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Sample records for vector transduction trigger

  1. Syngeneic AAV pseudo-vectors potentiates full vector transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    An excessive amount of empty capsids are generated during regular AAV vector production process. These pseudo-vectors often remain in final vectors used for animal studies or clinical trials. The potential effects of these pseudo-vectors on AAV transduction have been a major concern. In the current ...

  2. Application of Vector Triggering Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune

    1997-01-01

    result is a Random Decrement function from each measurement. In traditional Random Decrement estimation the triggering condition is a scalar condition, which should only be fulfilled in a single measurement. In vector triggering Random Decrement the triggering condition is a vector condition....... The advantage of this new approach should be a reduction in estimation time without a significant loss of accuracy, since the vector triggering conditions ensure cross information between the measurements in the Random Decrement functions. The different problems with this technique is highlighted in two......This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented...

  3. Application of Vector Triggering Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune

    result is a Random Decrement function from each measurement. In traditional Random Decrement estimation the triggering condition is a scalar condition, which should only be fulfilled in a single measurement. In vector triggering Random Decrement the triggering condition is a vector condition....... The advantage of this new approach should be a reduction in estimation time without a significant loss of accuracy, since the vector triggering conditions ensure cross information between the measurements in the Random Decrement functions. The different problems with this technique is highlighted in two......This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented...

  4. Impact of Heparan Sulfate Binding on Transduction of Retina by Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boye, Sanford L.; Bennett, Antonette; Scalabrino, Miranda L.; McCullough, K. Tyler; Van Vliet, Kim; Choudhury, Shreyasi; Ruan, Qing; Peterson, James

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) currently are being developed to efficiently transduce the retina following noninvasive, intravitreal (Ivt) injection. However, a major barrier encountered by intravitreally delivered AAVs is the inner limiting membrane (ILM), a basement membrane rich in heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of HS binding on retinal transduction by Ivt-delivered AAVs. The heparin affinities of AAV2-based tyrosine-to-phenylalanine (Y-F) and threonine-to-valine (T-V) capsid mutants, designed to avoid proteasomal degradation during cellular trafficking, were established. In addition, the impact of grafting HS binding residues onto AAV1, AAV5, and AAV8(Y733F) as well as ablation of HS binding by AAV2-based vectors on retinal transduction was investigated. Finally, the potential relationship between thermal stability of AAV2-based capsids and Ivt-mediated transduction was explored. The results show that the Y-F and T-V AAV2 capsid mutants bind heparin but with slightly reduced affinity relative to that of AAV2. The grafting of HS binding increased Ivt transduction by AAV1 but not by AAV5 or AAV8(Y733F). The substitution of any canonical HS binding residues ablated Ivt-mediated transduction by AAV2-based vectors. However, these same HS variant vectors displayed efficient retinal transduction when delivered subretinally. Notably, a variant devoid of canonical HS binding residues, AAV2(4pMut)ΔHS, was remarkably efficient at transducing photoreceptors. The disparate AAV phenotypes indicate that HS binding, while critical for AAV2-based vectors, is not the sole determinant for transduction via the Ivt route. Finally, Y-F and T-V mutations alter capsid stability, with a potential relationship existing between stability and improvements in retinal transduction by Ivt injection. IMPORTANCE AAV has emerged as the vector of choice for gene delivery to the retina, with attention focused on developing vectors

  5. Quantifying transduction efficiencies of unmodified and tyrosine capsid mutant AAV vectors in vitro using two ocular cell lines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryals, Renee C; Boye, Sanford L; Dinculescu, Astra; Hauswirth, William W; Boye, Shannon E

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing number of retinal gene-based therapies and therapeutic constructs, in vitro bioassays characterizing vector transduction efficiency and quality are becoming increasingly important...

  6. Expanded repertoire of AAV vector serotypes mediate unique patterns of transduction in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cearley, Cassia N; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Parente, Michael K; Carnish, Erin R; Wilson, James M; Wolfe, John H

    2008-10-01

    A wide diversity of adeno-associated virus (AAV) structural proteins uncovered from latent genomes in primate tissue has expanded the number of AAV vector serotypes, which can potentially confer unique cell tropism to the vector. We evaluated 17 of these vectors in the mouse brain using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter gene. A rapid initial evaluation was performed by neonatal lateral ventricle injections. Vectors made with capsids hu.32, hu.37, pi.2, hu.11, rh.8, hu.48R3, and AAV9 for comparison were selected for further analysis based on their ability to transduce large numbers of cells and result in novel patterns of cell transduction. These vectors were injected into adult brains in four major structures (cortex, striatum, hippocampus, and thalamus), and all were found to transduce neurons. In addition, hu.32, hu.11, pi.2, hu.48R3, and rh.8 resulted in GFP expression in some astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. AAVs rh.8, pi.2, hu.32, and hu.11 also appeared to result in neuronal transport of the vector genome. Vector transport was studied by a single unilateral injection into the hippocampus and vector genome was found in projection sites of the hippocampus. These unique patterns of cell transduction expand the potential repertoire for targeting AAV vectors to selected subsets of brain cells.

  7. In vivo transduction of murine cerebellar Purkinje cells by HIV-derived lentiviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torashima, Takashi; Okoyama, Shigeo; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki; Hirai, Hirokazu

    2006-04-12

    Cerebellar Purkinje cells are key elements in motor learning and motor coordination, and therefore, it is important to clarify the mechanisms by which Purkinje cells integrate information and control cerebellar function. Gene transfer into neurons, followed by the assessment of the effects on neural function, is an effective approach for examining gene function. However, this method has not been used fully in the study of the cerebellum because adenovirus vectors, the vectors most commonly used for in vivo gene transfer, have very low affinity for Purkinje cells. In this study, we used a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-derived lentiviral vector and examined the transduction profile of the vector in the cerebellum. A lentiviral vector carrying the GFP gene was injected into the cerebellar cortex. Seven days after the injection, Purkinje cells were efficiently transduced without significant influence on the cell viability and synaptic functions. GFP was also expressed, though less efficiently, in other cortical interneurons and Bergmann glias. In contrast to reported findings with other viral vectors, no transduced cells were observed outside of the cerebellar cortex. Thus, when HIV-derived lentiviral vectors were injected into the cerebellar cortex, transduction was limited to the cells in the cerebellar cortex, with the highest tropism for Purkinje cells. These results suggest that HIV-derived lentiviral vectors are useful for the study of gene function in Purkinje cells as well as for application as a gene therapy tool for the treatment of diseases that affect Purkinje cells.

  8. High-efficiency transduction of the mouse retina by tyrosine-mutant AAV serotype vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrs-Silva, Hilda; Dinculescu, Astra; Li, Qiuhong; Min, Seok-Hong; Chiodo, Vince; Pang, Ji-Jing; Zhong, Li; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Srivastava, Arun; Lewin, Alfred S; Hauswirth, William W

    2009-03-01

    Vectors derived from adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) have become important gene delivery tools for the treatment of many inherited ocular diseases in well-characterized animal models. Previous studies have determined that the viral capsid plays an essential role in the cellular tropism and efficiency of transgene expression. Recently, it was shown that phosphorylation of surface-exposed tyrosine residues from AAV2 capsid targets the viral particles for ubiquitination and proteasome- mediated degradation, and mutations of these tyrosine residues lead to highly efficient vector transduction in vitro and in vivo. Because the tyrosine residues are highly conserved in other AAV serotypes, in this study we evaluated the intraocular transduction characteristics of vectors containing point mutations in surface- exposed capsid tyrosine residues in AAV serotypes 2, 8, and 9. Several of these novel AAV mutants were found to display a strong and widespread transgene expression in many retinal cells after subretinal or intravitreal delivery compared with their wild-type counterparts. For the first time, we show efficient transduction of the ganglion cell layer by AAV serotype 8 or 9 mutant vectors, thus providing additional tools besides AAV2 for targeting these cells. These enhanced AAV vectors have a great potential for future therapeutic applications for retinal degenerations and ocular neovascular diseases.

  9. Vector Triggering Random Decrement Technique for Higher Identification Accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, S.R.; Asmussen, J.C.; Brincker, Rune

    the possibility of estimating mode shapes. In this paper, a new algorithm is suggested that is based on pure auto triggering. Auto-RDD functions are estimated for all channel to obtain functions with a minimum of noise, but using a vector triggering condition that preserves phase information, and thus, allows....... Using commonly accepted triggering conditioins however, one is limited to use a combination of auto-RDD and cross-RDD functions with high noise contents and the cross-RDD functions. Using only the auto-RDD functions. Estimated independently for each channel, causes the loss of phase information and thus...

  10. Vector Triggering Random Decrement Technique for Higher Identification Accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, S. R.; Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune

    1997-01-01

    the possibility of estimating mode shapes. In this paper, a new algorithm is suggested that is based on pure auto triggering. Auto-RDD functions are estimated for all channel to obtain functions with a minimum of noise, but using a vector triggering condition that preserves phase information, and thus, allows....... Using commonly accepted triggering conditioins however, one is limited to use a combination of auto-RDD and cross-RDD functions with high noise contents and the cross-RDD functions. Using only the auto-RDD functions. Estimated independently for each channel, causes the loss of phase information and thus...

  11. Syngeneic AAV Pseudo-particles Potentiate Gene Transduction of AAV Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qizhao; Dong, Biao; Pokiniewski, Katie A; Firrman, Jenni; Wu, Zhongren; Chin, Mario P S; Chen, Xiongwen; Liu, LinShu; Xu, Ruian; Diao, Yong; Xiao, Weidong

    2017-03-17

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have emerged as a safe and efficient gene therapy platform. One complication is that a significant amount of empty particles have always been generated as impurities during AAV vector production. However, the effects of such particles on AAV vector performance remain unclear. Here we systemically evaluated the biological properties of three types of "empty" AAV particles: syngeneic pseudo-vectors with partial AAV genomes derived from DNA of the corresponding full particles, allogeneic pseudo-vectors with partial genomes different from the corresponding full particles, and null pseudo-vectors with no DNA inside the capsids. The syngeneic particles in excess increased the corresponding full AAV vector transgene expression both in vivo and in vitro. However, such effects were not observed with null or allogeneic particles. The observed differences among these pseudo-AAV particles may be ascribed to the syngeneic pseudo-vector DNA facilitating the complementary DNA synthesis of the corresponding full AAV particles. Our study suggests that the DNA content in the pseudo-vectors plays a key role in dictating their effects on AAV transduction. The effects of residual "empty" particles should be adequately assessed when comparing AAV vector performance. The syngeneic AAV pseudo-vectors may be used to enhance the efficacy of gene therapy.

  12. Syngeneic AAV Pseudo-particles Potentiate Gene Transduction of AAV Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qizhao Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus (AAV vectors have emerged as a safe and efficient gene therapy platform. One complication is that a significant amount of empty particles have always been generated as impurities during AAV vector production. However, the effects of such particles on AAV vector performance remain unclear. Here we systemically evaluated the biological properties of three types of “empty” AAV particles: syngeneic pseudo-vectors with partial AAV genomes derived from DNA of the corresponding full particles, allogeneic pseudo-vectors with partial genomes different from the corresponding full particles, and null pseudo-vectors with no DNA inside the capsids. The syngeneic particles in excess increased the corresponding full AAV vector transgene expression both in vivo and in vitro. However, such effects were not observed with null or allogeneic particles. The observed differences among these pseudo-AAV particles may be ascribed to the syngeneic pseudo-vector DNA facilitating the complementary DNA synthesis of the corresponding full AAV particles. Our study suggests that the DNA content in the pseudo-vectors plays a key role in dictating their effects on AAV transduction. The effects of residual “empty” particles should be adequately assessed when comparing AAV vector performance. The syngeneic AAV pseudo-vectors may be used to enhance the efficacy of gene therapy.

  13. Corticospinal tract transduction: a comparison of seven adeno-associated viral vector serotypes and a non-integrating lentiviral vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, T H; Verhaagen, J; Yáñez-Muñoz, R J; Moon, L D F

    2012-01-01

    The corticospinal tract (CST) is extensively used as a model system for assessing potential therapies to enhance neuronal regeneration and functional recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI). However, efficient transduction of the CST is challenging and remains to be optimised. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors and integration-deficient lentiviral vectors are promising therapeutic delivery systems for gene therapy to the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study the cellular tropism and transduction efficiency of seven AAV vector serotypes (AAV1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8) and an integration-deficient lentiviral vector were assessed for their ability to transduce corticospinal neurons (CSNs) following intracortical injection. AAV1 was identified as the optimal serotype for transducing cortical and CSNs with green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression detectable in fibres projecting through the dorsal CST (dCST) of the cervical spinal cord. In contrast, AAV3 and AAV4 demonstrated a low efficacy for transducing CNS cells and AAV8 presented a potential tropism for oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, it was shown that neither AAV nor lentiviral vectors generate a significant microglial response. The identification of AAV1 as the optimal serotype for transducing CSNs should facilitate the design of future gene therapy strategies targeting the CST for the treatment of SCI.

  14. High AAV vector purity results in serotype- and tissue-independent enhancement of transduction efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, E; Mingozzi, F; Montane, J; Leon, X; Anguela, X M; Haurigot, V; Edmonson, S A; Africa, L; Zhou, S; High, K A; Bosch, F; Wright, J F

    2010-04-01

    The purity of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector preparations has important implications for both safety and efficacy of clinical gene transfer. Early-stage screening of candidates for AAV-based therapeutics ideally requires a purification method that is flexible and also provides vectors comparable in purity and potency to the prospective investigational product manufactured for clinical studies. The use of cesium chloride (CsCl) gradient-based protocols provides the flexibility for purification of different serotypes; however, a commonly used first-generation CsCl-based protocol was found to result in AAV vectors containing large amounts of protein and DNA impurities and low transduction efficiency in vitro and in vivo. Here, we describe and characterize an optimized, second-generation CsCl protocol that incorporates differential precipitation of AAV particles by polyethylene glycol, resulting in higher yield and markedly higher vector purity that correlated with better transduction efficiency observed with several AAV serotypes in multiple tissues and species. Vectors purified by the optimized CsCl protocol were found to be comparable in purity and functional activity to those prepared by more scalable, but less flexible serotype-specific purification processes developed for manufacture of clinical vectors, and are therefore ideally suited for pre-clinical studies supporting translational research.

  15. Adeno-associated viral vector transduction of human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Murphy, Mary; O'Brien, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have received considerable attention in the emerging field of regenerative medicine. One aspect of MSC research focuses on genetically modifying the cells with the aim of enhancing their regenerative potential. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) holds promise as a vector...... in human MSCs and to assess whether AAV transduction affects MSC multipotentiality. The results indicated that human MSCs could indeed be transiently transduced in vitro by the AAV2 vector with efficiencies of up to 65%. The percentage of GFP-positive cells peaked at 4 days post-transduction and declined...... rapidly towards 0% after day 8. The level of transgene expression in the GFP-positive population increased 4-fold over a 10,000 fold viral dose increase. This dose-response contrasted with the 200-fold increase observed in similarly transduced 293-cells, indicating a relatively restricted transgene...

  16. Pseudotyped Adeno-associated Viral Vector Tropism and Transduction Efficiencies in Murine Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Keswani, Sundeep G.; Balaji, Swathi; Le, Louis; Leung, Alice; Lim, Foong-Yen; Habli, Mounira; Jones, Helen N.; Wilson, James M.; Crombleholme, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    Cell specific gene transfer and sustained transgene expression are goals of cutaneous gene therapy for tissue repair and regeneration. Adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2/2) mediated gene transfer to the skin results in stable transgene expression in the muscle fascicles of the panniculus carnosus in mice, with minimal gene transfer to the dermal or epidermal elements. We hypothesized that pseudotyped AAV vectors may have a unique and characteristic tropism and transduction efficiency pro...

  17. Development of Optimized AAV Serotype Vectors for High-Efficiency Transduction at Further Reduced Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Chen; Li, Baozheng; Ma, Wenqin; Srivastava, Arun

    2016-08-01

    We have described the development of capsid-modified next-generation AAV vectors for both AAV2 and AAV3 serotypes, in which specific surface-exposed tyrosine (Y), serine (S), threonine (T), and lysine (K) residues on viral capsids were modified to achieve high-efficiency transduction at lower doses. We have also described the development of genome-modified AAV vectors, in which the transcriptionally inactive, single-stranded AAV genome was modified to achieve improved transgene expression. Here, we describe that combination of capsid modifications and genome modifications leads to the generation of optimized AAV serotype vectors, which transduce cells and tissues more efficiently, both in vitro and in vivo, at ∼20-30-fold reduced doses. These studies have significant implications in the potential use of the optimized AAV serotype vectors in human gene therapy.

  18. Vector Triggering Random Decrement for High Identification Accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, S. R.; Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune

    mode shapes. In this paper a new algorithm based on pure auto triggering is suggested. Equivalent auto ED functions are estimated for all channels to obtain functions with a minimun of noise, using a vector triggering condition that preserves phase information, and thus, allowes for estimation of both....... When commonly accepted triggering conditions are used however, the user is restriced to use a combination of auto RD and cross RD functions withhigh noise contents on the cross RD functions. Use of the auto RD functions alone causes the loss of phase information and thus the possibility of estimation...... poles and mode shapes. The proposed technice (VRD) is compared with the traditional RD technique by evaluation modal parameters extracted from the RD and the VRD functions using ITD identification technique on simulated and experimentally obtained data....

  19. Adeno-associated viral vector-mediated gene transduction in mesencephalic slice culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihira, Tomoko; Yasuda, Toru; Hirai, Yukihiko; Shimada, Takashi; Mizuno, Yoshikuni; Mochizuki, Hideki

    2011-09-30

    Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector is a non-pathogenic vehicle that is suitable for the delivery of foreign genes into non-dividing neuronal cells. This vector has been utilized for in vivo neurological research and in clinical trials of gene therapy for neurodegenerative disorders. Viral vector-mediated gene delivery has the limitation that progressive changes in cellular phenotype cannot be monitored in living animals. To visualize living neurons transduced with foreign genes in vitro, we used cultured mesencephalic tissue harboring living dopaminergic (DA) neurons and examined cellular tropism of serotype-1 and serotype-2 AAV vectors in a culture system. The viability of DA neurons was evaluated using transgenic mice carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of the rat tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter, which enables the visualization of living DA cells in the substantia nigra. Apoptosis of a subset of neuronal cells was noted within one day of culture. After 7 days, the serotype-1 AAV vector had successfully delivered the foreign gene into neurons and astrocytes, and serotype-2 AAV vector was able to transduce TH-positive DA neurons efficiently. Our method should be useful for in vitro investigations of pathological changes in DA neurons following transduction with foreign genes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Recombinant adenoviral vector-lipofectAMINE complex for gene transduction into human T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nicola, M; Milanesi, M; Magni, M; Bregni, M; Carlo-Stella, C; Longoni, P; Tomanin, R; Ravagnani, F; Scarpa, M; Jordan, C; Gianni, A M

    1999-07-20

    We have evaluated, as a vector for gene transfer into human T lymphocytes, a recombinant adenovirus (rAd-MFG-AP) carrying a modified, membrane-exposed, alkaline phosphatase (AP) as reporter gene. CD3+ cells were selected from the buffy coat of healthy donors by the immunomagnetic technique. The positive cell population, comprising 96+/-2% CD3+ cells, was cultured with clinical-grade cytokine(s) for 3-7 days prior to rAd-MFG-AP transduction and the transgene expression was evaluated 48 hr later by indirect immunofluorescence flow cytometry assay with an anti-alkaline phosphatase antibody. The best efficiency of transduction was achieved on incubation of CD3+ cells with IL-2 plus either IL-12 (AP+ cells, 12+/-3%) or IL-7 (AP+ cells, 11+/-3%). To increase further the efficiency of transduction, we have combined LipofectAMINE and rAd-MFG-AP with the aim to enhance the uptake of viral particles into the target cells. The percentage of CD3+ cells transduced by rAd-MFG-AP-LipofectAMINE complex was 24+/-4% (range, 20-35%) after incubation with IL-2 plus IL-7 and 22+/-4% (range, 18-32%) after incubation with II-2 plus IL-12. Forty-eight hours after the incubation with rAd-MFG-AP, the transduced T lymphocytes were subjected to fluorescence-activated cell sorting and fractionated into AP+ and AP- cell subpopulations. The AP+ cell fraction, comprising 96.8% of AP+ cells, was evaluated by FACScan analysis for T lymphocyte surface antigens. The immunophenotyping of the transduced T lymphocytes has shown that there was not a particular subtype of T lymphocytes more susceptible to rAd-MFG-AP transduction. In addition, the transgene expression did not modify T lymphocyte functions, as demonstrated by results obtained by cytotoxicity assay before and after rAd-MFG-AP-LipofectAMINE complex transduction. In conclusion, human T lymphocytes can be efficiently transduced, under clinically applicable conditions, by adenovirus-LipofectAMINE complex after 7 days of culture with IL-2 and IL

  1. Factors that influence VSV-G pseudotyping and transduction efficiency of lentiviral vectors-in vitro and in vivo implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Daniel C; Iqball, Sharifah; Smith, Joanne C; Miskin, James E; Kingsman, Susan M; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A

    2007-05-01

    Pseudotyping viral vectors with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) enables the transduction of an extensive range of cell types from different species. We have discovered two important parameters of the VSV-G-pseudotyping phenomenon that relate directly to the transduction potential of lentiviral vectors: (1) the glycosylation status of VSV-G, and (2) the quantity of glycoprotein associated with virions. We measured production-cell and virion-associated quantities of two isoform variants of VSV-G, which differ in their glycosylation status, VSV-G1 and VSV-G2, and assessed the impact of this difference on the efficiency of mammalian cell transduction by lentiviral vectors. The glycosylation of VSV-G at N336 allowed greater maximal expression of VSV-G in HEK293T cells, thus facilitating vector pseudotyping. The transduction of primate cell lines was substantially affected (up to 50-fold) by the degree of VSV-G1 or VSV-G2 incorporation, whereas other cell lines, such as D17 (canine), were less sensitive to virion-associated VSV-G1/2 quantities. These data indicate that the minimum required concentration of virion-associated VSV-G differs substantially between cell species/types. The implications of these data with regard to VSV-G-pseudotyped vector production, titration, and use in host-cell restriction studies, are discussed. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Transduction efficiencies of novel AAV vectors in mouse airway epithelium in vivo and human ciliated airway epithelium in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberis, Maria P; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Zhang, Liqun; Pickles, Raymond J; Wilson, James M

    2009-02-01

    We have characterized the ability of adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotypes 1-9 in addition to nineteen novel vectors isolated from various tissues, to transduce mouse and human ciliated airway epithelium (HAE). Vectors expressing alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) and beta-galactosidase were co-instilled into the mouse lung. Of all the vectors tested rh.64R1, AAV5 and AAV6 were the most efficient. The high transduction observed in mouse was reproduced in HAE cell cultures for both rh.64R1 and AAV6 but not for AAV5. Since AAV6 was the most efficient vector in mouse and HAE we also tested the transduction efficiencies of the AAV6 singleton vectors (i.e., AAV6 variants with targeted mutations) in these models. Of these, AAV6.2 transduced mouse airway epithelium and HAE with greater efficiency than all other AAV vectors tested. We demonstrated that AAV6.2 exhibits improved transduction efficiency compared to previously reported AAVs in mouse airways and in culture models of human airway epithelium and that this vector requires further development for preclinical and clinical testing.

  3. Efficient transduction of vascular endothelial cells with recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 1 and 5 vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sifeng; Kapturczak, Matthias; Loiler, Scott A; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Glushakova, Olena Y; Madsen, Kirsten M; Samulski, Richard J; Hauswirth, William W; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Berns, Kenneth I; Flotte, Terence R; Atkinson, Mark A; Tisher, C Craig; Agarwal, Anupam

    2005-02-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) has become an attractive tool for gene therapy because of its ability to transduce both dividing and nondividing cells, elicit a limited immune response, and the capacity for imparting long-term transgene expression. Previous studies have utilized rAAV serotype 2 predominantly and found that transduction of vascular cells is relatively inefficient. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the transduction efficiency of rAAV serotypes 1 through 5 in human and rat aortic endothelial cells (HAEC and RAEC). rAAV vectors with AAV2 inverted terminal repeats containing the human alpha1-antitrypsin (hAAT) gene were transcapsidated using helper plasmids to provide viral capsids for the AAV1 through 5 serotypes. True type rAAV2 and 5 vectors encoding beta-galactosidase or green fluorescence protein were also studied. Infection with rAAV1 resulted in the most efficient transduction in both HAEC and RAEC compared to other serotypes (p Transduction with rAAV1 was completely inhibited by removal of sialic acid with sialidase, while heparin had no effect. These studies are the first demonstration that sialic acid residues are required for rAAV1 transduction in endothelial cells. Transduction of rat aortic segments ex vivo and in vivo demonstrated significant transgene expression in endothelial and smooth muscle cells with rAAV1 and 5 serotype vectors, in comparison to rAAV2. These results suggest the unique potential of rAAV1 and rAAV5-based vectors for vascular-targeted gene-based therapeutic strategies.

  4. Efficient Transduction of Vascular Endothelial Cells with Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 1 and 5 Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEN, SIFENG; KAPTURCZAK, MATTHIAS; LOILER, SCOTT A.; ZOLOTUKHIN, SERGEI; GLUSHAKOVA, OLENA Y.; MADSEN, KIRSTEN M.; SAMULSKI, RICHARD J.; HAUSWIRTH, WILLIAM W.; CAMPBELL-THOMPSON, MARTHA; BERNS, KENNETH I.; FLOTTE, TERENCE R.; ATKINSON, MARK A.; TISHER, C. CRAIG

    2006-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) has become an attractive tool for gene therapy because of its ability to transduce both dividing and nondividing cells, elicit a limited immune response, and the capacity for imparting long-term transgene expression. Previous studies have utilized rAAV serotype 2 predominantly and found that transduction of vascular cells is relatively inefficient. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the transduction efficiency of rAAV serotypes 1 through 5 in human and rat aortic endothelial cells (HAEC and RAEC). rAAV vectors with AAV2 inverted terminal repeats containing the human α1-antitrypsin (hAAT) gene were transcapsidated using helper plasmids to provide viral capsids for the AAV1 through 5 serotypes. True type rAAV2 and 5 vectors encoding β-galactosidase or green fluorescence protein were also studied. Infection with rAAV1 resulted in the most efficient transduction in both HAEC and RAEC compared to other serotypes (p ex vivo and in vivo demonstrated significant transgene expression in endothelial and smooth muscle cells with rAAV1 and 5 serotype vectors, in comparison to rAAV2. These results suggest the unique potential of rAAV1 and rAAV5-based vectors for vascular-targeted gene-based therapeutic strategies. OVERVIEW SUMMARY Gene delivery to the vasculature has significant potential as a therapeutic strategy for several cardiovascular disorders including atherosclerosis, hypertension, angiogenesis, and chronic vascular rejection of transplanted organs. However, limited advances have been made in achieving successful vascular endothelial cell gene transfer. The results of the present study demonstrate the superior efficacy of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) serotype 1 and 5 vectors in comparison to the traditionally used rAAV serotype 2 in transduction of primary vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells in vitro. Our results have identified sialic acid residues for rAAV1 transduction in endothelial

  5. Enhanced transduction of CAR-negative cells by protein IX-gene deleted adenovirus 5 vectors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Vrij, Jeroen; van den Hengel, Sanne K; Uil, Taco G; Koppers-Lalic, Danijela; Dautzenberg, Iris J.C; Stassen, Oscar M.J.A; Bárcena, Montserrat; Yamamoto, Masato; de Ridder, Corrina M.A; Kraaij, Robert; Kwappenberg, Kitty M; Schilham, Marco W; Hoeben, Rob C

    2011-01-01

    .... The mechanism for the enhanced transduction is obscure. No differences in fiber loading, integrin-dependency of transduction, or factor-X binding could be established between protein IX-containing and protein IX-deficient...

  6. Creation and validation of a ligation-independent cloning (LIC retroviral vector for stable gene transduction in mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Asmita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cloning vectors capable of retroviral transduction have enabled stable gene overexpression in numerous mitotic cell lines. However, the relatively small number of feasible restriction enzyme sequences in their cloning sites can hinder successful generation of overexpression constructs if these sequences are also present in the target cDNA insert. Results Utilizing ligation-independent cloning (LIC technology, we have modified the highly efficient retroviral transduction vector, pBABE, to eliminate reliance on restriction enzymes for cloning. Instead, the modified plasmid, pBLIC, utilizes random 12/13-base overhangs generated by T4 DNA polymerase 3' exonuclease activity. PCR-based introduction of the complementary sequence into any cDNA of interest enables universal cloning into pBLIC. Here we describe creation of the pBLIC plasmid, and demonstrate successful cloning and protein overexpression from three different cDNAs, Bax, catalase, and p53 through transduction into the human prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP or the human lung cancer line, H358. Conclusions Our results show that pBLIC vector retains the high transduction efficiency of the original pBABE while eliminating the requirement for checking individual cDNA inserts for internal restriction sites. Thus it comprises an effective retroviral cloning system for laboratory-scale stable gene overexpression or for high-throughput applications such as creation of retroviral cDNA libraries. To our knowledge, pBLIC is the first LIC vector for retroviral transduction-mediated stable gene expression in mammalian cells.

  7. Quantifying transduction efficiencies of unmodified and tyrosine capsid mutant AAV vectors in vitro using two ocular cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, Renee C; Boye, Sanford L; Dinculescu, Astra; Hauswirth, William W; Boye, Shannon E

    2011-04-29

    With the increasing number of retinal gene-based therapies and therapeutic constructs, in vitro bioassays characterizing vector transduction efficiency and quality are becoming increasingly important. Currently, in vitro assays quantifying vector transduction efficiency are performed predominantly for non-ocular tissues. A human retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE19) and a mouse cone photoreceptor cell line, 661W, have been well characterized and are used for many retinal metabolism and biologic pathway studies. The purpose of this study is to quantify transduction efficiencies of a variety of self-complementary (sc) adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors in these biologically relevant ocular cell lines using high-throughput fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. ARPE19 and 661W cells were infected with sc-smCBA-mCherry packaged in unmodified AAV capsids or capsids containing single/multiple tyrosine-phenylalanine (Y-F) mutations at multiplicity of infections (MOIs) ranging from 100 to 10,000. Three days post infection fluorescent images verified mCherry expression. Following microscopy, FACS analysis was performed to quantify the number of positive cells and the mean intensity of mCherry fluorescence, the product of which is reported as transduction efficiency for each vector. The scAAV vectors containing cone-specific (sc-mCARpro-green fluorescent protein [GFP]), rod-specific (sc-MOPS500-eGFP), retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-specific (sc-VMD2-GFP), or ubiquitous (sc-smCBA-GFP) promoters were used to infect both cell lines at an MOI of 10,000. Three days post infection, cells were immunostained with an antibody raised against GFP and imaged. Finally, based on our in vitro results, we tested a prediction of transduction efficiency in vivo. Expression from unmodified scAAV1, scAAV2, scAAV5, and scAAV8 vectors was detectable by FACS in both ARPE19 and 661W cells, with scAAV1 and scAAV2 being the most efficient in both cell lines. scAAV5 showed

  8. Targeting Visceral Fat by Intraperitoneal Delivery of Novel AAV Serotype Vector Restricting Off-Target Transduction in Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is challenging to genetically manipulate fat in adults. We demonstrate that intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of an engineered adeno-associated virus (AAV serotype Rec2 leads to high transduction of multiple visceral fat depots at a dose of 1 to 2 orders lower than commonly used doses for systemic gene delivery. To target adipose tissue, we develop a single AAV vector harboring two expression cassettes: one using the CBA promoter to drive transgene expression and one using the liver-specific albumin promoter to drive a microRNA-targeting WPRE sequence that only exists in this AAV vector. This dual-cassette vector achieves highly selective transduction of visceral fat while severely restricting off-target transduction of liver. As proof of efficacy, i.p. administration of an adipose-targeting Rec2 vector harboring the leptin gene corrects leptin deficiency, obesity, and metabolic syndromes of ob/ob mice. This study provides a powerful tool to genetically manipulate fat for basic research and gene therapies of genetic and acquired diseases.

  9. Targeted adeno-associated virus vector transduction of nonpermissive cells mediated by a bispecific F(ab'gamma)2 antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, J S; Kleinschmidt, J; Boucher, R C; Samulski, R J

    1999-02-01

    We have developed a system for the targeted delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors. Targeting is achieved via a bispecific F(ab')2 antibody that mediates a novel interaction between the AAV vector and a specific cell surface receptor expressed on human megakaryocytes. Targeted AAV vectors were able to transduce megakaryocyte cell lines, DAMI and MO7e, which were nonpermissive for normal AAV infection, 70-fold above background and at levels equivalent to permissive K562 cells. Transduction was shown to occur through the specific interaction of the AAV vector-bispecific F(ab')2 complex and cell-associated targeting receptor. Importantly, targeting appeared both selective and restrictive as the endogenous tropism of the AAV vector was significantly reduced. Binding and internalization through the alternative receptor did not alter subsequent steps (escape from endosomes, migration to nucleus, or uncoating) required to successfully transduce target cells. These results demonstrate that AAV vectors can be targeted to a specific cell population and that transduction can be achieved by circumventing the normal virus receptor.

  10. Transduction of the central nervous system after intracerebroventricular injection of adeno-associated viral vectors in neonatal and juvenile mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, Shervin; Tharmalingam, Sujeenthar; Macaldaz, Margarita E; Hampson, David R

    2013-08-01

    Several neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders affecting the central nervous system are potentially treatable via viral vector-mediated gene transfer. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors have been used in clinical trials because of their desirable properties including a high degree of safety, efficacy, and stability. Major factors affecting tropism, expression level, and cell type specificity of AAV-mediated transgenes include encapsidation of different AAV serotypes, promoter selection, and the timing of vector administration. In this study, we evaluated the ability of single-stranded AAV2 vectors pseudotyped with viral capsids from serotype 9 (AAV2/9) to transduce the brain and target gene expression to specific cell types after intracerebroventricular injection into mice. Titer-matched AAV2/9 vectors encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter, driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, or the neuron-specific synapsin-1 promoter, were injected bilaterally into the lateral ventricles of C57/BL6 mice on postnatal day 5 (neonatal) or 21 (juvenile). Brain sections were analyzed 25 days after injection, using immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. eGFP immunohistochemistry after neonatal and juvenile administration of viral vectors revealed transduction throughout the brain including the striatum, hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum, but with different patterns of cell-specific gene expression. eGFP expression was seen in astrocytes after treatment on postnatal day 5 with vectors carrying the CMV promoter, expanding the usefulness of AAVs for modeling and treating diseases involving glial cell pathology. In contrast, injection of AAV2/9-CMV-eGFP on postnatal day 21 resulted in preferential transduction of neurons. Administration of AAV2/9-eGFP with the synapsin-1 promoter on either postnatal day 5 or 21 resulted in widespread neuronal transduction. These results outline efficient methods and tools for gene delivery

  11. Adeno-associated virus and lentivirus vectors mediate efficient and sustained transduction of cultured mouse and human dorsal root ganglia sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, J; Ginn, S L; Weinberger, R P; Trahair, T N; Smythe, J A; Alexander, I E

    2001-01-01

    Peripheral nervous system (PNS) sensory neurons are directly involved in the pathophysiology of numerous inherited and acquired neurological conditions. Therefore, efficient and stable gene delivery to these postmitotic cells has significant therapeutic potential. Among contemporary vector systems capable of neuronal transduction, only those based on herpes simplex virus have been extensively evaluated in PNS neurons. We therefore investigated the transduction performance of recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV) and VSV-G-pseudotyped lentivirus vectors derived from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in newborn mouse and fetal human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons. In dissociated mouse DRG cultures both vectors achieved efficient transduction of sensory neurons at low multiplicities of infection (MOIs) and sustained transgene expression within a 28-day culture period. Interestingly, the lentivirus vector selectively transduced neurons in murine cultures, in contrast to human cultures, in which Schwann and fibroblast-like cells were also transduced. Recombinant AAV transduced all three cell types in both mouse and human cultures. After direct microinjection of murine DRG explants, maximal transduction efficiencies of 20 and 200 transducing units per neuronal transductant were achieved with AAV and lentivirus vectors, respectively. Most importantly, both vectors achieved efficient and sustained transduction of human sensory neurons in dissociated cultures, thereby directly demonstrating the exciting potential of these vectors for gene therapy applications in the PNS.

  12. Impact of intravenous infusion time on AAV8 vector pharmacokinetics, safety, and liver transduction in cynomolgus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny A Greig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemically delivered adeno-associated viral (AAV vectors are now in early-phase clinical trials for a variety of diseases. While there is a general consensus on inclusion and exclusion criteria for each of these trials, the conditions under which vectors are infused vary significantly. In this study, we evaluated the impact of intravenous infusion rate of AAV8 vector in cynomolgus macaques on transgene expression, vector clearance from the circulation, and potential activation of the innate immune system. The dose of AAV8 vector in terms of genome copies per kilogram body weight and its concentration were fixed, while the rate of infusion varied to deliver the entire dose over different time periods, including 1, 10, or 90 minutes. Analyses during the in-life phase of the experiment included sequential evaluation of whole blood for vector genomes and appearance of proinflammatory cytokines. Liver tissues were analyzed at the time of necropsy for enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP expression and vector genomes. The data were remarkable with a relative absence of any statistically significant effect of infusion time on vector transduction, safety, and clearance. However, some interesting and unexpected trends did emerge.

  13. Efficient transduction of equine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells by VSV-G pseudotyped lentiviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Gayle F; Hilbert, Bryan; Trope, Gareth; Kalle, Wouter; Strappe, Padraig

    2014-12-01

    Equine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (EADMSC) provide a unique cell-based approach for treatment of a variety of equine musculoskeletal injuries, via regeneration of diseased or damaged tissue, or the secretion of immunomodulatory molecules. These capabilities can be further enhanced by genetic modification using lentiviral vectors, which provide a safe and efficient method of gene delivery. We investigated the suitability of lentiviral vector technology for gene delivery into EADMSC, using GFP expressing lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with the G glycoprotein from the vesicular stomatitis virus (V-GFP) or, for the first time, the baculovirus gp64 envelope protein (G-GFP). In this study, we produced similarly high titre V-GFP and G-GFP lentiviral vectors. Flow cytometric analysis showed efficient transduction using V-GFP; however G-GFP exhibited a poor ability to transduce EADMSC. Transduction resulted in sustained GFP expression over four passages, with minimal effects on cell viability and doubling time, and an unaltered chondrogenic differentiation potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Simple downstream process based on detergent treatment improves yield and in vivo transduction efficacy of adeno-associated virus vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Dias Florencio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAV are promising candidates for gene therapy approaches. The last two decades were particularly fruitful in terms of processes applied in the production and purification of this type of gene transfer vectors. This rapid technological evolution led to better yields and higher levels of vector purity. Recently, some reports showed that rAAV produced by transient tri-transfection method in adherent human embryonic kidney 293 cells can be harvested directly from supernatant, leading to easier and faster purification compared to classical virus extraction from cell pellets. Here, we compare these approaches with new vector recovery method using small quantity of detergent at the initial clarification step to treat the whole transfected cell culture. Coupled with tangential flow filtration and iodixanol-based isopycnic density gradient, this new method significantly increases rAAV yields and conserves high vector purity. Moreover, this approach leads to the reduction of the total process duration. Finally, the vectors maintain their functionality, showing unexpected higher in vitro and in vivo transduction efficacies. This new development in rAAV downstream process once more demonstrates the great capacity of these vectors to easily accommodate to large panel of methods, able to furthermore ameliorate their safety, functionality, and scalability.

  15. Calcium phosphate coprecipitation greatly enhances transduction of cardiac myocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells by lentivirus vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoda, Tsuyoshi; Kasahara, Nori; Kedes, Larry; Ohyanagi, Mitsumasa

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lentivirus vectors provide a delivery system that can both transduce nondividing cells and integrate transgenes into the genome of target cells without cytotoxicity. However, their relatively low transduction efficiency presents a significant obstacle to progress. OBJECTIVES In the present paper, a simple and easy method using calcium phosphate (CaPi) to enhance the efficiency of lentivirus gene transfer in both vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiac myocytes is reported. METHODS AND RESULTS Delivery of lentivirus vectors in the presence of CaPi coprecipitates increased vector-encoded transgene expression up to 13-fold. Of interest, the magnitudes of enhancement of transgene expression by CaPi coprecipitates in 293T cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiac myocytes were greater during brief periods (10 min and 120 min) of virus-cell contact than during long periods (16 h). Moreover, with a short duration of incubation with CaPi coprecipitates (up to 120 min), there was little evidence of direct cell toxicity. CaPi coprecipitates had no effect on host range specificity of ecotropic viruses and thus appears to enhance transduction efficiency physiologically by facilitating physical interaction between virus and cell. CONCLUSIONS These data show that lentivirus with CaPi coprecipitates increases both the efficiency and the speed of gene transfer. These approaches provide an efficient method and an improved tool for research and possibly for therapy of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:18650994

  16. An Efficient Large-Scale Retroviral Transduction Method Involving Preloading the Vector into a RetroNectin-Coated Bag with Low-Temperature Shaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodo, Katsuyuki; Chono, Hideto; Saito, Naoki; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Tahara, Kenichi; Nukaya, Ikuei; Mineno, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    In retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer, transduction efficiency can be hampered by inhibitory molecules derived from the culture fluid of virus producer cell lines. To remove these inhibitory molecules to enable better gene transduction, we had previously developed a transduction method using a fibronectin fragment-coated vessel (i.e., the RetroNectin-bound virus transduction method). In the present study, we developed a method that combined RetroNectin-bound virus transduction with low-temperature shaking and applied this method in manufacturing autologous retroviral-engineered T cells for adoptive transfer gene therapy in a large-scale closed system. Retroviral vector was preloaded into a RetroNectin-coated bag and incubated at 4°C for 16 h on a reciprocating shaker at 50 rounds per minute. After the supernatant was removed, activated T cells were added to the bag. The bag transduction method has the advantage of increasing transduction efficiency, as simply flipping over the bag during gene transduction facilitates more efficient utilization of the retroviral vector adsorbed on the top and bottom surfaces of the bag. Finally, we performed validation runs of endoribonuclease MazF-modified CD4+ T cell manufacturing for HIV-1 gene therapy and T cell receptor-modified T cell manufacturing for MAGE-A4 antigen-expressing cancer gene therapy and achieved over 200-fold (≥1010) and 100-fold (≥5×109) expansion, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the large-scale closed transduction system is highly efficient for retroviral vector-based T cell manufacturing for adoptive transfer gene therapy, and this technology is expected to be amenable to automation and improve current clinical gene therapy protocols. PMID:24454964

  17. Optimizing the transduction efficiency of human hematopoietic stem cells using capsid-modified AAV6 vectors in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liujiang; Kauss, M. Ariel; Kopin, Etana; Chandra, Manasa; Ul-Hasan, Taihra; Miller, Erin; Jayandharan, Giridhara R.; Rivers, Angela E.; Aslanidi, George V.; Ling, Chen; Li, Baozheng; Ma, Wenqin; Li, Xiaomiao; Andino, Lourdes M.; Zhong, Li; Tarantal, Alice F.; Yoder, Mervin C.; Wong, Kamehameha K.; Tan, Mengqun; Chatterjee, Saswati; Srivastava, Arun

    2013-01-01

    Background Although recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) vectors have gained attention owing to their safety and efficacy in number of Phase I/II clinical trials, their transduction efficiency in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) has been reported to be low. Only a handful of additional AAV serotype vectors have been evaluated, and comparative analyses of their transduction efficiency in HSCs from different species have not been performed. Methods Here, we evaluated the transduction efficiency of all available AAV serotype vectors (AAV1 through AAV10) in primary mouse, cynomolgus monkey, and human HSCs, respectively. The transduction efficiency of the optimized AAV vectors was also evaluated in human HSCs in a murine xenograft model in vivo. Results We observed that although there are only six amino acid differences between AAV1 and AAV6, AAV1, but not AAV6, transduce mouse HSCs cells well, whereas AAV6, but not AAV1, transduce human HSCs well. None of the 10 serotypes transduce cynomolgus monkey HSCs in vitro. We also evaluated the transduction efficiency of AAV6 vectors containing mutations in surface-exposed tyrosine residues, and observed that tyrosine (Y) to phenylalanine (F) point mutations in residues 445, 705, and 731, led to a significant increase in transgene expression in human HSCs in vitro and in a mouse xenograft model in vivo. Discussion These studies suggest that the tyrosine-mutant AAV6 serotype vectors are the most promising vectors for transducing human HSCs, and that it is possible to further increase the transduction efficiency of these vectors for their potential use in HSC-based gene therapy in humans. PMID:23830234

  18. Optimizing the transduction efficiency of capsid-modified AAV6 serotype vectors in primary human hematopoietic stem cells in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liujiang; Kauss, M Ariel; Kopin, Etana; Chandra, Manasa; Ul-Hasan, Taihra; Miller, Erin; Jayandharan, Giridhara R; Rivers, Angela E; Aslanidi, George V; Ling, Chen; Li, Baozheng; Ma, Wenqin; Li, Xiaomiao; Andino, Lourdes M; Zhong, Li; Tarantal, Alice F; Yoder, Mervin C; Wong, Kamehameha K; Tan, Mengqun; Chatterjee, Saswati; Srivastava, Arun

    2013-08-01

    Although recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) vectors have gained attention because of their safety and efficacy in numerous phase I/II clinical trials, their transduction efficiency in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) has been reported to be low. Only a few additional AAV serotype vectors have been evaluated, and comparative analyses of their transduction efficiency in HSCs from different species have not been performed. We evaluated the transduction efficiency of all available AAV serotype vectors (AAV1 through AAV10) in primary mouse, cynomolgus monkey and human HSCs. The transduction efficiency of the optimized AAV vectors was also evaluated in human HSCs in a murine xenograft model in vivo. We observed that although there are only six amino acid differences between AAV1 and AAV6, AAV1, but not AAV6, transduced mouse HSCs well, whereas AAV6, but not AAV1, transduced human HSCs well. None of the 10 serotypes transduced cynomolgus monkey HSCs in vitro. We also evaluated the transduction efficiency of AAV6 vectors containing mutations in surface-exposed tyrosine residues. We observed that tyrosine (Y) to phenylalanine (F) point mutations in residues 445, 705 and 731 led to a significant increase in transgene expression in human HSCs in vitro and in a mouse xenograft model in vivo. These studies suggest that the tyrosine-mutant AAV6 serotype vectors are the most promising vectors for transducing human HSCs and that it is possible to increase further the transduction efficiency of these vectors for their potential use in HSC-based gene therapy in humans. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. All rights reserved.

  19. Trans-neuronal transduction of spinal neurons following cortical injection and anterograde axonal transport of a bicistronic AAV1 vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, T H; Kathe, C; Moon, L D F

    2016-02-01

    Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are one of the most promising gene delivery systems to the central nervous system. We now report, that AAV1 can be used to express transgenes trans-neuronally in neurons distant from the injection site. Specifically, intracortical injection of a bicistronic AAV1 vector trans-neuronally transduced spinal neurons as shown by fluorescence microscopy, the presence of AAV genome and AAV transcript in the contralateral spinal cord. Prior pyramidotomy abolished spinal transduction, confirming anterograde axonal transport of AAV1 in the corticospinal tract. These observations demonstrate the potential of bicistronic AAV1 for trans-neuronal expression of therapeutic transgenes in neurological disorders or reporter genes in connectivity studies.

  20. Efficient Transduction of Human and Rhesus Macaque Primary T Cells by a Modified Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Based Lentiviral Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huan; Xue, Jing; Wang, Weiming; Liu, Lihong; Ye, Chaobaihui; Cong, Zhe; Kimata, Jason T; Qin, Chuan; Zhou, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-based lentiviral vectors efficiently transduce genes to human, but not rhesus, primary T cells and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The poor transduction of HIV-1 vectors to rhesus cells is mainly due to species-specific restriction factors such as rhesus TRIM5α. Previously, several strategies to modify HIV-1 vectors were developed to overcome rhesus TRIM5α restriction. While the modified HIV-1 vectors efficiently transduce rhesus HSCs, they remain suboptimal for rhesus primary T cells. Recently, HIV-1 variants that encode combinations of LNEIE mutations in capsid (CA) protein and SIVmac239 Vif were found to replicate efficiently in rhesus primary T cells. Thus, the present study tested whether HIV-1 vectors packaged by a packaging construct containing these CA substitutions could efficiently transduce both human and rhesus primary CD4 T cells. To accomplish this, LNEIE mutations were made in the packaging construct CEMΔ8.9, and recombinant HIV-1 vectors packaged by Δ8.9 WT or Δ8.9 LNEIE were generated. Transduction rates, CA stability, and vector integration in CEMss-CCR5 and CEMss-CCR5-rhTRIM5α/green fluorescent protein cells, as well as transduction rates in human and rhesus primary CD4 T cells by Δ8.9 WT or Δ8.9 LNEIE-packaged HIV-1 vectors, were compared. Finally, the influence of rhesus TRIM5α variations in transduction rates to primary CD4 T cells from a cohort of 37 Chinese rhesus macaques was studied. While it maintains efficient transduction for human T-cell line and primary CD4 T cells, Δ8.9 LNEIE-packaged HIV-1 vector overcomes rhesus TRIM5α-mediated CA degradation, resulting in significantly higher transduction efficiency of rhesus primary CD4 T cells than Δ8.9 WT-packaged HIV-1 vector. Rhesus TRIM5α variations strongly influence transduction efficiency of rhesus primary CD4 T cells by both Δ8.9 WT or Δ8.9 LNEIE-packaged HIV-1 vectors. Thus, it is concluded that Δ8.9 LNEIE-packaged HIV-1

  1. CNS-restricted Transduction and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Gene Deletion with an Engineered AAV Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giridhar Murlidharan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy using recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV vectors is emerging as a promising approach to treat central nervous system disorders such as Spinal muscular atrophy, Batten, Parkinson and Alzheimer disease amongst others. A critical remaining challenge for central nervous system-targeted gene therapy, silencing or gene editing is to limit potential vector dose-related toxicity in off-target cells and organs. Here, we characterize a lab-derived AAV chimeric (AAV2g9, which displays favorable central nervous system attributes derived from both parental counterparts, AAV2 and AAV9. This synthetic AAV strain displays preferential, robust, and widespread neuronal transduction within the brain and decreased glial tropism. Importantly, we observed minimal systemic leakage, decreased sequestration and gene transfer in off-target organs with AAV2g9, when administered into the cerebrospinal fluid. A single intracranial injection of AAV2g9 vectors encoding guide RNAs targeting the schizophrenia risk gene MIR137 (encoding MIR137 in CRISPR/Cas9 knockin mice resulted in brain-specific gene deletion with no detectable events in the liver. This engineered AAV vector is a promising platform for treating neurological disorders through gene therapy, silencing or editing modalities.

  2. CNS-restricted Transduction and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Gene Deletion with an Engineered AAV Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murlidharan, Giridhar; Sakamoto, Kensuke; Rao, Lavanya; Corriher, Travis; Wang, Dan; Gao, Guangping; Sullivan, Patrick; Asokan, Aravind

    2016-07-19

    Gene therapy using recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors is emerging as a promising approach to treat central nervous system disorders such as Spinal muscular atrophy, Batten, Parkinson and Alzheimer disease amongst others. A critical remaining challenge for central nervous system-targeted gene therapy, silencing or gene editing is to limit potential vector dose-related toxicity in off-target cells and organs. Here, we characterize a lab-derived AAV chimeric (AAV2g9), which displays favorable central nervous system attributes derived from both parental counterparts, AAV2 and AAV9. This synthetic AAV strain displays preferential, robust, and widespread neuronal transduction within the brain and decreased glial tropism. Importantly, we observed minimal systemic leakage, decreased sequestration and gene transfer in off-target organs with AAV2g9, when administered into the cerebrospinal fluid. A single intracranial injection of AAV2g9 vectors encoding guide RNAs targeting the schizophrenia risk gene MIR137 (encoding MIR137) in CRISPR/Cas9 knockin mice resulted in brain-specific gene deletion with no detectable events in the liver. This engineered AAV vector is a promising platform for treating neurological disorders through gene therapy, silencing or editing modalities.

  3. Transduction of liver cells by lentiviral vectors: analysis in living animals by fluorescence imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeifer, A.; Kessler, T.; Yang, M.; Baranov, E.; Kootstra, N.; Cheresh, D. A.; Hoffman, R. M.; Verma, I. M.

    2001-01-01

    Viral vectors based on lentiviruses, such as the human immunodeficiency virus, are able to transduce a broad spectrum of nondividing cells in vivo. This ability of lentiviral vectors makes them an attractive vehicle for gene transfer into the liver. In order to determine the requirements for

  4. Transduction of nonhuman primate brain with adeno-associated virus serotype 1: vector trafficking and immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaczek, Piotr; Forsayeth, John; Mirek, Hanna; Munson, Keith; Bringas, John; Pivirotto, Phil; McBride, Jodi L; Davidson, Beverly L; Bankiewicz, Krystof S

    2009-03-01

    We used convection-enhanced delivery (CED) to characterize gene delivery mediated by adeno-associated virus type 1 (AAV1) by tracking expression of hrGFP (humanized green fluorescent protein from Renilla reniformis) into the striatum, basal forebrain, and corona radiata of monkey brain. Four cynomolgus monkeys received single infusions into corona radiata, putamen, and caudate. The other group (n = 4) received infusions into basal forebrain. Thirty days after infusion animals were killed and their brains were processed for immunohistochemical evaluation. Volumetric analysis of GFP-positive brain areas was performed. AAV1-hrGFP infusions resulted in approximately 550, 700, and 73 mm(3) coverage after infusion into corona radiata, striatum, and basal forebrain, respectively. Aside from targeted regions, other brain structures also showed GFP signal (internal and external globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus), supporting the idea that AAV1 is actively trafficked to regions distal from the infusion site. In addition to neuronal transduction, a significant nonneuronal cell population was transduced by AAV1 vector; for example, oligodendrocytes in corona radiata and astrocytes in the striatum. We observed a strong humoral and cell-mediated response against AAV1-hrGFP in transduced monkeys irrespective of the anatomic location of the infusion, as evidenced by induction of circulating anti-AAV1 and anti-hrGFP antibodies, as well as infiltration of CD4(+) lymphocytes and upregulation of MHC-II in regions infused with vector. We conclude that transduction of antigen-presenting cells within the CNS is a likely cause of this response and that caution is warranted when foreign transgenes are used as reporters in gene therapy studies with vectors with broader tropism than AAV2.

  5. The CMS Level-1 tau lepton and Vector Boson Fusion triggers for the LHC Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Amendola, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The CMS experiment implements a sophisticated two-level triggering system composed of Level-1, instrumented by custom-design hardware boards, and a software High-Level-Trigger. A new Level-1 trigger architecture with improved performance is now being used to maintain the thresholds that were used in LHC Run I for the more challenging luminosity conditions experienced during Run II. The upgrades to the calorimetry trigger will be described along with performance data. The algorithms for the selection of final states with tau leptons, both for precision measurements and for searches of new physics beyond the Standard Model, will be described in detail. The implementation of the first dedicated Vector Boson Fusion trigger algorithm will be presented as well, along with its performance on benchmark physics signals.

  6. Efficacy of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors serotypes 1, 2, and 5 for the transduction of pancreatic and colon carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschendorf, Christian; Emons, Barbara; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Graeven, Ullrich; Schmiegel, Wolff

    2010-06-01

    The development of efficient and specific vector systems remains a central issue in gene therapy. Several different adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotypes have so far been characterized so far which show different tissue tropisms. The vectors used here contained AAV2 transgene cassette containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in AAV1, AAV2, or AAV5 capsids, producing the recombinant pseudotypes rAAV2/1, rAAV2/2, and rAAV2/5. The transduction efficiency of the different pseudotyped AAV vectors was tested in vitro in pancreatic and colon cancer cells lines (HT-29, BXPC3, and Hs766T). For all three serotypes, the percentage of GFP-positive cells was below 10% at multiplicities of infection (MOI) 100 rAAV vectors when used alone for infection. However, transduction efficiency for rAAV vectors increased dramatically when the cells were co-infected with wild-type adenovirus (wtAd). The percentage of GFP-positive cells ranged from 19.8-65.3% for AAV2/1 and 16.9-70.2% for AAV2/5, respectively. It was highest for rAAV2/2, at 40.9-88.4%. Variation between the cell lines was observed, with BXPC3 scoring the highest transduction rates and HT-29 the lowest. This study indicates that vectors based on distinct AAV serotypes 1, 2, and 5 all transduce pancreatic and colon cell lines poorly when used alone. Co-infection with wtAd increase transduction rates dramatically indicating that slow second-strand synthesis is a reason for the poor transduction efficiency. Due to the poor transduction rates, none of the rAAV serotypes tested here seem to be feasible for the treatment of malignant tumors.

  7. Evaluation of primitive murine hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell transduction in vitro and in vivo by recombinant adeno-associated virus vector serotypes 1 through 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Li; Li, Weiming; Li, Yanjun; Zhao, Weihong; Wu, Jianqing; Li, Baozheng; Maina, Njeri; Bischof, Daniela; Qing, Keyun; Weigel-Kelley, Kirsten A; Zolotukhin, Irene; Warrington, Kenneth H; Li, Xiaomiao; Slayton, William B; Yoder, Mervin C; Srivastava, Arun

    2006-03-01

    Conflicting data exist on hematopoietic cell transduction by AAV serotype 2 (AAV2) vectors, and additional AAV serotype vectors have not been evaluated for their efficacy in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell transduction. We evaluated the efficacy of conventional, single-stranded AAV serotype vectors 1 through 5 in primitive murine hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in vitro as well as in vivo. In progenitor cell assays using Sca1+ c-kit+ Lin- hematopoietic cells, 9% of the colonies in cultures infected with AAV1 expressed the transgene. Coinfection of AAV1 with self-complementary AAV vectors carrying the gene for T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (scAAV-TC-PTP) increased the transduction efficiency to 24%, indicating that viral secondstrand DNA synthesis is a rate-limiting step. This was further corroborated by the use of scAAV vectors, which bypass this requirement. In bone marrow transplantation studies involving lethally irradiated syngeneic mice, Sca1+ c-kit+ Lin- cells coinfected with AAV1 +/- scAAV-TC-PTP vectors led to transgene expression in 2 and 7.5% of peripheral blood (PB) cells, respectively, 6 months posttransplantation. In secondary transplantation experiments, 7% of PB cells and 3% of bone marrow (BM) cells expressed the transgene 6 months posttransplantation. Approximately 21% of BM-derived colonies harbored the proviral DNA sequences in integrated forms. These results document that AAV1 is thus far the most efficient vector in transducing primitive murine hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Further studies involving scAAV genomes and hematopoietic cell-specific promoters should further augment the transduction efficiency of AAV1 vectors, which should have implications in the optimal use of these vectors in hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy.

  8. Self-complementary adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV)-T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase vectors as helper viruses to improve transduction efficiency of conventional single-stranded AAV vectors in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Li; Chen, Linyuan; Li, Yanjun; Qing, Keyun; Weigel-Kelley, Kirsten A; Chan, Rebecca J; Yoder, Mervin C; Srivastava, Arun

    2004-11-01

    Recombinant vectors based on adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV) target the liver efficiently, but the transgene expression is limited to approximately 5% of hepatocytes. The lack of efficient transduction is due, in part, to the presence of a cellular protein, FKBP52, phosphorylated forms of which inhibit the viral second-strand DNA synthesis. We have documented that dephosphorylation of FKBP52 at tyrosine residues by the cellular T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TC-PTP) enhances AAV-mediated transduction in primary murine hematopoietic cells from TC-PTP-transgenic mice. We have also documented that AAV-mediated transduction is significantly enhanced in hepatocytes in TC-PTP-transgenic as well as in FKBP52-deficient mice because of efficient viral second-strand DNA synthesis. In this study, we evaluated whether co-infection of conventional single-stranded AAV vectors with self-complementary AAV-TC-PTP vectors leads to increased transduction efficiency of conventional AAV vectors in established human cell lines in vitro and in primary murine hepatocytes in vivo. We demonstrate here that scAAV-TC-PTP vectors serve as a helper virus in augmenting the transduction efficiency of conventional AAV vectors in vitro as well as in vivo which correlates directly with the extent of second-strand DNA synthesis of conventional single-stranded AAV vectors. Toxicological studies following tail-vein injections of scAAV-TC-PTP vectors in experimental mice show no evidence of any adverse effect in any of the organs in any of the mice for up to 13 weeks. Thus, this novel co-infection strategy should be useful in circumventing one of the major obstacles in the optimal use of recombinant AAV vectors in human gene therapy.

  9. Enhanced transduction of mouse salivary glands with AAV5-based vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katano, H.; Kok, M. R.; Cotrim, A. P.; Yamano, S.; Schmidt, M.; Afione, S.; Baum, B. J.; Chiorini, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors based on serotype 2 (rAAV2) can direct transgene expression in salivary gland cells in vitro and in vivo. However, it is not known how other rAAV serotypes perform when infused into salivary glands. The capsids of serotypes 4

  10. Efficient transduction of neurons using Ross River glycoprotein-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsson, J; Nielsen, T Tolstrup; Staflin, K

    2006-01-01

    and human glial fibrillary acidic protein, we demonstrated cell-specific transgene expression in the desired cell type. Ross River virus glycoprotein-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors also transduced human neural progenitor cells in vitro, showing that receptors for the RRV-G are present on human neural cells....

  11. Mycophenolate Mofetil Impairs Transduction of Single-Stranded Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montenegro-Miranda, Paula; ten Bloemendaal, Lysbeth; Kunne, Cindy; de Waart, Dirk R.; Bosma, Piter J.

    2011-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) liver-directed gene therapy seems a feasible treatment for Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I, an inherited liver disorder characterized by severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Transient immunosuppression coupled with vector administration seems needed to overcome host

  12. High density recombinant AAV particles are competent vectors for in vivo transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors have recently achieved clinical successes in human gene therapy. However, the commonly observed heavier particles found in AAV preparations have traditionally been ignored due to its low in vitro infectivity. In this study, we systemically compared t...

  13. Recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2, 4, and 5 vectors: Transduction of variant cell types and regions in the mammalian central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Beverly L.; Stein, Colleen S.; Heth, Jason A.; Martins, Inês; Kotin, Robert M; Derksen, Todd A.; Zabner, Joseph; Ghodsi, Abdi; Chiorini, John A.

    2000-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors based on serotype 2 (rAAV2) can direct transgene expression in the central nervous system (CNS), but it is not known how other rAAV serotypes perform as CNS gene transfer vectors. Serotypes 4 and 5 are distinct from rAAV2 and from each other in their capsid regions, suggesting that they may direct binding and entry into different cell types. In this study, we examined the tropisms and transduction efficiencies of β-galactosidase-encoding vectors made...

  14. Enhanced transduction efficiency of fiber-substituted adenovirus vectors by the incorporation of RGD peptides in two distinct regions of the adenovirus serotype 35 fiber knob.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Hayato; Sakurai, Fuminori; Katayama, Kazufumi; Kurachi, Shinnosuke; Tashiro, Katsuhisa; Sugio, Kumiko; Kawabata, Kenji; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Fiber-substituted Ad serotype 5 vectors containing the fiber protein from Ad serotype 35 (Ad5F35) exhibit properties that render them suitable as a platform for targeted Ad vectors. Ad5F35 vectors do not show apparent tropism in certain organs, including the liver, and they elicit less innate immunity than other vectors after intravenous administration. In order to develop a targeted Ad vector, we previously developed fiber-mutant Ad5F35 vectors containing the integrin binding Arg-Gly-Asn (RGD) motif in the FG or HI loop of the Ad35 fiber knob. Mutant Ad5F35 vectors containing the RGD peptide in the FG or HI loop transduced CD46-negative cells more efficiently in an RGD-dependent manner, as compared to the efficiency achieved with unmodified Ad5F35 vectors (Matsui et al., 2009. Gene Therapy 16, 1050-1057). However, the transduction efficiency of the mutant Ad5F35 vectors in CD46-negative cells remained lower than had been expected. Ad5F35 vectors containing the RGD peptide in the HI or FG loop enabled a 6-fold higher transduction efficiency than that achieved with unmodified Ad5F35 vectors in CD46-negative cells, although this cell type abundantly expresses α(v)-integrins. In the present study, we aimed to enhance the transduction efficiency of fiber-mutant Ad5F35 vectors. To this end, we developed an Ad5F35-vector system in which foreign peptides could be incorporated into regions of FG and HI loops of the Ad35 fiber knob by means of in vitro ligation. Using this Ad5F35-vector system, firefly luciferase-expressing mutant Ad5F35 vectors containing the RGD peptides in both loops (Ad5F35-2xRGD-L2) were constructed. In CD46-negative cells, Ad5F35-2xRGD-L2 showed 12-fold and 3-fold greater transduction efficiency than unmodified Ad5F35 vectors and mutant Ad5F35 vectors containing only one copy of the RGD peptide in the FG or the HI loop. In addition, transduction with Ad5F35-2xRGD-L2 in CD46-negative cells was RGD peptide-dependent. These results indicate that fiber

  15. Transduction of brain dopamine neurons by adenoviral vectors is modulated by CAR expression: rationale for tropism modified vectors in PD gene therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis B Lewis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gene-based therapy is a new paradigm for the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD and offers considerable promise for precise targeting and flexibility to impact multiple pathobiological processes for which small molecule agents are not available. Some success has been achieved utilizing adeno-associated virus for this approach, but it is likely that the characteristics of this vector system will ultimately create barriers to progress in clinical therapy. Adenovirus (Ad vector overcomes limitations in payload size and targeting. The cellular tropism of Ad serotype 5 (Ad5-based vectors is regulated by the Ad attachment protein binding to its primary cellular receptor, the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR. Many clinically relevant tissues are refractory to Ad5 infection due to negligible CAR levels but can be targeted by tropism-modified, CAR-independent forms of Ad. Our objective was to evaluate the role of CAR protein in transduction of dopamine (DA neurons in vivo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ad5 was delivered to the substantia nigra (SN in wild type (wt and CAR transgenic animals. Cellular tropism was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC in the SN and striatal terminals. CAR expression was assessed by western blot and IHC. We found in wt animals, Ad5 results in robust transgene expression in astrocytes and other non-neuronal cells but poor infection of DA neurons. In contrast, in transgenic animals, Ad5 infects SNc neurons resulting in expression of transduced protein in their striatal terminals. Western blot showed low CAR expression in the ventral midbrain of wt animals compared to transgenic animals. Interestingly, hCAR protein localizes with markers of post-synaptic structures, suggesting synapses are the point of entry into dopaminergic neurons in transgenic animals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that CAR deficiency limits infection of wild type DA neurons by Ad5 and provide a rationale for the

  16. Efficient gene delivery and selective transduction of astrocytes in the mammalian brain using viral vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eMerienne

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are now considered as key players in brain information processing because of their newly discovered roles in synapse formation and plasticity, energy metabolism and blood flow regulation. However, our understanding of astrocyte function is still fragmented compared to other brain cell types. A better appreciation of the biology of astrocytes requires the development of tools to generate animal models in which astrocyte-specific proteins and pathways can be manipulated. In addition, it is becoming increasingly evident that astrocytes are also important players in many neurological disorders. Targeted modulation of protein expression in astrocytes would be critical for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Gene transfer is valuable to target a subpopulation of cells and explore their function in experimental models. In particular, viral-mediated gene transfer provides a rapid, highly flexible and cost-effective, in vivo paradigm to study the impact of genes of interest during CNS development or in adult animals. We will review the different strategies that led to the recent development of efficient viral vectors that can be successfully used to selectively transduce astrocytes in the mammalian brain.

  17. High-titer foamy virus vector transduction and integration sites of human CD34+ cell–derived SCID-repopulating cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Nasimuzzaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foamy virus (FV vectors are promising tools for gene therapy, but low titer is a major challenge for large-scale clinical trials. Here, we increased FV vector titer 50-fold by constructing novel vector plasmids and using polyethylenimine-mediated transfection. FV and lentiviral (LV vectors were used separately to transduce human CD34+ cells at multiplicities of infection of 25, and those cells were transplanted into immunodeficient mice. FV vector transduction frequencies of repopulating human cells were 37.1 ± 1.9% in unstimulated cells and 36.9 ± 2.2% in prestimulated cells, and engraftment frequencies were 40.9 ± 4.9% in unstimulated cells and 47.1 ± 3.3% in prestimulated cells. Engraftment frequencies of FV vector-transduced cells were significantly higher than those of LV vector-transduced cells. Linear amplification-mediated PCR with Illumina paired-end runs showed that all human chromosomes contained FV provirus. FV had an integration preference near transcriptional start sites and CpG islands of RefSeq genes but not within genes. Repopulating lymphoid and myeloid cells contained common integration sites, suggesting that FV vector could transduce multilineage hematopoietic stem/progenitor populations. Our new FV vector backbone may be a suitable candidate for developing therapeutic FV vectors for use in clinical trials.

  18. Distinct transduction difference between adeno-associated virus type 1 and type 6 vectors in human polarized airway epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Z; Lei-Butters, D C M; Keiser, N W; Engelhardt, J F

    2013-03-01

    Of the many biologically isolated adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotypes, AAV1 and AAV6 share the highest degree of sequence homology, with only six different capsid residues. We compared the transduction efficiencies of rAAV1 and rAAV6 in primary polarized human airway epithelia and found significant differences in their abilities to transduce epithelia from the apical and basolateral membranes. rAAV1 transduction was ~10-fold higher than rAAV6 following apical infection, whereas rAAV6 transduction was ~10-fold higher than rAAV1 following basolateral infection. Furthermore, rAAV6 demonstrated significant polarity of transduction (100-fold; basolateral » apical), whereas rAAV1 transduced from both membranes with equal efficiency. To evaluate capsid residues responsible for the observed serotype differences, we mutated the six divergent amino acids either alone or in combination. Results from these studies demonstrated that capsid residues 418 and 531 most significantly controlled membrane polarity differences in transduction between serotypes, with the rAAV6-D418E/K531E mutant demonstrating decreased (~10-fold) basolateral transduction and the rAAV1-E418D/E531K mutant demonstrating a transduction polarity identical to rAAV6-WT (wild type). However, none of the rAAV6 mutants obtained apical transduction efficiencies of rAAV1-WT, suggesting that all six divergent capsid residues in AAV1 act in concert to improve apical transduction of HAE.

  19. A high-capacity, capsid-modified hybrid adenovirus/adeno-associated virus vector for stable transduction of human hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayakhmetov, Dmitry M; Carlson, Cheryl A; Stecher, Hartmut; Li, Qiliang; Stamatoyannopoulos, George; Lieber, André

    2002-02-01

    To achieve stable gene transfer into human hematopoietic cells, we constructed a new vector, DeltaAd5/35.AAV. This vector has a chimeric capsid containing adenovirus type 35 fibers, which conferred efficient infection of human hematopoietic cells. The DeltaAd5/35.AAV vector genome is deleted for all viral genes, allowing for infection without virus-associated toxicity. To generate high-capacity DeltaAd5/35.AAV vectors, we employed a new technique based on recombination between two first-generation adenovirus vectors. The resultant vector genome contained an 11.6-kb expression cassette including the human gamma-globin gene and the HS2 and HS3 elements of the beta-globin locus control region. The expression cassette was flanked by adeno-associated virus (AAV) inverted terminal repeats (ITRs). Infection with DeltaAd5/35.AAV allowed for stable transgene expression in a hematopoietic cell line after integration into the host genome through the AAV ITR(s). This new vector exhibits advantages over existing integrating vectors, including an increased insert capacity and tropism for hematopoietic cells. It has the potential for stable ex vivo transduction of hematopoietic stem cells in order to treat sickle cell disease.

  20. Impact of Vital Dyes on Cell Viability and Transduction Efficiency of AAV Vectors Used in Retinal Gene Therapy Surgery: An In Vitro and In Vivo Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, Anna P; Patrício, Maria I; Barnard, Alun R; Orlans, Harry O; Hickey, Doron G; MacLaren, Robert E

    2017-07-01

    Treatment of inherited retinal degenerations using adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors involves delivery by subretinal injection. In the latter stages, alteration of normal anatomy may cause difficulty in visualizing the retinotomy, retinal detachment extension, and vector diffusion. Vital dyes may be useful surgical adjuncts, but their safety and impact on AAV transduction are largely unknown. The effects of Sodium Fluorescein (SF), Membrane Blue (MB), and Membrane Blue Dual (DB) at a range of dilutions were assessed on human embryonic kidney cells in vitro using an AAV2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter at different multiplicities of infection. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to assess both cell viability and transduction efficiency. The effect on quantitative (q)PCR titer was determined. Balanced salt solution (BSS) or dilute DB (1:5 in BSS) were delivered subretinally into left/right eyes of C57BL/6J mice (n = 12). Retinal structure and function were analyzed by optical coherence tomography, autofluorescence, dark-and light-adapted full-field electroretinography. DB and MB were not toxic at any concentration tested, SF only when undiluted. The presence of dyes did not adversely affect the genomic titer. DB even increased the values, due to presence of surfactant in the formulation. AAV2-GFP transduction efficiency was not reduced by the dyes. No structural and functional toxic effects were observed following subretinal delivery of DB. Only undiluted SF affected cell viability. No effects on qPCR titer and transduction efficiency were observed. DB does not appear toxic when delivered subretinally and improves titer accuracy. DB may therefore be a safe and helpful adjunct during gene therapy surgery. This paper might be of interest to the retinal gene therapy community: it is a "bench to bedside" research paper about the potential use of dyes as a surgical adjunct during the gene therapy surgery. We have tested the potential toxicity and impact on

  1. Transduction of striatum and cortex tissues by adeno-associated viral vectors produced by herpes simplex virus- and baculovirus-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H Steve; Kim, Eunmi; Lee, Slgirim; Ahn, Ik-Sung; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors can be engineered to carry genetic material encoding therapeutic gene products that have demonstrated significant clinical promise. These viral vectors are typically produced in mammalian cells by the transient transfection of two or three plasmids encoding the AAV rep and cap genes, the adenovirus helper gene, and a gene of interest. Although this method can produce high-quality AAV vectors when used with multiple purification protocols, one critical limitation is the difficulty in scaling-up manufacturing, which poses a significant hurdle to the broad clinical utilization of AAV vectors. To address this challenge, recombinant herpes simplex virus type I (rHSV-1)- and recombinant baculovirus (rBac)-based methods have been established recently. These methods are more amenable to large-scale production of AAV vectors than methods using the transient transfection of mammalian cells. To investigate potential applications of AAV vectors produced by rHSV-1- or rBac-based platforms, the in vivo transduction of rHSV-1- or rBac-produced AAV serotype 2 (AAV2) vectors within the rat brain were examined by comparing them with vectors generated by the conventional transfection method. Injection of rHSV-1- or rBac-produced AAV vectors into rat striatum and cortex tissues revealed no differences in cellular tropism (i.e., predominantly neuronal targeting) or anteroposterior spread compared with AAV2 vectors produced by transient transfection. This report represents a step towards validating AAV vectors produced by the rHSV-1- and the rBac-based systems as promising tools, especially for delivering therapeutic molecules to the central nervous system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The hardware of the trigger components has been mostly finished. The ECAL Endcap Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC) are in production while Barrel TCC firmware has been upgraded, and the Trigger Primitives can now be stored by the Data Concentrator Card for readout by the DAQ. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) system is complete, and the timing is being finalized. All 502 HCAL trigger links to RCT run without error. The HCAL muon trigger timing has been equalized with DT, RPC, CSC and ECAL. The hardware and firmware for the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) jet triggers are being commissioned and data from these triggers is available for readout. The GCT energy sums from rings of trigger towers around the beam pipe beam have been changed to include two rings from both sides. The firmware for Drift Tube Track Finder, Barrel Sorter and Wedge Sorter has been upgraded, and the synchronization of the DT trigger is satisfactory. The CSC local trigger has operated flawlessly u...

  3. Distinct Transduction Difference Between Adeno-Associated Virus Type 1 and Type 6 Vectors in Human Polarized Airway Epithelia

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Ziying; Lei-Butters, Diana Chi Man; Keiser, Nicholas W; Engelhardt, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Of the many biologically isolated AAV serotypes, AAV1 and AAV6 share the highest degree of sequence homology, with only six different capsid residues. We compared the transduction efficiencies of rAAV1 and rAAV6 in primary polarized human airway epithelia (HAE) and found significant differences in their abilities to transduce epithelia from the apical and basolateral membranes. rAAV1 transduction was ~10-fold higher than rAAV6 following apical infection, while rAAV6 transduction was ~10-fold ...

  4. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberta Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Studies Group (TSG) The Trigger Studies Group has just concluded its third 2013 workshop, where all POGs presented the improvements to the physics object reconstruction, and all PAGs have shown their plans for Trigger development aimed at the 2015 High Level Trigger (HLT) menu. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger menu development, path timing, Trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – this last task in collaboration with PdmV (Physics Data and Monte Carlo Validation group). In the last months the group has delivered several HLT rate estimates and comparisons, using the available data and Monte Carlo samples. The studies were presented at the Trigger workshops in September and December, and STEAM has contacted POGs and PAGs to understand the origin of the discrepancies observed between 8 TeV data and Monte Carlo simulations. The most recent results show what the...

  5. Triggers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breitbarth, A.; van Riemsdijk, H.C.

    2004-01-01

    The concept of 'trigger' is a core concept of Chomsky's Minimalist Program. The idea that certain types of movement are triggered by some property of the target position is at least as old as the notion that the movement of noun phrases to the subject position is triggered by their need to receive

  6. Comparative analysis of in vivo and in vitro AAV vector transduction in the neonatal mouse retina: effects of serotype and site of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ji-jing; Lauramore, Amanda; Deng, Wen-tao; Li, Qiuhong; Doyle, Thomas J; Chiodo, Vince; Li, Jie; Hauswirth, William W

    2008-02-01

    The specificity of retinal cells transduced by AAV serotype 1, 2 or 5 vectors was determined in vivo versus in vitro in the normal P7 mouse in order to develop a rapid and accurate way to anticipate the behavior of AAV vectors in the retina. In vivo results confirm that AAV1 transduces retinal pigment epithelial cells, while AAV2 and AAV5 transduce both RPE and photoreceptor cells by subretinal injection. AAV2 was the only serotype to efficiently transduce inner retinal cells by intravitreal injection. Parallel analysis employing in vitro retinal organ culture showed qualitatively similar AAV-mediated GFP expression as seen in vivo suggesting that organ culture substitute is a useful method to screen new vector transduction patterns, particular in retinal cells in neonatal mice.

  7. Zinc-finger nuclease-mediated gene correction using single AAV vector transduction and enhancement by Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, B L; Hirsch, M L; Porter, S N; Samulski, R J; Porteus, M H

    2013-01-01

    An emerging strategy for the treatment of monogenic diseases uses genetic engineering to precisely correct the mutation(s) at the genome level. Recent advancements in this technology have demonstrated therapeutic levels of gene correction using a zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN)-induced DNA double-strand break in conjunction with an exogenous DNA donor substrate. This strategy requires efficient nucleic acid delivery and among viral vectors, recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) has demonstrated clinical success without pathology. However, a major limitation of rAAV is the small DNA packaging capacity and to date, the use of rAAV for ZFN gene delivery has yet to be reported. Theoretically, an ideal situation is to deliver both ZFNs and the repair substrate in a single vector to avoid inefficient gene targeting and unwanted mutagenesis, both complications of a rAAV co-transduction strategy. Therefore, a rAAV format was generated in which a single polypeptide encodes the ZFN monomers connected by a ribosome skipping 2A peptide and furin cleavage sequence. On the basis of this arrangement, a DNA repair substrate of 750 nucleotides was also included in this vector. Efficient polypeptide processing to discrete ZFNs is demonstrated, as well as the ability of this single vector format to stimulate efficient gene targeting in a human cell line and mouse model derived fibroblasts. Additionally, we increased rAAV-mediated gene correction up to sixfold using a combination of Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, which act at the level of AAV vector transduction. Collectively, these experiments demonstrate the ability to deliver ZFNs and a repair substrate by a single AAV vector and offer insights for the optimization of rAAV-mediated gene correction using drug therapy.

  8. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger synchronization procedures for running with cosmic muons and operating with the LHC were reviewed during the May electronics week. Firmware maintenance issues were also reviewed. Link tests between the new ECAL endcap trigger concentrator cards (TCC48) and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger have been performed. Firmware for the energy sum triggers and an upgraded tau trigger of the Global Calorimeter Triggers has been developed and is under test. The optical fiber receiver boards for the Track-Finder trigger theta links of the DT chambers are now all installed. The RPC trigger is being made more robust by additional chamber and cable shielding and also by firmware upgrades. For the CSC’s the front-end and trigger motherboard firmware have been updated. New RPC patterns and DT/CSC lookup tables taking into account phi asymmetries in the magnetic field configuration are under study. The motherboard for the new pipeline synchronizer of the Global Trigg...

  9. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2012-01-01

      Level-1 Trigger The Level-1 Trigger group is ready to deploy improvements to the L1 Trigger algorithms for 2012. These include new high-PT patterns for the RPC endcap, an improved CSC PT assignment, a new PT-matching algorithm for the Global Muon Trigger, and new calibrations for ECAL, HCAL, and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger. These should improve the efficiency, rate, and stability of the L1 Trigger. The L1 Trigger group also is migrating the online systems to SLC5. To make the data transfer from the Global Calorimeter Trigger to the Global Trigger more reliable and also to allow checking the data integrity online, a new optical link system has been developed by the GCT and GT groups and successfully tested at the CMS electronics integration facility in building 904. This new system is now undergoing further tests at Point 5 before being deployed for data-taking this year. New L1 trigger menus have recently been studied and proposed by Emmanuelle Perez and the L1 Detector Performance Group...

  10. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the March meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, the program of trigger pattern tests and vertical slice tests and planning for the Global Runs starting this summer. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and integration testing is in full swing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. After full checkout, trigger subsystems will be then operated in the CMS Global Runs. Continuous...

  11. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The production of the trigger hardware is now basically finished, and in time for the turn-on of the LHC. The last boards produced are the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcaps (TCC-EE). After the recent installation of the four EE Dees, the TCC-EE prototypes were used for their commissioning. Production boards are arriving and are being tested continuously, with the last ones expected in November. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger hardware is fully integrated after installation of the last EE cables. Pattern tests from the HCAL up to the GCT have been performed successfully. The HCAL triggers are fully operational, including the connection of the HCAL-outer and forward-HCAL (HO/HF) technical triggers to the Global Trigger. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) board firmware has been updated to permit recording of the tower “feature bit” in the data. The Global Calorimeter Trigger hardware is installed, but some firmware developments are still n...

  12. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The overall status of the L1 trigger has been excellent and the running efficiency has been high during physics fills. The timing is good to about 1%. The fine-tuning of the time synchronization of muon triggers is ongoing and will be completed after more than 10 nb-1 of data have been recorded. The CSC trigger primitive and RPC trigger timing have been refined. A new configuration for the CSC Track Finder featured modified beam halo cuts and improved ghost cancellation logic. More direct control was provided for the DT opto-receivers. New RPC Cosmic Trigger (RBC/TTU) trigger algorithms were enabled for collision runs. There is further work planned during the next technical stop to investigate a few of the links from the ECAL to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT). New firmware and a new configuration to handle trigger rate spikes in the ECAL barrel are also being tested. A board newly developed by the tracker group (ReTRI) has been installed and activated to block re...

  13. Impact of Lentiviral Vector-Mediated Transduction on the Tightness of a Polarized Model of Airway Epithelium and Effect of Cationic Polymer Polyethylenimine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Castellani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lentiviral (LV vectors are promising agents for efficient and long-lasting gene transfer into the lung and for gene therapy of genetically determined pulmonary diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, however, they have not been evaluated for cytotoxicity and impact on the tightness of the airway epithelium. In this study, we evaluated the transduction efficiency of a last-generation LV vector bearing Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP gene as well as cytotoxicity and tight junction (TJ integrity in a polarized model of airway epithelial cells. High multiplicities of infection (MOI showed to be cytotoxic, as assessed by increase in propidium iodide staining and decrease in cell viability, and harmful for the epithelial tightness, as demonstrated by the decrease of transepithelial resistance (TER and delocalization of occludin from the TJs. To increase LV efficiency at low LV:cell ratio, we employed noncovalent association with the polycation branched 25ߙkDa polyethylenimine (PEI. Transduction of cells with PEI/LV particles resulted in 2.5–3.6-fold increase of percentage of GFP-positive cells only at the highest PEI:LV ratios (1×107 PEI molecules/transducing units with 50 MOI LV as compared to plain LV. At this dose PEI/LV transduction resulted in 6.5±2.4% of propidium iodide-positive cells. On the other hand, PEI/LV particles did not determine any alteration of TER and occludin localization. We conclude that PEI may be useful for improving the efficiency of gene transfer mediated by LV vectors in airway epithelial cells, in the absence of high acute cytotoxicity and alteration in epithelial tightness.

  14. Basic fibroblast growth factor enhances transduction, distribution, and axonal transport of adeno-associated virus type 2 vector in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaczek, Piotr; Mirek, Hanna; Bringas, John; Cunningham, Janet; Bankiewicz, Krys

    2004-05-01

    The ubiquitous expression of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan, a binding receptor for adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2), may account for the broad host range of this vector. Because the fibroblast growth factor receptor type 1 has been postulated to be a coreceptor for successful AAV-2 entry into host cells, we designed a strategy to investigate whether coadministration of this virus with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) can enhance AAV-2-mediated gene delivery. We injected AAV-2-thymidine kinase (AAV-2-TK) vector into rat striata and checked whether coinjection with bFGF enhanced transduction and/or enlarged the area of transgene expression. Immunostaining confirmed the tropism of AAV-2-TK for neurons. The previous injection (7 days before vector delivery) of bFGF had no major impact on vector distribution area. However, when the vector was coinjected with bFGF, the right striatum showed an average viral transduction volume of 5 mm(3), which was more than 4-fold larger when compared with the left side (AAV-2-TK plus phosphate-buffered saline). This result clearly indicates that simultaneous injection of bFGF with AAV-2-TK can greatly enhance the volume of transduced tissue, probably by way of a competitive block of AAV-2-binding sites within the striatum. Robust TK immunoreactivity was also observed in the globus pallidus, which receives anterograde projections from the striatum. We propose that postsynaptic transport of recombinant particles was likely responsible for the distribution of TK in the globus pallidus on both bFGF-treated and untreated sides. In summary, we found that bFGF acts as an adjuvant for distribution of AAV-2 in rat brain.

  15. Transduction efficiency of AAV 2/6, 2/8 and 2/9 vectors for delivering genes in human corneal fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Ajay; Ghosh, Arkasubhra; Hansen, Eric T.; Newman, Jason M.; Mohan, Rajiv R.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, cellular tropism and relative transduction efficiency of AAV2/6, AAV2/8 and AAV2/9 vectors have been tested for the cornea using primary cultures of human corneal fibroblasts. The AAV6, AAV8 and AAV9 serotypes having AAV2 ITR plasmid encoding for alkaline phosphatase (AP) gene were generated by transfecting HEK293 cell line with pHelper, pARAP4 and pRep/Cap plasmids. Primary cultures of human corneal fibroblasts were exposed to AAV infectious particles at two different d...

  16. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The Level-1 Trigger hardware has performed well during both the recent proton-proton and heavy ion running. Efforts were made to improve the visibility and handling of alarms and warnings. The tracker ReTRI boards that prevent fixed frequencies of Level-1 Triggers are now configured through the Trigger Supervisor. The Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) team has introduced a buffer cleanup procedure at stops and a reset of the QPLL during configuring to ensure recalibration in case of a switch from the LHC clock to the local clock. A device to test the cables between the Regional Calorimeter Trigger and the GCT has been manufactured. A wrong charge bit was fixed in the CSC Trigger. The ECAL group is improving crystal masking and spike suppression in the trigger primitives. New firmware for the Drift Tube Track Finder (DTTF) sorters was developed to improve fake track tagging and sorting. Zero suppression was implemented in the DT Sector Collector readout. The track finder b...

  17. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Trigger Hardware The status of the trigger components was presented during the September CMS Week and Annual Review and at the monthly trigger meetings in October and November. Procedures for cold and warm starts (e.g. refreshing of trigger parameters stored in registers) of the trigger subsystems have been studied. Reviews of parts of the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) and the Global Trigger (GT) have taken place in October and November. The CERN group summarized the status of the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) system. All TTC crates and boards are installed in the underground counting room, USC55. The central clock system will be upgraded in December (after the Global Run at the end of November GREN) to the new RF2TTC LHC machine interface timing module. Migration of subsystem's TTC PCs to SLC4/ XDAQ 3.12 is being prepared. Work is on going to unify the access to Local Timing Control (LTC) and TTC CMS interface module (TTCci) via SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol, a lightweight XML-based messaging ...

  18. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Since nearly all of the Level-1 (L1) Trigger hardware at Point 5 has been commissioned, activities during the past months focused on the fine-tuning of synchronization, particularly for the ECAL and the CSC systems, on firmware upgrades and on improving trigger operation and monitoring. Periodic resynchronizations or hard resets and a shortened luminosity section interval of 23 seconds were implemented. For the DT sector collectors, an automatic power-off was installed in case of high temperatures, and the monitoring capabilities of the opto-receivers and the mini-crates were enhanced. The DTTF and the CSCTF now have improved memory lookup tables. The HCAL trigger primitive logic implemented a new algorithm providing better stability of the energy measurement in the presence of any phase misalignment. For the Global Calorimeter Trigger, additional Source Cards have been manufactured and tested. Testing of the new tau, missing ET and missing HT algorithms is underw...

  19. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-based vectors provide short-term rather than long-term transduction of primitive hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, R; Avraham, H; Banu, N; Mauch, P M; Whater, J; Yang, Y; Du, B

    1999-01-01

    Bone marrow stem cells collected from B6-Gpi-1a mice pretreated with 5-fluorouracil were incubated for 2 h at 37 degrees C in the presence of the recombinant adenovirus-associated virus-based vector (rAAV) SSV9. As measured in vitro immediately following transduction, SSV9 was found to be effective in transducing the primitive cobble-stone-area-forming cell (CAFC)-35 subset (60% transduction efficiency). However, this did not predict long-term expression as the presence of the transgene could not be detected six months after transplantation of 1-2 x 106 transduced bone marrow stem cells into lethally irradiated recipients. CAFC analysis of bone marrow cells and Southern blot analysis of bone marrow and spleen cells were negative, and polymerase chain reaction analysis showed less than 0.1% transduction in bone marrow cells. Therefore, based on our study we conclude that rAAV transiently transduces hematopoietic stem cells but fails to integrate into the genome, leading to the loss of the reporter gene within the first six months after transplantation in vivo.

  20. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The final parts of the Level-1 trigger hardware are now being put in place. For the ECAL endcaps, more than half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are now available at CERN, such that one complete endcap can be covered. The Global Trigger now correctly handles ECAL calibration sequences, without being influenced by backpressure. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) hardware is complete and working in USC55. Intra-crate tests of all 18 RCT crates and the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) are regularly taking place. Pattern tests have successfully captured data from HCAL through RCT to the GCT Source Cards. HB/HE trigger data are being compared with emulator results to track down the very few remaining hardware problems. The treatment of hot and dead cells, including their recording in the database, has been defined. For the GCT, excellent agreement between the emulator and data has been achieved for jets and HF ET sums. There is still som...

  1. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger system has been constantly in use in cosmic and commissioning data taking periods. During CRAFT running it delivered 300 million muon and calorimeter triggers to CMS. It has performed stably and reliably. During the abort gaps it has also provided laser and other calibration triggers. Timing issues, namely synchronization and latency issues, have been solved. About half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are installed, and the firmware is being worked on. The production of the other half has started. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) card firmware has been updated, and new features such as fast parallel zero-suppression have been included. Repairs of drift tube (DT) trigger mini-crates, optical links and receivers of sector collectors are under way and have been completed on YB0. New firmware for the optical receivers of the theta links to the drift tube track finder is being installed. In parallel, tests with new eta track finde...

  2. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Carlin with contributions from D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Data-taking continues at cruising speed, with high availability of all components of the Level-1 trigger. We have operated the trigger up to a luminosity of 7.6E33, where we approached 100 kHz using the 7E33 prescale column.  Recently, the pause without triggers in case of an automatic "RESYNC" signal (the "settle" and "recover" time) was reduced in order to minimise the overall dead-time. This may become very important when the LHC comes back with higher energy and luminosity after LS1. We are also preparing for data-taking in the proton-lead run in early 2013. The CASTOR detector will make its comeback into CMS and triggering capabilities are being prepared for this. Steps to be taken include improved cooperation with the TOTEM trigger system and using the LHC clock during the injection and ramp phases of LHC. Studies are being finalised that will have a bearing on the Trigger Technical Design Report (TDR), which is to be rea...

  3. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the December meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, and results from the Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) phase II. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and moving towards integration testing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. This is combined with operations and testing without beam that will continue until startup. The plans for start-up, pilot and early running tri...

  4. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software New Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) for rapidity gap measurements have been installed and integrated into the Trigger recently. For the Global Muon Trigger, tuning of quality criteria has led to improvements in muon trigger efficiencies. Several subsystems have started campaigns to increase spares by recovering boards or producing new ones. The barrel muon sector collector test system has been reactivated, new η track finder boards are in production, and φ track finder boards are under revision. In the CSC track finder, an η asymmetry problem has been corrected. New pT look-up tables have also improved efficiency. RPC patterns were changed from four out of six coincident layers to three out of six in the barrel, which led to a significant increase in efficiency. A new PAC firmware to trigger on heavy stable charged particles allows looking for chamber hit coincidences in two consecutive bunch-crossings. The redesign of the L1 Trigger Emulator...

  5. TRIGGER

    CERN Document Server

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos, I. Mikulec, J. Varela and C. Wulz.

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Over the past few months, the Level-1 trigger has successfully recorded data with cosmic rays over long continuous stretches as well as LHC splash events, beam halo, and collision events. The L1 trigger hardware, firmware, synchronization, performance and readiness for beam operation were reviewed in October. All L1 trigger hardware is now installed at Point 5, and most of it is completely commissioned. While the barrel ECAL Trigger Concentrator Cards are fully operational, the recently delivered endcap ECAL TCC system is still being commissioned. For most systems there is a sufficient number of spares available, but for a few systems additional reserve modules are needed. It was decided to increase the overall L1 latency by three bunch crossings to increase the safety margin for trigger timing adjustments. In order for CMS to continue data taking during LHC frequency ramps, the clock distribution tree needs to be reset. The procedures for this have been tested. A repl...

  6. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The road map for the final commissioning of the level-1 trigger system has been set. The software for the trigger subsystems is being upgraded to run under CERN Scientific Linux 4 (SLC4). There is also a new release for the Trigger Supervisor (TS 1.4), which implies upgrade work by the subsystems. As reported by the CERN group, a campaign to tidy the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) racks has begun. The machine interface was upgraded by installing the new RF2TTC module, which receives RF signals from LHC Point 4. Two Beam Synchronous Timing (BST) signals, one for each beam, can now be received in CMS. The machine group will define the exact format of the information content shortly. The margin on the locking range of the CMS QPLL is planned for study for different subsystems in the next Global Runs, using a function generator. The TTC software has been successfully tested on SLC4. Some TTC subsystems have already been upgraded to SLC4. The TTCci Trigger Supervisor ...

  7. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith, from contributions of D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

      The L1 Trigger group deployed several major improvements this year. Compared to 2011, the single-muon trigger rate has been reduced by a factor of 2 and the η coverage has been restored to 2.4, with high efficiency. During the current technical stop, a higher jet seed threshold will be applied in the Global Calorimeter Trigger in order to significantly reduce the strong pile-up dependence of the HT and multi-jet triggers. The currently deployed L1 menu, with the “6E33” prescales, has a total rate of less than 100 kHz and operates with detector readout dead time of less than 3% for luminosities up to 6.5 × 1033 cm–2s–1. Further prescale sets have been created for 7 and 8 × 1033 cm–2s–1 luminosities. The L1 DPG is evaluating the performance of the Trigger for upcoming conferences and publication. Progress on the Trigger upgrade was reviewed during the May Upgrade Week. We are investigating scenarios for stagin...

  8. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

      In 2013 the Trigger Studies Group (TSG) has been restructured in three sub-groups: STEAM, for the development of new HLT menus and monitoring their performance; STORM, for the development of HLT tools, code and actual configurations; and FOG, responsible for the online operations of the High Level Trigger. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger Menu development, path timing, trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Since the end of proton-proton data taking, the group has started preparing for 2015 data taking, with collisions at 13 TeV and 25 ns bunch spacing. The reliability of the extrapolation to higher energy is being evaluated comparing the trigger rates on 7 and 8 TeV Monte Carlo samples with the data taken in the past two years. The effect of 25 ns bunch spacing is being studied on the d...

  9. Adeno-associated viral vector (AAV)-mediated gene transfer in the red nucleus of the adult rat brain: comparative analysis of the transduction properties of seven AAV serotypes and lentiviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blits, Bas; Derks, Sanne; Twisk, Jaap; Ehlert, Erich; Prins, Jolanda; Verhaagen, Joost

    2010-01-15

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (AAVs) are very promising gene transfer tools for the nervous system. We have compared the efficiency of gene expression of seven AAV serotypes in young adult rats following a single injection in a major nucleus of the mid brain, the red nucleus, which is the origin of the rubrospinal tract. AAV serotypes 1-6 and 8 and a lentiviral vector (LV) were used, all encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) under control of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. AAV vectors were titer matched at 5x10(11) genomic copies (GC)/ml and 1mul was injected into the red nucleus. The proportion of transduced neurons in the red nucleus was determined at 1 and 4 weeks post-injection. AAV1 would be the vector of choice if the aim would be to overexpress a transgene at high level for a longer period of time. AAV5 and AAV8 would be the preferred serotype if onset of expression is should be somewhat delayed. The use of lentiviral vectors should be considered when transduction of both glial cells and neurons is required. Serotypes 3 and 4 did not transduce red nucleus neurons. AAV1, AAV6 and LV would be the vectors of choice if the aim of the experiment would be to rapidly express a transgene. The current data are important for the design of experiments that aim to study the effects of transgene products on the regenerative capacity of injured red nucleus neurons.

  10. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Overall the L1 trigger hardware has been running very smoothly during the last months of proton running. Modifications for the heavy-ion run have been made where necessary. The maximal design rate of 100 kHz can be sustained without problems. All L1 latencies have been rechecked. The recently installed Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) are being used in the heavy ion run. The ZDC scintillators have been dismantled, but the calorimeter itself remains. We now send the L1 accept signal and other control signals to TOTEM. Trigger cables from TOTEM to CMS will be installed during the Christmas shutdown, so that the TOTEM data can be fully integrated within the CMS readout. New beam gas triggers have been developed, since the BSC-based trigger is no longer usable at high luminosities. In particular, a special BPTX signal is used after a quiet period with no collisions. There is an ongoing campaign to provide enough spare modules for the different subsystems. For example...

  11. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Alimena

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Strategy Group The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for the development of future High-Level Trigger menus, as well as of its DQM and validation, in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Taking into account the beam energy and luminosity expected in 2015, a rough estimate of the trigger rates indicates a factor four increase with respect to 2012 conditions. Assuming that a factor two can be tolerated thanks to the increase in offline storage and processing capabilities, a toy menu has been developed using the new OpenHLT workflow to estimate the transverse energy/momentum thresholds that would halve the current trigger rates. The CPU time needed to run the HLT has been compared between data taken with 25 ns and 50 ns bunch spacing, for equivalent pile-up: no significant difference was observed on the global time per event distribution at the only available data point, corresponding to a pile-up of about 10 interactions. Using th...

  12. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software After the winter shutdown minor hardware problems in several subsystems appeared and were corrected. A reassessment of the overall latency has been made. In the TTC system shorter cables between TTCci and TTCex have been installed, which saved one bunch crossing, but which may have required an adjustment of the RPC timing. In order to tackle Pixel out-of-syncs without influencing other subsystems, a special hardware/firmware re-sync protocol has been introduced in the Global Trigger. The link between the Global Calorimeter Trigger and the Global Trigger with the new optical Global Trigger Interface and optical receiver daughterboards has been successfully tested in the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. New firmware in the GCT now allows a setting to remove the HF towers from energy sums. The HF sleeves have been replaced, which should lead to reduced rates of anomalous signals, which may allow their inclusion after this is validated. For ECAL, improvements i...

  13. Lenti-viral vector- mediated genetic modification of the neural scar: predominant transduction of astrocytes but not meningeal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, W.T.J.; Eggers, R.; Verhaagen, J.; Boer, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Viral vector-mediated overexpression of neurotrophins in cells constituting the neural scar may represent a powerful approach to rendering scar tissue of a central nervous system (CNS) lesion permissive for neuronal regrowth. In this study a lentiviral vector encoding green fluorescent protein

  14. Adeno-associated virus gene therapy vector scAAVIGF-I for transduction of equine articular chondrocytes and RNA-seq analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, D D; McIlwraith, C W; Slayden, R A; Samulski, R J; Goodrich, L R

    2016-05-01

    IGF-I is one of several anabolic factors being investigated for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Due to the short biological half-life, extended administration is required for more robust cartilage healing. Here we create a self-complimentary adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy vector utilizing the transgene for IGF-I. Various biochemical assays were performed to investigate the cellular response to scAAVIGF-I treatment vs an scAAVGFP positive transduction control and a negative for transduction control culture. RNA-sequencing analysis was also performed to establish a differential regulation profile of scAAVIGF-I transduced chondrocytes. Biochemical analyses indicated an average media IGF-I concentration of 608 ng/ml in the scAAVIGF-I transduced chondrocytes. This increase in IGF-I led to increased expression of collagen type II and aggrecan and increased protein concentrations of cellular collagen type II and media glycosaminoglycan vs both controls. RNA-seq revealed a global regulatory pattern consisting of 113 differentially regulated GO categories including those for chondrocyte and cartilage development and regulation of apoptosis. This research substantiates that scAAVIGF-I gene therapy vector increased production of IGF-I to clinically relevant levels with a biological response by chondrocytes conducive to increased cartilage healing. The RNA-seq further established a set of differentially expressed genes and gene ontologies induced by the scAAVIGF-I vector while controlling for AAV infection. This dataset provides a static representation of the cellular transcriptome that, while only consisting of one time point, will allow for further gene expression analyses to compare additional cartilage healing therapeutics or a transient cellular response. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Intravitreal injection of adeno-associated viral vectors result in the transduction of different types of retinal neurons in neonatal and adult rats: A comparison with lentiviral vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, A.R.; Kamphuis, W.; Eggers, R.; Symons, N.A.; Blits, B.; Niclou, S.; Boer, G. J.; Verhaagen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Replication-deficient viral vectors encoding the marker gene green fluorescent protein (GFP) were injected into the vitreous of newborn, juvenile (P14), and adult rats. We tested two different types of modified virus: adeno-associated viral-2-GFP (AAV-GFP) and lentiviral-GFP vectors (LV-GFP). The

  16. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware The CERN group is working on the TTC system. Seven out of nine sub-detector TTC VME crates with all fibers cabled are installed in USC55. 17 Local Trigger Controller (LTC) boards have been received from production and are in the process of being tested. The RF2TTC module replacing the TTCmi machine interface has been delivered and will replace the TTCci module used to mimic the LHC clock. 11 out of 12 crates housing the barrel ECAL off-detector electronics have been installed in USC55 after commissioning at the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. The cabling to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) is terminated. The Lisbon group has completed the Synchronization and Link mezzanine board (SLB) production. The Palaiseau group has fully tested and installed 33 out of 40 Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC). The seven remaining boards are being remade. The barrel TCC boards have been tested at the H4 test beam, and good agreement with emulator predictions were found. The cons...

  17. Comparative analysis of the transduction efficiency of five adeno associated virus serotypes and VSV-G pseudotype lentiviral vector in lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiachen; Akerstrom, Victoria; Baus, James; Lan, Michael S; Breslin, Mary B

    2013-03-14

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the US. Recombinant vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) and lentivirus are promising delivery tools for gene therapy due to low toxicity and long term expression. The efficiency of the gene delivery system is one of the most important factors directly related to the success of gene therapy. We infected SCLC cell lines, SHP-77, DMS 53, NCI-H82, NCI-H69, NCI-H727, NCI-H1155, and NSCLC cell lines, NCI-H23, NCI-H661, and NCI-H460 with VSV-G pseudo-typed lentivirus or 5 AAV serotypes, AAV2/1, AAV2/2, AAV2/4, AAV2/5, and AAV2/8 expressing the CMV promoter mCherry or green fluorescent protein transgene (EGFP). The transduction efficiency was analyzed by fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. Of all the serotypes of AAV examined, AAV2/1 was the optimal serotype in most of the lung cancer cell lines except for NCI-H69 and NCI-H82. The highest transduction rate achieved with AAV2/1 was between 30-50% at MOI 100. Compared to all AAV serotypes, lentivirus had the highest transduction efficiency of over 50% at MOI 1. Even in NCI-H69 cells resistant to all AAV serotypes, lentivirus had a 10-40% transduction rate. To date, AAV2 is the most widely-used serotype to deliver a transgene. Our results showed the transduction efficiency of AAVs tested was AAV2/1 > AA2/5 = AAV2/2> > AAV2/4 and AAV2/8. This study demonstrated that VSV-G pseudotyped lentivirus and AAV2/1 can mediate expression of a transgene for lung cancer gene therapy. Overall, our results showed that lentivirus is the best candidate to deliver a transgene into lung cancer cells for treatment.

  18. Trans-neuronal transduction of spinal neurons following cortical injection and anterograde axonal transport of a bicistronic AAV1 vector

    OpenAIRE

    Hutson, Thomas Haynes; Kathe, Claudia; Moon, Lawrence David Falcon

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are one of the most promising gene delivery systems to the central nervous system. We now report, that AAV1 can be used to express transgenes trans-neuronally in neurons distant from the injection site. Specifically, intracortical injection of a bicistronic AAV1 vector trans-neuronally transduced spinal neurons as shown by fluorescence microscopy, the presence of AAV genome and AAV transcript in the contralateral spinal cord. Prior pyramidotomy abolished s...

  19. Specific and efficient transduction of Cochlear inner hair cells with recombinant adeno-associated virus type 3 vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuhe; Okada, Takashi; Sheykholeslami, Kianoush; Shimazaki, Kuniko; Nomoto, Tatsuya; Muramatsu, Shin-Ichi; Kanazawa, Takeharu; Takeuchi, Koichi; Ajalli, Rahim; Mizukami, Hiroaki; Kume, Akihiro; Ichimura, Keiichi; Ozawa, Keiya

    2005-10-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are of interest for cochlear gene therapy because of their ability to mediate the efficient transfer and long-term stable expression of therapeutic genes in a wide variety of postmitotic tissues with minimal vector-related cytotoxicity. In the present study, seven AAV serotypes (AAV1-5, 7, 8) were used to construct vectors. The expression of EGFP by the chicken beta-actin promoter associated with the cytomegalovirus immediate-early enhancer in cochlear cells showed that each of these serotypes successfully targets distinct cochlear cell types. In contrast to the other serotypes, the AAV3 vector specifically transduced cochlear inner hair cells with high efficiency in vivo, while the AAV1, 2, 5, 7, and 8 vectors also transduced these and other cell types, including spiral ganglion and spiral ligament cells. There was no loss of cochlear function with respect to evoked auditory brain-stem responses over the range of frequencies tested after the injection of AAV vectors. These findings are of value for further molecular studies of cochlear inner hair cells and for gene replacement strategies to correct recessive genetic hearing loss due to monogenic mutations in these cells.

  20. Behavioral recovery in a primate model of Parkinson's disease by triple transduction of striatal cells with adeno-associated viral vectors expressing dopamine-synthesizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Shin-Ichi; Fujimoto, Ken-Ichi; Ikeguchi, Kunihiko; Shizuma, Nami; Kawasaki, Katsuyoshi; Ono, Fumiko; Shen, Yang; Wang, Lijun; Mizukami, Hiroaki; Kume, Akihiro; Matsumura, Masaru; Nagatsu, Ikuko; Urano, Fumi; Ichinose, Hiroshi; Nagatsu, Toshiharu; Terao, Keiji; Nakano, Imaharu; Ozawa, Keiya

    2002-02-10

    One potential strategy for gene therapy of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the local production of dopamine (DA) in the striatum induced by restoring DA-synthesizing enzymes. In addition to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase (AADC), GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCH) is necessary for efficient DA production. Using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors, we previously demonstrated that expression of these three enzymes in the striatum resulted in long-term behavioral recovery in rat models of PD. We here extend the preclinical exploration to primate models of PD. Mixtures of three separate AAV vectors expressing TH, AADC, and GCH, respectively, were stereotaxically injected into the unilateral putamen of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated monkeys. Coexpression of the enzymes in the unilateral putamen resulted in remarkable improvement in manual dexterity on the contralateral to the AAV-TH/-AADC/-GCH-injected side. Behavioral recovery persisted during the observation period (four monkeys: 48 days, 65 days, 50 days, and >10 months, each). TH-immunoreactive (TH-IR), AADC-IR, and GCH-IR cells were present in a large region of the putamen. Microdialysis demonstrated that concentrations of DA in the AAV-TH/-AADC/-GCH-injected putamen were increased compared with the control side. Our results show that AAV vectors efficiently introduce DA-synthesizing enzyme genes into the striatum of primates with restoration of motor functions. This triple transduction method may offer a potential therapeutic strategy for PD.

  1. Transduction efficiency of AAV 2/6, 2/8 and 2/9 vectors for delivering genes in human corneal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajay; Ghosh, Arkasubhra; Hansen, Eric T; Newman, Jason M; Mohan, Rajiv R

    2010-02-15

    In the present study, cellular tropism and relative transduction efficiency of AAV2/6, AAV2/8 and AAV2/9 vectors have been tested for the cornea using primary cultures of human corneal fibroblasts. The AAV6, AAV8 and AAV9 serotypes having AAV2 ITR plasmid encoding for alkaline phosphatase (AP) gene were generated by transfecting HEK293 cell line with pHelper, pARAP4 and pRep/Cap plasmids. Primary cultures of human corneal fibroblasts were exposed to AAV infectious particles at two different doses (1 x 10(5) and 2 x 10(5) MOI). Cytochemistry and enzyme assays were used to measure delivered transgene expression in samples collected at 4 and 30 h after AAV infection by counting AP-stained cells or quantifying AP enzyme activity. Cellular toxicity of AAVs was evaluated with TUNEL and trypan blue assays. All three AAV serotypes transduced human corneal fibroblasts. The order of transduction efficiency was AAV2/6>AAV2/9>AAV2/8. The transduction efficiency of AAV2/6 was 30-50-fold higher (p AAV2/8 or AAV2/9 at two tested doses. The level of transgene expression at 4h was considerably low compared to 30 h suggesting that the transgene delivery did not reach its peak at 4h. Cultures exposed to any of the three AAV serotypes showed more than 97% cellular viability and less than 5 TUNEL positive cells suggesting that tested AAV serotypes do not induce significant cell death and are safe for corneal gene therapy. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transduction of photoreceptors with equine infectious anemia virus lentiviral vectors: safety and biodistribution of StarGen for Stargardt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binley, Katie; Widdowson, Peter; Loader, Julie; Kelleher, Michelle; Iqball, Sharifah; Ferrige, Georgina; de Belin, Jackie; Carlucci, Marie; Angell-Manning, Diana; Hurst, Felicity; Ellis, Scott; Miskin, James; Fernandes, Alcides; Wong, Paul; Allikmets, Rando; Bergstrom, Christopher; Aaberg, Thomas; Yan, Jiong; Kong, Jian; Gouras, Peter; Prefontaine, Annick; Vezina, Mark; Bussieres, Martin; Naylor, Stuart; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A

    2013-06-12

    StarGen is an equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)-based lentiviral vector that expresses the photoreceptor-specific adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporter (ABCA4) protein that is mutated in Stargardt disease (STGD1), a juvenile macular dystrophy. EIAV vectors are able to efficiently transduce rod and cone photoreceptors in addition to retinal pigment epithelium in the adult macaque and rabbit retina following subretinal delivery. The safety and biodistribution of StarGen following subretinal delivery in macaques and rabbits was assessed. Regular ophthalmic examinations, IOP measurements, ERG responses, and histopathology were carried out in both species to compare control and vector-treated eyes. Tissue and fluid samples were obtained to evaluate the persistence, biodistribution, and shedding of the vector following subretinal delivery. Ophthalmic examinations revealed a slightly higher level of inflammation in StarGen compared with control treated eyes in both species. However, inflammation was transient and no overt toxicity was observed in StarGen treated eyes and there were no abnormal clinical findings. There was no StarGen-associated rise in IOP or abnormal ERG response in either rabbits or macaques. Histopathologic examination of the eyes did not reveal any detrimental changes resulting from subretinal administration of StarGen. Although antibodies to StarGen vector components were detected in rabbit but not macaque serum, this immunologic response did not result in any long-term toxicity. Biodistribution analysis demonstrated that the StarGen vector was restricted to the ocular compartment. In summary, these studies demonstrate StarGen to be well tolerated and localized following subretinal administration.

  3. A rapid and efficient polyethylenimine-based transfection method to prepare lentiviral or retroviral vectors: useful for making iPS cells and transduction of primary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaozhe; Shi, Haijun; Chu, Xinran; Zhou, Xiaoling; Sun, Pingnan

    2016-09-01

    To improve the efficiency, reproducibility and consistency of the PEI-based transfection method that is often used in preparation of recombinant lentiviral or retroviral vectors. The contributions to transfection efficiency of multi-factors including concentration of PEI or DNA, dilution buffer for PEI/DNA, manner to prepare PEI/DNA complexes, influence of serum, incubation time for PEI/DNA complexes, and transfection time were studied. Gentle mixing during the preparation of PEI/DNA transfection complexes is critical for a high transfection efficiency. PEI could be stored at room temperature or 4 °C, and most importantly, multigelation should be avoided. The transfection efficiency of the PEI-based new method in different types of cells, such as 293T, Cos-7, HeLa, HepG2, Hep3B, Huh7 and L02, was also higher than that of the previous method. After optimization, the titer of our lentiviral system or retroviral system produced by PEI-based new method was about 10- or 3-times greater than that produced by PEI-based previous method, respectively. We provide a rapid and efficient PEI-based method for preparation of recombinant lentiviral or retroviral vectors which is useful for making iPS cells as well as transduction of primary cell cultures.

  4. Efficient delivery of Cre-recombinase to neurons in vivo and stable transduction of neurons using adeno-associated and lentiviral vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sablitzky Fred

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inactivating genes in vivo is an important technique for establishing their function in the adult nervous system. Unfortunately, conventional knockout mice may suffer from several limitations including embryonic or perinatal lethality and the compensatory regulation of other genes. One approach to producing conditional activation or inactivation of genes involves the use of Cre recombinase to remove loxP-flanked segments of DNA. We have studied the effects of delivering Cre to the hippocampus and neocortex of adult mice by injecting replication-deficient adeno-associated virus (AAV and lentiviral (LV vectors into discrete regions of the forebrain. Results Recombinant AAV-Cre, AAV-GFP (green fluorescent protein and LV-Cre-EGFP (enhanced GFP were made with the transgene controlled by the cytomegalovirus promoter. Infecting 293T cells in vitro with AAV-Cre and LV-Cre-EGFP resulted in transduction of most cells as shown by GFP fluorescence and Cre immunoreactivity. Injections of submicrolitre quantities of LV-Cre-EGFP and mixtures of AAV-Cre with AAV-GFP into the neocortex and hippocampus of adult Rosa26 reporter mice resulted in strong Cre and GFP expression in the dentate gyrus and moderate to strong labelling in specific regions of the hippocampus and in the neocortex, mainly in neurons. The pattern of expression of Cre and GFP obtained with AAV and LV vectors was very similar. X-gal staining showed that Cre-mediated recombination had occurred in neurons in the same regions of the brain, starting at 3 days post-injection. No obvious toxic effects of Cre expression were detected even after four weeks post-injection. Conclusion AAV and LV vectors are capable of delivering Cre to neurons in discrete regions of the adult mouse brain and producing recombination.

  5. Efficient delivery of Cre-recombinase to neurons in vivo and stable transduction of neurons using adeno-associated and lentiviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Bushra Y; Chakravarthy, Sridhara; Eggers, Ruben; Hermens, Wim T J M C; Zhang, Jing Ying; Niclou, Simone P; Levelt, Christiaan; Sablitzky, Fred; Anderson, Patrick N; Lieberman, A R; Verhaagen, Joost

    2004-01-30

    Inactivating genes in vivo is an important technique for establishing their function in the adult nervous system. Unfortunately, conventional knockout mice may suffer from several limitations including embryonic or perinatal lethality and the compensatory regulation of other genes. One approach to producing conditional activation or inactivation of genes involves the use of Cre recombinase to remove loxP-flanked segments of DNA. We have studied the effects of delivering Cre to the hippocampus and neocortex of adult mice by injecting replication-deficient adeno-associated virus (AAV) and lentiviral (LV) vectors into discrete regions of the forebrain. Recombinant AAV-Cre, AAV-GFP (green fluorescent protein) and LV-Cre-EGFP (enhanced GFP) were made with the transgene controlled by the cytomegalovirus promoter. Infecting 293T cells in vitro with AAV-Cre and LV-Cre-EGFP resulted in transduction of most cells as shown by GFP fluorescence and Cre immunoreactivity. Injections of submicrolitre quantities of LV-Cre-EGFP and mixtures of AAV-Cre with AAV-GFP into the neocortex and hippocampus of adult Rosa26 reporter mice resulted in strong Cre and GFP expression in the dentate gyrus and moderate to strong labelling in specific regions of the hippocampus and in the neocortex, mainly in neurons. The pattern of expression of Cre and GFP obtained with AAV and LV vectors was very similar. X-gal staining showed that Cre-mediated recombination had occurred in neurons in the same regions of the brain, starting at 3 days post-injection. No obvious toxic effects of Cre expression were detected even after four weeks post-injection. AAV and LV vectors are capable of delivering Cre to neurons in discrete regions of the adult mouse brain and producing recombination.

  6. Recombinant self-complementary adeno-associated virus serotype vector-mediated hematopoietic stem cell transduction and lineage-restricted, long-term transgene expression in a murine serial bone marrow transplantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Njeri; Han, Zongchao; Li, Xiaomiao; Hu, Zhongbo; Zhong, Li; Bischof, Daniela; Weigel-Van Aken, Kirsten A; Slayton, William B; Yoder, Mervin C; Srivastava, Arun

    2008-04-01

    Although conventional recombinant single-stranded adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (ssAAV2) vectors have been shown to efficiently transduce numerous cells and tissues such as brain and muscle, their ability to transduce primary hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) has been reported to be controversial. We have previously documented that among the ssAAV serotype 1 through 5 vectors, ssAAV1 vectors are more efficient in transducing primary murine HSCs, but that viral second-strand DNA synthesis continues to be a rate-limiting step. In the present studies, we evaluated the transduction efficiency of several novel serotype vectors (AAV1, AAV7, AAV8, and AAV10) and documented efficient transduction of HSCs in a murine serial bone marrow transplantation model. Self-complementary AAV (scAAV) vectors were found to be more efficient than ssAAV vectors, and the use of hematopoietic cell-specific enhancers/promoters, such as the human beta-globin gene DNase I-hypersensitive site 2 enhancer and promoter (HS2-betap) from the beta-globin locus control region (LCR), and the human parvovirus B19 promoter at map unit 6 (B19p6), allowed sustained transgene expression in an erythroid lineage-restricted manner in both primary and secondary transplant recipient mice. The proviral AAV genomes were stably integrated into progenitor cell chromosomal DNA, and did not lead to any overt hematological abnormalities in mice. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of the use of novel scAAV vectors for achieving high-efficiency transduction of HSCs as well as erythroid lineage-restricted expression of a therapeutic gene for the potential gene therapy of beta-thalassemia and sickle cell disease.

  7. Proliferation and differentiation of Trypanosoma cruzi inside its vector have a new trigger: redox status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália P Nogueira

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi proliferate and differentiate inside different compartments of triatomines gut that is the first environment encountered by T. cruzi. Due to its complex life cycle, the parasite is constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS. We tested the influence of the pro-oxidant molecules H2O2 and the superoxide generator, Paraquat, as well as, metabolism products of the vector, with distinct redox status, in the proliferation and metacyclogenesis. These molecules are heme, hemozoin and urate. We also tested the antioxidants NAC and GSH. Heme induced the proliferation of epimastigotes and impaired the metacyclogenesis. β-hematin, did not affect epimastigote proliferation but decreased parasite differentiation. Conversely, we show that urate, GSH and NAC dramatically impaired epimastigote proliferation and during metacyclogenesis, NAC and urate induced a significant increment of trypomastigotes and decreased the percentage of epimastigotes. We also quantified the parasite loads in the anterior and posterior midguts and in the rectum of the vector by qPCR. The treatment with the antioxidants increased the parasite loads in all midgut sections analyzed. In vivo, the group of vectors fed with reduced molecules showed an increment of trypomastigotes and decreased epimastigotes when analyzed by differential counting. Heme stimulated proliferation by increasing the cell number in the S and G2/M phases, whereas NAC arrested epimastigotes in G1 phase. NAC greatly increased the percentage of trypomastigotes. Taken together, these data show a shift in the triatomine gut microenvironment caused by the redox status may also influence T. cruzi biology inside the vector. In this scenario, oxidants act to turn on epimastigote proliferation while antioxidants seem to switch the cycle towards metacyclogenesis. This is a new insight that defines a key role for redox metabolism in governing the parasitic life cycle.

  8. Vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeriis, Morten; van Leeuwen, Theo

    2017-01-01

    This article revisits the concept of vectors, which, in Kress and van Leeuwen’s Reading Images (2006), plays a crucial role in distinguishing between ‘narrative’, action-oriented processes and ‘conceptual’, state-oriented processes. The use of this concept in image analysis has usually focused...... on the most salient vectors, and this works well, but many images contain a plethora of vectors, which makes their structure quite different from the linguistic transitivity structures with which Kress and van Leeuwen have compared ‘narrative’ images. It can also be asked whether facial expression vectors...... should be taken into account in discussing ‘reactions’, which Kress and van Leeuwen link only to eyeline vectors. Finally, the question can be raised as to whether actions are always realized by vectors. Drawing on a re-reading of Rudolf Arnheim’s account of vectors, these issues are outlined...

  9. AAV-mediated delivery of optogenetic constructs to the macaque brain triggers humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Skyler D; El-Shamayleh, Yasmine; Horwitz, Gregory D

    2017-05-01

    Gene delivery to the primate central nervous system via recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) allows neurophysiologists to control and observe neural activity precisely. A current limitation of this approach is variability in vector transduction efficiency. Low levels of transduction can foil experimental manipulations, prompting vector readministration. The ability to make multiple vector injections into the same animal, even in cases where successful vector transduction has already been achieved, is also desirable. However, vector readministration has consequences for humoral immunity and gene delivery that depend on vector dosage and route of administration in complex ways. As part of optogenetic experiments in rhesus monkeys, we analyzed blood sera collected before and after AAV injections into the brain and quantified neutralizing antibodies to AAV using an in vitro assay. We found that injections of AAV1 and AAV9 vectors elevated neutralizing antibody titers consistently. These immune responses were specific to the serotype injected and were long lasting. These results demonstrate that optogenetic manipulations in monkeys trigger immune responses to AAV capsids, suggesting that vector readministration may have a higher likelihood of success by avoiding serotypes injected previously.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Adeno-associated viral vector (AAV)-mediated gene delivery is a valuable tool for neurophysiology, but variability in transduction efficiency remains a bottleneck for experimental success. Repeated vector injections can help overcome this limitation but affect humoral immune state and transgene expression in ways that are poorly understood. We show that AAV vector injections into the primate central nervous system trigger long-lasting and serotype-specific immune responses, raising the possibility that switching serotypes may promote successful vector readministration. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Enhanced transduction of colonic cell lines in vitro and the inflamed colon in mice by viral vectors, derived from adeno-associated virus serotype 2, using virus-microbead conjugates bearing lectin

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    Sano Takeshi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virus-mediated delivery of therapeutic transgenes to the inflamed colon holds a great potential to serve as an effective therapeutic strategy for inflammatory bowel disease, since local, long-term expression of the encoded therapeutic proteins in the colorectal system is potentially achievable. Viral vectors, derived from adeno-associated virus (AAV, should be very useful for such therapeutic strategies, particularly because they can establish long-term expression of transgenes. However, few studies have been carried out to investigate the ability of AAV-based vectors to transduce the inflamed colon. Results AAV, derived from adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2, showed a limited ability to transduce colonic cell lines in vitro when used in free form. No appreciable enhancement of the transduction efficiency was seen when AAV2 particles were attached stably to the surfaces of microbeads and delivered to target cells in the form of AAV2-microbead conjugates. However, the transduction efficiency of these colonic cell lines was enhanced substantially when a lectin, concanavalin A (Con A, was co-attached to the microbead surfaces, to which AAV2 particles had been conjugated. This considerable infectivity enhancement of AAV2-microbead conjugates by the co-attachment of Con A may be derived from the fact that Con A binds to α-D-mannosyl moieties that are commonly and abundantly present in cell-surface carbohydrate chains, allowing the conjugates to associate stably with target cells. Intracolonical administration of free AAV2 or AAV2-microbead conjugates without Con A into a mouse colitis model by enema showed very poor transduction of the colonic tissue. In contrast, the delivery of AAV2 in the form of AAV2-microbead conjugates bearing Con A resulted in efficient transduction of the inflamed colon. Conclusion AAV2-microbead conjugates bearing Con A can serve as efficient gene transfer agents both for poorly permissive colonic

  11. Human hematopoietic cell culture, transduction, and analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jesper; Wirthlin, Louisa; Kohn, Donald B

    2008-01-01

    This unit provides methods for introducing genes into human hematopoietic progenitor cells. The Basic Protocol describes isolation of CD34(+) cells, transduction of these cells with a retroviral vector on fibronectin-coated plates, assaying the efficiency of transduction, and establishing long-te...

  12. A High-Capacity, Capsid-Modified Hybrid Adenovirus/Adeno-Associated Virus Vector for Stable Transduction of Human Hematopoietic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitry M Shayakhmetov; Carlson, Cheryl A.; Stecher, Hartmut; Li, Qiliang; Stamatoyannopoulos, George; Lieber, André

    2002-01-01

    To achieve stable gene transfer into human hematopoietic cells, we constructed a new vector, ΔAd5/35.AAV. This vector has a chimeric capsid containing adenovirus type 35 fibers, which conferred efficient infection of human hematopoietic cells. The ΔAd5/35.AAV vector genome is deleted for all viral genes, allowing for infection without virus-associated toxicity. To generate high-capacity ΔAd5/35.AAV vectors, we employed a new technique based on recombination between two first-generation adenov...

  13. Trafficking of adeno-associated virus vectors across a model of the blood-brain barrier; a comparative study of transcytosis and transduction using primary human brain endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Steven F; Andrews, Allison M; Lutton, Evan M; Mu, Dakai; Hudry, Eloise; Hyman, Bradley T; Maguire, Casey A; Ramirez, Servio H

    2017-01-01

    Developing therapies for central nervous system (CNS) diseases is exceedingly difficult because of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Notably, emerging technologies may provide promising new options for the treatment of CNS disorders. Adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) has been shown to transduce cells in the CNS following intravascular administration in rodents, cats, pigs, and non-human primates. These results suggest that AAV9 is capable of crossing the BBB. However, mechanisms that govern AAV9 transendothelial trafficking at the BBB remain unknown. Furthermore, possibilities that AAV9 may transduce brain endothelial cells or affect BBB integrity still require investigation. Using primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells as a model of the human BBB, we performed transduction and transendothelial trafficking assays comparing AAV9 to AAV2, a serotype that does not cross the BBB or transduce endothelial cells effectively in vivo. Results of our in vitro studies indicate that AAV9 penetrates brain microvascular endothelial cells barriers more effectively than AAV2, but has reduced transduction efficiency. In addition, our data suggest that (i) AAV9 penetrates endothelial barriers through an active, cell-mediated process, and (ii) AAV9 fails to disrupt indicators of BBB integrity such as transendothelial electrical resistance, tight junction protein expression/localization, and inflammatory activation status. Overall, this report shows how human brain endothelial cells configured in BBB models can be utilized for evaluating transendothelial movement and transduction kinetics of various AAV capsids. Importantly, the use of a human in vitro BBB model can provide import insight into the possible effects that candidate AVV gene therapy vectors may have on the status of BBB integrity. Read the Editorial Highlight for this article on page 192. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  14. Construction of a single lentiviral vector containing tetracycline-inducible Alb-uPA for transduction of uPA expression in murine hepatocytes.

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    Jiasi Bai

    Full Text Available The SCID-beige/Alb-uPA mouse model is currently the best small animal model available for viral hepatitis infection studies [1]. But the construction procedure is often costly and time-consuming due to logistic and technical difficulties. Thus, the widespread application of these chimeric mice has been hampered [2]. In order to optimize the procedure, we constructed a single lentiviral vector containing modified tetracycline-regulated system to control Alb-uPA gene expression in the cultured hepatocytes. The modified albumin promoter controlled by tetracycline (Tet-dependent transactivator rtTA2S-M2 was integrated into a lentiviral vector. The full-length uPA cDNA was inserted into another lentiviral vector containing PTight, a modified Tet-responsive promoter. Two vectors were then digested by specific enzymes and ligated by DNA ligase 4. The ligated DNA fragment was inserted into a modified pLKO.1 cloning vector and the final lentiviral vector was then successfully constructed. H2.35 cell, Lewis lung carcinoma, primary kidney, primary hepatic interstitial and CT26 cells were infected with recombinant lentivirus at selected MOI. The expression of uPA induced by DOX was detectable only in the infected H2.35 cells, which was confirmed by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Moreover, DOX induced uPA expression on the infected H2.35 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The constructed single lentiviral vector has many biological advantages, including that the interested gene expression under "Tet-on/off" system is controlled by DOX in a dose-depending fashion only in murine liver cells, which provides an advantage for simplifying generation of conditional transgenic animals.

  15. High-efficiency transduction of primary human hematopoietic stem cells and erythroid lineage-restricted expression by optimized AAV6 serotype vectors in vitro and in a murine xenograft model in vivo.

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    Liujiang Song

    Full Text Available We have observed that of the 10 AAV serotypes, AAV6 is the most efficient in transducing primary human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, and that the transduction efficiency can be further increased by specifically mutating single surface-exposed tyrosine (Y residues on AAV6 capsids. In the present studies, we combined the two mutations to generate a tyrosine double-mutant (Y705+731F AAV6 vector, with which >70% of CD34(+ cells could be transduced. With the long-term objective of developing recombinant AAV vectors for the potential gene therapy of human hemoglobinopathies, we generated the wild-type (WT and tyrosine-mutant AAV6 vectors containing the following erythroid cell-specific promoters: β-globin promoter (βp with the upstream hyper-sensitive site 2 (HS2 enhancer from the β-globin locus control region (HS2-βbp, and the human parvovirus B19 promoter at map unit 6 (B19p6. Transgene expression from the B19p6 was significantly higher than that from the HS2-βp, and increased up to 30-fold and up to 20-fold, respectively, following erythropoietin (Epo-induced differentiation of CD34(+ cells in vitro. Transgene expression from the B19p6 or the HS2-βp was also evaluated in an immuno-deficient xenograft mouse model in vivo. Whereas low levels of expression were detected from the B19p6 in the WT AAV6 capsid, and that from the HS2-βp in the Y705+731F AAV6 capsid, transgene expression from the B19p6 promoter in the Y705+731F AAV6 capsid was significantly higher than that from the HS2-βp, and was detectable up to 12 weeks post-transplantation in primary recipients, and up to 6 additional weeks in secondary transplanted animals. These data demonstrate the feasibility of the use of the novel Y705+731F AAV6-B19p6 vectors for high-efficiency transduction of HSCs as well as expression of the b-globin gene in erythroid progenitor cells for the potential gene therapy of human hemoglobinopathies such as β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease.

  16. Construction Of An Optimized Lentiviral Vector Containing Pdx-1 Gene For Transduction Of Stem Cells Towards Gene Therapy Diabetes Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahmati

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Nowadays, most of gene therapy protocols are performed by lentiviral vectors. One of the most important factors which is involved in pancreas development and transcription of insulin gene is pancreatic & duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX-1 transcription factor. The goal of this study was to optimize a lentiviral construct, containing pdx-1 gene, to transfect stem cells towards gene therapy of type-1 diabetes. Methods: In this experimental study, first, the pdx-1 gene was multiplied by PCR from pcDNA3.1-pdx-1 and cloned into pTG19-T vector. Then, pdx-1 was subcloned on upstream of IRES-EGFP gene into IRES2-EGFP vector. At the next step, the cloned parts of IRES-EGFP and pdx-1 were isolated and cloned into the lentiviral expression vector pSINTREM in upstream of TRE-CMV gene. After sequencing, final construct was transfected into HEK 293 cells and gene expression of pdx-1 was evaluated using flow cytometry analysis and reverse fluorescent microscopy. Results: Flow cytometry results and inverted fluorescent microscopy observing showed that pdx-1 and GFP genes are expressed in cells transfected with final recombinant construct. Conclusion: Regarding the design of this construct, to ensure long time expression with higher in vivo and in vitro expression efficiency for stem cells and also use of Tet on induced optimized system, it seems that the current construct can be among the best ones to transfect stem cells. Key words: Gene therapy, Diabetes, Stem cells

  17. The transduction of rat submandibular glands by an adenoviral vector carrying the human growth hormone gene is associated with limited and reversible changes at the infusion site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, S; Lanning, L; Allison, N; Vallant, M; Nyska, A

    2006-01-01

    Adenoviral vectors have been shown to efficiently deliver exogenous genes to salivary glands and have therefore been investigated as tools for the treatment of human disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of F344 rats to intraductal infusion of the right submandibular salivary gland with an adenoviral vector encoding the gene for human growth hormone (AdCMVhGH). Co-administration of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was used to redirect the secretion of human growth hormone (hGH) from saliva into serum. This paper documents the findings of the pathology evaluation of this National Toxicology Program study. The right submandibular salivary gland (infusion site) was the primary target organ, with microscopic lesions characteristic of a mild to moderate insult observed at 3 days post infusion in vector exposed animals. These lesions were characterized by variable degrees of acute glandular inflammation, degeneration and necrosis, with more severe lesions in the higher dose groups. Rats at 28 days post infusion had milder inflammation, degeneration and necrosis compared to day 3 rats, with variable degrees of regeneration. In conclusion, the effects on the salivary glands are reversible as indicated by the milder inflammation and degeneration in the day 28 rats concomitant with mild to moderate regeneration. Therefore, the vector appears relatively innocuous with limited tissue toxicity. [The supplemental data referenced in this paper is not printed in this issue of Toxicologic Pathology. It is available as a downloadable file in the online edition of Toxicologic Pathology, 34(4). In order to access the full article online, you must have either an individual subscription or a member subscription accessed through www.toxpath.org.].

  18. Selection-free gene repair after adenoviral vector transduction of designer nucleases: rescue of dystrophin synthesis in DMD muscle cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Ignazio; Stefanucci, Luca; Janssen, Josephine M; Liu, Jin; Chen, Xiaoyu; Mouly, Vincent; Gonçalves, Manuel A F V

    2016-02-18

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal X-linked muscle-wasting disorder caused by mutations in the 2.4 Mb dystrophin-encoding DMD gene. The integration of gene delivery and gene editing technologies based on viral vectors and sequence-specific designer nucleases, respectively, constitutes a potential therapeutic modality for permanently repairing defective DMD alleles in patient-derived myogenic cells. Therefore, we sought to investigate the feasibility of combining adenoviral vectors (AdVs) with CRISPR/Cas9 RNA-guided nucleases (RGNs) alone or together with transcriptional activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), for endogenous DMD repair through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). The strategies tested involved; incorporating small insertions or deletions at out-of-frame sequences for reading frame resetting, splice acceptor knockout for DNA-level exon skipping, and RGN-RGN or RGN-TALEN multiplexing for targeted exon(s) removal. We demonstrate that genome editing based on the activation and recruitment of the NHEJ DNA repair pathway after AdV delivery of designer nuclease genes, is a versatile and robust approach for repairing DMD mutations in bulk populations of patient-derived muscle progenitor cells (up to 37% of corrected DMD templates). These results open up a DNA-level genetic medicine strategy in which viral vector-mediated transient designer nuclease expression leads to permanent and regulated dystrophin synthesis from corrected native DMD alleles. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Identification of PDGFR as a receptor for AAV-5 transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Giovanni; Davidson, Beverly L; Stein, Colleen S; Martins, Inês; Scudiero, Dominic; Monks, Anne; Chiorini, John A

    2003-10-01

    Understanding the process of vector transduction has important implications for the application and optimal use of a vector system for human gene therapy. Recent studies with vectors based on adeno-associated virus type 5 (AAV-5) have shown utility of this vector system in the lung, central nervous system, muscle and eye. To understand the natural tropism of this virus and to identify proteins necessary for AAV-5 transduction, we characterized 43 cell lines as permissive or nonpermissive for AAV-5 transduction and compared the gene expression profiles derived from cDNA microarray analyses of those cell lines. A statistically significant correlation was observed between expression of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR-alpha-polypeptide) and AAV-5 transduction. Subsequent experiments confirmed the role of PDGFR-alpha and PDGFR-beta as receptors for AAV-5. The tropism of AAV-5 in vivo also correlated with the expression pattern of PDGFR-alpha.

  20. Ectopic expression of AID in a non-B cell line triggers A:T and G:C point mutations in non-replicating episomal vectors.

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    Tihana Jovanic

    Full Text Available Somatic hypermutation (SHM of immunoglobulin genes is currently viewed as a two step process initiated by the deamination of deoxycytidine (C to deoxyuridine (U, catalysed by the activation induced deaminase (AID. Phase 1 mutations arise from DNA replication across the uracil residue or the abasic site, generated by the uracil-DNA glycosylase, yielding transitions or transversions at G:C pairs. Phase 2 mutations result from the recognition of the U:G mismatch by the Msh2/Msh6 complex (MutS Homologue, followed by the excision of the mismatched nucleotide and the repair, by the low fidelity DNA polymerase eta, of the gap generated by the exonuclease I. These mutations are mainly focused at A:T pairs. Whereas in activated B cells both G:C and A:T pairs are equally targeted, ectopic expression of AID was shown to trigger only G:C mutations on a stably integrated reporter gene. Here we show that when using non-replicative episomal vectors containing a GFP gene, inactivated by the introduction of stop codons at various positions, a high level of EGFP positive cells was obtained after transient expression in Jurkat cells constitutively expressing AID. We show that mutations at G:C and A:T pairs are produced. EGFP positive cells are obtained in the absence of vector replication demonstrating that the mutations are dependent only on the mismatch repair (MMR pathway. This implies that the generation of phase 1 mutations is not a prerequisite for the expression of phase 2 mutations.

  1. Adenovirus Vector-Derived VA-RNA-Mediated Innate Immune Responses

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    Hiroyuki Mizuguchi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The major limitation of the clinical use of replication-incompetent adenovirus (Ad vectors is the interference by innate immune responses, including induction of inflammatory cytokines and interferons (IFN, following in vivo application of Ad vectors. Ad vector-induced production of inflammatory cytokines and IFNs also results in severe organ damage and efficient induction of acquired immune responses against Ad proteins and transgene products. Ad vector-induced innate immune responses are triggered by the recognition of Ad components by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs. In order to reduce the side effects by Ad vector-induced innate immune responses and to develop safer Ad vectors, it is crucial to clarify which PRRs and which Ad components are involved in Ad vector-induced innate immune responses. Our group previously demonstrated that myeloid differentiating factor 88 (MyD88 and toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9 play crucial roles in the Ad vector-induced inflammatory cytokine production in mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Furthermore, our group recently found that virus associated-RNAs (VA-RNAs, which are about 160 nucleotide-long non-coding small RNAs encoded in the Ad genome, are involved in IFN production through the IFN-β promoter stimulator-1 (IPS-1-mediated signaling pathway following Ad vector transduction. The aim of this review is to highlight the Ad vector-induced innate immune responses following transduction, especially VA-RNA-mediated innate immune responses. Our findings on the mechanism of Ad vector-induced innate immune responses should make an important contribution to the development of safer Ad vectors, such as an Ad vector lacking expression of VA-RNAs.

  2. Adenovirus vector infection of non-small-cell lung cancer cells is a trigger for multi-drug resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomono, Takumi [Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Takasaki University of Health and Welfare, 60 Nakaorui-machi, Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-0033 (Japan); Kajita, Masahiro [Laboratory of Molecular Pharmaceutics and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Takasaki University of Health and Welfare, 60 Nakaorui-machi, Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-0033 (Japan); Yano, Kentaro [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Takasaki University of Health and Welfare, 60 Nakaorui-machi, Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-0033 (Japan); Ogihara, Takuo, E-mail: togihara@takasaki-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Takasaki University of Health and Welfare, 60 Nakaorui-machi, Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-0033 (Japan)

    2016-08-05

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-binding cassette protein involved in cancer multi-drug resistance (MDR). It has been reported that infection with some bacteria and viruses induces changes in the activities of various drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters, including P-gp. Although human adenoviruses (Ad) cause the common cold, the effect of Ad infection on MDR in cancer has not been established. In this study, we investigated whether Ad infection is a cause of MDR in A549, H441 and HCC827 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, using an Ad vector system. We found that Ad vector infection of NSCLC cell lines induced P-gp mRNA expression, and the extent of induction was dependent on the number of Ad vector virus particles and the infection time. Heat-treated Ad vector, which is not infectious, did not alter P-gp mRNA expression. Uptake experiments with doxorubicin (DOX), a P-gp substrate, revealed that DOX accumulation was significantly decreased in Ad vector-infected A549 cells. The decrease of DOX uptake was blocked by verapamil, a P-gp inhibitor. Our results indicated that Ad vector infection of NSCLC cells caused MDR mediated by P-gp overexpression. The Ad vector genome sequence is similar to that of human Ad, and therefore human Ad infection of lung cancer patients may lead to chemoresistance in the clinical environment. -- Highlights: •Adenovirus vector infection induced P-gp mRNA expression in three NSCLC cell lines. •Adenovirus vector infection enhanced P-gp-mediated doxorubicin efflux from the cells. •The increase of P-gp was not mediated by nuclear receptors (PXR, CAR) or COX-2.

  3. Effect of hypotonic stress on retroviral transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Hsiang; Peng, Ching-An

    2009-12-25

    Short half-life has long been known as a main barrier for retroviral gene delivery due to quick degradation that seriously limited application of retrovirus-mediated methodology in the clinical use. To circumvent this challenge, many physical and chemical approaches have been developed to maximize contact opportunity of retroviruses and cells before viral vectors decay. However, most of methods are not easy to be followed due to complicated equipment settings and/or long procedures. In this study, we introduced an easy, cost-effective, efficient, and scalable strategy to enhance retroviral transduction by hypo-osmotic stress. It has been demonstrated that under hypotonic exposure, cell membrane is permeabilized to allow numerous exterior molecules accessing to cytoplasm through an intensive endocytosis, yielding high efficiency of cellular uptake. We hypothesized this hypotonic stress-induced internalization may provide a unique opportunity of cell entry for retroviruses without the need of receptor binding, and thus overcome the insufficient transduction rate due to loss of envelope protein. Indeed, our results showed that with assistance of hypotonic stress, retroviral transduction rates dramatically increased about 5.6- and 17.7-fold using fresh and decayed retroviruses, respectively, in comparison with corresponding groups without hypotonic stress. In summary, hypotonic stress was shown as a promising tool for enhancement of retroviral transduction efficiency without limitation of short half-life.

  4. Heparin-binding correlates with increased efficiency of AAV1- and AAV6-mediated transduction of striated muscle, but negatively impacts CNS transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, A L H; Beutler, L R; Quintana, A; Allen, J; Finn, E; Palmiter, R D; Chamberlain, J S

    2013-05-01

    Gene delivery vectors derived from adeno-associated virus (AAV) have great potential as therapeutic agents. rAAV1 and rAAV6, efficiently target striated muscle, but the mechanisms that determine their tropism remain unclear. It is known that AAV6, but not AAV1, interacts with heparin-sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). HSPGs are not primary receptors for AAV6, but heparin interactions may affect tissue tropism and transduction. To investigate these possibilities, we generated rAAV1 and rAAV6 capsids that do or do not bind heparin. We evaluated the transduction profile of these vectors in vivo across multiple routes of administration, and found that heparin-binding capability influences tissue transduction in striated muscle and neuronal tissues. Heparin-binding capsids transduce striated muscle more efficiently than non-binding capsids, via both intramuscular and intravenous injection. However, rAAV6 achieved greater muscle transduction than the heparin-binding rAAV1 variant, suggesting that there are additional factors that influence differences in transduction efficiency between AAV1 and AAV6. Interestingly, the opposite trend was found when vectors were delivered via intracranial injection. Non-binding vectors achieved robust and widespread gene expression, whereas transduction via heparin-binding serotypes was substantially reduced. These data indicate that heparin-binding capability is an important determinant of transduction that should be considered in the design of rAAV-mediated gene therapies.

  5. Differential myofiber-type transduction preference of adeno-associated virus serotypes 6 and 9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Raz, Yotam; Moloney, E.; van Putten, Maaike; Krom, Yvonne D; van der Maarel, Silvere M; Verhaagen, J.; Raz, Vered

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gene therapy strategies are promising therapeutic options for monogenic muscular dystrophies, with several currently underways. The adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector is among the most effective gene delivery systems. However, transduction efficiency in skeletal muscles varies between

  6. Differential myofiber-type transduction preference of adeno-associated virus serotypes 6 and 9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riaz, M.; Raz, Y.; Moloney, E.B.; Putten, M.; Krom, Y.D.; van der Maarel, S.M.; Verhaagen, J.; Raz, V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gene therapy strategies are promising therapeutic options for monogenic muscular dystrophies, with several currently underways. The adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector is among the most effective gene delivery systems. However, transduction efficiency in skeletal muscles varies between

  7. Adenoviral vector-mediated gene transfer: timing of wild-type p53 gene expression in vivo and effect of tumor transduction on survival in a rat glioma brachytherapy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampoe, J; Glen, J; Hubbard, S L; Salhia, B; Shannon, P; Rutka, J; Bernstein, M

    2000-08-01

    This study sought to investigate modification of the radiation response in a rat 9L brain tumor model in vivo by the wild-type p53 gene (wtp53). Determination of the timing and dose of radiation therapy required the assessment of the duration of the effect of wtp53 expression on 9L tumors after in vivo transfection. Anesthetized male F-344 rats each were stereotactically inoculated with 4 x 10(4) 9L gliosarcoma cells through a skull screw into the cerebrum in the right frontal region. Twelve-day-old tumors were inoculated through the screw with recombinant adenoviral vectors under isoflurane anaesthesia: control rats with Ad5/RSV/GL2 (carrying the luciferase gene), and study rats with Ad5CMV-p53 (carrying the wtp53 gene). Brain tumors removed at specific times after transfection were measured, homogenized, and lysed and wtp53 expression determined by Western blot analysis. Four groups of nine rats were, subsequently, implanted with iodine-125 seeds 15 days post-tumor inoculation to give a minimum tumor dose of 40 or 60 Gy. We demonstrated transfer of wtp53 into rat 9L tumors in vivo using the Ad5CMV-p53 vector. The expression of wtp53 was demonstrated to be maximum between days 1 and 3 post-vector inoculation. Tumors expressing wtp53 were smaller than controls transfected with Ad5/RSV/GL2 but this difference was not statistically significant. Radiation made a significant difference to the survival of tumor-bearing rats. Moreover, wtp53 expression conferred a significant additional survival advantage. The expression of wtp53 significantly improves the survival of irradiated tumor-bearing rats in our model.

  8. Dynamic triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Prejean, Stephanie; Schubert, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic stresses propagating as seismic waves from large earthquakes trigger a spectrum of responses at global distances. In addition to locally triggered earthquakes in a variety of tectonic environments, dynamic stresses trigger tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor in the brittle–plastic transition zone along major plate-boundary faults, activity changes in hydrothermal and volcanic systems, and, in hydrologic domains, changes in spring discharge, water well levels, soil liquefaction, and the eruption of mud volcanoes. Surface waves with periods of 15–200 s are the most effective triggering agents; body-wave trigger is less frequent. Triggering dynamic stresses can be < 1 kPa.

  9. Umami taste transduction mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnamon, Sue C

    2009-09-01

    l-Glutamate elicits the umami taste sensation, now recognized as a fifth distinct taste quality. A characteristic feature of umami taste is its potentiation by 5'-ribonucleotides such as guanosine-5'-monophosphate and inosine 5'-monophosphate, which also elicit the umami taste on their own. Recent data suggest that multiple G protein-coupled receptors contribute to umami taste. This review will focus on events downstream of the umami taste receptors. Ligand binding leads to Gbetagamma activation of phospholipase C beta2, which produces the second messengers inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. Inositol trisphosphate binds to the type III inositol trisphosphate receptor, which causes the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores and Ca(2+)-dependent activation of a monovalent-selective cation channel, TRPM5. TRPM5 is believed to depolarize taste cells, which leads to the release of ATP, which activates ionotropic purinergic receptors on gustatory afferent nerve fibers. This model is supported by knockout of the relevant signaling effectors as well as physiologic studies of isolated taste cells. Concomitant with the molecular studies, physiologic studies show that l-glutamate elicits increases in intracellular Ca(2+) in isolated taste cells and that the source of the Ca(2+) is release from intracellular stores. Both Galpha gustducin and Galpha transducin are involved in umami signaling, because the knockout of either subunit compromises responses to umami stimuli. Both alpha-gustducin and alpha-transducin activate phosphodiesterases to decrease intracellular cAMP. The target of cAMP in umami transduction is not known, but membrane-permeant analogs of cAMP antagonize electrophysiologic responses to umami stimuli in isolated taste cells, which suggests that cAMP may have a modulatory role in umami signaling.

  10. Pheromone transduction in moths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Stengl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Calling female moths attract their mates late at night with intermittent release of a species-specific sex-pheromone blend. Mean frequency of pheromone filaments encodes distance to the calling female. In their zig-zagging upwind search male moths encounter turbulent pheromone blend filaments at highly variable concentrations and frequencies. The male moth antennae are delicately designed to detect and distinguish even traces of these sex pheromones amongst the abundance of other odors. Its olfactory receptor neurons sense even single pheromone molecules and track intermittent pheromone filaments of highly variable frequencies up to about 30 Hz over a wide concentration range. In the hawkmoth Manduca sexta brief, weak pheromone stimuli as encountered during flight are detected via a metabotropic PLCβ-dependent signal transduction cascade which leads to transient changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. Strong or long pheromone stimuli, which are possibly perceived in direct contact with the female, activate receptor-guanylyl cyclases causing long-term adaptation. In addition, depending on endogenous rhythms of the moth´s physiological state, hormones such as the stress hormone octopamine modulate second messenger levels in sensory neurons. High octopamine levels during the activity phase maximize temporal resolution cAMP-dependently as a prerequisite to mate location. Thus, I suggest that sliding adjustment of odor response threshold and kinetics is based upon relative concentration ratios of intracellular Ca2+ and cyclic nucleotide levels which gate different ion channels synergistically. In addition, I propose a new hypothesis for the cyclic nucleotide-dependent ion channel formed by insect olfactory receptor/coreceptor complexes. Instead of being employed for an ionotropic mechanism of odor detection it is proposed to control subthreshold membrane potential oscillation of sensory neurons, as a basis for temporal encoding of odors.

  11. Activity Dependent Signal Transduction in Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Susan L.

    1999-01-01

    The overall goals of this project are: 1) to define the initial signal transduction events whereby the removal of gravitational load from antigravity muscles, such as the soleus, triggers muscle atrophy, and 2) to develop countermeasures to prevent this from happening. Our rationale for this approach is that, if countermeasures can be developed to regulate these early events, we could avoid having to deal with the multiple cascades of events that occur downstream from the initial event. One of our major findings is that hind limb suspension causes an early and sustained increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca (2+)](sub i)). In most cells the consequences of changes in ([Ca (2+)](sub i))depend on the amplitude, frequency and duration of the Ca(2+) signal and on other factors in the intracellular environment. We propose that muscle remodeling in microgravity represents a change in the balance among several CA(2+) regulated signal transduction pathways, in particular those involving the transcription factors NFAT and NFkB and the pro-apoptotic protein BAD. Other Ca(2+) sensitive pathways involving PKC, ras, rac, and CaM kinase II may also contribute to muscle remodeling.

  12. Direct interaction of human serum proteins with AAV virions to enhance AAV transduction: immediate impact on clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M; Sun, J; Crosby, A; Woodard, K; Hirsch, M L; Samulski, R J; Li, C

    2017-01-01

    Recent hemophilia B clinical trials using adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene delivery have demonstrated much lower coagulation factor IX (FIX) production in patients compared with the high levels observed in animal models and AAV capsid-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response elicited at high doses of AAV vectors. These results emphasize the necessity to explore effective approaches for enhancement of AAV transduction. Initially, we found that incubation of all AAV vectors with human serum enhanced AAV transduction. Complementary analytical experiments demonstrated that human serum albumin (HSA) directly interacted with the AAV capsid and augmented AAV transduction. The enhanced transduction was observed with clinical grade HSA. Mechanistic studies suggest that HSA increases AAV binding to target cells, and that the interaction of HSA with AAV does not interfere with the AAV infection pathway. Importantly, HSA incubation during vector dialysis also increased transduction. Finally, HSA enhancement of AAV transduction in a model of hemophilia B displayed greater than a fivefold increase in vector-derived circulating FIX, which improved the bleeding phenotype correction. In conclusion, incubation of HSA with AAV vectors supports a universal augmentation of AAV transduction and, more importantly, this approach can be immediately transitioned to the clinic for the treatment of hemophilia and other diseases.

  13. Transduction of pancreatic islets with pseudotyped adeno-associated virus: effect of viral capsid and genome conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Clément, Nathalie; Chen, Dongmei; Fu, Shuang; Zhang, Haojiang; Rebollo, Patricia; Linden, R Michael; Bromberg, Jonathan S

    2005-09-15

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors currently show promise for islet gene therapy. In the presence of complementing AAV2 Rep proteins, AAV2 genomes can be packaged with other serotype capsids to assemble infectious virions. During transduction, the ssDNA to dsDNA conversion is one of the major rate-limiting steps that contribute to the slow onset of transgene expression. Using pseudotyping strategy, we produced double-stranded (dsAAV) and single-stranded (ssAAV) rAAV2 genomes carrying the GFP reporter gene packaged into AAV1, AAV2, and AAV5 capsids. The ability of cross-packaged AAV1, AAV2, and AAV5 at the same genome containing particle (gcp) concentration to transduce murine and human pancreatic islets was evaluated by GFP positive cell percentage. Transgenic expression was also determined by transplant transduced human islet into SCID mice. Pseudotyped rAAV2/1 based vectors transduced murine islets at greater efficiency than either rAAV2/2 or rAAV2/5 vectors. For human islets transduction, the rAAV2/2 vector was more efficient than rAAV2/1 or rAAV2/5 vectors. rAAV2/2 transduced human islets more efficiently than murine islets, while rAAV2/1 transducted murine islets more efficiently than human islets. dsAAV, which do not require second strand synthesis and thus are potentially more efficient, evidenced 5 fold higher transduction ability than ssAAV vectors. Pseudotyped rAAV transduced islet grafts maintained normal function, expressed transgenic product persistently in vivo, and reversed diabetes. The transduction efficiency of rAAV vectors was dependent on the cross-packaged capsid. The vector capsids permit species-specific transduction. For human islets, dsAAV2/2 vectors may be the most efficient vector for clinical development.

  14. Triggering Klystrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan, Kelton D.; /Purdue U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    To determine if klystrons will perform to the specifications of the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) project, a new digital trigger controller is needed for the Klystron/Microwave Department Test Laboratory. The controller needed to be programmed and Windows based user interface software needed to be written to interface with the device over a USB (Universal Serial Bus). Programming the device consisted of writing logic in VHDL (VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuits) hardware description language), and the Windows interface software was written in C++. Xilinx ISE (Integrated Software Environment) was used to compile the VHDL code and program the device, and Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 was used to compile the C++ based Windows software. The device was programmed in such a way as to easily allow read/write operations to it using a simple addressing model, and Windows software was developed to interface with the device over a USB connection. A method of setting configuration registers in the trigger device is absolutely necessary to the development of a new triggering system, and the method developed will fulfill this need adequately. More work is needed before the new trigger system is ready for use. The configuration registers in the device need to be fully integrated with the logic that will generate the RF signals, and this system will need to be tested extensively to determine if it meets the requirements for low noise trigger outputs.

  15. Rod Outer Segment Development Influences AAV-Mediated Photoreceptor Transduction After Subretinal Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Lolita; Ma, Shan; Cheng, Shun-Yun; Gao, Guangping; Punzo, Claudio

    2017-06-01

    Vectors based on the adeno-associated virus (AAV) are currently the preferred tools for delivering genes to photoreceptors (PR) in small and large animals. AAVs have been applied successfully in various models of PR dystrophies. However, unknown barriers still limit AAV's efficient application in several forms of severe PR degenerations due to insufficient transgene expression and/or treated cells at the time of injection. Optimizations of PR gene therapy strategies will likely benefit from the identification of the cellular factors that influence PR transduction. Interestingly, recent studies have shown that the AAV transduction profile of PRs differs significantly between neonatal and adult mouse retinas after subretinal injection. This phenomenon may provide clues to identify host factors that influence the efficiency of AAV-mediated PR transduction. This study demonstrates that rod outer segments are critical modulators of efficient AAV-mediated rod transduction. During retinal development, rod transduction correlated temporally and spatially with the differentiation order of PRs when vectors were introduced subretinally but not when introduced intravitreally. All subretinally injected vectors had an initial preference to transduce cones in the absence of formed rod outer segments and then displayed a preference for rods as the cells matured, independently of the expression cassette or AAV serotype. Consistent with this observation, altered development of rod outer segments was associated with a strong reduction of rod transduction and an increase in the percentage of transduced cones by 2- to 2.8-fold. A similar increase of cone transduction was observed in the adult retinal degeneration 1 (rd1) retina compared to wild-type mice. These results suggest that the loss of rod outer segments in diseased retinas could markedly affect gene transfer efficiency of AAV vectors by limiting the ability of AAVs to infect dying rods efficiently. This information could be

  16. Characterization of retroviral infectivity and superinfection resistance during retrovirus-mediated transduction of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, J; Wei, Q; Fan, J; Zou, Y; Song, D; Liu, J; Liu, F; Ma, C; Hu, X; Li, L; Yu, Y; Qu, X; Chen, L; Yu, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, C; Zeng, Z; Zhang, R; Yan, S; Wu, T; Wu, X; Shu, Y; Lei, J; Li, Y; Zhang, W; Wang, J; Reid, R R; Lee, M J; Huang, W; Wolf, J M; He, T-C; Wang, J

    2017-06-01

    Retroviral vectors including lentiviral vectors are commonly used tools to stably express transgenes or RNA molecules in mammalian cells. Their utilities are roughly divided into two categories, stable overexpression of transgenes and RNA molecules, which requires maximal transduction efficiency, or functional selection with retrovirus (RV)-based libraries, which takes advantage of retroviral superinfection resistance. However, the dynamic features of RV-mediated transduction are not well characterized. Here, we engineered two murine stem cell virus-based retroviral vectors expressing dual fluorescence proteins and antibiotic markers, and analyzed virion production efficiency and virion stability, dynamic infectivity and superinfection resistance in different cell types, and strategies to improve transduction efficiency. We found that the highest virion production occurred between 60 and 72 h after transfection. The stability of the collected virion supernatant decreased by >60% after 3 days in storage. We found that RV infectivity varied drastically in the tested human cancer lines, while low transduction efficiency was partially overcome with increased virus titer, prolonged infection duration and/or repeated infections. Furthermore, we demonstrated that RV receptors PIT1 and PIT2 were lowly expressed in the analyzed cells, and that PIT1 and/or PIT2 overexpression significantly improved transduction efficiency in certain cell lines. Thus, our findings provide resourceful information for the optimal conditions of retroviral-mediated gene delivery.

  17. Design of a titering assay for lentiviral vectors utilizing direct extraction of DNA from transduced cells in microtiter plates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, Michele E; Vin, Chintan D; Slough, Megan M; Gombotz, Wayne R; Kelley-Clarke, Brenna

    2016-01-01

    .... For vectors lacking a marker gene, quantitative polymerase chain reaction is used to evaluate the number of vector DNA copies in transduced target cells, from which a transduction titer is calculated...

  18. Effect of adeno-associated virus serotype and genomic structure on liver transduction and biodistribution in mice of both genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pañeda, Astrid; Vanrell, Lucia; Mauleon, Itsaso; Crettaz, Julien S; Berraondo, Pedro; Timmermans, Eric J; Beattie, Stuart G; Twisk, Jaap; van Deventer, Sander; Prieto, Jesus; Fontanellas, Antonio; Rodriguez-Pena, Maria Sol; Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza, Gloria

    2009-08-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors have unique properties, which make them suitable vectors for gene transfer. Here we assess the liver transduction efficiency and biodistribution of AAV-pseudotyped capsids (serotypes) 1, 5, 6, and 8, combined with single-stranded and double-stranded genomic AAV2 structures carrying the luciferase reporter gene after systemic administration. The analysis was performed in vivo and ex vivo, in male and female mice. Gender-related differences in AAV-mediated transduction and biodistribution were shown for the four serotypes. Our data confirm the superiority of AAV8 over the rest of the serotypes, as well as a significant advantage of double-stranded genomes in terms of liver transduction efficiency, particularly in females. Regarding biodistribution, AAV5 displayed a narrower tropism than the other serotypes tested, transducing, almost exclusively, the liver. Interestingly, AAV1 and AAV8, in particular those having single-stranded genomes, showed high transduction efficiency of female gonads. However, no inadvertent germ line transmission of AAV genomes was observed after breeding single-stranded AAV8-injected female mice with untreated males. In conclusion, double-stranded AAV8 vectors led to the highest levels of liver transduction in mice, as demonstrated by luciferase expression. Nevertheless, the transduction of other organs with AAV8 vectors could favor the use of less efficient serotypes, such as AAV5, which display a narrow tropism.

  19. An adeno-associated viral vector transduces the rat hypothalamus and amygdala more efficient than a lentiviral vector

    OpenAIRE

    Vreugdenhil Erno; Garner Keith M; Luijendijk Mieneke CM; Brans Maike AD; Fitzsimons Carlos P; de Backer Marijke WA; Adan Roger AH

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background This study compared the transduction efficiencies of an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector, which was pseudotyped with an AAV1 capsid and encoded the green fluorescent protein (GFP), with a lentiviral (LV) vector, which was pseudotyped with a VSV-G envelop and encoded the discosoma red fluorescent protein (dsRed), to investigate which viral vector transduced the lateral hypothalamus or the amygdala more efficiently. The LV-dsRed and AAV1-GFP vector were mixed and injected...

  20. AAV8 capsid variable regions at the two-fold symmetry axis contribute to high liver transduction by mediating nuclear entry and capsid uncoating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenney, Rebeca M.; Bell, Christie L.; Wilson, James M., E-mail: wilsonjm@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2014-04-15

    Adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) is a promising vector for liver-directed gene therapy. Although efficient uncoating of viral capsids has been implicated in AAV8's robust liver transduction, much about the biology of AAV8 hepatotropism remains unclear. Our study investigated the structural basis of AAV8 liver transduction efficiency by constructing chimeric vector capsids containing sequences derived from AAV8 and AAV2 – a highly homologous yet poorly hepatotropic serotype. Engineered vectors containing capsid variable regions (VR) VII and IX from AAV8 in an AAV2 backbone mediated near AAV8-like transduction in mouse liver, with higher numbers of chimeric genomes detected in whole liver cells and isolated nuclei. Interestingly, chimeric capsids within liver nuclei also uncoated similarly to AAV8 by 6 weeks after administration, in contrast with AAV2, of which a significantly smaller proportion were uncoated. This study links specific AAV capsid regions to the transduction ability of a clinically relevant AAV serotype. - Highlights: • We construct chimeric vectors to identify determinants of AAV8 liver transduction. • An AAV2-based vector with 17 AAV8 residues exhibited high liver transduction in mice. • This vector also surpassed AAV2 in cell entry, nuclear entry and onset of expression. • Most chimeric vector particles were uncoated at 6 weeks, like AAV8 and unlike AAV2. • Chimera retained heparin binding and was antigenically distinct from AAV2 and AAV8.

  1. Recombinant AAV serotype 1 transduction efficiency and tropism in the murine brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Wang, C-M; Clark, K R; Sferra, T J

    2003-08-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (rAAV2) vectors have shown promise as therapeutic agents for neurologic disorders. However, intracerebral administration of this vector leads to preferential transduction of neurons and a restricted region of transgene expression. The recently developed rAAV vectors based upon nonserotype 2 viruses have the potential to overcome these limitations. Therefore, we directly compared a rAAV type 1 to a type 2 vector in the murine brain. The vectors were engineered to carry identical genomes (AAV2 terminal repeat elements flanking an enhanced green fluorescent protein expression cassette) and were administered by stereotaxic-guided intracerebral injection. We found that the rAAV1 vector (rAAV1-GFP) had a 13- to 35-fold greater transduction efficiency than that of the rAAV2 vector (rAAV2-GFP). Also, rAAV1-transduced cells were observed at a greater distance from the injection site than rAAV2-transduced cells. Neurons were the predominant cell type transduced by both vector types. However, in contrast to rAAV2-GFP, rAAV1-GFP was capable of transducing glial and ependymal cells. Thus, rAAV1-based vectors have biologic properties within the brain distinct from that of rAAV2. These differences might be capitalized upon to develop novel gene transfer strategies for neurologic disorders.

  2. Clathrin-independent entry of baculovirus triggers uptake of E. coli in non-phagocytic human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna P Laakkonen

    Full Text Available The prototype baculovirus, Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus, an insect pathogen, holds great potential as a gene therapy vector. To develop transductional targeting and gene delivery by baculovirus, we focused on characterizing the nature and regulation of its uptake in human cancer cells. Baculovirus entered the cells along fluid-phase markers from the raft areas into smooth-surfaced vesicles devoid of clathrin. Notably, regulators associated with macropinocytosis, namely EIPA, Pak1, Rab34, and Rac1, had no significant effect on viral transduction, and the virus did not induce fluid-phase uptake. The internalization and nuclear uptake was, however, affected by mutants of RhoA, and of Arf6, a regulator of clathrin-independent entry. Furthermore, the entry of baculovirus induced ruffle formation and triggered the uptake of fluorescent E. coli bioparticles. To conclude, baculovirus enters human cells via a clathrin-independent pathway, which is able to trigger bacterial uptake. This study increases our understanding of virus entry strategies and gives new insight into baculovirus-mediated gene delivery in human cells.

  3. Triggering Artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben Holst; Robinson, Mike

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a general critique of the use of conceptual frameworks in design, illustrated by the well known synchronous/asynchronous, co-located/non-co-located framework. It argues that while frameworks are a necessary and inevitable starting point for design, the business of tailoring...... and adapting them to specific situations need not be ad hoc.Triggering artefacts are a way of systematically challenging both designers' preunderstandings and the conservatism of work practice. Experiences from the Great Belt tunnel and bridge project are used to illustrate howtriggering artefacts change...

  4. Directed evolution of adeno-associated virus for glioma cell transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Casey A; Gianni, Davide; Meijer, Dimphna H; Shaket, Lev A; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Rabkin, Samuel D; Gao, Guangping; Sena-Esteves, Miguel

    2010-02-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a serious form of brain cancer for which there is currently no effective treatment. Alternative strategies such as adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector mediated-genetic modification of brain tumor cells with genes encoding anti-tumor proteins have shown promising results in preclinical models of GBM, although the transduction efficiency of these tumors is often low. As higher transduction efficiency of tumor cells should lead to enhanced therapeutic efficacy, a means to rapidly engineer AAV vectors with improved transduction efficiency for individual tumors is an attractive strategy. Here we tested the possibility of identifying high-efficiency AAV vectors for human U87 glioma cells by selection in culture of a newly constructed chimeric AAV capsid library generated by DNA shuffling of six different AAV cap genes (AAV1, AAV2, AAV5, AAVrh.8, AAV9, AAVrh.10). After seven rounds of selection, we obtained a chimeric AAV capsid that transduces U87 cells at high efficiency (97% at a dose of 10(4) genome copies/cell), and at low doses it was 1.45-1.6-fold better than AAV2, which proved to be the most efficient parental capsid. Interestingly, the new AAV capsid displayed robust gene delivery properties to all glioma cells tested (including primary glioma cells) with relative fluorescence indices ranging from 1- to 14-fold higher than AAV2. The selected vector should be useful for in vitro glioma research when efficient transduction of several cell lines is required, and provides proof-of-concept that an AAV library can be used to generate AAV vectors with enhanced transduction efficiency of glioma cells.

  5. About vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Banesh

    1975-01-01

    From his unusual beginning in ""Defining a vector"" to his final comments on ""What then is a vector?"" author Banesh Hoffmann has written a book that is provocative and unconventional. In his emphasis on the unresolved issue of defining a vector, Hoffmann mixes pure and applied mathematics without using calculus. The result is a treatment that can serve as a supplement and corrective to textbooks, as well as collateral reading in all courses that deal with vectors. Major topics include vectors and the parallelogram law; algebraic notation and basic ideas; vector algebra; scalars and scalar p

  6. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Newell, Homer E

    2006-01-01

    When employed with skill and understanding, vector analysis can be a practical and powerful tool. This text develops the algebra and calculus of vectors in a manner useful to physicists and engineers. Numerous exercises (with answers) not only provide practice in manipulation but also help establish students' physical and geometric intuition in regard to vectors and vector concepts.Part I, the basic portion of the text, consists of a thorough treatment of vector algebra and the vector calculus. Part II presents the illustrative matter, demonstrating applications to kinematics, mechanics, and e

  7. The SUMOylation Pathway Restricts Gene Transduction by Adeno-Associated Viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Hölscher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated viruses are members of the genus dependoviruses of the parvoviridae family. AAV vectors are considered promising vectors for gene therapy and genetic vaccination as they can be easily produced, are highly stable and non-pathogenic. Nevertheless, transduction of cells in vitro and in vivo by AAV in the absence of a helper virus is comparatively inefficient requiring high multiplicity of infection. Several bottlenecks for AAV transduction have previously been described, including release from endosomes, nuclear transport and conversion of the single stranded DNA into a double stranded molecule. We hypothesized that the bottlenecks in AAV transduction are, in part, due to the presence of host cell restriction factors acting directly or indirectly on the AAV-mediated gene transduction. In order to identify such factors we performed a whole genome siRNA screen which identified a number of putative genes interfering with AAV gene transduction. A number of factors, yielding the highest scores, were identified as members of the SUMOylation pathway. We identified Ubc9, the E2 conjugating enzyme as well as Sae1 and Sae2, enzymes responsible for activating E1, as factors involved in restricting AAV. The restriction effect, mediated by these factors, was validated and reproduced independently. Our data indicate that SUMOylation targets entry of AAV capsids and not downstream processes of uncoating, including DNA single strand conversion or DNA damage signaling. We suggest that transiently targeting SUMOylation will enhance application of AAV in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Abscisic acid perception and signaling transduction in strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunli; Jia, Haifeng; Chai, Yemao; Shen, Yuanyue

    2011-01-01

    On basis of fruit differential respiration and ethylene effects, climacteric and non-climacteric fruits have been classically defined. Over the past decades, the molecular mechanisms of climacteric fruit ripening were abundantly described and found to focus on ethylene perception and signaling transduction. In contrast, until our most recent breakthroughs, much progress has been made toward understanding the signaling perception and transduction mechanisms for abscisic acid (ABA) in strawberry, a model for non-climacteric fruit ripening. Our reports not only have provided several lines of strong evidences for ABA-regulated ripening of strawberry fruit, but also have demonstrated that homology proteins of Arabidopsis ABA receptors, including PYR/PYL/RCAR and ABAR/CHLH, act as positive regulators of ripening in response to ABA. These receptors also trigger a set of ABA downstream signaling components, and determine significant changes in the expression levels of both sugar and pigment metabolism-related genes that are closely associated with ripening. Soluble sugars, especially sucrose, may act as a signal molecular to trigger ABA accumulation through an enzymatic action of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 1 (FaNCED1). This mini-review offers an overview of these processes and also outlines the possible, molecular mechanisms for ABA in the regulation of strawberry fruit ripening through the ABA receptors. PMID:22095148

  9. Efficient retrograde neuronal transduction utilizing self-complementary AAV1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Edmund R; Kadoya, Ken; Hirsch, Matthew; Samulski, Richard J; Tuszynski, Mark H

    2008-02-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is frequently used for gene transfer into the central nervous system (CNS). Similar to adenovirus and rabies virus, AAV can be taken up by axons and retrogradely transported, resulting in neuronal gene expression distant from the injection site. We investigated the retrograde transport properties of self-complementary AAV (scAAV) serotypes 1-6 following peripheral injection. Injection of scAAV into either rat extensor carpi muscle or sciatic nerve resulted in detectable retrograde vector transport and reporter gene expression in spinal cord motor neurons (MNs). Serotype 1 resulted in the highest level of retrograde transport, with 4.1 +/- 0.3% of cervical MNs projecting to the extensor carpi transduced following intramuscular injection, and 7.5 +/- 3.1% of lumbar MNs transduced after sciatic nerve injection. In contrast to scAAV1, retrograde transduction with scAAV2 was undetectable following intramuscular injection, and was detected in only 0.81 +/- 0.15% of MNs projecting to the sciatic nerve following intranerve injection. Furthermore, sciatic injection of single-stranded AAV1 required injection of tenfold higher numbers of viral particles for detectable transgene expression compared to scAAV1, and then only 0.91 +/- 0.24% of lumbar MNs were transduced. Our data provide the basis for increased retrograde transduction efficiency using peripheral injections of scAAV1 vectors for therapeutic gene delivery to the spinal cord.

  10. Single amino acid modification of adeno-associated virus capsid changes transduction and humoral immune profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengwen; Diprimio, Nina; Bowles, Dawn E; Hirsch, Matthew L; Monahan, Paul E; Asokan, Aravind; Rabinowitz, Joseph; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Samulski, R Jude

    2012-08-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have the potential to promote long-term gene expression. Unfortunately, humoral immunity restricts patient treatment and in addition provides an obstacle to the potential option of vector readministration. In this study, we describe a comprehensive characterization of the neutralizing antibody (NAb) response to AAV type 1 (AAV1) through AAV5 both in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrated that NAbs generated from one AAV type are unable to neutralize the transduction of other types. We extended this observation by demonstrating that a rationally engineered, muscle-tropic AAV2 mutant containing 5 amino acid substitutions from AAV1 displayed a NAb profile different from those of parental AAV2 and AAV1. Here we found that a single insertion of Thr from AAV1 into AAV2 capsid at residue 265 preserved high muscle transduction, while also changing the immune profile. To better understand the role of Thr insertion at position 265, we replaced all 20 amino acids and evaluated both muscle transduction and the NAb response. Of these variants, 8 mutants induced higher muscle transduction than AAV2. Additionally, three classes of capsid NAb immune profile were defined based on the ability to inhibit transduction from AAV2 or mutants. While no relationship was found between transduction, amino acid properties, and NAb titer or its cross-reactivity, these studies map a critical capsid motif involved in all steps of AAV infectivity. Our results suggest that AAV types can be utilized not only as templates to generate mutants with enhanced transduction efficiency but also as substrates for repeat administration.

  11. Firearm trigger assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2010-02-16

    A firearm trigger assembly for use with a firearm includes a trigger mounted to a forestock of the firearm so that the trigger is movable between a rest position and a triggering position by a forwardly placed support hand of a user. An elongated trigger member operatively associated with the trigger operates a sear assembly of the firearm when the trigger is moved to the triggering position. An action release assembly operatively associated with the firearm trigger assembly and a movable assembly of the firearm prevents the trigger from being moved to the triggering position when the movable assembly is not in the locked position.

  12. Impact of capsid modifications by selected peptide ligands on recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2-mediated gene transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumer, Matthias; Popa-Wagner, Ruth; Kleinschmidt, Jürgen A

    2012-10-01

    Vectors based on adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) belong to today's most promising and most frequently used viral vectors in human gene therapy. Like in many other vector systems, the broad but non-specific tropism limits their use for certain cell types or tissues. One approach to screen for transduction-improved vectors is the selection of random peptide libraries displayed directly on the AAV2 capsid. Although the AAV2 library system has been widely applied for the successful selection of improved gene therapy vectors, it remains unknown which steps of the transduction process are most affected and therefore critical for the selection of targeting peptides. Attachment to the cell surface is the first essential step of AAV-mediated gene transduction; however, our experiments challenge the conventional belief that enhanced gene transfer is equivalent to more efficient cell binding of recombinant AAV2 vectors. A comparison of the various steps of gene transfer by vectors carrying a wild-type AAV2 capsid or displaying two exemplary peptide ligands selected from AAV2 random libraries on different human tumour cell lines demonstrated strong alterations in cell binding, cellular uptake, as well as intracellular processing of these vectors. Combined, our results suggest that entry and post-entry events are decisive for the selection of the peptides NDVRSAN and GPQGKNS rather than their cell binding efficiency.

  13. Elementary vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wolstenholme, E Œ

    1978-01-01

    Elementary Vectors, Third Edition serves as an introductory course in vector analysis and is intended to present the theoretical and application aspects of vectors. The book covers topics that rigorously explain and provide definitions, principles, equations, and methods in vector analysis. Applications of vector methods to simple kinematical and dynamical problems; central forces and orbits; and solutions to geometrical problems are discussed as well. This edition of the text also provides an appendix, intended for students, which the author hopes to bridge the gap between theory and appl

  14. New recombinant serotypes of AAV vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guangping; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Wilson, James M

    2005-06-01

    AAV based vectors can achieve stable gene transfer with minimal vector related toxicities. AAV serotype 2 (AAV2) is the first AAV that was vectored for gene transfer applications. However, the restricted tissue tropism of AAV and its low transduction efficiency have limited its further development as vector. Recent studies using vectors derived from alternative AAV serotypes such as AAV1, 4, 5 and 6 have shown improved potency and broadened tropism of the AAV vector by packaging the same vector genome with different AAV capsids. In an attempt to search for potent AAV vectors with enhanced performance profiles, molecular techniques were employed for the detection and isolation of endogenous AAVs from a variety of human and non-human primate (NHP) tissues. A family of novel primate AAVs consisting of 110 non-redundant species of proviral sequences was discovered and turned to be prevalent in 18-19% of the tissues evaluated. Phylogenetic and functional analyses revealed that primate AAVs are segregated into clades based on phylogenetic relatedness. The members within a clade share functional and serological properties. Initial evaluation in mouse models of vectors based on these novel AAVs for tissue tropism and gene transfer potency led to the identification of some vector with improved gene transfer to different target tissues. Gene therapy treatment of several mouse and canine models with novel AAV vectors achieved long term phenotypic corrections. Vectors based on new primate AAVs could become the next generation of efficient gene transfer vehicles for various gene therapy applications.

  15. Multidrug resistance and retroviral transduction potential in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, M D; Gram, G J; Jensen, P B

    1999-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a major problem in the successful treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). New treatment strategies are needed, such as gene therapy specifically targeting the MDR cells in the tumor. Retroviral LacZ gene-containing vectors that were either pseudotyped...... for the gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV-1) receptor or had specificity for the amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV-A) receptor were used for transduction of five SCLC cell lines differing by a range of MDR mechanisms. Transduction efficiencies in these cell lines were compared by calculating the percentage...

  16. Cellular semiotics and signal transduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2007-01-01

    Semiosis, the processes of production, communication and interpretation of signs - coding and de-coding - takes place within and between organisms. The term "endosemiosis" refers to the processes of interpretation and sign transmission inside an organism (as opposed to "exosemiosis", which refers...... to the processes of sign interpretation and transmission between organisms of the same or different species). In Biosemiotics it is customary to recognise the cell as the most elementary integration unit for semiosis. Therefore intra and intercellular communication constitute the departure point for the study...... considering semiotic logic in order to construct our understanding of living phenomena. Given the central integrating role of signal transduction in physiological and ecological studies, this chapter outlines its semiotic implications. The multi-modality and modularity of signal molecules and relative...

  17. Quantum Transduction with Adaptive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengzhen; Zou, Chang-Ling; Jiang, Liang

    2018-01-12

    Quantum transducers play a crucial role in hybrid quantum networks. A good quantum transducer can faithfully convert quantum signals from one mode to another with minimum decoherence. Most investigations of quantum transduction are based on the protocol of direct mode conversion. However, the direct protocol requires the matching condition, which in practice is not always feasible. Here we propose an adaptive protocol for quantum transducers, which can convert quantum signals without requiring the matching condition. The adaptive protocol only consists of Gaussian operations, feasible in various physical platforms. Moreover, we show that the adaptive protocol can be robust against imperfections associated with finite squeezing, thermal noise, and homodyne detection, and it can be implemented to realize quantum state transfer between microwave and optical modes.

  18. Differential myocardial gene delivery by recombinant serotype-specific adeno-associated viral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lingling; Kido, Masakuni; Lee, Darwin V; Rabinowitz, Joseph E; Samulski, R Jude; Jamieson, Stuart W; Weitzman, Matthew D; Thistlethwaite, Patricia A

    2004-09-01

    Recombinant cross-packaging of adeno-associated virus (AAV) genome of one serotype into other AAV serotypes has the potential to optimize tissue-specific gene transduction and expression in the heart. To evaluate the role of AAV1 to 5 virion shells on AAV2 transgene transduction, we constructed hybrid vectors in which each serotype capsid coding domain was cloned into a common vector backbone containing AAV2 replication genes. Constructs were tested for expression in: (1) adult murine heart in vivo using direct injection of virus, (2) neonatal and adult murine ventricular cardiomyocytes in vitro, and (3) adult human ventricular cardiomyocytes in vitro, using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as the measurable transgene. Serotype 1 virus demonstrated the highest transduction efficiency in adult murine cardiomyocytes both in vitro and in vivo, while serotype 2 virus had the greater transduction efficiency in neonatal cardiomyocytes in vitro. Prolonged in vivo myocardial GFP expression was observed for up to 12 months using serotype 1 and 2 vectors only. In human cardiomyocytes, serotype 1 vector was superior in transduction efficiency, followed by types 2, 5, 4, and 3. These data establish a hierarchy for efficient serotype-specific vector transduction in myocardial tissue. AAV1 serotype packaging results in more efficient transduction of genes in the murine and human adult heart, compared to other AAV serotypes. Our results suggest that adult human cardiac gene therapy may be enhanced by the use of serotype 1-specific AAV vectors.

  19. Gravitational sensory transduction chain in flagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häder, D.-P.; Richter, P.; Ntefidou, M.; Lebert, M.

    Earlier hypotheses have assumed that gravitactic orientation in flagellates, such as the photosynthetic unicell Euglena gracilis, is brought about by passive alignment of the cells in the water column by being tail heavy. A recent experiment on a sounding rocket (TEXUS 40) comparing immobilized cells with mobile cells demonstrated that the passive buoy effect can account for approximately 20% of the orientation of the cells in a gravity field. The cells show either positive or negative gravitaxis depending on other external or internal factors. Shortly after inoculation, the tendency of young cells to swim downward in the water column can be readily reverted by adding micromolar concentrations of some heavy metal ions including copper, cadmium or lead. The negative gravitaxis of older cells is converted into a positive one by stress factors such as increasing salinity or exposure to excessive visible or UV radiation. The mechanism for this switch seems to involve reactive oxygen species since the gravitactic sign change was suppressed when oxygen was removed by flushing the cell suspension with nitrogen. Also, the addition of radical scavengers (Trolox, ascorbic acid or potassium cyanide) abolished or reduced the gravitactic sign change. Addition of hydrogen peroxide induced a gravitactic sign change in the absence of external stress factors. The primary reception for the gravity vector seems to involve mechanosensitive ion channels which specifically gate calcium ions inward. We have identified several gene sequences for putative mechanosensory channels in Euglena and have applied RNAi to identify which of these channels are involved in graviperception. The influx of Ca 2+ activates calmodulin (CaM) which has been shown to be involved in the sensory transduction chain of graviorientation. It is known that an adenylyl cyclase is bound to the flagellar membrane in Euglena which is activated by CaM. This enzyme produces cAMP which has also been shown to be the key

  20. EDITORIAL: Special section on signal transduction Special section on signal transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvartsman, Stanislav

    2012-08-01

    This special section of Physical Biology focuses on multiple aspects of signal transduction, broadly defined as the study of the mechanisms by which cells communicate with their environment. Mechanisms of cell communication involve detection of incoming signals, which can be chemical, mechanical or electromagnetic, relaying these signals to intracellular processes, such as cytoskeletal networks or gene expression systems, and, ultimately, converting these signals to responses such as cell differentiation or death. Given the multiscale nature of signal transduction systems, they must be studied at multiple levels, from the identities and structures of molecules comprising signal detection and interpretation networks, to the systems-level properties of these networks. The 11 papers in this special section illustrate some of the most exciting aspects of signal transduction research. The first two papers, by Marie-Anne Félix [1] and by Efrat Oron and Natalia Ivanova [2], focus on cell-cell interactions in developing tissues, using vulval patterning in worm and cell fate specification in mammalian embryos as prime examples of emergent cell behaviors. Next come two papers from the groups of Julio Saez-Rodriguez [3] and Kevin Janes [4]. These papers discuss how the causal relationships between multiple components of signaling systems can be inferred using multivariable statistical analysis of empirical data. An authoritative review by Zarnitsyna and Zhu [5] presents a detailed discussion of the sequence of signaling events involved in T-cell triggering. Once the structure and components of the signaling systems are determined, they can be modeled using approaches that have been successful in other physical sciences. As two examples of such approaches, reviews by Rubinstein [6] and Kholodenko [7], present reaction-diffusion models of cell polarization and thermodynamics-based models of gene regulation. An important class of models takes the form of enzymatic networks

  1. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brand, Louis

    2006-01-01

    The use of vectors not only simplifies treatments of differential geometry, mechanics, hydrodynamics, and electrodynamics, but also makes mathematical and physical concepts more tangible and easy to grasp. This text for undergraduates was designed as a short introductory course to give students the tools of vector algebra and calculus, as well as a brief glimpse into these subjects' manifold applications. The applications are developed to the extent that the uses of the potential function, both scalar and vector, are fully illustrated. Moreover, the basic postulates of vector analysis are brou

  2. Forward Programming of Cardiac Stem Cells by Homogeneous Transduction with MYOCD plus TBX5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Belian

    Full Text Available Adult cardiac stem cells (CSCs express many endogenous cardiogenic transcription factors including members of the Gata, Hand, Mef2, and T-box family. Unlike its DNA-binding targets, Myocardin (Myocd-a co-activator not only for serum response factor, but also for Gata4 and Tbx5-is not expressed in CSCs. We hypothesised that its absence was a limiting factor for reprogramming. Here, we sought to investigate the susceptibility of adult mouse Sca1+ side population CSCs to reprogramming by supplementing the triad of GATA4, MEF2C, and TBX5 (GMT, and more specifically by testing the effect of the missing co-activator, Myocd. Exogenous factors were expressed via doxycycline-inducible lentiviral vectors in various combinations. High throughput quantitative RT-PCR was used to test expression of 29 cardiac lineage markers two weeks post-induction. GMT induced more than half the analysed cardiac transcripts. However, no protein was detected for the induced sarcomeric genes Actc1, Myh6, and Myl2. Adding MYOCD to GMT affected only slightly the breadth and level of gene induction, but, importantly, triggered expression of all three proteins examined (α-cardiac actin, atrial natriuretic peptide, sarcomeric myosin heavy chains. MYOCD + TBX was the most effective pairwise combination in this system. In clonal derivatives homogenously expressing MYOCD + TBX at high levels, 93% of cardiac transcripts were up-regulated and all five proteins tested were visualized.(1 GMT induced cardiac genes in CSCs, but not cardiac proteins under the conditions used. (2 Complementing GMT with MYOCD induced cardiac protein expression, indicating a more complete cardiac differentiation program. (3 Homogeneous transduction with MYOCD + TBX5 facilitated the identification of differentiating cells and the validation of this combinatorial reprogramming strategy. Together, these results highlight the pivotal importance of MYOCD in driving CSCs toward a cardiac muscle fate.

  3. Targeting Photoreceptors via Intravitreal Delivery Using Novel, Capsid-Mutated AAV Vectors: e62097

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christine N Kay; Renee C Ryals; George V Aslanidi; Seok Hong Min; Qing Ruan; Jingfen Sun; Frank M Dyka; Daniel Kasuga; Andrea E Ayala; Kim Van Vliet; Mavis Agbandje-McKenna; William W Hauswirth; Sanford L Boye; Shannon E Boye

    2013-01-01

    .... Transduction efficiencies of self-complimentary, capsid-mutant and unmodified AAV vectors containing the smCBA promoter and mCherry cDNA were initially scored in vitro using a cone photoreceptor cell line...

  4. Preferential labeling of inhibitory and excitatory cortical neurons by endogenous tropism of AAV and lentiviral vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Nathanson, Jason L; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Obata, Kunihiko; Callaway, Edward M.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increasingly widespread use of recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) and lentiviral (LV) vectors for transduction of neurons in a wide range of brain structures and species, the diversity of cell types within a given brain structure is rarely considered. For example, the ability of a vector to transduce neurons within a brain structure is often assumed to indicate that all neuron types within the structure are transduced. We have characterized the transduction of mouse somatosensor...

  5. Rationally Engineered AAV Capsids Improve Transduction and Volumetric Spread in the CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, Nicholas M; Sellnow, Rhyomi C; Boye, Sanford L; Coberly, Ben; Bennett, Antonette; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Sortwell, Caryl E; Hauswirth, William W; Boye, Shannon E; Manfredsson, Fredric P

    2017-09-15

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is the most common vector for clinical gene therapy of the CNS. This popularity originates from a high safety record and the longevity of transgene expression in neurons. Nevertheless, clinical efficacy for CNS indications is lacking, and one reason for this is the relatively limited spread and transduction efficacy in large regions of the human brain. Using rationally designed modifications of the capsid, novel AAV capsids have been generated that improve intracellular processing and result in increased transgene expression. Here, we sought to improve AAV-mediated neuronal transduction to minimize the existing limitations of CNS gene therapy. We investigated the efficacy of CNS transduction using a variety of tyrosine and threonine capsid mutants based on AAV2, AAV5, and AAV8 capsids, as well as AAV2 mutants incapable of binding heparan sulfate (HS). We found that mutating several tyrosine residues on the AAV2 capsid significantly enhanced neuronal transduction in the striatum and hippocampus, and the ablation of HS binding also increased the volumetric spread of the vector. Interestingly, the analogous tyrosine substitutions on AAV5 and AAV8 capsids did not improve the efficacy of these serotypes. Our results demonstrate that the efficacy of CNS gene transfer can be significantly improved with minor changes to the AAV capsid and that the effect is serotype specific. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. VEGF-A isoforms program differential VEGFR2 signal transduction, trafficking and proteolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth W. Fearnley

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A binding to the receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR2 triggers multiple signal transduction pathways, which regulate endothelial cell responses that control vascular development. Multiple isoforms of VEGF-A can elicit differential signal transduction and endothelial responses. However, it is unclear how such cellular responses are controlled by isoform-specific VEGF-A–VEGFR2 complexes. Increasingly, there is the realization that the membrane trafficking of receptor–ligand complexes influences signal transduction and protein turnover. By building on these concepts, our study shows for the first time that three different VEGF-A isoforms (VEGF-A165, VEGF-A121 and VEGF-A145 promote distinct patterns of VEGFR2 endocytosis for delivery into early endosomes. This differential VEGFR2 endocytosis and trafficking is linked to VEGF-A isoform-specific signal transduction events. Disruption of clathrin-dependent endocytosis blocked VEGF-A isoform-specific VEGFR2 activation, signal transduction and caused substantial depletion in membrane-bound VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 levels. Furthermore, such VEGF-A isoforms promoted differential patterns of VEGFR2 ubiquitylation, proteolysis and terminal degradation. Our study now provides novel insights into how different VEGF-A isoforms can bind the same receptor tyrosine kinase and elicit diverse cellular outcomes.

  7. Suppression of tumorigenicity and metastatic potential of melanoma cells by transduction of interferon gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lykhova A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate an inhibitory effect of baculovirus-mediated transduction of the murine interferon-beta gene on mouse melanoma in vitro and in vivo. Methods. Studies were performed on B16 mouse melanoma (MM-4 cell line. Transduction, immunocytochemical and tumor cell biology approaches have been used in this study. Results. Transduction of MM-4 cells by the recombinant baculovirus with IFN-beta gene is accompanied by morphological changes of tumor cells, suppression of cell proliferation, significant inhibition of platting efficiency of cells and their colonies formation in semisolid agar. Moreover, transduction of melanoma MM-4 cells by the baculovirus IFN-transgene leads to inhibition of tumorigenicity and metastatic ability of the cells in vivo. The intravenous administration of recombinant baculovirus vector with IFN gene inhibits growth of metastases induced in the lungs of mice by intravenously injected tumor cells. Conclusions. Transduction of mouse melanoma cells by the recombinant baculovirus with murine IFN-beta gene inhibits their proliferative potential, tumorigenicity and metastatic activity.

  8. Comparative biology of rAAV transduction in ferret, pig and human airway epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Luo, M; Guo, C; Yan, Z; Wang, Y; Engelhardt, J F

    2007-11-01

    Differences between rodent and human airway cell biology have made it difficult to translate recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated gene therapies to the lung for cystic fibrosis (CF). As new ferret and pig models for CF become available, knowledge about host cell/vector interactions in these species will become increasingly important for testing potential gene therapies. To this end, we have compared the transduction biology of three rAAV serotypes (AAV1, 2 and 5) in human, ferret, pig and mouse-polarized airway epithelia. Our results indicate that apical transduction of ferret and pig airway epithelia with these rAAV serotypes closely mirrors that observed in human epithelia (rAAV1>rAAV2 congruent withrAAV5), while transduction of mouse epithelia was significantly different (rAAV1>rAAV5>rAAV2). Similarly, ferret, pig and human epithelia also shared serotype-specific differences in the polarity (apical vs basolateral) and proteasome dependence of rAAV transduction. Despite these parallels, N-linked sialic acid receptors were required for rAAV1 and rAAV5 transduction of human and mouse airway epithelia, but not ferret or pig airway epithelia. Hence, although the airway tropisms of rAAV serotypes 1, 2 and 5 are conserved better among ferret, pig and human as compared to mouse, viral receptors/co-receptors appear to maintain considerable species diversity.

  9. Directing integrin-linked endocytosis of recombinant AAV enhances productive FAK-dependent transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Paul M; Keiser, Nicholas W; Yan, Ziying; Lei-Butters, Diana C M; Engelhardt, John F

    2012-05-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) is a widely used gene therapy vector. Although a wide range of rAAV serotypes can effectively enter most cell types, their transduction efficiencies (i.e., transgene expression) can vary widely depending on the target cell type. Integrins play important roles as coreceptors for rAAV infection, however, it remains unclear how integrin-dependent and -independent mechanisms of rAAV endocytosis influence the efficiency of intracellular virus processing and ultimately transgene expression. In this study, we examined the contribution of integrin-mediated endocytosis to transduction of fibroblasts by rAAV2. Mn(++)-induced integrin activation significantly enhanced (~17-fold) the efficiency of rAAV2 transduction, without altering viral binding or endocytosis. rAAV2 subcellular localization studies demonstrated that Mn(++) promotes increased clustering of rAAV2 on integrins and recruitment of intracellular vinculin (an integrin effector) to sites of rAAV2 binding at the cell surface. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a downstream effector of integrin signals, was essential for rAAV2/integrin complex internalization and transduction. These findings support a model whereby integrin activation at the cell surface can redirect rAAV2 toward a FAK-dependent entry pathway that is more productive for cellular transduction. This pathway appears to be conserved for other rAAV serotypes that contain a capsid integrin-binding domain (AAV1 and AAV6).

  10. Dynamic processes of visual transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applebury, M L

    1984-01-01

    Rhodopsin is one of those rare macromolecules whose inherent chromophore, 11-cis retinaldehyde, allows one to naturally observe triggered macromolecular changes on the timescale of picoseconds to minutes. Investigations of these molecular processes have been carried out with laser monochromatic light under conditions where the photon flux used for photolysis was carefully measured. The formation of bleaching intermediates has been examined as a function of fluence. Under conditions where the formation of intermediates is unaffected by photon reversal the following observations hold: Upon the absorption of a photon, the initial photochemical event results in production of metastable bathorhodopsin within 6 psec. Artificial rhodopsin regenerated with 9-cis retinal forms a distinct bathorhodopsin which must reflect distortions at the active site differing from those generated with 11-cis retinal. Bathorhodopsin thermally decays through lumirhodopsin and meta I-rhodopsin, to meta II-rhodopsin through a series of coupled equilibria. The final meta I-meta II equilibrium is stable for seconds. The process provides a unique model for utilization of energy to drive (trigger) a biological cascade of events.

  11. Umami taste transduction mechanisms1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    l-Glutamate elicits the umami taste sensation, now recognized as a fifth distinct taste quality. A characteristic feature of umami taste is its potentiation by 5′-ribonucleotides such as guanosine-5'-monophosphate and inosine 5′-monophosphate, which also elicit the umami taste on their own. Recent data suggest that multiple G protein–coupled receptors contribute to umami taste. This review will focus on events downstream of the umami taste receptors. Ligand binding leads to Gβγ activation of phospholipase C β2, which produces the second messengers inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. Inositol trisphosphate binds to the type III inositol trisphosphate receptor, which causes the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and Ca2+-dependent activation of a monovalent-selective cation channel, TRPM5. TRPM5 is believed to depolarize taste cells, which leads to the release of ATP, which activates ionotropic purinergic receptors on gustatory afferent nerve fibers. This model is supported by knockout of the relevant signaling effectors as well as physiologic studies of isolated taste cells. Concomitant with the molecular studies, physiologic studies show that l-glutamate elicits increases in intracellular Ca2+ in isolated taste cells and that the source of the Ca2+ is release from intracellular stores. Both Gα gustducin and Gα transducin are involved in umami signaling, because the knockout of either subunit compromises responses to umami stimuli. Both α-gustducin and α-transducin activate phosphodiesterases to decrease intracellular cAMP. The target of cAMP in umami transduction is not known, but membrane-permeant analogs of cAMP antagonize electrophysiologic responses to umami stimuli in isolated taste cells, which suggests that cAMP may have a modulatory role in umami signaling. PMID:19571214

  12. Systematic improvement of lentivirus transduction protocols by antibody fragments fused to VSV-G as envelope glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfig, Ines; Barth, Stefan; Salomon, M; Jagusch, Verena; Atkinson, Mike J; Anastasov, Natasa; Thirion, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Lentiviral vectors (LV) are widely used to successfully transduce cells for research and clinical applications. Lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) can be produced to high titers and mediate high transduction efficiencies in vitro. For clinical applications the need for optimized transduction protocols and the limited activity of retronectin as LV enhancer, results in the application of a high multiplicity of infection (MOI) to achieve effective transduction efficiencies for a number of therapeutically relevant cells, e.g. CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells, T- and B-cells. Our study describes an optimized LV infection protocol including a non-toxic poloxamer-based adjuvant combined with antibody-retargeted lentiviral particles, improving transduction efficiency at low MOI. Cell specificity of lentiviral vectors was increased by displaying different ratios of scFv-fused VSV-G glycoproteins on the viral envelope. The system was validated with difficult to transduce human CD30(+) lymphoma cells, and EGFR(+) tumor cells. Highly efficient transduction of lymphoma cells was achieved, >50% of cells were transduced when MOI 1 was used. The scFv displaying lentiviral particles gained relative specificity for transduction of target cells. Preferential gene delivery to CD30(+) or EGFR(+) cells was increased 4-fold in mixed cell cultures by presenting scFv antibody fragments binding to respective surface markers. A combination of spinoculation, poloxamer-based chemical adjuvant, and LV displaying scFv fragments increases transduction efficiencies of hard-to-transduce suspension lymphoma cells, and promises new chances for the future development of improved clinical protocols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A survey of ex vivo/in vitro transduction efficiency of mammalian primary cells and cell lines with Nine natural adeno-associated virus (AAV1-9) and one engineered adeno-associated virus serotype

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellis, Brian L; Hirsch, Matthew L; Barker, Jenny C; Connelly, Jon P; Steininger, 3rd, Robert J; Porteus, Matthew H

    2013-01-01

    .... Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a useful gene transfer vector because of its ability to mediate efficient gene transduction in numerous dividing and quiescent cell types, without inducing any known pathogenicity...

  14. Improved Intravitreal AAV-Mediated Inner Retinal Gene Transduction after Surgical Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling in Cynomolgus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Igarashi, Tsutomu; Miyake, Koichi; Kobayashi, Maika; Yaguchi, Chiemi; Iijima, Osamu; Yamazaki, Yoshiyuki; Katakai, Yuko; Miyake, Noriko; Kameya, Shuhei; Shimada, Takashi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Okada, Takashi

    2017-01-04

    The retina is an ideal target for gene therapy because of its easy accessibility and limited immunological response. We previously reported that intravitreally injected adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector transduced the inner retina with high efficiency in a rodent model. In large animals, however, the efficiency of retinal transduction was low, because the vitreous and internal limiting membrane (ILM) acted as barriers to transduction. To overcome these barriers in cynomolgus monkeys, we performed vitrectomy (VIT) and ILM peeling before AAV vector injection. Following intravitreal injection of 50 μL triple-mutated self-complementary AAV serotype 2 vector encoding EGFP, transduction efficiency was analyzed. Little expression of GFP was detected in the control and VIT groups, but in the VIT+ILM group, strong GFP expression was detected within the peeled ILM area. To detect potential adverse effects, we monitored the retinas using color fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, and electroretinography. No serious side effects associated with the pretreatment were observed. These results indicate that surgical ILM peeling before AAV vector administration would be safe and useful for efficient transduction of the nonhuman primate retina and provide therapeutic benefits for the treatment of retinal diseases. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cloning vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, R.A.; Smith, L.M.

    1994-12-27

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site. 2 figures.

  16. Cloning vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site.

  17. Capsid Engineering of Adenovirus Vectors: Overcoming Early Vector-Host Interactions for Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Claudia; Kreppel, Florian

    2017-10-01

    Adenovirus-based vectors comprise the most frequently used vector type in clinical studies to date. Both intense lab research and insights from the clinical trials reveal the importance of a comprehensive understanding of vector-host interactions. Especially for systemic intravenous adenovirus vector delivery, it is paramount to develop safe and efficacious vectors. Very early vector-host interactions that take place in blood long before the first cell is being transduced are phenomena triggered by the surface, shape, and size of the adenovirus vector particles. Not surprisingly, a multitude of different technologies ranging from genetics to chemistry has been developed to alter the adenovirus vector surface. In this review, we discuss the most important technologies and evaluate them for their suitability to overcome hurdles imposed by early vector-host interactions.

  18. Comparison of nonviral transfection and adeno-associated viral transduction on cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurovic, Srdjan; Iversen, Nina; Jeansson, Stig; Hoover, Frank; Christensen, Geir

    2004-09-01

    Cardiomyocytes are terminally differentiated cells that to date have been characterized as poor targets for nonviral gene transfer. This study was therefore designed to determine the optimal nonviral gene transfer parameters in cell cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and to compare them with the efficiency of gene transfer using adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV). Transfection efficiency was measured by quantitative chloramphenicol acetyltransferase type I (CAT)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and beta-galactosidase staining, based on overexpression of reporter genes (CAT and LacZ). The efficiency of CAT/LacZ overexpression was assessed using the following techniques: (1) liposomal reagents, such as: FuGENE 6, LipofectAMINE 2000, LipofectAMINE PLUS, GenePORTER, Metafectene, and LipoGen; (2) electroporation and nucleofector techniques; and (3) an AAV2 vector harboring a lacZ reporter gene. Toxicity was monitored by total protein measurement and by analyzing cell metabolism. On average, Lipofectamine 2000 was the most effective nonviral method examined yielding consistently high transfection rates (8.1% beta-galactosidase-positive cells) combined with low toxicity. Electroporation also resulted in high transfection values (7.5%); however, cellular toxicity was higher than that of Lipofectamine 2000. Finally, transduction with AAV2 vectors provided the highest levels of transduction (88.1%) with no cellular toxicity. We conclude that although transduction with AAV is more efficient (88.1%), transfections with nonviral techniques, when optimized, may provide a useful alternative for overexpression of therapeutic genes in neonatal cardiomyocytes.

  19. Unique biologic properties of recombinant AAV1 transduction in polarized human airway epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ziying; Lei-Butters, Diana C M; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yulong; Zhang, Liang; Luo, Meihui; Zak, Roman; Engelhardt, John F

    2006-10-06

    The choice of adeno-associated virus serotypes for clinical applications is influenced by the animal model and model system used to evaluate various serotypes. In the present study, we sought to compare the biologic properties of rAAV2/1, rAAV2/2, and rAAV2/5 transduction in polarized human airway epithelia using viruses purified by a newly developed common column chromatography method. Results demonstrated that apical transduction of human airway epithelia with rAAV2/1 was 100-fold more efficient than rAAV2/2 and rAAV2/5. This transduction profile in human airway epithelia (rAAV2/1 > rAAV2/2 = rAAV2/5) was significantly different from that seen following nasal administration of these vectors to mouse lung (rAAV2/5 > rAAV2/1 > rAAV2/2), emphasizing differences in transduction of these serotypes between these two species. In stark contrast to rAAV2/2 and rAAV2/5, rAAV2/1 transduced both the apical and basolateral membrane of human airway epithelia with similar efficiency. However, the overall level of transduction across serotypes did not correlate with vector internalization. We hypothesized that differences in post-entry processing of these serotypes might influence the efficiency of apical transduction. To this end, we tested the effectiveness of proteasome inhibitors to augment nuclear translocation and gene expression from the three serotypes. Augmentation of rAAV2/1 apical transduction of human polarized airway epithelia was 10-fold lower than that for rAAV2/2 and rAAV2/5. Cellular fractionation studies demonstrated that proteasome inhibitors more significantly enhanced rAAV2/2 and rAAV2/5 translocation to the nucleus than rAAV2/1. These results demonstrate that AAV1 transduction biology in human airway epithelia differs from that of AAV2 and AAV5 by virtue of altered ubiquitin/proteasome sensitivities that influence nuclear translocation.

  20. Genetic Analysis of Gravity Signal Transduction in Arabidopsis Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Patrick; Strohm, Allison; Barker, Richard; Su, Shih-Heng

    Like most other plant organs, roots use gravity as a directional guide for growth. Specialized cells within the columella region of the root cap (the statocytes) sense the direction of gravity through the sedimentation of starch-filled plastids (amyloplasts). Amyloplast movement and/or pressure on sensitive membranes triggers a gravity signal transduction pathway within these cells, which leads to a fast transcytotic relocalization of plasma-membrane associated auxin-efflux carrier proteins of the PIN family (PIN3 and PIN7) toward the bottom membrane. This leads to a polar transport of auxin toward the bottom flank of the cap. The resulting lateral auxin gradient is then transmitted toward the elongation zones where it triggers a curvature that ultimately leads to a restoration of vertical downward growth. Our laboratory is using strategies derived from genetics and systems biology to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that modulate gravity sensing and signal transduction in the columella cells of the root cap. Our previous research uncovered two J-domain-containing proteins, ARG1 and ARL2, as contributing to this process. Mutations in the corresponding paralogous genes led to alterations of root and hypocotyl gravitropism accompanied by an inability for the statocytes to develop a cytoplasmic alkalinization, relocalize PIN3, and transport auxin laterally, in response to gravistimulation. Both proteins are associated peripherally to membranes belonging to various compartments of the vesicular trafficking pathway, potentially modulating the trafficking of defined proteins between plasma membrane and endosomes. MAR1 and MAR2, on the other end, are distinct proteins of the plastidic outer envelope protein import TOC complex (the transmembrane channel TOC75 and the receptor TOC132, respectively). Mutations in the corresponding genes enhance the gravitropic defects of arg1. Using transformation-rescue experiments with truncated versions of TOC132 (MAR2), we have shown

  1. The cornucopia of intestinal chemosensory transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul P Bertrand

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemosensory transduction mechanisms that the gastrointestinal (GI tract uses to detect chemical and nutrient stimuli are poorly understood. The GI tract is presented with a wide variety of stimuli including potentially harmful chemicals or toxins as well as 'normal' stimuli including nutrients, bacteria and mechanical forces. Sensory transduction is at its simplest the conversion of these stimuli into a neural code in afferent nerves. Much of the information encoded is used by the enteric nervous system (ENS to generate local reflexes while complementary information is sent to the central nervous system (CNS via afferents or by release of hormones to affect behaviour. This review focuses on the chemosensory transduction mechanisms present in the GI tract. It examines the expression and localisation of the machinery for chemosensory transduction. It summarises the types of cells which might be involved in detecting stimuli and releasing neuroactive transmitters. Finally, it highlights the idea that chemosensory transduction mechanisms in the GI tract utilise many overlapping and complementary mechanisms for detecting and transducing stimuli into reflex action.

  2. Intelligent trigger processor for the crystal box

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, G H; Cooper, M D; Hart, G W; Hoffman, C M; Hogan, G E; Hughes, E B; Matis, H S; Rolfe, J; Sandberg, V D; Williams, R A; Wilson, S; Zeman, H

    1981-01-01

    A large solid angle angular modular NaI(Tl) detector with 432 phototubes and 88 trigger scintillators is being used to search simultaneously for three lepton flavor-changing decays of the muon. A beam of up to 10/sup 6/ muons stopping per second with a 6% duty factor would yield up to 1000 triggers per second from random triple coincidences. A reduction of the trigger rate to 10 Hz is required from a hardwired primary trigger processor. Further reduction to <1 Hz is achieved by a microprocessor-based secondary trigger processor. The primary trigger hardware imposes voter coincidence logic, stringent timing requirements, and a non-adjacency requirement in the trigger scintillators defined by hardwired circuits. Sophisticated geometric requirements are imposed by a PROM-based matrix logic, and energy and vector-momentum cuts are imposed by a hardwired processor using LSI flash ADC's and digital arithmetic logic. The secondary trigger employs four satellite microprocessors to do a sparse data scan, multiplex ...

  3. Design of a titering assay for lentiviral vectors utilizing direct extraction of DNA from transduced cells in microtiter plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele E Murphy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using lentiviral vector products in clinical applications requires an accurate method for measuring transduction titer. For vectors lacking a marker gene, quantitative polymerase chain reaction is used to evaluate the number of vector DNA copies in transduced target cells, from which a transduction titer is calculated. Immune Design previously described an integration-deficient lentiviral vector pseudotyped with a modified Sindbis virus envelope for use in cancer immunotherapy (VP02, of the ZVex platform. Standard protocols for titering integration-competent lentiviral vectors employ commercial spin columns to purify vector DNA from transduced cells, but such columns are not optimized for isolation of extrachromosomal (nonintegrated DNA. Here, we describe a 96-well transduction titer assay in which DNA extraction is performed in situ in the transduction plate, yielding quantitative recovery of extrachromosomal DNA. Vector titers measured by this method were higher than when commercial spin columns were used for DNA isolation. Evaluation of the method's specificity, linear range, and precision demonstrate that it is suitable for use as a lot release assay to support clinical trials with VP02. Finally, the method is compatible with titering both integrating and nonintegrating lentiviral vectors, suggesting that it may be used to evaluate the transduction titer for any lentiviral vector.

  4. Viral Vectors for in Vivo Gene Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thévenot, E.; Dufour, N.; Déglon, N.

    The transfer of DNA into the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell (gene transfer) is a central theme of modern biology. The transfer is said to be somatic when it refers to non-germline organs of a developed individual, and germline when it concerns gametes or the fertilised egg of an animal, with the aim of transmitting the relevant genetic modification to its descendents [1]. The efficient introduction of genetic material into a somatic or germline cell and the control of its expression over time have led to major advances in understanding how genes work in vivo, i.e., in living organisms (functional genomics), but also to the development of innovative therapeutic methods (gene therapy). The efficiency of gene transfer is conditioned by the vehicle used, called the vector. Desirable features for a vector are as follows: Easy to produce high titer stocks of the vector in a reproducible way. Absence of toxicity related to transduction (transfer of genetic material into the target cell, and its expression there) and no immune reaction of the organism against the vector and/or therapeutic protein. Stability in the expression of the relevant gene over time, and the possibility of regulation, e.g., to control expression of the therapeutic protein on the physiological level, or to end expression at the end of treatment. Transduction of quiescent cells should be as efficient as transduction of dividing cells. Vectors currently used fall into two categories: non-viral and viral vectors. In non-viral vectors, the DNA is complexed with polymers, lipids, or cationic detergents (described in Chap. 3). These vectors have a low risk of toxicity and immune reaction. However, they are less efficient in vivo than viral vectors when it comes to the number of cells transduced and long-term transgene expression. (Naked DNA transfer or electroporation is rather inefficient in the organism. This type of gene transfer will not be discussed here, and the interested reader is referred to the

  5. The Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) receives trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources of trigger. It makes the Level-1 decision (L1A) based on a trigger menu.

  6. Production and Titering of Recombinant Adeno-associated Viral Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    McClure, Christina; Cole, Katy L. H.; Wulff, Peer; Klugmann, Matthias; Murray, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) have become increasingly valuable for in vivo studies in animals, and are also currently being tested in human clinical trials. Wild-type AAV is a non-pathogenic member of the parvoviridae family and inherently replication-deficient. The broad transduction profile, low immune response as well as the strong and persistent transgene expression achieved with these vectors has made them a popular and versatile tool for in vitro and ...

  7. Vector geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Gilbert de B

    2011-01-01

    This brief undergraduate-level text by a prominent Cambridge-educated mathematician explores the relationship between algebra and geometry. An elementary course in plane geometry is the sole requirement for Gilbert de B. Robinson's text, which is the result of several years of teaching and learning the most effective methods from discussions with students. Topics include lines and planes, determinants and linear equations, matrices, groups and linear transformations, and vectors and vector spaces. Additional subjects range from conics and quadrics to homogeneous coordinates and projective geom

  8. Systemic gene transfer reveals distinctive muscle transduction profile of tyrosine mutant AAV-1, -6, and -9 in neonatal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Chady H; Yue, Yongping; Shin, Jin-Hong; Williams, Regina R; Zhang, Keqing; Smith, Bruce F; Duan, Dongsheng

    2014-03-05

    The muscular dystrophies are a group of devastating genetic disorders that affect both skeletal and cardiac muscle. An effective gene therapy for these diseases requires bodywide muscle delivery. Tyrosine mutant adeno-associated virus (AAV) has been considered as a class of highly potent gene transfer vectors. Here, we tested the hypothesis that systemic delivery of tyrosine mutant AAV can result in bodywide muscle transduction in newborn dogs. Three tyrosine mutant AAV vectors (Y445F/Y731F AAV-1, Y445F AAV-6, and Y731F AAV-9) were evaluated. These vectors expressed the alkaline phosphatase reporter gene under transcriptional regulation of either the muscle-specific Spc5-12 promoter or the ubiquitous Rous sarcoma virus promoter. Robust skeletal and cardiac muscle transduction was achieved with Y445F/Y731F AAV-1. However, Y731F AAV-9 only transduced skeletal muscle. Surprisingly, Y445F AAV-6 resulted in minimal muscle transduction. Serological study suggests that the preexisting neutralization antibody may underlie the limited transduction of Y445F AAV-6. In summary, we have identified Y445F/Y731F AAV-1 as a potentially excellent systemic gene transfer vehicle to target both skeletal muscle and the heart in neonatal puppies. Our findings have important implications in exploring systemic neonatal gene therapy in canine models of muscular dystrophy.

  9. Systemic gene transfer reveals distinctive muscle transduction profile of tyrosine mutant AAV-1, -6, and -9 in neonatal dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chady H Hakim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The muscular dystrophies are a group of devastating genetic disorders that affect both skeletal and cardiac muscle. An effective gene therapy for these diseases requires bodywide muscle delivery. Tyrosine mutant adeno-associated virus (AAV has been considered as a class of highly potent gene transfer vectors. Here, we tested the hypothesis that systemic delivery of tyrosine mutant AAV can result in bodywide muscle transduction in newborn dogs. Three tyrosine mutant AAV vectors (Y445F/Y731F AAV-1, Y445F AAV-6, and Y731F AAV-9 were evaluated. These vectors expressed the alkaline phosphatase reporter gene under transcriptional regulation of either the muscle-specific Spc5-12 promoter or the ubiquitous Rous sarcoma virus promoter. Robust skeletal and cardiac muscle transduction was achieved with Y445F/Y731F AAV-1. However, Y731F AAV-9 only transduced skeletal muscle. Surprisingly, Y445F AAV-6 resulted in minimal muscle transduction. Serological study suggests that the preexisting neutralization antibody may underlie the limited transduction of Y445F AAV-6. In summary, we have identified Y445F/Y731F AAV-1 as a potentially excellent systemic gene transfer vehicle to target both skeletal muscle and the heart in neonatal puppies. Our findings have important implications in exploring systemic neonatal gene therapy in canine models of muscular dystrophy.

  10. Genome-wide RNAi screening identifies host restriction factors critical for in vivo AAV transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Miguel; Ippodrino, Rudy; Zentilin, Lorena; Zacchigna, Serena; Giacca, Mauro

    2015-09-08

    Viral vectors based on the adeno-associated virus (AAV) hold great promise for in vivo gene transfer; several unknowns, however, still limit the vectors' broader and more efficient application. Here, we report the results of a high-throughput, whole-genome siRNA screening aimed at identifying cellular factors regulating AAV transduction. We identified 1,483 genes affecting vector efficiency more than 4-fold and up to 50-fold, either negatively or positively. Most of these factors have not previously been associated to AAV infection. The most effective siRNAs were independent from the virus serotype or analyzed cell type and were equally evident for single-stranded and self-complementary AAV vectors. A common characteristic of the most effective siRNAs was the induction of cellular DNA damage and activation of a cell cycle checkpoint. This information can be exploited for the development of more efficient AAV-based gene delivery procedures. Administration of the most effective siRNAs identified by the screening to the liver significantly improved in vivo AAV transduction efficiency.

  11. VECTOR INTEGRATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, E. G. F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the theory of integration of scalar functions with respect to a measure with values in a, not necessarily locally convex, topological vector space. It focuses on the extension of such integrals from bounded measurable functions to the class of integrable functions, proving

  12. Characterization of adenoviral transduction profile in prostate cancer cells and normal prostate tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jianzhong; Tai, Phillip W L; Lu, Yi; Li, Jia; Ma, Hong; Su, Qin; Wei, Qiang; Li, Hong; Gao, Guangping

    2017-09-01

    Prostate diseases are common in males worldwide with high morbidity. Gene therapy is an attractive therapeutic strategy for prostate diseases, however, it is currently underdeveloped. As well known, adeno virus (Ad) is the most widely used gene therapy vector. The aims of this study are to explore transduction efficiency of Ad in prostate cancer cells and normal prostate tissue, thus further providing guidance for future prostate pathophysiological studies and therapeutic development of prostate diseases. We produced Ad expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP), and characterized the transduction efficiency of Ad in both human and mouse prostate cancer cell lines in vitro, as well as prostate tumor xenograft, and wild-type mouse prostate tissue in vivo. Ad transduction efficiency was determined by EGFP fluorescence using microscopy and flow cytometry. Cell type-specific transduction was examined by immunofluorescence staining of cell markers. Our data showed that Ad efficiently transduced human and mouse prostate cancer cells in vitro in a dose dependent manner. Following intratumoral and intraprostate injection, Ad could efficiently transduce prostate tumor xenograft and the major prostatic cell types in vivo, respectively. Our findings suggest that Ad can efficiently transduce prostate tumor cells in vitro as well as xenograft and normal prostate tissue in vivo, and further indicate that Ad could be a potentially powerful toolbox for future gene therapy of prostate diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Capsid serotype and timing of injection determines AAV transduction in the neonatal mice brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Chakrabarty

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus (AAV mediated gene expression is a powerful tool for gene therapy and preclinical studies. A comprehensive analysis of CNS cell type tropism, expression levels and biodistribution of different capsid serotypes has not yet been undertaken in neonatal rodents. Our previous studies show that intracerebroventricular injection with AAV2/1 on neonatal day P0 results in widespread CNS expression but the biodistribution is limited if injected beyond neonatal day P1. To extend these observations we explored the effect of timing of injection on tropism and biodistribution of six commonly used pseudotyped AAVs delivered in the cerebral ventricles of neonatal mice. We demonstrate that AAV2/8 and 2/9 resulted in the most widespread biodistribution in the brain. Most serotypes showed varying biodistribution depending on the day of injection. Injection on neonatal day P0 resulted in mostly neuronal transduction, whereas administration in later periods of development (24-84 hours postnatal resulted in more non-neuronal transduction. AAV2/5 showed widespread transduction of astrocytes irrespective of the time of injection. None of the serotypes tested showed any microglial transduction. This study demonstrates that both capsid serotype and timing of injection influence the regional and cell-type distribution of AAV in neonatal rodents, and emphasizes the utility of pseudotyped AAV vectors for translational gene therapy paradigms.

  14. Capsid serotype and timing of injection determines AAV transduction in the neonatal mice brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Paramita; Rosario, Awilda; Cruz, Pedro; Siemienski, Zoe; Ceballos-Diaz, Carolina; Crosby, Keith; Jansen, Karen; Borchelt, David R; Kim, Ji-Yoen; Jankowsky, Joanna L; Golde, Todd E; Levites, Yona

    2013-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) mediated gene expression is a powerful tool for gene therapy and preclinical studies. A comprehensive analysis of CNS cell type tropism, expression levels and biodistribution of different capsid serotypes has not yet been undertaken in neonatal rodents. Our previous studies show that intracerebroventricular injection with AAV2/1 on neonatal day P0 results in widespread CNS expression but the biodistribution is limited if injected beyond neonatal day P1. To extend these observations we explored the effect of timing of injection on tropism and biodistribution of six commonly used pseudotyped AAVs delivered in the cerebral ventricles of neonatal mice. We demonstrate that AAV2/8 and 2/9 resulted in the most widespread biodistribution in the brain. Most serotypes showed varying biodistribution depending on the day of injection. Injection on neonatal day P0 resulted in mostly neuronal transduction, whereas administration in later periods of development (24-84 hours postnatal) resulted in more non-neuronal transduction. AAV2/5 showed widespread transduction of astrocytes irrespective of the time of injection. None of the serotypes tested showed any microglial transduction. This study demonstrates that both capsid serotype and timing of injection influence the regional and cell-type distribution of AAV in neonatal rodents, and emphasizes the utility of pseudotyped AAV vectors for translational gene therapy paradigms.

  15. Heparin-binding correlates with increased efficiency of AAV1- and AAV6-mediated transduction of striated muscle, but negatively impacts CNS transduction

    OpenAIRE

    Arnett, Andrea L. H.; Lisa R Beutler; Quintana, Albert; Allen, James; Finn, Eric; Richard D Palmiter; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Gene delivery vectors derived from adeno-associated virus (AAV) have great potential as therapeutic agents. rAAV1 and rAAV6, efficiently target striated muscle, but the mechanisms that determine their tropism remain unclear. It is known that AAV6, but not AAV1, interacts with heparin-sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). HSPGs are not primary receptors for AAV6, but heparin interactions may affect tissue tropism and transduction. To investigate these possibilities, we generated rAAV1 and rAAV6 capsid...

  16. Gene Transfer by Transduction in the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sunny C.; Paul, John H.

    1998-01-01

    To determine the potential for bacteriophage-mediated gene transfer in the marine environment, we established transduction systems by using marine phage host isolates. Plasmid pQSR50, which contains transposon Tn5 and encodes kanamycin and streptomycin resistance, was used in plasmid transduction assays. Both marine bacterial isolates and concentrated natural bacterial communities were used as recipients in transduction studies. Transductants were detected by a gene probe complementary to the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene in Tn5. The transduction frequencies ranged from 1.33 × 10−7 to 5.13 × 10−9 transductants/PFU in studies performed with the bacterial isolates. With the mixed bacterial communities, putative transductants were detected in two of the six experiments performed. These putative transductants were confirmed and separated from indigenous antibiotic-resistant bacteria by colony hybridization probed with the nptII probe and by PCR amplification performed with two sets of primers specific for pQSR50. The frequencies of plasmid transduction in the mixed bacterial communities ranged from 1.58 × 10−8 to 3.7 × 10−8 transductants/PFU. Estimates of the transduction rate obtained by using a numerical model suggested that up to 1.3 × 1014 transduction events per year could occur in the Tampa Bay Estuary. The results of this study suggest that transduction could be an important mechanism for horizontal gene transfer in the marine environment. PMID:9687430

  17. Prevalence and pharmacological modulation of humoral immunity to AAV vectors in gene transfer to synovial tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mingozzi, F.; Chen, Y.; Edmonson, S. C.; Zhou, S.; Thurlings, R. M.; Tak, P. P.; High, K. A.; Vervoordeldonk, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Antibodies against adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are highly prevalent in humans. Both preclinical and clinical studies showed that antibodies against AAV block transduction even at low titers, particularly when the vector is introduced into the bloodstream. Here we measured the neutralizing

  18. Energy transduction in lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poolman, Bert

    In the discovery of some general principles of energy transduction, lactic acid bacteria have played an important role. In this review, the energy transducing processes of lactic acid bacteria are discussed with the emphasis on the major developments of the past 5 years. This work not only includes

  19. Optimized Lentiviral Transduction Protocols by Use of a Poloxamer Enhancer, Spinoculation, and scFv-Antibody Fusions to VSV-G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasov, Nataša; Höfig, Ines; Mall, Sabine; Krackhardt, Angela M; Thirion, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Lentiviral vectors (LV) are widely used to successfully transduce cells for research and clinical applications. This optimized LV infection protocol includes a nontoxic poloxamer-based adjuvant combined with antibody-retargeted lentiviral particles. The novel poloxamer P338 demonstrates superior characteristics for enhancing lentiviral transduction over the best-in-class polybrene-assisted transduction. Poloxamer P338 exhibited dual benefits of low toxicity and high efficiency of lentiviral gene delivery into a range of different primary cell cultures. One of the major advantages of P338 is its availability in pharma grade and applicability as cell culture medium additive in clinical protocols. Lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) can be produced to high titers and mediate high transduction efficiencies in vitro. For clinical applications the need for optimized transduction protocols, especially for transduction of primary T and stem cells, is high. The successful use of retronectin, the second lentivirus enhancer available as GMP material, requires the application of specific coating protocols not applicable in all processes, and results in the need of a relatively high multiplicity of infection (MOI) to achieve effective transduction efficiencies for hematopoietic cells (e.g., CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells). Cell specificity of lentiviral vectors was successfully increased by displaying different ratios of scFv-fused VSV-G glycoproteins on the viral envelope. The system has been validated with human CD30+ lymphoma cells, resulting in preferential gene delivery to CD30+ cells, which was increased fourfold in mixed cell cultures, by presenting scFv antibody fragments binding to respective surface markers. A combination of spinoculation and poloxamer-based chemical adjuvant increases the transduction of primary T-cells by greater than twofold. The combination of poloxamer-based and scFv-retargeted LVs increased

  20. An introduction to vectors, vector operators and vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Joag, Pramod S

    2016-01-01

    Ideal for undergraduate and graduate students of science and engineering, this book covers fundamental concepts of vectors and their applications in a single volume. The first unit deals with basic formulation, both conceptual and theoretical. It discusses applications of algebraic operations, Levi-Civita notation, and curvilinear coordinate systems like spherical polar and parabolic systems and structures, and analytical geometry of curves and surfaces. The second unit delves into the algebra of operators and their types and also explains the equivalence between the algebra of vector operators and the algebra of matrices. Formulation of eigen vectors and eigen values of a linear vector operator are elaborated using vector algebra. The third unit deals with vector analysis, discussing vector valued functions of a scalar variable and functions of vector argument (both scalar valued and vector valued), thus covering both the scalar vector fields and vector integration.

  1. Vector velocimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    for generation of a reference beam, a detector system comprising a first detector arrangement arranged in such a way that the signal beam and the reference beam are incident upon the first detector arrangement with the reference beam propagating at an angle relative to a signal beam, and wherein the first......The present invention relates to a compact, reliable and low-cost vector velocimeter for example for determining velocities of particles suspended in a gas or fluid flow, or for determining velocity, displacement, rotation, or vibration of a solid surface, the vector velocimeter comprising a laser...... assembly for emission of a measurement beam for illumination of an object in a measurement volume with coherent light whereby a signal beam emanating from the object in the measurement volume is formed in response to illumination of the object by the measurement beam, a reference beam generator...

  2. The ALICE trigger electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Krivda, M; Evans, D; Jones, G T; Jovanovic, P; Jusko, A; Králik, I; Lazzeroni, C; Lietava, R; Scott, H; Sándor, L; Tapia Takaki, D; Urbán, J; Villalobos Baillie, O

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE trigger system (TRG) consists of a Central Trigger Processor (CTP) and up to 24 Local Trigger Units (LTU) for each sub-detector. The CTP receives and processes trigger signals from trigger detectors and the outputs from the CTP are 3 levels of hardware triggers: L0, L1 and L2. The 24 sub-detectors are dynamically partitioned in up to 6 independent clusters. The trigger information is propagated through the LTUs to the Front-end electronics (FEE) of each sub-detector via LVDS cables and optical fibres. The trigger information sent from LTU to FEE can be monitored online for possible errors using the newly developed TTCit board. After testing and commissioning of the trigger system itself on the surface, the ALICE trigger electronics has been installed and tested in the experimental cavern with appropriate ALICE experimental software. Testing the Alice trigger system with detectors on the surface and in the experimental cavern in parallel is progressing very well. Currently one setup is used for testi...

  3. Triggering trigeminal neuralgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Stefano, Giulia; Maarbjerg, Stine; Nurmikko, Turo

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Although it is widely accepted that facial pain paroxysms triggered by innocuous stimuli constitute a hallmark sign of trigeminal neuralgia, very few studies to date have systematically investigated the role of the triggers involved. In the recently published diagnostic classification...... and where cutaneous and mucosal trigger zones are located. Methods Clinical characteristics focusing on trigger factors were collected from 140 patients with trigeminal neuralgia, in a cross-sectional study design. Results Provocation of paroxysmal pain by various trigger manoeuvres was reported by 136...... of the 140 patients. The most frequent manoeuvres were gentle touching of the face (79%) and talking (54%). Trigger zones were predominantly reported in the perioral and nasal region. Conclusion This study confirms that in trigeminal neuralgia, paroxysmal pain is associated with triggers in virtually all...

  4. Efficient and persistent transduction of exocrine and endocrine pancreas by adeno-associated virus type 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Henrique; Wolfe, Stephanie H; Valencia, Valery; Qian, Keping; Shen, Leping; Phillips, M Ian; Chang, Lung-Ji; Zhang, Y Clare

    2007-09-01

    Efficient delivery of therapeutic proteins into the pancreas represents a major obstacle to gene therapy of pancreatic disorders. The current study compared the efficiency of recombinant lentivirus and adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotypes 1, 2, 5, 8 vectors delivered by intrapancreatic injection for gene transfer in vivo. Our results indicate that lentivirus and AAV 1, 2, 8 are capable of transducing pancreas with the order of efficiency AAV8 >AAV1 > AAV2 >/= lentivirus, whereas AAV5 was ineffective. AAV8 resulted in an efficient, persistent (150 days) and dose-dependent transduction in exocrine acinar cells and endocrine islet cells. Pancreatic ducts and blood vessels were also transduced. Extrapancreatic transduction was restricted to liver. Leukocyte infiltration was not observed in pancreas and blood glucose levels were not altered. Thus, AAV8 represents a safe and effective vehicle for therapeutic gene transfer to pancreas in vivo.

  5. FLT3 ligand preserves the uncommitted CD34+CD38- progenitor cells during cytokine prestimulation for retroviral transduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Husemoen, L L; Sørensen, T U

    2000-01-01

    in a higher percentage of cells than the EGFP gene, but there seemed to be a positive correlation between expression of the two genes. The effect of cytokine prestimulation was therefore monitored using EGFP as marker for transduction. When SCF was compared to SCF in combination with more potent cytokines......Before stem cell gene therapy can be considered for clinical applications, problems regarding cytokine prestimulation remain to be solved. In this study, a retroviral vector carrying the genes for the enhanced version of green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and neomycin resistance (neo(r)) was used...... for transduction of CD34+ cells. The effect of cytokine prestimulation on transduction efficiency and the population of uncommitted CD34+CD38- cells was determined. CD34+ cells harvested from umbilical cord blood were kept in suspension cultures and stimulated with combinations of the cytokines stem cell factor...

  6. The influence of epileptic neuropathology and prior peripheral immunity on CNS transduction by rAAV2 and rAAV5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, M S; Blake, B L; Samulski, R J; McCown, T J

    2011-10-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) provides a promising platform for clinical treatment of neurological disorders owing to its established efficacy and lack of apparent pathogenicity. To use viral vectors in treating neurological disease, however, transduction must occur under neuropathological conditions. Previous studies in rodents have shown that AAV5 more efficiently transduces cells in the hippocampus and piriform cortex than AAV2. Using the kainic acid (KA) model of temporal lobe epilepsy and AAV2 and 5 carrying a hybrid chicken β-actin promoter driving green fluorescent protein (GFP), we found that limbic seizure activity caused substantial neuropathology and resulted in a significant reduction in subsequent AAV5 transduction. Nonetheless, this reduced transduction still was greater than AAV2 transduction in control rats. Although KA seizures compromise blood-brain barrier function, potentially increasing exposure of target tissue to circulating neutralizing antibodies, we observed no interaction between KA seizure-induced damage and immunization status on AAV transduction. Finally, while we confirmed the near total neuronal-specific transgene expression for both serotypes in control rats, AAV5-GFP expression was increasingly localized to astrocytes in seizure-damaged areas. Thus, the pathological milieu of the injured brain can reduce transduction efficacy and alter viral tropism- both relevant concerns when considering viral vector gene therapy for neurological disorders.

  7. Signal transduction immunohistochemistry - Methods and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alexander E. Kalyuzhny statement that immunohistochemical detection of labile, low abundance and short-lived signal transduction molecules appears to be a very challenging task actually captures the same reader’s feeling. Each of us daily using immunohistochemical protocols to reveal targets either useful for research or diagnostic aims will surely wonder by which tricky techniques it is possible to overcome the preservation and unmasking of those labile antigens involved in signal transduction. Well, by seventheen chapters grouped in five parts Prof. Alexander E. Kalyuzhny is presenting an invaluable technical and methodological source of hints to satisfy our needs: to overcome troubleshottings if we are already in the field or to orientate those entering the field....

  8. Molecular electroporation and the transduction of oligoarginines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kevin

    2010-03-01

    Certain short polycations, such as TAT and polyarginine, rapidly pass through the plasma membranes of mammalian cells by an unknown mechanism called transduction as well as by endocytosis and macropinocytosis. These cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) promise to be medically useful when fused to biologically active peptides. I offer a simple model in which one or more CPPs and the phosphatidylserines of the inner leaflet form a kind of capacitor with a voltage in excess of about 200 mV, high enough to create a molecular electropore. The model is consistent with an empirical upper limit on the cargo peptide of 40-60 amino acids and with experimental data on how the transduction of a polyarginine-fluorophore into mouse C2C12 myoblasts depends on the number of arginines in the CPP and on the CPP concentration. The model makes three testable predictions.

  9. Biosafety of onco-retroviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VandenDriessche, Thierry; Collen, Désiré; Chuah, Marinee K L

    2003-12-01

    Extensive gene therapy studies in preclinical models and in clinical trials underscore the relative safety of onco-retroviral vectors. Up until recently, no adverse effects have been reported in nearly 2000 patients that were enrolled in gene therapy clinical trials involving onco-retroviral vectors. However, the main safety concern of using onco-retroviral vectors is related to the risk of malignant transformation following oncogene activation due to random onco-retroviral genomic integration. Based on primate studies, there is an apparent low risk of malignancy that is predominately associated with the occurrence of chronic retroviremia resulting from replication-competent retroviruses (RCR), particularly in immunosuppressed recipient hosts. However, in the latest packaging cell lines and vectors, the risk of RCR-generation has been drastically reduced, primarily by minimizing the homologous overlap between vector and helper sequences. Nevertheless, results from a recent preclinical study in mice and a clinical trial in patients suffering from SCID-X1 strongly suggest that onco-retroviral vectors devoid of RCR can contribute to lymphomagenesis by insertional activation of cellular oncogenes. The risk of inadvertent germline transmission of onco-retroviral vectors appears to be low, especially relative to the endogenous rate of germline insertion, which is known to occur naturally in the human population via transmission of endogenous retro-transposons. The strict dependency of onco-retroviral gene transfer on cell division is an important safety advantage that significantly limits the risks of horizontal transmission. Since improved onco-retroviral vectors or transduction protocols may result in an increased number of retroviral integrations per cell, this may concomitantly increase the risk of malignant transformation. The use of suicide genes, self-inactivating vectors and/or chromosomal insulators is, therefore, warranted to further enhance the safety features

  10. Signal transduction during cold stress in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Solanke, Amolkumar U.; Sharma, Arun K.

    2008-01-01

    Cold stress signal transduction is a complex process. Many physiological changes like tissue break down and senescence occur due to cold stress. Low temperature is initially perceived by plasma membrane either due to change in membrane fluidity or with the help of sensors like Ca2+ permeable channels, histidine kinases, receptor kinases and phospholipases. Subsequently, cytoskeleton reorganization and cytosolic Ca2+ influx takes place. Increase in cytosolic Ca2+ is sensed by CDPKs, phosphatas...

  11. Trigger Monitoring at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Sidoti, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring the trigger behavior through all the trigger level is of fundamental importance to assess the quality of the data taken, to give fast feedback for the trigger configuration design and to monitor the stability of the HLT farm components. In this paper we will present the online monitoring framework and the various tools available in the ATLAS trigger system going from the ones that build the basic monitoring infrastructure and test the basic functionalities of the system to the more elaborated ones that checks the quality of the data taking looking at physics variables reconstructed online. The early experience in the 2009 cosmics data taking period will also be shown.

  12. Human HOXA5 homeodomain enhances protein transduction and its application to vascular inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Young [Infectious Signaling Network Research Center and Research Institute for Medical Sciences, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyoung sook [BioNanotechnology Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun Jung; Joo, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Sang Ki; Lee, Sang Do; Park, Jin Bong [Infectious Signaling Network Research Center and Research Institute for Medical Sciences, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Seok Jong [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Seonam University, Namwon 590-170 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Byeong Hwa, E-mail: bhjeon@cnu.ac.kr [Infectious Signaling Network Research Center and Research Institute for Medical Sciences, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} We have developed an E. coli protein expression vector including human specific gene sequences for protein cellular delivery. {yields} The plasmid was generated by ligation the nucleotides 770-817 of the homeobox A5 mRNA sequence. {yields} HOXA5-APE1/Ref-1 inhibited TNF-alpha-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. {yields} Human HOXA5-PTD vector provides a powerful research tools for uncovering cellular functions of proteins or for the generation of human PTD-containing proteins. -- Abstract: Cellular protein delivery is an emerging technique by which exogenous recombinant proteins are delivered into mammalian cells across the membrane. We have developed an Escherichia coli expression vector including human specific gene sequences for protein cellular delivery. The plasmid was generated by ligation the nucleotides 770-817 of the homeobox A5 mRNA sequence which was matched with protein transduction domain (PTD) of homeodomain protein A5 (HOXA5) into pET expression vector. The cellular uptake of HOXA5-PTD-EGFP was detected in 1 min and its transduction reached a maximum at 1 h within cell lysates. The cellular uptake of HOXA5-EGFP at 37 {sup o}C was greater than in 4 {sup o}C. For study for the functional role of human HOXA5-PTD, we purified HOXA5-APE1/Ref-1 and applied it on monocyte adhesion. Pretreatment with HOXA5-APE1/Ref-1 (100 nM) inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, compared with HOXA5-EGFP. Taken together, our data suggested that human HOXA5-PTD vector provides a powerful research tools for uncovering cellular functions of proteins or for the generation of human PTD-containing proteins.

  13. Viral Hybrid Vectors for Somatic Integration - Are They the Better Solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Ehrhardt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The turbulent history of clinical trials in viral gene therapy has taught us important lessons about vector design and safety issues. Much effort was spent on analyzing genotoxicity after somatic integration of therapeutic DNA into the host genome. Based on these findings major improvements in vector design including the development of viral hybrid vectors for somatic integration have been achieved. This review provides a state-of-the-art overview of available hybrid vectors utilizing viruses for high transduction efficiencies in concert with various integration machineries for random and targeted integration patterns. It discusses advantages but also limitations of each vector system.

  14. Lessons from (triggered) tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan

    2010-01-01

    I test a “clock-advance” model that implies triggered tremor is ambient tremor that occurs at a sped-up rate as a result of loading from passing seismic waves. This proposed model predicts that triggering probability is proportional to the product of the ambient tremor rate and a function describing the efficacy of the triggering wave to initiate a tremor event. Using data mostly from Cascadia, I have compared qualitatively a suite of teleseismic waves that did and did not trigger tremor with ambient tremor rates. Many of the observations are consistent with the model if the efficacy of the triggering wave depends on wave amplitude. One triggered tremor observation clearly violates the clock-advance model. The model prediction that larger triggering waves result in larger triggered tremor signals also appears inconsistent with the measurements. I conclude that the tremor source process is a more complex system than that described by the clock-advance model predictions tested. Results of this and previous studies also demonstrate that (1) conditions suitable for tremor generation exist in many tectonic environments, but, within each, only occur at particular spots whose locations change with time; (2) any fluid flow must be restricted to less than a meter; (3) the degree to which delayed failure and secondary triggering occurs is likely insignificant; and 4) both shear and dilatational deformations may trigger tremor. Triggered and ambient tremor rates correlate more strongly with stress than stressing rate, suggesting tremor sources result from time-dependent weakening processes rather than simple Coulomb failure.

  15. Signal transduction around thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP in atopic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuepper Michael

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, a novel interleukin-7-like cytokine, triggers dendritic cell-mediated inflammatory responses ultimately executed by T helper cells of the Th2 subtype. TSLP emerged as a central player in the development of allergic symptoms, especially in the airways, and is a prime regulatory cytokine at the interface of virus- or antigen-exposed epithelial cells and dendritic cells (DCs. DCs activated by epithelium-derived TSLP can promote naïve CD4+ T cells to adopt a Th2 phenotype, which in turn recruite eosinophilic and basophilic granulocytes as well as mast cells into the airway mucosa. These different cells secrete inflammatory cytokines and chemokines operative in inducing an allergic inflammation and atopic asthma. TSLP is, thus, involved in the control of both an innate and an adaptive immune response. Since TSLP links contact of allergen with the airway epithelium to the onset and maintainance of the asthmatic syndrome, defining the signal transduction underlying TSLP expression and function is of profound interest for a better understandimg of the disease and for the development of new therapeutics.

  16. Comparative biology of rAAV transduction in ferret, pig and human airway epithelia

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, X.; Luo, M.; Guo, C.; Yan, Z.; Wang, Y.; Engelhardt, JF

    2007-01-01

    Differences between rodent and human airway cell biology have made it difficult to translate recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated gene therapies to the lung for cystic fibrosis (CF). As new ferret and pig models for CF become available, knowledge about host cell/vector interactions in these species will become increasingly important for testing potential gene therapies. To this end, we have compared the transduction biology of three rAAV serotypes (AAV1, 2 and 5) in human, ferre...

  17. AMY trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Yoshihide [National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1989-04-01

    A trigger system of the AMY detector at TRISTAN e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is described briefly. The system uses simple track segment and shower cluster counting scheme to classify events to be triggered. It has been operating successfully since 1987.

  18. Malaria vector control: current and future strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    The recently announced call for malaria eradication represents a new page in the history of this disease. This has been triggered by remarkable reductions in malaria resulting from combined application of effective drugs and vector control. However, this strategy is threatened by development of

  19. Vector Triggering Random Decrement for High Identification Accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, S. R.; Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune

    1998-01-01

    Using the Random Decrement (RD) technique to obtain free response estimates and combining this with time domain modal identification methods to obtain the poles and the mode shapes is acknowledged as a fast and accurate way of analysing measured responses of structures subject to ambient loads...

  20. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors in cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Ortiz, Jorge L; Schaffer, David V

    2016-10-28

    Gene delivery vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) have been utilized in a large number of gene therapy clinical trials, which have demonstrated their strong safety profile and increasingly their therapeutic efficacy for treating monogenic diseases. For cancer applications, AAV vectors have been harnessed for delivery of an extensive repertoire of transgenes to preclinical models and, more recently, clinical trials involving certain cancers. This review describes the applications of AAV vectors to cancer models and presents developments in vector engineering and payload design aimed at tailoring AAV vectors for transduction and treatment of cancer cells. We also discuss the current status of AAV clinical development in oncology and future directions for AAV in this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular mechanisms of taste transduction in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Yoshiro

    2009-01-01

    Among the five senses, taste and olfaction play crucial roles in the detection of chemical substances in the environment and are referred to as chemical senses. In the past decade, much progress has been made in studies on molecular mechanisms of the gustatory system by methods such as those based on molecular and cellular biology, genetics, and bioinformatics. This review covers recent studies on taste receptors, intracellular signaling transduction in taste receptor cells, and taste coding at the periphery in vertebrates from fish to mammals.

  2. Mechano-transduction: from molecules to tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth L Pruitt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available External forces play complex roles in cell organization, fate, and homeostasis. Changes in these forces, or how cells respond to them, can result in abnormal embryonic development and diseases in adults. How cells sense and respond to these mechanical stimuli requires an understanding of the biophysical principles that underlie changes in protein conformation and result in alterations in the organization and function of cells and tissues. Here, we discuss mechano-transduction as it applies to protein conformation, cellular organization, and multi-cell (tissue function.

  3. The plant virus Tomato Spotted Wilt Tospovirus activates the immune system of its main insect vector, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Ricardo B; Resende, Renato de O; de Avila, Antonio Carlos

    2004-05-01

    Tospoviruses have the ability to infect plants and their insect vectors. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), the type species in the Tospovirus genus, infects its most important insect vector, Frankliniella occidentalis, the western flower thrips (WFT). However, no detrimental effects on the life cycle or cytopathological changes have been reported in the WFT after TSWV infection, and relatively few viral particles can be observed even several days after infection. We hypothesized that TSWV infection triggers an immune response in the WFT. Using subtractive cDNA libraries to probe WFT DNA macroarrays, we found that the WFT's immune system is activated by TSWV infection. The activated genes included (i) those encoding antimicrobial peptides, such as defensin and cecropin; (ii) genes involved in pathogen recognition, such as those encoding lectins; (iii) those encoding receptors that activate the innate immune response, such as Toll-3; and (iv) those encoding members of signal transduction pathways activated by Toll-like receptors, such as JNK kinase. Transcriptional upregulation of these genes after TSWV infection was confirmed by Northern analysis, and the kinetics of the immune response was measured over time. Several of the detected genes were activated at the same time that viral replication was first detected by reverse transcription-PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the activation of an insect vector immune response by a plant virus. The results may lead to a better understanding of insects' immune responses against viruses and may help in the future development of novel control strategies against plant viruses, as well as human and animal viruses transmitted by insect vectors.

  4. Improvement of Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Liver Transduction Efficacy by Regional Administration in Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabaleta, Nerea; Salas, David; Paramo, Maria; Hommel, Mirja; Sier-Ferreira, Valerie; Hernandez-Alcoceba, Ruben; Prieto, Jesus; Bilbao, Jose I; Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza, Gloria

    2017-06-01

    The liver is a central organ in metabolism and can be affected by numerous inherited metabolic disorders. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based gene therapy represents a promising therapeutic approach for such diseases. AAVs have been demonstrated to be safe, and resulted in high and long-term expression in preclinical and clinical studies. However, there are still some concerns regarding the expression levels that can be achieved and the percentage of hepatocytes that can be transduced. Because of the cell-autonomous nature of most metabolic liver disorders, a high percentage of hepatocytes needs to be corrected in order to achieve a therapeutic effect. The goal of our work was to improve transduction efficacy of the liver by conveying the vector directly to hepatic tissue. Interventional radiology procedures were used to administer an AAV5 vector expressing a secreted form of human embryonic alkaline phosphatase (hSEAP) under the control of a liver-specific promoter to a clinically relevant animal model, Macaca fascicularis. Balloon occlusion of the regional hepatic venous flow was performed while injecting the vector either into the hepatic artery (HA) or, against flow, via the suprahepatic vein (SHV). In both cases the vector was injected into the right hepatic lobules, and the two routes were compared with conventional intravenous administration. Higher hSEAP levels were obtained when the vector was administered via SHV or HA than after intravenous injection. Furthermore, higher expression levels correlated with a higher number of vector genomes in the injected lobules. In conclusion, direct administration of AAV vectors via the hepatic blood flow with simultaneous balloon occlusion of the hepatic outflow increases liver transduction efficacy in comparison with systemic delivery and can be further improved in bigger animals or humans, where it would be technically feasible to inject the vector into the hepatic vasculature in the generality of lobules.

  5. ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, B A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    During the data taking period from 2009 until 2011, the ATLAS trigger has been very successfully used to collect proton-proton data at LHC centre-of-mass energies between 900 GeV and 7 TeV. The three-level trigger system reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of about 300 Hz. Using custom electronics with input from the calorimeter and muon detectors, the first level rejects most background collisions in less than 2.5 microseconds. Then follow two levels of software-based triggers. The trigger system is designed to select events by identifying muons, electrons, photons, taus, jets and B hadron candidates, as well as using global event signatures, such as missing transverse energy. We give an overview of the strategy and performance of the different trigger selections based mainly on the experience during the 2011 LHC run, where the trigger menu needed quick adaptations to the continuous increase of luminosity throughout the year. Examples of trigger e...

  6. Novel Cytotoxic Vectors Based on Adeno-Associated Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Kohlschütter

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV are promising tools for gene therapy. The production of strongly toxic vectors, for example for cancer-directed gene transfer, is often unfeasible due to uncontrolled expression of toxic genes in vector-producing cells. Using an approach based on transcriptional repression, we have created novel AAV vectors carrying the genes coding for diphtheria toxin A (DTA and the pro-apoptotic PUMA protein. The DTA vector had a significant toxic effect on a panel of tumor cell lines, and abrogation of protein synthesis could be shown. The PUMA vector had a toxic effect on HeLa and RPMI 8226 cells, and sensitized transduced cells to doxorubicin. To permit targeted gene transfer, we incorporated the DTA gene into a genetically modified AAV-2 capsid previously developed by our group that mediates enhanced transduction of murine breast cancer cells in vitro. This vector had a stronger cytotoxic effect on breast cancer cells than DTA vectors with wildtype AAV capsid or vectors with a random capsid modification. The vector production and application system presented here allows for easy exchange of promotors, transgenes and capsid specificity for certain target cells. It will therefore be of great possible value in a broad range of applications in cytotoxic gene therapy and significantly broadens the spectrum of available tools for AAV-based gene therapy.

  7. Genetic Analysis of Gravity Signal Transduction in Arabidopsis thaliana Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsirichai, K.; Harrison, B.; Stanga, J.; Young, L.-S.; Neal, C.; Sabat, G.; Murthy, N.; Harms, A.; Sedbrook, J.; Masson, P.

    The primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings respond to gravity stimulation by developing a tip curvature that results from differential cellular elongation on opposite flanks of the elongation zone. This curvature appears modulated by a lateral gradient of auxin that originates in the gravity-perceiving cells (statocytes) of the root cap through an apparent lateral repositioning of a component the auxin efflux carrier complex within these cells (Friml et al, 2002, Nature 415: 806-809). Unfortunately, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern early phases of gravity perception and signal transduction within the root-cap statocytes. We have used a molecular genetic approach to uncover some of these mechanisms. Mutations in the Arabidopsis ARG1 and ARL2 genes, which encode J-domain proteins, resulted in specific alterations in root and hypocotyl gravitropism, without pleiotropic phenotypes. Interestingly, ARG1 and ARL2 appear to function in the same genetic pathway. A combination of molecular genetic, biochemical and cell-biological approaches were used to demonstrate that ARG1 functions in early phases of gravity signal transduction within the root and hypocotyl statocytes, and is needed for efficient lateral auxin transport within the cap. The ARG1 protein is associated with components of the secretory and/or endosomal pathways, suggesting its role in the recycling of components of the auxin efflux carrier complex between plasma membrane and endosome (Boonsirichai et al, 2003, Plant Cell 15:2612-2625). Genetic modifiers of arg1-2 were isolated and shown to enhance the gravitropic defect of arg1-2, while resulting in little or no gravitropic defects in a wild type ARG1 background. A slight tendency for arg1-2;mar1-1 and arg1-2;mar2-1 double-mutant organs to display an opposite gravitropic response compared to wild type suggests that all three genes contribute to the interpretation of the gravity-vector information by seedling organs. The

  8. FCJ-124 Interactive Environments as Fields of Transduction

    OpenAIRE

    Cristoph Brunner; Jonas Fritsch

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a critical inquiry of interactive environments as fields of transduction. It is argued that Gilbert Simondon’s concepts of individuation, transduction, in-formation, the preindividual, and the associated milieu enable a processual thinking of the analysis and design of interactive technologies as technogenetic emergence. These concepts offer a way for interaction design to understand interactive environments through the dynamics between fields of transduction and fields ...

  9. Development of novel AAV serotype 6 based vectors with selective tropism for human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayroo, R; Nolasco, D; Yin, Z; Colon-Cortes, Y; Pandya, M; Ling, C; Aslanidi, G

    2016-01-01

    Viral vectors-based gene therapy is an attractive alternative to common anti-cancer treatments. In the present studies, AAV serotype 6 vectors were identified to be particularly effective in the transduction of human prostate (PC3), breast (T47D) and liver (Huh7) cancer cells. Next, we developed chimeric AAV vectors with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide incorporated into the viral capsid to enable specific targeting of integrin-overexpressing malignant cells. These AAV6-RGD vectors improved transduction efficiency approximately 3-fold compared with wild-type AAV6 vectors by enhancing the viral entry into the cells. We also observed that transduction efficiency significantly improved, up to approximately 5-fold, by the mutagenesis of surface-exposed tyrosine and threonine residues involved in the intracellular trafficking of AAV vectors. Therefore, in our study, the AAV6-Y705-731F+T492V vector was identified as the most efficient. The combination of RGD peptide, tyrosine and threonine mutations on the same AAV6 capsid further increased the transduction efficiency, approximately 8-fold in vitro. In addition, we mutated lysine (K531E) to impair the affinity of AAV6 vectors to heparan sulfate proteoglycan. Finally, we showed a significant increase in both specificity and efficiency of AAV6-RGD-Y705-731F+T492V+K531E vectors in a xenograft animal model in vivo. In summary, the approach described here can lead to the development of AAV vectors with selective tropism to human cancer cells.

  10. Signal transduction during cold stress in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanke, Amolkumar U; Sharma, Arun K

    2008-04-01

    Cold stress signal transduction is a complex process. Many physiological changes like tissue break down and senescence occur due to cold stress. Low temperature is initially perceived by plasma membrane either due to change in membrane fluidity or with the help of sensors like Ca(2+) permeable channels, histidine kinases, receptor kinases and phospholipases. Subsequently, cytoskeleton reorganization and cytosolic Ca(2+) influx takes place. Increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) is sensed by CDPKs, phosphatase and MAPKs, which transduce the signals to switch on transcriptional cascades. Photosynthetic apparatus have also been thought to be responsible for low temperature perception and signal transduction. Many cold induced pathways are activated to protect plants from deleterious effects of cold stress, but till date, most studied pathway is ICE-CBF-COR signaling pathway. However, the importance of CBF independent pathways in cold acclimation is supported by few Arabidopsis mutants' studies. Cold stress signaling has certain pathways common with other abiotic and biotic stress signaling which suggest cross-talks among these. Most of the economically important crops are sensitive to low temperature, but very few studies are available on cold susceptible crop plants. Therefore, it is necessary to understand signal transducing components from model plants and utilize that knowledge to improve survival of cold sensitive crop plants at low temperature.

  11. Simulated evolution of signal transduction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mobashir

    Full Text Available Signal transduction is the process of routing information inside cells when receiving stimuli from their environment that modulate the behavior and function. In such biological processes, the receptors, after receiving the corresponding signals, activate a number of biomolecules which eventually transduce the signal to the nucleus. The main objective of our work is to develop a theoretical approach which will help to better understand the behavior of signal transduction networks due to changes in kinetic parameters and network topology. By using an evolutionary algorithm, we designed a mathematical model which performs basic signaling tasks similar to the signaling process of living cells. We use a simple dynamical model of signaling networks of interacting proteins and their complexes. We study the evolution of signaling networks described by mass-action kinetics. The fitness of the networks is determined by the number of signals detected out of a series of signals with varying strength. The mutations include changes in the reaction rate and network topology. We found that stronger interactions and addition of new nodes lead to improved evolved responses. The strength of the signal does not play any role in determining the response type. This model will help to understand the dynamic behavior of the proteins involved in signaling pathways. It will also help to understand the robustness of the kinetics of the output response upon changes in the rate of reactions and the topology of the network.

  12. Transductive face sketch-photo synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nannan; Tao, Dacheng; Gao, Xinbo; Li, Xuelong; Li, Jie

    2013-09-01

    Face sketch-photo synthesis plays a critical role in many applications, such as law enforcement and digital entertainment. Recently, many face sketch-photo synthesis methods have been proposed under the framework of inductive learning, and these have obtained promising performance. However, these inductive learning-based face sketch-photo synthesis methods may result in high losses for test samples, because inductive learning minimizes the empirical loss for training samples. This paper presents a novel transductive face sketch-photo synthesis method that incorporates the given test samples into the learning process and optimizes the performance on these test samples. In particular, it defines a probabilistic model to optimize both the reconstruction fidelity of the input photo (sketch) and the synthesis fidelity of the target output sketch (photo), and efficiently optimizes this probabilistic model by alternating optimization. The proposed transductive method significantly reduces the expected high loss and improves the synthesis performance for test samples. Experimental results on the Chinese University of Hong Kong face sketch data set demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method by comparing it with representative inductive learning-based face sketch-photo synthesis methods.

  13. Adeno-associated virus serotypes 1 to 5 mediated tumor cell directed gene transfer and improvement of transduction efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Ulrich T; Wingenfeld, Lisa; Kofler, David M; Schuhmann, Natascha K; Lutz, Sandra; Herold, Tobias; King, Susan B S; Gerner, Franz M; Perabo, Luca; Rabinowitz, Joseph; McCarty, Douglas M; Samulski, Richard J; Hallek, Michael; Büning, Hildegard

    2005-11-01

    Gene therapy is an attractive new approach for the treatment of cancer. Therefore, the development of efficient vector systems is of crucial importance in this field. Different adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotypes have been characterized so far, which show considerable differences in tissue tropism. Consequently, we aimed to characterize the most efficient serotype for this application. To exclude all influences other than those provided by the capsid, all serotypes contained the same transgene cassette flanked by the AAV2 inverted terminal repeats. We systematically compared these vectors for efficiency in human cancer cell directed gene transfer. In order to identify limiting steps, the influence of second-strand synthesis and proteasomal degradation of AAV in a poorly transducible cell line were examined. AAV2 was the most efficient serotype in all solid tumor cells and primary melanoma cells with transduction rates up to 98 +/- 0.3%. Transduction above 70% could be reached with serotypes 1 (in cervical and prostate carcinoma) and 3 (in cervical, breast, prostate and colon carcinoma) using 1000 genomic particles per cell. In the colon carcinoma cell line HT-29 proteasomal degradation limited AAV1-AAV4-mediated gene transfer. Moreover, inefficient second-strand synthesis prevents AAV2-mediated transgene expression in this cell line. Recent advances in AAV-vector technology suggest that AAV-based vectors can be used for cancer gene therapy. Our comparative analysis revealed that, although AAV2 is the most promising candidate for such an application, serotypes 1 and 3 are valid alternatives. Furthermore, the use of self-complementary AAV vectors and proteasome inhibitors significantly improves cancer cell transduction. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Dual transgene expression in murine cerebellar Purkinje neurons by viral transduction in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie K Bosch

    Full Text Available Viral-vector mediated gene transfer to cerebellar Purkinje neurons in vivo is a promising avenue for gene therapy of cerebellar ataxias and for genetic manipulation in functional studies of animal models of cerebellar disease. Here, we report the results of experiments designed to identify efficient methods for viral transduction of adult murine Purkinje neurons in vivo. For these analyses, several lentiviral and an adeno-associated virus (AAV, serotype 1, vector with various promoter combinations were generated and compared for in situ transduction efficiency, assayed by fluorescent reporter protein expression in Purkinje neurons. Additional experiments were also conducted to identify the optimal experimental strategy for co-expression of two proteins in individual Purkinje neurons. Of the viruses tested, AAV1 with a CAG promoter exhibited the highest specificity for Purkinje neurons. To deliver two proteins to the same Purkinje neuron, several methods were tested, including: an internal ribosome entry site (IRES, a 2A sequence, a dual promoter vector, and co-injection of two viruses. Efficient expression of both proteins in the same Purkinje neuron was only achieved by co-injecting two AAV1-CAG viruses. We found that use of an AAV1-CAG virus outperformed similar lentivirus vectors and that co-injection of two AAV1-CAG viruses could be used to efficiently deliver two proteins to the same Purkinje neuron in adult mice. AAV1 with a CAG promoter is highly efficient and selective at transducing adult cerebellar Purkinje neurons and two AAV-CAG viruses can be used to efficiently express two proteins in the same neuron in vivo.

  15. Dual transgene expression in murine cerebellar Purkinje neurons by viral transduction in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Marie K; Nerbonne, Jeanne M; Ornitz, David M

    2014-01-01

    Viral-vector mediated gene transfer to cerebellar Purkinje neurons in vivo is a promising avenue for gene therapy of cerebellar ataxias and for genetic manipulation in functional studies of animal models of cerebellar disease. Here, we report the results of experiments designed to identify efficient methods for viral transduction of adult murine Purkinje neurons in vivo. For these analyses, several lentiviral and an adeno-associated virus (AAV), serotype 1, vector with various promoter combinations were generated and compared for in situ transduction efficiency, assayed by fluorescent reporter protein expression in Purkinje neurons. Additional experiments were also conducted to identify the optimal experimental strategy for co-expression of two proteins in individual Purkinje neurons. Of the viruses tested, AAV1 with a CAG promoter exhibited the highest specificity for Purkinje neurons. To deliver two proteins to the same Purkinje neuron, several methods were tested, including: an internal ribosome entry site (IRES), a 2A sequence, a dual promoter vector, and co-injection of two viruses. Efficient expression of both proteins in the same Purkinje neuron was only achieved by co-injecting two AAV1-CAG viruses. We found that use of an AAV1-CAG virus outperformed similar lentivirus vectors and that co-injection of two AAV1-CAG viruses could be used to efficiently deliver two proteins to the same Purkinje neuron in adult mice. AAV1 with a CAG promoter is highly efficient and selective at transducing adult cerebellar Purkinje neurons and two AAV-CAG viruses can be used to efficiently express two proteins in the same neuron in vivo.

  16. The ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Hauser, R

    2004-01-01

    ATLAS is one of two general-purpose detectors at the next generation proton-proton collider, the LHC. The high rate of interactions and the large number of read-out channels make the trigger system for ATLAS a challenging task. The initial bunch crossing rate of 40~MHz has to be reduced to about 200 Hz while preserving the physics signals against a large background. ATLAS uses a three-level trigger system, with the first level implemented in custom hardware, while the high level trigger systems are implemented in software on commodity hardware. This note describes the physics motivation, the various selection strategies for different channels as well as the physical implementation of the trigger system.

  17. Trigger Finger (Stenosing Tenosynovitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the fingers glide easily with the help of pulleys. These pulleys hold the tendons close to the bone. This ... rod (Figure 1). Trigger finger occurs when the pulley becomes too thick, so the tendon cannot glide ...

  18. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  19. Asthma Triggers: Gain Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asthma. Dogs, cats, rodents (including hamsters and guinea pigs) and other warm-blooded mammals can trigger asthma ... Page Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, or report a problem. Asthma Indoor Air Quality ...

  20. Ischemic preconditioning modulates mitochondrial respiration, irrespective of the employed signal transduction pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, David A; Manintveld, Olivier C; Schoonderwoerd, Kees; McFalls, Edward O; Heinen, Andre; Verdouw, Pieter D; Sluiter, Wim; Duncker, Dirk J

    2008-01-01

    We tested in the in vivo rat heart the hypothesis that although ischemic preconditioning can employ different signal transduction pathways, these pathways converge ultimately at the level of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Infarct size produced by a 60-min coronary artery occlusion (69%+/-2% of the area at risk) was limited by a preceding 15-min coronary occlusion (48%+/-4%). Cardioprotection by this stimulus was triggered by adenosine receptor stimulation, which was followed by protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase activation and then mitochondrial K(+)(ATP)-channel opening. In contrast, cardioprotection by 3 cycles of 3-min coronary occlusions (infarct size 27%+/-5% of the area at risk) involved the release of reactive oxygen species, which was followed by protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase activation, but was independent of adenosine receptor stimulation and K(+)(ATP)-channel activation. However, both pathways decreased respiratory control index (RCI; state-3/state-2, using succinate as complex-II substrate) from 3.1+/-0.2 in mitochondria from sham-treated hearts to 2.4+/-0.2 and 2.5+/-0.1 in hearts subjected to a single 15-min and triple 3-min coronary occlusions, respectively (both P<0.05). The decreases in RCI were due to an increase in state-2 respiration, whereas state-3 respiration was unchanged. Abolition of cardioprotection by blockade of either signal transduction pathway was paralleled by a concomitant abolition of mitochondrial uncoupling. These observations are consistent with the concept that mild mitochondrial uncoupling contributes to infarct size limitation by various ischemic preconditioning stimuli, despite using different signal transduction pathways. In conclusion, in the in vivo rat heart, different ischemic preconditioning (IPC) stimuli can activate highly different signal transduction pathways, which seem to converge at the level of the mitochondria where they increase state-2 respiration.

  1. Abscisic acid perception and signaling transduction in strawberry: a model for non-climacteric fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunli; Jia, Haifeng; Chai, Yemao; Shen, Yuanyue

    2011-12-01

    On basis of fruit differential respiration and ethylene effects, climacteric and non-climacteric fruits have been classically defined. Over the past decades, the molecular mechanisms of climacteric fruit ripening were abundantly described and found to focus on ethylene perception and signaling transduction. In contrast, until our most recent breakthroughs, much progress has been made toward understanding the signaling perception and transduction mechanisms for abscisic acid (ABA) in strawberry, a model for non-climacteric fruit ripening. Our reports not only have provided several lines of strong evidences for ABA-regulated ripening of strawberry fruit, but also have demonstrated that homology proteins of Arabidopsis ABA receptors, including PYR/PYL/RCAR and ABAR/CHLH, act as positive regulators of ripening in response to ABA. These receptors also trigger a set of ABA downstream signaling components, and determine significant changes in the expression levels of both sugar and pigment metabolism-related genes that are closely associated with ripening. Soluble sugars, especially sucrose, may act as a signal molecular to trigger ABA accumulation through an enzymatic action of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 1 (FaNCED1). This mini-review offers an overview of these processes and also outlines the possible, molecular mechanisms for ABA in the regulation of strawberry fruit ripening through the ABA receptors. © 2011 Landes Bioscience

  2. 2017 Tau Trigger Efficiencies

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Triggers selecting events with hadronically decaying $\\tau$ leptons ($\\tau_h$) are used in a wide variety of CMS analyses, in particular those targeting processes with a $H \\rightarrow \\tau\\tau$ decay. The performance of the $\\tau_h$ triggers is presented for data collected in 2017, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 41.5\\,fb$^{-1}$ at 13 TeV, and compared with simulation.

  3. The ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, Rhys Edward; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment employs a complex trigger system to enable the collaborations physics program. The LHC is now well in to its second running period delivering proton proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV with high instantaneous luminosity. This talk will describe the two level hardware and software trigger used to select events in this environment including recent improvements and the latest performance results.

  4. Improved Coinfection with Amphotropic Pseudotyped Retroviral Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehong Wu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphotropic pseudotyped retroviral vectors have typically been used to infect target cells without prior concentration. Although this can yield high rates of infection, higher rates may be needed where highly efficient coinfection of two or more vectors is needed. In this investigation we used amphotropic retroviral vectors produced by the Plat-A cell line and studied coinfection rates using green and red fluorescent proteins (EGFP and dsRed2. Target cells were primary human fibroblasts (PHF and 3T3 cells. Unconcentrated vector preparations produced a coinfection rate of ∼4% (defined as cells that are both red and green as a percentage of all cells infected. Optimized spinoculation, comprising centrifugation at 1200 g for 2 hours at 15∘C, increased the coinfection rate to ∼10%. Concentration by centrifugation at 10,000 g or by flocculation using Polybrene increased the coinfection rate to ∼25%. Combining the two processes, concentration by Polybrene flocculation and optimized spinoculation, increased the coinfection rate to 35% (3T3 or >50% (PHF. Improved coinfection should be valuable in protocols that require high transduction by combinations of two or more retroviral vectors.

  5. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00400931; Ilten, Philip; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-12-23

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. ...

  6. Topological Trigger Developments

    CERN Multimedia

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected an almost 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%, and its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and uBoost. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. These inclu...

  7. Analysis of Transduction Efficiency, Tropism and Axonal Transport of AAV Serotypes 1, 2, 5, 6, 8 and 9 in the Mouse Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Dominik F Aschauer; Sebastian Kreuz; Simon Rumpel

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant Adeno-associated virus vectors (rAAV) are widely used for gene delivery and multiple naturally occurring serotypes have been harnessed to target cells in different tissues and organs including the brain. Here, we provide a detailed and quantitative analysis of the transduction profiles of rAAV vectors based on six of the most commonly used serotypes (AAV1, AAV2, AAV5, AAV6, AAV8, AAV9) that allows systematic comparison and selection of the optimal vector for a specific application...

  8. Adeno-associated virus liver transduction efficiency measured by in vivo [18F]FHBG positron emission tomography imaging in rodents and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pañeda, Astrid; Collantes, Maria; Beattie, Stuart G; Otano, Itzia; Snapper, Jolanda; Timmermans, Eric; Guembe, Laura; Petry, Harald; Lanciego, Jose Luis; Benito, Alberto; Prieto, Jesus; Rodriguez-Pena, Maria Sol; Peñuelas, Iván; Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza, Gloria

    2011-08-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus 5 (rAAV5) represents a candidate vector with unique advantages for the treatment of hepatic disorders because of its narrow hepatic tropism. Noninvasive in vivo imaging of transgene expression provides an important tool with which to quantify the transduction efficiency, and duration and location, of transgene expression. In this study, we used positron emission tomography (PET) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) imaging to monitor liver transduction efficacy in rodents and nonhuman primates that received rAAV5 vector encoding herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK). HSV-TK expression in liver was also measured by immunohistochemistry. Notable differences in liver transduction efficiency were found, dependent on the animal species and sex. Male rodents were better transduced than females, as previously described. Moreover, male nonhuman primates also displayed increased hepatic expression of the rAAV5-delivered transgene, indicating that differences in rAAV-mediated liver transduction can be anticipated in humans. Our results demonstrate the high sensitivity and reproducibility of PET, using HSV-TK and [(18)F]FHBG, to detect gene expression after rAAV vector administration into living animals, confirming the utility of this technology in the quantification of transgene expression, even at low expression levels. However, we also describe how an immune response against HSV-TK hampered analysis of long-term expression in nonhuman primates.

  9. Naturally enveloped AAV vectors for shielding neutralizing antibodies and robust gene delivery in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    György, Bence; Fitzpatrick, Zachary; Crommentuijn, Matheus H W; Mu, Dakai; Maguire, Casey A

    2014-08-01

    Recently adeno-associated virus (AAV) became the first clinically approved gene therapy product in the western world. To develop AAV for future clinical application in a widespread patient base, particularly in therapies which require intravenous (i.v.) administration of vector, the virus must be able to evade pre-existing antibodies to the wild type virus. Here we demonstrate that in mice, AAV vectors associated with extracellular vesicles (EVs) can evade human anti-AAV neutralizing antibodies. We observed different antibody evasion and gene transfer abilities with populations of EVs isolated by different centrifugal forces. EV-associated AAV vector (ev-AAV) was up to 136-fold more resistant over a range of neutralizing antibody concentrations relative to standard AAV vector in vitro. Importantly in mice, at a concentration of passively transferred human antibodies which decreased i.v. administered standard AAV transduction of brain by 80%, transduction of ev-AAV transduction was not reduced and was 4000-fold higher. Finally, we show that expressing a brain targeting peptide on the EV surface allowed significant enhancement of transduction compared to untargeted ev-AAV. Using ev-AAV represents an effective, clinically relevant approach to evade human neutralizing anti-AAV antibodies after systemic administration of vector. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Triggering on New Physics with the CMS Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Tulika [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    The BU CMS group led by PI Tulika Bose has made several significant contributions to the CMS trigger and to the analysis of the data collected by the CMS experiment. Group members have played a leading role in the optimization of trigger algorithms, the development of trigger menus, and the online operation of the CMS High-Level Trigger. The group’s data analysis projects have concentrated on a broad spectrum of topics that take full advantage of their strengths in jets and calorimetry, trigger, lepton identification as well as their considerable experience in hadron collider physics. Their publications cover several searches for new heavy gauge bosons, vector-like quarks as well as diboson resonances.

  11. Efficient transduction of LEDGF/p75 mutant cells by complementary gain-of-function HIV-1 integrase mutant viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling the specificity of retroviral DNA integration could improve the safety of gene therapy vectors, and fusions of heterologous chromatin binding modules to the integrase (IN–binding domain from the lentiviral integration host cofactor lens epithelium–derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75 are a promising retargeting strategy. We previously proposed the utility of IN mutant lentiviral vectors that are selectively activated by complementary LEDGF/p75 variants, and our initial modifications in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 IN and LEDGF/p75 supported about 13% of wild-type vector transduction activity. Here we describe the selection and characterization of the K42E gain-of-function mutation in IN, which greatly improves the efficiency of this system. Both K42E and initial reverse-charge mutations in IN negatively affected reverse transcription and integration, yet when combined together boosted viral transduction efficiency to ∼75% of the wild-type vector in a manner dependent on a complementary LEDGF/p75 variant. Although the K42E mutation conferred functional gains to IN mutant viral reverse transcription and integration, only the integration boost depended on the engineered LEDGF/p75 mutant. We conclude that the specificity of lentiviral retargeting strategies based on heterologous LEDGF/p75 fusion proteins will benefit from our optimized system that utilizes the unique complementation properties of reverse-charge IN mutant viral and LEDGF/p75 host proteins.

  12. Controlling Signal Transduction with Synthetic Ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, David M.; Wandless, Thomas J.; Schreiber, Stuart L.; Crabtree, Gerald R.

    1993-11-01

    Dimerization and oligomerization are general biological control mechanisms contributing to the activation of cell membrane receptors, transcription factors, vesicle fusion proteins, and other classes of intra- and extracellular proteins. Cell permeable, synthetic ligands were devised that can be used to control the intracellular oligomerization of specific proteins. To demonstrate their utility, these ligands were used to reduce intracellular oligomerization of cell surface receptors that lacked their transmembrane and extracellular regions but contained intracellular signaling domains. Addition of these ligands to cells in culture resulted in signal transmission and specific target gene activation. Monomeric forms of the ligands blocked the pathway. This method of ligandregulated activation and termination of signaling pathways has the potential to be applied wherever precise control of a signal transduction pathway is desired.

  13. Augmented transgene expression in transformed cells using a parvoviral hybrid vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, L; Eskerski, H; Dinsart, C; Cornelis, J; Rommelaere, J; Haberkorn, U; Kleinschmidt, J A

    2008-04-01

    Autonomous parvoviruses possess an intrinsic oncotropism based on viral genetic elements controlling gene expression and genome replication. We constructed a hybrid vector consisting of the H1 parvovirus-derived expression cassette comprising the p4 promoter, the ns1 gene and the p38 promoter flanked by the adeno-associated viruses 2 (AAV2) inverted terminal repeats and packaged into AAV2 capsids. Gene transduction using this vector could be stimulated by coinfection with adenovirus, by irradiation or treatment with genotoxic agents, similar to standard AAV2 vectors. However, the latter were in most cases less efficient in gene transduction than the hybrid vector. With the new vector, tumor cell-selective increase in transgene expression was observed in pairs of transformed and non-transformed cells, leading to selective killing of the transformed cells after expression of a prodrug-converting enzyme. Preferential gene expression in tumor versus normal liver tissue was also observed in vivo in a syngeneic rat model. Comparative transduction of a panel of different tumor cell lines with the H1 and the H1/AAV hybrid vector showed a preference of each vector for distinct cell types, probably reflecting the dependence of the viral tropism on capsid determinants.

  14. NF1 Signal Transduction and Vascular Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    malformations, aneurysms, and hypertension . Consequently there is a markedly elevated risk of cerbrovascular accidents(Friedman et al., 2002). NF1...the endothelium seems to trigger a rapid leukemic crisis . This observation is quite unexpected but consistent with the notion that the endothelial

  15. Internal dielectric transduction: optimal position and frequency scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Dana; Bhave, Sunil A

    2007-12-01

    We propose the optimal design for "internal dielectric transduction" of longitudinal bulk mode resonators. This transduction increases in efficiency as the dielectric thickness approaches half the acoustic wavelength. With dielectric films at positions of maximum strain (minimum displacement) in the resonator, 60 GHz resonators are proposed with 50 Omega motional impedance.

  16. CMS Trigger Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Donato, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    During its second run of operation (Run 2) which started in 2015, the LHC will deliver a peak instantaneous luminosity that may reach $2 \\cdot 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ with an average pile-up of about 55, far larger than the design value. Under these conditions, the online event selection is a very challenging task. In CMS, it is realized by a two-level trigger system the Level-1 (L1) Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. In order to face this challenge, the L1 trigger has been through a major upgrade compared to Run 1, whereby all electronic boards of the system have been replaced, allowing more sophisticated algorithms to be run online. Its last stage, the global trigger, is now able to perform complex selections and to compute high-level quantities, like invariant masses. Likewise, the algorithms that run in the HLT go through big improvements; in particular, new appr...

  17. The CMS trigger system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; Damiao, D. De Jesus; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; De Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; El Sawy, M.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Scharf, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schwandt, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Akbiyik, M.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Frensch, F.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hazi, A.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nishu, N.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutta, S.; Jain, Sa.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Chowdhury, S. Roy; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Mahakud, B.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sarkar, T.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Kothekar, K.; Sharma, S.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Goldouzian, R.; Khakzad, M.; Najafabadi, M. Mohammadi; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Viliani, L.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Calvelli, V.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Brianza, L.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Gerosa, R.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Di Guida, S.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Bacchetta, N.; Bellato, M.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Montecassiano, F.; Passaseo, M.; Pazzini, J.; Pegoraro, M.; Pozzobon, N.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Vanini, S.; Ventura, S.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D'imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Ravera, F.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Tamponi, U.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Marone, M.; Schizzi, A.; Zanetti, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Kong, D. J.; Lee, S.; Oh, Y. D.; Sakharov, A.; Son, D. C.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Go, Y.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Yoo, H. D.; Choi, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Kwon, E.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Dudenas, V.; Juodagalvis, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Ahmed, I.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Ali, M. A. B. Md; Mohamad Idris, F.; Abdullah, W. A. T. Wan; Yusli, M. N.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Byszuk, A.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Kierzkowski, K.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Oklinski, W.; Olszewski, M.; Pozniak, K.; Walczak, M.; Zabolotny, W.; Bargassa, P.; Silva, C. Beirão Da Cruz E.; Di Francesco, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Leonardo, N.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Nguyen, F.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Seixas, J.; Toldaiev, O.; Vadruccio, D.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Afanasiev, S.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Konoplyanikov, V.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Zarubin, A.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Karneyeu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Spiridonov, A.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Bylinkin, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Kaminskiy, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Myagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro De Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Santaolalla, J.; Soares, M. S.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Castiñeiras De Saa, J. R.; De Castro Manzano, P.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Fernandez, M.; Garcia-Ferrero, J.; Gomez, G.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Trevisani, N.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benaglia, A.; Bendavid, J.; Benhabib, L.; Benitez, J. F.; Berruti, G. M.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Castello, R.; Cerminara, G.; D'Alfonso, M.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Daponte, V.; David, A.; De Gruttola, M.; De Guio, F.; De Roeck, A.; De Visscher, S.; Di Marco, E.; Dobson, M.; Dordevic, M.; Dorney, B.; du Pree, T.; Dünser, M.; Dupont, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Franzoni, G.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Guida, R.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Hammer, J.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Kousouris, K.; Krajczar, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Lucchini, M. T.; Magini, N.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Martelli, A.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Nemallapudi, M. 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W.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Kwan, S.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Yang, F.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Low, J. F.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Rossin, R.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sady, A.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P., III; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, τ lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during data taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.

  18. The CMS trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; El Sawy, Mai; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schwandt, Joern; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hazi, Andras; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Jain, Sandhya; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukherjee, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Kothekar, Kunal; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellato, Marco; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Passaseo, Marina; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pegoraro, Matteo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kaminskiy, Alexandre; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Piparo, Danilo; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Salerno, Daniel; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Bartek, Rachel; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Fiori, Francesco; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Petrakou, Eleni; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Cripps, Nicholas; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Gastler, Daniel; Lawson, Philip; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Saltzberg, David; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Derdzinski, Mark; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Incandela, Joe; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Pierini, Maurizio; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Nauenberg, Uriel; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Jung, Andreas Werner; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Rossin, Roberto; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Cocoros, Alice; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Ratnikov, Fedor; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej; Malik, Sudhir; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Mueller, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-01-24

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, $\\tau$ lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during data taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.

  19. Trigger Monitoring at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Sidoti, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The Trigger and Data Acquisition system for the ATLAS experiment has to reduce the 40 MHz of LHC bunch crossing rate to ~200 Hz of recording rate. This is achieved through a complex distributed system composed by $sim$ 1.000 CPUs, about a third of the expected final size of the system. Monitoring the trigger behavior through all the trigger level is of fundamental importance to assess the quality of the data taken, to give fast feedback for the trigger configuration design and to monitor the stability of the HLT farm components. In this paper we will present the online monitoring framework and the various tools available in the ATLAS trigger system going from the ones that build the basic monitoring infrastructure and test the basic functionalities of the system to the more elaborated ones that checks the quality of the data taking looking at physics variables reconstructed online. The early experience in the 2009 cosmics data taking period will also be shown.

  20. Transductive domain adaptive learning for epileptic electroencephalogram recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changjian; Deng, Zhaohong; Choi, Kup-Sze; Jiang, Yizhang; Wang, Shitong

    2014-11-01

    Intelligent recognition of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is an important means for epilepsy detection. Almost all conventional intelligent recognition methods assume that the training and testing data of EEG signals have identical distribution. However, this assumption may indeed be invalid for practical applications due to differences in distributions between the training and testing data, making the conventional epilepsy detection algorithms not feasible under such situations. In order to overcome this problem, we proposed a transfer-learning-based intelligent recognition method for epilepsy detection. We used the large-margin-projected transductive support vector machine method (LMPROJ) to learn the useful knowledge between the training domain and testing domain by calculating the maximal mean discrepancy. The method can effectively learn a model for the testing data with training data of different distributions, thereby relaxing the constraint that the data distribution in the training and testing samples should be identical. The experimental validation is performed over six datasets of electroencephalogram signals with three feature extraction methods. The proposed LMPROJ-based transfer learning method was compared with five conventional classification methods. For the datasets with identical distribution, the performance of these six classification methods was comparable. They all could achieve an accuracy of 90%. However, the LMPROJ method obviously outperformed the five conventional methods for experimental datasets with different distribution between the training and test data. Regardless of the feature extraction method applied, the mean classification accuracy of the proposed method is above 93%, which is greater than that of the other five methods with statistical significance. The proposed transfer-learning-based method has better classification accuracy and adaptability than the conventional methods in classifying EEG signals for epilepsy

  1. AAV9 supports wide-scale transduction of the CNS and TDP-43 disease modeling in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasey L Jackson

    Full Text Available AAV9 has emerged as an efficient adeno-associated virus (AAV serotype for gene transfer to the central nervous system. We have used this technique to study aspects of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS by administering AAV encoding the ALS-related gene transactive response DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43 to neonatal rats. However, inducing the expression in adult subjects would be preferable to mimic the adult onset of symptoms in ALS. We expressed either green fluorescent protein (GFP or TDP-43 in adult rats after an intravenous (i.v. route of administration to attempt wide-scale transduction of the spinal cord for disease modeling. In order to optimize the gene transfer, we made comparisons of efficiency by age, gender, and across several AAV serotypes (AAV1, AAV8, AAV9, and AAV10. The data indicate more efficient neuronal transduction in neonates, with little evidence of glial transduction at either age, no gender-related differences in transduction, and that AAV9 was efficient in adults relative to the other serotypes tested. Based on these data, AAV9 TDP-43 was expressed at three vector doses in adult female rats yielding highly consistent, dose-dependent motor deficits. AAV9 can be delivered i.v. to adult rats to achieve consistent pathophysiological changes and a relevant adult-onset system for disease modeling.

  2. AAV9 supports wide-scale transduction of the CNS and TDP-43 disease modeling in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kasey L; Dayton, Robert D; Klein, Ronald L

    2015-01-01

    AAV9 has emerged as an efficient adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype for gene transfer to the central nervous system. We have used this technique to study aspects of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by administering AAV encoding the ALS-related gene transactive response DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) to neonatal rats. However, inducing the expression in adult subjects would be preferable to mimic the adult onset of symptoms in ALS. We expressed either green fluorescent protein (GFP) or TDP-43 in adult rats after an intravenous (i.v.) route of administration to attempt wide-scale transduction of the spinal cord for disease modeling. In order to optimize the gene transfer, we made comparisons of efficiency by age, gender, and across several AAV serotypes (AAV1, AAV8, AAV9, and AAV10). The data indicate more efficient neuronal transduction in neonates, with little evidence of glial transduction at either age, no gender-related differences in transduction, and that AAV9 was efficient in adults relative to the other serotypes tested. Based on these data, AAV9 TDP-43 was expressed at three vector doses in adult female rats yielding highly consistent, dose-dependent motor deficits. AAV9 can be delivered i.v. to adult rats to achieve consistent pathophysiological changes and a relevant adult-onset system for disease modeling.

  3. Strategies to generate high-titer, high-potency recombinant AAV3 serotype vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 3 (AAV3 vectors were largely ignored previously, owing to their poor transduction efficiency in most cells and tissues examined, our initial observation of the selective tropism of AAV3 serotype vectors for human liver cancer cell lines and primary human hepatocytes has led to renewed interest in this serotype. AAV3 vectors and their variants have recently proven to be extremely efficient in targeting human and nonhuman primate hepatocytes in vitro as well as in vivo. In the present studies, we wished to evaluate the relative contributions of the cis-acting inverted terminal repeats (ITRs from AAV3 (ITR3, as well as the trans-acting Rep proteins from AAV3 (Rep3 in the AAV3 vector production and transduction. To this end, we utilized two helper plasmids: pAAVr2c3, which carries rep2 and cap3 genes, and pAAVr3c3, which carries rep3 and cap3 genes. The combined use of AAV3 ITRs, AAV3 Rep proteins, and AAV3 capsids led to the production of recombinant vectors, AAV3-Rep3/ITR3, with up to approximately two to fourfold higher titers than AAV3-Rep2/ITR2 vectors produced using AAV2 ITRs, AAV2 Rep proteins, and AAV3 capsids. We also observed that the transduction efficiency of Rep3/ITR3 AAV3 vectors was approximately fourfold higher than that of Rep2/ITR2 AAV3 vectors in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines in vitro. The transduction efficiency of Rep3/ITR3 vectors was increased by ∼10-fold, when AAV3 capsids containing mutations in two surface-exposed residues (serine 663 and threonine 492 were used to generate a S663V+T492V double-mutant AAV3 vector. The Rep3/ITR3 AAV3 vectors also transduced human liver tumors in vivo approximately twofold more efficiently than those generated with Rep2/ITR2. Our data suggest that the transduction efficiency of AAV3 vectors can be significantly improved both using homologous Rep proteins and ITRs as well as by capsid optimization. Thus, the combined use of

  4. FCJ-124 Interactive Environments as Fields of Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristoph Brunner

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a critical inquiry of interactive environments as fields of transduction. It is argued that Gilbert Simondon’s concepts of individuation, transduction, in-formation, the preindividual, and the associated milieu enable a processual thinking of the analysis and design of interactive technologies as technogenetic emergence. These concepts offer a way for interaction design to understand interactive environments through the dynamics between fields of transduction and fields of experience in relational and affective terms. The article analyses the way in which two technological assemblages, Voz Alta and the Impossible Room, provide different experiential fields experimenting with the transductive power of digital and interactive media. We emphasise the potential for creating new modes of experience. Our aim is to underline the necessary convergences between practices of design and thought; to enable affectively engaging fields of transduction.

  5. Developmental Trigger Thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twu, Jonathan; Angeles, Jovito

    2016-04-01

    Developmental trigger thumb, although uncommon, can be easily identifiable in the pediatric outpatient visit. Patients often present with their thumb locked in flexion and a firm nodule at the base of the thumb. The thumb is usually passively correctable and nonpainful. It is important to examine the opposite thumb as bilateral trigger thumbs occur at a rate of 25% to 30%. Nonsurgical options have been proposed in the past including watchful waiting, extension exercises, splinting, and steroid injections with mixed results. Surgical intervention is indicated when there is painful triggering or the thumb is not passively correctable. Surgical treatment is an outpatient procedure that involves releasing the thumb flexor tendon from a small fibrous sheath called the A1 pulley. The overall recurrence rate after surgery is 1.4%. Our recommendation is for early referral to a pediatric orthopedic surgeon to evaluate for the need for surgical intervention. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Rados, PK; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Physics processes involving tau leptons play a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the high energy frontier. The ability to efficiently trigger on events containing hadronic tau decays is therefore of particular importance to the ATLAS experiment. During the 2012 run, the Large Hadronic Collder (LHC) reached instantaneous luminosities of nearly $10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ with bunch crossings occurring every $50 ns$. This resulted in a huge event rate and a high probability of overlapping interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up). With this in mind it was necessary to design an ATLAS tau trigger system that could reduce the event rate to a manageable level, while efficiently extracting the most interesting physics events in a pile-up robust manner. In this poster the ATLAS tau trigger is described, its performance during 2012 is presented, and the outlook for the LHC Run II is briefly summarized.

  7. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM; Schare, Joshua M [Albuquerque, NM; Bunch, Kyle [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  8. Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 Contingency Drogue Deploy Velocity Trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Robert S.; Stochowiak, Susan; Smith, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    As a backup to the GPS-aided Kalman filter and the Barometric altimeter, an "adjusted" velocity trigger is used during entry to trigger the chain of events that leads to drogue chute deploy for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). Even though this scenario is multiple failures deep, the Orion Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) software makes use of a clever technique that was taken from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) program, which recently successfully landing the Curiosity rover on Mars. MSL used this technique to jettison the heat shield at the proper time during descent. Originally, Orion use the un-adjusted navigated velocity, but the removal of the Star Tracker to save costs for EFT-1, increased attitude errors which increased inertial propagation errors to the point where the un-adjusted velocity caused altitude dispersions at drogue deploy to be too large. Thus, to reduce dispersions, the velocity vector is projected onto a "reference" vector that represents the nominal "truth" vector at the desired point in the trajectory. Because the navigation errors are largely perpendicular to the truth vector, this projection significantly reduces dispersions in the velocity magnitude. This paper will detail the evolution of this trigger method for the Orion project and cover the various methods tested to determine the reference "truth" vector; and at what point in the trajectory it should be computed.

  9. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  10. CD46-mediated transduction of a species D adenovirus vaccine improves mucosal vaccine efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Zenaido T; Turner, Mallory A; Barry, Michael A; Weaver, Eric A

    2014-04-01

    The high levels of preexisting immunity against Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) have deemed Ad5 unusable for translation as a human vaccine vector. Low seroprevalent alternative viral vectors may be less impacted by preexisting immunity, but they may also have significantly different phenotypes from that of Ad5. In this study we compare species D Ads (26, 28, and 48) to the species C Ad5. In vitro transduction studies show striking differences between the species C and D viruses. Most notably, Ad26 transduced human dendritic cells much more effectively than Ad5. In vivo imaging studies showed strikingly different transgene expression profiles. The Ad5 virus was superior to the species D viruses in BALB/c mice when delivered intramuscularly. However, the inverse was true when the viruses were delivered mucosally via the intranasal epithelia. Intramuscular transduction was restored in mice that ubiquitously expressed human CD46, the primary receptor for species D viruses. We analyzed both species C and D Ads for their ability to induce prophylactic immunity against influenza in the CD46 transgenic mouse model. Surprisingly, the species D vaccines again failed to induce greater levels of protective immunity as compared with the species C Ad5 when delivered intramuscularly. However, the species D Ad vaccine vector, Ad48, induced significantly greater protection as compared with Ad5 when delivered mucosally via the intranasal route in CD46 transgenic mice. These data shed light on the complexities between the species and types of Ad. Our findings indicate that more research will be required to identify the mechanisms that play a key role in the induction of protective immunity induced by species D Ad vaccines.

  11. Simian virus 40 vectors for pulmonary gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oppenheim Ariella

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sepsis remains the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. One of the primary organs affected by sepsis is the lung, presenting as the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS. Organ damage in sepsis involves an alteration in gene expression, making gene transfer a potential therapeutic modality. This work examines the feasibility of applying simian virus 40 (SV40 vectors for pulmonary gene therapy. Methods Sepsis-induced ARDS was established by cecal ligation double puncture (2CLP. SV40 vectors carrying the luciferase reporter gene (SV/luc were administered intratracheally immediately after sepsis induction. Sham operated (SO as well as 2CLP rats given intratracheal PBS or adenovirus expressing luciferase served as controls. Luc transduction was evaluated by in vivo light detection, immunoassay and luciferase mRNA detection by RT-PCR in tissue harvested from septic rats. Vector abundance and distribution into alveolar cells was evaluated using immunostaining for the SV40 VP1 capsid protein as well as by double staining for VP1 and for the surfactant protein C (proSP-C. Immunostaining for T-lymphocytes was used to evaluate the cellular immune response induced by the vector. Results Luc expression measured by in vivo light detection correlated with immunoassay from lung tissue harvested from the same rats. Moreover, our results showed vector presence in type II alveolar cells. The vector did not induce significant cellular immune response. Conclusion In the present study we have demonstrated efficient uptake and expression of an SV40 vector in the lungs of animals with sepsis-induced ARDS. These vectors appear to be capable of in vivo transduction of alveolar type II cells and may thus become a future therapeutic tool.

  12. Retinal gene delivery by adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors: Strategies and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, Christian; Biel, Martin; Michalakis, Stylianos

    2015-09-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are the most widely used vehicle systems for neuronal gene transfer. This popularity is based on the non-pathogenic nature of AAVs and their versatility making them a multifunctional vector system for basic research and clinical applications. AAVs are successfully applied in clinical and pre-clinical gene therapy studies for inherited retinal disorders. Their excellent transduction profile and efficiency also boosted the use of AAV vectors in basic research. The AAV vector system can be easily modified and adjusted at multiple levels to allow for optimized and specific gene expression in target cells. Here, we will provide an overview on the AAV vector system and its applications focusing on gene transfer into retinal cells. Furthermore, we will outline and discuss strategies for the optimization of AAV gene transfer by modifications to the AAV vector expression cassette, the AAV capsid or the routes of vector administration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dual AAV Vectors for Stargardt Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapani, Ivana

    2018-01-01

    Stargardt disease (STGD1), due to mutations in the large ABCA4 gene, is the most common inherited macular degeneration in humans. Attempts at developing gene therapy approaches for treatment of STGD1 are currently ongoing. Among all the vectors available for gene therapy of inherited retinal diseases, those based on adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are the most promising given the efficacy shown in various animal models and their excellent safety profile in humans, as confirmed in many ongoing clinical trials. However, one of the main obstacles for the use of AAV is their limited effective packaging capacity of about 5 kb. Taking advantage of the AAV genome's ability to concatemerize , others and we have recently developed dual AAV vectors to overcome this limit. We tested dual AAV vectors for ABCA4 delivery, and found that they transduce efficiently both mouse and pig photoreceptors , and rescue the Abca4-/- mouse retinal phenotype, indicating their potential for gene therapy of STGD1. This chapter details how we designed dual AAV vectors for the delivery of the ABCA4 gene and describes the techniques that can be explored to evaluate dual AAV transduction efficiency in vitro and in the retina, and their efficacy in the mouse model of STGD1.

  14. Cilia- and Flagella-Associated Protein 69 Regulates Olfactory Transduction Kinetics in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga, Anna K; Dong, Frederick N; Reisert, Johannes; Zhao, Haiqing

    2017-06-07

    doing so, it reduces the peripheral temporal resolution in coding odor stimuli and allows for robust olfactory behavior. This study should trigger a rethinking of the significance of the intrinsic speed of sensory transduction and the pattern of the peripheral coding of sensory stimuli. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/375699-12$15.00/0.

  15. Efficient intracellular assembly of papillomaviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Christopher B; Pastrana, Diana V; Lowy, Douglas R; Schiller, John T

    2004-01-01

    Although the papillomavirus structural proteins, L1 and L2, can spontaneously coassemble to form virus-like particles, currently available methods for production of L1/L2 particles capable of transducing reporter plasmids into mammalian cells are technically demanding and relatively low-yield. In this report, we describe a simple 293 cell transfection method for efficient intracellular production of papillomaviral-based gene transfer vectors carrying reporter plasmids. Using bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) and human papillomavirus type 16 as model papillomaviruses, we have developed a system for producing papillomaviral vector stocks with titers of several billion transducing units per milliliter. Production of these vectors requires both L1 and L2, and transduction can be prevented by papillomavirus-neutralizing antibodies. The stocks can be purified by an iodixanol (OptiPrep) gradient centrifugation procedure that is substantially more effective than standard cesium chloride gradient purification. Although earlier data had suggested a potential role for the viral early protein E2, we found that E2 protein expression did not enhance the intracellular production of BPV1 vectors. It was also possible to encapsidate reporter plasmids devoid of BPV1 DNA sequences. BPV1 vector production efficiency was significantly influenced by the size of the target plasmid being packaged. Use of 6-kb target plasmids resulted in BPV1 vector yields that were higher than those with target plasmids closer to the native 7.9-kb size of papillomavirus genomes. The results suggest that the intracellular assembly of papillomavirus structural proteins around heterologous reporter plasmids is surprisingly promiscuous and may be driven primarily by a size discrimination mechanism.

  16. Photoreceptor-targeted gene delivery using intravitreally administered AAV vectors in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, R F; Sledge, D G; Boye, S L; Boye, S E; Hauswirth, W W; Komáromy, A M; Petersen-Jones, S M; Bartoe, J T

    2016-02-01

    Delivery of therapeutic transgenes to retinal photoreceptors using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors has traditionally required subretinal injection. Recently, photoreceptor transduction efficiency following intravitreal injection (IVT) has improved in rodent models through use of capsid-mutant AAV vectors; but remains limited in large animal models. Thickness of the inner limiting membrane (ILM) in large animals is thought to impair retinal penetration by AAV. Our study compared two newly developed AAV vectors containing multiple capsid amino acid substitutions following IVT in dogs. The ability of two promoter constructs to restrict reporter transgene expression to photoreceptors was also evaluated. AAV vectors containing the interphotoreceptor-binding protein (IRBP) promoter drove expression exclusively in rod and cone photoreceptors, with transduction efficiencies of ~4% of cones and 2% of rods. Notably, in the central region containing the cone-rich visual streak, 15.6% of cones were transduced. Significant regional variation existed, with lower transduction efficiencies in the temporal regions of all eyes. This variation did not correlate with ILM thickness. Vectors carrying a cone-specific promoter failed to transduce a quantifiable percentage of cone photoreceptors. The newly developed AAV vectors containing the IRBP promoter were capable of producing photoreceptor-specific transgene expression following IVT in the dog.

  17. State-of-the-art lentiviral vectors for research use: risk assessment and biosafety recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Katia; Gijsbers, Rik; Toelen, Jaan; Schambach, Axel; Willard-Gallo, Karen; Verheust, Céline; Debyser, Zeger; Herman, Philippe

    2009-12-01

    Lentiviral vectors (LV) are competent gene transfer vehicles, as used for both research and gene therapy applications, because of their stable integration in non-dividing and dividing cells and long-term transgene expression. Along with our understanding that LV offer solutions for gene therapy, biosafety concerns have uncovered risks due to insertional mutagenesis, the generation of replication competent lentiviruses (RCL) and vector mobilization. Researchers therefore continue to devote significant efforts in designing LV with improved efficacy and biosafety features. The choice of a particular LV system for experimental studies is often driven by functional considerations, including increased productivity and/or transduction efficiency. The design of safer vectors has also directly benefited researchers allowing them to conduct experimental studies with lower risk. Currently, vectors combine improved safety features (that decrease the risk of recombination and vector mobilization) with increased transduction efficiency. Hence, risks associated with the inadvertent transduction of cells of the investigator gain greater importance in assessing the overall risk of these vectors and become an important biosafety concern. This review outlines the different strategies used to improve LV biosafety by comparing state-of-the-art and emerging LV production systems and highlighting biosafety issues that can arise during their contained use. The few existing national and international biosafety recommendations that specifically address the use of LV in research are discussed and recommendations for most common research activities using LV are proposed.

  18. Receptors and transduction of umami taste stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnamon, Sue C; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie

    2009-07-01

    L-glutamate and 5'-ribonucleotides, such as GMP and IMP, elicit the "umami" taste, also known as the fifth taste. This review will highlight recent advancements in our understanding of umami taste receptors and their downstream signaling effectors in taste receptor cells. Several G protein-coupled receptors that bind umami stimuli have been identified in taste buds, including the heterodimer T1R1/T1R3, truncated and brain forms of mGluR4 and mGluR1, brain mGluR2, and brain mGluR3. Further, ionotropic glutamate receptors are expressed in taste cells and may play a role in glutamate transduction or signaling between taste cells and/or nerve fibers. Knockout of T1R1 or T1R3 reduces, but does not eliminate, responses to umami stimuli, suggesting that multiple receptors contribute to umami taste. The signaling effectors downstream of umami G protein-coupled receptors involve Gbetagamma activation of PLCbeta2 to elicit Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores and activation of a cation channel, TRPM5. In fungiform and palatal taste buds, T1R1/T1R3 is co-expressed with Galpha gustducin and transducin, but the Galpha proteins involved in circumvallate taste buds have not been identified. In most taste fields, however, cAMP antagonizes responses to umami stimuli, suggesting that the Galpha subunit serves to modulate umami taste sensitivity.

  19. Melanin, Radiation, and Energy Transduction in Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Cordero, Radames J B; Bryan, Ruth; Nosanchuk, Joshua; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2017-03-01

    Melanin pigments are found in many diverse fungal species, where they serve a variety of functions that promote fitness and cell survival. Melanotic fungi inhabit some of the most extreme habitats on earth such as the damaged nuclear reactor at Chernobyl and the highlands of Antarctica, both of which are high-radiation environments. Melanotic fungi migrate toward radioactive sources, which appear to enhance their growth. This phenomenon, combined with the known capacities of melanin to absorb a broad spectrum of electromagnetic radiation and transduce this radiation into other forms of energy, raises the possibility that melanin also functions in harvesting such energy for biological usage. The ability of melanotic fungi to harness electromagnetic radiation for physiological processes has enormous implications for biological energy flows in the biosphere and for exobiology, since it provides new mechanisms for survival in extraterrestrial conditions. Whereas some features of the way melanin-related energy transduction works can be discerned by linking various observations and circumstantial data, the mechanistic details remain to be discovered.

  20. Endothelial cell oxidative stress and signal transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROCIO FONCEA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction (ED is an early event in atherosclerotic disease, preceding clinical manifestations and complications. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS have been implicated as important mechanisms that contribute to ED, and ROS’s may function as intracellular messengers that modulate signaling pathways. Several intracellular signal events stimulated by ROS have been defined, including the identification of two members of the mitogen activated protein kinase family (ERK1/2 and big MAP kinase, BMK1, tyrosine kinases (Src and Syk and different isoenzymes of PKC as redox-sensitive kinases. ROS regulation of signal transduction components include the modification in the activity of transcriptional factors such as NFkB and others that result in changes in gene expression and modifications in cellular responses. In order to understand the intracellular mechanisms induced by ROS in endothelial cells (EC, we are studying the response of human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells to increased ROS generation by different pro-atherogenic stimuli. Our results show that Homocysteine (Hcy and oxidized LDL (oxLDL enhance the activity and expression of oxidative stress markers, such as NFkB and heme oxygenase 1. These results suggest that these pro-atherogenic stimuli increase oxidative stress in EC, and thus explain the loss of endothelial function associated with the atherogenic process

  1. Critical Signal Transduction Pathways in CLL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Asish K.; Kay, Neil E.

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are cell-surface transmembrane receptors that contain regulated kinase activity within their cytoplasmic domain and play a critical role in signal transduction in both normal and malignant cells. Besides B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling in CLL, multiple RTKs have been reported to be constitutively active in CLL B-cells resulting in enhanced survival and resistance to apoptosis of the leukemic cells induced by chemotherapeutic agents. In addition to increased plasma levels of various types of cytokines/growth factors in CLL, we and others have detected that CLL B-cells spontaneously produce multiple cytokines in vitro which may constitute an autocrine loop of RTK activation on the leukemic B-cells. Moreover, aberrant expression and activation of non-RTKs, for example Src/Syk kinases, induce resistance of the leukemic B-cells to therapy. Based on current available knowledge, we detailed the impact of aberrant activities of various RTKs/non-RTKs on CLL B-cell survival and the potential of using these signaling components as future therapeutic targets in CLL therapy. PMID:24014299

  2. Impact of natural IgM concentration on gene therapy with adenovirus type 5 vectors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qiu, Qi; Xu, Zhili; Tian, Jie; Moitra, Rituparna; Gunti, Sreenivasulu; Notkins, Abner L; Byrnes, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    Natural IgM inhibits gene transfer by adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectors. We show that polyreactive natural IgM antibodies bind to Ad5 and that inhibition of liver transduction by IgM depends on Kupffer cells...

  3. Derivation of Double-Targeted Adenovirus Vectors for Gene Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    targeted phage vector fuCT/C6C/hrGFP. Forty-eight hours post-transduction the cells were examined under the fluorescent microscope . Left panel...fluorescent image; right panel, the same field viewed under white light. No fluorecent foci could be seen in a similarly transduced monolayer of parental

  4. An adeno-associated viral vector transduces the rat hypothalamus and amygdala more efficient than a lentiviral vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background This study compared the transduction efficiencies of an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector, which was pseudotyped with an AAV1 capsid and encoded the green fluorescent protein (GFP), with a lentiviral (LV) vector, which was pseudotyped with a VSV-G envelop and encoded the discosoma red fluorescent protein (dsRed), to investigate which viral vector transduced the lateral hypothalamus or the amygdala more efficiently. The LV-dsRed and AAV1-GFP vector were mixed and injected into the lateral hypothalamus or into the amygdala of adult rats. The titers that were injected were 1 × 108 or 1 × 109 genomic copies of AAV1-GFP and 1 × 105 transducing units of LV-dsRed. Results Immunostaining for GFP and dsRed showed that AAV1-GFP transduced significantly more cells than LV-dsRed in both the lateral hypothalamus and the amygdala. In addition, the number of LV particles that were injected can not easily be increased, while the number of AAV1 particles can be increased easily with a factor 100 to 1000. Both viral vectors appear to predominantly transduce neurons. Conclusions This study showed that AAV1 vectors are better tools to overexpress or knockdown genes in the lateral hypothalamus and amygdala of adult rats, since more cells can be transduced with AAV1 than with LV vectors and the titer of AAV1 vectors can easily be increased to transduce the area of interest. PMID:20626877

  5. An adeno-associated viral vector transduces the rat hypothalamus and amygdala more efficient than a lentiviral vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Backer, Marijke W A; Fitzsimons, Carlos P; Brans, Maike A D; Luijendijk, Mieneke C M; Garner, Keith M; Vreugdenhil, Erno; Adan, Roger A H

    2010-07-13

    This study compared the transduction efficiencies of an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector, which was pseudotyped with an AAV1 capsid and encoded the green fluorescent protein (GFP), with a lentiviral (LV) vector, which was pseudotyped with a VSV-G envelop and encoded the discosoma red fluorescent protein (dsRed), to investigate which viral vector transduced the lateral hypothalamus or the amygdala more efficiently. The LV-dsRed and AAV1-GFP vector were mixed and injected into the lateral hypothalamus or into the amygdala of adult rats. The titers that were injected were 1 x 108 or 1 x 109 genomic copies of AAV1-GFP and 1 x 105 transducing units of LV-dsRed. Immunostaining for GFP and dsRed showed that AAV1-GFP transduced significantly more cells than LV-dsRed in both the lateral hypothalamus and the amygdala. In addition, the number of LV particles that were injected can not easily be increased, while the number of AAV1 particles can be increased easily with a factor 100 to 1000. Both viral vectors appear to predominantly transduce neurons. This study showed that AAV1 vectors are better tools to overexpress or knockdown genes in the lateral hypothalamus and amygdala of adult rats, since more cells can be transduced with AAV1 than with LV vectors and the titer of AAV1 vectors can easily be increased to transduce the area of interest.

  6. An adeno-associated viral vector transduces the rat hypothalamus and amygdala more efficient than a lentiviral vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vreugdenhil Erno

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study compared the transduction efficiencies of an adeno-associated viral (AAV vector, which was pseudotyped with an AAV1 capsid and encoded the green fluorescent protein (GFP, with a lentiviral (LV vector, which was pseudotyped with a VSV-G envelop and encoded the discosoma red fluorescent protein (dsRed, to investigate which viral vector transduced the lateral hypothalamus or the amygdala more efficiently. The LV-dsRed and AAV1-GFP vector were mixed and injected into the lateral hypothalamus or into the amygdala of adult rats. The titers that were injected were 1 × 108 or 1 × 109 genomic copies of AAV1-GFP and 1 × 105 transducing units of LV-dsRed. Results Immunostaining for GFP and dsRed showed that AAV1-GFP transduced significantly more cells than LV-dsRed in both the lateral hypothalamus and the amygdala. In addition, the number of LV particles that were injected can not easily be increased, while the number of AAV1 particles can be increased easily with a factor 100 to 1000. Both viral vectors appear to predominantly transduce neurons. Conclusions This study showed that AAV1 vectors are better tools to overexpress or knockdown genes in the lateral hypothalamus and amygdala of adult rats, since more cells can be transduced with AAV1 than with LV vectors and the titer of AAV1 vectors can easily be increased to transduce the area of interest.

  7. Targeting photoreceptors via intravitreal delivery using novel, capsid-mutated AAV vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine N Kay

    Full Text Available Development of viral vectors capable of transducing photoreceptors by less invasive methods than subretinal injection would provide a major advancement in retinal gene therapy. We sought to develop novel AAV vectors optimized for photoreceptor transduction following intravitreal delivery and to develop methodology for quantifying this transduction in vivo. Surface exposed tyrosine (Y and threonine (T residues on the capsids of AAV2, AAV5 and AAV8 were changed to phenylalanine (F and valine (V, respectively. Transduction efficiencies of self-complimentary, capsid-mutant and unmodified AAV vectors containing the smCBA promoter and mCherry cDNA were initially scored in vitro using a cone photoreceptor cell line. Capsid mutants exhibiting the highest transduction efficiencies relative to unmodified vectors were then injected intravitreally into transgenic mice constitutively expressing a Rhodopsin-GFP fusion protein in rod photoreceptors (Rho-GFP mice. Photoreceptor transduction was quantified by fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS by counting cells positive for both GFP and mCherry. To explore the utility of the capsid mutants, standard, (non-self-complementary AAV vectors containing the human rhodopsin kinase promoter (hGRK1 were made. Vectors were intravitreally injected in wildtype mice to assess whether efficient expression exclusive to photoreceptors was achievable. To restrict off-target expression in cells of the inner and middle retina, subsequent vectors incorporated multiple target sequences for miR181, an miRNA endogenously expressed in the inner and middle retina. Results showed that AAV2 containing four Y to F mutations combined with a single T to V mutation (quadY-F+T-V transduced photoreceptors most efficiently. Robust photoreceptor expression was mediated by AAV2(quadY-F+T-V -hGRK1-GFP. Observed off-target expression was reduced by incorporating target sequence for a miRNA highly expressed in inner/middle retina, miR181c. Thus

  8. Targeting photoreceptors via intravitreal delivery using novel, capsid-mutated AAV vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Christine N; Ryals, Renee C; Aslanidi, George V; Min, Seok Hong; Ruan, Qing; Sun, Jingfen; Dyka, Frank M; Kasuga, Daniel; Ayala, Andrea E; Van Vliet, Kim; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Hauswirth, William W; Boye, Sanford L; Boye, Shannon E

    2013-01-01

    Development of viral vectors capable of transducing photoreceptors by less invasive methods than subretinal injection would provide a major advancement in retinal gene therapy. We sought to develop novel AAV vectors optimized for photoreceptor transduction following intravitreal delivery and to develop methodology for quantifying this transduction in vivo. Surface exposed tyrosine (Y) and threonine (T) residues on the capsids of AAV2, AAV5 and AAV8 were changed to phenylalanine (F) and valine (V), respectively. Transduction efficiencies of self-complimentary, capsid-mutant and unmodified AAV vectors containing the smCBA promoter and mCherry cDNA were initially scored in vitro using a cone photoreceptor cell line. Capsid mutants exhibiting the highest transduction efficiencies relative to unmodified vectors were then injected intravitreally into transgenic mice constitutively expressing a Rhodopsin-GFP fusion protein in rod photoreceptors (Rho-GFP mice). Photoreceptor transduction was quantified by fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) by counting cells positive for both GFP and mCherry. To explore the utility of the capsid mutants, standard, (non-self-complementary) AAV vectors containing the human rhodopsin kinase promoter (hGRK1) were made. Vectors were intravitreally injected in wildtype mice to assess whether efficient expression exclusive to photoreceptors was achievable. To restrict off-target expression in cells of the inner and middle retina, subsequent vectors incorporated multiple target sequences for miR181, an miRNA endogenously expressed in the inner and middle retina. Results showed that AAV2 containing four Y to F mutations combined with a single T to V mutation (quadY-F+T-V) transduced photoreceptors most efficiently. Robust photoreceptor expression was mediated by AAV2(quadY-F+T-V) -hGRK1-GFP. Observed off-target expression was reduced by incorporating target sequence for a miRNA highly expressed in inner/middle retina, miR181c. Thus we have

  9. Insulin Therapy Improves Adeno-Associated Virus Transduction of Liver and Skeletal Muscle in Mice and Cultured Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrig, Sean; Bijjiga, Enoch; Wopat, Mitchell J; Martino, Ashley T

    2016-11-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene transfer is a promising treatment for genetic abnormalities. Optimal AAV vectors are showing success in clinical trials. Gene transfer to skeletal muscle and liver is being explored as a potential therapy for some conditions, that is, α1-antitrypsin (AAT) disorder and hemophilia B. Exploring approaches that enhance transduction of liver and skeletal muscle, using these vectors, is beneficial for gene therapy. Regulating hormones as an approach to improve AAV transduction is largely unexplored. In this study we tested whether insulin therapy improves liver and skeletal muscle gene transfer. In vitro studies demonstrated that the temporary coadministration (2, 8, and 24 hr) of insulin significantly improves AAV2-CMV-LacZ transduction of cultured liver cells and differentiated myofibers, but not of lung cells. In addition, there was a dose response related to this improved transduction. Interestingly, when insulin was not coadministered with the virus but given 24 hr afterward, there was no increase in the transgene product. Insulin receptor gene (INSR) expression levels were increased 5- to 13-fold in cultured liver cells and differentiated myofibers when compared with lung cells. Similar INSR gene expression profiles occurred in mouse tissues. Insulin therapy was performed in mice, using a subcutaneously implanted insulin pellet or a high-carbohydrate diet. Insulin treatment began just before intramuscular delivery of AAV1-CMV-schFIX or liver-directed delivery of AAV8-CMV-schFIX and continued for 28 days. Both insulin augmentation therapies improved skeletal muscle- and liver-directed gene transduction in mice as seen by a 3.0- to 4.5-fold increase in human factor IX (hFIX) levels. The improvement was observed even after the insulin therapy ended. Monitoring insulin showed that insulin levels increased during the brief period of rAAV delivery and during the entire insulin augmentation period (28 days). This study demonstrates

  10. Traceless bioresponsive shielding of adenovirus hexon with HPMA copolymers maintains transduction capacity in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prill, Jan-Michael; Subr, Vladimír; Pasquarelli, Noemi; Engler, Tatjana; Hoffmeister, Andrea; Kochanek, Stefan; Ulbrich, Karel; Kreppel, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Capsid surface shielding of adenovirus vectors with synthetic polymers is an emerging technology to reduce unwanted interactions of the vector particles with cellular and non-cellular host components. While it has been shown that attachment of shielding polymers allows prevention of undesired interactions, it has become evident that a shield which is covalently attached to the vector surface can negatively affect gene transfer efficiency. Reasons are not only a limited receptor-binding ability of the shielded vectors but also a disturbance of intracellular trafficking processes, the latter depending on the interaction of the vector surface with the cellular transport machinery. A solution might be the development of bioresponsive shields that are stably maintained outside the host cell but released upon cell entry to allow for efficient gene delivery to the nucleus. Here we provide a systematic comparison of irreversible versus bioresponsive shields based on synthetic N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers. In addition, the chemical strategy used for generation of the shield allowed for a traceless bioresponsive shielding, i.e., polymers could be released from the vector particles without leaving residual linker residues. Our data demonstrated that only a bioresponsive shield maintained the high gene transfer efficiency of adenovirus vectors both in vitro and in vivo. As an example for bioresponsive HPMA copolymer release, we analyzed the in vivo gene transfer in the liver. We demonstrated that both the copolymer's charge and the mode of shielding (irreversible versus traceless bioresponsive) profoundly affected liver gene transfer and that traceless bioresponsive shielding with positively charged HPMA copolymers mediated FX independent transduction of hepatocytes. In addition, we demonstrated that shielding with HPMA copolymers can mediate a prolonged blood circulation of vector particles in mice. Our results have significant implications for the

  11. Traceless bioresponsive shielding of adenovirus hexon with HPMA copolymers maintains transduction capacity in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Michael Prill

    Full Text Available Capsid surface shielding of adenovirus vectors with synthetic polymers is an emerging technology to reduce unwanted interactions of the vector particles with cellular and non-cellular host components. While it has been shown that attachment of shielding polymers allows prevention of undesired interactions, it has become evident that a shield which is covalently attached to the vector surface can negatively affect gene transfer efficiency. Reasons are not only a limited receptor-binding ability of the shielded vectors but also a disturbance of intracellular trafficking processes, the latter depending on the interaction of the vector surface with the cellular transport machinery. A solution might be the development of bioresponsive shields that are stably maintained outside the host cell but released upon cell entry to allow for efficient gene delivery to the nucleus. Here we provide a systematic comparison of irreversible versus bioresponsive shields based on synthetic N-(2-hydroxypropylmethacrylamide (HPMA copolymers. In addition, the chemical strategy used for generation of the shield allowed for a traceless bioresponsive shielding, i.e., polymers could be released from the vector particles without leaving residual linker residues. Our data demonstrated that only a bioresponsive shield maintained the high gene transfer efficiency of adenovirus vectors both in vitro and in vivo. As an example for bioresponsive HPMA copolymer release, we analyzed the in vivo gene transfer in the liver. We demonstrated that both the copolymer's charge and the mode of shielding (irreversible versus traceless bioresponsive profoundly affected liver gene transfer and that traceless bioresponsive shielding with positively charged HPMA copolymers mediated FX independent transduction of hepatocytes. In addition, we demonstrated that shielding with HPMA copolymers can mediate a prolonged blood circulation of vector particles in mice. Our results have significant

  12. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Rados, PK; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The tau lepton plays a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the Tera scale. One of the most promising probes of the Higgs boson coupling to fermions is with detector signatures involving taus. In addition, many theories beyond the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry and exotic particles (Wʹ and Zʹ), predict new physics with large couplings to taus. The ability to trigger on hadronic tau decays is therefore critical to achieving the physics goals of the ATLAS experiment. The higher instantaneous luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2012 resulted in a larger probability of overlap (pile-up) between bunch crossings, and so it was critical for ATLAS to have an effective tau trigger strategy. The details of this strategy are summarized in this paper, and the results of the latest performance measurements are presented.

  13. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Rados, PK; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The tau lepton plays a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the Tera scale. One of the most promising probes of the Higgs boson coupling to fermions is with detector signatures involving taus. In addition, many theories beyond the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry and exotic particles (Wʹ′ and Zʹ′), predict new physics with large couplings to taus. The ability to trigger on hadronic tau decays is therefore critical to achieving the physics goals of the ATLAS experiment. The higher instantaneous luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2012 resulted in a larger probability of overlap (pile-up) between bunch crossings, and so it was critical for ATLAS to have an effective tau trigger strategy. The details of this strategy are summarized in this poster, and the latest performance measurements are presented.

  14. Highly efficient transduction of human plasmacytoid dendritic cells without phenotypic and functional maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plumas Joel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene modified dendritic cells (DC are able to modulate DC functions and induce therapeutic immunity or tolerance in an antigen-specific manner. Among the different DC subsets, plasmacytoid DC (pDC are well known for their ability to recognize and respond to a variety of viruses by secreting high levels of type I interferon. Methods We analyzed here, the transduction efficiency of a pDC cell line, GEN2.2, and of pDC derived from CD34+ progenitors, using lentiviral vectors (LV pseudotyped with different envelope glycoproteins such as the vesicular stomatitis virus envelope (VSVG, the gibbon ape leukaemia virus envelope (GaLV or the feline endogenous virus envelope (RD114. At the same time, we evaluated transgene expression (E-GFP reporter gene under the control of different promoters. Results We found that efficient gene transfer into pDC can be achieved with VSVG-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors (LV under the control of phoshoglycerate kinase (PGK and elongation factor-1 (EF1α promoters (28% to 90% of E-GFP+ cells, respectively in the absence of phenotypic and functional maturation. Surprisingly, promoters (desmin or synthetic C5–12 described as muscle-specific and which drive gene expression in single strand AAV vectors in gene therapy protocols were very highly active in pDC using VSVG-LV. Conclusion Taken together, our results indicate that LV vectors can serve to design pDC-based vaccines in humans, and they are also useful in vitro to evaluate the immunogenicity of the vector preparations, and the specificity and safety of given promoters used in gene therapy protocols.

  15. Physics issues on triggering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The detector at the international linear collider (ILC) should be able to run 'trig- gerless' which means that all events can be read out and then be analysed with the offline reconstruction program in a trigger farm. The event rates for 'high Q2' events like W-pairs or q¯q are low, about 0.1/train. However, there is a significant.

  16. Neural networks for triggering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denby, B. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)); Campbell, M. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA)); Bedeschi, F. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy)); Chriss, N.; Bowers, C. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA)); Nesti, F. (Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy))

    1990-01-01

    Two types of neural network beauty trigger architectures, based on identification of electrons in jets and recognition of secondary vertices, have been simulated in the environment of the Fermilab CDF experiment. The efficiencies for B's and rejection of background obtained are encouraging. If hardware tests are successful, the electron identification architecture will be tested in the 1991 run of CDF. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Signal transduction in the footsteps of goethe and schiller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Karlheinz; Lindquist, Jonathan A; Entschladen, Frank; Serfling, Edgar; Thiel, Gerald; Kieser, Arnd; Giehl, Klaudia; Ehrhardt, Christina; Feller, Stephan M; Ullrich, Oliver; Schaper, Fred; Janssen, Ottmar; Hass, Ralf

    2009-02-04

    The historical town of Weimar in Thuringia, the "green heart of Germany" was the sphere of Goethe and Schiller, the two most famous representatives of German literature's classic era. Not yet entirely as influential as those two cultural icons, the Signal Transduction Society (STS) has nevertheless in the last decade established within the walls of Weimar an annual interdisciplinary Meeting on "Signal Transduction - Receptors, Mediators and Genes", which is well recognized as a most attractive opportunity to exchange results and ideas in the field.The 12th STS Meeting was held from October 28 to 31 and provided a state-of-the-art overview of various areas of signal transduction research in which progress is fast and discussion lively. This report is intended to share with the readers of CCS some highlights of the Meeting Workshops devoted to specific aspects of signal transduction.

  18. Invited Review: Mechanochemical signal transduction in the fetal lung

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mingyao Liu; Martin Post

    2000-01-01

    .... These effects are mediated through special signal transduction pathways in fetal lung cells. Various in vivo and in vitro model systems have been developed to investigate the mechanotransduction process...

  19. Transduction mechanisms and their applications in micromechanical devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Blom, F.R.; Bouwstra, S.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; van de Pol, F.C.M.; Tilmans, H.A.C.; Popma, T.J.A.; Fluitman, J.H.J.

    1989-01-01

    Transduction mechanisms and their applications in micromechanical actuators and resonating sensors are presented. They include piezoelectric, dielectric, electro-thermo-mechanic, opto-thermo-mechanic, and thermo-pneumatic mechanisms. Advantages and disadvantages with respect to technology and

  20. Semi-Supervised Transductive Hot Spot Predictor Working on Multiple Assumptions

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-05-23

    Protein-protein interactions are critically dependent on just a few residues (“hot spots”) at the interfaces. Hot spots make a dominant contribution to the binding free energy and if mutated they can disrupt the interaction. As mutagenesis studies require significant experimental efforts, there exists a need for accurate and reliable computational hot spot prediction methods. Compared to the supervised hot spot prediction algorithms, the semi-supervised prediction methods can take into consideration both the labeled and unlabeled residues in the dataset during the prediction procedure. The transductive support vector machine has been utilized for this task and demonstrated a better prediction performance. To the best of our knowledge, however, none of the transductive semi-supervised algorithms takes all the three semisupervised assumptions, i.e., smoothness, cluster and manifold assumptions, together into account during learning. In this paper, we propose a novel semi-supervised method for hot spot residue prediction, by considering all the three semisupervised assumptions using nonlinear models. Our algorithm, IterPropMCS, works in an iterative manner. In each iteration, the algorithm first propagates the labels of the labeled residues to the unlabeled ones, along the shortest path between them on a graph, assuming that they lie on a nonlinear manifold. Then it selects the most confident residues as the labeled ones for the next iteration, according to the cluster and smoothness criteria, which is implemented by a nonlinear density estimator. Experiments on a benchmark dataset, using protein structure-based features, demonstrate that our approach is effective in predicting hot spots and compares favorably to other available methods. The results also show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art transductive learning methods.

  1. VectorBase

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — VectorBase is a Bioinformatics Resource Center for invertebrate vectors. It is one of four Bioinformatics Resource Centers funded by NIAID to provide web-based...

  2. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; /UC, Irvine; Zentner, Andrew R.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI; Bullock, James S.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo

    2007-09-12

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding

  3. The sensory transduction pathways in bacterial chemotaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Barry L.

    1989-01-01

    Bacterial chemotaxis is a useful model for investigating in molecular detail the behavioral response of cells to changes in their environment. Peritrichously flagellated bacteria such as coli and typhimurium swim by rotating helical flagella in a counterclockwise direction. If flagellar rotation is briefly reversed, the bacteria tumble and change the direction of swimming. The bacteria continuously sample the environment and use a temporal sensing mechanism to compare the present and immediate past environments. Bacteria respond to a broad range of stimuli including changes in temperature, oxygen concentration, pH and osmotic strength. Bacteria are attracted to potential sources of nutrition such as sugars and amino acids and are repelled by other chemicals. In the methylation-dependent pathways for sensory transduction and adaptation in E. coli and S. typhimurium, chemoeffectors bind to transducing proteins that span the plasma membrane. The transducing proteins are postulated to control the rate of autophosphorylation of the CheA protein, which in turn phosphorylates the CheY protein. The phospho-CheY protein binds to the switch on the flagellar motor and is the signal for clockwise rotation of the motor. Adaptation to an attractant is achieved by increasing methylation of the transducing protein until the attractant stimulus is cancelled. Responses to oxygen and certain sugars involve methylation-independent pathways in which adaption occurs without methylation of a transducing protein. Taxis toward oxygen is mediated by the electron transport system and changes in the proton motive force. Recent studies have shown that the methylation-independent pathway converges with the methylation-dependent pathway at or before the CheA protein.

  4. Quantifying efficient information transduction of biochemical signaling cascades

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuruyama, Tatsuaki

    2016-01-01

    Cells can be considered as systems that utilize changes in thermodynamic entropy as information. Therefore, they serve as useful models for investigating the relationships between entropy production and information transmission, i.e., signal transduction. Based on the hypothesis that cells apply a chemical reaction cascade for the most efficient transduction of information, we adopted a coding design that minimizes the number of bits per concentration of molecules that are employed for inform...

  5. Falsification of the ionic channel theory of hair cell transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Michelangelo

    2013-11-01

    The hair cell provides the transduction of mechanical vibrations in the balance and acoustic sense of all vertebrates that swim, walk, or fly. The current theory places hair cell transduction in a mechanically controlled ion channel. Although the theory of a mechanical input modulating the flow of ions through an ion pore has been a useful tool, it is falsified by experimental data in the literature and can be definitively falsified by a proposed experiment.

  6. Novel adeno-associated viral vectors for retinal gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, L H; Auricchio, A

    2012-02-01

    Vectors derived from adeno-associated virus (AAV) are currently the most promising vehicles for therapeutic gene delivery to the retina. Recently, subretinal administration of AAV2 has been demonstrated to be safe and effective in patients with a rare form of inherited childhood blindness, suggesting that AAV-mediated retinal gene therapy may be successfully extended to other blinding conditions. This is further supported by the great versatility of AAV as a vector platform as there are a large number of AAV variants and many of these have unique transduction characteristics useful for targeting different cell types in the retina including glia, epithelium and many types of neurons. Naturally occurring, rationally designed or in vitro evolved AAV vectors are currently being utilized to transduce several different cell types in the retina and to treat a variety of animal models of retinal disease. The continuous and creative development of AAV vectors provides opportunities to overcome existing challenges in retinal gene therapy such as efficient transfer of genes exceeding AAV's cargo capacity, or the targeting of specific cells within the retina or transduction of photoreceptors following routinely used intravitreal injections. Such developments should ultimately advance the treatment of a wide range of blinding retinal conditions.

  7. Evidence that transduction of electromagnetic field is mediated by a force receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Andrew A; Carrubba, Simona; Frilot, Clifton; Chesson, Andrew L

    2009-03-13

    Low-strength magnetic fields triggered onset and offset evoked potentials, indicating that the detection process was a form of sensory transduction; whether the field interacted directly with an ion channel or indirectly via a signaling cascade is unknown. By analogy with electrosensory transduction in lower life forms, we hypothesized that the evoked potentials were initiated by a force exerted by the induced electric field on an ion channel in the plasma membrane. We applied a rapid magnetic stimulus (0.2 ms) and found that it produced evoked potentials indistinguishable in latency, magnitude, and frequency from those found previously when the stimulus was 50 times slower. The ability of the field-detection system in human subjects to respond to the rapid stimulus supported the theory that the receptor potentials necessary for production of evoked potentials originated from a direct interaction between the field and an ion channel in the plasma membrane that resulted in a change in the average probability of the channel to be in the open state.

  8. P2CS: a two-component system resource for prokaryotic signal transduction research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méjean Vincent

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the escalation of high throughput prokaryotic genome sequencing, there is an ever-increasing need for databases that characterise, catalogue and present data relating to particular gene sets and genomes/metagenomes. Two-component system (TCS signal transduction pathways are the dominant mechanisms by which micro-organisms sense and respond to external as well as internal environmental changes. These systems respond to a wide range of stimuli by triggering diverse physiological adjustments, including alterations in gene expression, enzymatic reactions, or protein-protein interactions. Description We present P2CS (Prokaryotic 2-Component Systems, an integrated and comprehensive database of TCS signal transduction proteins, which contains a compilation of the TCS genes within 755 completely sequenced prokaryotic genomes and 39 metagenomes. P2CS provides detailed annotation of each TCS gene including family classification, sequence features, functional domains, as well as genomic context visualization. To bypass the generic problem of gene underestimation during genome annotation, we also constituted and searched an ORFeome, which improves the recovery of TCS proteins compared to searches on the equivalent proteomes. Conclusion P2CS has been developed for computational analysis of the modular TCSs of prokaryotic genomes and metagenomes. It provides a complete overview of information on TCSs, including predicted candidate proteins and probable proteins, which need further curation/validation. The database can be browsed and queried with a user-friendly web interface at http://www.p2cs.org/.

  9. Signal transduction by HLA class II antigens expressed on activated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Martin, P J; Schieven, G L

    1991-01-01

    Human T cells express HLA class II antigens upon activation. Although activated, class II+ T cells can present alloantigens under certain circumstances, the functional role of class II antigens on activated T cells remains largely unknown. Here, we report that cross-linking of HLA-DR molecules...... after cross-linking CD4. Ligation of CD4 and class II molecules generated a synergistic effect of the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration response that required an interaction between the molecules on the cell surface. Since class II is the natural ligand for CD4, the present data suggest that class...... expressed on allospecific, CD4+ T clones and cell lines can function as transduction elements that trigger rapid cellular responses including tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins and mobilization of Ca2+ from internal stores. The proteins phosphorylated on tyrosine were distinct from those observed...

  10. Custodial vector model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becciolini, Diego; Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Foadi, Roshan

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) phenomenology of heavy vector resonances with a $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R$ spectral global symmetry. This symmetry partially protects the electroweak S-parameter from large contributions of the vector resonances. The resulting custodial vector model spectrum...

  11. Insulated Foamy Viral Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Diana L.; Collins, Casey P.; Hocum, Jonah D.; Leap, David J.; Rae, Dustin T.; Trobridge, Grant D.

    2016-01-01

    Retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is promising, but genotoxicity has limited its use in the clinic. Genotoxicity is highly dependent on the retroviral vector used, and foamy viral (FV) vectors appear relatively safe. However, internal promoters may still potentially activate nearby genes. We developed insulated FV vectors, using four previously described insulators: a version of the well-studied chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator (650cHS4), two synthetic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-based insulators, and an insulator based on the CCAAT box-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor I (7xCTF/NF1). We directly compared these insulators for enhancer-blocking activity, effect on FV vector titer, and fidelity of transfer to both proviral long terminal repeats. The synthetic CTCF-based insulators had the strongest insulating activity, but reduced titers significantly. The 7xCTF/NF1 insulator did not reduce titers but had weak insulating activity. The 650cHS4-insulated FV vector was identified as the overall most promising vector. Uninsulated and 650cHS4-insulated FV vectors were both significantly less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors. Integration sites were evaluated in cord blood CD34+ cells and the 650cHS4-insulated FV vector had fewer hotspots compared with an uninsulated FV vector. These data suggest that insulated FV vectors are promising for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. PMID:26715244

  12. Cell loss during pseudoislet formation hampers profound improvements in islet lentiviral transduction efficacy for transplantation purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callewaert, H; Gysemans, C; Cardozo, A K; Elsner, M; Tiedge, M; Eizirik, D L; Mathieu, C

    2007-01-01

    Islet transplantation is a promising treatment in type 1 diabetes, but the need for chronic immunosuppression is a major hurdle to broad applicability. Ex vivo introduction of agents by lentiviral vectors-improving beta-cell resistance against immune attack-is an attractive path to pursue. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dissociation of islets to single cells prior to viral infection and reaggregation before transplantation would improve viral transduction efficacy without cytotoxicity. This procedure improved transduction efficacy with a LV-pWPT-CMV-EGFP construct from 11.2 +/- 4.1% at MOI 50 in whole islets to 80.0 +/- 2.8% at MOI 5. Viability (as measured by Hoechst/PI) and functionality (as measured by glucose challenge) remained high. After transplantation, the transfected pseudoislet aggregates remained EGFP positive for more than 90 days and the expression of EGFP colocalized primarily with the insulin-positive beta-cells. No increased vulnerability to immune attack was observed in vitro or in vivo. These data demonstrate that dispersion of islets prior to lentiviral transfection and reaggregation prior to transplantation is a highly efficient way to introduce genes of interest into islets for transplantation purposes in vitro and in vivo, but the amount of beta-cells needed for normalization of glycemia was more than eightfold higher when using dispersed cell aggregates versus unmanipulated islets. The high price to pay to reach stable and strong transgene expression in islet cells is certainly an important cell loss.

  13. Molecular Analysis of the Graviperception Signal Transduction in the Flagellate Euglena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häder, Donat; Daiker, Viktor; Richter, Peter; Lebert, Michael

    The unicellular flagellate Euglena gracilis perceives and reacts to the gravitational vector of the Earth. Recent results of experiments on parabolic rocket flights have revealed that the orientation can be explained by passive orientation only to a small extend while the remainder relies on an active physiological sensor and an internal sensory transduction chain. Our current working hypothesis is based on the fact that the cellular contents is heavier than the surrounding medium and consequently exerts pressure onto the lower membrane where it activates mechano-sensitive ion channels located at the front end under the trailing flagellum. We recently succeeded in identifying these channels as gene products of the TRP family. RNAi of the corresponding gene abolished graviperception. These channels allow a gated influx of calcium which depolarizes the internal electrical potential and eventually causes a course correction by the flagellar beating. The inwardly gated calcium binds to a specific calmodulin which is likewise an intrinsic element of the signal transduction chain. RNAi of the related mRNA also stopped graviperception. This calmodulin is thought to activate an adenylyl cyclase which generates cyclic AMP which in turn modulates the beating pattern of the flagellum.

  14. Preclinical validation: LV/IL-12 transduction of patient leukemia cells for immunotherapy of AML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-12 (IL-12 is a potent cytokine that may be harnessed to treat cancer. To date, nearly 100 IL-12-based clinical trials have been initiated worldwide. Yet systemic administration of IL-12 is toxic. Different strategies are being developed to reduce such toxicities by restricting IL-12 distribution. Our previous studies employed lentivector-mediated expression of murine IL-12 in tumor cells and demonstrated effective protection in both mouse leukemia and solid tumor challenge models. In this study, we carried out preclinical validation studies using a novel lentivector to engineer expression of human IL-12 in acute myeloid leukemia blast cells isolated from 21 patients. Acute myeloid leukemia cells were transduced with a bicistronic lentivector that encodes the human IL-12 cDNA as a fusion, as well as a LNGFR (ΔLNGFR/mutant thymidylate kinase cassette as a marking and cell-fate control element. A range of 20–70% functional transduction efficiencies was achieved. Transduced acute myeloid leukemia cells produced bioactive IL-12 protein and displayed dose-dependent sensitivity to the prodrug 3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidine. In vitro immortalization assays using transduced mouse hematopoietic stem cells demonstrated minimal genotoxic risk from our IL-12 vector. Scale-up transduction and cell processing was subsequently validated in a GMP facility to support our (now approved Clinical Trial Application (CTA.

  15. Hepatocyte growth factor improves direct reprogramming of fibroblasts towards endothelial progenitor cells via ETV2 transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Van Pham

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human fibroblasts can be differentiated into endothelial progenitor cells by direct reprogramming via ETV-2 transfection. Previously, we have shown that the efficacy of direct reprogramming can be enhanced by hypoxia treatment. In this study, we aim to investigate whether the efficacy of direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into EPCs via Ets variant gene 2 (ETV2 transfection can be increased with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF treatment. Foreskin-derived fibroblasts were cultured in standard medium (DMEM/F12 supplemented with fetal bovine serum. They were then transduced with a viral vector expressing ETV2 in culture medium supplemented with HGF. The transduced fibroblasts were cultured in endothelial cell medium supplemented with HGF for 28 days. The efficacy of direct reprogramming was evaluated based on expression of CD31 and VEGFR2 markers by transduced cells. Phenotypic and functional characterization of induced EPCs were also confirmed by expression of particular genes and in vitro angiogenesis assays. Our results showed that HGF significantly increased the efficacy of direct reprogramming of fibroblasts towards EPCs via ETV2 transcription factors; efficiency increased from 5.41+/-1.51% for ETV2 transduction alone to 12.31+/-2.15% for ETV2 transduction combined with HGF treatment. These findings suggest the rationale for combined use of ETV2 and HGF in direct in vitro reprogramming of fibroblasts into EPCs. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(9.000: 836-843

  16. Comparative Study of Liver Gene Transfer With AAV Vectors Based on Natural and Engineered AAV Capsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Bell, Peter; Somanathan, Suryanarayan; Wang, Qiang; He, Zhenning; Yu, Hongwei; McMenamin, Deirdre; Goode, Tamara; Calcedo, Roberto; Wilson, James M

    2015-12-01

    Vectors based on the clade E family member adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 8 have shown promise in patients with hemophilia B and have emerged as best in class for human liver gene therapies. We conducted a thorough evaluation of liver-directed gene therapy using vectors based on several natural and engineered capsids including the clade E AAVrh10 and the largely uncharacterized and phylogenically distinct AAV3B. Included in this study was a putatively superior hepatotropic capsid, AAVLK03, which is very similar to AAV3B. Vectors based on these capsids were benchmarked against AAV8 and AAV2 in a number of in vitro and in vivo model systems including C57BL/6 mice, immune-deficient mice that are partially repopulated with human hepatocytes, and nonhuman primates. Our studies in nonhuman primates and human hepatocytes demonstrated high level transduction of the clade E-derived vectors and equally high transduction with vectors based on AAV3B. In contrast to previous reports, AAVLK03 vectors are not superior to either AAV3B or AAV8. Vectors based on AAV3B should be considered for liver-directed gene therapy when administered following, or before, treatment with the serologically distinct clade E vectors.

  17. An Update on Canine Adenovirus Type 2 and Its Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Kremer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Adenovirus vectors have significant potential for long- or short-term gene transfer. Preclinical and clinical studies using human derived adenoviruses (HAd have demonstrated the feasibility of flexible hybrid vector designs, robust expression and induction of protective immunity. However, clinical use of HAd vectors can, under some conditions, be limited by pre-existing vector immunity. Pre-existing humoral and cellular anti-capsid immunity limits the efficacy and duration of transgene expression and is poorly circumvented by injections of larger doses and immuno-suppressing drugs. This review updates canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV-2, also known as CAdV-2 biology and gives an overview of the generation of early region 1 (E1-deleted to helper-dependent (HD CAV-2 vectors. We also summarize the essential characteristics concerning their interaction with the anti-HAd memory immune responses in humans, the preferential transduction of neurons, and its high level of retrograde axonal transport in the central and peripheral nervous system. CAV-2 vectors are particularly interesting tools to study the pathophysiology and potential treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, as anti-tumoral and anti-viral vaccines, tracer of synaptic junctions, oncolytic virus and as a platform to generate chimeric vectors.

  18. The influence of epileptic neuropathology and prior peripheral immunity on CNS transduction by rAAV2 and rAAV5

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberg, MS; Blake, BL; Samulski, RJ; McCown, TJ

    2011-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) provides a promising platform for clinical treatment of neurological disorders owing to its established efficacy and lack of apparent pathogenicity. To use viral vectors in treating neurological disease, however, transduction must occur under neuropathological conditions. Previous studies in rodents have shown that AAV5 more efficiently transduces cells in the hippocampus and piriform cortex than AAV2. Using the kainic acid (KA) model of temporal lobe epilepsy and...

  19. Cyclopean gauge factor of the strain-resistance transduction of indium oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivančo, J.; Halahovets, Y.; Végsö, K.; Klačková, I.; Kotlár, M.; Vojtko, A.; Micuśík, M.; Jergel, M.; Majková, E.

    2016-03-01

    The resistance of indium-oxide covered polyethylene terephthalate foils (IO-PET) shows an extreme sensitivity to tensile strain. In terms of the deformation-resistance transduction, the gauge factor as high as about 60 000 was recorded upon the relative elongation up to 1%. Except the onset of deformation, the nearly exponential dependence of the resistance on strain suggests that the conductivity of the strained films is governed by tunnelling mechanism; this notion is supported by the formation of scattered cracks in the IO- PET film. The cracks are oriented perpendicularly to the strain vector and are characterized by a rather similar and uniform width. Appropriateness of the standard definition of the gauge factor for strain sensors, which are governed by tunnelling conductance, is critically discussed.

  20. Macro motion vector quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Y.; Woods, John W.

    1995-04-01

    A new algorithm is developed for reducing the bit rate required for motion vectors. This algorithm is a generalization of block matching motion estimation in which the search region is represented as a codebook of motion vectors. The new algorithm, called macro motion vector quantization (MMVQ), generalized our earlier MVQ by coding a group of motion vectors. The codebook is a set of macro motion vectors which represent the block locations of the small neighboring blocks in the previous frame. We develop an interative design algorithm for the codebook. Our experiments show that the variances of displaced frame differences (DFDs) are reduced significantly compared to block matching algorithm (BMA) with the macroblock size.

  1. Synthesis of Trigger Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupferman, Orna; Vardi, Moshe Y.

    In automated synthesis, we transform a specification into a system that is guaranteed to satisfy the specification. In spite of the rich theory developed for temporal synthesis, little of this theory has been reduced to practice. This is in contrast with model-checking theory, which has led to industrial development and use of formal verification tools. We address this problem here by considering a certain class of PSL properties; this class covers most of the properties used in practice by system designers. We refer to this class as the class of trigger properties.

  2. Signal Transduction of Immunoglobulin E Receptor Crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Timothy Aidan

    In the work presented in this thesis we explore several important aspects of the mechanisms involved in the signal transduction of the crosslinking of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-receptor complexes on the surface of rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells. In order to understand what interactions may be important in determining the lateral diffusibility of this cell surface protein, quantitative fluorescence measurements were made of the distribution of fluorescence labelled IgE as well as a variety of other membrane proteins under externally applied electrical potential gradients. These measurements reveal that strong steric interactions are manifest at the typical protein concentrations on cell surfaces, and that these interactions are well accounted for in these experiments by an excluded volume model which can be expressed as a Fermi distribution. The relationship between the lateral diffusion coefficient determined from fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) experiments and those determined by analyzing the relaxation of the concentration gradients induced by externally applied electrical gradients are discussed. The cell surface interactions associated with IgE-receptor crosslinking are known to lead to dramatic changes in free ionized Ca^{2+} activity (Ca^{2+}] _{i} within the cells. Methods were developed which allowed us to study the spatio-temporal dynamics of (Ca^{2+}] _{i} during the crosslinking events using quantitative low light level imaging of the fluorescent Ca^{2+} indicator fura -2 loaded into RBL cells. These studies indicate that the cell surface crosslinking events lead to large complex oscillations of (Ca^{2+}] _{i} within the cell, which appear to be controlled by some as yet unidentified messenger molecule. Comparisons of the kinetics of the changes in (Ca^{2+}]_{i } induced within the cells with that of the crosslinking induced by a simple bivalent antigen suggest that the relevant stimulus needed to generate a (Ca ^{2+}]_{i} response is not

  3. Optimization of adeno-associated viral vector-mediated gene delivery to the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Backer, Marijke W A; Brans, Maike A D; Luijendijk, Mieneke C; Garner, Keith M; Adan, Roger A H

    2010-06-01

    To efficiently deliver genes and short hairpin RNAs to the hypothalamus we aimed to optimize the transduction efficiency of adeno-associated virus (AAV) in the rat hypothalamus. We compared the transduction efficiencies of AAV2 vectors pseudotyped with AAV1, AAV8, and mosaic AAV1/2 and AAV2/8 coats with that of an AAV2 coated vector after injection into the lateral hypothalamus of rats. In addition, we determined the transduction areas and the percentage of neurons infected after injection of various titers and volumes of two AAV1-pseudotyped vectors in the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVN). Successful gene delivery to the hypothalamus was achieved with AAV1-pseudotyped AAV vectors. The optimal approach to transduce an area, with the size of the PVN, was to inject 1 x 10(9) genomic copies of an AAV1-pseudotyped vector in a volume of 1 microl. At a radius of 0.05 mm from the injection site almost all neurons were transduced. In addition, overexpression of AgRP with the optimal approach resulted in an increase in food intake and body weight when compared with AAV-GFP.

  4. Antitumor Activity and Prolonged Expression from a TRAIL-Expressing Adenoviral Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongwu Lee

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL induces apoptosis in a variety of transformed cell lines, but generally spares most normal cells. Transduction by an adenoviral vector expressing human TRAIL cDNA (Ad.TRAIL-GFP resulted in both direct tumor cell killing as well as a potent bystander effect through presentation of TRAIL by transduced normal cells. Administration of Ad.TRAIL-GFP significantly prolonged survival of mice harboring either intracerebral glioblastomas or breast carcinoma-induced peritoneal carcinomatosis. Additionally, TRAIL induced prolonged transgene expression in normal tissue, presumably as a result of diminished immunemediated destruction of vector-transduced cells. Taken together, these data suggest that vector-mediated transduction of TRAIL may represent an effective strategy for cancer gene therapy.

  5. Protons Trigger Mitochondrial Flashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianhua; Zhang, Xing; Huang, Zhanglong; Wu, Di; Liu, Beibei; Zhang, Rufeng; Yin, Rongkang; Hou, Tingting; Jian, Chongshu; Xu, Jiejia; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Yanru; Gao, Feng; Cheng, Heping

    2016-07-26

    Emerging evidence indicates that mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes) are highly conserved elemental mitochondrial signaling events. However, which signal controls their ignition and how they are integrated with other mitochondrial signals and functions remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to further delineate the signal components of the mitoflash and determine the mitoflash trigger mechanism. Using multiple biosensors and chemical probes as well as label-free autofluorescence, we found that the mitoflash reflects chemical and electrical excitation at the single-organelle level, comprising bursting superoxide production, oxidative redox shift, and matrix alkalinization as well as transient membrane depolarization. Both electroneutral H(+)/K(+) or H(+)/Na(+) antiport and matrix proton uncaging elicited immediate and robust mitoflash responses over a broad dynamic range in cardiomyocytes and HeLa cells. However, charge-uncompensated proton transport, which depolarizes mitochondria, caused the opposite effect, and steady matrix acidification mildly inhibited mitoflashes. Based on a numerical simulation, we estimated a mean proton lifetime of 1.42 ns and diffusion distance of 2.06 nm in the matrix. We conclude that nanodomain protons act as a novel, to our knowledge, trigger of mitoflashes in energized mitochondria. This finding suggests that mitoflash genesis is functionally and mechanistically integrated with mitochondrial energy metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Belanger-Champagne, C; Bosman, M; Brenner, R; Casado, MP; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Demers, S; Farrington, S; Igonkina, O; Kalinowski, A; Kanaya, N; Osuna, C; Pérez, E; Ptacek, E; Reinsch, A; Saavedra, A; Sopczak, A; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Tsuno, S; Vorwerk, V; Watson, A; Xella, S

    2008-01-01

    Moving to the high energy scale of the LHC, the identification of tau leptons will become a necessary and very powerful tool, allowing a discovery of physics beyond Standard Model. Many models, among them light SM Higgs and various SUSY models, predict an abundant production of taus with respect to other leptons. The reconstruction of hadronic tau decays, although a very challenging task in hadronic enviroments, allows to increase a signal efficiency by at least of factor 2, and provides an independent control sample to disantangle lepton tau decays from prompt electrons and muons. Thanks to the advanced calorimetry and tracking, the ATLAS experiment has developed tools to efficiently identify hadronic taus at the trigger level. In this presentation we will review the characteristics of taus and the methods to suppress low-multiplicity, low-energy jets contributions as well as we will address the tau trigger chain which provide a rejection rate of 10^5. We will further present plans for commissioning the ATLA...

  7. Lentivirus vector-mediated gene transfer to the developing bronchiolar airway epithelium in the fetal lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ze-Yan; McKay, Karen; van Asperen, Peter; Zheng, Maolin; Fleming, Jane; Ginn, Samantha L; Kizana, Eddy; Latham, Margot; Feneley, Michael P; Kirkland, Peter D; Rowe, Peter B; Lumbers, Eugenie R; Alexander, Ian E

    2007-06-01

    Development of effective and durable gene therapy for treatment of the respiratory manifestations of cystic fibrosis remains a formidable challenge. Obstacles include difficulty in achieving efficient gene transfer to mature airway epithelium and the need to stably transduce self-renewing epithelial progenitor cells in order to avoid loss of transgene expression through epithelial turnover. Targeting the developing airway epithelium during fetal life offers the prospect of circumventing these challenges. In the current study we investigated vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSVg)-pseudotyped HIV-1-derived lentivirus vector-mediated gene transfer to the airway epithelium of mid-gestation fetal lambs, both in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro studies epithelial sheet explants and lung organ culture were used to examine transduction of the proximal and more distal airway epithelium, respectively. For the in vivo studies, vector was delivered directly into the proximal airway. We found that even during the early pseudoglandular and canalicular phases of lung development, occurring through mid-gestation, the proximal bronchial airway epithelium was relatively mature and highly resistant to lentivirus-mediated transduction. In contrast, the more distal bronchiolar airway epithelium was relatively permissive for transduction although the absolute levels achieved remained low. This result is promising as the bronchiolar airway epithelium is a major site of pathology in the cystic fibrosis airway, and much higher levels of transduction are likely to be achieved by developing strategies that increase the amount of vector reaching the more distal airway after intratracheal delivery.

  8. Theory and modeling of cylindrical thermo-acoustic transduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Lihong, E-mail: lhtong@ecjtu.edu.cn [School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, Jiangxi (China); Lim, C.W. [Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China); Zhao, Xiushao; Geng, Daxing [School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, Jiangxi (China)

    2016-06-03

    Models both for solid and thinfilm-solid cylindrical thermo-acoustic transductions are proposed and the corresponding acoustic pressure solutions are obtained. The acoustic pressure for an individual carbon nanotube (CNT) as a function of input power is investigated analytically and it is verified by comparing with the published experimental data. Further numerical analysis on the acoustic pressure response and characteristics for varying input frequency and distance are also examined both for solid and thinfilm-solid cylindrical thermo-acoustic transductions. Through detailed theoretical and numerical studies on the acoustic pressure solution for thinfilm-solid cylindrical transduction, it is concluded that a solid with smaller thermal conductivity favors to improve the acoustic performance. In general, the proposed models are applicable to a variety of cylindrical thermo-acoustic devices performing in different gaseous media. - Highlights: • Theory and modeling both for solid and thinfilm-solid cylindrical thermo-acoustic transductions are proposed. • The modeling is verified by comparing with the published experimental data. • Acoustic response characteristics of cylindrical thermo-acoustic transductions are predicted by the proposed model.

  9. Latent myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2011-10-01

    A latent myofascial trigger point (MTP) is defined as a focus of hyperirritability in a muscle taut band that is clinically associated with local twitch response and tenderness and/or referred pain upon manual examination. Current evidence suggests that the temporal profile of the spontaneous electrical activity at an MTP is similar to focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials, which contribute significantly to the induction of local tenderness and pain and motor dysfunctions. This review highlights the potential mechanisms underlying the sensory-motor dysfunctions associated with latent MTPs and discusses the contribution of central sensitization associated with latent MTPs and the MTP network to the spatial propagation of pain and motor dysfunctions. Treating latent MTPs in patients with musculoskeletal pain may not only decrease pain sensitivity and improve motor functions, but also prevent latent MTPs from transforming into active MTPs, and hence, prevent the development of myofascial pain syndrome.

  10. Optimized AAV rh.10 Vectors That Partially Evade Neutralizing Antibodies during Hepatic Gene Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchita Selot

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Of the 12 common serotypes used for gene delivery applications, Adeno-associated virus (AAVrh.10 serotype has shown sustained hepatic transduction and has the lowest seropositivity in humans. We have evaluated if further modifications to AAVrh.10 at its phosphodegron like regions or predicted immunogenic epitopes could improve its hepatic gene transfer and immune evasion potential. Mutant AAVrh.10 vectors were generated by site directed mutagenesis of the predicted targets. These mutant vectors were first tested for their transduction efficiency in HeLa and HEK293T cells. The optimal vector was further evaluated for their cellular uptake, entry, and intracellular trafficking by quantitative PCR and time-lapse confocal microscopy. To evaluate their potential during hepatic gene therapy, C57BL/6 mice were administered with wild-type or optimal mutant AAVrh.10 and the luciferase transgene expression was documented by serial bioluminescence imaging at 14, 30, 45, and 72 days post-gene transfer. Their hepatic transduction was further verified by a quantitative PCR analysis of AAV copy number in the liver tissue. The optimal AAVrh.10 vector was further evaluated for their immune escape potential, in animals pre-immunized with human intravenous immunoglobulin. Our results demonstrate that a modified AAVrh.10 S671A vector had enhanced cellular entry (3.6 fold, migrate rapidly to the perinuclear region (1 vs. >2 h for wild type vectors in vitro, which further translates to modest increase in hepatic gene transfer efficiency in vivo. More importantly, the mutant AAVrh.10 vector was able to partially evade neutralizing antibodies (~27–64 fold in pre-immunized animals. The development of an AAV vector system that can escape the circulating neutralizing antibodies in the host will substantially widen the scope of gene therapy applications in humans.

  11. Optimized AAV rh.10 Vectors That Partially Evade Neutralizing Antibodies during Hepatic Gene Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selot, Ruchita; Arumugam, Sathyathithan; Mary, Bertin; Cheemadan, Sabna; Jayandharan, Giridhara R

    2017-01-01

    Of the 12 common serotypes used for gene delivery applications, Adeno-associated virus (AAV)rh.10 serotype has shown sustained hepatic transduction and has the lowest seropositivity in humans. We have evaluated if further modifications to AAVrh.10 at its phosphodegron like regions or predicted immunogenic epitopes could improve its hepatic gene transfer and immune evasion potential. Mutant AAVrh.10 vectors were generated by site directed mutagenesis of the predicted targets. These mutant vectors were first tested for their transduction efficiency in HeLa and HEK293T cells. The optimal vector was further evaluated for their cellular uptake, entry, and intracellular trafficking by quantitative PCR and time-lapse confocal microscopy. To evaluate their potential during hepatic gene therapy, C57BL/6 mice were administered with wild-type or optimal mutant AAVrh.10 and the luciferase transgene expression was documented by serial bioluminescence imaging at 14, 30, 45, and 72 days post-gene transfer. Their hepatic transduction was further verified by a quantitative PCR analysis of AAV copy number in the liver tissue. The optimal AAVrh.10 vector was further evaluated for their immune escape potential, in animals pre-immunized with human intravenous immunoglobulin. Our results demonstrate that a modified AAVrh.10 S671A vector had enhanced cellular entry (3.6 fold), migrate rapidly to the perinuclear region (1 vs. >2 h for wild type vectors) in vitro, which further translates to modest increase in hepatic gene transfer efficiency in vivo. More importantly, the mutant AAVrh.10 vector was able to partially evade neutralizing antibodies (~27-64 fold) in pre-immunized animals. The development of an AAV vector system that can escape the circulating neutralizing antibodies in the host will substantially widen the scope of gene therapy applications in humans.

  12. Assaying the Stability and Inactivation of AAV Serotype 1 Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Douglas B; Harvey, Brandon K

    2017-02-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are a commonplace tool for gene delivery ranging from cell culture to human gene therapy. One feature that makes AAV a desirable vector is its stability, in regard to both the duration of transgene expression and retention of infectivity as a viral particle. This study examined the stability of AAV serotype 1 (AAV1) vectors under different conditions. First, transducibility after storage at 4°C decreased 20% over 7 weeks. Over 10 freeze-thaw cycles, the resulting transduction efficiency became variable at 60-120% of a single thaw. Using small stainless steel slugs to mimic a biosafety cabinet or metal lab bench surface, it was found that an AAV1 vector can be reconstituted after 6 days of storage at room temperature. The stability of AAV is a desired feature, but effective decontamination procedures must be available for safety and experimental integrity. Multiple disinfectants commonly used in the laboratory for ability to inactivate an AAV1 vector were tested, and it was found that autoclaving, 0.25% peracetic acid, iodine, or 10% Clorox bleach completely prevented AAV-mediated transgene expression. These data suggest that peracetic acid should be used for inactivating AAV1 vectors on metal-based surfaces or instruments in order to avoid inadvertent transgene expression in human cells or cross-contamination of instruments.

  13. Implicit Real Vector Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Degbomont

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the symbolic representation of non-convex real polyhedra, i.e., sets of real vectors satisfying arbitrary Boolean combinations of linear constraints. We develop an original data structure for representing such sets, based on an implicit and concise encoding of a known structure, the Real Vector Automaton. The resulting formalism provides a canonical representation of polyhedra, is closed under Boolean operators, and admits an efficient decision procedure for testing the membership of a vector.

  14. Vectors and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pettofrezzo, Anthony J

    2005-01-01

    Geared toward undergraduate students, this text illustrates the use of vectors as a mathematical tool in plane synthetic geometry, plane and spherical trigonometry, and analytic geometry of two- and three-dimensional space. Its rigorous development includes a complete treatment of the algebra of vectors in the first two chapters.Among the text's outstanding features are numbered definitions and theorems in the development of vector algebra, which appear in italics for easy reference. Most of the theorems include proofs, and coordinate position vectors receive an in-depth treatment. Key concept

  15. The CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Gori, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system: the Level 1 Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running on the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. Here we will present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simpler single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We will discuss the optimisation of the triggers and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  16. The CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Trocino, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system: the Level 1 Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running with the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. We present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simple single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We discuss the optimisation of the trigger and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  17. The ATLAS hadronic tau trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Black, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the high luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved at the LHC, the strategies for triggering have become more important than ever for physics analysis. The naive inclusive single tau lepton triggers now suffer from severe rate limitations. To allow for a large program of physics analyses with taus, the development of topological triggers that combine tau signatures with other measured quantities in the event is required. These combined triggers open many opportunities to study new physics beyond the Standard Model and to search for the Standard Model Higgs. We present the status and performance of the hadronic tau trigger in ATLAS. We demonstrate that the ATLAS tau trigger ran remarkably well over 2011, and how the lessons learned from 2011 led to numerous improvements in the preparation of the 2012 run. These improvements include the introduction of tau selection criteria that are robust against varying pileup scenarios, and the implementation of multivariate selection techniques in the tau trig...

  18. The ATLAS hadronic tau trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Black, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the high luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved at the LHC, the strategies for triggering have become more important than ever for physics analysis. The naïve inclusive single tau lepton triggers now suffer from severe rate limitations. To allow for a large program of physics analyses with taus, the development of topological triggers that combine tau signatures with other measured quantities in the event is required. These combined triggers open many opportunities to study new physics beyond the Standard Model and to search for the Standard Model Higgs. We present the status and performance of the hadronic tau trigger in ATLAS. We demonstrate that the ATLAS tau trigger ran remarkably well over 2011, and how the lessons learned from 2011 led to numerous improvements in the preparation of the 2012 run. These improvements include the introduction of tau selection criteria that are robust against varying pileup scenarios, and the implementation of multivariate selection techniques in the tau tri...

  19. Cadmium Induces Apoptosis in Freshwater Crab Sinopotamon henanense through Activating Calcium Signal Transduction Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxiang Wang

    Full Text Available Calcium ion (Ca2+ is one of the key intracellular signals, which is implicated in the regulation of cell functions such as impregnation, cell proliferation, differentiation and death. Cadmium (Cd is a toxic environmental pollutant that can disturb cell functions and even lead to cell death. Recently, we have found that Cd induced apoptosis in gill cells of the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense via caspase activation. In the present study, we further investigated the role of calcium signaling in the Cd-induced apoptosis in the animals. Our data showed that Cd triggered gill cell apoptosis which is evidenced by apoptotic DNA fragmentation, activations of caspases-3, -8 and -9 and the presence of apoptotic morphological features. Moreover, Cd elevated the intracellular concentration of Ca2+, the protein concentration of calmodulin (CaM and the activity of Ca2+-ATPase in the gill cells of the crabs. Pretreatment of the animals with ethylene glycol-bis-(b-aminoethyl ether-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA, Ca2+ chelator, inhibited Cd-induced activation of caspases-3, -8 and -9 as well as blocked the Cd-triggered apoptotic DNA fragmentation. The apoptotic morphological features were no longer observed in gill cells pretreated with the Ca2+ signaling inhibitors before Cd treatment. Our results indicate that Cd evokes gill cell apoptosis through activating Ca2+-CaM signaling transduction pathway.

  20. Oscillation and noise determine signal transduction in shark multimodal sensory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, H A; Wissing, H; Schäfer, K; Hirsch, M C

    1994-01-20

    Oscillating membrane potentials that generate rhythmic impulse patterns are considered to be of particular significance for neuronal information processing. In contrast, noise is usually seen as a disturbance which limits the accuracy of information transfer. We show here, however, that noise in combination with intrinsic oscillations can provide neurons with particular encoding properties, a discovery we made when recording from single electro-sensory afferents of a fish. The temporal sequence of the impulse trains indicates oscillations that operate near the spike-triggering threshold. The oscillation frequency determines the basic rhythm of impulse generation, but whether or not an impulse is actually triggered essentially depends on superimposed noise. The probability of impulse generation can be altered considerably by minor modifications of oscillation baseline and amplitude, which may underlie the exquisite sensitivity of these receptors to thermal and electrical stimuli. Additionally, thermal, but not electrical, stimuli alter the oscillation frequency, allowing dual sensory messages to be conveyed in a single spike train. These findings demonstrate novel properties of sensory transduction which may be relevant for neuronal signalling in general.

  1. Biomedical event trigger detection by dependency-based word embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Jianhai; An, Yuan; Lin, Hongfei; Yang, Zhihao; Zhang, Yijia; Sun, Yuanyuan

    2016-08-10

    In biomedical research, events revealing complex relations between entities play an important role. Biomedical event trigger identification has become a research hotspot since its important role in biomedical event extraction. Traditional machine learning methods, such as support vector machines (SVM) and maxent classifiers, which aim to manually design powerful features fed to the classifiers, depend on the understanding of the specific task and cannot generalize to the new domain or new examples. In this paper, we propose an approach which utilizes neural network model based on dependency-based word embedding to automatically learn significant features from raw input for trigger classification. First, we employ Word2vecf, the modified version of Word2vec, to learn word embedding with rich semantic and functional information based on dependency relation tree. Then neural network architecture is used to learn more significant feature representation based on raw dependency-based word embedding. Meanwhile, we dynamically adjust the embedding while training for adapting to the trigger classification task. Finally, softmax classifier labels the examples by specific trigger class using the features learned by the model. The experimental results show that our approach achieves a micro-averaging F1 score of 78.27 and a macro-averaging F1 score of 76.94 % in significant trigger classes, and performs better than baseline methods. In addition, we can achieve the semantic distributed representation of every trigger word.

  2. Cochlear gene therapy with ancestral AAV in adult mice: complete transduction of inner hair cells without cochlear dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Jun; Hashimoto, Ken; Xiao, Ru; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Liberman, M Charles

    2017-04-03

    The use of viral vectors for inner ear gene therapy is receiving increased attention for treatment of genetic hearing disorders. Most animal studies to date have injected viral suspensions into neonatal ears, via the round window membrane. Achieving transduction of hair cells, or sensory neurons, throughout the cochlea has proven difficult, and no studies have been able to efficiently transduce sensory cells in adult ears while maintaining normal cochlear function. Here, we show, for the first time, successful transduction of all inner hair cells and the majority of outer hair cells in an adult cochlea via virus injection into the posterior semicircular canal. We used a "designer" AAV, AAV2/Anc80L65, in which the main capsid proteins approximate the ancestral sequence state of AAV1, 2, 8, and 9. Our injections also transduced ~10% of spiral ganglion cells and a much larger fraction of their satellite cells. In the vestibular sensory epithelia, the virus transduced large numbers of hair cells and virtually all the supporting cells, along with close to half of the vestibular ganglion cells. We conclude that this viral vector and this delivery route hold great promise for gene therapy applications in both cochlear and vestibular sense organs.

  3. Insight into the mechanisms of enhanced retinal transduction by the engineered AAV2 capsid variant -7m8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabou, Hanen; Desrosiers, Mélissa; Winckler, Céline; Fouquet, Stéphane; Auregan, Gwenaëlle; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; Sahel, José-Alain; Dalkara, Deniz

    2016-12-01

    Recently, we described a modified AAV2 vector-AAV2-7m8-having a capsid-displayed peptide insertion of 10 amino acids with enhanced retinal transduction properties. The insertion of the peptide referred to as 7m8 is responsible for high-level gene delivery into deep layers of the retina when virus is delivered into the eye's vitreous. Here, we further characterize AAV2-7m8 mediated gene delivery to neural tissue and investigate the mechanisms by which the inserted peptide provides better transduction away from the injection site. First, in order to understand if the peptide exerts its effect on its own or in conjunction with the neighboring amino acids, we inserted the 7m8 peptide at equivalent positions on three other AAV capsids, AAV5, AAV8, and AAV9, and evaluated its effect on their infectivity. Intravitreal delivery of these peptide insertion vectors revealed that only AAV9 benefited from 7m8 insertion in the context of the retina. We then investigated AAV2-7m8 and AAV9-7m8 properties in the brain, to better evaluate the spread and efficacy of viral transduction in view of the peptide insertion. While 7m8 insertion led to higher intensity gene expression, the spread of gene expression remained unchanged compared to the parental serotypes. Our results indicate that the 7m8 peptide insertion acts by increasing efficacy of cellular entry, with little effect on the spread of viral particles in neural tissue. The effects of peptide insertion are capsid and tissue dependent, highlighting the importance of the microenvironment in gene delivery using AAV. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2712-2724. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Flexible trigger menu implementation on the Global Trigger for the CMS Level-1 trigger upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATSUSHITA, Takashi; CMS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has continued to explore physics at the high-energy frontier in 2016. The integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2016 was 41 fb‑1 with a peak luminosity of 1.5 × 1034 cm‑2s‑1 and peak mean pile-up of about 50, all exceeding the initial estimations for 2016. The CMS experiment has upgraded its hardware-based Level-1 trigger system to maintain its performance for new physics searches and precision measurements at high luminosities. The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects from calorimeter and muon triggers, for reducing the 40 MHz collision rate to 100 kHz. The Global Trigger has been upgraded with state-of-the-art FPGA processors on Advanced Mezzanine Cards with optical links running at 10 GHz in a MicroTCA crate. The powerful processing resources of the upgraded system enable implementation of more algorithms at a time than previously possible, allowing CMS to be more flexible in how it handles the available trigger bandwidth. Algorithms for a trigger menu, including topological requirements on multi-objects, can be realised in the Global Trigger using the newly developed trigger menu specification grammar. Analysis-like trigger algorithms can be represented in an intuitive manner and the algorithms are translated to corresponding VHDL code blocks to build a firmware. The grammar can be extended in future as the needs arise. The experience of implementing trigger menus on the upgraded Global Trigger system will be presented.

  5. Rapid, widespread transduction of the murine myocardium using self-complementary Adeno-associated virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andino, Lourdes M; Conlon, Thomas J; Porvasnik, Stacy L; Boye, Sanford L; Hauswirth, William W; Lewin, Alfred S

    2007-12-10

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has shown great promise as a gene transfer vector. However, the incubation time needed to attain significant levels of gene expression is often too long for some clinical applications. Self-complementary AAV (scAAV) enters the cell as double stranded DNA, eliminating the step of second-strand synthesis, proven to be the rate-limiting step for gene expression of single-stranded AAV (ssAAV). The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of these two types of AAV vectors in the murine myocardium. Four day old CD-1 mice were injected with either of the two AAV constructs, both expressing GFP and packaged into the AAV1 capsid. The animals were held for 4, 6, 11 or 21 days, after which they were euthanized and their hearts were excised. Serial sections of the myocardial tissue were used for real-time PCR quantification of AAV genome copies and for confocal microscopy. Although we observed similar numbers of AAV genomes at each of the different time points present in both the scAAV and the ssAAV infected hearts, microscopic analysis showed expression of GFP as early as 4 days in animals injected with the scAAV, while little or no expression was observed with the ssAAV constructs until day 11. AAV transduction of murine myocardium is therefore significantly enhanced using scAAV constructs.

  6. Muon triggers in the High Level Trigger of LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel

    2011-01-01

    The muon trigger selections for both levels of the LHCb software trigger (HLT1 and 2) are described and their performance is evaluated using $B^{+} \\to J/\\psi K^{+}$ signals reconstructed in 330 pb$^{-1}$ of data which were collected in the first half 2011.

  7. Hybrid Lentivirus-transposon Vectors With a Random Integration Profile in Human Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Nicklas H; Moldt, Brian; Mátés, Lajos

    2009-01-01

    Gene delivery by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-based lentiviral vectors (LVs) is efficient, but genomic integration of the viral DNA is strongly biased toward transcriptionally active loci resulting in an increased risk of insertional mutagenesis in gene therapy protocols. Nonviral...... Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon vectors have a significantly safer insertion profile, but efficient delivery into relevant cell/tissue types is a limitation. In an attempt to combine the favorable features of the two vector systems we established a novel hybrid vector technology based on SB transposase......-mediated insertion of lentiviral DNA circles generated during transduction of target cells with integrase (IN)-defective LVs (IDLVs). By construction of a lentivirus-transposon hybrid vector allowing transposition exclusively from circular viral DNA substrates, we demonstrate that SB transposase added in trans...

  8. Trigger and data acquisition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Gaspar, C

    2001-01-01

    Past LEP experiments generate data at 0.5 MByte/s from particle detectors with over a quarter of a million readout channels. The process of reading out the electronic channels, treating them, and storing the date produced by each collision for further analysis by the physicists is called "Data Acquisition". Not all beam crossings produce interesting physics "events", picking the interesting ones is the task of the "Trigger" system. In order to make sure that the data is collected in good conditions the experiment's operation has to be constantly verified. In all, at LEP experiments over 100 000 parameters were monitored, controlled, and synchronized by the "Monotoring and control" system. In the future, LHC experiments will produce as much data in a single day as a LEP detector did in a full year's running with a raw data rate of 10 - 100 MBytes/s and will have to cope with some 800 million proton-proton collisions a second of these collisions only one in 100 million million is interesting for new particle se...

  9. Vector mesons in matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    One consequence of the chiral restoration is the mixing of parity partners. We look for a possible signature of the mixing of vector and axial vector mesons in heavy-ion collisions. We suggest an experimental method for its observation. The dynamical evolution of the heavy-ion collision is described by a transport equation of ...

  10. Vector mesons in matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    kfki.hu. Abstract. One consequence of the chiral restoration is the mixing of parity partners. We look for a possible signature of the mixing of vector and axial vector mesons in heavy- ion collisions. We suggest an experimental method for its ...

  11. Transduction efficiency of neurons and glial cells by AAV-1, -5, -9, -rh10 and -hu11 serotypes in rat spinal cord following contusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, H A; Alessi, V; Singh, V; Hunanyan, A S; Levine, J M; Arvanian, V L

    2014-12-01

    Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are a promising system for therapeutic gene delivery to neurons in a number of neurodegenerative conditions including spinal cord injuries (SCIs). Considering the role of macrophages and glia in the progression of 'secondary damage', we searched for the optimal vectors for gene transfer to both neurons and glia following contusion SCI in adult rats. Contusion models share many similarities to most human spinal cord traumas. Several AAV serotypes known for their neuronal tropism expressing enhanced green-fluorescent protein (GFP) were injected intraspinally following thoracic T10 contusion. We systematically compared the transduction efficacy and cellular tropism of these vectors for neurons, macrophages/microglia, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and NG2-positive glial cells following contusion SCI. No additional changes in inflammatory responses or behavioral performance were observed for any of the vectors. We identified that AAV-rh10 induced robust transduction of both neuronal and glial cells. Even though efficacy to transduce neurons was comparable to already established AAV-1, AAV-5 and AAV-9, AAV-rh10 transduced significantly higher number of macrophages/microglia and oligodendrocytes in damaged spinal cord compared with other serotypes tested. Thus, AAV-rh10 carries promising potential as a gene therapy vector, particularly if both the neuronal and glial cell populations in damaged spinal cord are targeted.

  12. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...

  13. Upgrade trigger: Biannual performance update

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Couturier, Ben; Esen, Sevda; De Cian, Michel; De Vries, Jacco Andreas; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Grillo, Lucia; Hasse, Christoph; Jones, Christopher Rob; Le Gac, Renaud; Matev, Rosen; Neufeld, Niko; Nikodem, Thomas; Polci, Francesco; Del Buono, Luigi; Quagliani, Renato; Schwemmer, Rainer; Seyfert, Paul; Stahl, Sascha; Szumlak, Tomasz; Vesterinen, Mika Anton; Wanczyk, Joanna; Williams, Mark Richard James; Yin, Hang; Zacharjasz, Emilia Anna

    2017-01-01

    This document presents the performance of the LHCb Upgrade trigger reconstruction sequence, incorporating changes to the underlying reconstruction algorithms and detector description since the Trigger and Online Upgrade TDR. An updated extrapolation is presented using the most recent example of an Event Filter Farm node.

  14. Photon-triggered nanowire transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungkil; Lee, Hoo-Cheol; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Hwang, Min-Soo; Park, Jin-Sung; Lee, Jung Min; So, Jae-Pil; Choi, Jae-Hyuck; Kwon, Soon-Hong; Barrelet, Carl J.; Park, Hong-Gyu

    2017-10-01

    Photon-triggered electronic circuits have been a long-standing goal of photonics. Recent demonstrations include either all-optical transistors in which photons control other photons or phototransistors with the gate response tuned or enhanced by photons. However, only a few studies report on devices in which electronic currents are optically switched and amplified without an electrical gate. Here we show photon-triggered nanowire (NW) transistors, photon-triggered NW logic gates and a single NW photodetection system. NWs are synthesized with long crystalline silicon (CSi) segments connected by short porous silicon (PSi) segments. In a fabricated device, the electrical contacts on both ends of the NW are connected to a single PSi segment in the middle. Exposing the PSi segment to light triggers a current in the NW with a high on/off ratio of >8 × 106. A device that contains two PSi segments along the NW can be triggered using two independent optical input signals. Using localized pump lasers, we demonstrate photon-triggered logic gates including AND, OR and NAND gates. A photon-triggered NW transistor of diameter 25 nm with a single 100 nm PSi segment requires less than 300 pW of power. Furthermore, we take advantage of the high photosensitivity and fabricate a submicrometre-resolution photodetection system. Photon-triggered transistors offer a new venue towards multifunctional device applications such as programmable logic elements and ultrasensitive photodetectors.

  15. GnRH agonist triggering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kol, Shahar; Humaidan, Peter; Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær

    2013-01-01

    The concept that a bolus of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) can replace human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) as a trigger of final oocyte maturation was introduced several years ago. Recent developments in the area strengthen this premise. GnRHa trigger offers important advantages,...

  16. Terminal differentiation of cardiac and skeletal myocytes induces permissivity to AAV transduction by relieving inhibition imposed by DNA damage response proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovric, Jasmina; Mano, Miguel; Zentilin, Lorena; Eulalio, Ana; Zacchigna, Serena; Giacca, Mauro

    2012-11-01

    Gene therapy vectors based on the adeno-associated virus (AAV) are extremely efficient for gene transfer into post-mitotic cells of heart, muscle, brain, and retina. The reason for their exquisite tropism for these cells has long remained elusive. Here, we show that upon terminal differentiation, cardiac and skeletal myocytes downregulate proteins of the DNA damage response (DDR) and that this markedly induces permissivity to AAV transduction. We observed that expression of members of the MRN complex (Mre11, Rad50, Nbs1), which bind the incoming AAV genomes, faded in cardiomyocytes at ~2 weeks after birth, as well as upon myoblast differentiation in vitro; in both cases, withdrawal of the cells from the cell cycle coincided with increased AAV permissivity. Treatment of proliferating cells with short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against the MRN proteins, or with microRNA-24, which is normally upregulated upon terminal differentiation and negatively controls the Nbs1 levels, significantly increased permissivity to AAV transduction. Consistently, delivery of these small RNAs to the juvenile liver concomitant with AAV markedly improved in vivo hepatocyte transduction. Collectively, these findings support the conclusion that cellular DDR proteins inhibit AAV transduction and that terminal cell differentiation relieves this restriction.

  17. Olfactory G proteins: simple and complex signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, F A; Chess, A

    1998-06-04

    In both vertebrates and invertebrates, olfactory perception is mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors. Recent work, in both mouse and Caenorhabditis elegans, sheds light on the role of specific G proteins in olfactory signal transduction, neuronal morphology and axon guidance.

  18. Mitogen-activated protein kinase and abscisic acid signal transduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimovaara-Dijkstra, S.; Testerink, C.; Wang, M.

    1998-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a classical plant hormone, responsible for regulation of abscission, diverse aspects of plant and seed development, stress responses and germination. It was found that ABA signal transduction in plants can involve the activity of type 2C-phosphatases (PP2C),

  19. Cell biology symposium: Membrane trafficking and signal transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    In general, membrane trafficking is a broad group of processes where proteins and other large molecules are distributed throughout the cell as well as adjacent extracellular spaces. Whereas signal transduction is a process where signals are transmitted through a series of chemical or molecular event...

  20. Signal transduction by growth factor receptors: signaling in an instant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Joern; Akimov, Vyacheslav; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2007-01-01

    -out by mass spectrometry-based proteomics has allowed exciting views on the very early events in signal transduction. Activation profiles of regulated phosphorylation sites on epidermal growth factor receptor and downstream signal transducers showed different kinetics within the first ten seconds...

  1. Protein phosphorylation and its role in archaeal signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Dominik; Hoffmann, Lena; Pham, Trong Khoa; Bräsen, Christopher; Qiu, Wen; Wright, Phillip C; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Siebers, Bettina

    2016-09-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is the main mechanism of signal transduction that enables cells to rapidly respond to environmental changes by controlling the functional properties of proteins in response to external stimuli. However, whereas signal transduction is well studied in Eukaryotes and Bacteria, the knowledge in Archaea is still rather scarce. Archaea are special with regard to protein phosphorylation, due to the fact that the two best studied phyla, the Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeaota, seem to exhibit fundamental differences in regulatory systems. Euryarchaeota (e.g. halophiles, methanogens, thermophiles), like Bacteria and Eukaryotes, rely on bacterial-type two-component signal transduction systems (phosphorylation on His and Asp), as well as on the protein phosphorylation on Ser, Thr and Tyr by Hanks-type protein kinases. Instead, Crenarchaeota (e.g. acidophiles and (hyper)thermophiles) only depend on Hanks-type protein phosphorylation. In this review, the current knowledge of reversible protein phosphorylation in Archaea is presented. It combines results from identified phosphoproteins, biochemical characterization of protein kinases and protein phosphatases as well as target enzymes and first insights into archaeal signal transduction by biochemical, genetic and polyomic studies. © FEMS 2016.

  2. Expression of SMAD signal transduction molecules in the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Michael; Hougaard, D.; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2001-01-01

    Members of the TGF-beta superfamily of cytokines have been implicated in pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis and in regulation and differentiation of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine cells. Different TGF-beta members signal through phosphorylation of different signal transduction proteins, which eve...

  3. AAV-6 mediated efficient transduction of mouse lower airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wuping; Zhang, Liqun; Wu, Zhijian; Pickles, Raymond J; Samulski, R Jude

    2011-09-01

    AAV1 and AAV6 are two closely related AAV serotypes. In the present study, we found AAV6 was more efficient in transducing mouse lower airway epithelia in vitro and in vivo than AAV1. To further explore the mechanism of this difference, we found that significantly more AAV1 bound to mouse airway epithelia than AAV6, yet transduction by AAV6 was far superior. Lectin competition assays demonstrated that both AAV1 and AAV6 similarly utilize α-2, 3-, and to a lesser extend α-2, 6- linked sialic acids as the receptors for transduction. Furthermore, the rates of AAV endocytosis could not account for the transduction differences of AAV1 and AAV6. Finally, it was revealed that AAV6 was less susceptible to ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated blocks than AAV1 when transducing mouse airway epithelia. Thus compared with AAV1, AAV6 has a unique ability to escape proteasome-mediated degradation, which is likely responsible for its higher transduction efficiency in mouse airway epithelium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Triggering requirements for SSC physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilchriese, M.G.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Some aspects of triggering requirements for high P{sub T} physics processes at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are described. A very wide range of trigger types will be required to enable detection of the large number of potential physics signatures possible at the SSC. Although in many cases trigger rates are not now well understood, it is possible to conclude that the ability to trigger on transverse energy, number and energy of jets, number and energy of leptons (electrons and muons), missing energy and combinations of these will be required. An SSC trigger system must be both highly flexible and redundant to ensure reliable detection of many new physics processes at the SSC.

  5. Global CNS transduction of adult mice by intravenously delivered rAAVrh.8 and rAAVrh.10 and nonhuman primates by rAAVrh.10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Li, Shaoyong; Wang, Hongyan; Guo, Yansu; Gessler, Dominic J; Cao, Chunyan; Su, Qin; Kramer, Joshua; Zhong, Li; Ahmed, Seemin Seher; Zhang, Hongwei; He, Ran; Desrosiers, Ronald C; Brown, Robert; Xu, Zuoshang; Gao, Guangping

    2014-07-01

    Some recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) can cross the neonatal blood-brain barrier (BBB) and efficiently transduce cells of the central nervous system (CNS). However, in the adult CNS, transduction levels by systemically delivered rAAVs are significantly reduced, limiting their potential for CNS gene therapy. Here, we characterized 12 different rAAVEGFPs in the adult mouse CNS following intravenous delivery. We show that the capability of crossing the adult BBB and achieving widespread CNS transduction is a common character of AAV serotypes tested. Of note, rAAVrh.8 is the leading vector for robust global transduction of glial and neuronal cell types in regions of clinical importance such as cortex, caudate-putamen, hippocampus, corpus callosum, and substantia nigra. It also displays reduced peripheral tissue tropism compared to other leading vectors. Additionally, we evaluated rAAVrh.10 with and without microRNA (miRNA)-regulated expressional detargeting from peripheral tissues for systemic gene delivery to the CNS in marmosets. Our results indicate that rAAVrh.8, along with rh.10 and 9, hold the best promise for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat neurological diseases in the adult patient population. Additionally, systemically delivered rAAVrh.10 can transduce the CNS efficiently, and its transgene expression can be limited in the periphery by endogenous miRNAs in adult marmosets.

  6. Improved NYVAC-based vaccine vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen V Kibler

    Full Text Available While as yet there is no vaccine against HIV/AIDS, the results of the phase III Thai trial (RV144 have been encouraging and suggest that further improvements of the prime/boost vaccine combination of a poxvirus and protein are needed. With this aim, in this investigation we have generated derivatives of the candidate vaccinia virus vaccine vector NYVAC with potentially improved functions. This has been achieved by the re-incorporation into the virus genome of two host range genes, K1L and C7L, in conjunction with the removal of the immunomodulatory viral molecule B19, an antagonist of type I interferon action. These novel virus vectors, referred to as NYVAC-C-KC and NYVAC-C-KC-ΔB19R, have acquired relevant biological characteristics, giving higher levels of antigen expression in infected cells, replication-competency in human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts, activation of selective host cell signal transduction pathways, and limited virus spread in tissues. Importantly, these replication-competent viruses have been demonstrated to maintain a highly attenuated phenotype.

  7. Preferred transduction with AAV8 and AAV9 via thalamic administration in the MPS IIIB model: A comparison of four rAAV serotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Gilkes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sanfilippo syndrome type B (MPS IIIB is a lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAGLU activity. Since early therapeutic intervention is likely to yield the most efficacious results, we sought to determine the possible therapeutic utility of rAAV in early gene therapy based interventions. Currently, the application of recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV vectors is one of the most widely used gene transfer systems, and represents a promising approach in the treatment of MPS IIIB. From a translational standpoint, a minimally invasive, yet highly efficient method of vector administration is ideal. The thalamus is thought to be the switchboard for signal relay in the central nervous system (CNS and therefore represents an attractive target. To identify an optimal AAV vector for early therapeutic intervention, and establish whether thalamic administration represents a feasible therapeutic approach, we performed a comprehensive assessment of transduction and biodistribution profiles of four green fluorescent protein (GFP bearing rAAV serotypes, -5, -8, -9 and -rh10, administered bilaterally into the thalamus. Of the four serotypes compared, AAV8 and -9 proved superior to AAV5 and -rh10 both in biodistribution and transduction efficiency profiles. Genotype differences in transduction efficiency and biodistribution patterns were also observed. Importantly, we conclude that AAV8 and to a lesser extent, AAV9 represent preferable candidates for early gene therapy based intervention in the treatment of MPS IIIB. We also highlight the feasibility of thalamic rAAV administration, and conclude that this method results in moderate rAAV biodistribution with limited treatment capacity, thus suggesting a need for alternate methods of vector delivery.

  8. Tropism and toxicity of adeno-associated viral vector serotypes 1,2,5,6,7,8,9 in rat neurons and glia in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Douglas B.; Powers, Kathleen; Wang, Yun; Harvey, Brandon K.

    2007-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors are frequently used for gene delivery to the central nervous system and are capable of transducing neurons and glia in vitro. In this study, seven serotypes of a rAAV vector expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) were characterized for tropism and toxicity in primary cortical cells derived from embryonic rat brain. At 2 days after transduction, serotypes 1 and 5 through 8 expressed GFP predominately in glia, but by 6 days post-transduction...

  9. Discovering brain regions relevant to obsessive-compulsive disorder identification through bagging and transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrado-Hernández, Emilio; Gómez-Verdejo, Vanessa; Martínez-Ramón, Manel; Shawe-Taylor, John; Alonso, Pino; Pujol, Jesús; Menchón, José M; Cardoner, Narcis; Soriano-Mas, Carles

    2014-04-01

    In the present study we applied a multivariate feature selection method based on the analysis of the sign consistency of voxel weights across bagged linear Support Vector Machines (SVMs) with the aim of detecting brain regions relevant for the discrimination of subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, n=86) from healthy controls (n=86). Each participant underwent a structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) examination that was pre-processed in Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8) using the standard pipeline of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies. Subsequently, we applied our multivariate feature selection algorithm, which also included an L2 norm regularization to account for the clustering nature of MRI data, and a transduction-based refinement to further control overfitting. Our approach proved to be superior to two state-of-the-art feature selection methods (i.e., mass-univariate t-Test selection and recursive feature elimination), since, following the application of transductive refinement, we obtained a lower test error rate of the final classifier. Importantly, the regions identified by our method have been previously reported to be altered in OCD patients in studies using traditional brain morphometry methods. By contrast, the discrimination patterns obtained with the t-Test and the recursive feature elimination approaches extended across fewer brain regions and included fewer voxels per cluster. These findings suggest that the feature selection method presented here provides a more comprehensive characterization of the disorder, thus yielding not only a superior identification of OCD patients on the basis of their brain anatomy, but also a discrimination map that incorporates most of the alterations previously described to be associated with the disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST catalogue: prospecting signal transduction in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Mendes Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available EST sequencing has enabled the discovery of many new genes in a vast array of organisms, and the utility of this approach to the scientific community is greatly increased by the establishment of fully annotated databases. The present study aimed to identify sugarcane ESTs sequenced in the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST project (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br that corresponded to signal transduction components. We also produced a sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST catalogue (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br/private/mining-reports/QG/QG-mining.htm that covered the main categories and pathways. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs encoding enzymes for hormone (gibberellins, ethylene, auxins, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathways were found and tissue specificity was inferred from their relative frequency of occurrence in the different libraries. Whenever possible, transducers of hormones and plant peptide signaling were catalogued to the respective pathway. Over 100 receptors were found in sugarcane, which contains a large family of Ser/Thr kinase receptors and also photoreceptors, histidine kinase receptors and their response regulators. G-protein and small GTPases were analyzed and compared to known members of these families found in mammalian and plant systems. Major kinase and phosphatase pathways were mapped, with special attention being given to the MAP kinase and the inositol pathway, both of which are well known in plants.O sequenciamento de ESTs (etiquetas de sequencias transcritas tem possibilitado a descoberta de muitos novos genes em uma ampla variedade de organismos. Um aumento do aproveitamento desta informação pela comunidade científica tem sido possível graças ao desenvolvimento de base de dados contendo seqüências completamente anotadas. O trabalho aqui relatado teve como objetivo a identificação de ESTs de cana de açúcar seqüenciadas através do projeto SUCEST (http://sucest.lad.ic. unicamp.br que

  11. Adeno-Associated Virus Type 12 (AAV12): a Novel AAV Serotype with Sialic Acid- and Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan-Independent Transduction Activity▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael; Voutetakis, Antonis; Afione, Sandra; Zheng, Changyu; Mandikian, Danielle; Chiorini, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) is a promising vector for gene therapy. Recent isolations of novel AAV serotypes have led to significant advances by broadening the tropism and increasing the efficiency of gene transfer to the desired target cell. However, a major concern that remains is the strong preexisting immune responses to several vectors. In this paper, we describe the isolation and characterization of AAV12, an AAV serotype with unique biological and immunological properties. In contrast to those of all other reported AAVs, AAV12 cell attachment and transduction do not require cell surface sialic acids or heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Furthermore, rAAV12 is resistant to neutralization by circulating antibodies from human serum. The feasibility of rAAV12 as a vector was demonstrated in a mouse model in which muscle and salivary glands were transduced. These characteristics make rAAV12 an interesting candidate for gene transfer applications. PMID:18045941

  12. Vector SIMP dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Min; Hochberg, Yonit; Kuflik, Eric; Lee, Hyun Min; Mambrini, Yann; Murayama, Hitoshi; Pierre, Mathias

    2017-10-01

    Strongly Interacting Massive Particles (SIMPs) have recently been proposed as light thermal dark matter relics. Here we consider an explicit realization of the SIMP mechanism in the form of vector SIMPs arising from an SU(2) X hidden gauge theory, where the accidental custodial symmetry protects the stability of the dark matter. We propose several ways of equilibrating the dark and visible sectors in this setup. In particular, we show that a light dark Higgs portal can maintain thermal equilibrium between the two sectors, as can a massive dark vector portal with its generalized Chern-Simons couplings to the vector SIMPs, all while remaining consistent with experimental constraints.

  13. Vector Difference Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalm, W. A.; Schwalm, M. K.; Giona, M.

    1998-03-01

    Space is filled with triangulating graph \\calG to serve as a quadrature grid. A discrete analog of the theory of differential forms is constructed using the associated simplical complex. The role of a basis for Λ^p at a point is played by the set of (p+1) -simplices containing a given vertex. Vector difference operations analogous to div, grad and curl, together with corresponding vector identities and exact difference analogs of the Stokes-type theorems, are obtained in terms of the boundary partial and coboundary d. Difference versions of the full vector Maxwell electromagnetic equations are analyzed on a random structure.

  14. The ATLAS Missing ET trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Beauchemin, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few months, the ATLAS detector collected 900 GeV LHC collision events which allowed for the study the performance of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition system (TDAQ). With the 7 TeV collision data collected recently, the performance studies of the trigger system are critical for a successful physics program. In particular a large spectrum of physics results will rely on the capacity of the ATLAS TDAQ system to collect events based on the estimate of the missing transverse energy (MET) contained in each event. The MET trigger would be, for example, the primary trigger to be used in new physics searches for processes involving new weakly interacting particles, which could account for the astronomically observed dark matter. In addition to discovery perspectives, the MET trigger can also be used in combination with other triggers to control the rate of signatures involving low energy objects. For example, the MET trigger is necessary in order to measure non-boosted W in the tau channel. Finally...

  15. Mosaic vectors comprised of modified AAV1 capsid proteins for efficient vector purification and targeting to vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachler, M D; Bartlett, J S

    2006-06-01

    Vascular-targeted gene therapies have the potential to treat many of the leading causes of mortality in the western world. Unfortunately, these therapies have been ineffective due to poor vascular gene transfer. The use of alternative virus serotypes and the incorporation of vascular targeting ligands into vectors has resulted in only modest increases in vascular gene transfer. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) 1 has shown the most promise among the AAV vectors for the transduction of vascular endothelial cells. However, no straightforward small-scale purification strategy exists for AAV1 as it does for AAV2 making it difficult to quickly produce AAV1 vector for analysis. Here we have combined two AAV1 capsid protein modifications to enhance vascular gene transfer and allow easy purification of vector particles. Mosaic vector particles have been produced comprised of capsid proteins containing the well-characterized RGD4C modification to target integrins present on the vasculature, and capsid proteins containing a modification that permits metabolic biotinylation and efficient purification of mosaic particles by avidin affinity chromatography. We show that the RGD modification results in a 50-100-fold enhancement in endothelial cell gene transfer that is maintained in biotinylated mosaic AAV1 particles. These results suggest that mosaic virions hold significant promise for targeted gene delivery to the vasculature.

  16. HSV-1-Based Vectors for Gene Therapy of Neurological Diseases and Brain Tumors: Part II. Vector Systems and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Jacobs

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Many properties of HSV-1 are especially suitable for using this virus as a vector to treat diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS, such as Parkinson's disease or malignant gliomas. These advantageous properties include natural neurotropism, high transduction efficiency, large transgene capacity, and the ability of entering a latent state in neurons. Selective oncolysis in combination with modulation of the immune response mediated by replication-conditional HSV-1 vectors appears to be a highly promising approach in the battle against malignant glioma. Helper virus-free HSV/AAV hybrid amplicon vectors have great promise in mediating long-term gene expression in the PNS and CNS for the treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders or chronic pain. Current research focuses on the design of HSV-1-derived vectors which are targeted to certain cell types and support transcriptionally regulatable transgene expression. Here, we review the recent developments on HSV-1-based vector systems and their applications in experimental and clinical gene therapy protocols.

  17. ATLAS FTK: Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Amerio, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Andreazza, A; Annovi, A; Beretta, M; Bevacqua, V; Bogdan, M; Bossini, E; Boveia, A; Cavaliere, V; Canelli, F; Blazey, G; Cervigni, F; Cheng, Y; Citterio, M; Crescioli, F; Dell’Orso, M; Drake, G; Dunford, M; Giannetti, P; Giorgi, F; Hoff, J; Kapliy, A; Kasten, M; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Lanza, A; Liberali, V; Liu, T; Magalotti, D; McCarn, A; Melachrinos, C; Meroni, C; Negri, A; Neubauer, M; Penning, B; Piendibene, M; Proudfoot, J; Riva, M; Roda, C; Sabatini, F; Sacco, I; Shochet, M; Stabile, A; Tang, F; Tang, J; Tripiccione, R; Tuggle, J; Vercesi, V; Verzocchi, M; Villa, M; Vitillo, R A; Volpi, G; Webster, J; Wu, J; Yorita, K; Zhang, J

    2011-01-01

    A track reconstruction system for the trigger of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider is described. The Fast Tracker is a highly parallel hardware system designed to operate at the Level-1 trigger output rate. It will provide high-quality tracks reconstructed over the entire inner detector by the start of processing in the Level-2 trigger. The system is based on associative memories for pattern recognition and fast FPGA’s for track reconstruction. Its design and expected performance under instantaneous luminosities up to 3 × 10^34/cm^2/s are discussed.

  18. Seismology: dynamic triggering of earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan; Johnson, Paul

    2005-10-06

    After an earthquake, numerous smaller shocks are triggered over distances comparable to the dimensions of the mainshock fault rupture, although they are rare at larger distances. Here we analyse the scaling of dynamic deformations (the stresses and strains associated with seismic waves) with distance from, and magnitude of, their triggering earthquake, and show that they can cause further earthquakes at any distance if their amplitude exceeds several microstrain, regardless of their frequency content. These triggering requirements are remarkably similar to those measured in the laboratory for inducing dynamic elastic nonlinear behaviour, which suggests that the underlying physics is similar.

  19. Single-Step Conversion of Cells to Retrovirus Vector Producers with Herpes Simplex Virus–Epstein-Barr Virus Hybrid Amplicons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Saeki, Yoshinaga; Camp, Sara M.; Chiocca, E. Antonio; Breakefield, Xandra O.

    1999-01-01

    We report here on the development and characterization of a novel herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) amplicon-based vector system which takes advantage of the host range and retention properties of HSV–Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) hybrid amplicons to efficiently convert cells to retrovirus vector producer cells after single-step transduction. The retrovirus genes gag-pol and env (GPE) and retroviral vector sequences were modified to minimize sequence overlap and cloned into an HSV-EBV hybrid amplicon. Retrovirus expression cassettes were used to generate the HSV-EBV-retrovirus hybrid vectors, HERE and HERA, which code for the ecotropic and the amphotropic envelopes, respectively. Retrovirus vector sequences encoding lacZ were cloned downstream from the GPE expression unit. Transfection of 293T/17 cells with amplicon plasmids yielded retrovirus titers between 106 and 107 transducing units/ml, while infection of the same cells with amplicon vectors generated maximum titers 1 order of magnitude lower. Retrovirus titers were dependent on the extent of transduction by amplicon vectors for the same cell line, but different cell lines displayed varying capacities to produce retrovirus vectors even at the same transduction efficiencies. Infection of human and dog primary gliomas with this system resulted in the production of retrovirus vectors for more than 1 week and the long-term retention and increase in transgene activity over time in these cell populations. Although the efficiency of this system still has to be determined in vivo, many applications are foreseeable for this approach to gene delivery. PMID:10559361

  20. DMPD: Toll-like receptor signal transduction. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17934330 Toll-like receptor signal transduction. Krishnan J, Selvarajoo K, Tsuchiya... M, Lee G, Choi S. Exp Mol Med. 2007 Aug 31;39(4):421-38. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Toll-like receptor sig...nal transduction. PubmedID 17934330 Title Toll-like receptor signal transduction. Authors Krishnan J,

  1. GAP Land Cover - Vector

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  2. Tagged Vector Contour (TVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Tagged Vector Contour (TVC) dataset consists of digitized contours from the 7.5 minute topographic quadrangle maps. Coverage for the state is incomplete....

  3. Developing a synthetic signal transduction system in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Kevin J; Antunes, Mauricio S; Albrecht, Kirk D; Bowen, Tessa A; Troupe, Jared F; Havens, Keira L; Medford, June I

    2011-01-01

    One area of focus in the emerging field of plant synthetic biology is the manipulation of systems involved in sensing and response to environmental signals. Sensing and responding to signals, including ligands, typically involves biological signal transduction. Plants use a wide variety of signaling systems to sense and respond to their environment. One of these systems, a histidine kinase (HK) based signaling system, lends itself to manipulation using the tools of synthetic biology. Both plants and bacteria use HKs to relay signals, which in bacteria can involve as few as two proteins (two-component systems or TCS). HK proteins are evolutionarily conserved between plants and bacteria and plant HK components have been shown to be functional in bacteria. We found that this conservation also applies to bacterial HK components which can function in plants. This conservation of function led us to hypothesize that synthetic HK signaling components can be designed and rapidly tested in bacteria. These novel HK signaling components form the foundation for a synthetic signaling system in plants, but typically require modifications such as codon optimization and proper targeting to allow optimal function. We describe the process and methodology of producing a synthetic signal transduction system in plants. We discovered that the bacterial response regulator (RR) PhoB shows HK-dependent nuclear translocation in planta. Using this discovery, we engineered a partial synthetic pathway in which a synthetic promoter (PlantPho) is activated using a plant-adapted PhoB (PhoB-VP64) and the endogenous HK-based cytokinin signaling pathway. Building on this work, we adapted an input or sensing system based on bacterial chemotactic binding proteins and HKs, resulting in a complete eukaryotic signal transduction system. Input to our eukaryotic signal transduction system is provided by a periplasmic binding protein (PBP), ribose-binding protein (RBP). RBP interacts with the membrane

  4. Ultramicroscopy as a novel tool to unravel the tropism of AAV gene therapy vectors in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Sandro; Bode, Julia; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; von Kalle, Christof; Cartier, Nathalie; Tews, Björn

    2016-06-20

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors have advanced to the vanguard of gene therapy. Numerous naturally occurring serotypes have been used to target cells in various tissues. There is a strong need for fast and dynamic methods which efficiently unravel viral tropism in whole organs. Ultramicroscopy (UM) is a novel fluorescence microscopy technique that images optically cleared undissected specimens, achieving good resolutions at high penetration depths while being non-destructive. UM was applied to obtain high-resolution 3D analysis of AAV transduction in adult mouse brains, especially in the hippocampus, a region of interest for Alzheimer's disease therapy. We separately or simultaneously compared transduction efficacies for commonly used serotypes (AAV9 and AAVrh10) using fluorescent reporter expression. We provide a detailed comparative and quantitative analysis of the transduction profiles. UM allowed a rapid analysis of marker fluorescence expression in neurons with intact projections deep inside the brain, in defined anatomical structures. Major hippocampal neuronal transduction was observed with both vectors, with slightly better efficacy for AAV9 in UM. Glial response and synaptic marker expression did not change post transduction.We propose UM as a novel valuable complementary tool to efficiently and simultaneously unravel tropism of different viruses in a single non-dissected adult rodent brain.

  5. Widespread Central Nervous System Gene Transfer and Silencing After Systemic Delivery of Novel AAV-AS Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Sourav R; Harris, Anne F; Cabral, Damien J; Keeler, Allison M; Sapp, Ellen; Ferreira, Jennifer S; Gray-Edwards, Heather L; Johnson, Jacob A; Johnson, Aime K; Su, Qin; Stoica, Lorelei; DiFiglia, Marian; Aronin, Neil; Martin, Douglas R; Gao, Guangping; Sena-Esteves, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Effective gene delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) is vital for development of novel gene therapies for neurological diseases. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have emerged as an effective platform for in vivo gene transfer, but overall neuronal transduction efficiency of vectors derived from naturally occurring AAV capsids after systemic administration is relatively low. Here, we investigated the possibility of improving CNS transduction of existing AAV capsids by genetically fusing peptides to the N-terminus of VP2 capsid protein. A novel vector AAV-AS, generated by the insertion of a poly-alanine peptide, is capable of extensive gene transfer throughout the CNS after systemic administration in adult mice. AAV-AS is 6- and 15-fold more efficient than AAV9 in spinal cord and cerebrum, respectively. The neuronal transduction profile varies across brain regions but is particularly high in the striatum where AAV-AS transduces 36% of striatal neurons. Widespread neuronal gene transfer was also documented in cat brain and spinal cord. A single intravenous injection of an AAV-AS vector encoding an artificial microRNA targeting huntingtin (Htt) resulted in 33-50% knockdown of Htt across multiple CNS structures in adult mice. This novel AAV-AS vector is a promising platform to develop new gene therapies for neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. Efficient transfer of HTLV-1 tax gene in various primary and immortalized cells using a flap lentiviral vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer-Leveau, Christelle; Mordelet, Elodie; Delebecque, Frédéric; Gessain, Antoine; Charneau, Pierre; Ozden, Simona

    2002-08-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes two major diseases: adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma and tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). In order to understand the involvement of Tax protein in HTLV-1 pathogenesis, we constructed a HIV-1 based lentiviral vector containing the central DNA flap sequence and either the green fluorescent protein (GFP) or the HTLV-1 tax genes. Using these vectors, GFP and tax genes were introduced in several primary and immortalized cells of endothelial, lymphoid, astrocytic or macrophagic origin. As assessed by GFP expression, up to 100% efficiency of transduction was obtained for all cell types tested. Tax expression was detected by Western blot and immuno-fluorescence in the transduced cells. After transduction, the Tax transcriptional activity was confirmed by the transactivation of HTLV-1 LTR-lacZ or HTLV-1 LTR-GFP reporter genes. Increased CD25 and HLA DR expression was observed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes transduced with the Tax vector. These results indicate that both pathways of Tax transactivation, CREB (viral LTR) and NF-kappa B (CD25 and HLA DR), are functional after transduction by TRIP Tax vector. Therefore, this vector provides a useful tool for investigating the role of the Tax viral protein in the pathogenesis of diseases linked to HTLV-1 infection.

  7. Tile Calorimeter Muon Trigger Signal

    CERN Document Server

    Cerqueira, A S; Usai, G L

    2002-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter contributes to the first level trigger with the fast analog signal coming from the trigger summing boards, so-called analog adder. The adders provide two kinds of output: the total energy sum in a trigger tower and the signal from the respective cell of the last radial calorimeter layer, which can be used for identifying muons, thus making the muon first level trigger more robust. This note reviews the adder specifications and laboratory tests, whereas the main focus is put on the data analysis from the testbeam periods in~2001. Several improvements achieved by tuning the read-out are described. Using the testbeam results, the ability to identify muons in the last radial Tilecal layer is discussed. The experimental results obtained at the testbeams are completed with the Monte Carlo simulations.

  8. Trigger points: an anatomical substratum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akamatsu, Flávia Emi; Ayres, Bernardo Rodrigues; Saleh, Samir Omar; Hojaij, Flávio; Andrade, Mauro; Hsing, Wu Tu; Jacomo, Alfredo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to bring the trapezius muscle knowledge of the locations where the accessory nerve branches enter the muscle belly to reach the motor endplates and find myofascial trigger points (MTrPs...

  9. FERMIGTRIG - Fermi GBM Trigger Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This table lists all of the triggers observed by one or more of the 14 GBM detectors (12 NaI and 2 BGO). Note that there are two Browse catalogs resulting from GBM...

  10. Hybrid adeno-associated viral vectors utilizing transposase-mediated somatic integration for stable transgene expression in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Zhang

    Full Text Available Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV vectors have been shown to be one of the most promising vectors for therapeutic gene delivery because they can induce efficient and long-term transduction in non-dividing cells with negligible side-effects. However, as AAV vectors mostly remain episomal, vector genomes and transgene expression are lost in dividing cells. Therefore, to stably transduce cells, we developed a novel AAV/transposase hybrid-vector. To facilitate SB-mediated transposition from the rAAV genome, we established a system in which one AAV vector contains the transposon with the gene of interest and the second vector delivers the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB transposase SB100X. Human cells were infected with the AAV-transposon vector and the transposase was provided in trans either by transient and stable plasmid transfection or by AAV vector transduction. We found that groups which received the hyperactive transposase SB100X showed significantly increased colony forming numbers indicating enhanced integration efficiencies. Furthermore, we found that transgene copy numbers in transduced cells were dose-dependent and that predominantly SB transposase-mediated transposition contributed to stabilization of the transgene. Based on a plasmid rescue strategy and a linear-amplification mediated PCR (LAM-PCR protocol we analysed the SB100X-mediated integration profile after transposition from the AAV vector. A total of 1840 integration events were identified which revealed a close to random integration profile. In summary, we show for the first time that AAV vectors can serve as template for SB transposase mediated somatic integration. We developed the first prototype of this hybrid-vector system which with further improvements may be explored for treatment of diseases which originate from rapidly dividing cells.

  11. Vector and axial vector mesons at finite temperature

    OpenAIRE

    mallik, S.; Sarkar, Sourav

    2002-01-01

    We consider the thermal correlation functions of vector and axial-vector currents and evaluate corrections to the vector and axial-vector meson pole terms to one loop in chiral perturbation theory. As expected, the pole positions do not shift to leading order in temperature. But the residues decrease with temperature.

  12. Intravenous administration of the adeno-associated virus-PHP.B capsid fails to upregulate transduction efficiency in the marmoset brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Yasunori; Konno, Ayumu; Mochizuki, Ryuta; Shinohara, Yoichiro; Nitta, Keisuke; Okada, Yukihiro; Hirai, Hirokazu

    2018-02-05

    Intravenous administration of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-PHP.B, a capsid variant of AAV9 containing seven amino acid insertions, results in a greater permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB) than standard AAV9 in mice, leading to highly efficient and global transduction of the central nervous system (CNS). The present study aimed to examine whether the enhanced BBB penetrance of AAV-PHP.B observed in mice also occurs in non-human primates. Thus, a young adult (age, 1.6 years) and an old adult (age, 7.2 years) marmoset received an intravenous injection of AAV-PHP.B expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the constitutive CBh promoter (a hybrid of cytomegalovirus early enhancer and chicken β-actin promoter). Age-matched control marmosets were treated with standard AAV9-capsid vectors. The animals were sacrificed 6 weeks after the viral injection. Based on the results, only limited transduction of neurons (0-2%) and astrocytes (0.1-2.5%) was observed in both AAV-PHP.B- and AAV9-treated marmosets. One noticeable difference between AAV-PHP.B and AAV9 was the marked transduction of the peripheral dorsal root ganglia neurons. Indeed, the soma and axons in the projection from the spinal cord to the nucleus cuneatus in the medulla oblongata were strongly labeled with EGFP by AAV-PHP.B. Thus, except for the peripheral dorsal root ganglia neurons, the AAV-PHP.B transduction efficiency in the CNS of marmosets was comparable to that of AAV9 vectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Generation of recombinant adenovirus vectors with modified fibers for altering viral tropism.

    OpenAIRE

    Krasnykh, V N; Mikheeva, G V; Douglas, J T; Curiel, D.T.

    1996-01-01

    To expand the utility of recombinant adenovirus vectors for gene therapy applications, methods to alter native viral tropism to achieve cell-specific transduction would be beneficial. To this end, we are pursuing genetic methods to alter the cell recognition domain of the adenovirus fiber. To incorporate these modified fibers into mature virions, we have developed a method based on homologous DNA recombination between two plasmids. A fiber-deleted, propagation-defective rescue plasmid has bee...

  14. Gene transfer to chicks using lentiviral vectors administered via the embryonic chorioallantoic membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Hen

    Full Text Available The lack of affordable techniques for gene transfer in birds has inhibited the advancement of molecular studies in avian species. Here we demonstrate a new approach for introducing genes into chicken somatic tissues by administration of a lentiviral vector, derived from the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, into the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM of chick embryos on embryonic day 11. The FIV-derived vectors carried yellow fluorescent protein (YFP or recombinant alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH genes, driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter. Transgene expression, detected in chicks 2 days after hatch by quantitative real-time PCR, was mostly observed in the liver and spleen. Lower expression levels were also detected in the brain, kidney, heart and breast muscle. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analyses confirmed transgene expression in chick tissues at the protein level, demonstrating a transduction efficiency of ∼0.46% of liver cells. Integration of the viral vector into the chicken genome was demonstrated using genomic repetitive (CR1-PCR amplification. Viability and stability of the transduced cells was confirmed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay, immunostaining with anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (anti-PCNA, and detection of transgene expression 51 days post transduction. Our approach led to only 9% drop in hatching efficiency compared to non-injected embryos, and all of the hatched chicks expressed the transgenes. We suggest that the transduction efficiency of FIV vectors combined with the accessibility of the CAM vasculature as a delivery route comprise a new powerful and practical approach for gene delivery into somatic tissues of chickens. Most relevant is the efficient transduction of the liver, which specializes in the production and secretion of proteins, thereby providing an optimal target for prolonged study of secreted hormones and peptides.

  15. CD25 Preselective Anti-HIV Vectors for Improved HIV Gene Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kalomoiris, Stefanos; Lawson, Je'Tai; Chen, Rachel X.; Bauer, Gerhard; Nolta, Jan A; Anderson, Joseph S.

    2012-01-01

    As HIV continues to be a global public health problem with no effective vaccine available, new and innovative therapies, including HIV gene therapies, need to be developed. Due to low transduction efficiencies that lead to low in vivo gene marking, therapeutically relevant efficacy of HIV gene therapy has been difficult to achieve in a clinical setting. Methods to improve the transplantation of enriched populations of anti-HIV vector-transduced cells may greatly increase the in vivo efficacy ...

  16. A survey of ex vivo/in vitro transduction efficiency of mammalian primary cells and cell lines with Nine natural adeno-associated virus (AAV1-9) and one engineered adeno-associated virus serotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Brian L; Hirsch, Matthew L; Barker, Jenny C; Connelly, Jon P; Steininger, Robert J; Porteus, Matthew H

    2013-03-06

    The ability to deliver a gene of interest into a specific cell type is an essential aspect of biomedical research. Viruses can be a useful tool for this delivery, particularly in difficult to transfect cell types. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a useful gene transfer vector because of its ability to mediate efficient gene transduction in numerous dividing and quiescent cell types, without inducing any known pathogenicity. There are now a number of natural for that designed AAV serotypes that each has a differential ability to infect a variety of cell types. Although transduction studies have been completed, the bulk of the studies have been done in vivo, and there has never been a comprehensive study of transduction ex vivo/in vitro. Each cell type was infected with each serotype at a multiplicity of infection of 100,000 viral genomes/cell and transduction was analyzed by flow cytometry + . We found that AAV1 and AAV6 have the greatest ability to transduce a wide range of cell types, however, for particular cell types, there are specific serotypes that provide optimal transduction. In this work, we describe the transduction efficiency of ten different AAV serotypes in thirty-four different mammalian cell lines and primary cell types. Although these results may not be universal due to numerous factors such as, culture conditions and/ or cell growth rates and cell heterogeneity, these results provide an important and unique resource for investigators who use AAV as an ex vivo gene delivery vector or who work with cells that are difficult to transfect.

  17. Mechanisms of hypoxic signal transduction regulated by reactive nitrogen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbayev, V V; Yasinska, I M

    2007-05-01

    Recent reports devoted to the field of oxygen sensing outline that signalling molecules such as nitric oxide/nitric oxide derived species as well as cytokines and other inflammatory mediators participate in hypoxic signal transduction. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge about the role of nitric oxide and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) derived from it in hypoxic signal transduction and particularly in accumulation/de-accumulation of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) protein, which is critical not only for cellular adaptation to low oxygen availability but also for generation of inflammatory and innate immune responses. After brief description of nitric oxide and other RNS as multifunctional messengers we analyse and discuss the RNS-dependent accumulation of HIF-1alpha protein under normoxia followed by discussion of the mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO)-dependent enzyme-regulated degradation of HIF-1alpha protein under low oxygen availability.

  18. Noncovalent protein transduction in plant cells by macropinocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Microsugar; Chou, Jyh-Ching; Chen, Chung-Pin; Liu, Betty Revon; Lee, Han-Jung

    2007-01-01

    * Protein delivery across cellular membranes or compartments is primarily limited by low biomembrane permeability. * Many protein transduction domains (PTDs) have previously been generated, and covalently cross-linked with cargoes for cellular internalization. * An arginine-rich intracellular delivery (AID) peptide could rapidly deliver fluorescent proteins or beta-galactosidase enzyme into plant and animal cells in a noncovalent fashion. The possible mechanism of this noncovalent protein transduction (NPT) may involve macropinocytosis. * The NPT via a nontoxic AID peptide provides a powerful tool characterized by its simplicity and quickness to have active proteins function in living cells in vivo. This should be of broad utility for functional enzyme assays and protein therapies in both plant biology research as well as biomedical applications.

  19. Molecular methods for the study of signal transduction in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Irving, Helen R.

    2013-09-03

    Novel and improved analytical methods have led to a rapid increase in our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying plant signal transduction. Progress has been made both at the level of single-component analysis and in vivo imaging as well as at the systems level where transcriptomics and particularly phosphoproteomics afford a window into complex biological responses. Here we review the role of the cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP in plant signal transduction as well as the discovery and biochemical and biological characterization of an increasing number of complex multi-domain nucleotide cyclases that catalyze the synthesis of cAMP and cGMP from ATP and GTP, respectively. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  20. [Molecular mechanisms of TRP channels in mechano-sensory transduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wen-juan; Huang, Gui-fang; Kang, Li-jun

    2012-03-01

    Channels from the TRP superfamily have essential roles in a wide variety of sensory transductions, especially in mechano-sensation, such as hearing, touch and mechanical pain. TRP channels are also implicated in major channelopathies, including deafness, chronic pain, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and ventricular hypertrophy. As the leading candidates for mechano-sensitive channels, some TRP channels appear to be mechano-receptor, which can be activated by mechanical forces directly, such as C. elegans TRPN homolog TRP-4; whereas others may act as signal modulators, receiving and amplifying signals indirectly. This review is to introduce the function of TRPs in mechano-sensory transduction and to discuss the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  1. Molecular methods for the study of signal transduction in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Helen R; Gehring, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Novel and improved analytical methods have led to a rapid increase in our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying plant signal transduction. Progress has been made both at the level of single-component analysis and in vivo imaging as well as at the systems level where transcriptomics and particularly phosphoproteomics afford a window into complex biological responses. Here we review the role of the cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP in plant signal transduction as well as the discovery and biochemical and biological characterization of an increasing number of complex multi-domain nucleotide cyclases that catalyze the synthesis of cAMP and cGMP from ATP and GTP, respectively.

  2. Efficiency of Free Energy Transduction in Autonomous Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaguchi, Kyogo; Sano, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    We consider the thermodynamics of chemical coupling from the viewpoint of free energy transduction efficiency. In contrast to an external parameter-driven stochastic energetics setup, the dynamic change of the equilibrium distribution induced by chemical coupling, adopted, for example, in biological systems, is inevitably an autonomous process. We found that the efficiency is bounded by the ratio between the non-symmetric and the symmetrized Kullback-Leibler distance, which is significantly l...

  3. Signal transduction during cold, salt, and drought stresses in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guo-Tao; Ma, Shi-Liang; Bai, Li-Ping; Zhang, Li; Ma, Hui; Jia, Ping; Liu, Jun; Zhong, Ming; Guo, Zhi-Fu

    2012-02-01

    Abiotic stresses, especially cold, salinity and drought, are the primary causes of crop loss worldwide. Plant adaptation to environmental stresses is dependent upon the activation of cascades of molecular networks involved in stress perception, signal transduction, and the expression of specific stress-related genes and metabolites. Plants have stress-specific adaptive responses as well as responses which protect the plants from more than one environmental stress. There are multiple stress perception and signaling pathways, some of which are specific, but others may cross-talk at various steps. In this review article, we first expound the general stress signal transduction pathways, and then highlight various aspects of biotic stresses signal transduction networks. On the genetic analysis, many cold induced pathways are activated to protect plants from deleterious effects of cold stress, but till date, most studied pathway is ICE-CBF-COR signaling pathway. The Salt-Overly-Sensitive (SOS) pathway, identified through isolation and study of the sos1, sos2, and sos3 mutants, is essential for maintaining favorable ion ratios in the cytoplasm and for tolerance of salt stress. Both ABA-dependent and -independent signaling pathways appear to be involved in osmotic stress tolerance. ROS play a dual role in the response of plants to abiotic stresses functioning as toxic by-products of stress metabolism, as well as important signal transduction molecules and the ROS signaling networks can control growth, development, and stress response. Finally, we talk about the common regulatory system and cross-talk among biotic stresses, with particular emphasis on the MAPK cascades and the cross-talk between ABA signaling and biotic signaling.

  4. Tuning piezoresistive transduction in nanomechanical resonators by geometrical asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llobet, J.; Sansa, M.; Lorenzoni, M.; Pérez-Murano, F., E-mail: francesc.perez@csic.es [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Borrisé, X. [Institut Català de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia (ICN2), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra Spain (Spain); San Paulo, A. [Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (IMM-CSIC), 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-08-17

    The effect of geometrical asymmetries on the piezoresistive transduction in suspended double clamped beam nanomechanical resonators is investigated. Tapered silicon nano-beams, fabricated using a fast and flexible prototyping method, are employed to determine how the asymmetry affects the transduced piezoresistive signal for different mechanical resonant modes. This effect is attributed to the modulation of the strain in pre-strained double clamped beams, and it is confirmed by means of finite element simulations.

  5. Identification of photoperception and light signal transduction pathways in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Quecini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies employing model species have elucidated several aspects of photoperception and light signal transduction that control plant development. However, the information available for economically important crops is scarce. Citrus genome databases of expressed sequence tags (EST were investigated in order to identify genes coding for functionally characterized proteins responsible for light-regulated developmental control in model plants. Approximately 176,200 EST sequences from 53 libraries were queried and all bona fide and putative photoreceptor gene families were found in citrus species. We have identified 53 orthologs for several families of transcriptional regulators and cytoplasmic proteins mediating photoreceptor-induced responses although some important Arabidopsis phytochrome- and cryptochrome-signaling components are absent from citrus sequence databases. The main gene families responsible for phototropin-mediated signal transduction were present in citrus transcriptome, including general regulatory factors (14-3-3 proteins, scaffolding elements and auxin-responsive transcription factors and transporters. A working model of light perception, signal transduction and response-eliciting in citrus is proposed based on the identified key components. These results demonstrate the power of comparative genomics between model systems and economically important crop species to elucidate several aspects of plant physiology and metabolism.

  6. Piezotransistive transduction of femtoscale displacement for photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Abdul; Faheem Khan, M.; Lee, Dongkyu; Kim, Seonghwan; Thundat, Thomas; Koley, Goutam

    2015-08-01

    Measurement of femtoscale displacements in the ultrasonic frequency range is attractive for advanced material characterization and sensing, yet major challenges remain in their reliable transduction using non-optical modalities, which can dramatically reduce the size and complexity of the transducer assembly. Here we demonstrate femtoscale displacement transduction using an AlGaN/GaN heterojunction field effect transistor-integrated GaN microcantilever that utilizes piezoelectric polarization-induced changes in two-dimensional electron gas to transduce displacement with very high sensitivity. The piezotransistor demonstrated an ultra-high gauge factor of 8,700 while consuming an extremely low power of 1.36 nW, and transduced external excitation with a superior noise-limited resolution of 12.43 fm Hz-1/2 and an outstanding responsivity of 170 nV fm-1, which is comparable to the optical transduction limits. These extraordinary characteristics, which enabled unique detection of nanogram quantity of analytes using photoacoustic spectroscopy, can be readily exploited in realizing a multitude of novel sensing paradigms.

  7. State-time spectrum of signal transduction logic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Aidan; Terfve, Camille; Henriques, David; Bernabé, Beatriz Peñalver; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio

    2012-08-01

    Despite the current wealth of high-throughput data, our understanding of signal transduction is still incomplete. Mathematical modeling can be a tool to gain an insight into such processes. Detailed biochemical modeling provides deep understanding, but does not scale well above relatively a few proteins. In contrast, logic modeling can be used where the biochemical knowledge of the system is sparse and, because it is parameter free (or, at most, uses relatively a few parameters), it scales well to large networks that can be derived by manual curation or retrieved from public databases. Here, we present an overview of logic modeling formalisms in the context of training logic models to data, and specifically the different approaches to modeling qualitative to quantitative data (state) and dynamics (time) of signal transduction. We use a toy model of signal transduction to illustrate how different logic formalisms (Boolean, fuzzy logic and differential equations) treat state and time. Different formalisms allow for different features of the data to be captured, at the cost of extra requirements in terms of computational power and data quality and quantity. Through this demonstration, the assumptions behind each formalism are discussed, as well as their advantages and disadvantages and possible future developments.

  8. Signal transduction and information processing in mammalian taste buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The molecular machinery for chemosensory transduction in taste buds has received considerable attention within the last decade. Consequently, we now know a great deal about sweet, bitter, and umami taste mechanisms and are gaining ground rapidly on salty and sour transduction. Sweet, bitter, and umami tastes are transduced by G-protein-coupled receptors. Salty taste may be transduced by epithelial Na channels similar to those found in renal tissues. Sour transduction appears to be initiated by intracellular acidification acting on acid-sensitive membrane proteins. Once a taste signal is generated in a taste cell, the subsequent steps involve secretion of neurotransmitters, including ATP and serotonin. It is now recognized that the cells responding to sweet, bitter, and umami taste stimuli do not possess synapses and instead secrete the neurotransmitter ATP via a novel mechanism not involving conventional vesicular exocytosis. ATP is believed to excite primary sensory afferent fibers that convey gustatory signals to the brain. In contrast, taste cells that do have synapses release serotonin in response to gustatory stimulation. The postsynaptic targets of serotonin have not yet been identified. Finally, ATP secreted from receptor cells also acts on neighboring taste cells to stimulate their release of serotonin. This suggests that there is important information processing and signal coding taking place in the mammalian taste bud after gustatory stimulation. PMID:17468883

  9. Analysis of transduction efficiency, tropism and axonal transport of AAV serotypes 1, 2, 5, 6, 8 and 9 in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschauer, Dominik F; Kreuz, Sebastian; Rumpel, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant Adeno-associated virus vectors (rAAV) are widely used for gene delivery and multiple naturally occurring serotypes have been harnessed to target cells in different tissues and organs including the brain. Here, we provide a detailed and quantitative analysis of the transduction profiles of rAAV vectors based on six of the most commonly used serotypes (AAV1, AAV2, AAV5, AAV6, AAV8, AAV9) that allows systematic comparison and selection of the optimal vector for a specific application. In our studies we observed marked differences among serotypes in the efficiency to transduce three different brain regions namely the striatum, hippocampus and neocortex of the mouse. Despite the fact that the analyzed serotypes have the general ability to transduce all major cell types in the brain (neurons, microglia, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), the expression level of a reporter gene driven from a ubiquitous promoter varies significantly for specific cell type / serotype combinations. For example, rAAV8 is particularly efficient to drive transgene expression in astrocytes while rAAV9 appears well suited for the transduction of cortical neurons. Interestingly, we demonstrate selective retrograde transport of rAAV5 along axons projecting from the ventral part of the entorhinal cortex to the dentate gyrus. Furthermore, we show that self-complementing rAAV can be used to significantly decrease the time required for the onset of transgene expression in the mouse brain.

  10. Analysis of transduction efficiency, tropism and axonal transport of AAV serotypes 1, 2, 5, 6, 8 and 9 in the mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik F Aschauer

    Full Text Available Recombinant Adeno-associated virus vectors (rAAV are widely used for gene delivery and multiple naturally occurring serotypes have been harnessed to target cells in different tissues and organs including the brain. Here, we provide a detailed and quantitative analysis of the transduction profiles of rAAV vectors based on six of the most commonly used serotypes (AAV1, AAV2, AAV5, AAV6, AAV8, AAV9 that allows systematic comparison and selection of the optimal vector for a specific application. In our studies we observed marked differences among serotypes in the efficiency to transduce three different brain regions namely the striatum, hippocampus and neocortex of the mouse. Despite the fact that the analyzed serotypes have the general ability to transduce all major cell types in the brain (neurons, microglia, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, the expression level of a reporter gene driven from a ubiquitous promoter varies significantly for specific cell type / serotype combinations. For example, rAAV8 is particularly efficient to drive transgene expression in astrocytes while rAAV9 appears well suited for the transduction of cortical neurons. Interestingly, we demonstrate selective retrograde transport of rAAV5 along axons projecting from the ventral part of the entorhinal cortex to the dentate gyrus. Furthermore, we show that self-complementing rAAV can be used to significantly decrease the time required for the onset of transgene expression in the mouse brain.

  11. Extended Mixed Vector Equilibrium Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijanur Rahaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study extended mixed vector equilibrium problems, namely, extended weak mixed vector equilibrium problem and extended strong mixed vector equilibrium problem in Hausdorff topological vector spaces. Using generalized KKM-Fan theorem (Ben-El-Mechaiekh et al.; 2005, some existence results for both problems are proved in noncompact domain.

  12. Retrovirus-mediated gene transduction into long-term repopulating marrow cells of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuening, F G; Kawahara, K; Miller, A D; To, R; Goehle, S; Stewart, D; Mullally, K; Fisher, L; Graham, T C; Appelbaum, F R

    1991-11-15

    Amphotropic helper-free retrovirus vectors containing the bacterial neomycin phosphotransferase gene (neo) and the human adenosine deaminase gene (adenosine aminohydrolase, EC 3.5.4.4; ADA) were used to transduce canine marrow cells. In one approach, dogs were treated for 7 days with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor to stimulate hematopoietic cell division. Bone marrow cells were collected and transduced by 24 hours of cocultivation on vector-producing cells followed by incubation in a vector-containing long-term marrow culture system for 4 days. Transduced autologous marrow (0.4 to 1.0 x 10(8) cells/kg) was infused into dogs administered otherwise lethal total body irradiation (TBI) of 920 cGy. Two of four dogs engrafted, and their marrows showed intermittently between 1% and 11% G418-resistant colony-forming unit granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) colonies for up to 2 years after transplantation. In a different experimental approach, autologous marrow, obtained at the time of the PB neutrophil nadir 7 days after a single cyclophosphamide injection (40 mg/kg intravenously), was cocultivated for 24 hours on vector-producing cells and infused at doses of 0.06 to 0.18 x 10(8) cells/kg into dogs administered 920 cGy TBI. One of three dogs engrafted, and the marrow showed intermittently 1% to 10% G418-resistant CFU-GM colonies for at least 2 years. Culture results were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showing the presence of the neo gene in marrow cells, peripheral blood (PB) granulocytes, and PB and lymph node lymphocytes. Dilution experiments indicated that up to 10% of marrow, lymph node, and PB cells contained the neo gene, consistent with the culture results. Samples harboring the neo gene also contained the gene for human ADA. However, repeated analyses of PB and marrow cells for human ADA gene expression by starch gel electrophoresis were negative. PB samples of all dogs were free of helper virus, and no long-term side effects

  13. Heavy metal accumulation and signal transduction in herbaceous and woody plants: Paving the way for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhi-Bin; He, Jiali; Polle, Andrea; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2016-11-01

    Heavy metal (HM)-accumulating herbaceous and woody plants are employed for phytoremediation. To develop improved strategies for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency, knowledge of the microstructural, physiological and molecular responses underlying HM-accumulation is required. Here we review the progress in understanding the structural, physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying HM uptake, transport, sequestration and detoxification, as well as the regulation of these processes by signal transduction in response to HM exposure. The significance of genetic engineering for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency is also discussed. In herbaceous plants, HMs are taken up by roots and transported into the root cells via transmembrane carriers for nutritional ions. The HMs absorbed by root cells can be further translocated to the xylem vessels and unloaded into the xylem sap, thereby reaching the aerial parts of plants. HMs can be sequestered in the cell walls, vacuoles and the Golgi apparatuses. Plant roots initially perceive HM stress and trigger the signal transduction, thereby mediating changes at the molecular, physiological, and microstructural level. Signaling molecules such as phytohormones, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), modulate plant responses to HMs via differentially expressed genes, activation of the antioxidative system and coordinated cross talk among different signaling molecules. A number of genes participated in HM uptake, transport, sequestration and detoxification have been functionally characterized and transformed to target plants for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency. Fast growing woody plants hold an advantage over herbaceous plants for phytoremediation in terms of accumulation of high HM-amounts in their large biomass. Presumably, woody plants accumulate HMs using similar mechanisms as herbaceous counterparts, but the processes of HM accumulation and signal transduction can be more complex in woody plants

  14. Generation of Targeted Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) Vectors for Human Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yarong; Siriwon, Natnaree; Rohrs, Jennifer A; Wang, Pin

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are promising human gene delivery vehicles due to their ability to establish long-term gene expression in a wide variety of target tissues; however, the broad native viral tropism raises concerns over the feasibility and safety of their systemic administration. To overcome this issue, much effort has been made to redirect AAVs toward specific tissues. This review presents several design strategies that have been applied to generate AAVs that target specific tissues and cells while inhibiting the transduction of non-target tissues. Multiple methods of vector capsid engineering have shown promise in vitro, including indirect targeting by adaptor systems and direct targeting by the insertion of antibodies or receptor-specific small peptide motifs. Other strategies, including creating mosaic or chimeric capsids and directed evolution, have also been used to successfully retarget AAV vectors. This research will further expand the clinical applications of AAV vectors by enhancing the control over tissue-specific gene delivery.

  15. Better Targeting, Better Efficiency for Wide-scale Neuronal Transduction with the Synapsin Promoter and AAV-PHP.B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasey L Jackson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Widespread genetic modification of cells in the central nervous system (CNS with a viral vector has become possible and increasingly more efficient. We previously applied an AAV9 vector with the cytomegalovirus/chicken beta-actin hybrid (CBA promoter and achieved wide-scale CNS transduction in neonatal and adult rats. However, this method transduces a variety of tissues in addition to the CNS. Thus we studied intravenous AAV9 gene transfer with a synapsin promoter to better target the neurons. We noted in systematic comparisons that the synapsin promoter drives lower level expression than does the CBA promoter. The engineered AAV-PHP.B serotype was compared with AAV9, and AAV-PHP.B did enhance the efficiency of expression. Combining the synapsin promoter with AAV-PHP.B could therefore be advantageous in terms of combining two refinements of targeting and efficiency. Wide-scale expression was used to model a disease with widespread pathology. Vectors encoding the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS-related protein TDP-43 with the synapsin promoter and AAV-PHP.B were used for efficient CNS-targeted TDP-43 expression. Intracerebroventricular injections were also explored to limit TDP-43 expression to the CNS. The neuron-selective promoter and the AAV-PHP.B enhanced gene transfer and ALS disease modeling in adult rats.

  16. Better Targeting, Better Efficiency for Wide-Scale Neuronal Transduction with the Synapsin Promoter and AAV-PHP.B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kasey L; Dayton, Robert D; Deverman, Benjamin E; Klein, Ronald L

    2016-01-01

    Widespread genetic modification of cells in the central nervous system (CNS) with a viral vector has become possible and increasingly more efficient. We previously applied an AAV9 vector with the cytomegalovirus/chicken beta-actin (CBA) hybrid promoter and achieved wide-scale CNS transduction in neonatal and adult rats. However, this method transduces a variety of tissues in addition to the CNS. Thus we studied intravenous AAV9 gene transfer with a synapsin promoter to better target the neurons. We noted in systematic comparisons that the synapsin promoter drives lower level expression than does the CBA promoter. The engineered adeno-associated virus (AAV)-PHP.B serotype was compared with AAV9, and AAV-PHP.B did enhance the efficiency of expression. Combining the synapsin promoter with AAV-PHP.B could therefore be advantageous in terms of combining two refinements of targeting and efficiency. Wide-scale expression was used to model a disease with widespread pathology. Vectors encoding the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-related protein transactive response DNA-binding protein, 43 kDa (TDP-43) with the synapsin promoter and AAV-PHP.B were used for efficient CNS-targeted TDP-43 expression. Intracerebroventricular injections were also explored to limit TDP-43 expression to the CNS. The neuron-selective promoter and the AAV-PHP.B enhanced gene transfer and ALS disease modeling in adult rats.

  17. Flexible trigger menu implementation on the Global Trigger for the CMS Level-1 trigger upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has continued to explore physics at the high-energy frontier in 2016. The integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2016 was 41~fb$^{-1}$ with a peak luminosity of 1.5 $\\times$ 10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ and peak mean pile-up of about 50, all exceeding the initial estimations for 2016. The CMS experiment has upgraded its hardware-based Level-1 trigger system to maintain its performance for new physics searches and precision measurements at high luminosities. The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS \\mbox{Level-1} trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects from calorimeter and muon triggers, for reducing the 40 MHz collision rate to 100 kHz. The Global Trigger has been upgraded with state-of-the-art FPGA processors on Advanced Mezzanine Cards with optical links running at 10 GHz in a MicroTCA crate. The powerful processing resources of the upgraded system enable implemen...

  18. CRISPR-Cas-Mediated Phage Resistance Enhances Horizontal Gene Transfer by Transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Bridget N J; Staals, Raymond H J; Fineran, Peter C

    2018-02-13

    A powerful contributor to prokaryotic evolution is horizontal gene transfer (HGT) through transformation, conjugation, and transduction, which can be advantageous, neutral, or detrimental to fitness. Bacteria and archaea control HGT and phage infection through CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated proteins) adaptive immunity. Although the benefits of resisting phage infection are evident, this can come at a cost of inhibiting the acquisition of other beneficial genes through HGT. Despite the ability of CRISPR-Cas to limit HGT through conjugation and transformation, its role in transduction is largely overlooked. Transduction is the phage-mediated transfer of bacterial DNA between cells and arguably has the greatest impact on HGT. We demonstrate that in Pectobacterium atrosepticum , CRISPR-Cas can inhibit the transduction of plasmids and chromosomal loci. In addition, we detected phage-mediated transfer of a large plant pathogenicity genomic island and show that CRISPR-Cas can inhibit its transduction. Despite these inhibitory effects of CRISPR-Cas on transduction, its more common role in phage resistance promotes rather than diminishes HGT via transduction by protecting bacteria from phage infection. This protective effect can also increase transduction of phage-sensitive members of mixed populations. CRISPR-Cas systems themselves display evidence of HGT, but little is known about their lateral dissemination between bacteria and whether transduction can contribute. We show that, through transduction, bacteria can acquire an entire chromosomal CRISPR-Cas system, including cas genes and phage-targeting spacers. We propose that the positive effect of CRISPR-Cas phage immunity on enhancing transduction surpasses the rarer cases where gene flow by transduction is restricted. IMPORTANCE The generation of genetic diversity through acquisition of DNA is a powerful contributor to microbial evolution and occurs through

  19. External triggering and triggered targeting strategies for drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfei; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2017-06-01

    Drug delivery systems that are externally triggered to release drugs and/or target tissues hold considerable promise for improving the treatment of many diseases by minimizing nonspecific toxicity and enhancing the efficacy of therapy. These drug delivery systems are constructed from materials that are sensitive to a wide range of external stimuli, including light, ultrasound, electrical and magnetic fields, and specific molecules. The responsiveness conferred by these materials allows the release of therapeutics to be triggered on demand and remotely by a physician or patient. In this Review, we describe the rationales for such systems and the types of stimuli that can be deployed, and provide an outlook for the field.

  20. Trigger processing using reconfigurable logic in the CMS calorimeter trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Brooke, J J; Heath, G P; Maddox, A J; Newbold, D; Rabbetts, P D

    2001-01-01

    We present the design of the Global Calorimeter Trigger processor for the CMS detector at LHC. This is a fully pipelined processor system which collects data from all the CMS calorimeters and produces summary information used in forming the Level-1 trigger decision for each event. The design in based on the use of state-of-the-art reconfigurable logic devices (FPGAs) and fast data links. We present the results of device testing using a low-latency pipelined sort algorithm, which demonstrate that an FPGA can be used to perform processing previously foreseen to require custom ASICs. Our design approach results in a powerful, flexible and compact processor system. (0 refs).

  1. Exploring transduction mechanisms of protein transduction domains (PTDs) in living cells utilizing single-quantum dot tracking (SQT) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Specific protein domains known as protein transduction domains (PTDs) can permeate cell membranes and deliver proteins or bioactive materials into living cells. Various approaches have been applied for improving their transduction efficacy. It is, therefore, crucial to clarify the entry mechanisms and to identify the rate-limiting steps. Because of technical limitations for imaging PTD behavior on cells with conventional fluorescent-dyes, how PTDs enter the cells has been a topic of much debate. Utilizing quantum dots (QDs), we recently tracked the behavior of PTD that was derived from HIV-1 Tat (TatP) in living cells at the single-molecule level with 7-nm special precision. In this review article, we initially summarize the controversy on TatP entry mechanisms; thereafter, we will focus on our recent findings on single-TatP-QD tracking (SQT), to identify the major sequential steps of intracellular delivery in living cells and to discuss how SQT can easily provide direct information on TatP entry mechanisms. As a primer for SQT study, we also discuss the latest findings on single particle tracking of various molecules on the plasma membrane. Finally, we discuss the problems of QDs and the challenges for the future in utilizing currently available QD probes for SQT. In conclusion, direct identification of the rate-limiting steps of PTD entry with SQT should dramatically improve the methods for enhancing transduction efficiency.

  2. Exploring Transduction Mechanisms of Protein Transduction Domains (PTDs in Living Cells Utilizing Single-Quantum Dot Tracking (SQT Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Suzuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific protein domains known as protein transduction domains (PTDs can permeate cell membranes and deliver proteins or bioactive materials into living cells. Various approaches have been applied for improving their transduction efficacy. It is, therefore, crucial to clarify the entry mechanisms and to identify the rate-limiting steps. Because of technical limitations for imaging PTD behavior on cells with conventional fluorescent-dyes, how PTDs enter the cells has been a topic of much debate. Utilizing quantum dots (QDs, we recently tracked the behavior of PTD that was derived from HIV-1 Tat (TatP in living cells at the single-molecule level with 7-nm special precision. In this review article, we initially summarize the controversy on TatP entry mechanisms; thereafter, we will focus on our recent findings on single-TatP-QD tracking (SQT, to identify the major sequential steps of intracellular delivery in living cells and to discuss how SQT can easily provide direct information on TatP entry mechanisms. As a primer for SQT study, we also discuss the latest findings on single particle tracking of various molecules on the plasma membrane. Finally, we discuss the problems of QDs and the challenges for the future in utilizing currently available QD probes for SQT. In conclusion, direct identification of the rate-limiting steps of PTD entry with SQT should dramatically improve the methods for enhancing transduction efficiency.

  3. Muscle-directed gene therapy for hemophilia B with more efficient and less immunogenic AAV vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Louboutin, J-P; Bell, P; Greig, J A; Li, Y; Wu, D; Wilson, J M

    2011-10-01

    Adeno-associated viral vector (AAV)-mediated and muscle-directed gene therapy is a safe and non-invasive approach to treatment of hemophilia B and other genetic diseases. However, low efficiency of transduction, inhibitor formation and high prevalence of pre-existing immunity to the AAV capsid in humans remain as main challenges for AAV2-based vectors using this strategy. Vectors packaged with AAV7, 8 and 9 serotypes have improved gene transfer efficiencies and may provide potential alternatives to overcome these problems. To compare the long-term expression of canine factor IX (cFIX) levels and anti-cFIX antibody responses following intramuscular injection of vectors packaged with AAV1, 2, 5, 7, 8 and 9 capsid in immunocompetent hemophilia B mice. Highest expression was detected in mice injected with AAV2/8 vector (28% of normal), followed by AAV2/9 (15%) and AAV2/7 (10%). cFIX expression by AAV2/1 only ranged from 0 to 5% of normal levels. High incidences of anti-cFIX inhibitor (IgG) were detected in mice injected with AAV2 and 2/5 vectors, followed by AAV2/1. None of the mice treated with AAV2/7, 2/8 and 2/9 developed inhibitors or capsid T cells. AAV7, 8 and 9 are more efficient and safer vectors for muscle-directed gene therapy with high levels of transgene expression and absence of inhibitor formation. The absence of antibody response to transgene by AAV7, 8 and 9 is independent of vector dose but may be due to the fact that these three serotypes are associated with high level distribution to, and transduction of, hepatocytes following i.m. injection. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  4. In Vivo AAV1 Transduction With hRheb(S16H) Protects Hippocampal Neurons by BDNF Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Min-Tae; Nam, Jin Han; Shin, Won-Ho; Leem, Eunju; Jeong, Kyoung Hoon; Jung, Un Ju; Bae, Young-Seuk; Jin, Young-Ho; Kholodilov, Nikolai; Burke, Robert E; Lee, Seok-Geun; Jin, Byung Kwan; Kim, Sang Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) is dysregulated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. However, it is still unclear whether Rheb activation contributes to the survival and protection of hippocampal neurons in the adult brain. To assess the effects of active Rheb in hippocampal neurons in vivo, we transfected neurons in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region in normal adult rats with an adeno-associated virus containing the constitutively active human Rheb (hRheb(S16H)) and evaluated the effects on thrombin-induced neurotoxicity. Transduction with hRheb(S16H) significantly induced neurotrophic effects in hippocampal neurons through activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) without side effects such as long-term potentiation impairment and seizures from the alteration of cytoarchitecture, and the expression of hRheb(S16H) prevented thrombin-induced neurodegeneration in vivo, an effect that was diminished by treatment with specific neutralizing antibodies against brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In addition, our results showed that the basal mTORC1 activity might be insufficient to mediate the level of BDNF expression, but hRheb(S16H)-activated mTORC1 stimulated BDNF production in hippocampal neurons. These results suggest that viral vector transduction with hRheb(S16H) may have therapeutic value in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. PMID:25502903

  5. In vivo AAV1 transduction with hRheb(S16H) protects hippocampal neurons by BDNF production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Min-Tae; Nam, Jin Han; Shin, Won-Ho; Leem, Eunju; Jeong, Kyoung Hoon; Jung, Un Ju; Bae, Young-Seuk; Jin, Young-Ho; Kholodilov, Nikolai; Burke, Robert E; Lee, Seok-Geun; Jin, Byung Kwan; Kim, Sang Ryong

    2015-03-01

    Recent evidence has shown that Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) is dysregulated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. However, it is still unclear whether Rheb activation contributes to the survival and protection of hippocampal neurons in the adult brain. To assess the effects of active Rheb in hippocampal neurons in vivo, we transfected neurons in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region in normal adult rats with an adeno-associated virus containing the constitutively active human Rheb (hRheb(S16H)) and evaluated the effects on thrombin-induced neurotoxicity. Transduction with hRheb(S16H) significantly induced neurotrophic effects in hippocampal neurons through activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) without side effects such as long-term potentiation impairment and seizures from the alteration of cytoarchitecture, and the expression of hRheb(S16H) prevented thrombin-induced neurodegeneration in vivo, an effect that was diminished by treatment with specific neutralizing antibodies against brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In addition, our results showed that the basal mTORC1 activity might be insufficient to mediate the level of BDNF expression, but hRheb(S16H)-activated mTORC1 stimulated BDNF production in hippocampal neurons. These results suggest that viral vector transduction with hRheb(S16H) may have therapeutic value in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD.

  6. Viral Vectors for Gene Therapy: Translational and Clinical Outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotterman, Melissa A; Chalberg, Thomas W; Schaffer, David V

    2015-01-01

    In a range of human trials, viral vectors have emerged as safe and effective delivery vehicles for clinical gene therapy, particularly for monogenic recessive disorders, but there has also been early work on some idiopathic diseases. These successes have been enabled by research and development efforts focusing on vectors that combine low genotoxicity and immunogenicity with highly efficient delivery, including vehicles based on adeno-associated virus and lentivirus, which are increasingly enabling clinical success. However, numerous delivery challenges must be overcome to extend this success to many diseases; these challenges include developing techniques to evade preexisting immunity, to ensure more efficient transduction of therapeutically relevant cell types, to target delivery, and to ensure genomic maintenance. Fortunately, vector-engineering efforts are demonstrating promise in the development of next-generation gene therapy vectors that can overcome these barriers. This review highlights key historical trends in clinical gene therapy, the recent clinical successes of viral-based gene therapy, and current research that may enable future clinical application.

  7. Bunyavirus-Vector Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate McElroy Horne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the Hantavirus, Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Tospovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. The viruses within the Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods, such as mosquitoes, midges, flies, and ticks, and their associated arthropods not only serve as vectors but also as virus reservoirs in many cases. This review presents an overview of several important emerging or re-emerging bunyaviruses and describes what is known about bunyavirus-vector interactions based on epidemiological, ultrastructural, and genetic studies of members of this virus family.

  8. Free topological vector spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriyelyan, Saak S.; Morris, Sidney A.

    2016-01-01

    We define and study the free topological vector space $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ over a Tychonoff space $X$. We prove that $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is a $k_\\omega$-space if and only if $X$ is a $k_\\omega$-space. If $X$ is infinite, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ contains a closed vector subspace which is topologically isomorphic to $\\mathbb{V}(\\mathbb{N})$. It is proved that if $X$ is a $k$-space, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is locally convex if and only if $X$ is discrete and countable. If $X$ is a metrizable space it is shown ...

  9. Matrix vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenman, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    This outstanding text and reference applies matrix ideas to vector methods, using physical ideas to illustrate and motivate mathematical concepts but employing a mathematical continuity of development rather than a physical approach. The author, who taught at the U.S. Air Force Academy, dispenses with the artificial barrier between vectors and matrices--and more generally, between pure and applied mathematics.Motivated examples introduce each idea, with interpretations of physical, algebraic, and geometric contexts, in addition to generalizations to theorems that reflect the essential structur

  10. Scalar-vector bootstrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejon-Barrera, Fernando [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam,Science Park 904, Postbus 94485, 1090 GL, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Robbins, Daniel [Department of Physics, Texas A& M University,TAMU 4242, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2016-01-22

    We work out all of the details required for implementation of the conformal bootstrap program applied to the four-point function of two scalars and two vectors in an abstract conformal field theory in arbitrary dimension. This includes a review of which tensor structures make appearances, a construction of the projectors onto the required mixed symmetry representations, and a computation of the conformal blocks for all possible operators which can be exchanged. These blocks are presented as differential operators acting upon the previously known scalar conformal blocks. Finally, we set up the bootstrap equations which implement crossing symmetry. Special attention is given to the case of conserved vectors, where several simplifications occur.

  11. Multithreading in vector processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelinos, Constantinos; Kim, Changhoan; Nair, Ravi

    2018-01-16

    In one embodiment, a system includes a processor having a vector processing mode and a multithreading mode. The processor is configured to operate on one thread per cycle in the multithreading mode. The processor includes a program counter register having a plurality of program counters, and the program counter register is vectorized. Each program counter in the program counter register represents a distinct corresponding thread of a plurality of threads. The processor is configured to execute the plurality of threads by activating the plurality of program counters in a round robin cycle.

  12. Widespread dispersion of adeno-associated virus serotype 1 and adeno-associated virus serotype 6 vectors in the rat central nervous system and in human glioblastoma multiforme xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszthy, Peter C; Svendsen, Agnete; Wilson, James M; Kotin, Robert M; Lønning, Per Eystein; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Hoover, Frank

    2005-03-01

    The transduction patterns of recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (AAV1) and serotype 6 (AAV6) vectors were assessed in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines, in human GBM biopsy spheroids, and in tumor xenografts growing in nude rat brains. All the cell lines tested (A172, D37, GaMg, HF66, and U373Mg) were found to be permissive to both AAV1 and AAV6 vectors, and thus displayed a transduction pattern similar to AAV2 vectors. For every cell line tested, the transduction efficiency displayed by AAV2 vectors was better than by isogenic and isopromoter AAV1 vectors. Transduction efficiency was dependent on the viral particle number used, suggesting that the receptors for these vectors are widely distributed in GBM tissues. Interestingly, AAV1, AAV2, and AAV6 vectors were able to infect and transduce the same cells when added simultaneously to monolayer cultures. Infection of human GBM biopsy spheroids with AAV1 and AAV6 vectors resulted in transgene expression both at the surface layers and in the core of the spheroids. Following injection of AAV1 and AAV6 vectors into human GBM biopsy xenografts growing in nude rat brains, reporter gene expression was seen both in the periphery as well as in the central regions of the tumors. When injected into the normal rat brain, both AAV1 and AAV6 vectors were found to transduce several central nervous system (CNS) regions. The presented results suggest a potential therapeutic role for AAV1 and AAV6 vectors in gene therapy for GBM and also for other CNS malignancies.

  13. A survey of ex vivo/in vitro transduction efficiency of mammalian primary cells and cell lines with Nine natural adeno-associated virus (AAV1-9) and one engineered adeno-associated virus serotype

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Brian L.; Hirsch, Matthew L.; Barker, Jenny C.; Connelly, Jon P; Steininger, Robert J; Matthew H Porteus

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability to deliver a gene of interest into a specific cell type is an essential aspect of biomedical research. Viruses can be a useful tool for this delivery, particularly in difficult to transfect cell types. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a useful gene transfer vector because of its ability to mediate efficient gene transduction in numerous dividing and quiescent cell types, without inducing any known pathogenicity. There are now a number of natural for that designed AAV ser...

  14. Ray tracing study of rising tone EMIC-triggered emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzelka, Miroslav; Santolík, Ondřej; Grison, Benjamin; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    ElectroMagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) triggered emissions have been subject of extensive theoretical and experimental research in last years. These emissions are characterized by high coherence values and a frequency range of 0.5 - 2.0 Hz, close to local helium gyrofrequency. We perform ray tracing case studies of rising tone EMIC-triggered emissions observed by the Cluster spacecraft in both nightside and dayside regions off the equatorial plane. By comparison of simulated and measured wave properties, namely wave vector orientation, group velocity, dispersion and ellipticity of polarization, we determine possible source locations. Diffusive equilibrium density model and other, semi-empirical models are used with ion composition inferred from cross-over frequencies. Ray tracing simulations are done in cold plasma approximation with inclusion of Landau and cyclotron damping. Various widths, locations and profiles of plasmapause are tested.

  15. A trigger processor for ARGUS

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, H D

    1981-01-01

    The ARGUS detector at the electron-positron storage ring DORIS consists of various particle detectors arranged in cylindrical symmetry in and around an axial magnetic field. A fast secondary trigger processor has been designed to find and count circular tracks in the r- phi -plane of the detector that originate from the interaction point. The processor serves as a filter in the trigger system of the ARGUS detector and is expected to reduce the rate of background triggers by two orders of magnitude. The processor hardware is built in ECL to perform simple operations with very high speed and partly in parallel. The track finding process takes about 9 mu s plus 3 mu s for each encountered track element. Control information is stored in memories that may be loaded via CAMAC from the online computer allowing easy adaption of the processor to different experimental conditions. (1 refs).

  16. Suppression of leaky expression of adenovirus genes by insertion of microRNA-targeted sequences in the replication-incompetent adenovirus vector genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahori Shimizu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaky expression of adenovirus (Ad genes occurs following transduction with a conventional replication-incompetent Ad vector, leading to an induction of cellular immunity against Ad proteins and Ad protein-induced toxicity, especially in the late phase following administration. To suppress the leaky expression of Ad genes, we developed novel Ad vectors by incorporating four tandem copies of sequences with perfect complementarity to miR-122a or miR-142-3p into the 3′-untranslated region (UTR of the E2A, E4, or pIX gene, which were mainly expressed from the Ad vector genome after transduction. These Ad vectors easily grew to high titers comparable to those of a conventional Ad vector in conventional 293 cells. The leaky expression of these Ad genes in mouse organs was significantly suppressed by 2- to 100-fold, compared with a conventional Ad vector, by insertion of the miRNA-targeted sequences. Notably, the Ad vector carrying the miR-122a–targeted sequences into the 3′-UTR of the E4 gene expressed higher and longer-term transgene expression and more than 20-fold lower levels of all the Ad early and late genes examined in the liver than a conventional Ad vector. miR-122a–mediated suppression of the E4 gene expression in the liver significantly reduced the hepatotoxicity which an Ad vector causes via both adaptive and non-adaptive immune responses.

  17. Optimization of Critical Hairpin Features Allows miRNA-based Gene Knockdown Upon Single-copy Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renier Myburgh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene knockdown using micro RNA (miRNA-based vector constructs is likely to become a prominent gene therapy approach. It was the aim of this study to improve the efficiency of gene knockdown through optimizing the structure of miRNA mimics. Knockdown of two target genes was analyzed: CCR5 and green fluorescent protein. We describe here a novel and optimized miRNA mimic design called mirGE comprising a lower stem length of 13 base pairs (bp, positioning of the targeting strand on the 5′ side of the miRNA, together with nucleotide mismatches in upper stem positions 1 and 12 placed on the passenger strand. Our mirGE proved superior to miR-30 in four aspects: yield of targeting strand incorporation into RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC; incorporation into RISC of correct targeting strand; precision of cleavage by Drosha; and ratio of targeting strand over passenger strand. A triple mirGE hairpin cassette targeting CCR5 was constructed. It allowed CCR5 knockdown with an efficiency of over 90% upon single-copy transduction. Importantly, single-copy expression of this construct rendered transduced target cells, including primary human macrophages, resistant to infection with a CCR5-tropic strain of HIV. Our results provide new insights for a better knockdown efficiency of constructs containing miRNA. Our results also provide the proof-of-principle that cells can be rendered HIV resistant through single-copy vector transduction, rendering this approach more compatible with clinical applications.

  18. Upgrade trigger: Bandwidth strategy proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Conor; Meloni, Simone; Boettcher, Thomas Julian; Whitehead, Mark Peter; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Vesterinen, Mika Anton

    2017-01-01

    This document describes a selection strategy for the upgrade trigger using charm signals as a benchmark. The Upgrade trigger uses a 'Run 2-like' sequence consisting of a first and second stage, in between which the calibration and alignment is performed. The first stage, HLT1, uses an inclusive strategy to select beauty and charm decays, while the second stage uses offline-quality exclusive selections. A novel genetic algorithm-based bandwidth division is performed at the second stage to distribute the output bandwidth among different physics channels, maximising the efficiency for useful physics events. The performance is then studied as a function of the available output bandwidth.

  19. ATLAS FTK Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Iizawa, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Fast TracKer (FTK) will perform global track reconstruction after each Level-1 trigger accept signal to enable the software-based higher level trigger to have early access to tracking information. FTK is a dedicated processor based on a mixture of advanced technologies. Modern, powerful Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) form an important part of the system architecture, and the large level of computing power required for pattern recognition is provided by incorporating standard-cell ASICs named Associative Memory (AM). Motivation and the architecture of the FTK system will be presented, and the status of hardware and simulation will be following.

  20. LHCb Run 2 Trigger Performance

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00038235

    2016-01-01

    During the first long shutdown of the LHC (2013-2014, LS1), the LHCb detector remained essentially unchanged, while the trigger system has been completely revisited. Upgrades to the LHCb computing infrastructure have allowed for high quality decay information to be calculated by the software trigger making a separate offline event reconstruction unnecessary. Reaching the ultimate precision of the LHCb experiment already in real time as the data arrive has the power to transform the experimental approach to processing large quantities of data

  1. Delivering Transgenic DNA Exceeding the Carrying Capacity of AAV Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Matthew L; Wolf, Sonya J; Samulski, R J

    2016-01-01

    Gene delivery using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) has emerged to the forefront demonstrating safe and effective phenotypic correction of diverse diseases including hemophilia B and Leber's congenital amaurosis. In addition to rAAV's high efficiency of transduction and the capacity for long-term transgene expression, the safety profile of rAAV remains unsoiled in humans with no deleterious vector-related consequences observed thus far. Despite these favorable attributes, rAAV vectors have a major disadvantage preventing widespread therapeutic applications; as the AAV capsid is the smallest described to date, it cannot package "large" genomes. Currently, the packaging capacity of rAAV has yet to be definitively defined but is approximately 5 kb, which has served as a limitation for large gene transfer. There are two main approaches that have been developed to overcome this limitation, split AAV vectors, and fragment AAV (fAAV) genome reassembly (Hirsch et al., Mol Ther 18(1):6-8, 2010). Split rAAV vector applications were developed based upon the finding that rAAV genomes naturally concatemerize in the cell post-transduction and are substrates for enhanced homologous recombination (HR) (Hirsch et al., Mol Ther 18(1):6-8, 2010; Duan et al., J Virol 73(1):161-169, 1999; Duan et al., J Virol 72(11):8568-8577, 1998; Duan et al., Mol Ther 4(4):383-391, 2001; Halbert et al., Nat Biotechnol 20(7):697-701, 2002). This method involves "splitting" the large transgene into two separate vectors and upon co-transduction, intracellular large gene reconstruction via vector genome concatemerization occurs via HR or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). Within the split rAAV approaches there currently exist three strategies: overlapping, trans-splicing, and hybrid trans-splicing (Duan et al., Mol Ther 4(4):383-391, 2001; Halbert et al., Nat Biotechnol 20(7):697-701, 2002; Ghosh et al., Mol Ther 16(1):124-130, 2008; Ghosh et al., Mol Ther 15(4):750-755, 2007). The other major

  2. DT Local Trigger performance in 2015

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Local Trigger system of the CMS Drift Tube chambers (DT) was checked applying similar methods as in the LHC Run 1 (2012). The main variables shown in this note are the trigger efficiency, the trigger quality and the fraction of trigger ghosts. The performance was found to be comparable or better than in Run 1.

  3. Support Vector Components Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ree, Michiel; Roerdink, Johannes; Phillips, Christophe; Garraux, Gaetan; Salmon, Eric; Wiering, Marco

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel method for learning a distance metric in the process of training Support Vector Machines (SVMs) with the radial basis function kernel. A transformation matrix is adapted in such a way that the SVM dual objective of a classification problem is optimized. By using a

  4. Sesquilinear uniform vector integral

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Bucharest, Bucharest,. Academiei Str., 14, 010014, Romania. 2Technical University of Civil ... an integral of scalar functions with respect to vector measures, Dunford and his school introduced the spectral operators, thus founding the present operator theory (see ...

  5. Orthogonalisation of Vectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 3. Orthogonalisation of Vectors - Matrix Decomposition and Approximation Problems. Rajendra Bhatia. General Article Volume 5 ... Author Affiliations. Rajendra Bhatia1. Indian Statistical Institute 7, SJS Sansanwal Marg, New Delhi 110 016, India.

  6. Calculus with vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Treiman, Jay S

    2014-01-01

    Calculus with Vectors grew out of a strong need for a beginning calculus textbook for undergraduates who intend to pursue careers in STEM. fields. The approach introduces vector-valued functions from the start, emphasizing the connections between one-variable and multi-variable calculus. The text includes early vectors and early transcendentals and includes a rigorous but informal approach to vectors. Examples and focused applications are well presented along with an abundance of motivating exercises. All three-dimensional graphs have rotatable versions included as extra source materials and may be freely downloaded and manipulated with Maple Player; a free Maple Player App is available for the iPad on iTunes. The approaches taken to topics such as the derivation of the derivatives of sine and cosine, the approach to limits, and the use of "tables" of integration have been modified from the standards seen in other textbooks in order to maximize the ease with which students may comprehend the material. Additio...

  7. Vector-borne Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-18

    This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods.  Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2011.

  8. Packaging HIV- or FIV-based lentivector expression constructs and transduction of VSV-G pseudotyped viral particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Amy; Lesnik, Jacob; Mukherjee, Chandreyee; Antes, Travis; Sengupta, Ranjita

    2012-04-08

    As with standard plasmid vectors, it is possible to transfect lentivectors in plasmid form into cells with low-to-medium efficiency to obtain transient expression of effectors. Packaging lentiviral expression constructs into pseudoviral particles, however, enables up to 100% transduction, even with difficult-to-transfect cells, such as primary, stem, and differentiated cells. Moreover, the lentiviral delivery does not produce the specific cellular responses typically associated with chemical transfections, such as cell death resulting from toxicity of the transfection reagent. When transduced into target cells, the lentiviral construct integrates into genomic DNA and provides stable expression of the small hairpin RNA (shRNA), cDNA, microRNA or reporter gene. Target cells stably expressing the effector molecule can be isolated using a selectable marker contained in the expression vector construct such as puromycin or GFP. After pseudoviral particles infect target cells, they cannot replicate within target cells because the viral structural genes are absent and the long terminal repeats (LTRs) are designed to be self-inactivating upon transduction. There are three main components necessary for efficient lentiviral packaging. 1. The lentiviral expression vector that contains some of the genetic elements required for packaging, stable integration of the viral expression construct into genomic DNA, and expression of the effector or reporter. 2. The lentiviral packaging plasmids that provide the proteins essential for transcription and packaging of an RNA copy of the expression construct into recombinant pseudoviral particles. This protocol uses the pPACK plasmids (SBI) that encode for gag, pol, and rev from the HIV or FIV genome and Vesicular Stomatitis Virus g protein (VSV-G) for the viral coat protein. 3. 293TN producer cells (derived from HEK293 cells) that express the SV40 large T antigen, which is required for high-titer lentiviral production and a neomycin

  9. Human adipose derived mesenchymal stromal cells transduced with GFP lentiviral vectors: assessment of immunophenotype and differentiation capacity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vollenstee, Fiona A; Jackson, Carlo; Hoffmann, Danie; Potgieter, Marnie; Durandt, Chrisna; Pepper, Michael S

    2016-10-01

    Adipose derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (ASCs) are a heterogeneous population characterized by (a) their ability to adhere to plastic; (b) immunophenotypic expression of certain cell surface markers, while lacking others; and (c) the capacity to differentiate into lineages of mesodermal origin including osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. The long-term goal is to utilize these cells for clinical translation into cell-based therapies. However, preclinical safety and efficacy need to be demonstrated in animal models. ASCs can also be utilized as biological vehicles for vector-based gene delivery systems, since they are believed to home to sites of inflammation and infection in vivo. These factors motivated the development of a labelling system for ASCs using lentiviral vector-based green fluorescent protein (GFP) transduction. Human ASCs were transduced with GFP-expressing lentiviral vectors. A titration study determined the viral titer required to transduce the maximum number of ASCs. The effect of the transduced GFP lentiviral vector on ASC immunophenotypic expression of surface markers as well as their ability to differentiate into osteocytes and adipocytes were assessed in vitro. A transduction efficiency in ASC cultures of approximately 80 % was observed with an MOI of ~118. No significant immunophenotypic differences were observed between transduced and non-transduced cells and both cell types successfully differentiated into adipocytes and osteocytes in vitro. We obtained >80 % transduction of ASCs using GFP lentiviral vectors. Transduced ASCs maintained plastic adherence, demonstrated ASC immunophenotype and the ability to differentiate into cells of the mesodermal lineage. This GFP-ASC transduction technique offers a potential tracking system for future pre-clinical studies.

  10. Novel random peptide libraries displayed on AAV serotype 9 for selection of endothelial cell-directed gene transfer vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadi, K; Michelfelder, S; Korff, T; Hecker, M; Trepel, M; Katus, H A; Kleinschmidt, J A; Müller, O J

    2012-08-01

    We have demonstrated the potential of random peptide libraries displayed on adeno-associated virus (AAV)2 to select for AAV2 vectors with improved efficiency for cell type-directed gene transfer. AAV9, however, may have advantages over AAV2 because of a lower prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in humans and more efficient gene transfer in vivo. Here we provide evidence that random peptide libraries can be displayed on AAV9 and can be utilized to select for AAV9 capsids redirected to the cell type of interest. We generated an AAV9 peptide display library, which ensures that the displayed peptides correspond to the packaged genomes and performed four consecutive selection rounds on human coronary artery endothelial cells in vitro. This screening yielded AAV9 library capsids with distinct peptide motifs enabling up to 40-fold improved transduction efficiencies compared with wild-type (wt) AAV9 vectors. Incorporating sequences selected from AAV9 libraries into AAV2 capsids could not increase transduction as efficiently as in the AAV9 context. To analyze the potential on endothelial cells in the intact natural vascular context, human umbilical veins were incubated with the selected AAV in situ and endothelial cells were isolated. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed a 200-fold improved transduction efficiency compared with wt AAV9 vectors. Furthermore, AAV9 vectors with targeting sequences selected from AAV9 libraries revealed an increased transduction efficiency in the presence of human intravenous immunoglobulins, suggesting a reduced immunogenicity. We conclude that our novel AAV9 peptide library is functional and can be used to select for vectors for future preclinical and clinical gene transfer applications.

  11. Umami taste in mice uses multiple receptors and transduction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumatsu, Keiko; Ogiwara, Yoko; Takai, Shingo; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Iwatsuki, Ken; Torii, Kunio; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2012-03-01

    The distinctive umami taste elicited by l-glutamate and some other amino acids is thought to be initiated by G-protein-coupled receptors. Proposed umami receptors include heteromers of taste receptor type 1, members 1 and 3 (T1R1+T1R3), and metabotropic glutamate receptors 1 and 4 (mGluR1 and mGluR4). Multiple lines of evidence support the involvement of T1R1+T1R3 in umami responses of mice. Although several studies suggest the involvement of receptors other than T1R1+T1R3 in umami, the identity of those receptors remains unclear. Here, we examined taste responsiveness of umami-sensitive chorda tympani nerve fibres from wild-type mice and mice genetically lacking T1R3 or its downstream transduction molecule, the ion channel TRPM5. Our results indicate that single umami-sensitive fibres in wild-type mice fall into two major groups: sucrose-best (S-type) and monopotassium glutamate (MPG)-best (M-type). Each fibre type has two subtypes; one shows synergism between MPG and inosine monophosphate (S1, M1) and the other shows no synergism (S2, M2). In both T1R3 and TRPM5 null mice, S1-type fibres were absent, whereas S2-, M1- and M2-types remained. Lingual application of mGluR antagonists selectively suppressed MPG responses of M1- and M2-type fibres. These data suggest the existence of multiple receptors and transduction pathways for umami responses in mice. Information initiated from T1R3-containing receptors may be mediated by a transduction pathway including TRPM5 and conveyed by sweet-best fibres, whereas umami information from mGluRs may be mediated by TRPM5-independent pathway(s) and conveyed by glutamate-best fibres.

  12. Therapeutic liabilities of in vivo viral vector tropism: adeno-associated virus vectors, NMDAR1 antisense, and focal seizure sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Rebecca; Criswell, Hugh; Snowdy, Stephen; Ming, Zhen; Breese, George; Samulski, R; McCown, Thomas

    2002-10-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor provides a potential target for gene therapy of focal seizure disorders. To test this approach, we cloned a 729-bp NMDA receptor (NMDAR1) cDNA fragment in the antisense orientation into adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors, where expression was driven by either a tetracycline-off regulatable promoter (AAV-tTAK-NR1A) or a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter (AAV-CMV-NR1A). After infection of primary cultured cortical neurons with recombinant AAV-tTAK-NR1A, patch clamp studies found a significant decrease in maximal NMDA-evoked currents, indicative of a decrease in the number of NMDA receptors. Similarly, infusion of AAV-tTAK-NR1A (1 microl) into the rat temporal cortex significantly decreased NMDAR1-like immunoreactivity in layer V pyramidal cells. When AAV-tTAK-NR1A vectors were infused into the seizure-sensitive site of the rat inferior collicular cortex, the seizure sensitivity increased significantly over a period of 4 weeks. However, collicular infusion of AAV-CMV-NR1A vectors caused the opposite effect, a significant decrease in seizure sensitivity. Subsequent collicular coinfusion of vector encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the tetracyclineoff promoter (AAV-tTAK-GFP) and vector encoding beta-galactosidase driven by the CMV promoter (AAV-CMV-LacZ) transduced distinct neuronal populations with only partial overlap. Thus, differing transduction ratios of inhibitory interneurons to primary output neurons likely account for the divergent seizure influences. Although AAV vector-derived NMDAR1 antisense can influence NMDA receptor function both in vitro and in vivo, promoter-related tropic differences dramatically alter the physiological outcome of this receptor-based gene therapy.

  13. Highly Efficient Delivery of Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors to the Primate Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boye, Shannon E; Alexander, John J; Witherspoon, C Douglas; Boye, Sanford L; Peterson, James J; Clark, Mark E; Sandefer, Kristen J; Girkin, Chris A; Hauswirth, William W; Gamlin, Paul D

    2016-08-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has emerged as the preferred vector for targeting gene expression to the retina. Subretinally injected AAV can efficiently transduce retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptors in primate retina. Inner and middle primate retina can be transduced by intravitreally delivered AAV, but with low efficiency. This is due to dilution of vector, potential neutralization of capsid because it is not confined to the immune-privileged retinal compartment, and the presence of the inner limiting membrane (ILM), a barrier separating the vitreous from the neural retina. We here describe a novel "subILM" injection method that addresses all three issues. Specifically, vector is placed in a surgically induced, hydrodissected space between the ILM and neural retina. In an initial experiment, we injected viscoelastic (Healon(®)), a substance we confirmed was biocompatible with AAV, to create a subILM bleb and subsequently injected AAV2-GFP into the bleb after irrigation with basic salt solution. For later experiments, we used a Healon-AAV mixture to place single, subILM injections. In all cases, subILM delivery of AAV was well tolerated-no inflammation or gross structural changes were observed by ophthalmological examination or optical coherence tomography. In-life fluorescence imaging revealed profound transgene expression within the area of the subILM injection bleb that persisted for the study duration. Uniform and extensive transduction of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) was achieved in the areas beneath the subILM bleb. Transduction of Müller glia, ON bipolar cells, and photoreceptors was also observed. Robust central labeling from green fluorescent protein-expressing RGCs confirmed their continued survival, and was observed in the lateral geniculate nucleus, the superior colliculus, and the pretectum. Our results confirm that the ILM is a major barrier to transduction by AAV in primate retina and that, when it is circumvented, the efficiency and

  14. Towards blueprints for network architecture, biophysical dynamics and signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, Stephen; Doiron, Brent; Josić, Kresimir; Shea-Brown, Eric

    2006-12-15

    We review mathematical aspects of biophysical dynamics, signal transduction and network architecture that have been used to uncover functionally significant relations between the dynamics of single neurons and the networks they compose. We focus on examples that combine insights from these three areas to expand our understanding of systems neuroscience. These range from single neuron coding to models of decision making and electrosensory discrimination by networks and populations and also coincidence detection in pairs of dendrites and dynamics of large networks of excitable dendritic spines. We conclude by describing some of the challenges that lie ahead as the applied mathematics community seeks to provide the tools which will ultimately underpin systems neuroscience.

  15. Deciphering Parameter Sensitivity in the BvgAS Signal Transduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarunendu Mapder

    Full Text Available To understand the switching of different phenotypic phases of Bordetella pertussis, we propose an optimized mathematical framework for signal transduction through BvgAS two-component system. The response of the network output to the sensory input has been demonstrated in steady state. An analysis in terms of local sensitivity amplification characterizes the nature of the molecular switch. The sensitivity analysis of the model parameters within the framework of various correlation coefficients helps to decipher the contribution of the modular structure in signal propagation. Once classified, the model parameters are tuned to generate the behavior of some novel strains using simulated annealing, a stochastic optimization technique.

  16. Transduction of DNA information through water and electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnier, Luc; Del Giudice, Emilio; Aïssa, Jamal; Lavallee, Claude; Motschwiller, Steven; Capolupo, Antonio; Polcari, Albino; Romano, Paola; Tedeschi, Alberto; Vitiello, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The experimental conditions by which electromagnetic signals (EMS) of low frequency can be emitted by diluted aqueous solutions of some bacterial and viral DNAs are described. That the recorded EMS and nanostructures induced in water carry the DNA information (sequence) is shown by retrieval of that same DNA by classical PCR amplification using the TAQ polymerase, including both primers and nucleotides. Moreover, such a transduction process has also been observed in living human cells exposed to EMS irradiation. These experiments suggest that coherent long-range molecular interaction must be present in water to observe the above-mentioned features. The quantum field theory analysis of the phenomenon is presented in this article.

  17. Modeling evolution of crosstalk in noisy signal transduction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareen, Ammar; Wingreen, Ned S.; Mukhopadhyay, Ranjan

    2018-02-01

    Signal transduction networks can form highly interconnected systems within cells due to crosstalk between constituent pathways. To better understand the evolutionary design principles underlying such networks, we study the evolution of crosstalk for two parallel signaling pathways that arise via gene duplication. We use a sequence-based evolutionary algorithm and evolve the network based on two physically motivated fitness functions related to information transmission. We find that one fitness function leads to a high degree of crosstalk while the other leads to pathway specificity. Our results offer insights on the relationship between network architecture and information transmission for noisy biomolecular networks.

  18. Signal transduction by a nondissociable heterotrimeric yeast G protein

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Shoshana; Reuveni, Hadas; Levitzki, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    Many signal transduction pathways involve heterotrimeric G proteins. The accepted model for activation of heterotrimeric G proteins states that the protein dissociates to the free Gα (GTP)-bound subunit and free Gβγ dimer. On GTP hydrolysis, Gα (GDP) then reassociates with Gβγ [Gilman, A. G. (1987) Annu. Rev. Biochem. 56, 615–649]. We reexamined this hypothesis, by using the mating G protein of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encoded by the genes GPA1, STE4, and STE18. In the absence of ma...

  19. Signaling transduction pathways involved in basophil adhesion and histamine release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sha, Quan; Poulsen, Lars K.; Gerwien, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about basophil with respect to the different signaling transduction pathways involved in spontaneous, cytokine or anti-IgE induced adhesion and how this compares to IgE-dependent and IgE-independent mediator secretion. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the roles ...... of beta1 and beta2 integrins in basophil adhesion as well as hosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), src-kinases and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in basophil adhesion and histamine release (HR)....

  20. Signal transduction by the major histocompatibility complex class I molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Elm; Skov, S; Bregenholt, S

    1999-01-01

    Ligation of cell surface major histocompatibility class I (MHC-I) proteins by antibodies, or by their native counter receptor, the CD8 molecule, mediates transduction of signals into the cells. MHC-I-mediated signaling can lead to both increased and decreased activity of the MHC-I-expressing cell...... and functioning, MHC-I molecules might be of importance for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis not only within the immune system, but also in the interplay between the immune system and other organ systems....

  1. Myosin individualized: single nucleotide polymorphisms in energy transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieben Eric D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myosin performs ATP free energy transduction into mechanical work in the motor domain of the myosin heavy chain (MHC. Energy transduction is the definitive systemic feature of the myosin motor performed by coordinating in a time ordered sequence: ATP hydrolysis at the active site, actin affinity modulation at the actin binding site, and the lever-arm rotation of the power stroke. These functions are carried out by several conserved sub-domains within the motor domain. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs affect the MHC sequence of many isoforms expressed in striated muscle, smooth muscle, and non-muscle tissue. The purpose of this work is to provide a rationale for using SNPs as a functional genomics tool to investigate structurefunction relationships in myosin. In particular, to discover SNP distribution over the conserved sub-domains and surmise what it implies about sub-domain stability and criticality in the energy transduction mechanism. Results An automated routine identifying human nonsynonymous SNP amino acid missense substitutions for any MHC gene mined the NCBI SNP data base. The routine tested 22 MHC genes coding muscle and non-muscle isoforms and identified 89 missense mutation positions in the motor domain with 10 already implicated in heart disease and another 8 lacking sequence homology with a skeletal MHC isoform for which a crystallographic model is available. The remaining 71 SNP substitutions were found to be distributed over MHC with 22 falling outside identified functional sub-domains and 49 in or very near to myosin sub-domains assigned specific crucial functions in energy transduction. The latter includes the active site, the actin binding site, the rigid lever-arm, and regions facilitating their communication. Most MHC isoforms contained SNPs somewhere in the motor domain. Conclusions Several functional-crucial sub-domains are infiltrated by a large number of SNP substitution sites suggesting these

  2. Signal transduction and activation of the NADPH oxidase in eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Lindsay

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the eosinophil NADPH oxidase and the subsequent release of toxic oxygen radicals has been implicated in the mechanism of parasite killing and inflammation. At present, little is known of the signal transduction pathway that govern agonist-induced activation of the respiratory burst and is the subject of this review. In particular, we focus on the ability of leukotrine B4 to activate the NADPH oxidase in guinea-pig peritoneal eosinophils which can be obtained in sufficient number and purity for detailed biochemical experiments to be performed.

  3. AAV-6 mediated efficient transduction of mouse lower airways

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wuping; Zhang, Liqun; Wu, Zhijian; Pickles, Raymond J.; Samulski, R. Jude

    2011-01-01

    AAV1 and AAV6 are two closely related AAV serotypes. In the present study, we found AAV6 was more efficient in transducing mouse lower airway epithelia in vitro and in vivo than AAV1. To further explore the mechanism of this difference, we found that significantly more AAV1 bound to mouse airway epithelia than AAV6, yet transduction by AAV6 was far superior. Lectin competition assays demonstrated that both AAV1 and AAV6 similarly utilize α-2, 3-, and to a lesser extend α-2, 6- linked sialic a...

  4. Etiology of myofascial trigger points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, C.; Dommerholt, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is described as the sensory, motor, and autonomic symptoms caused by myofascial trigger points (TrPs). Knowing the potential causes of TrPs is important to prevent their development and recurrence, but also to inactivate and eliminate existing TrPs. There is general

  5. Measles virus glycoprotein-based lentiviral targeting vectors that avoid neutralizing antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Kneissl

    Full Text Available Lentiviral vectors (LVs are potent gene transfer vehicles frequently applied in research and recently also in clinical trials. Retargeting LV entry to cell types of interest is a key issue to improve gene transfer safety and efficacy. Recently, we have developed a targeting method for LVs by incorporating engineered measles virus (MV glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin (H, responsible for receptor recognition, and the fusion protein into their envelope. The H protein displays a single-chain antibody (scFv specific for the target receptor and is ablated for recognition of the MV receptors CD46 and SLAM by point mutations in its ectodomain. A potential hindrance to systemic administration in humans is pre-existing MV-specific immunity due to vaccination or natural infection. We compared transduction of targeting vectors and non-targeting vectors pseudotyped with MV glycoproteins unmodified in their ectodomains (MV-LV in presence of α-MV antibody-positive human plasma. At plasma dilution 1:160 MV-LV was almost completely neutralized, whereas targeting vectors showed relative transduction efficiencies from 60% to 90%. Furthermore, at plasma dilution 1:80 an at least 4-times higher multiplicity of infection (MOI of MV-LV had to be applied to obtain similar transduction efficiencies as with targeting vectors. Also when the vectors were normalized to their p24 values, targeting vectors showed partial protection against α-MV antibodies in human plasma. Furthermore, the monoclonal neutralizing antibody K71 with a putative epitope close to the receptor binding sites of H, did not neutralize the targeting vectors, but did neutralize MV-LV. The observed escape from neutralization may be due to the point mutations in the H ectodomain that might have destroyed antibody binding sites. Furthermore, scFv mediated cell entry via the target receptor may proceed in presence of α-MV antibodies interfering with entry via the natural MV receptors. These results are

  6. A novel adeno-associated viral variant for efficient and selective intravitreal transduction of rat Müller cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R Klimczak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathologies of numerous retinal degenerative diseases can be attributed to a multitude of genetic factors, and individualized treatment options for afflicted patients are limited and cost-inefficient. In light of the shared neurodegenerative phenotype among these disorders, a safe and broad-based neuroprotective approach would be desirable to overcome these obstacles. As a result, gene delivery of secretable-neuroprotective factors to Müller cells, a type of retinal glia that contacts all classes of retinal neurons, represents an ideal approach to mediate protection of the entire retina through a simple and innocuous intraocular, or intravitreal, injection of an efficient vehicle such as an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV. Although several naturally occurring AAV variants have been isolated with a variety of tropisms, or cellular specificities, these vectors inefficiently infect Müller cells via intravitreal injection.We have previously applied directed evolution to create several novel AAV variants capable of efficient infection of both rat and human astrocytes through iterative selection of a panel of highly diverse AAV libraries. Here, in vivo and in vitro characterization of these isolated variants identifies a previously unreported AAV variant ShH10, closely related to AAV serotype 6 (AAV6, capable of efficient, selective Müller cell infection through intravitreal injection. Importantly, this new variant shows significantly improved transduction relative to AAV2 (>60% and AAV6.Our findings demonstrate that AAV is a highly versatile vector capable of powerful shifts in tropism from minor sequence changes. This isolated variant represents a new therapeutic vector to treat retinal degenerative diseases through secretion of neuroprotective factors from Müller cells as well as provides new opportunities to study their biological functions in the retina.

  7. A novel adeno-associated viral variant for efficient and selective intravitreal transduction of rat Müller cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimczak, Ryan R; Koerber, James T; Dalkara, Deniz; Flannery, John G; Schaffer, David V

    2009-10-14

    The pathologies of numerous retinal degenerative diseases can be attributed to a multitude of genetic factors, and individualized treatment options for afflicted patients are limited and cost-inefficient. In light of the shared neurodegenerative phenotype among these disorders, a safe and broad-based neuroprotective approach would be desirable to overcome these obstacles. As a result, gene delivery of secretable-neuroprotective factors to Müller cells, a type of retinal glia that contacts all classes of retinal neurons, represents an ideal approach to mediate protection of the entire retina through a simple and innocuous intraocular, or intravitreal, injection of an efficient vehicle such as an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV). Although several naturally occurring AAV variants have been isolated with a variety of tropisms, or cellular specificities, these vectors inefficiently infect Müller cells via intravitreal injection. We have previously applied directed evolution to create several novel AAV variants capable of efficient infection of both rat and human astrocytes through iterative selection of a panel of highly diverse AAV libraries. Here, in vivo and in vitro characterization of these isolated variants identifies a previously unreported AAV variant ShH10, closely related to AAV serotype 6 (AAV6), capable of efficient, selective Müller cell infection through intravitreal injection. Importantly, this new variant shows significantly improved transduction relative to AAV2 (>60%) and AAV6. Our findings demonstrate that AAV is a highly versatile vector capable of powerful shifts in tropism from minor sequence changes. This isolated variant represents a new therapeutic vector to treat retinal degenerative diseases through secretion of neuroprotective factors from Müller cells as well as provides new opportunities to study their biological functions in the retina.

  8. Molecular purging of multiple myeloma cells by ex-vivo culture and retroviral transduction of mobilized-blood CD34+ cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneo Gianmarco

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor cell contamination of the apheresis in multiple myeloma is likely to affect disease-free and overall survival after autografting. Objective To purge myeloma aphereses from tumor contaminants with a novel culture-based purging method. Methods We cultured myeloma-positive CD34+ PB samples in conditions that retained multipotency of hematopoietic stem cells, but were unfavourable to survival of plasma cells. Moreover, we exploited the resistance of myeloma plasma cells to retroviral transduction by targeting the hematopoietic CD34+ cell population with a retroviral vector carrying a selectable marker (the truncated form of the human receptor for nerve growth factor, ΔNGFR. We performed therefore a further myeloma purging step by selecting the transduced cells at the end of the culture. Results Overall recovery of CD34+ cells after culture was 128.5%; ΔNGFR transduction rate was 28.8% for CD34+ cells and 0% for CD138-selected primary myeloma cells, respectively. Recovery of CD34+ cells after ΔNGFR selection was 22.3%. By patient-specific Ig-gene rearrangements, we assessed a decre