Einstein rifece del tutto, ampliandola, la seconda appendice, a cui aggiunse un Supplemento nel 1954.

  3. Aberrant plasma IL-7 and soluble IL-7 receptor levels indicate impaired T-cell response to IL-7 in human tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lundtoft

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available T-cell proliferation and generation of protective memory during chronic infections depend on Interleukin-7 (IL-7 availability and receptivity. Regulation of IL-7 receptor (IL-7R expression and signalling are key for IL-7-modulated T-cell functions. Aberrant expression of soluble (s and membrane-associated (m IL-7R molecules is associated with development of autoimmunity and immune failure in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS patients. Here we investigated the role of IL-7/IL-7R on T-cell immunity in human tuberculosis. We performed two independent case-control studies comparing tuberculosis patients and healthy contacts. This was combined with follow-up examinations for a subgroup of tuberculosis patients under therapy and recovery. Blood plasma and T cells were characterised for IL-7/sIL-7R and mIL-7R expression, respectively. IL-7-dependent T-cell functions were determined by analysing STAT5 phosphorylation, antigen-specific cytokine release and by analysing markers of T-cell exhaustion and inflammation. Tuberculosis patients had lower soluble IL-7R (p < 0.001 and higher IL-7 (p < 0.001 plasma concentrations as compared to healthy contacts. Both markers were largely independent and aberrant expression normalised during therapy and recovery. Furthermore, tuberculosis patients had lower levels of mIL-7R in T cells caused by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Functional in vitro tests indicated diminished IL-7-induced STAT5 phosphorylation and impaired IL-7-promoted cytokine release of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4+ T cells from tuberculosis patients. Finally, we determined T-cell exhaustion markers PD-1 and SOCS3 and detected increased SOCS3 expression during therapy. Only moderate correlation of PD-1 and SOCS3 with IL-7 expression was observed. We conclude that diminished soluble IL-7R and increased IL-7 plasma concentrations, as well as decreased membrane-associated IL-7R expression in T cells, reflect impaired T

  4. Aberrant plasma IL-7 and soluble IL-7 receptor levels indicate impaired T-cell response to IL-7 in human tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundtoft, Christian; Afum-Adjei Awuah, Anthony; Rimpler, Jens; Harling, Kirstin; Nausch, Norman; Kohns, Malte; Adankwah, Ernest; Lang, Franziska; Olbrich, Laura; Mayatepek, Ertan; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Jacobsen, Marc

    2017-06-01

    T-cell proliferation and generation of protective memory during chronic infections depend on Interleukin-7 (IL-7) availability and receptivity. Regulation of IL-7 receptor (IL-7R) expression and signalling are key for IL-7-modulated T-cell functions. Aberrant expression of soluble (s) and membrane-associated (m) IL-7R molecules is associated with development of autoimmunity and immune failure in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Here we investigated the role of IL-7/IL-7R on T-cell immunity in human tuberculosis. We performed two independent case-control studies comparing tuberculosis patients and healthy contacts. This was combined with follow-up examinations for a subgroup of tuberculosis patients under therapy and recovery. Blood plasma and T cells were characterised for IL-7/sIL-7R and mIL-7R expression, respectively. IL-7-dependent T-cell functions were determined by analysing STAT5 phosphorylation, antigen-specific cytokine release and by analysing markers of T-cell exhaustion and inflammation. Tuberculosis patients had lower soluble IL-7R (p < 0.001) and higher IL-7 (p < 0.001) plasma concentrations as compared to healthy contacts. Both markers were largely independent and aberrant expression normalised during therapy and recovery. Furthermore, tuberculosis patients had lower levels of mIL-7R in T cells caused by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Functional in vitro tests indicated diminished IL-7-induced STAT5 phosphorylation and impaired IL-7-promoted cytokine release of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4+ T cells from tuberculosis patients. Finally, we determined T-cell exhaustion markers PD-1 and SOCS3 and detected increased SOCS3 expression during therapy. Only moderate correlation of PD-1 and SOCS3 with IL-7 expression was observed. We conclude that diminished soluble IL-7R and increased IL-7 plasma concentrations, as well as decreased membrane-associated IL-7R expression in T cells, reflect impaired T-cell sensitivity to IL-7 in

  5. IL-17 and IL-22 in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma Are Elevated in Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujuan Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS is an acute autoimmune-mediated inflammatory demyelinating disease that causes rapidly progressing paralysis and occasionally respiratory failure. We hypothesized that interleukin (IL-17 and IL-22 are elevated in GBS and participate in the autoimmune inflammatory response of GBS. We used sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to measure the IL-17 and IL-22 levels in the CSF, and plasma from 22 GBS patients at the acute phase and 18 healthy controls (HC. The results show that CSF and plasma levels of IL-17 and IL-22 are elevated in GBS patients compared with HC. IL-17 and IL-22 levels in CSF, respectively, are correlated with GBS disability scale scores (GDSs. Meanwhile, IL-17 and IL-22 levels in CSF, IL-22 in CSF, and plasma of GBS patients have positive correlation, respectively. The increased levels of IL-17 and IL-22 in CSF may be explained by the disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB and peripheral nervous system (PNS local inflammation in GBS. Meanwhile, the elevated levels of these two cytokines in plasma suggest the activation of Th17 and Th22 cells in the systemic immune response of GBS. Our data provide preliminary evidence that GBS is associated with high levels of IL-17 and IL-22 in CSF and plasma. These cytokines display pathogenic potential and may serve as useful biomarkers for GBS.

  6. Vaghezza e chiarezza: tradurre Il grande Gatsby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca Cavagnoli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available La traduzione di The Great Gatsby (1925 di Francis Scott Fitzgerald, pubblicata da Feltrinelli nel 2011: dalla tensione fra lingua scritta e lingua orale all’alternarsi di registri linguistici assai vari nei dialoghi (formale, colloquiale, popolare, dalla difficoltà di seguire Fitzgerald nelle sue ellissi all’aderenza sia alle sue scelte stilistiche sia ai campi espressivi da lui prediletti, in particolare l’area semantica del mare, delle tenebre, dell’inquietudine. Nell’articolo entro nel dettaglio delle singole scelte traduttive – attraverso il confronto della traduzione con il testo fonte e la spiegazione delle decisioni prese – compiute all’insegna di una scelta di fondo, e cioè che il fine etico dell’atto traduttivo sia accogliere lo Straniero in quanto tale, affinché nel versare un libro nella propria lingua madre l’Altro resti Altro e il desiderio di tradurre non porti a sostituire il proprio all’altrui. The article retraces the path I followed in my translation, published by Feltrinelli in 2011, of Francis Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby (1925 – from the tension between the written and spoken languages to the wide diversity of registers (formal, colloquial, popular in the dialogues, from the difficulty of staying in step with Fitzgerald’s ellipses to the preservation of his stylistic choices and his favourite semantic fields, particularly those of the sea, of darkness and of restlessness. By comparing my translation with the source text and explaining the rationale behind my decisions, I will perform a thorough examination of my translation choices, which have been based on the tenet that the ethical aim of the translation act is to receive the Foreign as Foreign, so that when one turns a book into one’s own mother tongue the Other remains the Other and the wish to translate does not lead one to replace the Other with the Self.  

  7. Rappresentare il progetto di interaction Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Zannoni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ItQuesto saggio indaga le conseguenze che, nel mutato contesto del progetto contemporaneo del design, implica la forte convergenza della disciplina del progetto nei temi legati all'interaction design. L'evidenza di questo mutamento mette in luce come nell'iter progettuale il ruolo centrico del disegno e della rappresentazione è messo in crisi da una trasformazione dei contenuti del progetto. Il rapporto tra il progetto dell'interfaccia e il product design, la dematerializzazione dei feedback tattili e visivi, la sempre più diffusa digitalizzazione delle superfici di interazione degli oggetti, mostrano come il design del prodotto non è immune alla trasformazione che ha cambiato i media della comunicazione negli ultimi dieci anni e gli strumenti della rappresentazione si devono adeguare per poter prefigurare una sempre maggior complessità del percorso progettuale.EnIn the changing context of contemporary design, this essay explores the consequences entailed by the significant convergence of the discipline of design towards the themes relative to action design. The evidence of this change highlights how the central role of drawing and representation in the design process is challenged by the transformation in the contents of design. The relationship between the design of the interface and product design, the dematerialization of tactile and visual feedback, the increasingly widespread digitalization of the interaction surfaces of objects, prove that product design is not immune to the transformation that has changed communication media over the past ten years and the tools of representation must adapt to maintain the capacity to prefigure the growing complexity of the design process.

  8. IL-17 in Chronic Inflammation: From Discovery to Targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, Audrey; Noack, Melissa; Miossec, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a cytokine which elicits protection against extracellular bacterial and fungal infections and which plays important roles in inflammation. However, when produced in excess, it contributes to chronic inflammation associated with many inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. This has made IL-17 an attractive therapeutic target. The present review describes the structure of the IL-17 family, the IL-17 receptor complex, and the cells producing IL-17. The contributions of IL-17 to disease as well as new IL-17-based treatment options are discussed. Finally, the results of IL-17 or IL-17 receptor inhibitors in clinical trials are detailed. With a fruitful outlook, drug registration has now been granted for psoriasis psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis, and also bears great potential in a growing number of conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Interleukin-23 (IL-23), independent of IL-17 and IL-22, drives neutrophil recruitment and innate inflammation during Clostridium difficile colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Andrew J; Falkowski, Nicole R; McDonald, Roderick A; Pandit, Chinmay R; Young, Vincent B; Huffnagle, Gary B

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the role of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-23 (IL-23) in promoting neutrophil recruitment, inflammatory cytokine expression and intestinal histopathology in response to Clostridium difficile infection. Wild-type (WT) and p19(-/-) (IL-23KO) mice were pre-treated with cefoperazone in their drinking water for 5 days, and after a 2-day recovery period were challenged with spores from C. difficile strain VPI 10463. Interleukin-23 deficiency was associated with significant defects in both the recruitment of CD11b(High) Ly6G(H) (igh) neutrophils to the colon and the expression of neutrophil chemoattractants and stabilization factors including Cxcl1, Cxcl2, Ccl3 and Csf3 within the colonic mucosa as compared with WT animals. Furthermore, the expression of inflammatory cytokines including Il33, Tnf and Il6 was significantly reduced in IL-23-deficient animals. There was also a trend towards less severe colonic histopathology in the absence of IL-23. The induction of Il17a and Il22 was also significantly abrogated in IL-23KO mice. Inflammatory cytokine expression and neutrophilic inflammation were not reduced in IL-17a-deficient mice or in mice treated with anti-IL-22 depleting monoclonal antibody. However, induction of RegIIIg was significantly reduced in animals treated with anti-IL-22 antibody. Taken together, these data indicate that IL-23, but not IL-17a or IL-22, promotes neutrophil recruitment and inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in the colon in response to C. difficile infection. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Regulation of IL-6 and IL-8 production by reciprocal cell-to-cell interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts through IL-1α in ameloblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchigami, Takao [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kibe, Toshiro [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Koyama, Hirofumi; Kishida, Shosei; Iijima, Mikio [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Nishizawa, Yoshiaki [Kagoshima University Faculty of Medicine, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Hijioka, Hiroshi; Fujii, Tomomi [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Ueda, Masahiro [Natural Science Centre for Research and Education, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Koorimoto, Kagoshima 890-8580 (Japan); Nakamura, Norifumi [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kiyono, Tohru [Department of Virology, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuouku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Kishida, Michiko, E-mail: kmichiko@m2.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • We studied the interaction between tumor cells and fibroblasts in ameloblastoma. • AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted significantly high IL-1α levels. • IL-1α derived from AM-3 cells promoted IL-6 and IL-8 secretion of fibroblasts. • IL-6 and IL-8 activated the cellular motility and proliferation of AM-3 cells. - Abstract: Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic benign tumor that occurs in the jawbone, which invades bone and reoccurs locally. This tumor is treated by wide surgical excision and causes various problems, including changes in facial countenance and mastication disorders. Ameloblastomas have abundant tumor stroma, including fibroblasts and immune cells. Although cell-to-cell interactions are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, intercellular communications in ameloblastoma have not been fully investigated. In this study, we examined interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts via soluble factors in ameloblastoma. We used a human ameloblastoma cell line (AM-3 ameloblastoma cells), human fibroblasts (HFF-2 fibroblasts), and primary-cultured fibroblasts from human ameloblastoma tissues, and analyzed the effect of ameloblastoma-associated cell-to-cell communications on gene expression, cytokine secretion, cellular motility and proliferation. AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1α than HFF-2 fibroblasts. Treatment with conditioned medium from AM-3 ameloblastoma cells upregulated gene expression and secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 of HFF-2 fibroblasts and primary-cultured fibroblast cells from ameloblastoma tissues. The AM3-stimulated production of IL-6 and IL-8 in fibroblasts was neutralized by pretreatment of AM-3 cells with anti-IL-1α antibody and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Reciprocally, cellular motility of AM-3 ameloblastoma cells was stimulated by HFF-2 fibroblasts in IL-6 and IL-8 dependent manner. In conclusion, ameloblastoma cells and stromal fibroblasts behave

  11. Curcumin blocks interleukin (IL)-2 signaling in T-lymphocytes by inhibiting IL-2 synthesis, CD25 expression, and IL-2 receptor signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forward, Nicholas A.; Conrad, David M. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Power Coombs, Melanie R.; Doucette, Carolyn D. [Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Furlong, Suzanne J. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Lin, Tong-Jun [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Hoskin, David W., E-mail: d.w.hoskin@dal.ca [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Department of Surgery, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} Curcumin inhibits CD4{sup +} T-lymphocyte proliferation. {yields} Curcumin inhibits interleukin-2 (IL-2) synthesis and CD25 expression by CD4{sup +} T-lymphocytes. {yields} Curcumin interferes with IL-2 receptor signaling by inhibiting JAK3 and STAT5 phosphorylation. {yields} IL-2-dependent regulatory T-lymphocyte function and Foxp3 expression is downregulated by curcumin. -- Abstract: Curcumin (diferulomethane) is the principal curcuminoid in the spice tumeric and a potent inhibitor of activation-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation; however, the molecular basis of this immunosuppressive effect has not been well studied. Here we show that micromolar concentrations of curcumin inhibited DNA synthesis by mouse CD4{sup +} T-lymphocytes, as well as interleukin-2 (IL-2) and CD25 ({alpha} chain of the high affinity IL-2 receptor) expression in response to antibody-mediated cross-linking of CD3 and CD28. Curcumin acted downstream of protein kinase C activation and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release to inhibit I{kappa}B phosphorylation, which is required for nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NF{kappa}B. In addition, IL-2-dependent DNA synthesis by mouse CTLL-2 cells, but not constitutive CD25 expression, was impaired in the presence of curcumin, which demonstrated an inhibitory effect on IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling. IL-2-induced phosphorylation of STAT5A and JAK3, but not JAK1, was diminished in the presence of curcumin, indicating inhibition of critical proximal events in IL-2R signaling. In line with the inhibitory action of curcumin on IL-2R signaling, pretreatment of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T-cells with curcumin downregulated suppressor function, as well as forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) expression. We conclude that curcumin inhibits IL-2 signaling by reducing available IL-2 and high affinity IL-2R, as well as interfering with IL-2R signaling.

  12. Caso Ouro Fino Saúde Animal

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo Hauch Ribeiro de Castro

    2012-01-01

    O Caso Ouro Fino Saúde Animal ilustra uma tomada de decisão, pelos executivos da empresa, sobre a entrada em um novo mercado, de vacinas para bovinos. Diante da necessidade de dar um passo maior em direção ao crescimento sustentável, a empresa não poderia deixar de entrar nesse segmento, que representava mais de metade do mercado brasileiro de produtos veterinários. No entanto, era um passo arriscado. A principal questão do caso é avaliar as alternativas de comprar vacinas de terceiros ou pro...

  13. Il ruolo dell'aggettivo assiologico nel J'accuse di Zola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Spagna

    2012-08-01

    delle altre vittime del caso. In particolare, l’insieme delle forme negative sono sfruttate per qualificare in modo dispregiativo, sotto forma di insulto e persino di oltraggio, i “vrais coupables” e l’affaire in generale; con gli aggettivi positivi Zola esalta le qualità e si esprime favorevolmente per il condannato e le altre vittime implicate, compreso il Presidente della Repubblica. Nell’ambito semantico più sfruttato che è quello morale, l’aggettivo assiologico viene a costituire così, nel J’Accuse, un efficace atto politico all’interno del complessivo e coerente disegno zoliano.Parole chiave: argomentazione; aggettivo assiologico; discorso politico; accusa; difesa.

  14. Relato de caso: esclerose tuberosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Simis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O Complexo de Esclerose Tuberosa (CET é uma síndrome neurocutânea transmitida hereditariamente, de traço autossômico dominante e que se manifesta por uma tríade clássica: deficiência mental, convulsões e adenoma sebáceo. A mutação responsável pela síndrome está presente em até 85% dos portadores de CET e.ocorre nos genes supressores tumorais TSC1 e TSC2, que produzem hamartina e tuberina, respectivamente.A prevalência do CET é de 1:10.000 a 1:170.000, atinge mais indivíduos do sexo masculina e é rara em negros. Relato de Caso: R.C.S.B., paciente do sexo feminino, 16 anos, vem encaminhada ao ambulatório de neurologia devido a quadro de convulsões tônico-clônicas generalizadas e crises de ausência diárias há 1 ano, mas com história de convulsões aos 2 anos que cessaram espontaneamente. Está em tratamento com fenitoína 200mg/dia e carbamazepina 800mg/dia, mas ainda apresenta crises de ausência. A paciente apresenta as lesões cutâneas típicas do CET: adenomas sebáceos (angiofibroma em face distribuídos simetricamente entre nariz e bochechas, envolvendo ainda fronte e queixo. Não há sinais de retardo mental. A ressonância nuclear magnética revelou imagens com padrão compatível com áreas de desmielinização. O eletroencefalograma encontrava-se normal. Conclusão: O tratamento do CET ainda é um desafio para muitos neurologistas, uma vez que não há tratamento específico para doença. A paciente deve contar com equipe multidisciplinar, por vezes é necessário acompanhamento com neurologista, dermatologista, geneticista, psicólogos e outros, dependendo das manifestações do CET. A finalidade terapêutica é a qualidade de vida da paciente, que pode ser prejudicada pelas várias convulsões ou alterações estéticas da doença.

  15. Piebaldismo: relato de um caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wey Vieira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available O piebaldismo é uma doença autossômica dominante rara, caracterizada por áreas congênitas de pele branca (leucodermia envolvendo região anterocentral do tronco, meio das extremidades e testa¹ e de cabelo branco (poliose no couro cabeludo frontal² presente em 80-90% dos pacientes. As lesões estão sempre presentes ao nascimento, permanecem estáveis por toda a vida e caracterizam-se por rigorosa simetria.³ Máculas hiperpigmentadas normalmente são vistas dentro e ao redor das áreas de hipopigmentação. 4A doença ocorre devido a mutações do gene c-kit, localizado no cromossomo 4q12, ou do Slug gene, no cromossomo 8q11, as quais resultam numa diminuição da sinalização do receptor de tirosina-quinase, prejudicando o desenvolvimento dos melanoblastos e sua migração da crista neural e, consequentemente, a síntese de melanina.5 Relata-se o caso de paciente do sexo feminino, encaminhada ao ambulatório de genética do CHS aos 3 meses de idade, por apresentar, desde o nascimento, mecha branca no cabelo e pigmentação irregular da pele. Ao exame físico: base nasal alargada, mecha branca frontal, irregularidade de pigmentação com áreas hipopigmentadas simétricas em tronco e membros e mancha hipocrômica frontal de formato triangular. A despigmentação da pele do piebaldismo não responde a medicamentos e fototerapia. As áreas despigmentadas perdem parte da barreira de proteção da pele fornecida pelos melanócitos.6 Vários métodos cirúrgicos vem sendo desenvolvidos, incluindo transferência de melanócitos por enxerto de pele total ou parcial, por punch (minigrafting, bolhas de sucção ou cultura de melanócitos e queratinócitos.7 A repigmentação pode ser vista dentro de 6-8 meses, com a cor da pele se assemelhando à da pele normal circundante.8

  16. Tethering IL2 to Its Receptor IL2Rβ Enhances Antitumor Activity and Expansion of Natural Killer NK92 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jounaidi, Youssef; Cotten, Joseph F; Miller, Keith W; Forman, Stuart A

    2017-11-01

    IL2 is an immunostimulatory cytokine for key immune cells including T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Systemic IL2 supplementation could enhance NK-mediated immunity in a variety of diseases ranging from neoplasms to viral infection. However, its systemic use is restricted by its serious side effects and limited efficacy due to activation of T regulatory cells (Tregs). IL2 signaling is mediated through interactions with a multi-subunit receptor complex containing IL2Rα, IL2Rβ, and IL2Rγ. Adult natural killer (NK) cells express only IL2Rβ and IL2Rγ subunits and are therefore relatively insensitive to IL2. To overcome these limitations, we created a novel chimeric IL2-IL2Rβ fusion protein of IL2 and its receptor IL2Rβ joined via a peptide linker (CIRB). NK92 cells expressing CIRB (NK92CIRB) were highly activated and expanded indefinitely without exogenous IL2. When compared with an IL2-secreting NK92 cell line, NK92CIRB were more activated, cytotoxic, and resistant to growth inhibition. Direct contact with cancer cells enhanced the cytotoxic character of NK92CIRB cells, which displayed superior in vivo antitumor effects in mice. Overall, our results showed how tethering IL2 to its receptor IL2Rβ eliminates the need for IL2Rα and IL2Rβ, offering a new tool to selectively activate and empower immune therapy. Cancer Res; 77(21); 5938-51. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Il rilievo laser come tecnica di monitoraggio per i fenomeni di instabilità dei versanti degli edifici vulcanici : il caso dell'Isola di Stromboli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Marsella

    2012-09-01

    ses based on the 2006 and 2009 Digital Surface Models (DSMs, generated from an Airborne Laser scanner on the Stromboli  Island  permitted  to  detect  active landslides and to extract additional information useful to hazard assessment and related mitigation actions.

  18. A role for protein kinase C activity in interleukin-1 (IL-1) induction of IL-2 gene expression but not in IL-1 signal transduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Macchia, G; Baldari, C T; Massone, A; Telford, J L

    1990-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is known to synergize with phorbol esters in the induction of interleukin-2 (IL-2) expression in T-lymphoid leukemia cells and proliferation of mouse thymocytes. We used a plasmid construct containing the bacterial gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase under the control of the human IL-2 promoter to study the nature of this synergism in the murine thymoma cell line EL4. Although IL-1 induction of the IL-2 promoter in these cells required costimulus with phorbol myris...

  19. Il potere dei monaci nei concili orientali del V secolo: il constatinopolitano eutiche e il siro bau sauma

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    Silvia ACERBI

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En el presente trabajo analizamos el papel asumido por los monjes en los conflictos cristológicos del siglo ? en la pars Orientis del Imperio, en particular el protagonismo desempeñado en los concilios de Efeso I, Efeso II y Calcedonia por algunos exponentes significativos del tagma monástico. Hábil mediación política jugada en los ambientes de la corte imperial, en el caso del constantinopolitano Eutiques, violenta intervención armada en el caso del sirio Bar Sauma, el poder de los monjes pasó de ser instrumento político al servicio de las jerarquías civiles o eclesiásticas para convertirse en amenaza para la Iglesia imperial que tuvo que proceder a su institucionalización.ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to analyze the role played by monks in the Christological conflicts during the fifth century in the Pars Orientis of the Roman Empire. In particular we study the protagonism of some relevant exponents of the monastic tagma in the Councils of Ephesus I, Ephesus II and Chalcedon. Suitable political mediation in the Imperial court in the case of Constantipolitan Eutiques, extreme violence in the case of Syrian Bar Sauma, monastic power evolved from political instrument to the service of civil or ecclesiastical hierarchies into a threat to the Imperial Church which was forced to institutionalize it.

  20. Re-examining the proposed lectin properties of IL-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Giuseppe A; Rini, James M

    2008-03-01

    Early work examining the interactions of IL-2 and the urinary glycoprotein uromodulin led to the suggestion that IL-2 was a lectin with specificity for high-mannose and mannan ligands. Subsequent studies have attributed various roles to these properties, some critical to the cell proliferative activity of IL-2. In an attempt to verify the reported interaction between IL-2 and mannose containing carbohydrate ligands we studied two biologically active forms of IL-2 using various techniques including affinity chromatography, equilibrium dialysis, and NMR methods. Despite previous reports we have not been able to demonstrate that IL-2 possesses the ability to bind carbohydrate.

  1. Antibodies to human IL-10 neutralize ebvIL-10-mediated cytokine suppression but have no effect on cmvIL-10 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, Noelle D; Spencer, Juliet V

    2010-11-01

    Interleukin-10 is a pivotal determinant of virus clearance or persistence. Two human herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) are unique among persistent viruses because they not only trigger production of host IL-10, but both viruses also encode homologs of IL-10 that are expressed during infection. Because anti-human IL-10 antibodies have diagnostic value and therapeutic potential for many chronic infections, cross-reactivity with ebvIL-10 and cmvIL-10 was evaluated in this study. Six of seven anti-hIL-10 antibodies tested recognized ebvIL-10 and neutralized its immunosuppressive activity. In contrast, cmvIL-10 was neither recognized nor neutralized by any anti-human IL-10 antibody. These findings demonstrate that IL-10-neutralizing treatments in HCMV- or EBV-infected patients may require consideration of the contribution of viral IL-10 to disease pathology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum concentration of IL-6, IL-2, TNF-α, and IFNγ in Vitiligo patients

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    Suman Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitiligo is an acquired depigmenting disorder characterized by the loss of functional melanocytes from the epidermis. Although the etiology of vitiligo is unknown, over the last few years, substantial data from clinical research has greatly supported the ′Autoimmune theory′ and this is supported by the frequent association of vitiligo with disorders that have an autoimmune origin, including Hashimoto′s thyroiditis, Graves disease, type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and Addison′s disease. As cytokines are important mediators of immunity, there is evidence to suggest that they play a major role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Aim: Keeping this in view we have assayed sera for cytokine IL-6, IL-2, Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and IFNγ in 80 cases of vitiligo and compared it with healthy subjects, in order to find out whether they play a role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo or not. Materials and Methods: Serum IL-6, IL-2, TNF-α, and IFNγ were done by the indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: The mean serum IL-6 and IL-2 levels in the patient group were significantly higher when compared with those of the normal controls. The mean serum IFNγ level in patients with vitiligo was significantly lower than that in the control group. There was no significant difference in the serum level of TNF-α between vitiligo and healthy controls. Conclusion : An increase in the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-2 in vitiligo patients may play an important role in melanocytic cytotoxicity. Thus, we speculate that the cytokine production of epidermal microenvironment may be involved in vitiligo.

  3. Preparation and validation of radio iodinated recombinant human IL-10 for the measurement of natural human antibodies against IL-10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lemos Rieper, Carina; Galle, Pia; Svenson, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Radio iodinated recombinant human IL-10 was prepared and validated for the measurement of natural human anti-IL-10 antibodies. Iodination of IL-10 was accomplished by means of the chloramine-T method. The crude tracer was purified by size chromatography as homo-dimeric IL-10 with a specific...... activity of 75 cpm/pg. Validation of the tracer confirmed preserved antibody epitopes and receptor binding ability. A robust Radio Immuno Assay (RIA) was developed and validated to detect natural human anti-IL-10 antibodies based on the formation of (125)I-labeled IL-10-IgG complexes in solution...... and separation of the complexes by chromatography on mini-columns. The RIA was applied to 3360 plasma samples derived from normal Danish blood donors. Generally, IL-10 did not bind to plasma factors other than natural anti-IL-10 IgG antibodies. The prevalence of donors high positive for antibodies against IL-10...

  4. IL-34 Upregulated Th17 Production through Increased IL-6 Expression by Rheumatoid Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes

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    Bing Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic autoimmune disease which is characterized by synovial inflammation and cartilage damage for which causes articular dysfunction. Activation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS is a critical step that promotes disease progression. In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of interleukin-34 (IL-34 on RA FLS as a proinflammatory factor and IL-34-stimulated FLS on the production of Th17. We found that serum IL-34 levels were increased compared to those of the healthy controls and had positive correlations with C-reactive protein (CRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, rheumatoid factor (RF, and anticyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP antibody accordingly. CSF-1R was also highly expressed on RA FLS. The interaction of IL-34 and CSF-1R promoted a dramatic production of IL-6 by FLS through JNK/P38/NF-κB signaling pathway. Further, the IL-34-stimulated IL-6 secretion by RA FLS was found to upregulate the number of Th17. The treatment of IL-6R antagonist could attenuate the production of Th17 mediated by IL-34-stimulated RA FLS. Our results suggest that the increased IL-34 levels were closely related to the disease activity of RA. Additionally, the overexpression of IL-6 in the IL-34-stimulated FLS promoted the generation of Th17. Therefore, IL-34 was supposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of RA. The inhibition of IL-34 might provide a novel target for therapies of RA.

  5. IL-4 Modulates CCL11 and CCL20 Productions from IL-1β-Stimulated Human Periodontal Ligament Cells

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    Yoshitaka Hosokawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: IL-4 is a multifunctional cytokine that is related with the pathological conditions of periodontal disease. However, it is uncertain whether IL-4 could control T cells migration in periodontal lesions. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of IL-4 on CCL11, which is a Th2-type chemokine, and CCL20, which is related with Th17 cells migration, productions from human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs. Methods: CCL20 and CCL11 productions from HPDLCs were monitored by ELISA. Western blot analysis was performed to detect phosphorylations of signal transduction molecules in HPDLCs. Results: IL-1β could induce both CCL11 and CCL20 productions in HPDLCs. IL-4 enhanced CCL11 productions from IL-1β-stimulated HPDLCs, though IL-4 inhibited CCL20 production. Western blot analysis showed that protein kinase B (Akt and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT6 pathways were highly activated in IL-4/IL-1β-stimulated HPDLCs. Akt and STAT6 inhibitors decreased CCL11 production, but enhanced CCL20 production in HPDLCs stimulated with IL-4 and IL-1β. Conclusions: These results mean that IL-4 enhanced Th2 cells migration in periodontal lesion to induce CCL11 production from HPDLCs. On the other hand, IL-4 inhibits Th17 cells accumulation in periodontally diseased tissues to inhibit CCL20 production. Therefore, IL-4 is positively related with the pathogenesis of periodontal disease to control chemokine productions in periodontal lesions.

  6. Correlation of IL-18 with Tryptase in Atopic Asthma and Induction of Mast Cell Accumulation by IL-18

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    Junling Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin- (IL- 18 and tryptase were previously reported to relate to asthma, but the correlation between these two potent proinflammatory molecules in asthma and their roles in mast cell accumulation remain uninvestigated. Using flow cytometric analysis technique and ovalbumin- (OVA- sensitized mouse model, it was found that IL-18 and tryptase levels in the plasma of moderate and severe asthma were elevated, and they correlated well with each other. Tryptase and agonist peptides of protease activated receptor- (PAR- 2 induced substantial quantity of IL-18 release. IL-18 and tryptase provoked mast cell accumulation in peritoneum of OVA-sensitized mice. OVA-sensitization increased number of IL-18 receptor (R+ mast cells. IL-18 and tryptase induced dramatic increase in IL-18R+ mast cells and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI of IL-18R on mast cells. Moreover, while IL-18 induced an increase in PAR-2+ mast cells in nonsensitized mice, IL-18 and tryptase provoked increases in IL-4 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP in the peritoneum of OVA-sensitized mice. In summary, the correlation between IL-18 and tryptase in plasma of patients with asthma indicates close interactions between them, which should be considered for development of anti-IL-18 and antitryptase therapies. Interactions between IL-18 and tryptase may contribute to mast cell recruitment in asthma.

  7. The early IL-6 and IL-10 response in trauma is correlated with injury severity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, J; Christiansen, M; Tønnesen, E

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trauma has previously been shown to influence interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 levels, but the association of injury severity and mortality with IL-6 and IL-10 responses in the early phase of accidental trauma remains to be investigated. We wished to describe serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10...... period. Serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were measured upon arrival and at 6, 12, and 24 h after admittance using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between Injury Severity Score (ISS) and levels of IL-6 and IL-10. Analysis of variance was used...... to describe the IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations in relation to 30-day mortality in a mixed-effect model repeated measures analysis. RESULTS: Mortality was 10.9% (29/265) at 30 days. A significant increase of both IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations was found over time, and a significant correlation was found between...

  8. Association between IL-4 and IL-4R Polymorphisms and Periodontitis: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiao-Wei; Yuan, Ya-Di; Yao, Zhong-Xiong; Wu, Chang-Jing; Chen, Xiang; Chen, Xue-Hong; Lin, Ying-Mei; Meng, Xiang-Yu; Zeng, Xian-Tao; Shao, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have revealed that gene polymorphisms of inflammatory factors may influence the development or progression of periodontitis, a main cause of tooth loss in adults; however, due to limitations of individual studies, inconsistent findings were reported. Objective. To meta-analytically investigate the relationship between periodontitis and the Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R) gene polymorphisms. Methods. Databases were searched for relevant case-control studies. After study selection based on the predefined selection criteria, methodological quality assessment and data extraction were conducted independently by two reviewers, before subsequent statistical analyses. Results. 37 studies involving 4,385 patients and 5,168 controls were included. All the studied IL-4 polymorphisms were not significantly associated with periodontitis, except the -33C/T (CT versus CC: OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.28-0.88) associated with reduced AgP susceptibility. Positive association was found between IL-4R Q551 polymorphism and periodontitis susceptibility in three genetic models (R versus Q: OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.14-2.22; QR versus QQ: OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.21-2.80; RR + QR versus QQ: OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.22-2.72). Conclusions. A positive association exists between the IL-4R Q551R polymorphism and occurrence of CP. The IL-4 -33 CT genotype is negatively associated with the occurrence of AgP.

  9. IL2/IL21 region polymorphism influences response to rituximab in systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Ana; Dávila-Fajardo, Cristina Lucía; Robledo, Gema; Rubio, José Luis Callejas; de Ramón Garrido, Enrique; García-Hernández, Francisco J; González-León, Rocío; Ríos-Fernández, Raquel; Barrera, José Cabeza; González-Escribano, Ma Francisca; García, Ma Teresa Camps; Palma, Ma Jesús Castillo; del Mar Ayala, Ma; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Martín, Javier

    2013-08-01

    To determine whether the IL2/IL21 region, a general autoimmunity locus, contributes to the observed variation in response to rituximab in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus as well as to analyze its influence in a cohort including other autoimmune diseases. rs6822844 G/T polymorphism at the IL2-IL21 region was analyzed by TaqMan assay in 84 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 60 different systemic autoimmune diseases Spanish patients receiving rituximab. Six months after the first infusion patients were classified, according to the EULAR criteria, as good responders, partial responders and non-responders. A statistically significant difference was observed in GG genotype frequency between responder (total and partial response) (83.56%) and non-responder (45.45%) SLE patients (p=0.010, odds ratio (OR)=6.10 [1.28-29.06]). No association with the response was evident in the group of patients with autoimmune diseases other than lupus. Furthermore, when both groups of patients were pooled in a meta-analysis, a reduced statistical significance of the association was observed (p=0.024, OR=3.53 [1.06-11.64]). Our results show for a first time that IL2-IL21 region seems to play a role in the response to rituximab in SLE patients but not in other autoimmune diseases.

  10. IL-6, IL-10, c-Jun and STAT3 expression in B-CLL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antosz, Halina; Wojciechowska, Katarzyna; Sajewicz, Joanna; Choroszyńska, Dorota; Marzec-Kotarska, Barbara; Osiak, Magdalena; Pająk, Natalia; Tomczak, Waldemar; Jargiełło-Baszak, Małgorzata; Baszak, Jacek

    2015-03-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is characterized by the accumulation of functionally abnormal, monoclonal B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, lymph nodes and spleen, resulting in a reduction count of normal immunocompetent cells and their impaired immune function. The defect in transmission of signals from various types of extracellular receptors, leading to aberrant cytokines and transcription factors gene expression, may underlie the basis of immune failure in B-CLL. The aim of the study was to assess of IL-6, IL-10, c-Jun, and STAT3 expression. In response to antigenic stimulation IL-6, IL-10, c-Jun, and STAT3 proteins induce mutual activity. The subject of the study was subpopulations of leukemic lymphocytes (CD5+ CD19+) and CD19+ B cells from healthy donors (control group). Our results provide evidence that the regulation of IL-6, IL-10, c-Jun, and STAT3 gene expression in CLL B cells is clearly different from normal B lymphocytes. In B-CLL STAT3 expression in unstimulated lymphocytes is significantly higher (pCLL in comparison with the control group, in all cases (pCLL stage according Rai we revealed decreasing c-Jun expression, both at the mRNA and protein levels, along with advancing stage of disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Altered expression of IL36γ and IL36 receptor (IL1RL2) in the colon of patients with Hirschsprung's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomuschat, Christian; O'Donnell, Anne Marie; Coyle, David; Puri, Prem

    2017-02-01

    Hirschsprung's disease associated enterocolitis (HAEC) is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR). Altered intestinal epithelial barrier function and abnormal microbiota are implicated in the pathogenesis of HAEC. IL-36γ, a member of the IL-1 superfamily, is involved in host defense and contributes to proinflammatory responses and development of inflammatory diseases. The IL36 receptor (IL1RL2) is an important mediator molecule in the inflammatory response. Animal data suggests that IL1RL2 is involved in mucosal healing. We designed this study to investigate the hypothesis that the IL-36γ axis is altered in HSCR. We investigated IL-36γ and IL1RL2 expression in ganglionic and aganglionic bowel of HSCR patients (n = 10) and controls (n = 10). qPCR, Western blotting and confocal immunofluorescence were performed. qPCR and Western blot analysis revealed that IL-36γ is strongly expressed in the aganglionic and ganglionic colon of patients with HSCR. ILR1L2 expression was significantly decreased in HSCR specimens compared to controls (p < 0.05). Confocal microscopy revealed a markedly increased expression of IL36γ in the colonic epithelium of patients with HSCR compared to controls. IL1RL2 was localized in the colonic epithelium and showed a markedly decreased expression in all HSCR specimens. To our knowledge, we report for the first time the expression of IL36γ and ILRL2 in the colon of patients with HSCR. The increased expression of IL36γ and the markedly decreased expression of IL1RL2 in the aganglionic and ganglionic bowel in HSCR may result in an increased inflammatory response and altered mucosal response healing leading to the susceptibility to develop HAEC.

  12. Hepatitis B virus induces IL-23 production in antigen presenting cells and causes liver damage via the IL-23/IL-17 axis.

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    Qinghong Wang

    Full Text Available IL-23 regulates myriad processes in the innate and adaptive immune systems, and is a critical mediator of the proinflammatory effects exerted by Th17 cells in many diseases. In this study, we investigated whether and how hepatitis B virus (HBV causes liver damage directly through the IL-23 signaling pathway. In biopsied liver tissues from HBV-infected patients, expression of both IL-23 and IL-23R was remarkably elevated. In vivo observations also indicated that the main sources of IL-23 were myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs and macrophages. Analysis of in vitro differentiated immature DCs and macrophages isolated from healthy donors revealed that the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg efficiently induces IL-23 secretion in a mannose receptor (MR-dependent manner. Culture with an endosomal acidification inhibitor and the dynamin inhibitor showed that, upon binding to the MR, the HBsAg is taken up by mDCs and macrophages through an endocytosis mechanism. In contrast, although the HBV core antigen (HBcAg can also stimulate IL-23 secretion from mDCs, the process was MR- and endocytosis-independent. In addition, IL-23 was shown to be indispensible for HBsAg-stimulated differentiation of naïve CD4(+ T cells into Th17 cells, which were determined to be the primary source of IL-17 in HBV-infected livers. The cognate receptor, IL-17R, was found to exist on the hepatic stellate cells and mDCs, both of which might represent the potential target cells of IL-17 in hepatitis B disease. These data provide novel insights into a yet unrecognized mechanism of HBV-induced hepatitis, by which increases in IL-23 expression, through an MR/endocytosis-dependent or -independent manner, produce liver damage through the IL-23/IL-17 axis.

  13. IL-11 and IL-11Rα immunolocalisation at primate implantation sites supports a role for IL-11 in placentation and fetal development

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    Stoikos C

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Embryo implantation, endometrial stromal cell decidualization and formation of a functional placenta are critical processes in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Interleukin (IL-11 signalling is essential for adequate decidualization in the mouse uterus and IL-11 promotes decidualization in the human. IL-11 action is mediated via binding to the specific IL-11 receptor α (IL-11Rα. The present study examined immunoreactive IL-11 and IL-11Rα in cycling rhesus monkey endometrium, at implantation sites in cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys and in human first trimester decidua and defined distinct spatial and temporal patterns. In cycling rhesus monkey endometrium, IL-11 and IL-11Rα increased in both basalis and functionalis regions during the secretory compared with the proliferative phase, with changing cellular locations in luminal and glandular epithelium and stroma. The patterns were similar overall to those previously described in human endometrium. Differences were seen in immunostaining during implantation in cynomologus and rhesus monkey. In the cynomolgus, very little staining for IL-11 or IL-11Rα was seen in syncytio- and cyto-trophoblast cells in the villi between days 12 and 150 of pregnancy although there was moderate staining in cytotrophoblast in the shell between days 12 and 17 and in subpopulations of cytotrophoblast cells invading the arteries at day 17. By contrast in the rhesus monkey between days 24 and 35 of pregnancy and in human first trimester placenta, cyto- and syncytio-trophoblast in the villi but not cytotrophoblast in the shell were positively stained. The most intense staining for both IL-11 and IL-11Rα was present within the decidua in the maternal component of implantation sites in all three primates but moderate staining was also present in maternal vascular smooth muscle and glands perivascular cells and epithelial plaques. These results are consistent with a role for IL-11 both during

  14. IL-1Ra: its role in rheumatoid arthritis

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    M. Cutolo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-1 (IL-1 is one of the pivotal cytokines in initiating and driving the processes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and the body’s natural response, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra, has been shown conclusively to block its effects. IL-1 mediate several clinical symptoms of the inflammatory reaction (i.e. fever, pain, sleep disturbances. IL-1 is considered a key mediator in RA joint damage because of its greater capacity (greater than TNF of increasing matrix degradation by inducing the production of MMPs and PGE2 in synovial cells, as well by its role as mediator of bone and cartilage destruction. In addition, IL-1 decreases the repair process by suppressing matrix synthesis and shows a strong synergism with TNF in inducing many inflammatory genes at both local and systemic level. The induced endogenous production of IL-1Ra, in presence of the RA synovitis, is too low to contrast the high affinity of IL-1 for the cell receptors. Therefore, IL-1Ra presence should result in very effective prevention of IL-1 signal transduction particularly in the inflammatory site. In laboratory and animal studies inhibition of IL-1 by either antibodies to IL-1 or IL-1Ra proved beneficial to the outcome. IL-1Ra is a member of the IL-1 superfamily. The effects of different DMARDs on IL-1Ra levels in RA patients support the important role that selected anticytokine treatments might exert in the pathophysiology of the disease. However, since anti TNFα therapy it is not effective in all RA patients, nor does it fully control the arthritic process in affected joints of good responders and complete TNF suppression should be avoided, the combined treatment with intermediate doses of TNF and IL-1 blockers, reaching synergistic suppression of arthritis, seems warranted in RA.

  15. IL-36α Regulates Tubulointerstitial Inflammation in the Mouse Kidney

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    Osamu Ichii

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available IL-36α, a member of the IL-1 family, is a crucial mediator of inflammatory responses. We previously found that IL-36α was overexpressed in injured distal tubules (DTs; however, its pathological function remains unclear. Herein, unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO or folic acid (FA injection was performed in mouse kidneys to assess the role of IL-36α in kidney injury. IL-36α mRNA and protein expression significantly increased in the kidneys within 24 h after UUO. IL-36α localized to dilated DTs. IL-36α expression significantly correlated with the progression of tubulointerstitial cell infiltration and tubular epithelium cell death in UUO kidneys and with renal dysfunction in FA-induced acute kidney injury mice. At 24 h after UUO, IL-36α+ DT epithelial cells showed loose intercellular digitations. IL-1RL2, an IL-36α receptor protein, localized to podocytes, proximal tubules, and DTs in the healthy kidney. IL-1RL2 was expressed in interstitial cells and platelets or extended primary cilia of DT epithelial cells in UUO kidneys. IL-36α stimulation promoted the production of IL-6 and Prss35, an inflammatory cytokine and collagen remodeling-associated enzyme, respectively, in cultured NIH3T3 fibroblasts. UUO-treated IL-36α-knockout (KO mice showed milder kidney injury features than wild-type (WT mice did. In UUO kidneys from IL-36α-KO mice, the expression of genes associated with inflammatory response and sensory perception was significantly different from that in WT mice. Altogether, our data indicate an association between intrarenal IL-36α overexpression and the progression of tubulointerstitial inflammations and morpho-functional alterations of DT epithelial cells. IL-36α may be a novel kidney injury marker useful for evaluating DT damages.

  16. A novel IL-25-signaling pathway through STAT5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling; Zepp, Jarod A.; Qian, Wen; Martin, Bradley N.; Yin, Weiguo; Bunting, Kevin D.; Aronica, Mark; Erzurum, Serpil; Li, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    IL-25 is a member of the IL-17 family of cytokines that promotes Th2 cell-mediated inflammatory responses. IL-25 signals through a heterodimeric receptor (IL-25R) composed of IL-17RA and IL-17RB, which recruits the adaptor molecule Act1 for downstream signaling. Though the role of IL-25 in potentiating type 2-inflammation is well characterized by its ability to activate the epithelium as well as T cells, the components of its signaling cascade remain largely unknown. Here we found that IL-25 can directly activate STAT5 independently of Act1. Furthermore, conditional STAT5 deletion in T cells or epithelial cells led to a defective IL-25-initiated Th2 polarization as well as defective IL-25-enhancement of Th2 responses. Finally, we found that STAT5 is recruited to the IL-25R in a ligand dependent manner through unique tyrosine residues on IL-17RB. Together, these findings reveal a novel Act1-independent IL-25 signaling pathway through STAT5 activation. PMID:25821217

  17. IL-6 Transsignaling in Patients with Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria.

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    Alicja Kasperska-Zajac

    Full Text Available IL-6 trans-signaling is critically involved in the initiation and promotion of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, we investigated the clinical relevance of soluble members of IL-6 trans-signaling system in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU.IL-6, interleukin 6 soluble receptor (IL-6 sR and soluble gp130 (sgp130 were measured by ELISA method in plasma from CSU patients and the healthy subjects. The data were related to activation of the acute phase response as indicated by serum C-reactive protein (CRP concentration and compared between patients stratified by the disease activity.Concentrations of IL-6, IL-6 sR, sgp130 in plasma and CRP in serum were significantly elevated in CSU patients compared with the healthy controls. CRP correlated significantly with IL-6 and sgp130, similarly IL-6 correlated significantly with sgp130. By contrast, CRP and IL-6 did not correlate significantly with IL-6 sR. However, significant correlation was noted between IL-6 sR and sgp130.Concentrations of IL-6 and its soluble receptors were significantly elevated in patients with CSU, suggesting upregulation of the IL-6 trans-signaling in the disease. In addition, our results support the concept that the system may be involved in pathogenesis of the systemic inflammatory activation in CSU patients.

  18. Novel IL-2-Poly(HPMA)Nanoconjugate Based Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votavova, Petra; Tomala, Jakub; Subr, Vladimir; Strohalm, Jiri; Ulbrich, Karel; Rihova, Blanka; Kovar, Marek

    2015-09-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) possesses a strong stimulatory activity for activated T and NK cells and it is an attractive molecule for immunotherapy. Nevertheless, extremely short half-life and severe toxicities associated with high-dose IL-2 treatment are serious and limiting drawbacks. In order to increase IL-2 half-life in vivo, we covalently conjugated synthetic semitelechelic polymeric carrier based on N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) to IL-2. Thus, we synthesized IL-2-poly(HPMA) conjugate containing 2-3 polymer chains per IL-2 molecule in average. Such conjugate has lower biologic activity in comparison to IL-2 in vitro. However, it exerts much higher activity than IL-2 in vivo as shown by expansion of memory CD8+ T, NK, NKT, γδT and Treg cells. Moreover, IL-2-poly(HPMA) extremely effectively potentiates CD8+ T cell peptide-based vaccination. IL-2-poly(HPMA) shows also much longer half-time in circulation than IL-2 (-4 h versus -5 min). Collectively, modification of IL-2 with poly(HPMA) chains dramatically improves its potency and pharmacologic features in vivo, which have implications for immunotherapy. To our knowledge, this is the first proof-of-concept report of the use of polymer/protein modification of IL-2 to obtain more pronounced biological activity.

  19. Espasmo hemifacial: registro de um caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fortes-Régo

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado o caso de uma moça de 28 anos de idade com espasmo facial clônico unilateral primário, cuja etiologia permanece obscura. O tratamento com a carbamazepina apresentou ótimo resultado, com regressão da sintomatologia em duas semanas.

  20. Il primato della libertà politica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunella Casalini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Casalini ripercorre Politics out of History di Wendy Brown soffermandosi in particolare sul dialogo che Brown intrattiene con il pensiero di Marx, Nietzsche e Freud. L’accento posto sul nesso tra libertà individuale e libertà politica e sulla distinzione tra “moralismo” e “moralità” apre alla problematizzazione del nodo teoria-politica. Alla luce della crisi contemporanea della sinistra americana il ruolo del teorico è quindi quello di introdurre tratti di discontinuità in quel discorso di senso comune che la politica tende invece a cristallizzare. In conclusione, secondo Brown, questo scarto deve essere recepito anche dai Women Studies che, restando ancorati a identità statiche, rischiano di non riuscire a svolgere una necessaria «funzione omeopatica» all’interno dei regimi democratici.

  1. Il laboratorio infinito di Vladmir Gubin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Caramitti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vladimir Gubin partecipa attivamente negli anni Sessanta alla vita letteraria della Leningrado del disgelo ma, all'avvento della stagnazione brežneviana, solo limitatamente e temporanenamente si inserisce nei circoli del Samizdat, scegliendo alla fine un completo isolamento. E per più di venti anni (1976-1997 elabora, rivede, riformula, affina e cesella un unico testo in prosa completa- mente metrizzata, Illarion e il Nano, che somma il lascito di tutte le stagioni delle avanguardie e raggiunge un livello di densità della parola poetica con pochissimi eguali nel secondo Novecento russo.All'interno di un libro ancora del tutto inesplorato a livello critico, ci si sofferma in parti- colare sul fittissimo tessuto di riferimenti metaletterari, che tracciano un articolato affresco del mondo della creazione clandestina.

  2. CD300f:IL-5 cross-talk inhibits adipose tissue eosinophil homing and subsequent IL-4 production

    OpenAIRE

    Rozenberg, Perri; Reichman, Hadar; Zab-Bar, Israel; Itan, Michal; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Bouffi, Carine; Qimron, Udi; Bachelet, Ido; Fulkerson, Patricia C.; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Munitz, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Eosinophils and their associated cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 are emerging as central orchestrators of the immune-metabolic axis. Herein, we demonstrate that cross-talk between the Ig-superfamily receptor CD300f and IL-5 is a key checkpoint that modifies the ability of eosinophils to regulate metabolic outcomes. Generation of Il5 Tg /Cd300f ?/? mice revealed marked and distinct increases in eosinophil levels and their production of IL-4 in the white and brown adipose tissues. Consequently, Il5 Tg ...

  3. Studio caso-controllo su pazienti affetti da legionellosi: risultati preliminari di una indagine multicentrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Borella

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivo: nell’ambito dello studio multicentrico sulla
    legionellosi in Italia, è stata effettuata una sorveglianza sui pazienti affetti da polmonite per valutare la frequenza d’infezioni nosocomiali e comunitarie da Legionella e, sui casi individuati, viene condotto uno studio caso-controllo per approfondire le conoscenze sui fattori di rischio correlati alla malattia.

    Metodi: la sorveglianza della legionellosi è stata allestita in 6 ospedali, utilizzando come test diagnostici la ricerca dell’Ag urinario, colture da escreato e sieroconversione.
    Per lo studio caso-controllo è stata allestita una scheda sulle modalità di reclutamento dei casi e dei controlli, sono state definite le analisi chimico-cliniche e immunologiche da effettuare sui soggetti reclutati, e predisposto un questionario per la raccolta d’informazioni sui fattori di rischio.

    Risultati: su 2.287 soggetti affetti da polmonite sono stati riscontrati 84 casi di legionellosi, per la maggior parte (n.76 di tipo comunitario. Tra i casi individuati, 60 sono stati reclutati per lo studio caso-controllo e sono stati associati a 117 controlli, una parte affetti da polmonite diversa da legionellosi, una parte sani. Nei soggetti affetti da legionellosi, la ferritina serica era significativamente più
    elevata rispetto ai controlli, mentre il numero delle
    cellule natural killer era significativamente inferiore.
    Lo studio dei possibili fattori di rischio associati alla malattia non ha evidenziato differenze significative tra i casi ed i controlli per le abitudini personali e le condizioni espositive ambientali.

    Conclusioni: questa indagine ha permesso di verificare
    che circa il 4% delle polmoniti ricoverate sono da attribuirsi a Legionella. Gli 8 casi nosocomiali sono stati individuati in 3 degli ospedali sorvegliati

  4. Lorenzo Lotto. Il libro di spese diverse

    OpenAIRE

    De Carolis, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Il Libro di spese diverse (1540-1556) presenta fedelmente la dimensione artistica e sociale in cui Lorenzo Lotto ha agito nella fase finale della sua vita, caratterizzata da continui trasferimenti tra Veneto e Marche. La presente edizione del manoscritto conservato a Loreto è arricchita dal frutto di nuovi studi, che nell’introduzione pongono in evidenza l’adesione da parte dell’artista ai caratteri più originali del Rinascimento italiano, attraverso l’uso di una rudimentale...

  5. I processorie Itanium "accelerano" il CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    "Il CERN è di nuovo in prima fila nell'abbinamento tra informatica e ricerca scientifica. L'organizzazione europea utilizzerà anche computer basati sui nuovi microprocessori Intel Itanium a 64 bit". - CERN is again at the forefront of the coupling of informatics and scientific research. The European organization will use computers with new 64 bit Intel Itanium microprocessors (0.5 page)

  6. Association of IL1A and IL1B loci with primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Indranil

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies suggest that glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease in which secondary degenerative losses occur after primary insult by raised Intraocular pressure (IOP or by other associated factors. It has been reported that polymorphisms in the IL1A and IL1B genes are associated with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG. The purpose of our study was to investigate the role of these polymorphisms in eastern Indian POAG patients. Methods The study involved 315 unrelated POAG patients, consisting of 116 High Tension Glaucoma (HTG patients with intra ocular pressure (IOP > 21 mmHg and 199 non-HTG patients (presenting IOP IL1A (-889C/T; rs1800587, IL1B (-511C/T; rs16944 and IL1B (3953C/T; rs1143634. Haplotype frequency was determined by Haploview 4.1 software. The association of individual SNPs and major haplotypes was evaluated using chi-square statistics. The p-value was corrected for multiple tests by Bonferroni method. Results No significant difference was observed in the allele and genotype frequencies for IL1A and IL1B SNPs between total pool of POAG patients and controls. However, on segregating the patient pool to HTG and non-HTG groups, weak association was observed for IL1A polymorphism (-889C/T where -889C allele was found to portray risk (OR = 1.380; 95% CI = 1.041-1.830; p = 0.025 for non-HTG patients. Similarly, 3953T allele of IL1B polymorphism (+3953C/T was observed to confer risk to HTG group (OR = 1.561; 95% CI = 1.022-2.385; p = 0.039. On haplotype analysis it was observed that TTC was significantly underrepresented in non-HTG patients (OR = 0.538; 95% CI = 0.356- 0.815; p = 0.003 while TCT haplotype was overrepresented in HTG patients (OR = 1.784; 95% CI = 1.084- 2.937; p = 0.022 compared to control pool. However, after correction for multiple tests by Bonferroni method, an association of only TTC haplotype with non-HTG cases sustained (pcorrected = 0.015 and expected to confer protection. Conclusion The study

  7. IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, and nutritional status in pediatric patients with biliary atresia,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ines de Albuquerque Wilasco

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: The objective of the present study is to evaluate whether IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 are associated with nutritional status in patients with cirrhosis secondary to biliary atresia and compare to healthy controls. Methods: The parameters used for nutritional assessment were the standard deviation scores of height-for-age and of triceps skinfold thickness-for-age. The severity of cirrhosis was evaluated using the Child–Pugh score and PELD/MELD. Serum cytokines were measured using Cytometric Bead Array flow cytometry. Results: IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 were significantly higher in the cirrhosis group when compared with the control group (2.4 vs. 0.24 (p < 0.001, 0.21 vs. 0.14 (p = 0.007, and 0.65 vs. 0.36 (p = 0.004, respectively. IL-6 and IL-10 were positively correlated with disease severity (0.450 [p = 0.001] and 0.410; [p = 0.002], respectively. TNF-α did not show a significant correlation with disease severity (0.100; p = 0.478. Regarding nutritional evaluation, IL-6 was negatively correlated with the standard deviation score of height-for-age (−0.493; p < 0.001 and of triceps skinfold thickness-for-age (−0.503; p < 0.001, respectively. IL-10 exhibited a negative correlation with the standard deviation score of height-for-age (−0.476; p < 0.001 and the standard deviation score of triceps skinfold thickness-for-age (−0.388; p = 0.004. TNF-α did not show any significance in both anthropometric parameters (−0.083 (p = 0.555 and −0.161 (p = 0.253. Conclusion: The authors suggest that, in patients with cirrhosis secondary to biliary atresia, IL-6 could be used as a possible supporting biomarker of deficient nutritional status and elevated IL-10 levels could be used as a possible early-stage supporting biomarker of deteriorating nutritional status.

  8. Aspetti giurisprudenziali relativi al caso "Parmesan"

    OpenAIRE

    Di Lorenzo, Guido

    2009-01-01

    Il Consorzio del Parmigiano Reggiano e lo Stato Italiano da molti anni sono impegnati nella difesa, in numerosi procedimenti giudiziari, del termine “Parmesan” ai sensi delle normative nazionali e del Regolamento CE n.2081/1992 (oggi n.519/2006); hanno avviato numerose cause contro imprese di diversi Paesi europei che usano in modo non corretto il termine "Parmesan" e che, grazie all'evidenza dell'impianto normativo, hanno desistito dall’uso improprio del termine. Ma particolarmente intere...

  9. IL-18-producing Salmonella inhibit tumor growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Markus; Le'Negrate, Gaelle; Krajewska, Maryla; Reed, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that intravenously applied bacteria can accumulate in tumors and lead to sporadic tumor regression. Recently, systemic administration of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium was demonstrated to generate no significant side effects in humans, but also no anti-tumor responses. We report the enhanced antitumor activity in preclinical mouse cancer models of non-virulent S. typhimurium engineered to synthesize the cytokine, Interleukin-18 (IL-18). IL-18-producing bacteria (but not control bacteria) inhibit the growth of primary subcutaneous tumors as well as pulmonary metastases in immunocompetent mice challenged with syngeneic multi-drug resistant clones of murine carcinoma cell lines, without overt toxicity to normal tissues. Anti-tumor activity was associated with increased accumulation of T-lymphocytes and NK cells in tumors, and massive infiltration of granulocytes, as well as increased intra-tumoral production of several cytokines. In summary, these findings provide evidence of promising preclinical anti-tumor activity of IL-18-expressing, attenuated S. typhimurium, suggesting a novel strategy for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:18654612

  10. Il valore dei suoli edificabili in Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Rosato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio propone alcune analisi sulla dinamica del valore dei suoli edificabili in Italia. Il tema è importante poiché lo studio dell’andamento del valore dei suoli nello spazio e nel tempo permette di valutare la formazione della rendita urbana, indispensabile per realizzare una pianificazione equa ed efficace. Le analisi confermano ipotesi già formulate in passato e ben note agli operatori del mercato immobiliare. La prima evidenza emersa è che l’andamento del valore delle aree edificabili è concorde con quello del valore immobiliare e che l’incremento osservato negli ultimi anni in termini relativi è significativamente superiore a quello avvenuto in passato. Ciò sembra confermare che, durante le fasi di espansione del mercato immobiliare, buona parte dell’incremento di valore dei fabbricati è catturato dalla rendita dei suoli. La seconda considerazione riguarda la dinamica del valore nel tempo: è stato rilevato che nei periodi di espansione della domanda, l’incremento di valore delle aree centrali è nettamente superiore a quello delle aree periferiche; ciò significa che la rendita assoluta generata dalla scarsità nei centri urbani è superiore alla rendita differenziale creata con l’espansione urbana nelle aree periferiche. Infine, è stato evidenziato che il ruolo dei fattori che influiscono sul valore delle aree edificabili sembra differenziarsi in funzione della loro localizzazione rispetto al centro urbano, identificando segmenti di mercato strutturalmente diversi.

  11. Fine-mapping and transethnic genotyping establish IL2/IL21 genetic association with lupus and localize this genetic effect to IL21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Travis; Kim-Howard, Xana; Kelly, Jennifer A; Kaufman, Kenneth M; Langefeld, Carl D; Ziegler, Julie; Sanchez, Elena; Kimberly, Robert P; Edberg, Jeffrey C; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Petri, Michelle; Reveille, John D; Martín, Javier; Brown, Elizabeth E; Vilá, Luis M; Alarcón, Graciela S; James, Judith A; Gilkeson, Gary S; Moser, Kathy L; Gaffney, Patrick M; Merrill, Joan T; Vyse, Timothy J; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Nath, Swapan K; Harley, John B; Sawalha, Amr H

    2011-06-01

    Genetic association of the IL2/IL21 region at chromosome 4q27 has previously been reported in lupus and a number of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. This study was undertaken to determine whether this genetic effect could be localized, using a very large cohort of lupus patients and controls. We genotyped 45 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the IL2/IL21 locus in 2 large independent lupus sample sets. We studied a set of subjects of European descent consisting of 4,248 lupus patients and 3,818 healthy controls, and an African American set of 1,569 patients and 1,893 healthy controls. Imputation in 3,004 additional controls from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium was also performed. Genetic association between the genotyped markers was determined, and pairwise conditional analysis was performed to localize the independent genetic effect in the IL2/IL21 locus in lupus. We established and confirmed the genetic association between IL2/IL21 and lupus. Using conditional analysis and transethnic mapping, we localized the genetic effect in this locus to 2 SNPs in high linkage disequilibrium: rs907715 located within IL21 (odds ratio 1.16 [95% confidence interval 1.10-1.22], P=2.17×10(-8)) and rs6835457 located in the 3'-untranslated flanking region of IL21 (odds ratio 1.11 [95% confidence interval 1.05-1.17], P=9.35×10(-5)). Our findings establish the genetic association between lupus and IL2/IL21 with a genome-wide level of significance. Further, our findings indicate that this genetic association within the IL2/IL21 linkage disequilibrium block is localized to IL21. If other autoimmune IL2/IL21 genetic associations are similarly localized, then the IL21 risk alleles would be predicted to operate by a fundamental mechanism that influences the course of a number of autoimmune disease processes. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  12. CASO AlbAm S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Goulart Serra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Os analistas financeiros da AlbAm, uma empresa do setor de autopeças, devem avaliar duas opções de aquisições (Cardblue e Garciadores. O objetivo do caso é servir de oportunidade para os alunos vivenciarem uma decisão de investimentos por meio do lucro econômico. Uma análise superficial certamente levará a decisão equivocada. Levando-se todos os aspectos do caso em consideração, chegar-se-á a uma solução que pode surpreender alguns alunos, uma vez que a empresa melhor gerida não será a melhor oportunidade de investimento. Também se pode aproveitar o caso para discutir a superficialidade da adoção do EBITDA como métrica de gestão comparativamente a uma métrica de valor agregado (lucro econômico - a melhor solução também não é aquela que gera o maior aumento em EBITDA. O caso pode ser usado em disciplinas de finanças (finanças corporativas ou avaliação de empresas em cursos de graduação, pós-graduação ou especialização. Todas as empresas e pessoas relatadas neste caso são fictícias.

  13. Roles of IL-8 in ocular inflammations: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Hassan; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Yaraee, Roya; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    This review presents the current in vitro and in vivo animal and human research on the roles of IL-8 in ocular inflammatory diseases. Data sources were a literature review using Pub Med, Medline, and ISI databases (from 1990 to 2011). Search items included interleukine-8 (IL-8), CXCL8, chemokines, cytokines, alone or in combination with the, serum, aqueous, vitreous, eye, ocular, ocular tissues, ophthalmic, and review. IL-8 may be involved in primary or secondary ocular inflammations. Ocular effects of IL-8 differ based on the source of the secretion and site of the action. The most important effects of IL-8 in the eyes are angiogenic activities and induction of ocular inflammation. IL-8 plays important roles in ocular inflammation and angiogenesis in conjunctiva, cornea, iris, retina, and orbit. Anti-IL-8 targeted immunotherapy has been introduced as an important treatment modality, provided that IL-8 signal blocking takes place in desired areas and tissues.

  14. Increased IL-10 mRNA and IL-23 mRNA expression in multiple sclerosis: interferon-beta treatment increases IL-10 mRNA expression while reducing IL-23 mRNA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, M.; Sorensen, P.; Khademi, M.

    2008-01-01

    volunteers served to confirm initial findings. mRNA was analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: We found elevated expression of interleukin (IL)-23 and IL-10 in untreated MS patients. IFN-beta therapy increased IL-10 and decreased IL-23 expression independently...... of the regulatory cytokine IL-10. The elevated IL-23 mRNA levels in MS patients are noteworthy in view of the newly discovered IL-23-driven Th17 T-cell subset, which is crucial in animal models of MS. Since IFN-beta therapy resulted in decreased IL-23 mRNA levels, the Th17 axis could be another target of IFN...

  15. The role of IL 23 in the treatment of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Lluís

    2017-06-01

    The IL-23/IL-17 axis is currently considered to be crucial in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Human IL-23 is primarily produced by antigen-presenting cells and induces and maintains differentiation of Th17 cells and Th22 cells, a primary cellular source of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-17 and IL-22, which mediate the epidermal hyperplasia, keratinocyte immune activation and tissue inflammation inherent in psoriasis. Agents that target the p40 subunit common to both IL-12 and IL-23 have shown robust clinical activity, but selectivity for IL-23p19 could offer advantages in efficacy and safety with respect to anti-p40 blockade. Areas covered: Relevant references regarding the role of the IL-23/IL-17 pathway in the pathogenesis of psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis and clinical trials with IL-23p40 and IL-23p19 blocking agents were obtained through a literature search in MEDLINE/Pubmed for articles published until November 2016. Moreover, ongoing registered clinical trials (RCTs) of moderate-to-severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis were searched through clinicaltrials.gov website, and a manual search was made for pertinent communications at the 2016 American Academy of Dermatology and European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology meetings. Expert commentary: There are potential advantages in selective blockade of the IL23-specific p19 subunit with respect to distal blockade of IL-17A or its receptor. Acting upstream in the IL-23/IL-17 cytokine pathway is likely to reduce the expression of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines acting on keratinocytes -including IL-17F, IL-21 and IL-22-, in addition to IL-17A. On the other hand, safety data thus far suggest that these drugs might be devoid of some adverse effects of IL-17A blockade that seem to be class related, such as mucocutaneous Candida infections or triggering or worsening of inflammatory bowel disease. Specific IL-23p19 blockade with high-affinity monoclonal antibodies seems to be able to induce long

  16. IL-4 deficiency is associated with mechanical hypersensitivity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Üçeyler

    Full Text Available Interleukin-4 (IL-4 is an anti-inflammatory and analgesic cytokine that induces opioid receptor transcription. We investigated IL-4 knockout (ko mice to characterize their pain behavior before and after chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve as a model for neuropathic pain. We investigated opioid responsivity and measured cytokine and opioid receptor gene expression in the peripheral and central nervous system (PNS, CNS of IL-4 ko mice in comparison with wildtype (wt mice. Naïve IL-4 ko mice displayed tactile allodynia (wt: 0.45 g; ko: 0.18 g; p<0.001, while responses to heat and cold stimuli and to muscle pressure were not different. No compensatory changes in the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF, IL-1β, IL-10, and IL-13 were found in the PNS and CNS of naïve IL-4 ko mice. However, IL-1β gene expression was stronger in the sciatic nerve of IL-4 ko mice (p<0.001 28 days after CCI and only IL-4 ko mice had elevated IL-10 gene expression (p = 0.014. Remarkably, CCI induced TNF (p<0.01, IL-1β (p<0.05, IL-10 (p<0.05, and IL-13 (p<0.001 gene expression exclusively in the ipsilateral spinal cord of IL-4 ko mice. The compensatory overexpression of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic cytokines IL-10 and IL-13 in the spinal cord of IL-4 ko mice may explain the lack of genotype differences for pain behavior after CCI. Additionally, CCI induced gene expression of μ, κ, and δ opioid receptors in the contralateral cortex and thalamus of IL-4 ko mice, paralleled by fast onset of morphine analgesia, but not in wt mice. We conclude that a lack of IL-4 leads to mechanical sensitivity; the compensatory hyperexpression of analgesic cytokines and opioid receptors after CCI, in turn, protects IL-4 ko mice from enhanced pain behavior after nerve lesion.

  17. IL-4R signaling is required to induce IL-10 for the establishment of T(h)2 dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balic, Adam; Harcus, Yvonne M; Taylor, Matthew D; Brombacher, Frank; Maizels, Rick M

    2006-10-01

    The requirement for IL-4 to promote differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells into T(h)2 effector cell populations was established by classical in vitro studies. More recent in vivo data, however, indicate that signaling through the IL-4R is not essential for acquisition of the T(h)2 phenotype. In order to reconcile these seemingly contradictory conclusions, we have taken advantage of the ability of the excretory/secretory antigens of the gastrointestinal nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis to down-regulate T(h)1 cell development and drive T(h)2 cell expansion. We show that the initial development of IL-4-producing T cells is independent of IL-4R signaling but that the subsequent expansion of IL-4-producing CD4(+) T cells in a competitive environment that also contains T(h)1 potential is positively influenced by IL-4R signaling. We find that the production of IL-10 is the key IL-4R-dependent factor required to maintain T(h)2 dominance and that in the absence of IL-4R signaling, T(h)2 expansion can only be achieved by neutralization of T(h)1 cytokines. Moreover, in the absence of IL-4R signaling, reduced IL-10 production is due to the lack in expansion of an IL-10(+) T(h)2 population, rather than a global defect in the production of IL-10 by CD4(+) T cells. Thus, the evolution of T(h)2 dominance is achieved at the expense of T(h)1 cell development, normally restrained by IL-10 in an IL-4R-dependent manner. We conclude that T(h)2 cell development in response to N. brasiliensis antigen requires both IL-4 and IL-10 to act in concert on incipient populations of both T(h)1 and T(h)2 types.

  18. Cutting edge: IL-23 cross-regulates IL-12 production in T cell-dependent experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christoph; Dornhoff, Heike; Neufert, Clemens; Fantini, Massimo C; Wirtz, Stefan; Huebner, Sabine; Nikolaev, Alexei; Lehr, Hans-Anton; Murphy, Andrew J; Valenzuela, David M; Yancopoulos, George D; Galle, Peter R; Karow, Margaret; Neurath, Markus F

    2006-09-01

    Although IL-12 and IL-23 share the common p40 subunit, IL-23, rather than IL-12, seems to drive the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and arthritis, because IL-23/p19 knockout mice are protected from disease. In contrast, we describe in this study that newly created LacZ knockin mice deficient for IL-23 p19 were highly susceptible for the development of experimental T cell-mediated TNBS colitis and showed even more severe colitis than wild-type mice by endoscopic and histologic criteria. Subsequent studies revealed that dendritic cells from p19-deficient mice produce elevated levels of IL-12, and that IL-23 down-regulates IL-12 expression upon TLR ligation. Finally, in vivo blockade of IL-12 p40 in IL-23-deficient mice rescued mice from lethal colitis. Taken together, our data identify cross-regulation of IL-12 expression by IL-23 as novel key regulatory pathway during initiation of T cell dependent colitis.

  19. IL-27 Activates Human Trophoblasts to Express IP-10 and IL-6: Implications in the Immunopathophysiology of Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanlin Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effects of IL-27 on human trophoblasts and the underlying regulatory signaling mechanisms in preeclampsia. Methods. The expression of IL-27 and IL-27 receptor (WSX-1 was studied in the placenta or sera from patients with preeclampsia. In vitro, we investigated the effects of IL-27 alone or in combination with inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α on the proinflammatory activation of human trophoblast cells (HTR-8/SVneo and the underlying intracellular signaling molecules. Results. The expression of IL-27 and IL-27 receptor α (WSX-1 was significantly elevated in the trophoblastic cells from the placenta of patients with preeclampsia compared with control specimens. In vitro, IL-27 could induce the expression of inflammatory factors IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 (CXCL10/IP-10 and IL-6 in trophoblasts, and a synergistic effect was observed in the combined treatment of IL-27 and TNF-α on the release of IP-10 and IL-6. Furthermore, the production of IP-10 and IL-6 stimulated by IL-27 was differentially regulated by intracellular activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase-AKT, p38MAPK, and JAK/STAT pathways. Conclusions. These results provide a new insight into the IL-27-activated immunopathological effects mediated by distinct intracellular signal transduction molecules in preeclampsia.

  20. The nasal mucosal late allergic reaction to grass pollen involves type 2 inflammation (IL-5 and IL-13), the inflammasome (IL-1β), and complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaker, B R; Malkov, V A; Mogg, R; Ruddy, M K; Nicholson, G C; Tan, A J; Tribouley, C; Chen, G; De Lepeleire, I; Calder, N A; Chung, H; Lavender, P; Carayannopoulos, L N; Hansel, T T

    2017-03-01

    Non-invasive mucosal sampling (nasosorption and nasal curettage) was used following nasal allergen challenge with grass pollen in subjects with allergic rhinitis, in order to define the molecular basis of the late allergic reaction (LAR). It was found that the nasal LAR to grass pollen involves parallel changes in pathways of type 2 inflammation (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13), inflammasome-related (IL-1β), and complement and circadian-associated genes. A grass pollen nasal spray was given to subjects with hay fever followed by serial sampling, in which cytokines and chemokines were measured in absorbed nasal mucosal lining fluid, and global gene expression (transcriptomics) assessed in nasal mucosal curettage samples. Twelve of 19 subjects responded with elevations in interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, IL-1β and MIP-1β/CCL4 protein levels in the late phase. In addition, in these individuals whole-genome expression profiling showed upregulation of type 2 inflammation involving eosinophils and IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13; neutrophil recruitment with IL-1α and IL-1β; the alternative pathway of complement (factor P and C5aR); and prominent effects on circadian-associated transcription regulators. Baseline IL-33 mRNA strongly correlated with these late-phase responses, whereas a single oral dose of prednisone dose-dependently reversed most nasal allergen challenge-induced cytokine and transcript responses. This study shows that the LAR to grass pollen involves a range of inflammatory pathways and suggests potential new biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Furthermore, the marked variation in mucosal inflammatory events between different patients suggests that in the future precision mucosal sampling may enable rational specific therapy.