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Sample records for vector generation method

  1. A note on the multiple-recursive matrix method for generating pseudorandom vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Bishoi, Susil Kumar; Haran, Himanshu Kumar; Hasan, Sartaj Ul

    2016-01-01

    The multiple-recursive matrix method for generating pseudorandom vectors was introduced by Niederreiter (Linear Algebra Appl. 192 (1993), 301-328). We propose an algorithm for finding an efficient primitive multiple-recursive matrix method. Moreover, for improving the linear complexity, we introduce a tweak on the contents of the primitive multiple-recursive matrix method.

  2. Vector wave propagation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertig, M; Brenner, K-H

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we extend the scalar wave propagation method (WPM) to vector fields. The WPM [Appl. Opt.32, 4984 (1993)] was introduced in order to overcome the major limitations of the beam propagation method (BPM). With the WPM, the range of application can be extended from the simulation of waveguides to simulation of other optical elements like lenses, prisms and gratings. In that reference it was demonstrated that the wave propagation scheme provides valid results for propagation angles up to 85 degrees and that it is not limited to small index variations in the axis of propagation. Here, we extend the WPM to three-dimensional vectorial fields (VWPMs) by considering the polarization dependent Fresnel coefficients for transmission in each propagation step. The continuity of the electric field is maintained in all three dimensions by an enhanced propagation vector and the transfer matrix. We verify the validity of the method by transmission through a prism and by comparison with the focal distribution from vectorial Debye theory. Furthermore, a two-dimensional grating is simulated and compared with the results from three-dimensional RCWA. Especially for 3D problems, the runtime of the VWPM exhibits special advantage over the RCWA.

  3. Ovary-drip transformation: a simple method for directly generating vector- and marker-free transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) with a linear GFP cassette transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Aifu; Su, Qiao; An, Lijia

    2009-03-01

    The presence of selectable marker genes and vector backbone sequences has affected the safe assessment of transgenic plants. In this study, the ovary-drip method for directly generating vector- and selectable marker-free transgenic plants was described, by which maize was transformed with a linear GFP cassette (Ubi-GFP-nos). The key features of this method center on the complete removal of the styles and the subsequent application of a DNA solution directly to the ovaries. The movement of the exogenous DNA was monitored using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled DNA, which showed that the time taken by the exogenous DNA to enter the ovaries was shortened compared to that of the pollen-tube pathway. This led to an improved transformation frequency of 3.38% compared to 0.86% for the pollen-tube pathway as determined by PCR analysis. The use of 0.05% surfactant Silwet L-77 + 5% sucrose as a transformation solution further increased the transformation frequency to 6.47%. Southern blot analysis showed that the transgenic plants had low transgene copy number and simple integration pattern. Green fluorescence was observed in roots and immature embryos of transgenic plants by fluorescence microscopy. Progeny analysis showed that GFP insertions were inherited in T(1) generation. The ovary-drip method would become a favorable choice for directly generating vector- and marker-free transgenic maize expressing functional genes of agronomic interest.

  4. [Generation of vector backbone-free and selectable marker-free transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) via ovary-drip method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ai-Fu; Su, Qiao; An, Li-Jia

    2009-01-01

    The presence of vector backbone sequences and selectable marker genes in transgenic plants has been the key concern for biosafety. A direct solution is to totally avoid the use of vector backbone sequences and selectable marker genes from the beginning of transgenic plant generation. In this study, the ovary-drip method was established and optimized. The key features of this method focused on the complete removal of the whole styles, and the subsequent application of a DNA solution directly to the ovaries. A vector backbone-free and selectable marker-free linear GFP cassette (Ubi-GFP -nos) was transformed into maize via the ovary-drip method. PCR analysis showed that suitable maize variety was 9818 and optimal transformation time was 18-20 h after pollination, which produced the highest PCR positive frequency (3.01%). Southern blotting analysis showed that the transgenic plants had simple integration patterns (1-2 bands). GFP transcription was de-tected by RT-PCR analysis. Green fluorescence was observed in roots and immature embryos of transgenic plants by a fluorescence microscopy.

  5. Generating Series for Nested Bethe Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Khoroshkin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We reformulate nested relations between off-shell U_q(^gl_N Bethe vectors as a certain equation on generating series of strings of the composed U_q(^gl_N currents. Using inversion of the generating series we find a new type of hierarchical relations between universal off-shell Bethe vectors, useful for a derivation of Bethe equation. As an example of application, we use these relations for a derivation of analytical Bethe ansatz equations [Arnaudon D. et al., Ann. Henri Poincaré 7 (2006, 1217-1268, math-ph/0512037] for the parameters of universal Bethe vectors of the algebra U_q(^gl_2.

  6. Hybrid generation and analysis of vector vortex beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamani, Sandra; Bendau, Ethan; Secor, Jeff; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tu, Jiufeng J; Alfano, Robert R

    2017-03-10

    A method is described for generating optical vector vortex beams carrying superpositions of orbital angular momentum states by using a tandem application of a spatial light modulator with a vortex retarder. The vortex component has a spatially inhomogeneous phase front that can carry orbital angular momentum, and the vector nature is a spatially inhomogeneous state of polarization in the laser beam profile. The vector vortex beams are characterized experimentally by imaging the beams at points across the focal plane in an astigmatic system using a tilted lens. Mathematical analysis of the Gouy phase shows good agreement with the phase structure obtained in the experimental images. The polarization structure of the vector beam and the orbital angular momentum of the vortex beam are shown to be preserved.

  7. Highly Efficient Vector-Inversion Pulse Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Franklin

    2004-01-01

    Improved transmission-line pulse generators of the vector-inversion type are being developed as lightweight sources of pulsed high voltage for diverse applications, including spacecraft thrusters, portable x-ray imaging systems, impulse radar systems, and corona-discharge systems for sterilizing gases. In this development, more than the customary attention is paid to principles of operation and details of construction so as to the maximize the efficiency of the pulse-generation process while minimizing the sizes of components. An important element of this approach is segmenting a pulse generator in such a manner that the electric field in each segment is always below the threshold for electrical breakdown. One design of particular interest, a complete description of which was not available at the time of writing this article, involves two parallel-plate transmission lines that are wound on a mandrel, share a common conductor, and are switched in such a manner that the pulse generator is divided into a "fast" and a "slow" section. A major innovation in this design is the addition of ferrite to the "slow" section to reduce the size of the mandrel needed for a given efficiency.

  8. I-F starting method with smooth transition to EMF based motion-sensorless vector control of PM synchronous motor/generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Teodorescu, Remus; Fatu, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel hybrid motion- sensorless control system for permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) using a new robust start-up method called I-f control, and a smooth transition to emf-based vector control. The I-f method is based on separate control of id, iq currents...... with the reference currents id* = 0 and iq* constant, and the reference frequency having ramp variation. This solution allows ultra low- speed sensorless control without initial rotor-position estimation, and without machine parameters identification. A first-order lag compensator is employed to ensure a smooth...

  9. Lexicon generation methods, lexicon generation devices, and lexicon generation articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Richard J [Richland, WA; McCall, Jonathon D [West Richland, WA; Whitney, Paul D [Richland, WA; Gregory, Michelle L [Richland, WA; Turner, Alan E [Kennewick, WA; Hetzler, Elizabeth G [Kennewick, WA; White, Amanda M [Kennewick, WA; Posse, Christian [Seattle, WA; Nakamura, Grant C [Kennewick, WA

    2010-10-26

    Lexicon generation methods, computer implemented lexicon editing methods, lexicon generation devices, lexicon editors, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a lexicon generation method includes providing a seed vector indicative of occurrences of a plurality of seed terms within a plurality of text items, providing a plurality of content vectors indicative of occurrences of respective ones of a plurality of content terms within the text items, comparing individual ones of the content vectors with respect to the seed vector, and responsive to the comparing, selecting at least one of the content terms as a term of a lexicon usable in sentiment analysis of text.

  10. Vector optical field generation based on birefringent phase plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiazhou; Cao, Axiu; Pang, Hui; Zhang, Man; Wang, Guangyi; Chen, Jian; Shi, Lifang; Deng, Qiling; Hu, Song

    2017-05-29

    Vector optical field has recently gained interest in a variety of application fields due to its novel characteristics. Conventional approaches of generating vector optical fields have difficulties in forming highly continuous polarization and suffer from the issue of high energy utilization rates. In order to address these issues, in this study a single optical path was proposed to generate vector optical fields where the birefringent phase plate modulated a linear polarized light into a vector optical field, which was then demodulated to a non-uniform linear polarization distribution of the vector optical field by the polarization demodulation module. Both a theoretical model and numerical simulations of the vector optical field generator were developed, illustrating the relationship between the polarization distribution of the target vector optical field and the depth distribution of the birefringent phase plate. Furthermore, the birefringent phase plate with predefined surface distributions was fabricated by grayscale exposure and ion etching. The generated vector optical field was experimentally characterized, capable of producing continuous polarization with high light energy utilization ratio, consistent with simulations. This new approach may have the potential of being widely used in future studies of generating well-controlled vector optical fields.

  11. Feature Vector Construction Method for IRIS Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinokikh, G.; Fartukov, A.; Korobkin, M.; Yoo, J.

    2017-05-01

    One of the basic stages of iris recognition pipeline is iris feature vector construction procedure. The procedure represents the extraction of iris texture information relevant to its subsequent comparison. Thorough investigation of feature vectors obtained from iris showed that not all the vector elements are equally relevant. There are two characteristics which determine the vector element utility: fragility and discriminability. Conventional iris feature extraction methods consider the concept of fragility as the feature vector instability without respect to the nature of such instability appearance. This work separates sources of the instability into natural and encodinginduced which helps deeply investigate each source of instability independently. According to the separation concept, a novel approach of iris feature vector construction is proposed. The approach consists of two steps: iris feature extraction using Gabor filtering with optimal parameters and quantization with separated preliminary optimized fragility thresholds. The proposed method has been tested on two different datasets of iris images captured under changing environmental conditions. The testing results show that the proposed method surpasses all the methods considered as a prior art by recognition accuracy on both datasets.

  12. The Matrix Element Method and Vector-Like Quark Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    In my time at the CERN summer student program, I worked on applying the matrix element method to vector-like quark identification. I worked in the ATLAS University of Geneva group under Dr. Olaf Nackenhorst. I developed automated plotting tools with ROOT, a script for implementing and optimizing generated matrix element calculation code, and kinematic transforms for the matrix element method.

  13. Generating and measuring nondiffracting vector Bessel beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available modulator and an azimuthally varying birefringent plate, known as a q-plate. We extend our control of both the geometric and dynamic phases to perform a polarization and modal decomposition on the vector field. We study both single-charged Bessel beams...

  14. Efficient generation of vector beams by calibrating the phase response of a spatial light modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Peng; Ma, Chaojie; Liu, Sheng; Cheng, Huachao; Han, Lei; Zhao, Jianlin

    2017-06-10

    The spatial light modulator (SLM) is considered as an effective device to create beams with inhomogeneous phases and polarizations, such as vortex beams and vector beams. However, the nonlinear responses of SLM severely reduce the generation efficiency of these beams. In this paper, by calibrating the SLM to present a linear phase response in the scope of 0-2π, we propose a convenient and efficient method of creating vector beams with arbitrary polarizations based on phase encoding. Compared with the common methods of generating vector beams, our approach can distinctly enhance the generation efficiency.

  15. Method for transforming a feature vector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Chen, C.; Kevenaar, Thomas A.M.; Akkermans, Antonius H.M.

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for transforming a feature vector comprising a first and a second feature represented by a first and a second feature value, respectively, into a feature code using an encoder, said feature code usable in an algorithm and having a predetermined number of

  16. Structural Learning of Attack Vectors for Generating Mutated XSS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsun Wang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Web applications suffer from cross-site scripting (XSS attacks that resulting from incomplete or incorrect input sanitization. Learning the structure of attack vectors could enrich the variety of manifestations in generated XSS attacks. In this study, we focus on generating more threatening XSS attacks for the state-of-the-art detection approaches that can find potential XSS vulnerabilities in Web applications, and propose a mechanism for structural learning of attack vectors with the aim of generating mutated XSS attacks in a fully automatic way. Mutated XSS attack generation depends on the analysis of attack vectors and the structural learning mechanism. For the kernel of the learning mechanism, we use a Hidden Markov model (HMM as the structure of the attack vector model to capture the implicit manner of the attack vector, and this manner is benefited from the syntax meanings that are labeled by the proposed tokenizing mechanism. Bayes theorem is used to determine the number of hidden states in the model for generalizing the structure model. The paper has the contributions as following: (1 automatically learn the structure of attack vectors from practical data analysis to modeling a structure model of attack vectors, (2 mimic the manners and the elements of attack vectors to extend the ability of testing tool for identifying XSS vulnerabilities, (3 be helpful to verify the flaws of blacklist sanitization procedures of Web applications. We evaluated the proposed mechanism by Burp Intruder with a dataset collected from public XSS archives. The results show that mutated XSS attack generation can identify potential vulnerabilities.

  17. Grid generation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Liseikin, Vladimir D

    2017-01-01

    This new edition provides a description of current developments relating to grid methods, grid codes, and their applications to actual problems. Grid generation methods are indispensable for the numerical solution of differential equations. Adaptive grid-mapping techniques, in particular, are the main focus and represent a promising tool to deal with systems with singularities. This 3rd edition includes three new chapters on numerical implementations (10), control of grid properties (11), and applications to mechanical, fluid, and plasma related problems (13). Also the other chapters have been updated including new topics, such as curvatures of discrete surfaces (3). Concise descriptions of hybrid mesh generation, drag and sweeping methods, parallel algorithms for mesh generation have been included too. This new edition addresses a broad range of readers: students, researchers, and practitioners in applied mathematics, mechanics, engineering, physics and other areas of applications.

  18. Vector beams generated by tunable liquid crystal polarization holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, U.; Pagliusi, P.; Provenzano, C.; Cipparrone, G.

    2017-04-01

    Two optically coupled nematic liquid crystal (NLC) polarization holograms (PHs) enable nearly 100% generation efficiency for vector beams (VBs) with spatially variant phase and polarization. Adopting a spatial light modulator assisted holographic approach, the PHs are recorded in the photoaligning substrates of the NLC cell and amplified by the NLC bulk. Owing to negligible NLC absorption at the visible and near infrared wavelengths and the ability to electrically adjust its optical birefringence, a single device allows us to generate VBs with the highest possible efficiency at any wavelength in the transparency range. In particular, we report the generation of VBs with an efficiency of 96% at a wavelength of 633 nm.

  19. Sagnac Interferometer Based Generation of Controllable Cylindrical Vector Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Acevedo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a novel experimental geometry to generate cylindrical vector beams in a very robust manner. Continuous control of beams’ properties is obtained using an optically addressable spatial light modulator incorporated into a Sagnac interferometer. Forked computer-generated holograms allow introducing different topological charges while orthogonally polarized beams within the interferometer permit encoding the spatial distribution of polarization. We also demonstrate the generation of complex waveforms obtained by combining two orthogonal beams having both radial modulations and azimuthal dislocations.

  20. Biosensor method and system based on feature vector extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias [Knoxville, TN; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Qi, Hairong [Knoxville, TN; Wang, Xiaoling [San Jose, CA

    2012-04-17

    A method of biosensor-based detection of toxins comprises the steps of providing at least one time-dependent control signal generated by a biosensor in a gas or liquid medium, and obtaining a time-dependent biosensor signal from the biosensor in the gas or liquid medium to be monitored or analyzed for the presence of one or more toxins selected from chemical, biological or radiological agents. The time-dependent biosensor signal is processed to obtain a plurality of feature vectors using at least one of amplitude statistics and a time-frequency analysis. At least one parameter relating to toxicity of the gas or liquid medium is then determined from the feature vectors based on reference to the control signal.

  1. Generation of Targeted Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) Vectors for Human Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yarong; Siriwon, Natnaree; Rohrs, Jennifer A; Wang, Pin

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are promising human gene delivery vehicles due to their ability to establish long-term gene expression in a wide variety of target tissues; however, the broad native viral tropism raises concerns over the feasibility and safety of their systemic administration. To overcome this issue, much effort has been made to redirect AAVs toward specific tissues. This review presents several design strategies that have been applied to generate AAVs that target specific tissues and cells while inhibiting the transduction of non-target tissues. Multiple methods of vector capsid engineering have shown promise in vitro, including indirect targeting by adaptor systems and direct targeting by the insertion of antibodies or receptor-specific small peptide motifs. Other strategies, including creating mosaic or chimeric capsids and directed evolution, have also been used to successfully retarget AAV vectors. This research will further expand the clinical applications of AAV vectors by enhancing the control over tissue-specific gene delivery.

  2. Unifying and generating of space vector modulation sequences for multilevel converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Space Vector Modulation (SVM) is a powerful method which enables some freedom to generate the modulation sequences and modify the performances of converter. However, in the multi-level converter structures, the number of switching state redundancies significantly increases, and the determination ...... on the discovered correlation and pattern, a general method for modulation sequences generating is proposed, and a series of new modulation sequences are deducted according to several easily applied rules.......Space Vector Modulation (SVM) is a powerful method which enables some freedom to generate the modulation sequences and modify the performances of converter. However, in the multi-level converter structures, the number of switching state redundancies significantly increases, and the determination...

  3. Efficient generation of rat induced pluripotent stem cells using a non-viral inducible vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Merkl

    Full Text Available Current methods of generating rat induced pluripotent stem cells are based on viral transduction of pluripotency inducing genes (Oct4, Sox2, c-myc and Klf4 into somatic cells. These activate endogenous pluripotency genes and reprogram the identity of the cell to an undifferentiated state. Epigenetic silencing of exogenous genes has to occur to allow normal iPS cell differentiation. To gain more control over the expression of exogenous reprogramming factors, we used a novel doxycycline-inducible plasmid vector encoding Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4. To ensure efficient and controlled generation of iPS cells by plasmid transfection we equipped the reprogramming vector with a bacteriophage φC31 attB site and used a φC31 integrase expression vector to enhance vector integration. A series of doxycycline-independent rat iPS cell lines were established. These were characterized by immunocytochemical detection of Oct4, SSEA1 and SSEA4, alkaline phosphatase staining, methylation analysis of the endogenous Oct4 promoter and RT-PCR analysis of endogenous rat pluripotency genes. We also determined the number of vector integrations and the extent to which reprogramming factor gene expression was controlled. Protocols were developed to generate embryoid bodies and rat iPS cells demonstrated as pluripotent by generating derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers in vitro, and teratoma formation in vivo. All data suggest that our rat iPS cells, generated by plasmid based reprogramming, are similar to rat ES cells. Methods of DNA transfection, protein transduction and feeder-free monolayer culture of rat iPS cells were established to enable future applications.

  4. A modular cloning toolbox for the generation of chloroplast transformation vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavar Vafaee

    Full Text Available Plastid transformation is a powerful tool for basic research, but also for the generation of stable genetically engineered plants producing recombinant proteins at high levels or for metabolic engineering purposes. However, due to the genetic makeup of plastids and the distinct features of the transformation process, vector design, and the use of specific genetic elements, a large set of basic transformation vectors is required, making cloning a tedious and time-consuming effort. Here, we describe the adoption of standardized modular cloning (GoldenBraid to the design and assembly of the full spectrum of plastid transformation vectors. The modular design of genetic elements allows straightforward and time-efficient build-up of transcriptional units as well as construction of vectors targeting any homologous recombination site of choice. In a three-level assembly process, we established a vector fostering gene expression and formation of griffithsin, a potential viral entry inhibitor and HIV prophylactic, in the plastids of tobacco. Successful transformation as well as transcript and protein production could be shown. In concert with the aforesaid endeavor, a set of modules facilitating plastid transformation was generated, thus augmenting the GoldenBraid toolbox. In short, the work presented in this study enables efficient application of synthetic biology methods to plastid transformation in plants.

  5. Frequency-agile vector signal generation based on optical frequency comb and pre-coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Kun; Zhao, ShangHong; Tan, QingGui; Liang, DanYa

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate the generation of frequency-agile vector signals based on an optical frequency comb (OFC) and unbalanced pre-coding technology by employing a dual-driven Mach-Zehnder Modulator (DD-MZM) and an intensity modulator (IM). The OFC is generated by the DD-MZM and sent to the IM as a carrier. The IM is driven by a 5 GHz 2 Gbaud quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) vector signal with unbalanced pre-coding. The -1st order sideband of one OFC line and the +1st order sideband of another OFC line are selected by a programmable pulse shaper (PPS), after square-low photodiode detection, the frequency-agile vector signal can be obtained. The results show that the 2 Gbaud QPSK vector signals at 30 GHz, 50 GHz, 70 GHz and 90 GHz can be generated by only pre-coding once. It is possible to achieve a bit-error-rate (BER) below 1e-3 for wireless transmissions over 0.5 m using this method.

  6. Canine adenovirus type 2 vector generation via I-Sce1-mediated intracellular genome release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Ibanes

    Full Text Available When canine adenovirus type 2 (CAdV-2, or also commonly referred to as CAV-2 vectors are injected into the brain parenchyma they preferentially transduce neurons, are capable of efficient axonal transport to afferent regions, and allow transgene expression for at last >1 yr. Yet, translating these data into a user-friendly vector platform has been limited because CAV-2 vector generation is challenging. Generation of E1-deleted adenovirus vectors often requires transfection of linear DNA fragments of >30 kb containing the vector genome into an E1-transcomplementing cell line. In contrast to human adenovirus type 5 vector generation, CAV-2 vector generation is less efficient due, in part, to a reduced ability to initiate replication and poor transfectibility of canine cells with large, linear DNA fragments. To improve CAV-2 vector generation, we generated an E1-transcomplementing cell line expressing the estrogen receptor (ER fused to I-SceI, a yeast meganuclease, and plasmids containing the I-SceI recognition sites flanking the CAV-2 vector genome. Using transfection of supercoiled plasmid and intracellular genome release via 4-OH-tamoxifen-induced nuclear translocation of I-SceI, we improved CAV-2 vector titers 1,000 fold, and in turn increased the efficacy of CAV-2 vector generation.

  7. Modern methods in topological vector spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wilansky, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Designed for a one-year course in topological vector spaces, this text is geared toward advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students of mathematics. The subjects involve properties employed by researchers in classical analysis, differential and integral equations, distributions, summability, and classical Banach and Frechét spaces. Optional problems with hints and references introduce non-locally convex spaces, Köthe-Toeplitz spaces, Banach algebra, sequentially barrelled spaces, and norming subspaces.Extensive introductory chapters cover metric ideas, Banach space, topological vect

  8. Development of orientation method with constraint conditions using vector data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Takashi; Kamiya, Keita

    2015-05-01

    Recently, various kinds of vector data have been widely used. Images as raster data also became popular, and then applications using the vector data and images simultaneously attract more interests. Such applications require registration of those data in a same coordinates system. This paper proposes an orientation method combining the vector data with the images based on bundle adjustment. Since the vector data can be regarded as constraint condition, the bundle adjustment is extended to constrained non-linear optimization method. The constraint conditions are coincidence between lines extracted from images and the corresponding ones of vector data. For formulation, a representative point is set as midpoint of a projected line of vector data on the image. By using the representative points, the coincidence condition is expressed as distance the point and the lines extracted from the image. According to the conditions, the proposed method is formulated as Lagrange's method of undetermined multipliers. The proposed method is applied to synthetic and real data (compared with laser scanner data). The experiments with both synthetic and real data show that the proposed method is more accurate to errors caused by low accuracy of coordinates of feature points than a method without constraint conditions. According to the experiments, the significance of the proposed method is confirmed.

  9. A Novel Medical Freehand Sketch 3D Model Retrieval Method by Dimensionality Reduction and Feature Vector Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To assist physicians to quickly find the required 3D model from the mass medical model, we propose a novel retrieval method, called DRFVT, which combines the characteristics of dimensionality reduction (DR and feature vector transformation (FVT method. The DR method reduces the dimensionality of feature vector; only the top M low frequency Discrete Fourier Transform coefficients are retained. The FVT method does the transformation of the original feature vector and generates a new feature vector to solve the problem of noise sensitivity. The experiment results demonstrate that the DRFVT method achieves more effective and efficient retrieval results than other proposed methods.

  10. A Novel Medical Freehand Sketch 3D Model Retrieval Method by Dimensionality Reduction and Feature Vector Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Zhang; Sheng, Kang Bao

    2015-01-01

    To assist physicians to quickly find the required 3D model from the mass medical model, we propose a novel retrieval method, called DRFVT, which combines the characteristics of dimensionality reduction (DR) and feature vector transformation (FVT) method. The DR method reduces the dimensionality of feature vector; only the top M low frequency Discrete Fourier Transform coefficients are retained. The FVT method does the transformation of the original feature vector and generates a new feature vector to solve the problem of noise sensitivity. The experiment results demonstrate that the DRFVT method achieves more effective and efficient retrieval results than other proposed methods.

  11. Model reduction methods for vector autoregressive processes

    CERN Document Server

    Brüggemann, Ralf

    2004-01-01

    1. 1 Objective of the Study Vector autoregressive (VAR) models have become one of the dominant research tools in the analysis of macroeconomic time series during the last two decades. The great success of this modeling class started with Sims' (1980) critique of the traditional simultaneous equation models (SEM). Sims criticized the use of 'too many incredible restrictions' based on 'supposed a priori knowledge' in large scale macroeconometric models which were popular at that time. Therefore, he advo­ cated largely unrestricted reduced form multivariate time series models, unrestricted VAR models in particular. Ever since his influential paper these models have been employed extensively to characterize the underlying dynamics in systems of time series. In particular, tools to summarize the dynamic interaction between the system variables, such as impulse response analysis or forecast error variance decompo­ sitions, have been developed over the years. The econometrics of VAR models and related quantities i...

  12. Analysis of Finite Element Methods for Vector Laplacians on Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Hansbo, Peter; Larson, Mats G.; Larsson, Karl

    2016-01-01

    We develop a finite element method for the vector Laplacian based on the covariant derivative of tangential vector fields on surfaces embedded in $\\mathbb{R}^3$. Closely related operators arise in models of flow on surfaces as well as elastic membranes and shells. The method is based on standard continuous parametric Lagrange elements with one order higher polynomial degree for the mapping. The tangent condition is weakly enforced using a penalization term. We derive error estimates that take...

  13. Gene transfer by retrovirus-derived shuttle vectors in the generation of murine bispecific monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMonte, L B; Nistico, P; Tecce, R; Dellabona, P; Momo, M; Anichini, A; Mariani, M; Natali, P G; Malavasi, F

    1990-01-01

    The present study reports on the use of gene transfer by retrovirus-derived shuttle vectors in the generation of hybrid hybridomas secreting bispecific monoclonal antibodies. neo- and dhfr- genes were infected into distinct murine hybridomas, thus conferring a dominant resistance trait to geneticin (G418) and to methotrexate. The vectors employed were replication-deficient and dependent on complementation by a helper virus provided by the irradiated packaging lines. After cocultivation with the relevant packaging cell lines, stable hybridoma lines expressing the selectable markers were easily obtained and were then suitable for conventional somatic fusion. This high-efficiency method was used to generate two bispecific monoclonal antibodies simultaneously targeting molecules expressed on cytotoxic cells (i.e., T lymphocytes and natural killer cells) against a human melanoma-associated antigen. Images PMID:2326256

  14. Bismuth generator method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, L.A.; DesChane, J.R.

    1998-05-05

    A method is described for separating {sup 213}Bi from a solution of radionuclides wherein the solution contains a concentration of the chloride ions and hydrogen ions adjusted to allow the formation of a chloride complex. The solution is then brought into contact with an anion exchange resin, whereupon {sup 213}Bi is absorbed from the solution and adhered onto the anion exchange resin in the chloride complex. Other non-absorbing radionuclides such as {sup 225}Ra, {sup 225}Ac, and {sup 221}Fr, along with HCl are removed from the anion exchange resin with a scrub solution. The {sup 213}Bi is removed from the anion exchange resin by washing the anion exchange resin with a stripping solution free of chloride ions and with a reduced hydrogen ion concentration which breaks the chloride anionic complex, releasing the {sup 213}Bi as a cation. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the anion exchange resin is provided as a thin membrane, allowing for extremely rapid adherence and stripping of the {sup 213}Bi. A preferred stripping solution for purification of {sup 213}Bi for use in medical applications includes sodium acetate, pH 5.5. A protein conjugated with bifunctional chelating agents in vivo with the NaOAc receives the {sup 213}Bi as it is being released from the anion exchange resin. 10 figs.

  15. An Asymmetrical Space Vector Method for Single Phase Induction Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Yuanhai; Blaabjerg, Frede; Andersen, Gert Karmisholt

    2002-01-01

    the motor torque performance is not good enough. This paper addresses a new control method, an asymmetrical space vector method with PWM modulation, also a three-phase inverter is used for the main winding and the auxiliary winding. This method with PWM modulation is implemented to control the motor speed...

  16. Generation of Airy vortex and Airy vector beams based on the modulation of dynamic and geometric phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junxiao; Liu, Yachao; Ke, Yougang; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2015-07-01

    We propose a novel method for the generation of Airy vortex and Airy vector beams based on the modulation of dynamic and geometric phases. In our scheme, the Airy beam is generated by the dynamic phase with a spatial light modulator, and the vortex phase or the vector polarization is modulated by the geometric phase with a dielectric metasurface. The modulation of the geometric phase provides an extra degree of freedom to manipulate the phase and the polarization of Airy beams. This scheme can be extended to generate any other types of optical beams with desirable phase and polarization.

  17. Design and generation of recombinant rabies virus vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osakada, Fumitaka; Callaway, Edward M.

    2014-01-01

    Rabies viruses, negative-strand RNA viruses, infect neurons through axon terminals and spread transsynaptically in a retrograde direction between neurons. Rabies viruses whose glycoprotein (G) gene is deleted from the genome cannot spread across synapses. Complementation of G in trans, however, enables transsynaptic spreading of G-deleted rabies viruses to directly-connected, presynaptic neurons. Recombinant rabies viruses can encode genes of interest for labeling cells, controlling gene expression, and monitoring or manipulating neural activity. Cre-dependent or bridge-protein-mediated transduction and single-cell electroporation via EnvA/TVA or EnvB/TVB system allow cell-type-specific or single-cell-specific targeting. These rabies virus-based approaches permit the linking of connectivity to cell morphology and circuit function for particular cell types or single cells. Here we describe methods for construction of rabies viral vectors, recovery of G-deleted rabies viruses from cDNA, amplification of the viruses, pseudotyping them with EnvA or EnvB, and concentration and titration of the viruses. The entire protocol takes 6–8 weeks. PMID:23887178

  18. Vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeriis, Morten; van Leeuwen, Theo

    2017-01-01

    This article revisits the concept of vectors, which, in Kress and van Leeuwen’s Reading Images (2006), plays a crucial role in distinguishing between ‘narrative’, action-oriented processes and ‘conceptual’, state-oriented processes. The use of this concept in image analysis has usually focused...... on the most salient vectors, and this works well, but many images contain a plethora of vectors, which makes their structure quite different from the linguistic transitivity structures with which Kress and van Leeuwen have compared ‘narrative’ images. It can also be asked whether facial expression vectors...... should be taken into account in discussing ‘reactions’, which Kress and van Leeuwen link only to eyeline vectors. Finally, the question can be raised as to whether actions are always realized by vectors. Drawing on a re-reading of Rudolf Arnheim’s account of vectors, these issues are outlined...

  19. A vector matching method for analysing logic Petri nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, YuYue; Qi, Liang; Zhou, MengChu

    2011-11-01

    Batch processing function and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems can be described and analysed by logic Petri nets (LPNs). To directly analyse the properties of LPNs, the concept of transition enabling vector sets is presented and a vector matching method used to judge the enabling transitions is proposed in this article. The incidence matrix of LPNs is defined; an equation about marking change due to a transition's firing is given; and a reachable tree is constructed. The state space explosion is mitigated to a certain extent from directly analysing LPNs. Finally, the validity and reliability of the proposed method are illustrated by an example in electronic commerce.

  20. A novel stepwise support vector machine (SVM) method based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... began to use computational approaches, particularly machine learning methods to identify pre-miRNAs (Xue et al., 2005; Huang et al., 2007; Jiang et al., 2007). Xue et al. (2005) presented a support vector machine (SVM)- based classifier called triplet-SVM, which classifies human pre-miRNAs from pseudo ...

  1. A New Method for Estimation of Velocity Vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Munk, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a new method for determining the velocity vector of a remotely sensed object using either sound or electromagnetic radiation. The movement of the object is determined from a field with spatial oscillations in both the axial direction of the transducer and in one or two...

  2. Methods of treating Parkinson's disease using viral vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bankiewicz, Krys; Cunningham, Janet

    2012-11-13

    Methods of delivering viral vectors, particularly recombinant AAV virions, to the central nervous system (CNS) are provided for the treatment of CNS disorders, particularly those disorders which involve the neurotransmitter dopamine. The methods entail providing rAAV virions that comprise a transgene encoding aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) and administering the virions to the brain of a mammal using a non-manual pump.

  3. Development of load-dependent Ritz vector method for structural dynamic analysis of large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricles, James M.

    1990-01-01

    The development and preliminary assessment of a method for dynamic structural analysis based on load-dependent Ritz vectors are presented. The vector basis is orthogonalized with respect to the mass and structural stiffness in order that the equations of motion can be uncoupled and efficient analysis of large space structure performed. A series of computer programs was developed based on the algorithm for generating the orthogonal load-dependent Ritz vectors. Transient dynamic analysis performed on the Space Station Freedom using the software was found to provide solutions that require a smaller number of vectors than the modal analysis method. Error norm based on the participation of the mass distribution of the structure and spatial distribution of structural loading, respectively, were developed in order to provide an indication of vector truncation. These norms are computed before the transient analysis is performed. An assessment of these norms through a convergence study of the structural response was performed. The results from this assessment indicate that the error norms can provide a means of judging the quality of the vector basis and accuracy of the transient dynamic solution.

  4. Polar POLICRYPS diffractive structures generate cylindrical vector beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alj, Domenico; Caputo, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.caputo@fis.unical.it; Umeton, Cesare [Department of Physics and CNR-NANOTEC University of Calabria, I-87036 Rende (CS) (Italy); Paladugu, Sathyanarayana [Soft Matter Lab, Department of Physics, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Volpe, Giovanni [Soft Matter Lab, Department of Physics, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2015-11-16

    Local shaping of the polarization state of a light beam is appealing for a number of applications. This can be achieved by employing devices containing birefringent materials. In this article, we present one such enables converting a uniformly circularly polarized beam into a cylindrical vector beam (CVB). This device has been fabricated by exploiting the POLICRYPS (POlymer-LIquid CRYstals-Polymer-Slices) photocuring technique. It is a liquid-crystal-based optical diffraction grating featuring polar symmetry of the director alignment. We have characterized the resulting CVB profile and polarization for the cases of left and right circularly polarized incoming beams.

  5. Generation of arbitrary vector beams with liquid crystal polarization converters and vector-photoaligned q-plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Ji, Wei; Wei, Bing-Yan; Hu, Wei; Chigrinov, Vladimir; Lu, Yan-Qing

    2015-12-01

    Arbitrary vector beams (VBs) are realized by the designed polarization converters and corresponding vector-photoaligned q-plates. The polarization converter is a specific twisted nematic cell with one substrate homogeneously aligned and the other space-variantly aligned. By combining a polarization-sensitive alignment agent with a dynamic micro-lithography system, various categories of liquid crystal polarization converters are demonstrated. Besides, traditional radially/azimuthally polarized light, high-order and multi-ringed VBs, and a VB array with different orders are generated. The obtained converters are further utilized as polarization masks to implement vector-photoaligning. The technique facilitates both the volume duplication of these converters and the generation of another promising optical element, the q-plate, which is suitable for the generation of VBs for coherent lasers. The combination of proposed polarization converters and correspondingly fabricated q-plates would drastically enhance the capability of polarization control and may bring more possibilities for the design of photonic devices.

  6. Generation of arbitrary vector beams with liquid crystal polarization converters and vector-photoaligned q-plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Peng; Ji, Wei; Wei, Bing-Yan; Hu, Wei, E-mail: huwei@nju.edu.cn; Lu, Yan-Qing, E-mail: yqlu@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures and College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chigrinov, Vladimir [Center for Display Research, Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-12-14

    Arbitrary vector beams (VBs) are realized by the designed polarization converters and corresponding vector-photoaligned q-plates. The polarization converter is a specific twisted nematic cell with one substrate homogeneously aligned and the other space-variantly aligned. By combining a polarization-sensitive alignment agent with a dynamic micro-lithography system, various categories of liquid crystal polarization converters are demonstrated. Besides, traditional radially/azimuthally polarized light, high-order and multi-ringed VBs, and a VB array with different orders are generated. The obtained converters are further utilized as polarization masks to implement vector-photoaligning. The technique facilitates both the volume duplication of these converters and the generation of another promising optical element, the q-plate, which is suitable for the generation of VBs for coherent lasers. The combination of proposed polarization converters and correspondingly fabricated q-plates would drastically enhance the capability of polarization control and may bring more possibilities for the design of photonic devices.

  7. Variable structure unit vector control of electric power generation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A variable structure Automatic Generation Control (VSAGC) scheme is proposed in this paper for the control of a single area power system model dominated by steam powered electric generating plants. Unlike existing, VSAGC scheme where the selection of the control function is based on a trial and error procedure, the ...

  8. Neural cell image segmentation method based on support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shiwei; Ren, Kan

    2015-10-01

    In the analysis of neural cell images gained by optical microscope, accurate and rapid segmentation is the foundation of nerve cell detection system. In this paper, a modified image segmentation method based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) is proposed to reduce the adverse impact caused by low contrast ratio between objects and background, adherent and clustered cells' interference etc. Firstly, Morphological Filtering and OTSU Method are applied to preprocess images for extracting the neural cells roughly. Secondly, the Stellate Vector, Circularity and Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) features are computed to train SVM model. Finally, the incremental learning SVM classifier is used to classify the preprocessed images, and the initial recognition areas identified by the SVM classifier are added to the library as the positive samples for training SVM model. Experiment results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve much better segmented results than the classic segmentation algorithms.

  9. Classification Method in Integrated Information Network Using Vector Image Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yuan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Integrated Information Network (WMN consists of integrated information that can get data from its surrounding, such as image, voice. To transmit information, large resource is required which decreases the service time of the network. In this paper we present a Classification Approach based on Vector Image Comparison (VIC for WMN that improve the service time of the network. The available methods for sub-region selection and conversion are also proposed.

  10. Parallel/Vector Integration Methods for Dynamical Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Toshio

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews three recent works on the numerical methods to integrate ordinary differential equations (ODE), which are specially designed for parallel, vector, and/or multi-processor-unit(PU) computers. The first is the Picard-Chebyshev method (Fukushima, 1997a). It obtains a global solution of ODE in the form of Chebyshev polynomial of large (> 1000) degree by applying the Picard iteration repeatedly. The iteration converges for smooth problems and/or perturbed dynamics. The method runs around 100-1000 times faster in the vector mode than in the scalar mode of a certain computer with vector processors (Fukushima, 1997b). The second is a parallelization of a symplectic integrator (Saha et al., 1997). It regards the implicit midpoint rules covering thousands of timesteps as large-scale nonlinear equations and solves them by the fixed-point iteration. The method is applicable to Hamiltonian systems and is expected to lead an acceleration factor of around 50 in parallel computers with more than 1000 PUs. The last is a parallelization of the extrapolation method (Ito and Fukushima, 1997). It performs trial integrations in parallel. Also the trial integrations are further accelerated by balancing computational load among PUs by the technique of folding. The method is all-purpose and achieves an acceleration factor of around 3.5 by using several PUs. Finally, we give a perspective on the parallelization of some implicit integrators which require multiple corrections in solving implicit formulas like the implicit Hermitian integrators (Makino and Aarseth, 1992), (Hut et al., 1995) or the implicit symmetric multistep methods (Fukushima, 1998), (Fukushima, 1999).

  11. Generating and analyzing non-diffracting vector vortex beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Li, Y

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ] Bomzon, Z., Niv, A., Biener, G., Kleiner, V., and Hasman, E., “Nondiffracting periodically space-variant polarization beams with subwavelength gratings,” Applied Physics Letters 80(20), 3685 (2002). [16] Tervo, J. and Turunen, J., “Generation of vectorial... elements for wave front shaping in the visible domain: Switchable helical mode generation,” Applied Physics Letters 88(22), 221102 (2006). Proc. of SPIE Vol. 8843 884305-6 Downloaded From: http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/ on 06/04/2014 Terms...

  12. Generation of Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells without Viral Vectors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keisuke Okita; Masato Nakagawa; Hong Hyenjong; Tomoko Ichisaka; Shinya Yamanaka

    2008-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been generated from mouse and human somatic cells by introducing Oct3/4 and Sox2 with either Klf4 and c-Myc or Nanog and Lin28 using retroviruses or lentiviruses...

  13. Pseudo-Random Number Generators for Vector Processors and Multicore Processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Agner

    2015-01-01

    Large scale Monte Carlo applications need a good pseudo-random number generator capable of utilizing both the vector processing capabilities and multiprocessing capabilities of modern computers in order to get the maximum performance. The requirements for such a generator are discussed. New ways ...

  14. Gravity Vector Determination from Inertial and Auxiliary Data and Potential Utilization of Generated Vector Component Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-18

    the collocation method in phydical geodesy with prior second order gyro bias removal. Thirdly, it outlines an advanced deflection estimation method...of the vertical under application of the’ collocation method in physical geodesy with prior second order gyro bias removal. Thirdly, it outlines an...BAUSSUS VON LUETZOW deflections of the vertical are time-consuming. According to Moritz [6], astrogeodetic and gravimetric rms errors are approximately

  15. Lattice Boltzmann method for one-dimensional vector radiative transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Yi, Hongliang; Tan, Heping

    2016-02-08

    A one-dimensional vector radiative transfer (VRT) model based on lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) that considers polarization using four Stokes parameters is developed. The angular space is discretized by the discrete-ordinates approach, and the spatial discretization is conducted by LBM. LBM has such attractive properties as simple calculation procedure, straightforward and efficient handing of boundary conditions, and capability of stable and accurate simulation. To validate the performance of LBM for vector radiative transfer, four various test problems are examined. The first case investigates the non-scattering thermal-emitting atmosphere with no external collimated solar. For the other three cases, the external collimated solar and three different scattering types are considered. Particularly, the LBM is extended to solve VRT in the atmospheric aerosol system where the scattering function contains singularities and the hemisphere space distributions for the Stokes vector are presented and discussed. The accuracy and computational efficiency of this algorithm are discussed. Numerical results show that the LBM is accurate, flexible and effective to solve one-dimensional polarized radiative transfer problems.

  16. Strategies to generate high-titer, high-potency recombinant AAV3 serotype vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 3 (AAV3 vectors were largely ignored previously, owing to their poor transduction efficiency in most cells and tissues examined, our initial observation of the selective tropism of AAV3 serotype vectors for human liver cancer cell lines and primary human hepatocytes has led to renewed interest in this serotype. AAV3 vectors and their variants have recently proven to be extremely efficient in targeting human and nonhuman primate hepatocytes in vitro as well as in vivo. In the present studies, we wished to evaluate the relative contributions of the cis-acting inverted terminal repeats (ITRs from AAV3 (ITR3, as well as the trans-acting Rep proteins from AAV3 (Rep3 in the AAV3 vector production and transduction. To this end, we utilized two helper plasmids: pAAVr2c3, which carries rep2 and cap3 genes, and pAAVr3c3, which carries rep3 and cap3 genes. The combined use of AAV3 ITRs, AAV3 Rep proteins, and AAV3 capsids led to the production of recombinant vectors, AAV3-Rep3/ITR3, with up to approximately two to fourfold higher titers than AAV3-Rep2/ITR2 vectors produced using AAV2 ITRs, AAV2 Rep proteins, and AAV3 capsids. We also observed that the transduction efficiency of Rep3/ITR3 AAV3 vectors was approximately fourfold higher than that of Rep2/ITR2 AAV3 vectors in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines in vitro. The transduction efficiency of Rep3/ITR3 vectors was increased by ∼10-fold, when AAV3 capsids containing mutations in two surface-exposed residues (serine 663 and threonine 492 were used to generate a S663V+T492V double-mutant AAV3 vector. The Rep3/ITR3 AAV3 vectors also transduced human liver tumors in vivo approximately twofold more efficiently than those generated with Rep2/ITR2. Our data suggest that the transduction efficiency of AAV3 vectors can be significantly improved both using homologous Rep proteins and ITRs as well as by capsid optimization. Thus, the combined use of

  17. Generating and measuring non-diffracting vector Bessel beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available beam, whose electric field is generalized as ( ) ( ) .1)(exp)(1)(exp)(),(    ∑ −+    − ∑ += −+ i QlirkJ i QlirkJru l rQl l rQl ϕϕϕ (3) Here Q corresponds to the azimuthal charge introduced by the q...)()(),,( 22 ϕθθϕ QrkJrkJrkJrkJrI l rQl l rQl l rQl l rQl +∑∑+   ∑+   ∑= −+−+ (4) To perform a measurement of the polarization and azimuthal components of the generated field it is evident from Eq. (3) that the field can...

  18. Fortran code for generating random probability vectors, unitaries, and quantum states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eMaziero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of generating random configurations is recognized in many areas of knowledge. Fortran was born for scientific computing and has been one of the main programming languages in this area since then. And several ongoing projects targeting towards its betterment indicate that it will keep this status in the decades to come. In this article, we describe Fortran codes produced, or organized, for the generation of the following random objects: numbers, probability vectors, unitary matrices, and quantum state vectors and density matrices. Some matrix functions are also included and may be of independent interest.

  19. Generation of a lentiviral vector producer cell clone for human Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Wielgosz

    Full Text Available We have developed a producer cell line that generates lentiviral vector particles of high titer. The vector encodes the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS protein. An insulator element has been added to the long terminal repeats of the integrated vector to limit proto-oncogene activation. The vector provides high-level, stable expression of WAS protein in transduced murine and human hematopoietic cells. We have also developed a monoclonal antibody specific for intracellular WAS protein. This antibody has been used to monitor expression in blood and bone marrow cells after transfer into lineage negative bone marrow cells from WAS mice and in a WAS negative human B-cell line. Persistent expression of the transgene has been observed in transduced murine cells 12–20 weeks following transplantation. The producer cell line and the specific monoclonal antibody will facilitate the development of a clinical protocol for gene transfer into WAS protein deficient stem cells.

  20. The vector resonance triplet with the direct coupling to the third quark generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gintner, Mikulas [University of Zilina, Physics Department, Zilina (Slovakia); Czech Technical University in Prague, Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Juran, Josef [Czech Technical University in Prague, Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Silesian University in Opava, Institute of Physics, Opava (Czech Republic)

    2013-10-15

    The effective Lagrangian with scalar and vector resonances that might result from new strong physics beyond the SM is formulated and studied. In particular, the scalar resonance representing the recently discovered 125-GeV boson is complemented with the SU(2){sub L+R} triplet of hypothetical vector resonances. Motivated by experimental and theoretical considerations, the vector resonance is allowed to couple directly to the third quark generation only. The coupling is chiral-dependent and the interaction of the right top quark can differ from that of the right bottom quark. To estimate the applicability range of the effective Lagrangian the unitarity of the gauge boson scattering amplitudes is analyzed. The experimental fits and limits on the free parameters of the vector resonance triplet are investigated. (orig.)

  1. Mechanical fault diagnosis based on redundant second generation wavelet packet transform, neighborhood rough set and support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Zhou, Rui; Hu, Qinghua; Liu, Xiaohang

    2012-04-01

    This paper investigates the application of the redundant second generation wavelet package transform (RSGWPT), neighborhood rough set (NRS) and support vector machine (SVM) on faulty detection, attribute reduction and pattern classification. On this basis, a novel method for mechanical faulty diagnosis based on RSGWPT, NRS and SVM is presented, which utilizes the RSGWPT to extract faulty feature parameters from the statistical characteristics of wavelet package coefficients to constitute feature vectors, and then makes the attribute reduction by NRS method to obtain the key features, lastly these key features are input into SVM to accomplish faulty pattern classification. The experimental results of the proposed method to fault diagnosis of the gearbox and gasoline engine valve trains show that this method can extract the faulty features, which have better classification ability and at the same time reduce a lot of redundant features in case of assuring the classification accuracy, accordingly improve the classifier efficiency and achieve a better classification performance.

  2. Highly Sensitive Method for Titration of Adenovirus Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Hildegund Ertl, ZhiQuan Xiang, Yan Li, Dongming Zhou, Xiangyang Zhou, Wynetta Giles-Davis & Yi-lin E. Liu ### Abstract Clinical development of vaccines based on adenovirus (Ad) vectors requires accurate techniques to determine vector doses including contents of infectious particles. For vectors derived from Ad virus of human serotype 5 content of infectious particles can readily be determined by plaque assays. Vaccine vectors based on alternative Ad serotypes such as thos...

  3. Generation of cylindrically polarized vector vortex beams with digital micromirror device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Lei; Liu, Weiwei; Wang, Meng; Zhong, Mincheng; Wang, Ziqiang; Li, Yinmei, E-mail: liyinmei@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Optics and Optical Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui Province 230026 (China); Ren, Yuxuan [National Center for Protein Sciences Shanghai, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, CAS, Shanghai 201210 (China)

    2014-11-14

    We propose a novel technique to directly transform a linearly polarized Gaussian beam into vector-vortex beams with various spatial patterns. Full high-quality control of amplitude and phase is implemented via a Digital Micro-mirror Device (DMD) binary holography for generating Laguerre-Gaussian, Bessel-Gaussian, and helical Mathieu–Gaussian modes, while a radial polarization converter (S-waveplate) is employed to effectively convert the optical vortices into cylindrically polarized vortex beams. Additionally, the generated vector-vortex beams maintain their polarization symmetry after arbitrary polarization manipulation. Due to the high frame rates of DMD, rapid switching among a series of vector modes carrying different orbital angular momenta paves the way for optical microscopy, trapping, and communication.

  4. Blunt-end vectors generated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blunt-end cloning is a convenient way to clone polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products generated by proof-reading DNA polymerase. However, it is a time consuming procedure to prepare the linearized blunt-end vector, which usually involves plasmid extraction and restriction enzyme digestion. Moreover, 5' ...

  5. Generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell line CERAi001-A-6 using episomal vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond C.B. Wong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the generation of the hiPSC line CERAi001-A-6 from primary human dermal fibroblasts. Reprogramming was performed using episomal vector delivery of OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, L-MYC, LIN28 and shRNA for p53.

  6. Generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell line CERAi001-A-6 using episomal vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Raymond C B; Hung, Sandy S; Jackson, Stacey; Singh, Vikrant; Khan, Shahnaz; Liang, Helena H; Kearns, Lisa S; Nguyen, Tu; Conquest, Alison; Daniszewski, Maciej; Hewitt, Alex W; Pébay, Alice

    2017-07-01

    We report the generation of the hiPSC line CERAi001-A-6 from primary human dermal fibroblasts. Reprogramming was performed using episomal vector delivery of OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, L-MYC, LIN28 and shRNA for p53. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. q-plate for the Generation of Terahertz Cylindrical Vector Beams Fabricated by 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Serrano, A. I.; Castro-Camus, E.; Lopez-Mago, D.

    2017-08-01

    We present the design, fabrication, and characterization of a q-plate with continuous birefringence variation at terahertz frequencies. This q-plate was fabricated by three-dimensional printing and is a simple solution for the generation of cylindrical vector beams. This device can find a number of applications in future terahertz technologies such as telecommunications.

  8. Blunt-end vectors generated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-19

    Sep 19, 2011 ... Blunt-end cloning is a convenient way to clone polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products generated by proof-reading DNA polymerase. However, it is a time consuming procedure to prepare the linearized blunt-end vector, which usually involves plasmid extraction and restriction enzyme digestion.

  9. Generation of vector beams using a double-wedge depolarizer: Non-quantum entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samlan, C. T.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2016-07-01

    Propagation of horizontally polarized Gaussian beam through a double-wedge depolarizer generates vector beams with spatially varying state of polarization. Jones calculus is used to show that such beams are maximally nonseparable on the basis of even (Gaussian)-odd (Hermite-Gaussian) mode parity and horizontal-vertical polarization state. The maximum nonseparability in the two degrees of freedom of the vector beam at the double wedge depolarizer output is verified experimentally using a modified Sagnac interferometer and linear analyser projected interferograms to measure the concurrence 0.94±0.002 and violation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt form of Bell-like inequality 2.704±0.024. The investigation is carried out in the context of the use of vector beams for metrological applications.

  10. Third-Order Newton-Type Methods Combined with Vector Extrapolation for Solving Nonlinear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a third-order method for solving the systems of nonlinear equations. This method is a Newton-type scheme with the vector extrapolation. We establish the local and semilocal convergence of this method. Numerical results show that the composite method is more robust and efficient than a number of Newton-type methods with the other vector extrapolations.

  11. Figaro: a novel statistical method for vector sequence removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James Robert; Roberts, Michael; Yorke, James A.; Pop, Mihai

    2009-01-01

    Motivation Sequences produced by automated Sanger sequencing machines frequently contain fragments of the cloning vector on their ends. Software tools currently available for identifying and removing the vector sequence require knowledge of the vector sequence, specific splice sites and any adapter sequences used in the experiment—information often omitted from public databases. Furthermore, the clipping coordinates themselves are missing or incorrectly reported. As an example, within the ~1.24 billion shotgun sequences deposited in the NCBI Trace Archive, as many as ~735 million (~60%) lack vector clipping information. Correct clipping information is essential to scientists attempting to validate, improve and even finish the increasingly large number of genomes released at a ‘draft’ quality level. Results We present here Figaro, a novel software tool for identifying and removing the vector from raw sequence data without prior knowledge of the vector sequence. The vector sequence is automatically inferred by analyzing the frequency of occurrence of short oligo-nucleotides using Poisson statistics. We show that Figaro achieves 99.98% sensitivity when tested on ~1.5 million shotgun reads from Drosophila pseudoobscura. We further explore the impact of accurate vector trimming on the quality of whole-genome assemblies by re-assembling two bacterial genomes from shotgun sequences deposited in the Trace Archive. Designed as a module in large computational pipelines, Figaro is fast, lightweight and flexible. Availability Figaro is released under an open-source license through the AMOS package (http://amos.sourceforge.net/Figaro). PMID:18202027

  12. Communication systems, transceivers, and methods for generating data based on channel characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Michael A; Young, Derek

    2012-09-18

    Examples of methods for generating data based on a communications channel are described. In one such example, a processing unit may generate a first vector representation based in part on at least two characteristics of a communications channel. A constellation having at least two dimensions may be addressed with the first vector representation to identify a first symbol associated with the first vector representation. The constellation represents a plurality of regions, each region associated with a respective symbol. The symbol may be used to generate data, which may stored in an electronic storage medium and used as a cryptographic key or a spreading code or hopping sequence in a modulation technique.

  13. Ultrasonic 3-D Vector Flow Method for Quantitative In Vivo Peak Velocity and Flow Rate Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbek, Simon; Ewertsen, Caroline; Bouzari, Hamed; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Thomsen, Carsten; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jorgen Arendt

    2017-03-01

    Current clinical ultrasound (US) systems are limited to show blood flow movement in either 1-D or 2-D. In this paper, a method for estimating 3-D vector velocities in a plane using the transverse oscillation method, a 32×32 element matrix array, and the experimental US scanner SARUS is presented. The aim of this paper is to estimate precise flow rates and peak velocities derived from 3-D vector flow estimates. The emission sequence provides 3-D vector flow estimates at up to 1.145 frames/s in a plane, and was used to estimate 3-D vector flow in a cross-sectional image plane. The method is validated in two phantom studies, where flow rates are measured in a flow-rig, providing a constant parabolic flow, and in a straight-vessel phantom ( ∅=8 mm) connected to a flow pump capable of generating time varying waveforms. Flow rates are estimated to be 82.1 ± 2.8 L/min in the flow-rig compared with the expected 79.8 L/min, and to 2.68 ± 0.04 mL/stroke in the pulsating environment compared with the expected 2.57 ± 0.08 mL/stroke. Flow rates estimated in the common carotid artery of a healthy volunteer are compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measured flow rates using a 1-D through-plane velocity sequence. Mean flow rates were 333 ± 31 mL/min for the presented method and 346 ± 2 mL/min for the MRI measurements.

  14. Apparatuses and methods for generating electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R; Tremblay, Paul L

    2013-08-06

    Apparatuses and methods relating to generating an electric field are disclosed. An electric field generator may include a semiconductive material configured in a physical shape substantially different from a shape of an electric field to be generated thereby. The electric field is generated when a voltage drop exists across the semiconductive material. A method for generating an electric field may include applying a voltage to a shaped semiconductive material to generate a complex, substantially nonlinear electric field. The shape of the complex, substantially nonlinear electric field may be configured for directing charged particles to a desired location. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed.

  15. Microplasma generator and methods therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopwood, Jeffrey A

    2015-04-14

    A low-temperature, atmospheric-pressure microplasma generator comprises at least one strip of metal on a dielectric substrate. A first end of the strip is connected to a ground plane and the second end of the strip is adjacent to a grounded electrode, with a gap being defined between the second end of the strip and the grounded electrode. High frequency power is supplied to the strip. The frequency is selected so that the length of the strip is an odd integer multiple of 1/4 of the wavelength traveling on the strip. A microplasma forms in the gap between the second end of the strip and the grounded electrode due to electric fields in that region. A microplasma generator array comprises a plurality of strongly-coupled resonant strips in close proximity to one another. At least one of the strips has an input for high-frequency electrical power. The remaining strips resonate due to coupling from the at least one powered strip. The array can provide a continuous line or ring of plasma. The microplasma generator can be used to alter the surface of a substrate, such as by adding material (deposition), removal of material (etching), or modifying surface chemistry.

  16. Generation of recombinant adenovirus vectors with modified fibers for altering viral tropism.

    OpenAIRE

    Krasnykh, V N; Mikheeva, G V; Douglas, J T; Curiel, D.T.

    1996-01-01

    To expand the utility of recombinant adenovirus vectors for gene therapy applications, methods to alter native viral tropism to achieve cell-specific transduction would be beneficial. To this end, we are pursuing genetic methods to alter the cell recognition domain of the adenovirus fiber. To incorporate these modified fibers into mature virions, we have developed a method based on homologous DNA recombination between two plasmids. A fiber-deleted, propagation-defective rescue plasmid has bee...

  17. Improved method for methane generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A method for treatment of a material comprising lignocellulosic fibres is disclosed. More particularly, the treatment increases the accessibility of the lignocellulosic fibres for following microbial or biological processes....

  18. New yeast/E. coli/Drosophila triple shuttle vectors for efficient generation of Drosophila P element transformation constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paululat, Achim; Heinisch, Jürgen J

    2012-12-15

    We have generated a set of novel triple shuttle vectors that facilitate the construction of Drosophila-P-element transformations vectors. These YED-vectors allow the insertion of any kind of sequence at any chosen position due to the presence of a yeast casette which ensures replication and allows for homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a proof of principle we generated several reporter constructs and tested them in transgenic flies for expression and correct subcellular localization. YED-vectors can be used for many purposes including promoter analysis or the expression of tagged or truncated proteins. Thus, time-consuming conventional restriction site based multi-step cloning procedures can be circumvented by using the new YED-vectors. The new set of triple shuttle vectors will be highly beneficial for the rapid construction of complex Drosophila transformation plasmids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficient Strategy to Generate a Vectored Duck Enteritis Virus Delivering Envelope of Duck Tembusu Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Zou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV is a recently emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has resulted in a huge economic loss in the duck industry. However, no vaccine is currently available to control this pathogen. Consequently, a practical strategy to construct a vaccine against this pathogen should be determined. In this study, duck enteritis virus (DEV was examined as a candidate vaccine vector to deliver the envelope (E of DTMUV. A modified mini-F vector was inserted into the SORF3 and US2 gene junctions of the attenuated DEV vaccine strain C-KCE genome to generate an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC of C-KCE (vBAC-C-KCE. The envelope (E gene of DTMUV was inserted into the C-KCE genome through the mating-assisted genetically integrated cloning (MAGIC strategy, resulting in the recombinant vector, pBAC-C-KCE-E. A bivalent vaccine C-KCE-E was generated by eliminating the BAC backbone. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis results indicated that the E proteins were vigorously expressed in C-KCE-E-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs. Duck experiments demonstrated that the insertion of the E gene did not alter the protective efficacy of C-KCE. Moreover, C-KCE-E-immunized ducks induced neutralization antibodies against DTMUV. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant C-KCE-E can serve as a potential bivalent vaccine against DEV and DTMUV.

  20. Empirical evaluation of gradient methods for matrix learning vector quantization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LeKander, M.; Biehl, M.; Vries, H. de

    2017-01-01

    Generalized Matrix Learning Vector Quantization (GMLVQ) critically relies on the use of an optimization algorithm to train its model parameters. We test various schemes for automated control of learning rates in gradient-based training. We evaluate these algorithms in terms of their achieved

  1. Vector control of an induction motor fed by a photovoltaic generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrouf, M.; Bouguechal, N. [Batna Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Batna (Algeria)

    2003-02-01

    With the continuous decrease of the cost of solar cells, there is an increasing interest in photovoltaic (PV) system applications. Electric motors powered by solar-cell generators are one of the most important applications, such as in water pumping systems. This paper investigates a photovoltaic-electro mechanic chain, composed of a PV generator, an impedance adapter DC-DC converter, a storage battery and a vector controlled induction machine. The PV generator is forced to operate at its maximum power point by using an appropriate search algorithm, and a balance between battery charge and motor supply is also ensured in all insolation conditions. Simulation results show the effectiveness and feasibility of such an approach. (Author)

  2. Quantifying external and internal collagen organization from Stokes-vector-based second harmonic generation imaging polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Francisco J.; del Barco, Oscar; Bueno, Juan M.

    2017-10-01

    Collagen organization has been analyzed at both external and internal scales by combining Stokes-vector polarimetry and second harmonic generation microscopy. A significant linear relationship between the diattenuation and the external collagen organization was found. The dominant orientation of the collagen fibers was found to run parallel to the axis of diattenuation. Information on the collagen chirality was obtained from the circular dichroism, which showed also a strong dependence with the internal collagen organization. The results show that certain polarimetric parameters might be useful to extract quantitative information and characterize collagen arrangement.

  3. Devices and methods for generating an aerosol

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2016-03-03

    Aerosol generators and methods of generating aerosols are provided. The aerosol can be generated at a stagnation interface between a hot, wet stream and a cold, dry stream. The aerosol has the benefit that the properties of the aerosol can be precisely controlled. The stagnation interface can be generated, for example, by the opposed flow of the hot stream and the cold stream. The aerosol generator and the aerosol generation methods are capable of producing aerosols with precise particle sizes and a narrow size distribution. The properties of the aerosol can be controlled by controlling one or more of the stream temperatures, the saturation level of the hot stream, and the flow times of the streams.

  4. Ectopic integration vectors for generating fluorescent promoter fusions in Bacillus subtilis with minimal dark noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Trauth

    Full Text Available Fluorescent protein promoter reporters are important tools that are widely used for diverse purposes in microbiology, systems biology and synthetic biology and considerable engineering efforts are still geared at improving the sensitivity of the reporter systems. Here we focus on dark noise, i.e. the signal that is generated by the empty vector control. We quantitatively characterize the dark noise of a few common bacterial reporter systems by single cell microscopy. All benchmarked reporter systems generated significant amounts of dark noise that exceed the cellular autofluorescence to different extents. We then reengineered a multicolor set of fluorescent ectopic integration vectors for Bacillus subtilis by introducing a terminator immediately upstream of the promoter insertion site, resulting in an up to 2.7-fold reduction of noise levels. The sensitivity and dynamic range of the new high-performance pXFP_Star reporter system is only limited by cellular autofluorescence. Moreover, based on studies of the rapE promoter of B. subtilis we show that the new pXFP_Star reporter system reliably reports on the weak activity of the rapE promoter whereas the original reporter system fails because of transcriptional interference. Since the pXFP_Star reporter system properly isolates the promoter from spurious transcripts, it is a particularly suitable tool for quantitative characterization of weak promoters in B. subtilis.

  5. Morphological features of iPS cells generated from Fabry disease skin fibroblasts using Sendai virus vector (SeVdp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagoe, Shiho; Higuchi, Takashi; Otaka, Manami; Shimada, Yohta; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ida, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Toya; Okano, Hirotaka J; Nakanishi, Mahito; Eto, Yoshikatsu

    2013-08-01

    We generated iPS cells from human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) of Fabry disease using a Sendai virus (SeVdp) vector; this method has been established by Nakanishi et al. for pathogenic evaluation. We received SeVdp vector from Nakanishi and loaded it simultaneously with four reprogramming factors (Klf4, Oct4, Sox2, and c-Myc) to HDFs of Fabry disease; subsequently, we observed the presence of human iPS-like cells. The Sendai virus nucleocapsid protein was not detected in the fibroblasts by RT-PCR analysis. Additionally, we confirmed an undifferentiated state, alkaline phosphatase staining, and the presence of SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81. Moreover, ultrastructural features of these iPS cells included massive membranous cytoplasmic bodies typical of HDFs of Fabry disease. Thus, we successfully generated human iPS cells from HDFs of Fabry disease that retained the genetic conditions of Fabry disease; also, these abnormal iPS cells could not be easily differentiated into mature cell types such as neuronal cells, cardiomyocytes, etc. because of a massive accumulation of membranous cytoplasmic bodies in lysosomes, possibly the persistent damages of intracellular architecture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Flip-Flop HSV-BAC: bacterial artificial chromosome based system for rapid generation of recombinant herpes simplex virus vectors using two independent site-specific recombinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todo Tomoki

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV vectors that specifically replicate in and kill tumor cells sparing normal cells are a promising cancer therapy. Traditionally, recombinant HSV vectors have been generated through homologous recombination between the HSV genome and a recombination plasmid, which usually requires laborious screening or selection and can take several months. Recent advances in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC technology have enabled cloning of the whole HSV genome as a BAC plasmid and subsequent manipulation in E. coli. Thus, we sought a method to generate recombinant oncolytic HSV vectors more easily and quickly using BAC technology. Results We have developed an HSV-BAC system, termed the Flip-Flop HSV-BAC system, for the rapid generation of oncolytic HSV vectors. This system has the following features: (i two site-specific recombinases, Cre and FLPe, are used sequentially to integrate desired sequences and to excise the BAC sequences, respectively; and (ii the size of the HSV-BAC-insert genome exceeds the packaging limit of HSV so only correctly recombined virus grows efficiently. We applied this to the construction of an HSV-BAC plasmid that can be used for the generation of transcriptionally-targeted HSV vectors. BAC sequences were recombined into the UL39 gene of HSV ICP4-deletion mutant d120 to generate M24-BAC virus, from which HSV-BAC plasmid pM24-BAC was isolated. An ICP4 expression cassette driven by an exogenous promoter was re-introduced to pM24-BAC by Cre-mediated recombination and nearly pure preparations of recombinant virus were obtained typically in two weeks. Insertion of the ICP4 coding sequence alone did not restore viral replication and was only minimally better than an ICP4-null construct, whereas insertion of a CMVIE promoter-ICP4 transgene (bM24-CMV efficiently drove viral replication. The levels of bM24-CMV replication in tumor cells varied considerably compared to hrR3 (UL39

  7. Parameter Selection Method for Support Vector Regression Based on Adaptive Fusion of the Mixed Kernel Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Support vector regression algorithm is widely used in fault diagnosis of rolling bearing. A new model parameter selection method for support vector regression based on adaptive fusion of the mixed kernel function is proposed in this paper. We choose the mixed kernel function as the kernel function of support vector regression. The mixed kernel function of the fusion coefficients, kernel function parameters, and regression parameters are combined together as the parameters of the state vector. Thus, the model selection problem is transformed into a nonlinear system state estimation problem. We use a 5th-degree cubature Kalman filter to estimate the parameters. In this way, we realize the adaptive selection of mixed kernel function weighted coefficients and the kernel parameters, the regression parameters. Compared with a single kernel function, unscented Kalman filter (UKF support vector regression algorithms, and genetic algorithms, the decision regression function obtained by the proposed method has better generalization ability and higher prediction accuracy.

  8. Sine Rotation Vector Method for Attitude Estimation of an Underwater Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nak Yong Ko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for estimating the attitude of an underwater robot. The method employs a new concept of sine rotation vector and uses both an attitude heading and reference system (AHRS and a Doppler velocity log (DVL for the purpose of measurement. First, the acceleration and magnetic-field measurements are transformed into sine rotation vectors and combined. The combined sine rotation vector is then transformed into the differences between the Euler angles of the measured attitude and the predicted attitude; the differences are used to correct the predicted attitude. The method was evaluated according to field-test data and simulation data and compared to existing methods that calculate angular differences directly without a preceding sine rotation vector transformation. The comparison verifies that the proposed method improves the attitude estimation performance.

  9. An improved wave-vector frequency-domain method for nonlinear wave modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yun; Tao, Molei; Cannata, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a recently developed wave-vector frequency-domain method for nonlinear wave modeling is improved and verified by numerical simulations and underwater experiments. Higher order numeric schemes are proposed that significantly increase the modeling accuracy, thereby allowing for a larger step size and shorter computation time. The improved algorithms replace the left-point Riemann sum in the original algorithm by the trapezoidal or Simpson's integration. Plane waves and a phased array were first studied to numerically validate the model. It is shown that the left-point Riemann sum, trapezoidal, and Simpson's integration have first-, second-, and third-order global accuracy, respectively. A highly focused therapeutic transducer was then used for experimental verifications. Short high-intensity pulses were generated. 2-D scans were conducted at a prefocal plane, which were later used as the input to the numerical model to predict the acoustic field at other planes. Good agreement is observed between simulations and experiments.

  10. Generation of a non-transmissive Borna disease virus vector lacking both matrix and glycoprotein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Kan; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Daito, Takuji; Makino, Akiko; Honda, Tomoyuki; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2017-09-01

    Borna disease virus (BoDV), a prototype of mammalian bornavirus, is a non-segmented, negative strand RNA virus that often causes severe neurological disorders in infected animals, including horses and sheep. Unique among animal RNA viruses, BoDV transcribes and replicates non-cytopathically in the cell nucleus, leading to establishment of long-lasting persistent infection. This striking feature of BoDV indicates its potential as an RNA virus vector system. It has previously been demonstrated by our team that recombinant BoDV (rBoDV) lacking an envelope glycoprotein (G) gene develops persistent infections in transduced cells without loss of the viral genome. In this study, a novel non-transmissive rBoDV, rBoDV ΔMG, which lacks both matrix (M) and G genes in the genome, is reported. rBoDV-ΔMG expressing green fluorescence protein (GFP), rBoDV ΔMG-GFP, was efficiently generated in Vero/MG cells stably expressing both BoDV M and G proteins. Infection with rBoDV ΔMG-GFP was persistently maintained in the parent Vero cells without propagation within cell culture. The optimal ratio of M and G for efficient viral particle production by transient transfection of M and G expression plasmids into cells persistently infected with rBoDV ΔMG-GFP was also demonstrated. These findings indicate that the rBoDV ΔMG-based BoDV vector may provide an extremely safe virus vector system and could be a novel strategy for investigating the function of M and G proteins and the host range of bornaviruses. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Community effectiveness of indoor spraying as a dengue vector control method: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moody Samuel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevention and control of dengue rely mainly on vector control methods, including indoor residual spraying (IRS and indoor space spraying (ISS. This study aimed to systematically review the available evidence on community effectiveness of indoor spraying.A systematic review was conducted using seven databases (PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, Web of Science, WHOLIS, Cochrane, and Google Scholar and a manual search of the reference lists of the identified studies. Data from included studies were extracted, analysed and reported.The review generated seven studies only, three IRS and four ISS (two/three controlled studies respectively. Two IRS studies measuring human transmission showed a decline. One IRS and all four ISS studies measuring adult mosquitoes showed a very good effect, up to 100%, but not sustained. Two IRS studies and one ISS measuring immature mosquitoes, showed mixed results.It is evident that IRS and also ISS are effective adulticidal interventions against Aedes mosquitoes. However, evidence to suggest effectiveness of IRS as a larvicidal intervention and to reduce human dengue cases is limited-and even more so for ISS. Overall, there is a paucity of studies available on these two interventions that may be promising for dengue vector control, particularly for IRS with its residual effect.

  12. Community effectiveness of indoor spraying as a dengue vector control method: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Moody; Maoz, Dorit; Manrique, Pablo; Ward, Tara; Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; Toledo, Joao; Boyce, Ross; Horstick, Olaf

    2017-08-01

    The prevention and control of dengue rely mainly on vector control methods, including indoor residual spraying (IRS) and indoor space spraying (ISS). This study aimed to systematically review the available evidence on community effectiveness of indoor spraying. A systematic review was conducted using seven databases (PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, Web of Science, WHOLIS, Cochrane, and Google Scholar) and a manual search of the reference lists of the identified studies. Data from included studies were extracted, analysed and reported. The review generated seven studies only, three IRS and four ISS (two/three controlled studies respectively). Two IRS studies measuring human transmission showed a decline. One IRS and all four ISS studies measuring adult mosquitoes showed a very good effect, up to 100%, but not sustained. Two IRS studies and one ISS measuring immature mosquitoes, showed mixed results. It is evident that IRS and also ISS are effective adulticidal interventions against Aedes mosquitoes. However, evidence to suggest effectiveness of IRS as a larvicidal intervention and to reduce human dengue cases is limited-and even more so for ISS. Overall, there is a paucity of studies available on these two interventions that may be promising for dengue vector control, particularly for IRS with its residual effect.

  13. Transduction of striatum and cortex tissues by adeno-associated viral vectors produced by herpes simplex virus- and baculovirus-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H Steve; Kim, Eunmi; Lee, Slgirim; Ahn, Ik-Sung; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors can be engineered to carry genetic material encoding therapeutic gene products that have demonstrated significant clinical promise. These viral vectors are typically produced in mammalian cells by the transient transfection of two or three plasmids encoding the AAV rep and cap genes, the adenovirus helper gene, and a gene of interest. Although this method can produce high-quality AAV vectors when used with multiple purification protocols, one critical limitation is the difficulty in scaling-up manufacturing, which poses a significant hurdle to the broad clinical utilization of AAV vectors. To address this challenge, recombinant herpes simplex virus type I (rHSV-1)- and recombinant baculovirus (rBac)-based methods have been established recently. These methods are more amenable to large-scale production of AAV vectors than methods using the transient transfection of mammalian cells. To investigate potential applications of AAV vectors produced by rHSV-1- or rBac-based platforms, the in vivo transduction of rHSV-1- or rBac-produced AAV serotype 2 (AAV2) vectors within the rat brain were examined by comparing them with vectors generated by the conventional transfection method. Injection of rHSV-1- or rBac-produced AAV vectors into rat striatum and cortex tissues revealed no differences in cellular tropism (i.e., predominantly neuronal targeting) or anteroposterior spread compared with AAV2 vectors produced by transient transfection. This report represents a step towards validating AAV vectors produced by the rHSV-1- and the rBac-based systems as promising tools, especially for delivering therapeutic molecules to the central nervous system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Low cost digital signal generation for driving space vector PWM inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Gaballah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing trend of using space vector pulse-width modulation (SVPWM schemes for driving voltage source inverters because of their easier digital realization and better DC bus utilization. This paper introduces an SVPWM technique based on a reduced computation method, which is much simpler and more executable than conventional means without lookup tables or complex logical judgments. The SVPWM scheme is modeled and simulated using MATLAB SIMULINK and experimentally implemented and verified on microchip PIC microcontroller 18F4431 platform. The experimental results are presented for three-phase two-level inverter followed by three-phase LC filter.

  15. Aeromagnetic gradient compensation method for helicopter based on ɛ-support vector regression algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peilin; Zhang, Qunying; Fei, Chunjiao; Fang, Guangyou

    2017-04-01

    Aeromagnetic gradients are typically measured by optically pumped magnetometers mounted on an aircraft. Any aircraft, particularly helicopters, produces significant levels of magnetic interference. Therefore, aeromagnetic compensation is essential, and least square (LS) is the conventional method used for reducing interference levels. However, the LSs approach to solving the aeromagnetic interference model has a few difficulties, one of which is in handling multicollinearity. Therefore, we propose an aeromagnetic gradient compensation method, specifically targeted for helicopter use but applicable on any airborne platform, which is based on the ɛ-support vector regression algorithm. The structural risk minimization criterion intrinsic to the method avoids multicollinearity altogether. Local aeromagnetic anomalies can be retained, and platform-generated fields are suppressed simultaneously by constructing an appropriate loss function and kernel function. The method was tested using an unmanned helicopter and obtained improvement ratios of 12.7 and 3.5 in the vertical and horizontal gradient data, respectively. Both of these values are probably better than those that would have been obtained from the conventional method applied to the same data, had it been possible to do so in a suitable comparative context. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by the experimental result.

  16. Method of operating a thermoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D

    2013-11-05

    A method for operating a thermoelectric generator supplying a variable-load component includes commanding the variable-load component to operate at a first output and determining a first load current and a first load voltage to the variable-load component while operating at the commanded first output. The method also includes commanding the variable-load component to operate at a second output and determining a second load current and a second load voltage to the variable-load component while operating at the commanded second output. The method includes calculating a maximum power output of the thermoelectric generator from the determined first load current and voltage and the determined second load current and voltage, and commanding the variable-load component to operate at a third output. The commanded third output is configured to draw the calculated maximum power output from the thermoelectric generator.

  17. Method of generating a computer readable model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A method of generating a computer readable model of a geometrical object constructed from a plurality of interconnectable construction elements, wherein each construction element has a number of connection elements for connecting the construction element with another construction element. The met......A method of generating a computer readable model of a geometrical object constructed from a plurality of interconnectable construction elements, wherein each construction element has a number of connection elements for connecting the construction element with another construction element....... The method comprises encoding a first and a second one of the construction elements as corresponding data structures, each representing the connection elements of the corresponding construction element, and each of the connection elements having associated with it a predetermined connection type. The method...

  18. Plasma plume MHD power generator and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, J.H.

    1993-08-10

    A method is described of generating power at a situs exposed to the solar wind which comprises creating at separate sources at the situs discrete plasma plumes extending in opposed directions, providing electrical communication between the plumes at their source and interposing a desired electrical load in the said electrical communication between the plumes.

  19. Mapping the AAV capsid host antibody response towards the development of second generation gene delivery vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan eTseng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recombinant Adeno-associated virus (rAAV gene delivery system is entering a crucial and exciting phase with the promise of more than 20 years of intense research now realized in a number of successful human clinical trials. However, as a natural host to AAV infection, anti-AAV antibodies are prevalent in the human population. For example, ~70% of human sera samples are positive for AAV serotype 2 (AAV2. Furthermore, low levels of pre-existing neutralizing antibodies in the circulation are detrimental to the efficacy of corrective therapeutic AAV gene delivery. A key component to overcoming this obstacle is the identification of regions of the AAV capsid that participate in interactions with host immunity, especially neutralizing antibodies, to be modified for neutralization escape. Three main approaches have been utilized to map antigenic epitopes on AAV capsids. The first is directed evolution in which AAV variants are selected in the presence of monoclonal antibodies or pooled human sera. This results in AAV variants with mutations on important neutralizing epitopes. The second is epitope searching, achieved by peptide scanning, peptide insertion or site-directed mutagenesis. The third, a structure biology-based approach, utilizes cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction of AAV capsids complexed to fragment antibodies, which are generated from monoclonal antibodies, to directly visualize the epitopes. In this review, the contribution of these three approaches to the current knowledge of AAV epitopes and success in their use to create second generation vectors will be discussed.

  20. Mapping the AAV Capsid Host Antibody Response toward the Development of Second Generation Gene Delivery Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Shan; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2014-01-01

    The recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) gene delivery system is entering a crucial and exciting phase with the promise of more than 20 years of intense research now realized in a number of successful human clinical trials. However, as a natural host to AAV infection, anti-AAV antibodies are prevalent in the human population. For example, ~70% of human sera samples are positive for AAV serotype 2 (AAV2). Furthermore, low levels of pre-existing neutralizing antibodies in the circulation are detrimental to the efficacy of corrective therapeutic AAV gene delivery. A key component to overcoming this obstacle is the identification of regions of the AAV capsid that participate in interactions with host immunity, especially neutralizing antibodies, to be modified for neutralization escape. Three main approaches have been utilized to map antigenic epitopes on AAV capsids. The first is directed evolution in which AAV variants are selected in the presence of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) or pooled human sera. This results in AAV variants with mutations on important neutralizing epitopes. The second is epitope searching, achieved by peptide scanning, peptide insertion, or site-directed mutagenesis. The third, a structure biology-based approach, utilizes cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction of AAV capsids complexed to fragment antibodies, which are generated from MAbs, to directly visualize the epitopes. In this review, the contribution of these three approaches to the current knowledge of AAV epitopes and success in their use to create second generation vectors will be discussed.

  1. A streamlined method for the design and cloning of shRNAs into an optimized Dox-inducible lentiviral vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Sander B; Schulz, Veronique V; Miranti, Cindy K

    2017-02-28

    Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) is an established and effective tool for stable knock down of gene expression. Lentiviral vectors can be used to deliver shRNAs, thereby providing the ability to infect most mammalian cell types with high efficiency, regardless of proliferation state. Furthermore, the use of inducible promoters to drive shRNA expression allows for more thorough investigations into the specific timing of gene function in a variety of cellular processes. Moreover, inducible knockdown allows the investigation of genes that would be lethal or otherwise poorly tolerated if constitutively knocked down. Lentiviral inducible shRNA vectors are readily available, but unfortunately the process of cloning, screening, and testing shRNAs can be time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, we sought to refine a popular vector (Tet-pLKO-Puro) and streamline the cloning process with efficient protocols so that researchers can more efficiently utilize this powerful tool. METHODS: First, we modified the Tet-pLKO-Puro vector to make it easy ("EZ") for molecular cloning (EZ-Tet-pLKO-Puro). Our primary modification was to shrink the stuffer region, which allows vector purification via polyethylene glycol precipitation thereby avoiding the need to purify DNA through agarose. In addition, we generated EZ-Tet-pLKO vectors with hygromycin or blasticidin resistance to provide greater flexibility in cell line engineering. Furthermore, we provide a detailed guide for utilizing these vectors, including shRNA design strategy and simplified screening methods. Notably, we emphasize the importance of loop sequence design and demonstrate that the addition of a single mismatch in the loop stem can greatly improve shRNA efficiency. Lastly, we display the robustness of the system with a doxycycline titration and recovery time course and provide a cost/benefit analysis comparing our system with purchasing pre-designed shRNA vectors. Our aim was twofold: first, to take a very useful shRNA vector

  2. Vector-based plane-wave spectrum method for the propagation of cylindrical electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, S; Prather, D W

    1999-11-01

    We present a vector-based plane-wave spectrum (VPWS) method for efficient propagation of cylindrical electromagnetic fields. In comparison with electromagnetic propagation integrals, the VPWS method significantly reduces time of propagation. Numerical results that illustrate the utility of this method are presented.

  3. Track Circuit Fault Diagnosis Method based on Least Squares Support Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Sun, Fengru

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve the troubleshooting efficiency and accuracy of the track circuit, track circuit fault diagnosis method was researched. Firstly, the least squares support vector machine was applied to design the multi-fault classifier of the track circuit, and then the measured track data as training samples was used to verify the feasibility of the methods. Finally, the results based on BP neural network fault diagnosis methods and the methods used in this paper were compared. Results shows that the track fault classifier based on least squares support vector machine can effectively achieve the five track circuit fault diagnosis with less computing time.

  4. Non-overlapped P- and S-wave Poynting vectors and its solution on Grid Method

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yong Ming

    2017-12-12

    Poynting vector represents the local directional energy flux density of seismic waves in geophysics. It is widely used in elastic reverse time migration (RTM) to analyze source illumination, suppress low-wavenumber noise, correct for image polarity and extract angle-domain common imaging gather (ADCIG). However, the P and S waves are mixed together during wavefield propagation such that the P and S energy fluxes are not clean everywhere, especially at the overlapped points. In this paper, we use a modified elastic wave equation in which the P and S vector wavefields are naturally separated. Then, we develop an efficient method to evaluate the separable P and S poynting vectors, respectively, based on the view that the group velocity and phase velocity have the same direction in isotropic elastic media. We furthermore formulate our method using an unstructured mesh based modeling method named the grid method. Finally, we verify our method using two numerical examples.

  5. Single-sideband W-band photonic vector millimeter-wave signal generation by one single I/Q modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinying; Xu, Yuming; Yu, Jianjun

    2016-09-15

    We propose a new scheme to generate single-sideband (SSB) photonic vector millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal adopting asymmetrical SSB modulation enabled by a single in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) modulator. The driving signal for the I/Q modulator is generated by software-based digital signal processing (DSP) instead of a complicated transmitter electrical circuit, which significantly simplifies the system architecture and increases system stability. One vector-modulated optical sideband and one unmodulated optical sideband, with different sideband frequencies, located at two sides of a significantly suppressed central optical carrier, are generated by the I/Q modulator and used for heterodyne beating to generate the electrical vector mm-wave signal. The two optical sidebands are robust to fiber dispersion and can be transmitted over relatively long-haul fiber. We experimentally demonstrate the generation and transmission of 4-Gbaud 80-GHz quadrature-phase-shift-keying-modulated (QPSK-modulated) SSB vector mm-wave signal over 240-km single-mode fiber-28 without optical dispersion compensation.

  6. A geometric Newton method for Oja's vector field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absil, P A; Ishteva, M; De Lathauwer, L; Van Huffel, S

    2009-05-01

    Newton's method for solving the matrix equation F(X) identical to AX-XX(T) AX = 0 runs up against the fact that its zeros are not isolated. This is due to a symmetry of F by the action of the orthogonal group. We show how differential-geometric techniques can be exploited to remove this symmetry and obtain a "geometric" Newton algorithm that finds the zeros of F. The geometric Newton method does not suffer from the degeneracy issue that stands in the way of the original Newton method.

  7. A Novel Method for Generating Encryption Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dascalescu Ana Cristina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the informational society, which has led to an impressive growth of the information volume circulating in the computer networks, has accelerated the evolution and especially the use of modern cryptography instruments. Today, the commercial products use standard cryptographic libraries that implement certified and tested cryptographic algorithms. Instead, the fragility ofencryption algorithms is given by compositional operations like key handling or key generation. In this sense, the article proposes an innovative method to generate pseudorandom numbers which can be used for the construction of secure stream encryption keys. The proposed method is based on the mathematical complements based on the algebra of the finite fields and uses a particularized structure of the linear feedback shift registers.

  8. Adaptive Vector Finite Element Methods for the Maxwell Equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harutyunyan, D.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing demand to understand the behaviour of electromagnetic waves in many real life problems requires solution of the Maxwell equations. In most cases the exact solution of the Maxwell equations is not available, hence numerical methods are indispensable tool to solve them numerically using

  9. Vector generation functions, q-spectral functions of hyperbolic geometry, and vertex operators for quantum affine algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytsenko, A. A.; Chaichian, M.; Luna, R.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the concept of q-replicated argument in symmetric functions with its connection to spectral functions of hyperbolic geometry. This construction suffices for vector generation functions in the form of q-series and string theory. We hope that the mathematical side of the construction can be enriched by ideas coming from physics.

  10. Active-flux based motion sensorless vector control of biaxial excitation generator/motor for automobiles (BEGA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coroban-Schramel, Vasile; Boldea, Ion; Andreescu, Gheorghe-Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel, active-flux based, motion-sensorless vector control structure for biaxial excitation generator for automobiles (BEGA) for wide speed range operation. BEGA is a hybrid excited synchronous machine having permanent magnets on q-axis and a dc excitation on daxis. Using...

  11. Next-generation AAV vectors for clinical use: an ever-accelerating race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinmann, Jonas; Grimm, Dirk

    2017-10-01

    During the past five decades, it has become evident that Adeno-associated virus (AAV) represents one of the most potent, most versatile, and thus most auspicious platforms available for gene delivery into cells, animals and, ultimately, humans. Particularly attractive is the ease with which the viral capsid-the major determinant of virus-host interaction including cell specificity and antibody recognition-can be modified and optimized at will. This has motivated countless researchers to develop high-throughput technologies in which genetically engineered AAV capsid libraries are subjected to a vastly hastened emulation of natural evolution, with the aim to enrich novel synthetic AAV capsids displaying superior features for clinical application. While the power and potential of these forward genetics approaches is undisputed, they are also inherently challenging as success depends on a combination of library quality, fidelity, and complexity. Here, we will describe and discuss two original, very exciting strategies that have emerged over the last three years and that promise to alleviate at least some of these concerns, namely, (i) a reverse genetics approach termed "ancestral AAV sequence reconstruction," and (ii) AAV genome barcoding as a technology that can advance both, forward and reverse genetics stratagems. Notably, despite the conceptual differences of these two technologies, they pursue the same goal which is tailored acceleration of AAV evolution and thus winning the race for the next-generation AAV vectors for clinical use.

  12. Permanent Magnet Flux Online Estimation Based on Zero-Voltage Vector Injection Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Ge; Lu, Kaiyuan; Kumar, Dwivedi Sanjeet

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a simple signal injection method is proposed for sensorless control of PMSM at low speed, which ideally requires one voltage vector only for position estimation. The proposed method is easy to implement resulting in low computation burden. No filters are needed for extracting the h...

  13. Ultrasonic 3-D Vector Flow Method for Quantitative In Vivo Peak Velocity and Flow Rate Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Simon; Ewertsen, Caroline; Bouzari, Hamed

    2017-01-01

    Current clinical ultrasound (US) systems are limited to show blood flow movement in either 1-D or 2-D. In this paper, a method for estimating 3-D vector velocities in a plane using the transverse oscillation method, a 32×32 element matrix array, and the experimental US scanner SARUS is presented....

  14. An Information Retrieval Model Based on Vector Space Method by Supervised Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Xiaoying; Ren, Fuji; Kita, Kenji

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a method to improve retrieval performance of the vector space model by using users' relevance feedback. Discusses the use of singular value decomposition and the latent semantic indexing model, and reports the results of two experiments that show the effectiveness of the proposed method. (Author/LRW)

  15. Methods of treating Parkinson's disease using viral vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bankiewicz, Krystof; Cunningham, Janet

    2016-11-15

    Methods of delivering viral vectors, particularly recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) virions, to the central nervous system (CNS) using convection enhanced delivery (CED) are provided. The rAAV virions include a nucleic acid sequence encoding a therapeutic polypeptide. The methods can be used for treating CNS disorders such as for treating Parkinson's Disease.

  16. System and method for generating a relationship network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Kasian [Kensington, CA; Myers, Cornelia A [St. Louis, MO; Podowski, Raf M [Pleasant Hill, CA

    2011-07-26

    A computer-implemented system and process for generating a relationship network is disclosed. The system provides a set of data items to be related and generates variable length data vectors to represent the relationships between the terms within each data item. The system can be used to generate a relationship network for documents, images, or any other type of file. This relationship network can then be queried to discover the relationships between terms within the set of data items.

  17. A New Classification Method of Infrasound Events Using Hilbert-Huang Transform and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrasound is a type of low frequency signal that occurs in nature and results from man-made events, typically ranging in frequency from 0.01 Hz to 20 Hz. In this paper, a classification method based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT and support vector machine (SVM is proposed to discriminate between three different natural events. The frequency spectrum characteristics of infrasound signals produced by different events, such as volcanoes, are unique, which lays the foundation for infrasound signal classification. First, the HHT method was used to extract the feature vectors of several kinds of infrasound events from the Hilbert marginal spectrum. Then, the feature vectors were classified by the SVM method. Finally, the present of classification and identification accuracy are given. The simulation results show that the recognition rate is above 97.7%, and that approach is effective for classifying event types for small samples.

  18. Novel sulI binary vectors enable an inexpensive foliar selection method in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jamison

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfonamide resistance is conferred by the sulI gene found on many Enterobacteriaceae R plasmids and Tn21 type transposons. The sulI gene encodes a sulfonamide insensitive dihydropteroate synthase enzyme required for folate biosynthesis. Transformation of tobacco, potato or Arabidopsis using sulI as a selectable marker generates sulfadiazine-resistant plants. Typically sulI-based selection of transgenic plants is performed on tissue culture media under sterile conditions. Findings A set of novel binary vectors containing a sulI selectable marker expression cassette were constructed and used to generate transgenic Arabidopsis. We demonstrate that the sulI selectable marker can be utilized for direct selection of plants grown in soil with a simple foliar spray application procedure. A highly effective and inexpensive high throughput screening strategy to identify transgenic Arabidopsis without use of tissue culture was developed. Conclusion Novel sulI-containing Agrobacterium binary vectors designed to over-express a gene of interest or to characterize a test promoter in transgenic plants have been constructed. These new vector tools combined with the various beneficial attributes of sulfonamide selection and the simple foliar screening strategy provide an advantageous alternative for plant biotechnology researchers. The set of binary vectors is freely available upon request.

  19. Application of the vector modulation method to the north finder capability gyroscope as a directional sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikel, Oguz

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents the application of the vector modulation method (VMM) to an open-loop interferometric fiber optic gyroscope, called the north finder capability gyroscope (NFCG), designed and assembled in TUBITAK UME (National Metrology Institute of Turkey). The method contains a secondary modulation/demodulation circuit with an AD630 chip, depending on the periodic variation of the orientation of the sensing coil sensitive surface vector with respect to geographic north at a laboratory latitude and collection of dc voltage at the secondary demodulation circuit output in the time domain. The resultant dc voltage proportional to the first-kind Bessel function based on Sagnac phase shift for the first order is obtained as a result of vector modulation together with the Earth's rotation. A new model function is developed and introduced to evaluate the angular errors of the NFCG with VMM in finding geographic north.

  20. [An XcmⅠ-generated T vector and its applications in synthetic biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yangkai; Liang, Feiyan; Tan, Xiaoming; Lv, Xuefeng

    2016-07-25

    For more economical and efficient DNA clonging, pFL-XS-T, a Biobrick-T vector was constructed based on pMD18-T vector, carrying clonging regions of XbaⅠ-XcmⅠ-XcmⅠ-SpeⅠ. The results revealed that PCR products could be conveniently inserted into pFL-XS-T vevtor digested by XcmⅠby means of TA cloning. The positive frequency of recombination can meet the experimental requirements and all the plasmids obtained meet Biobrick standard. Moreover, the pFL-XS-T is compatible with other Biobrick parts, and serves as a vector for functional DNA fragments screening.

  1. Increasing the computational efficient of digital cross correlation by a vectorization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Yuan; Ma, Chien-Ching

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a vectorization method for use in MATLAB programming aimed at increasing the computational efficiency of digital cross correlation in sound and images, resulting in a speedup of 6.387 and 36.044 times compared with performance values obtained from looped expression. This work bridges the gap between matrix operations and loop iteration, preserving flexibility and efficiency in program testing. This paper uses numerical simulation to verify the speedup of the proposed vectorization method as well as experiments to measure the quantitative transient displacement response subjected to dynamic impact loading. The experiment involved the use of a high speed camera as well as a fiber optic system to measure the transient displacement in a cantilever beam under impact from a steel ball. Experimental measurement data obtained from the two methods are in excellent agreement in both the time and frequency domain, with discrepancies of only 0.68%. Numerical and experiment results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed vectorization method with regard to computational speed in signal processing and high precision in the correlation algorithm. We also present the source code with which to build MATLAB-executable functions on Windows as well as Linux platforms, and provide a series of examples to demonstrate the application of the proposed vectorization method.

  2. Support vector machine as an alternative method for lithology classification of crystalline rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chengxiang; Pan, Heping; Fang, Sinan; Amara Konaté, Ahmed; Qin, Ruidong

    2017-03-01

    With the expansion of machine learning algorithms, automatic lithology classification that uses well logging data is becoming significant in formation evaluation and reservoir characterization. In fact, the complicated composition and structural variations of metamorphic rocks result in more nonlinear features in well logging data and elevate requirements to algorithms. Herein, the application of the support vector machine (SVM) in classifying crystalline rocks from Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Main Hole (CCSD-MH) data was reported. We found that the SVM performs poorly on the lithology classification of crystalline rocks when training samples are imbalanced. The fact is that training samples are generally limited and imbalanced as cores cannot be obtained balanced and at 100 percent. In this paper, we introduced the synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE) and Borderline-SMOTE to deal with imbalanced data. After experiments generating different quantities of training samples by SMOTE and Borderline-SMOTE, the most suitable classifier was selected to overcome the disadvantage of the SVM. Then, the popular supervised classifier back-propagation neural networks (BPNN), which has been proved competent for lithology classification of crystalline rocks in previous studies, was compared to evaluate the performance of the SVM. Results show that Borderline-SMOTE can improve the SVM with substantially increased accuracy even for minority classes in a reasonable manner, while the SVM outperforms BPNN in aspects of lithology prediction and CCSD-MH data generalization. We demonstrate the potential of the SVM as an alternative to current methods for lithology identification of crystalline rocks.

  3. Particle streak velocimetry-OCT (PSV-OCT): a novel method for multi-vector component velocimetry of microscale flow physiology (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kevin C.; Huang, Brendan K.; Gamm, Ute A.; Bhandari, Vineet; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Choma, Michael A.

    2016-03-01

    We present a new method for 2.5 and 3 vector component velocimetry. We call this method particle streak velocimetry OCT (PSV-OCT). PSV-OCT generates two-dimensional, 2.5 vector component (v_x,|v_y|,v_z) cross-sectional maps of microscale flow velocity (e.g. biological cilia-driven fluid flow). The enabling insight is that a tracer particle in sparsely-seeded fluid flow traces out streaks in (x,z,t)-space. The streak orientations in x-t and z-t yield v_x and v_z, respectively. The in-plane (x-z plane) residence time yields the out-of-plane speed |v_y|. Vector component values are generated by fitting streaks to a model of image formation. We demonstrate cross-sectional estimation of (v_x,|v_y|,v_z) in two important animal models in ciliary biology: Xenopus embryos (tadpoles) and mouse trachea. Further, by incorporation the assumption of incompressible flow into the estimation process, we are able to generate 3 vector component (v_x,v_y,v_z) estimates in three spatial dimensions from 2.5 vector component measurements taken in parallel OCT planes in 3D space.

  4. Samira-VP: A simple protein alignment method with rechecking the alphabet vector positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotoohifiroozabadi, Samira; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi; Deris, Safaai

    2017-04-01

    Protein structure alignment and comparisons that are based on an alphabetical demonstration of protein structure are more simple to run with faster evaluation processes; thus, their accuracy is not as reliable as three-dimension (3D)-based tools. As a 1D method candidate, TS-AMIR used the alphabetic demonstration of secondary-structure elements (SSE) of proteins and compared the assigned letters to each SSE using the [Formula: see text]-gram method. Although the results were comparable to those obtained via geometrical methods, the SSE length and accuracy of adjacency between SSEs were not considered in the comparison process. Therefore, to obtain further information on accuracy of adjacency between SSE vectors, the new approach of assigning text to vectors was adopted according to the spherical coordinate system in the present study. Moreover, dynamic programming was applied in order to account for the length of SSE vectors. Five common datasets were selected for method evaluation. The first three datasets were small, but difficult to align, and the remaining two datasets were used to compare the capability of the proposed method with that of other methods on a large protein dataset. The results showed that the proposed method, as a text-based alignment approach, obtained results comparable to both 1D and 3D methods. It outperformed 1D methods in terms of accuracy and 3D methods in terms of runtime.

  5. Filtered selection coupled with support vector machines generate a functionally relevant prediction model for colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabere MN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Musa Nur Gabere,1 Mohamed Aly Hussein,1 Mohammad Azhar Aziz2 1Department of Bioinformatics, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center/King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Colorectal Cancer Research Program, Department of Medical Genomics, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Purpose: There has been considerable interest in using whole-genome expression profiles for the classification of colorectal cancer (CRC. The selection of important features is a crucial step before training a classifier.Methods: In this study, we built a model that uses support vector machine (SVM to classify cancer and normal samples using Affymetrix exon microarray data obtained from 90 samples of 48 patients diagnosed with CRC. From the 22,011 genes, we selected the 20, 30, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 500 genes most relevant to CRC using the minimum-redundancy–maximum-relevance (mRMR technique. With these gene sets, an SVM model was designed using four different kernel types (linear, polynomial, radial basis function [RBF], and sigmoid.Results: The best model, which used 30 genes and RBF kernel, outperformed other combinations; it had an accuracy of 84% for both ten fold and leave-one-out cross validations in discriminating the cancer samples from the normal samples. With this 30 genes set from mRMR, six classifiers were trained using random forest (RF, Bayes net (BN, multilayer perceptron (MLP, naïve Bayes (NB, reduced error pruning tree (REPT, and SVM. Two hybrids, mRMR + SVM and mRMR + BN, were the best models when tested on other datasets, and they achieved a prediction accuracy of 95.27% and 91.99%, respectively, compared to other mRMR hybrid models (mRMR + RF, mRMR + NB, mRMR + REPT, and mRMR + MLP. Ingenuity pathway analysis was used to analyze the functions of the 30 genes selected for this model and their potential association with CRC: CDH3, CEACAM7, CLDN1, IL8, IL6R, MMP1

  6. Protocol for efficient generation and characterization of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungmann, Andreas; Leuchs, Barbara; Katus, Hugo A; Rommelaere, Jean; Müller, Oliver J

    2017-09-21

    AAV vectors are a powerful tool for gene transfer approaches. We have established a simple and fast plasmid-based production system for achieving high AAV titers within 6 working days. The same procedure can be used for all serotypes and thus allows direct comparability of different serotypes. In this protocol we describe a step-by-step procedure which results in well-characterized vectors suitable for both in vitro approaches and preclinical studies.

  7. Tunable supercontinuum light vector vortex beam generator using a q-plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumala, Yisa S; Milione, Giovanni; Nguyen, Thien An; Pratavieira, Sebastião; Hossain, Zabir; Nolan, Daniel; Slussarenko, Sergei; Karimi, Ebrahim; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Alfano, Robert R

    2013-12-01

    Spatially coherent multicolored optical vector vortex beams were created using a tunable liquid crystal q-plate and a supercontinuum light source. The feasibility of the q-plate as a tunable spectral filter (switch) was demonstrated, and the polarization topology of the resulting vector vortex beam was mapped. Potential applications include multiplexing for broadband high-speed optical communication, ultradense data networking, and super-resolution microscopy.

  8. The method of principal vectors for the systhesis of shaking moment balanced linkages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijk, V.; Herder, Justus Laurens; Viadero, Fernando; Ceccarelli, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The design of shaking-moment-balanced linkages still is challenging. Considering moment balance in the very beginning of the design process of mechanisms is important for finding applicable solutions. For this purpose, the method of principal vectors is investigated, showing a compact notation of

  9. Design of vaccination and fumigation on Host-Vector Model by input-output linearization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Edwin Setiawan; Naiborhu, Janson; Nuraini, Nuning

    2017-03-01

    Here, we analyze the Host-Vector Model and proposed design of vaccination and fumigation to control infectious population by using feedback control especially input-output liniearization method. Host population is divided into three compartments: susceptible, infectious and recovery. Whereas the vector population is divided into two compartment such as susceptible and infectious. In this system, vaccination and fumigation treat as input factors and infectious population as output result. The objective of design is to stabilize of the output asymptotically tend to zero. We also present the examples to illustrate the design model.

  10. Normal Vector Projection Method used for Convex Optimization of Chan-Vese Model for Image Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, W. B.; Tan, L.; Jia, M. Q.; Pan, Z. K.

    2017-01-01

    The variational level set method is one of the main methods of image segmentation. Due to signed distance functions as level sets have to keep the nature of the functions through numerical remedy or additional technology in an evolutionary process, it is not very efficient. In this paper, a normal vector projection method for image segmentation using Chan-Vese model is proposed. An equivalent formulation of Chan-Vese model is used by taking advantage of property of binary level set functions and combining with the concept of convex relaxation. Threshold method and projection formula are applied in the implementation. It can avoid the above problems and obtain a global optimal solution. Experimental results on both synthetic and real images validate the effects of the proposed normal vector projection method, and show advantages over traditional algorithms in terms of computational efficiency.

  11. Minimum-Voltage Vector Injection Method for Sensorless Control of PMSM for Low-Speed Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Ge; Lu, Kaiyuan; Kumar, Dwivedi Sanjeet

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a simple signal injection method is proposed for sensorless control of PMSM at low speed, which ideally requires one voltage vector only for position estimation. The proposed method is easy to implement resulting in low computation burden. No filters are needed for extracting...... may also be further developed to inject two opposite voltage vectors to reduce the effects of inverter voltage error on the position estimation accuracy. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing with other sensorless control method. Theoretical analysis and experimental...... the high frequency current signals for position estimation. The use of Low-Pass Filters (LPFs) in the current control loop to filter out the fundamental current component is not necessary. Therefore, the control bandwidth of the inner current control loop may not need to be sacrificed. The proposed method...

  12. Impact of adenovirus life cycle progression on the generation of canine helper-dependent vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, P; Simão, D; Guerreiro, M R; Kremer, E J; Coroadinha, A S; Alves, P M

    2015-01-01

    Helper-dependent adenovirus vectors (HDVs) are safe and efficient tools for gene transfer with high cloning capacity. However, the multiple amplification steps needed to produce HDVs hamper a robust production process and in turn the availability of high-quality vectors. To understand the factors behind the low productivity, we analyzed the progression of HDV life cycle. Canine adenovirus (Ad) type 2 vectors, holding attractive features to overcome immunogenic concerns and treat neurobiological disorders, were the focus of this work. When compared with E1-deleted (ΔE1) vectors, we found a faster helper genome replication during HDV production. This was consistent with an upregulation of the Ad polymerase and pre-terminal protein and led to higher and earlier expression of structural proteins. Although genome packaging occurred similarly to ΔE1 vectors, more immature capsids were obtained during HDV production, which led to a ~4-fold increase in physical-to-infectious particles ratio. The higher viral protein content in HDV-producing cells was also consistent with an increased activation of autophagy and cell death, in which earlier cell death compromised volumetric productivity. The increased empty capsids and earlier cell death found in HDV production may partially contribute to the lower vector infectivity. However, an HDV-specific factor responsible for a defective maturation process should be also involved to fully explain the low infectious titers. This study showed how a deregulated Ad cycle progression affected cell line homeostasis and HDV propagation, highlighting the impact of vector genome design on virus-cell interaction.

  13. Compensation method for temperature error of fiber optical gyroscope based on relevance vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guochen; Wang, Qiuying; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Zhenpeng

    2016-02-10

    Aiming to improve the bias stability of the fiber optical gyroscope (FOG) in an ambient temperature-change environment, a temperature-compensation method based on the relevance vector machine (RVM) under Bayesian framework is proposed and applied. Compared with other temperature models such as quadratic polynomial regression, neural network, and the support vector machine, the proposed RVM method possesses higher accuracy to explain the temperature dependence of the FOG gyro bias. Experimental results indicate that, with the proposed RVM method, the bias stability of an FOG can be apparently reduced in the whole temperature ranging from -40°C to 60°C. Therefore, the proposed method can effectively improve the adaptability of the FOG in a changing temperature environment.

  14. P01.22GENERATION OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELL-DERIVED NEURAL STEM CELLS WITHOUT USING VIRAL VECTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, T.; Kawaji, H.; Kamio, Y.; Amano, S.; Sameshima, T.; Sakai, N.; Tokuyama, T.; Namba, H.

    2014-01-01

    Suicide gene therapy using genetically engineered stem cells are is one of the most feasible and promising approaches for glioma therapy. Various stem cells, such as neural and mesenchymal stem cells, have been tested for their tumor tropic activity. We have tested stem cells transduced with the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase gene (HSV-TK, suicide gene) encoding a viral thymidine kinase which phosphorylates prodrug ganciclovir (GCV) for experimental glioma in rodents, because the HSV-TK/GCV system generates a potent bystander effect. Recently we found that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSs) also had tumor tropic activity under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. One of the major limitations of use of HSV-TK gene-trasnduced iPSs in clinical field is the use of virus vectors that randomly integrate into the host genome and are associated with the risk of malignant transformation due to insertional mutagenesis. In the present study, we present a non-viral transfection method for obtaining HSV-TK expressing iPS-derived neural stem cells to circumvent the concerns associated with use of viral vectors. Mouse iPS cells were generated from somatic cells by the plasmid vectors expressing Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc and Nanog-GFP-IRES-Puror. We differentiated the mouse iPS cells into neural stem cells and then transfected with the plasmid containing HSV-TK gene using electroporation method. In this way, we obtained HSV-TK gene-trasnduced iPSs-derived neural stem cells without using viral vectors for further pre-clinical expariments of glioma therapy.

  15. Elementary vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wolstenholme, E Œ

    1978-01-01

    Elementary Vectors, Third Edition serves as an introductory course in vector analysis and is intended to present the theoretical and application aspects of vectors. The book covers topics that rigorously explain and provide definitions, principles, equations, and methods in vector analysis. Applications of vector methods to simple kinematical and dynamical problems; central forces and orbits; and solutions to geometrical problems are discussed as well. This edition of the text also provides an appendix, intended for students, which the author hopes to bridge the gap between theory and appl

  16. A simple method of equine limb force vector analysis and its potential applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jane Hobbs

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Ground reaction forces (GRF measured during equine gait analysis are typically evaluated by analyzing discrete values obtained from continuous force-time data for the vertical, longitudinal and transverse GRF components. This paper describes a simple, temporo-spatial method of displaying and analyzing sagittal plane GRF vectors. In addition, the application of statistical parametric mapping (SPM is introduced to analyse differences between contra-lateral fore and hindlimb force-time curves throughout the stance phase. The overall aim of the study was to demonstrate alternative methods of evaluating functional (asymmetry within horses. Methods GRF and kinematic data were collected from 10 horses trotting over a series of four force plates (120 Hz. The kinematic data were used to determine clean hoof contacts. The stance phase of each hoof was determined using a 50 N threshold. Vertical and longitudinal GRF for each stance phase were plotted both as force-time curves and as force vector diagrams in which vectors originating at the centre of pressure on the force plate were drawn at intervals of 8.3 ms for the duration of stance. Visual evaluation was facilitated by overlay of the vector diagrams for different limbs. Summary vectors representing the magnitude (VecMag and direction (VecAng of the mean force over the entire stance phase were superimposed on the force vector diagram. Typical measurements extracted from the force-time curves (peak forces, impulses were compared with VecMag and VecAng using partial correlation (controlling for speed. Paired samples t-tests (left v. right diagonal pair comparison and high v. low vertical force diagonal pair comparison were performed on discrete and vector variables using traditional methods and Hotelling’s T2 tests on normalized stance phase data using SPM. Results Evidence from traditional statistical tests suggested that VecMag is more influenced by the vertical force and impulse, whereas

  17. Determining the spatial autocorrelation of dengue vector populations: influences of mosquito sampling method, covariables, and vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azil, Aishah H; Bruce, David; Williams, Craig R

    2014-06-01

    We investigated spatial autocorrelation of female Aedes aegypti L. mosquito abundance from BG-Sentinel trap and sticky ovitrap collections in Cairns, north Queensland, Australia. BG-Sentinel trap collections in 2010 show a significant spatial autocorrelation across the study site and over a smaller spatial extent, while sticky ovitrap collections only indicate a non-significant, weak spatial autocorrelation. The BG-Sentinel trap collections were suitable for spatial interpolation using ordinary kriging and cokriging techniques. The uses of Premise Condition Index and potential breeding container data have helped improve our prediction of vector abundance. Semiovariograms and prediction maps indicate that the spatial autocorrelation of mosquito abundance determined by BG-Sentinel traps extends farther compared to sticky ovitrap collections. Based on our data, fewer BG-Sentinel traps are required to represent vector abundance at a series of houses compared to sticky ovitraps. A lack of spatial structure was observed following vector control treatment in the area. This finding has implications for the design and costs of dengue vector surveillance programs. © 2014 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  18. A Modified Method Combined with a Support Vector Machine and Bayesian Algorithms in Biological Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Gang Zhou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the deep research of genomics and proteomics, the number of new protein sequences has expanded rapidly. With the obvious shortcomings of high cost and low efficiency of the traditional experimental method, the calculation method for protein localization prediction has attracted a lot of attention due to its convenience and low cost. In the machine learning techniques, neural network and support vector machine (SVM are often used as learning tools. Due to its complete theoretical framework, SVM has been widely applied. In this paper, we make an improvement on the existing machine learning algorithm of the support vector machine algorithm, and a new improved algorithm has been developed, combined with Bayesian algorithms. The proposed algorithm can improve calculation efficiency, and defects of the original algorithm are eliminated. According to the verification, the method has proved to be valid. At the same time, it can reduce calculation time and improve prediction efficiency.

  19. Support Vector Machines Parameter Selection Based on Combined Taguchi Method and Staelin Method for E-mail Spam Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chih Hsu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Support vector machines (SVM are a powerful tool for building good spam filtering models. However, the performance of the model depends on parameter selection. Parameter selection of SVM will affect classification performance seriously during training process. In this study, we use combined Taguchi method and Staelin method to optimize the SVM-based E-mail Spam Filtering model and promote spam filtering accuracy. We compare it with other parameters optimization methods, such as grid search. Six real-world mail data sets are selected to demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the method. The results show that our proposed methods can find the effective model with high classification accuracy

  20. Potential for a Second Generation of Emerging Vector Borne Diseases in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    North America has been dealing with the consequences of the introduction of West Nile virus since it was first discovered in New York City in 1999. Currently there are numerous other vector-borne pathogens that occur in various parts of the world that could be introduced into North America and becom...

  1. Efficiencies of Generating Selectable Marker-Free Transgenic Rice with Different Transformation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-xiu YU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the efficiency of generating selectable marker-free (SMF transgenic rice, two transformation methods were employed for four rice varieties (Wuxiangjing 9, Longtefu, Xieqingzao and Zhenshan 97. One method is by using a single twin T-DNA binary vector pYH592 in one Agrobacterium strain, which is composed of two separate T-DNA regions (one carrying an antisense Wx gene and the other carrying a HPT gene. The other one, named as two-strain/two-vector system, is by using two separate binary vectors in two separate Agrobacterium cultures. The results indicated that the average co-transformation frequencies of the antisense Wx gene and the HPT gene were 10.1% and 45.0%, respectively, for the four varieties. And the SMF transgenic plants selected from the offsprings of co-transformants were 55.6% and 60.0% in the two-strain/two-vector and twin T-DNA vector binary systems, respectively.

  2. GNSS Single Frequency, Single Epoch Reliable Attitude Determination Method with Baseline Vector Constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ang; Zhao, Xiubin; Pang, Chunlei; Duan, Rong; Wang, Yong

    2015-12-02

    For Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) single frequency, single epoch attitude determination, this paper proposes a new reliable method with baseline vector constraint. First, prior knowledge of baseline length, heading, and pitch obtained from other navigation equipment or sensors are used to reconstruct objective function rigorously. Then, searching strategy is improved. It substitutes gradually Enlarged ellipsoidal search space for non-ellipsoidal search space to ensure correct ambiguity candidates are within it and make the searching process directly be carried out by least squares ambiguity decorrelation algorithm (LAMBDA) method. For all vector candidates, some ones are further eliminated by derived approximate inequality, which accelerates the searching process. Experimental results show that compared to traditional method with only baseline length constraint, this new method can utilize a priori baseline three-dimensional knowledge to fix ambiguity reliably and achieve a high success rate. Experimental tests also verify it is not very sensitive to baseline vector error and can perform robustly when angular error is not great.

  3. An Improved Endmember Selection Method Based on Vector Length for MODIS Reflectance Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanliu Xu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Endmember selection is the basis for sub-pixel land cover classifications using multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA that adopts variant endmember matrices for each pixel to mitigate errors caused by endmember variability in SMA. A spectral library covering a large number of endmembers can account for endmember variability, but it also lowers the computational efficiency. Therefore, an efficient endmember selection scheme to optimize the library is crucial to implement MESMA. In this study, we present an endmember selection method based on vector length. The spectra of a land cover class were divided into subsets using vector length intervals of the spectra, and the representative endmembers were derived from these subsets. Compared with the available endmember average RMSE (EAR method, our approach improved the computational efficiency in endmember selection. The method accuracy was further evaluated using spectral libraries derived from the ground reference polygon and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS imagery respectively. Results using the different spectral libraries indicated that MESMA combined with the new approach performed slightly better than EAR method, with Kappa coefficient improved from 0.75 to 0.78. A MODIS image was used to test the mapping fraction, and the representative spectra based on vector length successfully modeled more than 90% spectra of the MODIS pixels by 2-endmember models.

  4. GNSS Single Frequency, Single Epoch Reliable Attitude Determination Method with Baseline Vector Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Gong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS single frequency, single epoch attitude determination, this paper proposes a new reliable method with baseline vector constraint. First, prior knowledge of baseline length, heading, and pitch obtained from other navigation equipment or sensors are used to reconstruct objective function rigorously. Then, searching strategy is improved. It substitutes gradually Enlarged ellipsoidal search space for non-ellipsoidal search space to ensure correct ambiguity candidates are within it and make the searching process directly be carried out by least squares ambiguity decorrelation algorithm (LAMBDA method. For all vector candidates, some ones are further eliminated by derived approximate inequality, which accelerates the searching process. Experimental results show that compared to traditional method with only baseline length constraint, this new method can utilize a priori baseline three-dimensional knowledge to fix ambiguity reliably and achieve a high success rate. Experimental tests also verify it is not very sensitive to baseline vector error and can perform robustly when angular error is not great.

  5. [Automatic classification method of star spectra data based on manifold fuzzy twin support vector machine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong-bao; Gao, Yan-yun; Wang, Jian-zhen

    2015-01-01

    Support vector machine (SVM) with good leaning ability and generalization is widely used in the star spectra data classification. But when the scale of data becomes larger, the shortages of SVM appear: the calculation amount is quite large and the classification speed is too slow. In order to solve the above problems, twin support vector machine (TWSVM) was proposed by Jayadeva. The advantage of TSVM is that the time cost is reduced to 1/4 of that of SVM. While all the methods mentioned above only focus on the global characteristics and neglect the local characteristics. In view of this, an automatic classification method of star spectra data based on manifold fuzzy twin support vector machine (MF-TSVM) is proposed in this paper. In MF-TSVM, manifold-based discriminant analysis (MDA) is used to obtain the global and local characteristics of the input data and the fuzzy membership is introduced to reduce the influences of noise and singular data on the classification results. Comparative experiments with current classification methods, such as C-SVM and KNN, on the SDSS star spectra datasets verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Accurate Identification and Quantification of DNA Species by Next-Generation Sequencing in Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors Produced in Insect Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaud-Budloo, Magalie; Lecomte, Emilie; Guy-Duché, Aurélien; Saleun, Sylvie; Roulet, Alain; Lopez-Roques, Céline; Tournaire, Benoît; Cogné, Benjamin; Léger, Adrien; Blouin, Véronique; Lindenbaum, Pierre; Moullier, Philippe; Ayuso, Eduard

    2017-06-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors have proven excellent tools for the treatment of many genetic diseases and other complex diseases. However, the illegitimate encapsidation of DNA contaminants within viral particles constitutes a major safety concern for rAAV-based therapies. Moreover, the development of rAAV vectors for early-phase clinical trials has revealed the limited accuracy of the analytical tools used to characterize these new and complex drugs. Although most published data concerning residual DNA in rAAV preparations have been generated by quantitative PCR, we have developed a novel single-strand virus sequencing (SSV-Seq) method for quantification of DNA contaminants in AAV vectors produced in mammalian cells by next-generation sequencing (NGS). Here, we describe the adaptation of SSV-Seq for the accurate identification and quantification of DNA species in rAAV stocks produced in insect cells. We found that baculoviral DNA was the most abundant contaminant, representing less than 2.1% of NGS reads regardless of serotype (2, 8, or rh10). Sf9 producer cell DNA was detected at low frequency (≤0.03%) in rAAV lots. Advanced computational analyses revealed that (1) baculoviral sequences close to the inverted terminal repeats preferentially underwent illegitimate encapsidation, and (2) single-nucleotide variants were absent from the rAAV genome. The high-throughput sequencing protocol described here enables effective DNA quality control of rAAV vectors produced in insect cells, and is adapted to conform with regulatory agency safety requirements.

  7. Continuous-wave THz vector imaging system utilizing two-tone signal generation and self-mixing detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hajun; Hwang, Sejin; An, Hongsung; Song, Ho-Jin; Song, Jong-In

    2017-08-21

    We propose and demonstrate a continuous-wave vector THz imaging system utilizing a photonic generation of two-tone THz signals and self-mixing detection. The proposed system measures amplitude and phase information simultaneously without the local oscillator reference or phase rotation scheme that is required for heterodyne or homodyne detection. In addition, 2π phase ambiguity that occurs when the sample is thicker than the wavelength of THz radiation can be avoided. In this work, THz signal having two frequency components was generated with a uni-traveling-carrier photodiode and electro-optic modulator on the emitter side and detected with a Schottky barrier diode detector used as a self-mixer on the receiver side. The proposed THz vector imaging system exhibited a 50-dB signal to noise ratio and 0.012-rad phase fluctuation with 100-μs integration time at 325-GHz. With the system, we demonstrate two-dimensional THz phase contrast imaging. Considering the recent use of two-dimensional arrays of Schottky barrier diodes as a THz image sensor, the proposed system is greatly advantageous for realizing a real-time THz vector imaging system due to its simple receiver configuration.

  8. Generation of GGTA1 Mutant Pigs by Direct Pronuclear Microinjection of CRISPR/Cas9 Plasmid Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chin-Kai; Chen, Chien-Hong; Huang, Chung-Ling; Su, Yu-Hsiu; Peng, Shu-Hui; Lin, Tai-Yun; Tai, Hao-Chih; Yang, Tien-Shuh; Tu, Ching-Fu

    2017-07-03

    This study was conducted to confirm that 1-site and 4-site ppU6-GGTA1-gRNA CRISPR vectors together with the pCX-Flag2-NLS 1 -Cas9-NLS 2 plasmid can both generate KO pigs by direct pronuclear microinjection. In total, 41 and 53 fertilized eggs were microinjected on 1-site and 4-site strategies, respectively. The 1-site construction generated a litter of 8 piglets, and 2 were mono-allelic mutant (mMt). The injection of 4-site constructions resulted in one biallelic mutant (bMt) and one mMt piglet in a litter of 7. Those 3 mMt pigs had a 4 bp deletion, 5 bp insertion, or 7 bp insertion at site I, and the bMt pig had 5 types of mutations at cleavage sites I and III. The expression of alpha-Gal on the bMt peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was reduced, and survival rate of bMt PBMCs was maintained as indicated by results of cultivation with sera of humans or Formosan Macaques. We concluded that mutant pigs could be generated by direct pronuclear microinjection of ppU6-GGTA1-gRNA CRISPR vectors with the pCX-Flag2-NLS 1 -Cas9-NLS 2 plasmid and that the 4-site strategy has a better mutant efficiency. Porcine U6 promoter was firstly used to express KO vectors and effectively generate mutant pigs, worthily to adopt for future KO studies.

  9. Marginal Distributions of Random Vectors Generated by Affine Transformations of Independent Two-Piece Normal Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiano Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marginal probability density and cumulative distribution functions are presented for multidimensional variables defined by nonsingular affine transformations of vectors of independent two-piece normal variables, the most important subclass of Ferreira and Steel's general multivariate skewed distributions. The marginal functions are obtained by first expressing the joint density as a mixture of Arellano-Valle and Azzalini's unified skew-normal densities and then using the property of closure under marginalization of the latter class.

  10. Marginal Distributions of Random Vectors Generated by Affine Transformations of Independent Two-Piece Normal Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Maximiano Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    Marginal probability density and cumulative distribution functions are presented for multidimensional variables defined by nonsingular affine transformations of vectors of independent two-piece normal variables, the most important subclass of Ferreira and Steel's general multivariate skewed distributions. The marginal functions are obtained by first expressing the joint density as a mixture of Arellano-Valle and Azzalini's unified skew-normal densities and then using the property of closure u...

  11. Retroviral hybrid LTR vector strategy: functional analysis of LTR elements and generation of endothelial cell specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, T B; Kaspers, J; Porter, C D

    2004-05-01

    Transcriptional targeting is an important aspect of developing gene therapy vectors in order to restrict transgene expression to selected target cells. One approach, when using retroviral vectors, is to replace viral transcriptional control elements within the long terminal repeat (LTR) with sequences imparting the desired specificity. We have developed such hybrid LTR retroviruses, incorporating sequences from each of the human promoters for flt-1, ICAM-2 and KDR, as part of our antivascular cancer gene therapy strategy targeting tumour endothelial cells. The chosen fragments were used to replace the enhancer or combined enhancer and proximal promoter regions of the viral LTR. All showed activity in primary human breast microvascular endothelial cells, with viruses incorporating ICAM-2 sequences exhibiting the greatest specificity versus nonendothelial cells in vitro and a marked alteration of specificity towards endothelial cells in a subcutaneous xenograft model in vivo. Moreover, our study documents the effect of enhancer and/or proximal promoter deletion on LTR activity and reports that differential dependence in different cell lines can give the false impression of specificity if experiments are not adequately controlled. This finding also has implications for other retroviral vector designs seeking to provide transcriptional specificity and for their safety with respect to prevention of gene activation at sites of proviral integration.

  12. Novel methods for surveying reservoir hosts and vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi in Northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Veronica Aili

    Lyme disease is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in North America and presents challenges to clinicians, researchers and the public in diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, which is a zoonotic pathogen obligate upon hematophagous arthropod vectors and propagates in small mammal reservoir hosts. Identifying factors governing zoonotic diseases within regions of high-risk provides local health and agricultural agencies with necessary information to formulate public policy and implement treatment protocols to abate the rise and expansion of infectious disease outbreaks. In the United States, the documented primary reservoir host of Lyme disease is the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus, and the arthropod vector is the deer tick, Ixodes scapularis. Reducing the impact of Lyme disease will need novel methods for identifying both the reservoir host and the tick vector. The reservoir host, Peromyscus leucopus is difficult to distinguish from the virtually identical Peromyscus maniculatus that also is present in Northern Minnesota, a region where Lyme disease is endemic. Collection of the Ixodes tick, the Lyme disease vector, is difficult as this is season dependent and differs from year to year. This study develops new strategies to assess the extent of Borrelia burgdorferi in the local environment of Northern Minnesota. A selective and precise method to identify Peromyscus species was developed. This assay provides a reliable and definitive method to identify the reservoir host, Peromyscus leucopus from a physically identical and sympatric Peromyscus species, Peromyscus maniculatus. A new strategy to collect ticks for measuring the disbursement of Borrelia was employed. Students from local high schools were recruited to collect ticks. This strategy increased the available manpower to cover greater terrain, provided students with valuable experience in research methodology, and highlighted the

  13. Backward and forward Monte Carlo method for vector radiative transfer in a two-dimensional graded index medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Lin-Feng; Shi, Guo-Dong; Huang, Yong; Xing, Yu-Ming

    2017-10-01

    In vector radiative transfer, backward ray tracing is seldom used. We present a backward and forward Monte Carlo method to simulate vector radiative transfer in a two-dimensional graded index medium, which is new and different from the conventional Monte Carlo method. The backward and forward Monte Carlo method involves dividing the ray tracing into two processes backward tracing and forward tracing. In multidimensional graded index media, the trajectory of a ray is usually a three-dimensional curve. During the transport of a polarization ellipse, the curved ray trajectory will induce geometrical effects and cause Stokes parameters to continuously change. The solution processes for a non-scattering medium and an anisotropic scattering medium are analysed. We also analyse some parameters that influence the Stokes vector in two-dimensional graded index media. The research shows that the Q component of the Stokes vector cannot be ignored. However, the U and V components of the Stokes vector are very small.

  14. Geometrical Modification of Learning Vector Quantization Method for Solving Classification Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan GÜNEL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a geometrical scheme is presented to show how to overcome an encountered problem arising from the use of generalized delta learning rule within competitive learning model. It is introduced a theoretical methodology for describing the quantization of data via rotating prototype vectors on hyper-spheres.The proposed learning algorithm is tested and verified on different multidimensional datasets including a binary class dataset and two multiclass datasets from the UCI repository, and a multiclass dataset constructed by us. The proposed method is compared with some baseline learning vector quantization variants in literature for all domains. Large number of experiments verify the performance of our proposed algorithm with acceptable accuracy and macro f1 scores.

  15. Generation of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) from an adenoviral vector and functional reconstitution of the NADPH-oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, A J; de Alwis, M; Casimir, C M; Kinnon, C; Page, K; Lebkowski, J; Segal, A W; Levinsky, R J

    1995-09-01

    The human parvovirus, adeno-associated virus-2 (AAV-2), has many attributes that recommend its use as a gene transfer vehicle, including a broad tissue tropism, the ability to integrate stably into the host genome, and efficient transduction of cells which proliferate slowly. However, application to human gene therapy is currently limited by existing methods for generation of recombinant AAV (rAAV), resulting in relatively low transducing titres. In an attempt to overcome some of these problems, we have developed a defective adenoviral vector which improves the efficiency of rAAV vector delivery to cells in which rAAV is propagated, and from which the rAAV genome can be efficiently rescued. A functional copy of the p47phox gene was successfully transferred to cell lines derived from patients with autosomal recessive chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) by rAAV recovered in this way, and function of the NADPH-oxidase was restored to levels which were stable for at least 8 weeks. This method for generation of rAAV, although still limited by the need for cotransfection of AAV Rep and Cap functions, may permit recovery of higher titre transducing stocks from cell lines in which these genes are stably incorporated, and significantly reduces the risk of contamination with wild-type adenovirus (wtAd).

  16. W-Band Millimeter-Wave Vector Signal Generation Based on Precoding-Assisted Random Photonic Frequency Tripling Scheme Enabled by Phase Modulator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Xinying; Xu, Yuming; Xiao, Jiangnan; Yu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    We propose W-band photonic millimeter-wave (mm-wave) vector signal generation employing a precoding-assisted random frequency tripling scheme enabled by a single phase modulator cascaded with a wavelength selective switch (WSS...

  17. A simple and efficient procedure for generating stable expression libraries by cDNA cloning in a retroviral vector.

    OpenAIRE

    Rayner, J R; Gonda, T J

    1994-01-01

    cDNA expression cloning is a powerful method for the rescue and identification of genes that are able to confer a readily identifiable phenotype on specific cell types. Retroviral vectors provide several advantages over DNA-mediated gene transfer for the introduction of expression libraries into eukaryotic cells since they can be used to express genes in a wide range of cell types, including those that form important experimental systems such as the hemopoietic system. We describe here a stra...

  18. Ub-ISAP: a streamlined UNIX pipeline for mining unique viral vector integration sites from next generation sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboj, Atul; Hallwirth, Claus V; Alexander, Ian E; McCowage, Geoffrey B; Kramer, Belinda

    2017-06-17

    The analysis of viral vector genomic integration sites is an important component in assessing the safety and efficiency of patient treatment using gene therapy. Alongside this clinical application, integration site identification is a key step in the genetic mapping of viral elements in mutagenesis screens that aim to elucidate gene function. We have developed a UNIX-based vector integration site analysis pipeline (Ub-ISAP) that utilises a UNIX-based workflow for automated integration site identification and annotation of both single and paired-end sequencing reads. Reads that contain viral sequences of interest are selected and aligned to the host genome, and unique integration sites are then classified as transcription start site-proximal, intragenic or intergenic. Ub-ISAP provides a reliable and efficient pipeline to generate large datasets for assessing the safety and efficiency of integrating vectors in clinical settings, with broader applications in cancer research. Ub-ISAP is available as an open source software package at https://sourceforge.net/projects/ub-isap/ .

  19. Binary Vector Construction of Kappa(κ)-carrageenase Gene and Transformation to Agrobacterium Tumefaciens as Mediator for Seaweed Transgenic Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Muh. Alias L. Rajamuddin; Alimuddin; Widyastuti, Utut; Harris, Enang; Suryati, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Increasing of kappa (κ)-carrageenan content in Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed is potentially be achieved by applying transgenesis technology. This study was performed to obtain a construction of κ-Carrageenase gene and Agrobacterium tumefaciens to carry those construction genes. The κ-Carrageenase (κ-Car) gene was involved in κ-carrageenan biosynthesis. The κ-Car gene sequence was ligated between the 35S CaMV promoter and tNos terminator sequences to generate pMSH/κ-Car expression vector. Tr...

  20. An enhanced method for sequence walking and paralog mining: TOPO® Vector-Ligation PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Thomas M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although technological advances allow for the economical acquisition of whole genome sequences, many organisms' genomes remain unsequenced, and fully sequenced genomes may contain gaps. Researchers reliant upon partial genomic or heterologous sequence information require methods for obtaining unknown sequences from loci of interest. Various PCR based techniques are available for sequence walking - i.e., the acquisition of unknown DNA sequence adjacent to known sequence. Many such methods require rigid, elaborate protocols and/or impose narrowly confined options in the choice of restriction enzymes for necessary genomic digests. We describe a new method, TOPO® Vector-Ligation PCR (or TVL-PCR that innovatively integrates available tools and familiar concepts to offer advantages as a means of both targeted sequence walking and paralog mining. Findings TVL-PCR exploits the ligation efficiency of the pCR®4-TOPO® (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, California vector system to capture fragments of unknown sequence by creating chimeric molecules containing defined priming sites at both ends. Initially, restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA is end-repaired to create 3' adenosine overhangs and is then ligated to pCR4-TOPO vectors. The ligation product pool is used directly as a template for nested PCR, using specific primers to target orthologous sequences, or degenerate primers to enable capture of paralogous gene family members. We demonstrated the efficacy of this method by capturing entire coding and partial promoter sequences of several strawberry Superman-like genes. Conclusions TVL-PCR is a convenient and efficient method for DNA sequence walking and paralog mining that is applicable to any organism for which relevant DNA sequence is available as a basis for primer design.

  1. Delay generation methods with reduced memory requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2003-01-01

    Modern diagnostic ultrasound beamformers require delay information for each sample along the image lines. In order to avoid storing large amounts of focusing data, delay generation techniques have to be used. In connection with developing a compact beamformer architecture, recursive algorithms we...

  2. Analysis of comparative efficiencies of different transformation methods of E. coli using two common plasmid vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhury, Aryadeep; Basu, Supratim; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2009-10-01

    The efficiencies of different transformation methods of E. coli DH5Qalpha train, induced by several cations like Mg2+, Mn2+ Rb+ and especially Ca2+, with or without polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were compared using the two commonly used plasmid vectors pCAMBIA1201 and pBI121. The widely used calcium chloride (CaCl2) method appeared to be the most efficient procedure, while rubidium chloride (RbCl) method was the least effective. The improvements in the classical CaCl2 method were found to further augment the transformation efficiency (TR)E for both the vectors like repeated alternate cycles of heat shock, followed by immediate cold, at least up to the third cycle; replacement of the heat shock step by a single microwave pulse and even more by double microwave treatment and administration of combined heat shock-microwave treatments. The pre-treatment of CaCl2-competent cells with 5% (v/v) ethanol, accompanied by single heat shock also triggered the (TR)E, which was further enhanced, when combined heat shock-microwave was applied. The minor alterations or improved approaches in CaCl2 method suggested in the present study may thus find use in more efficient E. coli transformation.

  3. A genetic algorithm-support vector machine method with parameter optimization for selecting the tag SNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Ilhan; Tezel, Gülay

    2013-04-01

    SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) include millions of changes in human genome, and therefore, are promising tools for disease-gene association studies. However, this kind of studies is constrained by the high expense of genotyping millions of SNPs. For this reason, it is required to obtain a suitable subset of SNPs to accurately represent the rest of SNPs. For this purpose, many methods have been developed to select a convenient subset of tag SNPs, but all of them only provide low prediction accuracy. In the present study, a brand new method is developed and introduced as GA-SVM with parameter optimization. This method benefits from support vector machine (SVM) and genetic algorithm (GA) to predict SNPs and to select tag SNPs, respectively. Furthermore, it also uses particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to optimize C and γ parameters of support vector machine. It is experimentally tested on a wide range of datasets, and the obtained results demonstrate that this method can provide better prediction accuracy in identifying tag SNPs compared to other methods at present. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Generation of test databases using sampling methods

    OpenAIRE

    Buda, Teodora Sandra

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed Populating the testing environment with relevant data represents a great challenge in software validation, generally requiring expert knowledge about the system under development, as its data critically impacts the outcome of the tests designed to assess the system. Current practices of populating the testing environments generally focus on developing e cient algorithms for generating synthetic data or use the production environment for testing purposes. ...

  5. A polygonal method for haptic force generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Algorithms for computing forces and associated surface deformations (graphical and physical) are given, which, together with a force feedback device can be used to haptically display virtual objects. The Bendable Polygon algorithm, created at Sandia National Labs and the University of New Mexico, for visual rendering of computer generated surfaces is also presented. An implementation using the EIGEN virtual reality environment, and the PHANToM (Trademark) haptic interface, is reported together with suggestions for future research.

  6. Efficiency of choice set generation methods for bicycle routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Rieser-Schussler, Nadine; Axhausen, Kay W.

    2014-01-01

    The current study analyses the efficiency of choice set generation methods for bicycle routes and proposes the extension of cost functions to bicycle-oriented factors not limited to distance and time. Three choice set generation methods for route choice were examined in their ability to generate...

  7. LucTrap vectors are tools to generate luciferase fusions for the quantification of transcript and protein abundance in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Villalobos, Luz Irina A; Kuhnle, Carola; Li, Hanbing; Rosso, Mario; Weisshaar, Bernd; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2006-05-01

    Proper plant growth and development strongly rely on the plant's ability to respond dynamically to signals and cues from the intra- and extracellular environment. Whereas many of these responses require specific changes at the level of gene expression, in recent years it has become increasingly clear that many plant responses are at least in part also controlled at the level of protein turnover. It is a challenge for signal transduction research to understand how distinct incoming signals are integrated to generate specific changes at the transcript or protein level. The activity of luciferase (LUC) reporters can be detected in nondestructive qualitative and quantitative assays in vivo. Therefore, LUC reporters are particularly well suited for the detection of changes at the transcript and protein level. To the best of our knowledge, the number of plant transformation vectors for LUC fusions is very limited. In this article, we describe the LucTrap plant transformation vectors that allow generation of targeted and random transcriptional and translational fusions with the modified firefly LUC reporter LUC+. We demonstrate that LucTrap-based fusions can be used to monitor rapid changes in gene expression and protein abundance in vivo.

  8. Cylindrical vector beam generation in fiber with mode selectivity and wavelength tunability over broadband by acoustic flexural wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wending; Huang, Ligang; Wei, Keyan; Li, Peng; Jiang, Biqiang; Mao, Dong; Gao, Feng; Mei, Ting; Zhang, Guoquan; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-05-16

    Theoretical analysis and experimental demonstration are presented for the generation of cylindrical vector beams (CVBs) via mode conversion in fiber from HE11 mode to TM01 and TE01 modes, which have radial and azimuthal polarizations, respectively. Intermodal coupling is caused by an acoustic flexural wave applied on the fiber, whereas polarization control is necessary for the mode conversion, i.e. HE11x→TM01 and HE11y→TE01 for acoustic vibration along the x-axis. The frequency of the RF driving signal for actuating the acoustic wave is determined by the phase matching condition that the period of acoustic wave equals the beatlength of two coupled modes. With phase matching condition tunability, this approach can be used to generate different types of CVBs at the same wavelength over a broadband. Experimental demonstration was done in the visible and communication bands.

  9. Flavor structure, Higgs boson mass, and dark matter in a supersymmetric model with vector-like generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro; Nishida, Michinobu; Takeda, Naoyuki

    2017-08-01

    We study a supersymmetric model in which the Higgs mass, the muon anomalous magnetic moment, and the dark matter are simultaneously explained with extra vector-like generation multiplets. For the explanations, non-trivial flavor structures and a singlet field are required. In this paper, we study the flavor texture by using the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism, and then find realistic flavor structures that reproduce the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix and fermion masses at low energy. Furthermore, we find that the fermion component of the singlet field becomes a good candidate for dark matter. In our model, flavor physics and dark matter are explained with moderate-size couplings through renormalization group flows, and the presence of dark matter supports the existence of just 3 generations in low-energy scales. We analyze the parameter region where the current thermal relic abundance of dark matter, the Higgs boson mass, and the muon g{-}2 can be explained simultaneously.

  10. A Numerical Comparison of Rule Ensemble Methods and Support Vector Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meza, Juan C.; Woods, Mark

    2009-12-18

    Machine or statistical learning is a growing field that encompasses many scientific problems including estimating parameters from data, identifying risk factors in health studies, image recognition, and finding clusters within datasets, to name just a few examples. Statistical learning can be described as 'learning from data' , with the goal of making a prediction of some outcome of interest. This prediction is usually made on the basis of a computer model that is built using data where the outcomes and a set of features have been previously matched. The computer model is called a learner, hence the name machine learning. In this paper, we present two such algorithms, a support vector machine method and a rule ensemble method. We compared their predictive power on three supernova type 1a data sets provided by the Nearby Supernova Factory and found that while both methods give accuracies of approximately 95%, the rule ensemble method gives much lower false negative rates.

  11. Method for Estimating Maximum Torque Control Axis of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors for an Arbitrary Current Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomigashi, Yoshio; Ueyama, Kenji

    A method for directly estimating the axis corresponding to the current phase in maximum torque per ampere (MTPA) control is proposed for sensorless vector control. This axis is called the maximum torque control (MTC) axis. In past studies concerning such methods, the behavior of the axis has been considered only for the case of MTPA control and not for an arbitrary current vector (with flux weakening control) that has a phase different from that for MTPA control. This paper enhances the definition of the MTC axis for an arbitrary current vector, describes an extended EMF model based on the MTC axis, and presents a method that can directly estimate the axis for an arbitrary current vector with flux weakening control. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by numerical analysis results.

  12. Applying the Support Vector Machine Method to Matching IRAS and SDSS Catalogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Cao

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of applying a machine learning technique, the Support Vector Machine (SVM, to the astronomical problem of matching the Infra-Red Astronomical Satellite (IRAS and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS object catalogues. In this study, the IRAS catalogue has much larger positional uncertainties than those of the SDSS. A model was constructed by applying the supervised learning algorithm (SVM to a set of training data. Validation of the model shows a good identification performance (∼ 90% correct, better than that derived from classical cross-matching algorithms, such as the likelihood-ratio method used in previous studies.

  13. PMSVM: An Optimized Support Vector Machine Classification Algorithm Based on PCA and Multilevel Grid Search Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukai Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an optimized Support Vector Machine classifier, named PMSVM, in which System Normalization, PCA, and Multilevel Grid Search methods are comprehensively considered for data preprocessing and parameters optimization, respectively. The main goals of this study are to improve the classification efficiency and accuracy of SVM. Sensitivity, Specificity, Precision, and ROC curve, and so forth, are adopted to appraise the performances of PMSVM. Experimental results show that PMSVM has relatively better accuracy and remarkable higher efficiency compared with traditional SVM algorithms.

  14. A Shellcode Detection Method Based on Full Native API Sequence and Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yixuan; Fan, Wenqing; Huang, Wei; An, Jing

    2017-09-01

    Dynamic monitoring the behavior of a program is widely used to discriminate between benign program and malware. It is usually based on the dynamic characteristics of a program, such as API call sequence or API call frequency to judge. The key innovation of this paper is to consider the full Native API sequence and use the support vector machine to detect the shellcode. We also use the Markov chain to extract and digitize Native API sequence features. Our experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper has high accuracy and low detection rate.

  15. A Little Solution to the Little Hierarchy Problem: A Vector-like Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Peter W.; Ismail, Ahmed; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Rajendran, Surjeet; /MIT, LNS /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Saraswat, Prashant; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2012-04-06

    We present a simple solution to the little hierarchy problem in the minimal supersymmetric standard model: a vectorlike fourth generation. With O(1) Yukawa couplings for the new quarks, the Higgs mass can naturally be above 114 GeV. Unlike a chiral fourth generation, a vectorlike generation can solve the little hierarchy problem while remaining consistent with precision electroweak and direct production constraints, and maintaining the success of the grand unified framework. The new quarks are predicted to lie between 300-600 GeV and will thus be discovered or ruled out at the LHC. This scenario suggests exploration of several novel collider signatures.

  16. Support Vector Regression Method for Wind Speed Prediction Incorporating Probability Prior Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiqiang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior knowledge, such as wind speed probability distribution based on historical data and the wind speed fluctuation between the maximal value and the minimal value in a certain period of time, provides much more information about the wind speed, so it is necessary to incorporate it into the wind speed prediction. First, a method of estimating wind speed probability distribution based on historical data is proposed based on Bernoulli’s law of large numbers. Second, in order to describe the wind speed fluctuation between the maximal value and the minimal value in a certain period of time, the probability distribution estimated by the proposed method is incorporated into the training data and the testing data. Third, a support vector regression model for wind speed prediction is proposed based on standard support vector regression. At last, experiments predicting the wind speed in a certain wind farm show that the proposed method is feasible and effective and the model’s running time and prediction errors can meet the needs of wind speed prediction.

  17. Misalignment calibration of geomagnetic vector measurement system using parallelepiped frame rotation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Hongfeng [Academy of Equipment, Beijing 101416 (China); College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Zhu, XueJun, E-mail: zhuxuejun1990@126.com [College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Pan, Mengchun; Zhang, Qi; Wan, Chengbiao; Luo, Shitu; Chen, Dixiang; Chen, Jinfei; Li, Ji; Lv, Yunxiao [College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Misalignment error is one key factor influencing the measurement accuracy of geomagnetic vector measurement system, which should be calibrated with the difficulties that sensors measure different physical information and coordinates are invisible. A new misalignment calibration method by rotating a parallelepiped frame is proposed. Simulation and experiment result show the effectiveness of calibration method. The experimental system mainly contains DM-050 three-axis fluxgate magnetometer, INS (inertia navigation system), aluminium parallelepiped frame, aluminium plane base. Misalignment angles are calculated by measured data of magnetometer and INS after rotating the aluminium parallelepiped frame on aluminium plane base. After calibration, RMS error of geomagnetic north, vertical and east are reduced from 349.441 nT, 392.530 nT and 562.316 nT to 40.130 nT, 91.586 nT and 141.989 nT respectively. - Highlights: • A new misalignment calibration method by rotating a parallelepiped frame is proposed. • It does not need to know sensor attitude information or local dip angle. • The calibration system attitude change angle is not strictly required. • It can be widely used when sensors measure different physical information. • Geomagnetic vector measurement error is reduced evidently.

  18. Dynamic analysis of suspension cable based on vector form intrinsic finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian; Qiao, Liang; Wan, Jiancheng; Jiang, Ming; Xia, Yongjun

    2017-10-01

    A vector finite element method is presented for the dynamic analysis of cable structures based on the vector form intrinsic finite element (VFIFE) and mechanical properties of suspension cable. Firstly, the suspension cable is discretized into different elements by space points, the mass and external forces of suspension cable are transformed into space points. The structural form of cable is described by the space points at different time. The equations of motion for the space points are established according to the Newton’s second law. Then, the element internal forces between the space points are derived from the flexible truss structure. Finally, the motion equations of space points are solved by the central difference method with reasonable time integration step. The tangential tension of the bearing rope in a test ropeway with the moving concentrated loads is calculated and compared with the experimental data. The results show that the tangential tension of suspension cable with moving loads is consistent with the experimental data. This method has high calculated precision and meets the requirements of engineering application.

  19. Diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease Based on Support Vector Machine by Feature Selection Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Huseyin; Danaei Mehr, Homay; Cetin, Aydin

    2017-04-01

    As Chronic Kidney Disease progresses slowly, early detection and effective treatment are the only cure to reduce the mortality rate. Machine learning techniques are gaining significance in medical diagnosis because of their classification ability with high accuracy rates. The accuracy of classification algorithms depend on the use of correct feature selection algorithms to reduce the dimension of datasets. In this study, Support Vector Machine classification algorithm was used to diagnose Chronic Kidney Disease. To diagnose the Chronic Kidney Disease, two essential types of feature selection methods namely, wrapper and filter approaches were chosen to reduce the dimension of Chronic Kidney Disease dataset. In wrapper approach, classifier subset evaluator with greedy stepwise search engine and wrapper subset evaluator with the Best First search engine were used. In filter approach, correlation feature selection subset evaluator with greedy stepwise search engine and filtered subset evaluator with the Best First search engine were used. The results showed that the Support Vector Machine classifier by using filtered subset evaluator with the Best First search engine feature selection method has higher accuracy rate (98.5%) in the diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease compared to other selected methods.

  20. Real Time Monitoring and Test Vector Generation for Improved Flight Safety Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the complexity of flight controllers grows so does the cost associated with verification and validation (V&V). Current-generation controllers are reaching...

  1. Real Time Monitoring and Test Vector Generation for Improved Flight Safety Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the complexity of flight controllers grows so does the cost associated with verification and validation (V&V). Current-generation controllers are reaching a...

  2. Generation of Footprint-Free Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Human Fibroblasts Using Episomal Plasmid Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A; Sun, Jane; Wolvetang, Ernst J

    2015-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have provided novel insights into the etiology of disease and are set to transform regenerative medicine and drug screening over the next decade. The generation of human iPSCs free of a genetic footprint of the reprogramming process is crucial for the realization of these potential uses. Here we describe in detail the generation of human iPSC from control and disease-carrying individuals' fibroblasts using episomal plasmids.

  3. Community effectiveness of pyriproxyfen as a dengue vector control method: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorit Maoz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vector control is the only widely utilised method for primary prevention and control of dengue. The use of pyriproxyfen may be promising, and autodissemination approach may reach hard to reach breeding places. It offers a unique mode of action (juvenile hormone mimic and as an additional tool for the management of insecticide resistance among Aedes vectors. However, evidence of efficacy and community effectiveness (CE remains limited.The aim of this systematic review is to compile and analyse the existing literature for evidence on the CE of pyriproxyfen as a vector control method for reducing Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations and thereby human dengue transmission.Systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Lilacs, Cochrane library, WHOLIS, Web of Science, Google Scholar as well as reference lists of all identified studies. Removal of duplicates, screening of abstracts and assessment for eligibility of the remaining studies followed. Relevant data were extracted, and a quality assessment conducted. Results were classified into four main categories of how pyriproxyfen was applied: - 1 container treatment, 2 fumigation, 3 auto-dissemination or 4 combination treatments,-and analysed with a view to their public health implication.Out of 745 studies 17 studies were identified that fulfilled all eligibility criteria. The results show that pyriproxyfen can be effective in reducing the numbers of Aedes spp. immatures with different methods of application when targeting their main breeding sites. However, the combination of pyriproxyfen with a second product increases efficacy and/or persistence of the intervention and may also slow down the development of insecticide resistance. Open questions concern concentration and frequency of application in the various treatments. Area-wide ultra-low volume treatment with pyriproxyfen currently lacks evidence and cannot be recommended. Community participation and acceptance has not consistently been successful

  4. Community effectiveness of pyriproxyfen as a dengue vector control method: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, Dorit; Ward, Tara; Samuel, Moody; Müller, Pie; Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; Toledo, Joao; Boyce, Ross; Velayudhan, Raman; Horstick, Olaf

    2017-07-01

    Vector control is the only widely utilised method for primary prevention and control of dengue. The use of pyriproxyfen may be promising, and autodissemination approach may reach hard to reach breeding places. It offers a unique mode of action (juvenile hormone mimic) and as an additional tool for the management of insecticide resistance among Aedes vectors. However, evidence of efficacy and community effectiveness (CE) remains limited. The aim of this systematic review is to compile and analyse the existing literature for evidence on the CE of pyriproxyfen as a vector control method for reducing Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations and thereby human dengue transmission. Systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Lilacs, Cochrane library, WHOLIS, Web of Science, Google Scholar as well as reference lists of all identified studies. Removal of duplicates, screening of abstracts and assessment for eligibility of the remaining studies followed. Relevant data were extracted, and a quality assessment conducted. Results were classified into four main categories of how pyriproxyfen was applied: - 1) container treatment, 2) fumigation, 3) auto-dissemination or 4) combination treatments,-and analysed with a view to their public health implication. Out of 745 studies 17 studies were identified that fulfilled all eligibility criteria. The results show that pyriproxyfen can be effective in reducing the numbers of Aedes spp. immatures with different methods of application when targeting their main breeding sites. However, the combination of pyriproxyfen with a second product increases efficacy and/or persistence of the intervention and may also slow down the development of insecticide resistance. Open questions concern concentration and frequency of application in the various treatments. Area-wide ultra-low volume treatment with pyriproxyfen currently lacks evidence and cannot be recommended. Community participation and acceptance has not consistently been successful and needs to

  5. Parameters sensitivity analysis of underground excavation impacting on slope stability based on Vector Sum Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quan

    2018-01-01

    The impact of underground excavation on slope stability is controlled by many parameters, including the shape of slope, the mechanical property of soil and rock, the relative position of excavation zone and slip surface, and so on. The factor of safety (FOS) base on limit equilibrium method (LEM) and strength reduction method (SRM) is not suitable to evaluate the impact. Vector sum method (VSM) and orthogonal experiment are used to evaluate the impact by doing parameters sensitivity analysis. The result shows that the VSM could be used to in this research field, and the gradient of a slope, the relative position between a excavation area and a slope, the cohesion are the top three factors which impact the stability significantly.

  6. An Improved Array Steering Vector Estimation Method and Its Application in Speech Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Hwa Er

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a robust microphone array for speech enhancement and noise suppression. To overcome target signal cancellation problem of conventional beamformes caused by array imperfections or reverberation effects, the proposed method adopts arbitrary transfer function relating each microphone and target speech signal as array channel model. This is achieved in two ways. First, we propose a method to estimate the array steering vector (ASV by means of exploiting the nonstationarity of speech signal to combat stationary noise and interference. Next, with the estimated ASV, a robust matched-filter-(MF- array-based generalized sidelobe canceller (MF-GSC is constructed to enhance the speech signal and suppress noise/interference. In addition, it also has the capability to reduce the reverberation effects of the acoustic enclosure. Numerical results show that the proposed method demonstrates high performance even in adverse environments.

  7. A Vector Flow Imaging Method for Portable Ultrasound Using Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Ianni, Tommaso; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    for the velocity estimation along the lateral and axial directions using a phase-shift estimator. The performance of the method was investigated with constant flow measurements in a flow rig system using the SARUS scanner and a 4.1-MHz linear array. A sequence was designed with interleaved B-mode and flow...... emissions to obtain continuous data acquisition. A parametric study was carried out to evaluate the effect of critical parameters. The vessel was placed at depths from 20 to 40 mm, with beam-to-flow angles of 65°, 75°, and 90°. For the lateral velocities at 20 mm, a bias between -5% and -6.2% was obtained......This paper presents a vector flow imaging method for the integration of quantitative blood flow imaging in portable ultrasound systems. The method combines directional transverse oscillation (TO) and synthetic aperture sequential beamforming to yield continuous velocity estimation in the whole...

  8. Analysis of EEG signals by combining eigenvector methods and multiclass support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derya Ubeyli, Elif

    2008-01-01

    A new approach based on the implementation of multiclass support vector machine (SVM) with the error correcting output codes (ECOC) is presented for classification of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. In practical applications of pattern recognition, there are often diverse features extracted from raw data which needs recognizing. Decision making was performed in two stages: feature extraction by eigenvector methods and classification using the classifiers trained on the extracted features. The aim of the study is classification of the EEG signals by the combination of eigenvector methods and multiclass SVM. The purpose is to determine an optimum classification scheme for this problem and also to infer clues about the extracted features. The present research demonstrated that the eigenvector methods are the features which well represent the EEG signals and the multiclass SVM trained on these features achieved high classification accuracies.

  9. Analytic methods to generate integrable mappings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-10-22

    Oct 22, 2015 ... Systematic analytic methods of deriving integrable mappings from integrable nonlinear ordinary differential, differential-difference and lattice equations are presented. More specifically, we explain how to derive integrable mappings through four different techniques namely,. dis-cretization technique,; Lax ...

  10. The novel control method of switched reluctance generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusz Piotr

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a novel control method of a switched reluctance generator was discussed. The presented control method allows a rotor rotating at high speed to enter the continuous-conduction mode which causes an increase of generated output power. A control function of the presented method was given as well as simulation and laboratory tests.

  11. The development of vector based 2.5D print methods for a painting machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraman, Carinna

    2013-02-01

    Through recent trends in the application of digitally printed decorative finishes to products, CAD, 3D additive layer manufacturing and research in material perception, [1, 2] there is a growing interest in the accurate rendering of materials and tangible displays. Although current advances in colour management and inkjet printing has meant that users can take for granted high-quality colour and resolution in their printed images, digital methods for transferring a photographic coloured image from screen to paper is constrained by pixel count, file size, colorimetric conversion between colour spaces and the gamut limits of input and output devices. This paper considers new approaches to applying alternative colour palettes by using a vector-based approach through the application of paint mixtures, towards what could be described as a 2.5D printing method. The objective is to not apply an image to a textured surface, but where texture and colour are integral to the mark, that like a brush, delineates the contours in the image. The paper describes the difference between the way inks and paints are mixed and applied. When transcribing the fluid appearance of a brush stroke, there is a difference between a halftone printed mark and a painted mark. The issue of surface quality is significant to subjective qualities when studying the appearance of ink or paint on paper. The paper provides examples of a range of vector marks that are then transcribed into brush stokes by the painting machine.

  12. Cultivation-independent methods reveal differences among bacterial gut microbiota in triatomine vectors of Chagas disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Faria da Mota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a trypanosomiasis whose agent is the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to humans by hematophagous bugs known as triatomines. Even though insecticide treatments allow effective control of these bugs in most Latin American countries where Chagas disease is endemic, the disease still affects a large proportion of the population of South America. The features of the disease in humans have been extensively studied, and the genome of the parasite has been sequenced, but no effective drug is yet available to treat Chagas disease. The digestive tract of the insect vectors in which T. cruzi develops has been much less well investigated than blood from its human hosts and constitutes a dynamic environment with very different conditions. Thus, we investigated the composition of the predominant bacterial species of the microbiota in insect vectors from Rhodnius, Triatoma, Panstrongylus and Dipetalogaster genera. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Microbiota of triatomine guts were investigated using cultivation-independent methods, i.e., phylogenetic analysis of 16s rDNA using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and cloned-based sequencing. The Chao index showed that the diversity of bacterial species in triatomine guts is low, comprising fewer than 20 predominant species, and that these species vary between insect species. The analyses showed that Serratia predominates in Rhodnius, Arsenophonus predominates in Triatoma and Panstrongylus, while Candidatus Rohrkolberia predominates in Dipetalogaster. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The microbiota of triatomine guts represents one of the factors that may interfere with T. cruzi transmission and virulence in humans. The knowledge of its composition according to insect species is important for designing measures of biological control for T. cruzi. We found that the predominant species of the bacterial microbiota in triatomines form a group of low

  13. Generation of two-temporal-mode photon states by vector four-wave mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mckinstrie, C. J.; Christensen, J. B.; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Photon pair states and multiple-photon squeezed states have many applications in quantum information science. In this paper, Green functions are derived for spontaneous four-wave mixing in the low-and high-gain regimes. Nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a strongly-birefringent medium generates...

  14. A star tracker on-orbit calibration method based on vector pattern match

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Xiong, Kun; Wei, Xinguo; Zhang, Guangjun

    2017-04-01

    On-orbit calibration is aimed at revising the star trackers' measurement model parameters and maintaining its attitude accuracy. The performance of existing calibration methods is quite poor. Among all the model parameters, the estimation of the principal point location is very challenging due to its vulnerability against measurement errors, yet, that it is the only parameter depicting the optical axis' projecting position on the image plane makes it of great significance. Its estimation error adds fixed bias to the output attitudes. Based on the criterion of vector pattern match, an on-orbit calibration method is proposed. The principal point location is estimated according to the criterion first. The other model parameters are updated by maximum likelihood method, and measures of multiple succeeding frames optimization and star density weight are adopted in the method to guarantee the estimation of robustness. Simulation and night sky observation results proved the validity of the proposed method. In the simulation with a poor initial guess of the principal point location, novel method's result is better than the least square method and Samaan's method.

  15. Generation and validation of novel adeno-associated viral vectors for the analysis of Ca2+ homeostasis in motor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norante, Rosa Pia; Massimino, Maria Lina; Lorenzon, Paolo; De Mario, Agnese; Peggion, Caterina; Vicario, Mattia; Albiero, Mattia; Sorgato, Maria Catia; Lopreiato, Raffaele; Bertoli, Alessandro

    2017-07-26

    A finely tuned Ca2+ homeostasis in restricted cell domains is of fundamental importance for neurons, where transient Ca2+ oscillations direct the proper coordination of electro-chemical signals and overall neuronal metabolism. Once such a precise regulation is unbalanced, however, neuronal functions and viability are severely compromised. Accordingly, disturbed Ca2+ metabolism has often been claimed as a major contributor to different neurodegenerative disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that is characterised by selective motor neuron (MN) damage. This notion highlights the need for probes for the specific and precise analysis of local Ca2+ dynamics in MNs. Here, we generated and functionally validated adeno-associated viral vectors for the expression of gene-encoded fluorescent Ca2+ indicators targeted to different cell domains, under the transcriptional control of a MN-specific promoter. We demonstrated that the probes are specifically expressed, and allow reliable local Ca2+ measurements, in MNs from murine primary spinal cord cultures, and can also be expressed in spinal cord MNs in vivo, upon systemic administration to newborn mice. Preliminary analyses using these novel vectors have shown larger cytosolic Ca2+ responses following stimulation of AMPA receptors in the cytosol of primary cultured MNs from a murine genetic model of ALS compared to the healthy counterpart.

  16. Generation of a Vero-Based Packaging Cell Line to Produce SV40 Gene Delivery Vectors for Use in Clinical Gene Therapy Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel G. Toscano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Replication-defective (RD recombinant simian virus 40 (SV40-based gene delivery vectors hold a great potential for clinical applications because of their presumed non-immunogenicity and capacity to induce immune tolerance to the transgene products in humans. However, the clinical use of SV40 vectors has been hampered by the lack of a packaging cell line that produces replication-competent (RC free SV40 particles in the vector production process. To solve this problem, we have adapted the current SV40 vector genome used for the production of vector particles and generated a novel Vero-based packaging cell line named SuperVero that exclusively expresses the SV40 large T antigen. SuperVero cells produce similar numbers of SV40 vector particles compared to the currently used packaging cell lines, albeit in the absence of contaminating RC SV40 particles. Our unique SV40 vector platform named SVac paves the way to clinically test a whole new generation of SV40-based therapeutics for a broad range of important diseases.

  17. Fossil fuel combined cycle power generation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labinov, Solomon D [Knoxville, TN; Armstrong, Timothy R [Clinton, TN; Judkins, Roddie R [Knoxville, TN

    2008-10-21

    A method for converting fuel energy to electricity includes the steps of converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one mixed gas stream of lower average molecular weight including at least a first lower molecular weight gas and a second gas, the first and second gases being different gases, wherein the first lower molecular weight gas comprises H.sub.2 and the second gas comprises CO. The mixed gas is supplied to at least one turbine to produce electricity. The mixed gas stream is divided after the turbine into a first gas stream mainly comprising H.sub.2 and a second gas stream mainly comprising CO. The first and second gas streams are then electrochemically oxidized in separate fuel cells to produce electricity. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

  18. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  19. Eddy Current Signature Classification of Steam Generator Tube Defects Using A Learning Vector Quantization Neural Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabe V. Garcia

    2005-01-03

    A major cause of failure in nuclear steam generators is degradation of their tubes. Although seven primary defect categories exist, one of the principal causes of tube failure is intergranular attack/stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC). This type of defect usually begins on the secondary side surface of the tubes and propagates both inwards and laterally. In many cases this defect is found at or near the tube support plates.

  20. W-band OFDM photonic vector signal generation employing a single Mach-Zehnder modulator and precoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jiangnan; Li, Xinying; Xu, Yuming; Zhang, Ziran; Chen, Long; Yu, Jianjun

    2015-09-07

    We present a simple radio-over-fiber (RoF) link architecture for millimeter-wave orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission using only one Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) and precoding technique. In the transmission system, the amplitudes and the phase of the driving radio-frequency (RF) OFDM signal on each sub-carrier are precoded, to ensure that the OFDM signal after photodetector (PD) can be restored to original OFDM signal. The experimental results show that the bit-error ratios (BERs) of the transmission system are less than the forward-error-correction (FEC) threshold of 3.8 × 10(-3), which demonstrates that the generation of OFDM vector signal based on our proposed scheme can be employed in our system architecture.

  1. Generation of Recombinant Capripoxvirus Vectors for Vaccines and Gene Knockout Function Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshra, Hani; Cao, Jingxin; Babiuk, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    The ability to manipulate capripoxvirus through gene knockouts and gene insertions has become an increasingly valuable research tool in elucidating the function of individual genes of capripoxvirus, as well as in the development of capripoxvirus-based recombinant vaccines. The homologous recombination technique is used to generate capripoxvirus knockout viruses (KO), and is based on the targeting a particular viral gene of interest. This technique can also be used to insert a gene of interest. A protocol for the generation of a viral gene knockout is described. This technique involves the use of a plasmid which encodes the flanking sequences of the regions where the homologous recombination will occur, and will result in the insertion of an EGFP reporter gene for visualization of recombinant virus, as well as the E. coli gpt gene as a positive selection marker. If an additional gene is to be incorporated, this can be achieved by inserting a gene of interest for expression under a poxvirus promoter into the plasmid between the flanking regions for insertion. This chapter describes a protocol for generating such recombinant capripoxviruses.

  2. A third-generation density-functional-theory-based method for calculating canonical molecular orbitals of large molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Toshiyuki; Sato, Fumitoshi

    2014-07-28

    We used grid-free modified Cholesky decomposition (CD) to develop a density-functional-theory (DFT)-based method for calculating the canonical molecular orbitals (CMOs) of large molecules. Our method can be used to calculate standard CMOs, analytically compute exchange-correlation terms, and maximise the capacity of next-generation supercomputers. Cholesky vectors were first analytically downscaled using low-rank pivoted CD and CD with adaptive metric (CDAM). The obtained Cholesky vectors were distributed and stored on each computer node in a parallel computer, and the Coulomb, Fock exchange, and pure exchange-correlation terms were calculated by multiplying the Cholesky vectors without evaluating molecular integrals in self-consistent field iterations. Our method enables DFT and massively distributed memory parallel computers to be used in order to very efficiently calculate the CMOs of large molecules.

  3. Method for generating realistic 3-dimensional models of neuronal cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mata Fernández, Susana; Brito Menéndez, Juan Pedro; Bayona Beriso, Sofía; Pastor Pérez, Luis; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Felipe, Javier de

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The present invention relates to a method for the generation of 3-dimensional models of neuronal cells based on incomplete morphological information extracted by means of standard sampling methods. The models generated include a realistic soma, dendritic and axonal trees and dendritic spines, which may be generated at different resolution levels. The invention proposes an innovative technique that makes it possible to obtain a realistic soma form based on a simple definition thereof (suc...

  4. Generation of two-temporal-mode photon states by vector four-wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinstrie, C J; Christensen, J B; Rottwitt, K; Raymer, M G

    2017-08-21

    Photon pair states and multiple-photon squeezed states have many applications in quantum information science. In this paper, Green functions are derived for spontaneous four-wave mixing in the low- and high-gain regimes. Nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a strongly-birefringent medium generates signal and idler photons that are associated with only one pair of temporal (Schmidt) modes, for a wide range of pump powers and arbitrary pump shapes. The Schmidt coefficients (expected photon numbers) depend sensitively on the pump powers, and the Schmidt functions (shapes of the photon wavepackets) depend sensitively on the pump powers and shapes, which can be controlled.

  5. Diagnostic Method of Diabetes Based on Support Vector Machine and Tongue Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this research is to develop a diagnostic method of diabetes based on standardized tongue image using support vector machine (SVM. Methods. Tongue images of 296 diabetic subjects and 531 nondiabetic subjects were collected by the TDA-1 digital tongue instrument. Tongue body and tongue coating were separated by the division-merging method and chrominance-threshold method. With extracted color and texture features of the tongue image as input variables, the diagnostic model of diabetes with SVM was trained. After optimizing the combination of SVM kernel parameters and input variables, the influences of the combinations on the model were analyzed. Results. After normalizing parameters of tongue images, the accuracy rate of diabetes predication was increased from 77.83% to 78.77%. The accuracy rate and area under curve (AUC were not reduced after reducing the dimensions of tongue features with principal component analysis (PCA, while substantially saving the training time. During the training for selecting SVM parameters by genetic algorithm (GA, the accuracy rate of cross-validation was grown from 72% or so to 83.06%. Finally, we compare with several state-of-the-art algorithms, and experimental results show that our algorithm has the best predictive accuracy. Conclusions. The diagnostic method of diabetes on the basis of tongue images in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM is of great value, indicating the feasibility of digitalized tongue diagnosis.

  6. Real Time Monitoring System of Pollution Waste on Musi River Using Support Vector Machine (SVM) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachrurrozi, Muhammad; Saparudin; Erwin

    2017-04-01

    Real-time Monitoring and early detection system which measures the quality standard of waste in Musi River, Palembang, Indonesia is a system for determining air and water pollution level. This system was designed in order to create an integrated monitoring system and provide real time information that can be read. It is designed to measure acidity and water turbidity polluted by industrial waste, as well as to show and provide conditional data integrated in one system. This system consists of inputting and processing the data, and giving output based on processed data. Turbidity, substances, and pH sensor is used as a detector that produce analog electrical direct current voltage (DC). Early detection system works by determining the value of the ammonia threshold, acidity, and turbidity level of water in Musi River. The results is then presented based on the level group pollution by the Support Vector Machine classification method.

  7. Investigating starch gelatinization through Stokes vector resolved second harmonic generation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Nirmal; Xiang, Lu Yun; Qiu, Jianjun; Kao, Fu-Jen

    2017-04-01

    The changes of the morphology during heating and the degree of crystallinity of dry and hydrated starch granules are investigated using second harmonic generation (SHG) based Stokes polarimetry. A spatial distribution of various polarization parameters, such as the degree of polarization (DOP), the degree of linear polarization (DOLP), and the degree of circular polarization (DOCP) are extracted and compared with the two dimensional second harmonic (SH) Stokes images of starch granules. The SH signal from hydrated and dry starch on heating differed significantly in DOLP and DOCP values, indicating that hydrated starch has a greater degree of ultrastructural amylopectin disorder. The detail of denaturation and the phase transition of hydrated starch demonstrate the significant influence of thermal processing.

  8. Importance of waste stabilization ponds and wastewater irrigation in the generation of vector mosquitoes in Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukhtar, Muhammad; Ensink, Jeroen; Van der Hoek, Wim

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the role of waste stabilization ponds (WSP) and wastewater-irrigated sites for the production of mosquitoes of medical importance. Mosquito larvae were collected fortnightly from July 2001 to June 2002 in Faisalabad, Pakistan. In total, 3...... an overwhelming preference for anaerobic ponds, which receive untreated wastewater. Facultative ponds generated lower numbers of both Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes, whereas the last ponds in the series, the maturation ponds, were the least productive for both mosquito genera. An. subpictus and Anopheles...... grass vegetation and low salinity. Regular removal of emergent grass along the margins of the anaerobic ponds and changes in the concrete design of the ponds are likely to reduce the mosquito production, especially of Culex species....

  9. Method for high-speed Manchester encoded optical signal generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Chi, Nan; Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva

    2004-01-01

    A method for high-speed Manchester encoded optical signal generation is proposed and demonstrated with a specially configured electro-optical modulator. A 10 Gb/s Manchester encoded optical signal was generated, and its bit-error-ratio (BER) performance was evaluated.......A method for high-speed Manchester encoded optical signal generation is proposed and demonstrated with a specially configured electro-optical modulator. A 10 Gb/s Manchester encoded optical signal was generated, and its bit-error-ratio (BER) performance was evaluated....

  10. A fast gene selection method for multi-cancer classification using multiple support vector data description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jin; Zhang, Li; Wang, Bangjun; Li, Fanzhang; Yang, Jiwen

    2015-02-01

    For cancer classification problems based on gene expression, the data usually has only a few dozen sizes but has thousands to tens of thousands of genes which could contain a large number of irrelevant genes. A robust feature selection algorithm is required to remove irrelevant genes and choose the informative ones. Support vector data description (SVDD) has been applied to gene selection for many years. However, SVDD cannot address the problems with multiple classes since it only considers the target class. In addition, it is time-consuming when applying SVDD to gene selection. This paper proposes a novel fast feature selection method based on multiple SVDD and applies it to multi-class microarray data. A recursive feature elimination (RFE) scheme is introduced to iteratively remove irrelevant features, so the proposed method is called multiple SVDD-RFE (MSVDD-RFE). To make full use of all classes for a given task, MSVDD-RFE independently selects a relevant gene subset for each class. The final selected gene subset is the union of these relevant gene subsets. The effectiveness and accuracy of MSVDD-RFE are validated by experiments on five publicly available microarray datasets. Our proposed method is faster and more effective than other methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Novel Method for Vertical Acceleration Noise Suppression of a Thrust-Vectored VTOL UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyu Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Acceleration is of great importance in motion control for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, especially during the takeoff and landing stages. However, the measured acceleration is inevitably polluted by severe noise. Therefore, a proper noise suppression procedure is required. This paper presents a novel method to reduce the noise in the measured vertical acceleration for a thrust-vectored tail-sitter vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL UAV. In the new procedure, a Kalman filter is first applied to estimate the UAV mass by using the information in the vertical thrust and measured acceleration. The UAV mass is then used to compute an estimate of UAV vertical acceleration. The estimated acceleration is finally fused with the measured acceleration to obtain the minimum variance estimate of vertical acceleration. By doing this, the new approach incorporates the thrust information into the acceleration estimate. The method is applied to the data measured in a VTOL UAV takeoff experiment. Two other denoising approaches developed by former researchers are also tested for comparison. The results demonstrate that the new method is able to suppress the acceleration noise substantially. It also maintains the real-time performance in the final estimated acceleration, which is not seen in the former denoising approaches. The acceleration treated with the new method can be readily used in the motion control applications for UAVs to achieve improved accuracy.

  12. A Novel Method for Vertical Acceleration Noise Suppression of a Thrust-Vectored VTOL UAV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanyu; Wu, Linfeng; Li, Yingjie; Li, Chunwen; Li, Hangyu

    2016-12-02

    Acceleration is of great importance in motion control for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), especially during the takeoff and landing stages. However, the measured acceleration is inevitably polluted by severe noise. Therefore, a proper noise suppression procedure is required. This paper presents a novel method to reduce the noise in the measured vertical acceleration for a thrust-vectored tail-sitter vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) UAV. In the new procedure, a Kalman filter is first applied to estimate the UAV mass by using the information in the vertical thrust and measured acceleration. The UAV mass is then used to compute an estimate of UAV vertical acceleration. The estimated acceleration is finally fused with the measured acceleration to obtain the minimum variance estimate of vertical acceleration. By doing this, the new approach incorporates the thrust information into the acceleration estimate. The method is applied to the data measured in a VTOL UAV takeoff experiment. Two other denoising approaches developed by former researchers are also tested for comparison. The results demonstrate that the new method is able to suppress the acceleration noise substantially. It also maintains the real-time performance in the final estimated acceleration, which is not seen in the former denoising approaches. The acceleration treated with the new method can be readily used in the motion control applications for UAVs to achieve improved accuracy.

  13. Maximum power extraction under different vector-control schemes and grid-synchronization strategy of a wind-driven Brushless Doubly-Fed Reluctance Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Mohamed G; Allam, S M; Rashad, Essam M

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes an advanced strategy to synchronize the wind-driven Brushless Doubly-Fed Reluctance Generator (BDFRG) to the grid-side terminals. The proposed strategy depends mainly upon determining the electrical angle of the grid voltage, θ v and using the same transformation matrix of both the power winding and grid sides to ensure that the generated power-winding voltage has the same phase-sequence of the grid-side voltage. On the other hand, the paper proposes a vector-control (power-winding flux orientation) technique for maximum wind-power extraction under two schemes summarized as; unity power-factor operation and minimum converter-current. Moreover, a soft-starting method is suggested to avoid the employed converter over-current. The first control scheme is achieved by adjusting the command power-winding reactive power at zero for a unity power-factor operation. However, the second scheme depends on setting the command d-axis control-winding current at zero to maximize the ratio of the generator electromagnetic-torque per the converter current. This enables the system to get a certain command torque under minimum converter current. A sample of the obtained simulation and experimental results is presented to check the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Generating in vivo cloning vectors for parallel cloning of large gene clusters by homologous recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongmin Lee

    Full Text Available A robust method for the in vivo cloning of large gene clusters was developed based on homologous recombination (HR, requiring only the transformation of PCR products into Escherichia coli cells harboring a receiver plasmid. Positive clones were selected by an acquired antibiotic resistance, which was activated by the recruitment of a short ribosome-binding site plus start codon sequence from the PCR products to the upstream position of a silent antibiotic resistance gene in receiver plasmids. This selection was highly stringent and thus the cloning efficiency of the GFPuv gene (size: 0.7 kb was comparable to that of the conventional restriction-ligation method, reaching up to 4.3 × 10(4 positive clones per μg of DNA. When we attempted parallel cloning of GFPuv fusion genes (size: 2.0 kb and carotenoid biosynthesis pathway clusters (sizes: 4 kb, 6 kb, and 10 kb, the cloning efficiency was similarly high regardless of the DNA size, demonstrating that this would be useful for the cloning of large DNA sequences carrying multiple open reading frames. However, restriction analyses of the obtained plasmids showed that the selected cells may contain significant amounts of receiver plasmids without the inserts. To minimize the amount of empty plasmid in the positive selections, the sacB gene encoding a levansucrase was introduced as a counter selection marker in receiver plasmid as it converts sucrose to a toxic levan in the E. coli cells. Consequently, this method yielded completely homogeneous plasmids containing the inserts via the direct transformation of PCR products into E. coli cells.

  15. Fully automatized renal parenchyma volumetry using a support vector machine based recognition system for subject-specific probability map generation in native MR volume data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloger, Oliver; Tönnies, Klaus; Mensel, Birger; Völzke, Henry

    2015-11-01

    In epidemiological studies as well as in clinical practice the amount of produced medical image data strongly increased in the last decade. In this context organ segmentation in MR volume data gained increasing attention for medical applications. Especially in large-scale population-based studies organ volumetry is highly relevant requiring exact organ segmentation. Since manual segmentation is time-consuming and prone to reader variability, large-scale studies need automatized methods to perform organ segmentation. Fully automatic organ segmentation in native MR image data has proven to be a very challenging task. Imaging artifacts as well as inter- and intrasubject MR-intensity differences complicate the application of supervised learning strategies. Thus, we propose a modularized framework of a two-stepped probabilistic approach that generates subject-specific probability maps for renal parenchyma tissue, which are refined subsequently by using several, extended segmentation strategies. We present a three class-based support vector machine recognition system that incorporates Fourier descriptors as shape features to recognize and segment characteristic parenchyma parts. Probabilistic methods use the segmented characteristic parenchyma parts to generate high quality subject-specific parenchyma probability maps. Several refinement strategies including a final shape-based 3D level set segmentation technique are used in subsequent processing modules to segment renal parenchyma. Furthermore, our framework recognizes and excludes renal cysts from parenchymal volume, which is important to analyze renal functions. Volume errors and Dice coefficients show that our presented framework outperforms existing approaches.

  16. MAPPING LOCAL CLIMATE ZONES WITH A VECTOR-BASED GIS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lelovics

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we determined Local Climate Zones in a South-Hungarian city, using vector-based and raster-based databases. We calculated seven of the originally proposed ten physical (geometric, surface cover and radiative properties for areas which are based on the mobile temperature measurement campaigns earlier carried out in this city.As input data we applied 3D building database (earlier created with photogrammetric methods, 2D road database, topographic map, aerial photographs, remotely sensed reflectance information from RapidEye satellite image and our local knowledge about the area. The values of the properties were calculated by GIS methods developed for this purpose.We derived for the examined areas and applied for classification sky view factor, mean building height, terrain roughness class, building surface fraction, pervious surface fraction, impervious surface fraction and albedo.Six built and one land cover LCZ classes could be detected with this method on our study area. From each class one circle area was selected, which is representative for that class. Their thermal reactions were examined with the application of mobile temperature measurement dataset. The comparison was made in cases, when the weather was clear and calm and the surface was dry. We found that compact built-in types have more temperature surplus than open ones, and midrise types also have more than lowrise ones. According to our primary results, these categories provide a useful opportunity for intra- and inter-urban comparisons.

  17. A Fast Classification Method of Faults in Power Electronic Circuits Based on Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fault detection and location are important and front-end tasks in assuring the reliability of power electronic circuits. In essence, both tasks can be considered as the classification problem. This paper presents a fast fault classification method for power electronic circuits by using the support vector machine (SVM as a classifier and the wavelet transform as a feature extraction technique. Using one-against-rest SVM and one-against-one SVM are two general approaches to fault classification in power electronic circuits. However, these methods have a high computational complexity, therefore in this design we employ a directed acyclic graph (DAG SVM to implement the fault classification. The DAG SVM is close to the one-against-one SVM regarding its classification performance, but it is much faster. Moreover, in the presented approach, the DAG SVM is improved by introducing the method of Knearest neighbours to reduce some computations, so that the classification time can be further reduced. A rectifier and an inverter are demonstrated to prove effectiveness of the presented design.

  18. Intelligent Diagnosis Method for Centrifugal Pump System Using Vibration Signal and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Xue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed an intelligent diagnosis method for a centrifugal pump system using statistic filter, support vector machine (SVM, possibility theory, and Dempster-Shafer theory (DST on the basis of the vibration signals, to diagnose frequent faults in the centrifugal pump at an early stage, such as cavitation, impeller unbalance, and shaft misalignment. Firstly, statistic filter is used to extract the feature signals of pump faults from the measured vibration signals across an optimum frequency region, and nondimensional symptom parameters (NSPs are defined to represent the feature signals for distinguishing fault types. Secondly, the optimal classification hyperplane for distinguishing two states is obtained by SVM and NSPs, and its function is defined as synthetic symptom parameter (SSP in order to increase the diagnosis’ sensitivity. Finally, the possibility functions of the SSP are used to construct a sequential fuzzy diagnosis for fault detection and fault-type identification by possibility theory and DST. The proposed method has been applied to detect the faults of the centrifugal pump, and the efficiency of the method has been verified using practical examples.

  19. High order vector mode coupling mechanism based on mode matching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhishen; Gan, Jiulin; Heng, Xiaobo; Li, Muqiao; Li, Jiong; Xu, Shanhui; Yang, Zhongmin

    2017-06-01

    The high order vector mode (HOVM) coupling mechanism is investigated based on the mode matching method (MMM). In the case of strong HOVM coupling where the weakly guiding approximation fails, conventional coupling analysis methods become invalid due to the asynchronous coupling feature of the horizontal and vertical polarization components of HOVM. The MMM, which uses the interference of the local eigenmodes instead of the assumptive modes to simulate the light propagation, is adopted as a more efficient analysis method for investigating HOVM coupling processes, especially for strong coupling situations. The rules of the optimal coupling length, coupling efficiency, and mode purity in microfiber directional coupler are firstly quantitatively analyzed and summarized. Different from the specific input modes, some special new modes would be excited at the output through the strong HOVM coupling process. The analysis of HOVM coupling mechanism based on MMM could provide precise and accurate design guidance for HOVM directional coupler and mode converter, which are believed to be fundamental devices for multi-mode communication applications.

  20. Method for generating exact Bianchi type II cosmological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajj-Boutros, J.

    1986-06-01

    A method for generating exact Bianchi type II cosmological models with a perfect fluid distribution of matter is presented. Two new classes of Bianchi type II solutions have been generated from Lorenz's solution (D. Lorenz, Phys. Lett. A 79, 19 (1980)). A detailed study of physical and kinematic properties of one of them has been carried out.

  1. Numerical solvers based on the method of approximate inverse for 2D vector and 2-tensor tomography problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevtsov, E. Yu; Louis, A. K.; Maltseva, S. V.; Polyakova, A. P.; Svetov, I. E.

    2017-12-01

    A problem of reconstruction of 2D vector or symmetric 2-tensor fields by their known ray transforms is considered. Two numerical approaches based on the method of approximate inverse are suggested for solving the problem. The first method allows to recover components of a vector or tensor field, and the second reconstructs its potentials in the sense of feature reconstruction, where the observation operator assigns to a field its potential. Numerical simulations show good results of reconstruction of the sought-for fields or their solenoidal or potential parts from its ray transforms.

  2. Trajectory Generation Method with Convolution Operation on Velocity Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Geon [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Doik [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    The use of robots is no longer limited to the field of industrial robots and is now expanding into the fields of service and medical robots. In this light, a trajectory generation method that can respond instantaneously to the external environment is strongly required. Toward this end, this study proposes a method that enables a robot to change its trajectory in real-time using a convolution operation. The proposed method generates a trajectory in real time and satisfies the physical limits of the robot system such as acceleration and velocity limit. Moreover, a new way to improve the previous method, which generates inefficient trajectories in some cases owing to the characteristics of the trapezoidal shape of trajectories, is proposed by introducing a triangle shape. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed method is shown through a numerical simulation and a comparison with the previous convolution method.

  3. Support vector machine-based facial-expression recognition method combining shape and appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eun Jung; Kang, Byung Jun; Park, Kang Ryoung; Lee, Sangyoun

    2010-11-01

    Facial expression recognition can be widely used for various applications, such as emotion-based human-machine interaction, intelligent robot interfaces, face recognition robust to expression variation, etc. Previous studies have been classified as either shape- or appearance-based recognition. The shape-based method has the disadvantage that the individual variance of facial feature points exists irrespective of similar expressions, which can cause a reduction of the recognition accuracy. The appearance-based method has a limitation in that the textural information of the face is very sensitive to variations in illumination. To overcome these problems, a new facial-expression recognition method is proposed, which combines both shape and appearance information, based on the support vector machine (SVM). This research is novel in the following three ways as compared to previous works. First, the facial feature points are automatically detected by using an active appearance model. From these, the shape-based recognition is performed by using the ratios between the facial feature points based on the facial-action coding system. Second, the SVM, which is trained to recognize the same and different expression classes, is proposed to combine two matching scores obtained from the shape- and appearance-based recognitions. Finally, a single SVM is trained to discriminate four different expressions, such as neutral, a smile, anger, and a scream. By determining the expression of the input facial image whose SVM output is at a minimum, the accuracy of the expression recognition is much enhanced. The experimental results showed that the recognition accuracy of the proposed method was better than previous researches and other fusion methods.

  4. Perfusion vector - a new method to quantify myocardial perfusion scintigraphy images: a simulation study with validation in patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minarik, David; Senneby, Martin; Wollmer, Per

    2015-01-01

    Background The interpretation of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) largely relies on visual assessment by the physician of the localization and extent of a perfusion defect. The aim of this study was to introduce the concept of the perfusion vector as a new objective quantitative method...... for further assisting the visual interpretation and to test the concept using simulated MPS images as well as patients. Methods The perfusion vector is based on calculating the difference between the anatomical centroid and the perfusion center of gravity of the left ventricle. Simulated MPS images were.......001) but not for patients with infarction. The correlation between the defect size and stress vector magnitude was also found to be significant (p assisting the visual interpretation in MPS studies. Further...

  5. Parameter Identification of Ship Maneuvering Models Using Recursive Least Square Method Based on Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Zhu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of ship maneuvering models is a tough task of ship maneuverability prediction. Among several prime approaches of estimating ship maneuvering models, system identification combined with the full-scale or free- running model test is preferred. In this contribution, real-time system identification programs using recursive identification method, such as the recursive least square method (RLS, are exerted for on-line identification of ship maneuvering models. However, this method seriously depends on the objects of study and initial values of identified parameters. To overcome this, an intelligent technology, i.e., support vector machines (SVM, is firstly used to estimate initial values of the identified parameters with finite samples. As real measured motion data of the Mariner class ship always involve noise from sensors and external disturbances, the zigzag simulation test data include a substantial quantity of Gaussian white noise. Wavelet method and empirical mode decomposition (EMD are used to filter the data corrupted by noise, respectively. The choice of the sample number for SVM to decide initial values of identified parameters is extensively discussed and analyzed. With de-noised motion data as input-output training samples, parameters of ship maneuvering models are estimated using RLS and SVM-RLS, respectively. The comparison between identification results and true values of parameters demonstrates that both the identified ship maneuvering models from RLS and SVM-RLS have reasonable agreements with simulated motions of the ship, and the increment of the sample for SVM positively affects the identification results. Furthermore, SVM-RLS using data de-noised by EMD shows the highest accuracy and best convergence.

  6. ORTHO IMAGE AND DTM GENERATION WITH INTELLIGENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bagheri

    2013-10-01

    Finally the artificial intelligence methods, like genetic algorithms as well as neural networks, were examined on sample data for optimizing interpolation and for generating Digital Terrain Models. The results then were compared with existing conventional methods and it appeared that these methods have a high capacity in heights interpolation and that using these networks for interpolating and optimizing the weighting methods based on inverse distance leads to a high accurate estimation of heights.

  7. Search for third generation vector leptoquarks in 1.96 TeV proton-antiproton collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimoto, Takashi [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2007-02-01

    The CDF experiment has searched for production of a third generation vector leptoquark (VLQ3) in the di-tau plus di-jet channel using 322 pb-1 of Run II data. We review the production and decay theory and describe the VLQ3 model we have used as a benchmark. We study the analysis, including the data sample, triggers, particle identification, and event selection. We also discuss background estimates and systematic uncertainties. We have found no evidence for VLQ3 production and have set a 95% C.L. upper limit on the pair production cross section σ to 344 fb, and exclude VLQ3 in the mass range mVLQ3 > 317 GeV/c2, assuming Yang-Mills couplings and Br(LQ3 → bτ) = 1. If theoretical uncertainties on the cross section are taken into account, the results are σ < 353 fb and mVLQ3 > 303 GeV/c2. For a VLQ3 with Minimal couplings, the upper limit on the cross section is σ < 493 fb (σ < 554 fb) and the lower limit on the mass is mVLQ3 > 251 GeV/c2 (mVLQ3 > 235 GeV/c2) for the nominal (1σ varied) theoretical expectation.

  8. Generation of transgenic mesenchymal stem cells expressing green fluorescent protein as reporter gene using no viral vector in caprine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Yasotha, T; Singh, R K; Singh, Renu; Kumar, Kuldeep; Ranjan, R; Meshram, Chetan D; Das, B C; Bag, Sadhan

    2013-07-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are multipotent cells that can be derived from many different organs and tissues. While there are many ways to label and track cells each with strengths and weakness, the green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a reporter gene commonly employed. In the present study, caprine MSC were collected from bone marrow and cells were characterised with MSC specific markers. Passage 10 (P10) MSC cells were transfected using plasmid vector containing GFP as reporter gene with different concentrations of DNA and lipofectamine. Six different concentrations of DNA and lipofectamine as 1 microg DNA: 2 microL lipofectamine, 1 microg DNA: 2.5 microL lipofectamine, 1.2 microg DNA: 2.2 microL lipofectamine, 1.2 microg DNA: 2.5 microL lipofectamine, 1.5 microg DNA: 2.5 microL lipofectamine, 1.5 microg DNA: 3 microL lipofectamine were used. After 24 h and 48 h of transfection, caprine MSC were observed under florescent microscope. Highest transfection rate indicating green flourecscent MSC were found when the cells were transfected with 1.2 microg DNA: 2.2 microL lipofectamine and 1.5 microg DNA: 2.5 microL lipofectamine than other combinations. These cells have been propagated beyond 4th passage maintaining GFP expression. The results indicated that stable GFP positive MSC cells can be generated using the above protocol. These cells are being used for transplantation studies.

  9. Predicting metabolic syndrome using decision tree and support vector machine methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Alavijeh, Farzaneh; Jalili, Saeed; Sadeghi, Masoumeh

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Metabolic syndrome which underlies the increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes is considered as a group of metabolic abnormalities including central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Recently, artificial intelligence based health-care systems are highly regarded because of its success in diagnosis, prediction, and choice of treatment. This study employs machine learning technics for predict the metabolic syndrome. METHODS This study aims to employ decision tree and support vector machine (SVM) to predict the 7-year incidence of metabolic syndrome. This research is a practical one in which data from 2107 participants of Isfahan Cohort Study has been utilized. The subjects without metabolic syndrome according to the ATPIII criteria were selected. The features that have been used in this data set include: gender, age, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, hip circumference, physical activity, smoking, hypertension, antihypertensive medication use, systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, fasting blood sugar, 2-hour blood glucose, triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed based on ATPIII criteria and two methods of decision tree and SVM were selected to predict the metabolic syndrome. The criteria of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were used for validation. RESULTS SVM and decision tree methods were examined according to the criteria of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 0.774 (0.758), 0.74 (0.72) and 0.757 (0.739) in SVM (decision tree) method. CONCLUSION The results show that SVM method sensitivity, specificity and accuracy is more efficient than decision tree. The results of decision tree method show that the TG is the most important feature in

  10. Predicting metabolic syndrome using decision tree and support vector machine methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Alavijeh, Farzaneh; Jalili, Saeed; Sadeghi, Masoumeh

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome which underlies the increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes is considered as a group of metabolic abnormalities including central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Recently, artificial intelligence based health-care systems are highly regarded because of its success in diagnosis, prediction, and choice of treatment. This study employs machine learning technics for predict the metabolic syndrome. This study aims to employ decision tree and support vector machine (SVM) to predict the 7-year incidence of metabolic syndrome. This research is a practical one in which data from 2107 participants of Isfahan Cohort Study has been utilized. The subjects without metabolic syndrome according to the ATPIII criteria were selected. The features that have been used in this data set include: gender, age, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, hip circumference, physical activity, smoking, hypertension, antihypertensive medication use, systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, fasting blood sugar, 2-hour blood glucose, triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed based on ATPIII criteria and two methods of decision tree and SVM were selected to predict the metabolic syndrome. The criteria of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were used for validation. SVM and decision tree methods were examined according to the criteria of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 0.774 (0.758), 0.74 (0.72) and 0.757 (0.739) in SVM (decision tree) method. The results show that SVM method sensitivity, specificity and accuracy is more efficient than decision tree. The results of decision tree method show that the TG is the most important feature in predicting metabolic syndrome. According

  11. Neodymium-140 DOTA-LM3: Evaluation of an In Vivo Generator for PET with a Non-Internalizing Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory W. Severin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available 140Nd (t1/2 = 3.4 days, owing to its short-lived positron emitting daughter 140Pr (t1/2 = 3.4 min, has promise as an in vivo generator for positron emission tomography (PET. However, the electron capture decay of 140Nd is chemically disruptive to macrocycle-based radiolabeling, meaning that an in vivo redistribution of the daughter 140Pr is expected before positron emission. The purpose of this study was to determine how the delayed positron from the de-labeled 140Pr affects preclinical imaging with 140Nd. To explore the effect, 140Nd was produced at CERN-ISOLDE, reacted with the somatostatin analogue, DOTA-LM3 (1,4,7,10- tetraazacyclododecane, 1,4,7- tri acetic acid, 10- acetamide N - p-Cl-Phecyclo(d-Cys-Tyr-d-4-amino-Phe(carbamoyl-Lys-Thr-Cysd-Tyr-NH2 and injected into H727 xenograft bearing mice. Comparative pre- and post-mortem PET imaging at 16 h postinjection was used to quantify the in vivo redistribution of 140Pr following 140Nd decay. The somatostatin receptor-positive pancreas exhibited the highest tissue accumulation of 140Nd-DOTA-LM3 (13% ID/g at 16 h coupled with the largest observed redistribution rate, where 56 ± 7% (n = 4, mean ± SD of the in situ produced 140Pr washed out of the pancreas before decay. Contrastingly, the liver, spleen, and lungs acted as strong sink organs for free 140Pr3+. Based upon these results, we conclude that 140Nd imaging with a non-internalizing vector convolutes the biodistribution of the tracer with the accumulation pattern of free 140Pr. This redistribution phenomenon may show promise as a probe of the cellular interaction with the vector, such as in determining tissue dependent internalization behavior.

  12. The work of Otto Fischer and the historical development of his method of principal vectors for mechanism and machine science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijk, V.; Herder, Justus Laurens; Koetsier, T.; Ceccarelli, M.

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the distinctive work of Otto Fischer (1861-1916) on the motion of the human musculoskeletal system. In order to be able to derive the individual muscle forces for human in motion, he invented the method of principal vectors to describe the motion of the

  13. Evaluation of a wave-vector-frequency-domain method for nonlinear wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yun; Tao, Molei; Clement, Greg T.

    2011-01-01

    A wave-vector-frequency-domain method is presented to describe one-directional forward or backward acoustic wave propagation in a nonlinear homogeneous medium. Starting from a frequency-domain representation of the second-order nonlinear acoustic wave equation, an implicit solution for the nonlinear term is proposed by employing the Green’s function. Its approximation, which is more suitable for numerical implementation, is used. An error study is carried out to test the efficiency of the model by comparing the results with the Fubini solution. It is shown that the error grows as the propagation distance and step-size increase. However, for the specific case tested, even at a step size as large as one wavelength, sufficient accuracy for plane-wave propagation is observed. A two-dimensional steered transducer problem is explored to verify the nonlinear acoustic field directional independence of the model. A three-dimensional single-element transducer problem is solved to verify the forward model by comparing it with an existing nonlinear wave propagation code. Finally, backward-projection behavior is examined. The sound field over a plane in an absorptive medium is backward projected to the source and compared with the initial field, where good agreement is observed. PMID:21302985

  14. Evaluation of a wave-vector-frequency-domain method for nonlinear wave propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yun; Tao, Molei; Clement, Greg T

    2011-01-01

    A wave-vector-frequency-domain method is presented to describe one-directional forward or backward acoustic wave propagation in a nonlinear homogeneous medium. Starting from a frequency-domain representation of the second-order nonlinear acoustic wave equation, an implicit solution for the nonlinear term is proposed by employing the Green's function. Its approximation, which is more suitable for numerical implementation, is used. An error study is carried out to test the efficiency of the model by comparing the results with the Fubini solution. It is shown that the error grows as the propagation distance and step-size increase. However, for the specific case tested, even at a step size as large as one wavelength, sufficient accuracy for plane-wave propagation is observed. A two-dimensional steered transducer problem is explored to verify the nonlinear acoustic field directional independence of the model. A three-dimensional single-element transducer problem is solved to verify the forward model by comparing it with an existing nonlinear wave propagation code. Finally, backward-projection behavior is examined. The sound field over a plane in an absorptive medium is backward projected to the source and compared with the initial field, where good agreement is observed.

  15. Cost-Sensitive Support Vector Machine Using Randomized Dual Coordinate Descent Method for Big Class-Imbalanced Data Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Mingzhu Tang; Chunhua Yang; Kang Zhang; Qiyue Xie

    2014-01-01

    Cost-sensitive support vector machine is one of the most popular tools to deal with class-imbalanced problem such as fault diagnosis. However, such data appear with a huge number of examples as well as features. Aiming at class-imbalanced problem on big data, a cost-sensitive support vector machine using randomized dual coordinate descent method (CSVM-RDCD) is proposed in this paper. The solution of concerned subproblem at each iteration is derived in closed form and the computational cost is...

  16. A semisupervised support vector regression method to estimate biophysical parameters from remotely sensed images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletti, Davide; Demir, Begüm; Bruzzone, Lorenzo

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a novel semisupervised learning (SSL) technique defined in the context of ɛ-insensitive support vector regression (SVR) to estimate biophysical parameters from remotely sensed images. The proposed SSL method aims to mitigate the problems of small-sized biased training sets without collecting any additional samples with reference measures. This is achieved on the basis of two consecutive steps. The first step is devoted to inject additional priors information in the learning phase of the SVR in order to adapt the importance of each training sample according to distribution of the unlabeled samples. To this end, a weight is initially associated to each training sample based on a novel strategy that defines higher weights for the samples located in the high density regions of the feature space while giving reduced weights to those that fall into the low density regions of the feature space. Then, in order to exploit different weights for training samples in the learning phase of the SVR, we introduce a weighted SVR (WSVR) algorithm. The second step is devoted to jointly exploit labeled and informative unlabeled samples for further improving the definition of the WSVR learning function. To this end, the most informative unlabeled samples that have an expected accurate target values are initially selected according to a novel strategy that relies on the distribution of the unlabeled samples in the feature space and on the WSVR function estimated at the first step. Then, we introduce a restructured WSVR algorithm that jointly uses labeled and unlabeled samples in the learning phase of the WSVR algorithm and tunes their importance by different values of regularization parameters. Experimental results obtained for the estimation of single-tree stem volume show the effectiveness of the proposed SSL method.

  17. Using vector building maps to aid in generating seams for low-attitude aerial orthoimage mosaicking: Advantages in avoiding the crossing of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongliang; Cao, Wei; Xin, Xiaoping; Shao, Quanqin; Brolly, Matthew; Xiao, Jianhua; Wan, Youchuan; Zhang, Yongjun

    2017-03-01

    A novel seam detection approach based on vector building maps is presented for low-attitude aerial orthoimage mosaicking. The approach tracks the centerlines between vector buildings to generate the candidate seams that avoid crossing buildings existing in maps. The candidate seams are then refined by considering their surrounding pixels to minimize the visual transition between the images to be mosaicked. After the refinement of the candidate seams, the final seams further bypass most of the buildings that are not updated into vector maps. Finally, three groups of aerial imagery from different urban densities are employed to test the proposed approach. The experimental results illustrate the advantages of the proposed approach in avoiding the crossing of buildings. The computational efficiency of the proposed approach is also significantly higher than that of Dijkstra's algorithm.

  18. A Translational Pathway Toward a Clinical Trial Using the Second-Generation AAV Micro-Dystrophin Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    a human microgene vector, we tested if we can reduce immunogenicity with our original canine SJ13. To further enhance the function of the micro...specific promoter and miR142-3p binding site. Next, we tested whether we can successfully package YL398 into a functional AAV vector and whether the...medium (Christa, 6.14 x 1014 vg /kg) doses of the AAV-9 AP reporter vector. RF, rectus femoris; CS, cranial sartorius; AR, abdominal rectus. B

  19. Synchronization Methods for Three Phase Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timbus, Adrian Vasile; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    on the grid side. Therefore, considerations about power generation, safe running and grid synchronization must be done before connecting these systems to the utility network. This paper is mainly dealing with the grid synchronization issues of distributed systems. An overview of the synchronization methods......Nowadays, it is a general trend to increase the electricity production using Distributed Power Generation Systems (DPGS) based on renewable energy resources such as wind, sun or hydrogen. If these systems are not properly controlled, their connection to the utility network can generate problems...... as well as their major characteristics is given. New solutions to optimize the synchronization methods when running on distorted grid conditions are discussed. Simulation and experimental results are used to evaluate the behavior of the synchronization methods under different kind of grid disturbances...

  20. Microstructure density generation for backlight display using probability analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shang-fei; Su, Cheng-yue; Feng, Zu-yong; Li, Xiao-duan

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a new 1D density generation method for micro prisms applied in a light guide plate (LGP) design. It has three parameters, including the width of micro prisms, the ratio of cells and the probability values. After calculation of the new densities, we applied it to a dynamical low discrepancy sequences method to generate the micro prisms distribution. We build models of 2.7 inches, 7 inches and 14 inches in the optical software. Our simulation results indicated that the luminance uniformity ranged between 89.9% and 92.2%, and the light utilizations ranged between 79.5% and 80.0%. This new density generation method is proved to be practicable for middle and small size BLU designs. It also helps to shorten the design period by substituting the determination of the prisms numbers in initialization.

  1. A Vector Flow Imaging Method for Portable Ultrasound Using Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ianni, Tommaso; Villagomez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Ewertsen, Caroline; Kjeldsen, Thomas Kim; Mosegaard, Jesper; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jorgen Arendt

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a vector flow imaging method for the integration of quantitative blood flow imaging in portable ultrasound systems. The method combines directional transverse oscillation (TO) and synthetic aperture sequential beamforming to yield continuous velocity estimation in the whole imaging region. Six focused emissions are used to create a high-resolution image (HRI), and a dual-stage beamforming approach is used to lower the data throughput between the probe and the processing unit. The transmit/receive focal points are laterally separated to obtain a TO in the HRI that allows for the velocity estimation along the lateral and axial directions using a phase-shift estimator. The performance of the method was investigated with constant flow measurements in a flow rig system using the SARUS scanner and a 4.1-MHz linear array. A sequence was designed with interleaved B-mode and flow emissions to obtain continuous data acquisition. A parametric study was carried out to evaluate the effect of critical parameters. The vessel was placed at depths from 20 to 40 mm, with beam-to-flow angles of 65°, 75°, and 90°. For the lateral velocities at 20 mm, a bias between -5% and -6.2% was obtained, and the standard deviation (SD) was between 6% and 9.6%. The axial bias was lower than 1% with an SD around 2%. The mean estimated angles were 66.70° ± 2.86°, 72.65° ± 2.48°, and 89.13° ± 0.79° for the three cases. A proof-of-concept demonstration of the real-time processing and wireless transmission was tested in a commercial tablet obtaining a frame rate of 27 frames/s and a data rate of 14 MB/s. An in vivo measurement of a common carotid artery of a healthy volunteer was finally performed to show the potential of the method in a realistic setting. The relative SD averaged over a cardiac cycle was 4.33%.

  2. Isentropic compressive wave generator and method of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, L.M.

    An isentropic compressive wave generator and method of making same are disclosed. The wave generator comprises a disk or flat pillow member having component materials of different shock impedances formed in a configuration resulting in a smooth shock impedance gradient over the thickness thereof for interpositioning between an impactor member and a target specimen for producing a shock wave of a smooth predictable rise time. The method of making the pillow member comprises the reduction of the component materials to a powder form and forming the pillow member by sedimentation and compressive techniques.

  3. A novel vector-based method for exclusive overexpression of star-form microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Qu

    Full Text Available The roles of microRNAs (miRNAs as important regulators of gene expression have been studied intensively. Although most of these investigations have involved the highly expressed form of the two mature miRNA species, increasing evidence points to essential roles for star-form microRNAs (miRNA*, which are usually expressed at much lower levels. Owing to the nature of miRNA biogenesis, it is challenging to use plasmids containing miRNA coding sequences for gain-of-function experiments concerning the roles of microRNA* species. Synthetic microRNA mimics could introduce specific miRNA* species into cells, but this transient overexpression system has many shortcomings. Here, we report that specific miRNA* species can be overexpressed by introducing artificially designed stem-loop sequences into short hairpin RNA (shRNA overexpression vectors. By our prototypic plasmid, designed to overexpress hsa-miR-146b-3p, we successfully expressed high levels of hsa-miR-146b-3p without detectable change of hsa-miR-146b-5p. Functional analysis involving luciferase reporter assays showed that, like natural miRNAs, the overexpressed hsa-miR-146b-3p inhibited target gene expression by 3'UTR seed pairing. Our demonstration that this method could overexpress two other miRNAs suggests that the approach should be broadly applicable. Our novel strategy opens the way for exclusively stable overexpression of miRNA* species and analyzing their unique functions both in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Using Drawings and Collages as Data Generation Methods With Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nokhanyo Nomakhwezi Mayaba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate data generation methods are key to a successful research project to attain rich and relevant data. When doing research with children, the methods selected should be age appropriate and enable them to contribute their ideas in the research process. However, data generation with children is not “child’s play”—it is a challenging task that requires careful design on the part of the researcher. We conducted a study in South Africa with children between the ages of 9 and 14 who were orphaned and rendered vulnerable by HIV and AIDS in order to explore if, and how, the use of participatory visual methods might enhance resilience. In this article, we provide a reflective account of the research process and discuss lessons learnt from our experiences of using drawings and collage as data generation methods when doing research with children. This article contributes to the literature on the use of participatory visual methods as data generation strategies with children highlighting some caveats and offering insight into how challenges could be circumvented.

  5. Offspring Generation Method for interactive Genetic Algorithm considering Multimodal Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Fuyuko; Hiroyasu, Tomoyuki; Miki, Mitsunori; Yokouchi, Hisatake

    In interactive genetic algorithms (iGAs), computer simulations prepare design candidates that are then evaluated by the user. Therefore, iGA can predict a user's preferences. Conventional iGA problems involve a search for a single optimum solution, and iGA were developed to find this single optimum. On the other hand, our target problems have several peaks in a function and there are small differences among these peaks. For such problems, it is better to show all the peaks to the user. Product recommendation in shopping sites on the web is one example of such problems. Several types of preference trend should be prepared for users in shopping sites. Exploitation and exploration are important mechanisms in GA search. To perform effective exploitation, the offspring generation method (crossover) is very important. Here, we introduced a new offspring generation method for iGA in multimodal problems. In the proposed method, individuals are clustered into subgroups and offspring are generated in each group. The proposed method was applied to an experimental iGA system to examine its effectiveness. In the experimental iGA system, users can decide on preferable t-shirts to buy. The results of the subjective experiment confirmed that the proposed method enables offspring generation with consideration of multimodal preferences, and the proposed mechanism was also shown not to adversely affect the performance of preference prediction.

  6. Computerized method for measurement of displacement vectors of target positions on EPID cine images in stereotactic radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Anai, Shigeo; Yoshidome, Satoshi; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Nomoto, Satoshi; Honda, Hiroshi; Onizuka, Yoshihiko; Terashima, Hiromi

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a computerized method for measurement of displacement vectors of target position on electronic portal imaging device (EPID) cine images in a treatment without implanted markers. Our proposed method was based on a template matching technique with cross-correlation coefficient between a reference portal (RP) image and each consecutive portal (CP) image acquired by the EPID. EPID images with 512×384 pixels (pixel size:0.56 mm) were acquired in a cine mode at a sampling rate of 0.5 frame/sec by using an energy of 4, 6, or 10MV on linear accelerators. The displacement vector of the target on each cine image was determined from the position in which took the maximum cross-correlation value between the RP image and each CP image. We applied our method to EPID cine images of a lung phantom with a tumor model simulating respiratory motion, and 5 cases with a non-small cell lung cancer and one case of metastasis. For validation of our proposed method, displacement vectors of a target position calculated by our method were compared with those determined manually by two radiation oncologists. As a result, for lung phantom images, target displacements by our method correlated well with those by the oncologists (r=0.972 - 0.994). Correlation values for 4 cases ranged from 0.854 to 0.991, but the values for the other two cases were 0.609 and 0.644. This preliminary result suggested that our method may be useful for monitoring of displacement vectors of target positions without implanted markers in stereotactic radiotherapy.

  7. Steam generator tube rupture simulation using extended finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhasish, E-mail: smohanty@anl.gov; Majumdar, Saurin; Natesan, Ken

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Extended finite element method used for modeling the steam generator tube rupture. • Crack propagation is modeled in an arbitrary solution dependent path. • The FE model is used for estimating the rupture pressure of steam generator tubes. • Crack coalescence modeling is also demonstrated. • The method can be used for crack modeling of tubes under severe accident condition. - Abstract: A steam generator (SG) is an important component of any pressurized water reactor. Steam generator tubes represent a primary pressure boundary whose integrity is vital to the safe operation of the reactor. SG tubes may rupture due to propagation of a crack created by mechanisms such as stress corrosion cracking, fatigue, etc. It is thus important to estimate the rupture pressures of cracked tubes for structural integrity evaluation of SGs. The objective of the present paper is to demonstrate the use of extended finite element method capability of commercially available ABAQUS software, to model SG tubes with preexisting flaws and to estimate their rupture pressures. For the purpose, elastic–plastic finite element models were developed for different SG tubes made from Alloy 600 material. The simulation results were compared with experimental results available from the steam generator tube integrity program (SGTIP) sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). A reasonable correlation was found between extended finite element model results and experimental results.

  8. Methods for optimizing over the efficient and weakly efficient sets of an affine fractional vector optimization program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, T.H.A.; Pham, D. T.; Canh, Nam Nguyen

    2010-01-01

    Both the efficient and weakly efficient sets of an affine fractional vector optimization problem, in general, are neither convex nor given explicitly. Optimization problems over one of these sets are thus nonconvex. We propose two methods for optimizing a real-valued function over the efficient...... and weakly efficient sets of an affine fractional vector optimization problem. The first method is a local one. By using a regularization function, we reformulate the problem into a standard smooth mathematical programming problem that allows applying available methods for smooth programming. In case...... the objective function is linear, we have investigated a global algorithm based upon a branch-and-bound procedure. The algorithm uses Lagrangian bound coupling with a simplicial bisection in the criteria space. Preliminary computational results show that the global algorithm is promising....

  9. Method of generating ploynucleotides encoding enhanced folding variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Andrew M.; Kiss, Csaba; Waldo, Geoffrey S.

    2017-05-02

    The invention provides directed evolution methods for improving the folding, solubility and stability (including thermostability) characteristics of polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention provides a method for generating folding and stability-enhanced variants of proteins, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins, chromophoric proteins and enzymes. In another aspect, the invention provides methods for generating thermostable variants of a target protein or polypeptide via an internal destabilization baiting strategy. Internally destabilization a protein of interest is achieved by inserting a heterologous, folding-destabilizing sequence (folding interference domain) within DNA encoding the protein of interest, evolving the protein sequences adjacent to the heterologous insertion to overcome the destabilization (using any number of mutagenesis methods), thereby creating a library of variants. The variants in the library are expressed, and those with enhanced folding characteristics selected.

  10. Reducing waste generation and radiation exposure by analytical method modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-10-01

    The primary goal of an analytical support laboratory has traditionally been to provide accurate data in a timely and cost effective fashion. Added to this goal is now the need to provide the same high quality data while generating as little waste as possible. At the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), we have modified and reengineered several methods to decrease generated waste and hence reduce radiation exposure. These method changes involved improving detection limits (which decreased the amount of sample required for analysis), decreasing reaction and analysis time, decreasing the size of experimental set-ups, recycling spent solvent and reagents, and replacing some methods. These changes had the additional benefits of reducing employee radiation exposure and exposure to hazardous chemicals. In all cases, the precision, accuracy, and detection limits were equal to or better than the replaced method. Most of the changes required little or no expenditure of funds. This paper describes these changes and discusses some of their applications.

  11. In-vivo Examples of Flow Patterns With The Fast Vector Velocity Ultrasound Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    and using a 100 CPU linux cluster for post processing, PWE can achieve a frame of 100 Hz where one vector velocity sequence of approximately 3 sec, takes 10 h to store and 48 h to process. In this paper a case study is presented of in-vivo vector velocity estimates in different complex vessel geometries....... Results: The flow patterns of six bifurcations and two veins were investigated. It was shown: 1. that a stable vortex in the carotid bulb was present opposed to other examined bifurcations, 2. that retrograde flow was present in the superficial branch of the femoral artery during diastole, 3...

  12. A method for generating multichannel entangled photon pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu; Shi, Qingping; Li, Wei

    2015-02-01

    A method is presented for generating multiple-channel color-entangled photon pairs simultaneously based on type I quasi-phase-matched spontaneous parametric downconversion pumped in a single periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal. It is predicted that one-, and two-channel color-entangled photon pairs can be simultaneously generated just by suitably choosing the PPLN grating period and the pump frequency. We point out that the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of idler and signal light are broadened dramatically due to spontaneous parametric downconversion in case of a pulsed pump. Then this method is applied for generating multiple-channel polarization-entangled photon pairs simultaneously based on type II quasiphase- matched spontaneous parametric downconversion.

  13. Photonic arbitrary waveform generator based on Taylor synthesis method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shasha; Ding, Yunhong; Dong, Jianji

    2016-01-01

    Arbitrary waveform generation has been widely used in optical communication, radar system and many other applications. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) on chip optical arbitrary waveform generator, which is based on Taylor synthesis method. In our scheme......, a Gaussian pulse is launched to some cascaded microrings to obtain first-, second- and third-order differentiations. By controlling amplitude and phase of the initial pulse and successive differentiations, we can realize an arbitrary waveform generator according to Taylor expansion. We obtain several typical...... waveforms such as square waveform, triangular waveform, flat-top waveform, sawtooth waveform, Gaussian waveform and so on. Unlike other schemes based on Fourier synthesis or frequency-to-time mapping, our scheme is based on Taylor synthesis method. Our scheme does not require any spectral disperser or large...

  14. Vector velocimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    for generation of a reference beam, a detector system comprising a first detector arrangement arranged in such a way that the signal beam and the reference beam are incident upon the first detector arrangement with the reference beam propagating at an angle relative to a signal beam, and wherein the first......The present invention relates to a compact, reliable and low-cost vector velocimeter for example for determining velocities of particles suspended in a gas or fluid flow, or for determining velocity, displacement, rotation, or vibration of a solid surface, the vector velocimeter comprising a laser...... assembly for emission of a measurement beam for illumination of an object in a measurement volume with coherent light whereby a signal beam emanating from the object in the measurement volume is formed in response to illumination of the object by the measurement beam, a reference beam generator...

  15. Comparison between balanced and unbalanced precoding technique in high-order QAM vector mm-wave signal generation based on intensity modulator with photonic frequency doubling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chaoyi; Li, Xinying; Chi, Nan; Yu, Jianjun

    2016-03-07

    We experimentally investigate high-order quadrature-amplitude-modulation (QAM) vector millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal generation based on intensity modulator (IM) with photonic frequcney doubling and precoding in this paper. In order to obtain an ordinary QAM modulated radio-frequency (RF) signal after the square-law detection of the photodiode, amplitude and phase precoding technique should be employed. In this paper, we experimentally investigate the generation of 1~4 Gbaud vector mm-wave signal with the modulation formats of 8QAM and 16QAM at the carrier frequency of 40 GHz, and study the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of both balanced precoding scheme and unbalanced precoding scheme adopting high-order QAM modulation.

  16. Computational study of CCR5 antagonist with support vector machines and three dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Li, Zeng; Chen, Hai-Feng

    2010-03-01

    CCR5 is the key receptor of HIV-1 virus entry into host cells and it becomes an attractive target for antiretroviral drug design. To date, six types of CCR5 antagonist were synthesized and evaluated. To search more potent bio-active compounds, non-linear support vector machine was used to construct the relationship models for 103 oximino-piperidino-piperidine CCR5 antagonists. Then, comparative molecular field analysis and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis models were constructed after alignment with their common substructure. Twenty-one structural diverse compounds, which were not included in the support vector machine, comparative molecular field analysis, and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis models, validated these models. The results show that these models possess good predictive ability. When comparing between support vector machine and 3D-quantitative structure activity relationship models, the results obtained from these two methods are compatible. However, 3D-quantitative structure activity relationship model is significantly better than support vector machine model and previous reported pharmacophore model. These models can help us to make quantitative prediction of their bio-activities before in vitro and in vivo stages.

  17. Convergence of vector spherical wave expansion method applied to near-field radiative transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasihithlu, Karthik; Narayanaswamy, Arvind

    2011-07-04

    Near-field radiative transfer between two objects can be computed using Rytov's theory of fluctuational electrodynamics in which the strength of electromagnetic sources is related to temperature through the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, and the resultant energy transfer is described using the dyadic Green's function of the vector Helmholtz equation. When the two objects are spheres, the dyadic Green's function can be expanded in a series of vector spherical waves. Based on comparison with the convergence criterion for the case of radiative transfer between two parallel surfaces, we derive a relation for the number of vector spherical waves required for convergence in the case of radiative transfer between two spheres. We show that when electromagnetic surface waves are active at a frequency the number of vector spherical waves required for convergence is proportional to Rmax/d when d/Rmax → 0, where Rmax is the radius of the larger sphere, and d is the smallest gap between the two spheres. This criterion for convergence applies equally well to other near-field electromagnetic scattering problems.

  18. A method for real-time three-dimensional vector velocity imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents an approach for making real-time three-dimensional vector flow imaging. Synthetic aperture data acquisition is used, and the data is beamformed along the flow direction to yield signals usable for flow estimation. The signals are cross-related to determine the shift in position...

  19. A Bayesian least-squares support vector machine method for predicting the remaining useful life of a microwave component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and accurate lifetime prediction of critical components in a system is important to maintaining the system’s reliable operation. To this end, many lifetime prediction methods have been developed to handle various failure-related data collected in different situations. Among these methods, machine learning and Bayesian updating are the most popular ones. In this article, a Bayesian least-squares support vector machine method that combines least-squares support vector machine with Bayesian inference is developed for predicting the remaining useful life of a microwave component. A degradation model describing the change in the component’s power gain over time is developed, and the point and interval remaining useful life estimates are obtained considering a predefined failure threshold. In our case study, the radial basis function neural network approach is also implemented for comparison purposes. The results indicate that the Bayesian least-squares support vector machine method is more precise and stable in predicting the remaining useful life of this type of components.

  20. Vector geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Gilbert de B

    2011-01-01

    This brief undergraduate-level text by a prominent Cambridge-educated mathematician explores the relationship between algebra and geometry. An elementary course in plane geometry is the sole requirement for Gilbert de B. Robinson's text, which is the result of several years of teaching and learning the most effective methods from discussions with students. Topics include lines and planes, determinants and linear equations, matrices, groups and linear transformations, and vectors and vector spaces. Additional subjects range from conics and quadrics to homogeneous coordinates and projective geom

  1. Study on boundary search method for DFM mesh generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The boundary mesh of the casting model was determined by direct calculation on the triangular facets extracted from the STL file of the 3D model. Then the inner and outer grids of the model were identified by the algorithm in which we named Inner Seed Grid Method. Finally, a program to automatically generate a 3D FDM mesh was compiled. In the paper, a method named Triangle Contraction Search Method (TCSM was put forward to ensure not losing the boundary grids; while an algorithm to search inner seed grids to identify inner/outer grids of the casting model was also brought forward. Our algorithm was simple, clear and easy to construct program. Three examples for the casting mesh generation testified the validity of the program.

  2. Internet-based biosurveillance methods for vector-borne diseases: Are they novel public health tools or just novelties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollett, Simon; Althouse, Benjamin M; Forshey, Brett; Rutherford, George W; Jarman, Richard G

    2017-11-01

    Internet-based surveillance methods for vector-borne diseases (VBDs) using "big data" sources such as Google, Twitter, and internet newswire scraping have recently been developed, yet reviews on such "digital disease detection" methods have focused on respiratory pathogens, particularly in high-income regions. Here, we present a narrative review of the literature that has examined the performance of internet-based biosurveillance for diseases caused by vector-borne viruses, parasites, and other pathogens, including Zika, dengue, other arthropod-borne viruses, malaria, leishmaniasis, and Lyme disease across a range of settings, including low- and middle-income countries. The fundamental features, advantages, and drawbacks of each internet big data source are presented for those with varying familiarity of "digital epidemiology." We conclude with some of the challenges and future directions in using internet-based biosurveillance for the surveillance and control of VBD.

  3. A Novel Method for Vector Control of Three-Phase Induction Motor under Open-Phase Fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jannati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of electrical machines such as induction motors can be modeled by an equivalent two-phase machine model (d-q model. A three-phase induction motor with one of the stator phases opened (faulty three-phase induction motor can be also modeled by an equivalent two-phase machine. If a conventional vector control method for balanced three-phase induction motors is used for this faulty machine, significant oscillations in speed and torque will result. In this paper, a novel technique for vector control of faulty three-phase induction motors based on rotor-field oriented control (RFOC is presented. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using MATLAB software. The results show that it achieves significant improvements in the oscillation reduction of the speed and torque responses.

  4. Apparatus, System, and Method for On-Chip Thermoelectricity Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2012-01-26

    An apparatus, system, and method for a thermoelectric generator. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric generator comprises a first thermoelectric region and a second thermoelectric region, where the second thermoelectric region may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region by a first conductor. In some embodiments, a second conductor may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region and a third conductor may be coupled to the second thermoelectric region. In some embodiments, the first conductor may be in a first plane, the first thermoelectric region and the second thermoelectric region may be in a second plane, and the second conductor and the third conductor may be in a third plane.

  5. Standardizing operational vector sampling techniques for measuring malaria transmission intensity: evaluation of six mosquito collection methods in western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Jacklyn; Bayoh, Nabie; Olang, George; Killeen, Gerry; Hamel, Mary J; Vulule, John M.; Gimnig, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Background\\ud Operational vector sampling methods lack standardization, making quantitative comparisons of malaria transmission across different settings difficult. Human landing catch (HLC) is considered the research gold standard for measuring human-mosquito contact, but is unsuitable for large-scale sampling. This study assessed mosquito catch rates of CDC light trap (CDC-LT), Ifakara tent trap (ITT), window exit trap (WET), pot resting trap (PRT), and box resting trap (BRT) relative to HL...

  6. Effects of Blood Coagulate Removal Method on Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Life Table Characteristics and Vector Competence for Dengue Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dodewaard, Caitlin A M; Richards, Stephanie L; Harris, Jonathan W

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available blood can be used as an alternative to live animals to maintain mosquito colonies and deliver infectious bloodmeals during research studies. We analyzed the extent to which two methods for blood coagulate removal (defibrination or addition of sodium citrate) affected life table characteristics (i.e., fecundity, fertility, hatch rate, and adult survival) and vector competence (infection, dissemination, and transmission) of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) for dengue virus (DENV). Two types of bovine blood were tested at two extrinsic incubation temperatures (27 or 30°C) for DENV-infected and uninfected mosquitoes. Fully engorged mosquitoes were transferred to individual cages containing an oviposition cup and a substrate. Eggs (fecundity) and hatched larvae (fertility) were counted. At 14 and 21 d post feeding on a DENV-infected bloodmeal, 15 mosquitoes were sampled from each group, and vector competence was analyzed (bodies [infection], legs [dissemination], and saliva [transmission]). Differences in life table characteristics and vector competence were analyzed for mosquitoes fed blood processed using different methods for removal of coagulates. The method for removal of coagulates significantly impacted fecundity, fertility, and hatch time in the uninfected group, but not DENV-infected group. Infected mosquitoes showed significantly higher fecundity and faster hatch time than uninfected mosquitoes. We show no significant differences in infection or dissemination rates between groups; however, horizontal transmission rate was significantly higher in mosquitoes fed DENV-infected citrated compared with defibrinated blood. We expect the findings of this study to inform research using artificial blood delivery methods to assess vector competence. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Absolute Geostrophic Velocity Inverted from World Ocean Atlas 2013 (WOAV13) with the P-Vector Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    modular ocean model (MOM). Journal of Oceanography, 54, 185-198. Chu PC, Lan J, Fan CW. 2001a. Japan Sea circulation and thermohaline structure...Part 1 Climatology. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 31, 244-271. Chu PC, Lan J, Fan CW. 2001b. Japan Sea circulation and thermohaline structure...geostrophic velocity, representing the large-scale ocean circulation , is calculated from the WOA13 (T, S) data using the P-vector inverse method (Chu

  8. Fast calculation method for computer-generated cylindrical holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Fujii, Tomohiko; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    2008-07-01

    Since a general flat hologram has a limited viewable area, we usually cannot see the other side of a reconstructed object. There are some holograms that can solve this problem. A cylindrical hologram is well known to be viewable in 360 deg. Most cylindrical holograms are optical holograms, but there are few reports of computer-generated cylindrical holograms. The lack of computer-generated cylindrical holograms is because the spatial resolution of output devices is not great enough; therefore, we have to make a large hologram or use a small object to fulfill the sampling theorem. In addition, in calculating the large fringe, the calculation amount increases in proportion to the hologram size. Therefore, we propose what we believe to be a new calculation method for fast calculation. Then, we print these fringes with our prototype fringe printer. As a result, we obtain a good reconstructed image from a computer-generated cylindrical hologram.

  9. A new method to extract stable feature points based on self-generated simulation images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Fei; Zhou, Bin; Ming, Delie; Tian, Jinwen

    2015-10-01

    Recently, image processing has got a lot of attention in the field of photogrammetry, medical image processing, etc. Matching two or more images of the same scene taken at different times, by different cameras, or from different viewpoints, is a popular and important problem. Feature extraction plays an important part in image matching. Traditional SIFT detectors reject the unstable points by eliminating the low contrast and edge response points. The disadvantage is the need to set the threshold manually. The main idea of this paper is to get the stable extremums by machine learning algorithm. Firstly we use ASIFT approach coupled with the light changes and blur to generate multi-view simulated images, which make up the set of the simulated images of the original image. According to the way of generating simulated images set, affine transformation of each generated image is also known. Instead of the traditional matching process which contain the unstable RANSAC method to get the affine transformation, this approach is more stable and accurate. Secondly we calculate the stability value of the feature points by the set of image with its affine transformation. Then we get the different feature properties of the feature point, such as DOG features, scales, edge point density, etc. Those two form the training set while stability value is the dependent variable and feature property is the independent variable. At last, a process of training by Rank-SVM is taken. We will get a weight vector. In use, based on the feature properties of each points and weight vector calculated by training, we get the sort value of each feature point which refers to the stability value, then we sort the feature points. In conclusion, we applied our algorithm and the original SIFT detectors to test as a comparison. While in different view changes, blurs, illuminations, it comes as no surprise that experimental results show that our algorithm is more efficient.

  10. [Method on ozone generation with strong ionization discharge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Han, H; Chu, Q; Bai, X

    2001-03-01

    This paper presents the formed methods of strong ionization discharge of dielectric barrier and plasma chemical reaction process of ozone generation. Ozone combination and decomposition are controlled by electric field intensity and electron energy. Therefore, new technologies with thinner dielectric layers (230 microns) of model alpha Al2O3 and narrow discharge gap (110 microns) are introduced, and strong ionization discharge is gained which reduced field (E) and electron average energy are more than 400Td and 10 eV respectively. Ozone concentration reaches to 200 g/m3 and ozone producing efficiency is 100 g/(kW.h). Ozone generator of big yield and miniaturization with module assembled method is realized.

  11. Syngeneic AAV pseudo-vectors potentiates full vector transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    An excessive amount of empty capsids are generated during regular AAV vector production process. These pseudo-vectors often remain in final vectors used for animal studies or clinical trials. The potential effects of these pseudo-vectors on AAV transduction have been a major concern. In the current ...

  12. Large-angle magnetization dynamics investigated by vector-resolved magnetization-induced optical second-harmonic generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, T.; Silva, T.J.; Nibarger, J.P.; Rasing, T.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    We examine the relationship between nonlinear magnetic responses and the change in the Gilbert damping parameter alpha for patterned and unpatterned thin Permalloy films when subjected to pulsed magnetic fields. An improved magnetization-vector-resolved technique utilizing magnetization-induced

  13. A method to preserve low parasitaemia Plasmodium-infected avian blood for host and vector infectivity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jenny S; Giannitti, Federico; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Tell, Lisa A; Snipes, Joy; Wright, Stan; Cornel, Anthony J

    2016-03-11

    Avian malaria vector competence studies are needed to understand more succinctly complex avian parasite-vector-relations. The lack of vector competence trials may be attributed to the difficulty of obtaining gametocytes for the majority of Plasmodium species and lineages. To conduct avian malaria infectivity assays for those Plasmodium spp. and lineages that are refractory to in vitro cultivation, it is necessary to obtain and preserve for short periods sufficient viable merozoites to infect naïve donor birds to be used as gametocyte donors to infect mosquitoes. Currently, there is only one described method for long-term storage of Plasmodium spp.-infected wild avian blood and it is reliable at a parasitaemia of at least 1%. However, most naturally infected wild-caught birds have a parasitaemia of much less that 1%. To address this problem, a method for short-term storage of infected wild avian blood with low parasitaemia (even ≤ 0.0005%) has been explored and validated. To obtain viable infective merozoites, blood was collected from wild birds using a syringe containing the anticoagulant and the red blood cell preservative citrate phosphate dextrose adenine solution (CPDA). Each blood sample was stored at 4 °C for up to 48 h providing sufficient time to determine the species and parasitaemia of Plasmodium spp. in the blood by morphological examination before injecting into donor canaries. Plasmodium spp.--infected blood was inoculated intravenously into canaries and once infection was established, Culex stigmatosoma, Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were then allowed to feed on the infected canaries to validate the efficacy of this method for mosquito vector competence assays. Storage of Plasmodium spp.--infected donor blood at 4 °C yielded viable parasites for 48 h. All five experimentally-infected canaries developed clinical signs and were infectious. Pathologic examination of three canaries that later died revealed splenic lesions typical of

  14. A quantum dot-immunofluorescent labeling method to investigate the interactions between a crinivirus and its whitefly vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. K. Ng

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful vector-mediated plant virus transmission entails an intricate but poorly understood interplay of interactions among virus, vector, and plant. The complexity of interactions requires continually improving/evaluating tools and methods for investigating the determinants that are central to mediating virus transmission. A recent study using an organic fluorophore (Alexa Fluor-based immunofluorescent localization assay demonstrated that specific retention of Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV virions in the anterior foregut or cibarium of its whitefly vector is required for virus transmission. Continuous exposure of organic fluorophore to high excitation light intensity can result in diminished or loss of signals, potentially confounding the identification of important interactions associated with virus transmission. This limitation can be circumvented by incorporation of photostable fluorescent nanocrystals, such as quantum dots (QDs, into the assay. We have developed and evaluated a QD-immunofluorescent labeling method for the in vitro and in situ localization of LIYV virions based on the recognition specificity of streptavidin-conjugated QD605 (S-QD605 for biotin-conjugated anti-LIYV IgG (B-αIgG. IgG biotinylation was verified in a blot overlay assay by probing SDS-PAGE separated B-αIgG with S-QD605. Immunoblot analyses of LIYV using B-αIgG and S-QD605 resulted in a virus detection limit comparable to that of DAS-ELISA. In membrane feeding experiments, QD signals were observed in the anterior foregut or cibarium of virion-fed whitefly vectors but absent in those of virion-fed whitefly non-vectors. Specific virion retention in whitefly vectors corresponded with successful virus transmission. A fluorescence photobleaching assay of viruliferous whiteflies fed B-αIgG and S-QD605 vs. those fed anti-LIYV IgG and Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated IgG revealed that QD signal was stable and deteriorated ∼7 to 8 fold slower than that of Alexa

  15. Advanced numerical methods in mesh generation and mesh adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipnikov, Konstantine [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Danilov, A [MOSCOW, RUSSIA; Vassilevski, Y [MOSCOW, RUSSIA; Agonzal, A [UNIV OF LYON

    2010-01-01

    Numerical solution of partial differential equations requires appropriate meshes, efficient solvers and robust and reliable error estimates. Generation of high-quality meshes for complex engineering models is a non-trivial task. This task is made more difficult when the mesh has to be adapted to a problem solution. This article is focused on a synergistic approach to the mesh generation and mesh adaptation, where best properties of various mesh generation methods are combined to build efficiently simplicial meshes. First, the advancing front technique (AFT) is combined with the incremental Delaunay triangulation (DT) to build an initial mesh. Second, the metric-based mesh adaptation (MBA) method is employed to improve quality of the generated mesh and/or to adapt it to a problem solution. We demonstrate with numerical experiments that combination of all three methods is required for robust meshing of complex engineering models. The key to successful mesh generation is the high-quality of the triangles in the initial front. We use a black-box technique to improve surface meshes exported from an unattainable CAD system. The initial surface mesh is refined into a shape-regular triangulation which approximates the boundary with the same accuracy as the CAD mesh. The DT method adds robustness to the AFT. The resulting mesh is topologically correct but may contain a few slivers. The MBA uses seven local operations to modify the mesh topology. It improves significantly the mesh quality. The MBA method is also used to adapt the mesh to a problem solution to minimize computational resources required for solving the problem. The MBA has a solid theoretical background. In the first two experiments, we consider the convection-diffusion and elasticity problems. We demonstrate the optimal reduction rate of the discretization error on a sequence of adaptive strongly anisotropic meshes. The key element of the MBA method is construction of a tensor metric from hierarchical edge

  16. Generation of an optimized lentiviral vector encoding a high-expression factor VIII transgene for gene therapy of hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J M; Denning, G; Doering, C B; Spencer, H T

    2013-06-01

    We previously compared the expression of several human factor VIII (fVIII) transgene variants and demonstrated the superior expression properties of B domain-deleted porcine fVIII. Subsequently, a hybrid human/porcine fVIII molecule (HP-fVIII) comprising 91% human amino-acid sequence was engineered to maintain the high-expression characteristics of porcine fVIII. The bioengineered construct then was used effectively to treat knockout mice with hemophilia A. In the current study, we focused on optimizing self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviral vector systems by analyzing the efficacy of various lentiviral components in terms of virus production, transduction efficiency and transgene expression. Specifically, three parameters were evaluated: (1) the woodchuck hepatitis post-transcriptional regulatory element (WPRE), (2) HIV versus SIV viral vector systems and (3) various internal promoters. The inclusion of a WPRE sequence had negligible effects on viral production and HP-fVIII expression. HIV and SIV vectors were compared and found to be similar with respect to transduction efficiency in both K562s and HEK-293T cells. However, there was an enhanced expression of HP-fVIII by the SIV system, which was evident in both K562 and BHK-M cell lines. To further compare expression of HP-fVIII from an SIV-based lentiviral system, we constructed expression vectors containing the high expression transgene and a human elongation factor-1 alpha, cytomegalovirus (CMV) or phosphoglycerate kinase promoter. Expression was significantly greater from the CMV promoter, which also yielded therapeutic levels of HP-fVIII in hemophilia A mice. Based on these studies, an optimized vector contains the HP-fVIII transgene driven by a CMV internal promoter within a SIV-based lentiviral backbone lacking a WPRE.

  17. The Monty Python Method for Generating Gamma Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The Monty Python Method for generating random variables takes a decreasing density, cuts it into three pieces, then, using area-preserving transformations, folds it into a rectangle of area 1. A random point (x,y from that rectangle is used to provide a variate from the given density, most of the time as itself or a linear function of x . The decreasing density is usually the right half of a symmetric density. The Monty Python method has provided short and fast generators for normal, t and von Mises densities, requiring, on the average, from 1.5 to 1.8 uniform variables. In this article, we apply the method to non-symmetric densities, particularly the important gamma densities. We lose some of the speed and simplicity of the symmetric densities, but still get a method for γα variates that is simple and fast enough to provide beta variates in the form γa/(γa+γb. We use an average of less than 1.7 uniform variates to produce a gamma variate whenever α ≥ 1 . Implementation is simpler and from three to five times as fast as a recent method reputed to be the best for changing α's.

  18. Simple method to generate and fabricate stochastic porous scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Nan, E-mail: y79nzw@163.com; Gao, Lilan; Zhou, Kuntao

    2015-11-01

    Considerable effort has been made to generate regular porous structures (RPSs) using function-based methods, although little effort has been made for constructing stochastic porous structures (SPSs) using the same methods. In this short communication, we propose a straightforward method for SPS construction that is simple in terms of methodology and the operations used. Using our method, we can obtain a SPS with functionally graded, heterogeneous and interconnected pores, target pore size and porosity distributions, which are useful for applications in tissue engineering. The resulting SPS models can be directly fabricated using additive manufacturing (AM) techniques. - Highlights: • Random porous structures are constructed based on their regular counterparts. • Functionally graded random pores can be constructed easily. • The scaffolds can be directly fabricated using additive manufacturing techniques.

  19. Generational differences of baccalaureate nursing students' preferred teaching methods and faculty use of teaching methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahoyde, Theresa

    Nursing education is experiencing a generational phenomenon with student enrollment spanning three generations. Classrooms of the 21st century include the occasional Baby Boomer and a large number of Generation X and Generation Y students. Each of these generations has its own unique set of characteristics that have been shaped by values, trends, behaviors, and events in society. These generational characteristics create vast opportunities to learn, as well as challenges. One such challenge is the use of teaching methods that are congruent with nursing student preferences. Although there is a wide range of studies conducted on student learning styles within the nursing education field, there is little research on the preferred teaching methods of nursing students. The purpose of this quantitative, descriptive study was to compare the preferred teaching methods of multi-generational baccalaureate nursing students with faculty use of teaching methods. The research study included 367 participants; 38 nursing faculty and 329 nursing students from five different colleges within the Midwest region. The results of the two-tailed t-test found four statistically significant findings between Generation X and Y students and their preferred teaching methods including; lecture, listening to the professor lecture versus working in groups; actively participating in group discussion; and the importance of participating in group assignments. The results of the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) found seventeen statistically significant findings between levels of students (freshmen/sophomores, juniors, & seniors) and their preferred teaching methods. Lecture was found to be the most frequently used teaching method by faculty as well as the most preferred teaching method by students. Overall, the support for a variety of teaching methods was also found in the analysis of data.

  20. Ortho Image and DTM Generation with Intelligent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, H.; Sadeghian, S.

    2013-10-01

    Nowadays the artificial intelligent algorithms has considered in GIS and remote sensing. Genetic algorithm and artificial neural network are two intelligent methods that are used for optimizing of image processing programs such as edge extraction and etc. these algorithms are very useful for solving of complex program. In this paper, the ability and application of genetic algorithm and artificial neural network in geospatial production process like geometric modelling of satellite images for ortho photo generation and height interpolation in raster Digital Terrain Model production process is discussed. In first, the geometric potential of Ikonos-2 and Worldview-2 with rational functions, 2D & 3D polynomials were tested. Also comprehensive experiments have been carried out to evaluate the viability of the genetic algorithm for optimization of rational function, 2D & 3D polynomials. Considering the quality of Ground Control Points, the accuracy (RMSE) with genetic algorithm and 3D polynomials method for Ikonos-2 Geo image was 0.508 pixel sizes and the accuracy (RMSE) with GA algorithm and rational function method for Worldview-2 image was 0.930 pixel sizes. For more another optimization artificial intelligent methods, neural networks were used. With the use of perceptron network in Worldview-2 image, a result of 0.84 pixel sizes with 4 neurons in middle layer was gained. The final conclusion was that with artificial intelligent algorithms it is possible to optimize the existing models and have better results than usual ones. Finally the artificial intelligence methods, like genetic algorithms as well as neural networks, were examined on sample data for optimizing interpolation and for generating Digital Terrain Models. The results then were compared with existing conventional methods and it appeared that these methods have a high capacity in heights interpolation and that using these networks for interpolating and optimizing the weighting methods based on inverse

  1. Kennard-Stone combined with least square support vector machine method for noncontact discriminating human blood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linna; Li, Gang; Sun, Meixiu; Li, Hongxiao; Wang, Zhennan; Li, Yingxin; Lin, Ling

    2017-11-01

    Identifying whole bloods to be either human or nonhuman is an important responsibility for import-export ports and inspection and quarantine departments. Analytical methods and DNA testing methods are usually destructive. Previous studies demonstrated that visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method can realize noncontact human and nonhuman blood discrimination. An appropriate method for calibration set selection was very important for a robust quantitative model. In this paper, Random Selection (RS) method and Kennard-Stone (KS) method was applied in selecting samples for calibration set. Moreover, proper stoichiometry method can be greatly beneficial for improving the performance of classification model or quantification model. Partial Least Square Discrimination Analysis (PLSDA) method was commonly used in identification of blood species with spectroscopy methods. Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) was proved to be perfect for discrimination analysis. In this research, PLSDA method and LSSVM method was used for human blood discrimination. Compared with the results of PLSDA method, this method could enhance the performance of identified models. The overall results convinced that LSSVM method was more feasible for identifying human and animal blood species, and sufficiently demonstrated LSSVM method was a reliable and robust method for human blood identification, and can be more effective and accurate.

  2. Compound control method of neutral point voltage of three level NPC inverter based on the vector method of virtual space and hysteresis control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fengping; Xiao, Fangfei

    2017-03-01

    Current control methods include hardware control and software control corresponding to the inherent unbalance problem of neutral point voltage in three level NPC inverter. The hardware control is rarely used due to its high cost. In this paper, a new compound control method has been presented based on the vector method of virtual space and traditional hysteresis control of neutral point voltage, which can make up the shortcoming of the virtual control without the feedback control system of neutral point voltage and the blind area of hysteresis control and control the deviation and wave of neutral point voltage. The accuracy of this method has been demonstrated by simulation.

  3. Percutaneous Vaccination as an Effective Method of Delivery of MVA and MVA-Vectored Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement A Meseda

    Full Text Available The robustness of immune responses to an antigen could be dictated by the route of vaccine inoculation. Traditional smallpox vaccines, essentially vaccinia virus strains, that were used in the eradication of smallpox were administered by percutaneous inoculation (skin scarification. The modified vaccinia virus Ankara is licensed as a smallpox vaccine in Europe and Canada and currently undergoing clinical development in the United States. MVA is also being investigated as a vector for the delivery of heterologous genes for prophylactic or therapeutic immunization. Since MVA is replication-deficient, MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines are often inoculated through the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes. Vaccine inoculation via the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes requires the use of injection needles, and an estimated 10 to 20% of the population of the United States has needle phobia. Following an observation in our laboratory that a replication-deficient recombinant vaccinia virus derived from the New York City Board of Health strain elicited protective immune responses in a mouse model upon inoculation by tail scarification, we investigated whether MVA and MVA recombinants can elicit protective responses following percutaneous administration in mouse models. Our data suggest that MVA administered by percutaneous inoculation, elicited vaccinia-specific antibody responses, and protected mice from lethal vaccinia virus challenge, at levels comparable to or better than subcutaneous or intramuscular inoculation. High titers of specific neutralizing antibodies were elicited in mice inoculated with a recombinant MVA expressing the herpes simplex type 2 glycoprotein D after scarification. Similarly, a recombinant MVA expressing the hemagglutinin of attenuated influenza virus rgA/Viet Nam/1203/2004 (H5N1 elicited protective immune responses when administered at low doses by scarification. Taken together, our data suggest that

  4. Local PEBI grid generation method for reverse faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianhai; Duan, Zhongxiang; Yang, Qin; Liang, Xing

    2018-01-01

    The 2.5D PEBI (PErpendicular BIsector) grid, which is the projection or extrusion of the 2D PEBI gird, has advantages on practical reservoir modeling. However, to appropriately handle the geological features, especially the reverse faults in reservoir, remains a difficult problem. To address this issue, we propose a local PEBI grid generation method in this paper. By constructing the Voronoi cell of a seed based on the search of its neighboring seeds in a background grid, our method is demonstrated to be efficient and adaptable to reverse fault constraints. In addition, the vertical and horizontal well constraints are also tackled and the cell quality is improved through the Centroidal Voronoi Tessellations (CVT) principle. The results demonstrated that our method enables the formation of high-quality grids and guarantees the conformity to the geological features in reservoirs.

  5. Efficient Pruning Method for Ensemble Self-Generating Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Inoue

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, multiple classifier systems (MCS have been used for practical applications to improve classification accuracy. Self-generating neural networks (SGNN are one of the suitable base-classifiers for MCS because of their simple setting and fast learning. However, the computation cost of the MCS increases in proportion to the number of SGNN. In this paper, we propose an efficient pruning method for the structure of the SGNN in the MCS. We compare the pruned MCS with two sampling methods. Experiments have been conducted to compare the pruned MCS with an unpruned MCS, the MCS based on C4.5, and k-nearest neighbor method. The results show that the pruned MCS can improve its classification accuracy as well as reducing the computation cost.

  6. Generic method for lossless generation of arbitrarily shaped photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sych, Denis; Averchenko, Valentin; Leuchs, Gerd

    2017-11-01

    We put forward a generic method that enables lossless generation of pure single photons with arbitrary shape over any degree of freedom or several degrees of freedom simultaneously. The method exploits pairs of entangled photons. One of the photons is the subject for lossy shaping manipulations followed by a specially designed mode-equalizing measurement. A successful measurement outcome heralds the losslessly shaped second photon. The method has three crucial ingredients that define the quantum state of the shaped photon: the initial bipartite state of the photons, modulation of the first photon, and its mode-equalizing detection. We provide a specific recipe with a combination of these ingredients for achieving any desired pure state of the shaped photon.

  7. Fracture Mechanics Method for Word Embedding Generation of Neural Probabilistic Linguistic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Size Bi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Word embedding, a lexical vector representation generated via the neural linguistic model (NLM, is empirically demonstrated to be appropriate for improvement of the performance of traditional language model. However, the supreme dimensionality that is inherent in NLM contributes to the problems of hyperparameters and long-time training in modeling. Here, we propose a force-directed method to improve such problems for simplifying the generation of word embedding. In this framework, each word is assumed as a point in the real world; thus it can approximately simulate the physical movement following certain mechanics. To simulate the variation of meaning in phrases, we use the fracture mechanics to do the formation and breakdown of meaning combined by a 2-gram word group. With the experiments on the natural linguistic tasks of part-of-speech tagging, named entity recognition and semantic role labeling, the result demonstrated that the 2-dimensional word embedding can rival the word embeddings generated by classic NLMs, in terms of accuracy, recall, and text visualization.

  8. Spurious PIV vector detection and correction using a penalized least-squares method with adaptive order differentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chunxiao; Sun, Wenfei; He, Hayi; Li, Hongqiang; Li, Enbang

    2017-07-01

    Spurious vectors (also called "outliers") in particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments can be classified into two categories according to their space distribution characteristics: scattered and clustered outliers. Most of the currently used validation and correction methods treat these two kinds of outliers together without discrimination. In this paper, we propose a new technique based on a penalized least-squares (PLS) method, which allows automatic classification of flows with different types of outliers. PIV vector fields containing scattered outliers are detected and corrected using higher-order differentials, while lower-order differentials are used for the flows with clustered outliers. The order of differentials is determined adaptively by generalized cross-validation and outlier classification. A simple calculation method of eigenvalues of different orders is also developed to expedite computation speed. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated with four different velocity fields, and the results show that it works better than conventional methods, especially when the number of outliers is large.

  9. A molecular toolbox for rapid generation of viral vectors to up- or down-regulate in vivo neuronal gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie D. White

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a molecular toolbox for manipulation of neuronal gene expression in vivo. The toolbox includes promoters, ion channels, optogenetic tools, fluorescent proteins and intronic artificial microRNAs. The components are easily assembled into adeno-associated virus (AAV or lentivirus vectors using recombination cloning. We demonstrate assembly of toolbox components into lentivirus and AAV vectors and use these vectors for in vivo expression of inwardly rectifying potassium channels (Kir2.1, Kir3.1 and Kir3.2 and an artificial microRNA targeted against the ion channel HCN1 (HCN1 miR. We show that AAV assembled to express HCN1 miR produces efficacious and specific in vivo knockdown of HCN1 channels. Comparison of in vivo viral transduction using HCN1 miR with mice containing a germ line deletion of HCN1 reveals similar physiological phenotypes in cerebellar Purkinje cells. The easy assembly and re-usability of the toolbox components, together with the ability to up- or down-regulate neuronal gene expression in vivo, may be useful for applications in many areas of neuroscience.

  10. Standardizing operational vector sampling techniques for measuring malaria transmission intensity: evaluation of six mosquito collection methods in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jacklyn; Bayoh, Nabie; Olang, George; Killeen, Gerry F; Hamel, Mary J; Vulule, John M; Gimnig, John E

    2013-04-30

    Operational vector sampling methods lack standardization, making quantitative comparisons of malaria transmission across different settings difficult. Human landing catch (HLC) is considered the research gold standard for measuring human-mosquito contact, but is unsuitable for large-scale sampling. This study assessed mosquito catch rates of CDC light trap (CDC-LT), Ifakara tent trap (ITT), window exit trap (WET), pot resting trap (PRT), and box resting trap (BRT) relative to HLC in western Kenya to 1) identify appropriate methods for operational sampling in this region, and 2) contribute to a larger, overarching project comparing standardized evaluations of vector trapping methods across multiple countries. Mosquitoes were collected from June to July 2009 in four districts: Rarieda, Kisumu West, Nyando, and Rachuonyo. In each district, all trapping methods were rotated 10 times through three houses in a 3 × 3 Latin Square design. Anophelines were identified by morphology and females classified as fed or non-fed. Anopheles gambiae s.l. were further identified as Anopheles gambiae s.s. or Anopheles arabiensis by PCR. Relative catch rates were estimated by negative binomial regression. When data were pooled across all four districts, catch rates (relative to HLC indoor) for An. gambiae s.l (95.6% An. arabiensis, 4.4% An. gambiae s.s) were high for HLC outdoor (RR = 1.01), CDC-LT (RR = 1.18), and ITT (RR = 1.39); moderate for WET (RR = 0.52) and PRT outdoor (RR = 0.32); and low for all remaining types of resting traps (PRT indoor, BRT indoor, and BRT outdoor; RR type varied from district to district. ITT, CDC-LT, and WET appear to be effective methods for large-scale vector sampling in western Kenya. Ultimately, choice of collection method for operational surveillance should be driven by trap efficacy and scalability, rather than fine-scale precision with respect to HLC. When compared with recent, similar trap evaluations in Tanzania and Zambia, these data suggest

  11. Acoustical contribution calculation and analysis of compressor shell based on acoustic transfer vector method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaol; Guo, Bei; Tuo, Jinliang; Zhou, Ruixin; Lu, Yang

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, people are paying more and more attention to the noise reduction of household refrigerator compressor. This paper established a sound field bounded by compressor shell and ISO3744 standard field points. The Acoustic Transfer Vector (ATV) in the sound field radiated by a refrigerator compressor shell were calculated which fits the test result preferably. Then the compressor shell surface is divided into several parts. Based on Acoustic Transfer Vector approach, the sound pressure contribution to the field points and the sound power contribution to the sound field of each part were calculated. To obtain the noise radiation in the sound field, the sound pressure cloud charts were analyzed, and the contribution curves in different frequency of each part were acquired. Meanwhile, the sound power contribution of each part in different frequency was analyzed, to ensure those parts where contributes larger sound power. Through the analysis of acoustic contribution, those parts where radiate larger noise on the compressor shell were determined. This paper provides a credible and effective approach on the structure optimal design of refrigerator compressor shell, which is meaningful in the noise and vibration reduction.

  12. Adaptive Access Class Barring Method for Machine Generated Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaesung Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular network is provisioned to serve traffic demands generated by human being. The random access channel used for nodes to compete for a connection with an eNB is limited. Even though machines generate very small amount of data traffic, the signaling channel of a network becomes overloaded and collisions occur to fail the access if too many MTC (Machine Type Communication devices attempt to access network. To tackle the issue, 3GPP specifies an access class barring but leaves a specific algorithm as an implementation issue. In this paper, we propose an adaptive access barring method. Generally, an eNB does not know the number of MTC devices in its coverage area. Thus, it is difficult to control the barring factor by predicting the number of MTC devices in a service area of a cell. On the contrary, we control the barring factor based on the prediction of access intensity which can be measured at an eNB. Simulation results show that since the proposed method can manipulate the barring factor autonomously according to the access intensity, it is superior to the original method in terms of the access success probability and the collision probability.

  13. Generator coordinate method and superdeformation in A=190 nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dancer, H.; Perres, S.; Bonche, P.; Flocard, H.; Heenen, P.-H.; Meyer, J. E-mail: jmeyer@ipnl.in2p3.fr; Meyer, M

    1999-07-26

    The Generator Coordinate Method with particle number projection using a set of Hartree-Fock plus BCS states is applied to the superdeformed even-even Hg and Pb isotopes. The q{sub 30} and q{sub 32} octupole vibrations are investigated in even-even Hg and Pb isotopes. These one-dimensional calculations predict that the collective octupole K{sup {pi}}=0{sup -} excitations are the lowest mode in energy. The electric monopole E0 decay out of superdeformed states is also compared to the electric quadrupole E2 transition rates.

  14. Unconstrained paving and plastering method for generating finite element meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staten, Matthew L.; Owen, Steven J.; Blacker, Teddy D.; Kerr, Robert

    2010-03-02

    Computer software for and a method of generating a conformal all quadrilateral or hexahedral mesh comprising selecting an object with unmeshed boundaries and performing the following while unmeshed voids are larger than twice a desired element size and unrecognizable as either a midpoint subdividable or pave-and-sweepable polyhedra: selecting a front to advance; based on sizes of fronts and angles with adjacent fronts, determining which adjacent fronts should be advanced with the selected front; advancing the fronts; detecting proximities with other nearby fronts; resolving any found proximities; forming quadrilaterals or unconstrained columns of hexahedra where two layers cross; and establishing hexahedral elements where three layers cross.

  15. Electrical motor/generator drive apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui Jia

    2013-02-12

    The present disclosure includes electrical motor/generator drive systems and methods that significantly reduce inverter direct-current (DC) bus ripple currents and thus the volume and cost of a capacitor. The drive methodology is based on a segmented drive system that does not add switches or passive components but involves reconfiguring inverter switches and motor stator winding connections in a way that allows the formation of multiple, independent drive units and the use of simple alternated switching and optimized Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) schemes to eliminate or significantly reduce the capacitor ripple current.

  16. System and method for generating motion corrected tomographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Shaun S [Knoxville, TN; Goddard, Jr., James S.

    2012-05-01

    A method and related system for generating motion corrected tomographic images includes the steps of illuminating a region of interest (ROI) to be imaged being part of an unrestrained live subject and having at least three spaced apart optical markers thereon. Simultaneous images are acquired from a first and a second camera of the markers from different angles. Motion data comprising 3D position and orientation of the markers relative to an initial reference position is then calculated. Motion corrected tomographic data obtained from the ROI using the motion data is then obtained, where motion corrected tomographic images obtained therefrom.

  17. Method and apparatus for automated, modular, biomass power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebold, James P [Lakewood, CO; Lilley, Arthur [Finleyville, PA; Browne, Kingsbury III [Golden, CO; Walt, Robb Ray [Aurora, CO; Duncan, Dustin [Littleton, CO; Walker, Michael [Longmont, CO; Steele, John [Aurora, CO; Fields, Michael [Arvada, CO; Smith, Trevor [Lakewood, CO

    2011-03-22

    Method and apparatus for generating a low tar, renewable fuel gas from biomass and using it in other energy conversion devices, many of which were designed for use with gaseous and liquid fossil fuels. An automated, downdraft gasifier incorporates extensive air injection into the char bed to maintain the conditions that promote the destruction of residual tars. The resulting fuel gas and entrained char and ash are cooled in a special heat exchanger, and then continuously cleaned in a filter prior to usage in standalone as well as networked power systems.

  18. Method and apparatus for automated, modular, biomass power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebold, James P; Lilley, Arthur; Browne, III, Kingsbury; Walt, Robb Ray; Duncan, Dustin; Walker, Michael; Steele, John; Fields, Michael; Smith, Trevor

    2013-11-05

    Method and apparatus for generating a low tar, renewable fuel gas from biomass and using it in other energy conversion devices, many of which were designed for use with gaseous and liquid fossil fuels. An automated, downdraft gasifier incorporates extensive air injection into the char bed to maintain the conditions that promote the destruction of residual tars. The resulting fuel gas and entrained char and ash are cooled in a special heat exchanger, and then continuously cleaned in a filter prior to usage in standalone as well as networked power systems.

  19. Near-field and high-resolution cylindrical noise source location method based on vector sound pressure array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUO Xiang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The existing underwater noise source near-field location method usually assumes that the measurement plane is flat, which increases the difficulty of applying the underwater noise target test for cylindrical distribution. Simultaneously, the conventional near-field focused beam has a lower spatial resolution when used to locate an underwater noise source with cylindrical distribution. Moreover, the near-field underwater noise source location method based on the sound pressure array has a left and right side fuzzy problem. In order to solve these problems, by establishing the near-field measurement model of the noise source with cylindrical distribution as the measurement surface, and combining the unilateral directivity of the vector hydrophone and the high resolution characteristics of the MUSIC algorithm, a near-field and high resolution location method is proposed for cylindrical distribution based on vector sound pressure, and a computer simulation is carried out. The results show that the method can use a smaller array aperture to locate the underwater noise source, enabling it to be used to locate and recognize the noise sources of complex and large-scale cylindrical systems.

  20. Generalization of the quantized Bogoliubov-Valatin transformation and relation to the method of the vector coherent state: The case of U(3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, A.; Walet, N.R. (Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1990-08-27

    The idea of vector coherent state has been applied recently to the problem of deriving matrix representations of Lie algebras. Central to the application of this concept is a mapping onto a space that is the direct product of a collective (boson) space and of an intrinsic space. In this paper, it is suggested that for applications to nuclear physics, a natural realization of the intrinsic space is in terms of quasifermions that are required to be kinematically independent of the bosons. This requirement leads to operator constraints that modify the anticommutation relations of the quasifermions, but otherwise leave their algebraic relations indistinguishable from those of ordinary fermions. The various concepts as well as the relations among them are illustrated by a nuclear model with the symmetry of the unitary algebra U(n). Full calculations are carried through only for n=3 by an algebraic method, that we have also utilized previously. For the mapping of the group generators, this technique is fully equivalent to the direct use of the vector coherent state. Here it is applied as well to the problem of mapping individual fermion operators, which is a major step toward obtaining the matrices of all shell-model tensors, reduced with respect to the collective algebra. Such a mapping of fermion operators first appeared in the literature for the case of SU(2), where it is known as the quantized Bogoliubov-Valatin transformation. (orig.).

  1. Simple method of generating and distributing frequency-entangled qudits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rui-Bo; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Fujiwara, Mikio; Takeoka, Masahiro; Wakabayashi, Ryota; Yamashita, Taro; Miki, Shigehito; Terai, Hirotaka; Gerrits, Thomas; Sasaki, Masahide

    2016-11-01

    High-dimensional, frequency-entangled photonic quantum bits (qudits for d-dimension) are promising resources for quantum information processing in an optical fiber network and can also be used to improve channel capacity and security for quantum communication. However, up to now, it is still challenging to prepare high-dimensional frequency-entangled qudits in experiments, due to technical limitations. Here we propose and experimentally implement a novel method for a simple generation of frequency-entangled qudts with d\\gt 10 without the use of any spectral filters or cavities. The generated state is distributed over 15 km in total length. This scheme combines the technique of spectral engineering of biphotons generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and the technique of spectrally resolved Hong-Ou-Mandel interference. Our frequency-entangled qudits will enable quantum cryptographic experiments with enhanced performances. This distribution of distinct entangled frequency modes may also be useful for improved metrology, quantum remote synchronization, as well as for fundamental test of stronger violation of local realism.

  2. Fast vector quantization using a Bat algorithm for image compression

    OpenAIRE

    Karri, Chiranjeevi; Jena, Umaranjan

    2017-01-01

    Linde–Buzo–Gray (LBG), a traditional method of vector quantization (VQ) generates a local optimal codebook which results in lower PSNR value. The performance of vector quantization (VQ) depends on the appropriate codebook, so researchers proposed optimization techniques for global codebook generation. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) and Firefly algorithm (FA) generate an efficient codebook, but undergoes instability in convergence when particle velocity is high and non-availability of brigh...

  3. Fuel processor and method for generating hydrogen for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shabbir [Naperville, IL; Lee, Sheldon H. D. [Willowbrook, IL; Carter, John David [Bolingbrook, IL; Krumpelt, Michael [Naperville, IL; Myers, Deborah J [Lisle, IL

    2009-07-21

    A method of producing a H.sub.2 rich gas stream includes supplying an O.sub.2 rich gas, steam, and fuel to an inner reforming zone of a fuel processor that includes a partial oxidation catalyst and a steam reforming catalyst or a combined partial oxidation and stream reforming catalyst. The method also includes contacting the O.sub.2 rich gas, steam, and fuel with the partial oxidation catalyst and the steam reforming catalyst or the combined partial oxidation and stream reforming catalyst in the inner reforming zone to generate a hot reformate stream. The method still further includes cooling the hot reformate stream in a cooling zone to produce a cooled reformate stream. Additionally, the method includes removing sulfur-containing compounds from the cooled reformate stream by contacting the cooled reformate stream with a sulfur removal agent. The method still further includes contacting the cooled reformate stream with a catalyst that converts water and carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and H.sub.2 in a water-gas-shift zone to produce a final reformate stream in the fuel processor.

  4. A one-step cloning method for the construction of somatic cell gene targeting vectors: application to production of human knockout cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene targeting is a powerful method that can be used for examining the functions of genes. Traditionally, the construction of knockout (KO vectors requires an amplification step to obtain two homologous, large fragments of genomic DNA. Restriction enzymes that cut at unique recognitions sites and numerous cloning steps are then carried out; this is often a time-consuming and frustrating process. Results We have developed a one-step cloning method for the insertion of two arms into a KO vector using exonuclease III. We modified an adeno-associated virus KO shuttle vector (pTK-LoxP-NEO-AAV to yield pAAV-LIC, which contained two cassettes at the two multiple-cloning sites. The vector was digested with EcoRV to give two fragments. The two homologous arms, which had an overlap of 16 bases with the ends of the vector fragments, were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. After purification, the four fragments were mixed and treated with exonuclease III, then transformed into Escherichia coli to obtain the desired clones. Using this method, we constructed SirT1 and HDAC2 KO vectors, which were used to establish SirT1 KO cells from the colorectal cancer cell line (HCT116 and HDAC2 KO cells from the colorectal cancer cell line (DLD1. Conclusions Our method is a fast, simple, and efficient technique for cloning, and has great potential for high-throughput construction of KO vectors.

  5. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2010-12-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  6. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan -- PLN-2498

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2010-09-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  7. Error Concealment Method Based on Motion Vector Prediction Using Particle Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hrusovsky

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Video transmitted over unreliable environment, such as wireless channel or in generally any network with unreliable transport protocol, is facing the losses of video packets due to network congestion and different kind of noises. The problem is becoming more important using highly effective video codecs. Visual quality degradation could propagate into subsequent frames due to redundancy elimination in order to obtain high compression ratio. Since the video stream transmission in real time is limited by transmission channel delay, it is not possible to retransmit all faulty or lost packets. It is therefore inevitable to conceal these defects. To reduce the undesirable effects of information losses, the lost data is usually estimated from the received data, which is generally known as error concealment problem. This paper discusses packet loss modeling in order to simulate losses during video transmission, packet losses analysis and their impacts on the motion vectors losses.

  8. A Live Vector Expressing HPV16 L1 Generates an Adjuvant-Induced Antibody Response In-vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirbaghaee, Zeinab; Bolhassani, Azam; Mirshafiey, Abbas; Motevalli, Fatemeh; Zohrei, Negar

    2015-12-01

    The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and cervical cancer has suggested the design of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against genital warts. The HPV capsid has made of two L1 and L2 coat proteins that have produced late in viral infections. Regarding to the recent studies, two commercial prophylactic vaccines have based on L1 viral like particles (VLPs) could strongly induce antibody responses, and protect human body from HPV infections. However, the use of these HPV vaccines has hindered due to their high cost and some limitations. Currently, among various vaccination strategies, live vector-based vaccines have attracted a great attention. Herein, a non-pathogenic strain of the protozoan organism known as Leishmania tarentolae has utilized to induce potent humoral immunity in mice model. At first, cloning of HPV16 L1 gene into Leishmania expression vector has performed and confirmed by PCR and digestion with restriction enzymes. The promastigotes of Leishmania tarentolae (L.tar) have transfected with linearized DNA construct by electroporation. Protein expression has analyzed by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. Then, the immunogenicity of leishmania expressing L1 protein (L.tar-L1) has assessed in mice model. Our data has indicated that subcutaneous immunization of mice with the recombinant L.tar-L1 has led to enhance the levels of IgG1 and lgG2a in comparison with control groups. Furthermore, there was no significant increase in antibody levels between two and three times of immunizations. The recombinant live vector was able to induce humoral immunity in mice without need of any adjuvant. However, further studies have required to increase its efficiency.

  9. Generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell line from urinary cells of a healthy donor using an integration free vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bella Rossbach

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We have generated a human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line derived from urinary cells of a 30 year old healthy female donor. The cells were reprogrammed using a non-integrating viral vector and have shown full differentiation potential. Together with the iPSC-line, the donor provided blood cells for the study of immunological effects of the iPSC line and its derivatives in autologous and allogeneic settings. The line is available and registered in the human pluripotent stem cell registry as BCRTi004-A.

  10. Methods in virus diagnostics: from ELISA to next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonham, Neil; Kreuze, Jan; Winter, Stephan; van der Vlugt, René; Bergervoet, Jan; Tomlinson, Jenny; Mumford, Rick

    2014-06-24

    Despite the seemingly continuous development of newer and ever more elaborate methods for detecting and identifying viruses, very few of these new methods get adopted for routine use in testing laboratories, often despite the many and varied claimed advantages they possess. To understand why the rate of uptake of new technologies is so low, requires a strong understanding of what makes a good routine diagnostic tool to begin. This can be done by looking at the two most successfully established plant virus detection methods: enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and more recently introduced real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). By examining the characteristics of this pair of technologies, it becomes clear that they share many benefits, such as an industry standard format and high levels of repeatability and reproducibility. These combine to make methods that are accessible to testing labs, which are easy to establish and robust in their use, even with new and inexperienced users. Hence, to ensure the establishment of new techniques it is necessary to not only provide benefits not found with ELISA or real-time PCR, but also to provide a platform that is easy to establish and use. In plant virus diagnostics, recent developments can be clustered into three core areas: (1) techniques that can be performed in the field or resource poor locations (e.g., loop-mediated isothermal amplification LAMP); (2) multiplex methods that are able to detect many viruses in a single test (e.g., Luminex bead arrays); and (3) methods suited to virus discovery (e.g., next generation sequencing, NGS). Field based methods are not new, with Lateral Flow Devices (LFDs) for the detection being available for a number of years now. However, the widespread uptake of this technology remains poor. LAMP does offer significant advantages over LFDs, in terms of sensitivity and generic application, but still faces challenges in terms of establishment. It is likely that the main barrier to the

  11. X-ray standing wave simulations based on Fourier vector analysis as a method to retrieve complex molecular adsorption geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eMercurio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis method of normal incidence x-ray standing wave (NIXSW data that allows detailed adsorption geometries of complex molecules to be retrieved. This method (Fourier vector analysis is based on the comparison of both the coherence and phase of NIXSW data to NIXSW simulations of different molecular geometries as the relevant internal degrees of freedom are tuned. We introduce this analysis method using the prototypical molecular switch azobenzene (AB adsorbed on the Ag(111 surface as a model system. The application of the Fourier vector analysis to AB/Ag(111 provides, on the one hand, detailed adsorption geometries including dihedral angles, and on the other hand, insights into the dynamics of molecules and their bonding to the metal substrate. This analysis scheme is generally applicable to any adsorbate, it is necessary for molecules with potentially large distortions, and will be particularly valuable for molecules whose distortion on adsorption can be mapped on a limited number of internal degrees of freedom.

  12. Applicability of the Generalized Integral Type PLL Method to Sensorless Vector Controls of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Using Full-Order State Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnaka, Shinji; I, Daisuke

    This paper newly shows applicability of the generalized integral type PLL method to sensorless vector controls of permanent magnet synchronous motors using full-order state observer, which have identified rotor speed as a system parameter separately from rotor phase treated as a system state by adaptive identification algorithm so far. The PLL method can exploit the integral-derivative relation between phase and speed, consequently can allow simpler realization of the sensorless vector controls.

  13. Comparison of DNA Quantification Methods for Next Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Jérôme D; Ludlow, Andrew T; LaRanger, Ryan; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W

    2016-04-06

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is a powerful tool that depends on loading a precise amount of DNA onto a flowcell. NGS strategies have expanded our ability to investigate genomic phenomena by referencing mutations in cancer and diseases through large-scale genotyping, developing methods to map rare chromatin interactions (4C; 5C and Hi-C) and identifying chromatin features associated with regulatory elements (ChIP-seq, Bis-Seq, ChiA-PET). While many methods are available for DNA library quantification, there is no unambiguous gold standard. Most techniques use PCR to amplify DNA libraries to obtain sufficient quantities for optical density measurement. However, increased PCR cycles can distort the library's heterogeneity and prevent the detection of rare variants. In this analysis, we compared new digital PCR technologies (droplet digital PCR; ddPCR, ddPCR-Tail) with standard methods for the titration of NGS libraries. DdPCR-Tail is comparable to qPCR and fluorometry (QuBit) and allows sensitive quantification by analysis of barcode repartition after sequencing of multiplexed samples. This study provides a direct comparison between quantification methods throughout a complete sequencing experiment and provides the impetus to use ddPCR-based quantification for improvement of NGS quality.

  14. A finite volume method for numerical grid generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, S. B.

    1999-07-01

    A novel method to generate body-fitted grids based on the direct solution for three scalar functions is derived. The solution for scalar variables , and is obtained with a conventional finite volume method based on a physical space formulation. The grid is adapted or re-zoned to eliminate the residual error between the current solution and the desired solution, by means of an implicit grid-correction procedure. The scalar variables are re-mapped and the process is reiterated until convergence is obtained. Calculations are performed for a variety of problems by assuming combined Dirichlet-Neumann and pure Dirichlet boundary conditions involving the use of transcendental control functions, as well as functions designed to effect grid control automatically on the basis of boundary values. The use of dimensional analysis to build stable exponential functions and other control functions is demonstrated. Automatic procedures are implemented: one based on a finite difference approximation to the Cristoffel terms assuming local-boundary orthogonality, and another designed to procure boundary orthogonality. The performance of the new scheme is shown to be comparable with that of conventional inverse methods when calculations are performed on benchmark problems through the application of point-by-point and whole-field solution schemes. Advantages and disadvantages of the present method are critically appraised. Copyright

  15. A new generation of vectors with increased induction ratios by overimposing a second regulatory level by attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo, Jose Luis; Manyani, Hamid; Cebolla, Angel; Santero, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    A major drawback of regulated gene expression from vectors bearing strong promoters is the associated high basal expression level. Simple regulatory systems have an intrinsic limitation in the range of induction, and attempts to mutate promoters to reduce basal expression usually result in concomitant reduction of induced levels. We have explored the possibility of reducing basal levels of gene expression while keeping induced levels intact by incorporating an additional regulatory circuit controlling a different step of the expression process. We have integrated the nasFEDCBA transcriptional attenuation system of Klebsiella oxytoca into a cascade expression circuit based on different regulatory elements of Pseudomonas putida, and also into a system based on the tac promoter, to expand their regulatory capacity. Basal expression from the promoters of these circuits was reduced by more than 10-fold by the nasF attenuator sequence while keeping the induced levels intact in the presence of the antiterminator protein, thus increasing the induction ratio by up to 1700-fold. In addition, using different combinations of regulatory elements and inducing conditions, we were able to obtain a broad range of expression levels. These vectors and the concept of their design will be very useful in regulating overproduction of heterologous proteins both at laboratory and industrial scales. PMID:16260471

  16. Optimized shear wave generation using hybrid beamforming methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavizadeh, Alireza; Greenleaf, James F; Fatemi, Mostafa; Urban, Matthew W

    2014-01-01

    Elasticity imaging is a medical imaging modality that measures tissue elasticity as an aid in the diagnosis of certain diseases. Shear wave-based methods have been developed to perform elasticity measurements in soft tissue. These methods often use the radiation force mechanism of focused ultrasound to induce shear waves in soft tissue such as liver, kidney, breast, thyroid and skeletal muscle. The efficiency of the ultrasound beam in producing broadband extended shear waves in soft tissue is very important to the widespread use of this modality. Hybrid beamforming combines two types of focusing, conventional spherical focusing and axicon focusing, to produce a beam for generating a shear wave that has increased depth-of-field (DOF) so that measurements can be made with a shear wave with a consistent wave front. Spherical focusing is used in many applications to achieve high lateral resolution, but has low DOF. Axicon focusing, with a cone-shaped transducer, can provide good lateral resolution with large DOF. We describe our linear aperture design and beam optimization performed using angular spectrum simulations. We performed a large parametric simulation study in which we varied the focal depth for the spherical focusing portion of the aperture, the numbers of elements devoted to the spherical and axicon focusing portions of the aperture and the opening angle used for axicon focusing. The hybrid beamforming method was experimentally tested in two phantoms, and shear wave speed measurement accuracy and DOF for each hybrid beam were evaluated. We compared our results with those for shear waves generated using only spherical focusing. The results of this study indicate that hybrid beamforming is capable of producing a beam with increased DOF over which accurate shear wave speed measurements can be made for different-size apertures and at different focal depths. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  17. Determination of feature generation methods for PTZ camera object tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Daniel D.; Black, Jonathan T.

    2012-06-01

    Object detection and tracking using computer vision (CV) techniques have been widely applied to sensor fusion applications. Many papers continue to be written that speed up performance and increase learning of artificially intelligent systems through improved algorithms, workload distribution, and information fusion. Military application of real-time tracking systems is becoming more and more complex with an ever increasing need of fusion and CV techniques to actively track and control dynamic systems. Examples include the use of metrology systems for tracking and measuring micro air vehicles (MAVs) and autonomous navigation systems for controlling MAVs. This paper seeks to contribute to the determination of select tracking algorithms that best track a moving object using a pan/tilt/zoom (PTZ) camera applicable to both of the examples presented. The select feature generation algorithms compared in this paper are the trained Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF), the Mixture of Gaussians (MoG) background subtraction method, the Lucas- Kanade optical flow method (2000) and the Farneback optical flow method (2003). The matching algorithm used in this paper for the trained feature generation algorithms is the Fast Library for Approximate Nearest Neighbors (FLANN). The BSD licensed OpenCV library is used extensively to demonstrate the viability of each algorithm and its performance. Initial testing is performed on a sequence of images using a stationary camera. Further testing is performed on a sequence of images such that the PTZ camera is moving in order to capture the moving object. Comparisons are made based upon accuracy, speed and memory.

  18. Generation of synthetic flood hydrographs by hydrological donors (SHYDONHY method)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    For the design of hydraulic infrastructures like dams, a design hydrograph is required in most of the cases. Some of its features (e.g. peak value, duration, volume) corresponding to a given return period are computed thanks to a wide range of methods: historical records, mono or multivariate statistical analysis, stochastic simulation, etc. Then various methods have been proposed to construct design hydrographs having such characteristics, ranging from traditional unit-hydrograph to statistical methods (Yue et al., 2002). A new method to build design hydrographs (or more generally synthetic hydrographs) is introduced here, named SHYDONHY, French acronym for "Synthèse d'HYdrogrammes par DONneurs HYdrologiques". It is based on an extensive database of 100 000 flood hydrographs recorded at hourly time-step on 1300 gauging stations in France and Switzerland, covering a wide range of catchment size and climatology. For each station, an average of two hydrographs per year of record has been selected by a peak-over-threshold (POT) method with independence criteria (Lang et al., 1999). This sampling ensures that only hydrographs of intense floods are gathered in the dataset. For a given catchment, where few or no hydrograph is available at the outlet, a sub-set of 10 "donor stations" is selected within the complete dataset, considering several criteria: proximity, size, mean annual values and regimes for both total runoff and POT-selected floods. This sub-set of stations (and their corresponding flood hydrographs) will allow to: • Estimate a characteristic duration of flood hydrographs (e.g. duration for which the discharge is above 50% of the peak value). • For a given duration (e.g. one day), estimate the average peak-to- volume ratio of floods. • For a given duration and peak-to-volume ratio, generation of a synthetic reference hydrograph by combining appropriate hydrographs of the sub-set. • For a given daily discharge sequence, being observed or generated

  19. An Effective Fault Feature Extraction Method for Gas Turbine Generator System Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hua Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault diagnosis is very important to maintain the operation of a gas turbine generator system (GTGS in power plants, where any abnormal situations will interrupt the electricity supply. The fault diagnosis of the GTGS faces the main challenge that the acquired data, vibration or sound signals, contain a great deal of redundant information which extends the fault identification time and degrades the diagnostic accuracy. To improve the diagnostic performance in the GTGS, an effective fault feature extraction framework is proposed to solve the problem of the signal disorder and redundant information in the acquired signal. The proposed framework combines feature extraction with a general machine learning method, support vector machine (SVM, to implement an intelligent fault diagnosis. The feature extraction method adopts wavelet packet transform and time-domain statistical features to extract the features of faults from the vibration signal. To further reduce the redundant information in extracted features, kernel principal component analysis is applied in this study. Experimental results indicate that the proposed feature extracted technique is an effective method to extract the useful features of faults, resulting in improvement of the performance of fault diagnosis for the GTGS.

  20. A Novel Method to Generate and Expand Clinical-Grade, Genetically Modified, Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Andrée Forget

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the clinical success achieved with the first generation of adoptive cell therapy (ACT utilizing in vitro expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs, the second and third generations of TIL ACT are evolving toward the use of genetically modified TIL. TIL therapy generally involves the transfer of a high number of TIL, ranging from 109 to 1011 cells. One of the technical difficulties in genetically modifying TIL, using a retroviral vector, is the ability to achieve large expansion of transduced TIL, while keeping the technique suitable to a Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP environment. Consequently, we developed and optimized a novel method for the efficient production of large numbers of GMP-grade, gene-modified TIL for the treatment of patients with ACT. The chemokine receptor CXCR2 was used as the gene of interest for methodology development. The optimized procedure is currently used in the production of gene-modified TIL for two clinical trials for the treatment of metastatic melanoma at MD Anderson Cancer Center.

  1. [Changes in vectors of endogenously generated ion currents in light-induced germination of turions of Spirodela polyrrhiza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovskiĭ, S G; Appenroth, K J

    2002-01-01

    Nondormant turions of Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleiden were utilized to investigate endogenous ion currents in light-induced germination and early growing processes of higher plants. A small outward current was detected at the ventral side of the turions near the pocket containing the most developed sprout primordium. After a light pulse, the direction of the endogenous current changed from outward to inward. These ion currents are most likely conditioned by unspecific diffusion of cations (probably H+) inside the cell. Three-day-old sprouts of Spirodela showed the highest inward current near the sprout base which decreases toward its edge. Newly formed sprouts demonstrated a strong gravity effect (bending), which was preceded by a lowering of the Z-component of vectors close to the sprout base after a change of the turion fixation.

  2. Feature Selection Method Based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm and Support Vector Machines for Medical Datasets Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Serter Uzer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a hybrid approach that uses the artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm for feature selection and support vector machines for classification. The purpose of this paper is to test the effect of elimination of the unimportant and obsolete features of the datasets on the success of the classification, using the SVM classifier. The developed approach conventionally used in liver diseases and diabetes diagnostics, which are commonly observed and reduce the quality of life, is developed. For the diagnosis of these diseases, hepatitis, liver disorders and diabetes datasets from the UCI database were used, and the proposed system reached a classification accuracies of 94.92%, 74.81%, and 79.29%, respectively. For these datasets, the classification accuracies were obtained by the help of the 10-fold cross-validation method. The results show that the performance of the method is highly successful compared to other results attained and seems very promising for pattern recognition applications.

  3. Methods and apparatus for cooling wind turbine generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamah, Samir A [Niskayuna, NY; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya [Rexford, NY; Garg, Jivtesh [Schenectady, NY; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran [Niskayuna, NY; Jansen, Patrick Lee [Alplaus, NY; Carl, Jr., Ralph James

    2008-10-28

    A wind turbine generator includes a stator having a core and a plurality of stator windings circumferentially spaced about a generator longitudinal axis. A rotor is rotatable about the generator longitudinal axis, and the rotor includes a plurality of magnetic elements coupled to the rotor and cooperating with the stator windings. The magnetic elements are configured to generate a magnetic field and the stator windings are configured to interact with the magnetic field to generate a voltage in the stator windings. A heat pipe assembly thermally engaging one of the stator and the rotor to dissipate heat generated in the stator or rotor.

  4. A Modified Recession Vector Method Based on the Optimization-Simulation Approach to Design Problems of Information Security Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Bykov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern practical task-solving techniques for designing information security systems in different purpose automated systems assume the solution of optimization tasks when choosing different elements of a security system. Formulations of mathematical programming tasks are rather often used, but in practical tasks it is not always analytically possible to set target function and (or restrictions in an explicit form. Sometimes, calculation of the target function value or checking of restrictions for the possible decision can be reduced to carrying out experiments on a simulation model of system. Similar tasks are considered within optimization-simulation approach and require the ad hoc methods of optimization considering the possible high computational effort of simulation.The article offers a modified recession vector method, which is used in tasks of discrete optimization to solve the similar problems. The method is applied when the task to be solved is to minimize the cost of selected information security tools in case of restriction on the maximum possible damage. The cost index is the linear function of the Boolean variables, which specify the selected security tools, with the restriction set as an "example simulator". Restrictions can be actually set implicitly. A validity of the possible solution is checked using a simulation model of the system.The offered algorithm of a method considers features of an objective. The main advantage of algorithm is that it requires a maximum of m+1 of steps where m is a dimensionality of the required vector of Boolean variables. The algorithm provides finding a local minimum by using the Hamming metrics in the discrete space; the radius of neighborhood is equal to 1. These statements are proved.The paper presents solution results of choosing security tools with the specified basic data.

  5. Genetic markers, genotyping methods & next generation sequencing in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desikan, Srinidhi; Narayanan, Sujatha

    2015-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology (ME) is one of the main areas in tuberculosis research which is widely used to study the transmission epidemics and outbreaks of tubercle bacilli. It exploits the presence of various polymorphisms in the genome of the bacteria that can be widely used as genetic markers. Many DNA typing methods apply these genetic markers to differentiate various strains and to study the evolutionary relationships between them. The three widely used genotyping tools to differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), spacer oligotyping (Spoligotyping), and mycobacterial interspersed repeat units - variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR). A new prospect towards ME was introduced with the development of whole genome sequencing (WGS) and the next generation sequencing (NGS) methods, where the entire genome is sequenced that not only helps in pointing out minute differences between the various sequences but also saves time and the cost. NGS is also found to be useful in identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), comparative genomics and also various aspects about transmission dynamics. These techniques enable the identification of mycobacterial strains and also facilitate the study of their phylogenetic and evolutionary traits. PMID:26205019

  6. Method of generating hydrogen by catalytic decomposition of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Dorris, Stephen E.; Bose, Arun C.; Stiegel, Gary J.; Lee, Tae-Hyun

    2002-01-01

    A method for producing hydrogen includes providing a feed stream comprising water; contacting at least one proton conducting membrane adapted to interact with the feed stream; splitting the water into hydrogen and oxygen at a predetermined temperature; and separating the hydrogen from the oxygen. Preferably the proton conducting membrane comprises a proton conductor and a second phase material. Preferable proton conductors suitable for use in a proton conducting membrane include a lanthanide element, a Group VIA element and a Group IA or Group IIA element such as barium, strontium, or combinations of these elements. More preferred proton conductors include yttrium. Preferable second phase materials include platinum, palladium, nickel, cobalt, chromium, manganese, vanadium, silver, gold, copper, rhodium, ruthenium, niobium, zirconium, tantalum, and combinations of these. More preferably second phase materials suitable for use in a proton conducting membrane include nickel, palladium, and combinations of these. The method for generating hydrogen is preferably preformed in the range between about 600.degree. C. and 1,700.degree. C.

  7. Genetic markers, genotyping methods & next generation sequencing in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinidhi Desikan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular epidemiology (ME is one of the main areas in tuberculosis research which is widely used to study the transmission epidemics and outbreaks of tubercle bacilli. It exploits the presence of various polymorphisms in the genome of the bacteria that can be widely used as genetic markers. Many DNA typing methods apply these genetic markers to differentiate various strains and to study the evolutionary relationships between them. The three widely used genotyping tools to differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP, spacer oligotyping (Spoligotyping, and mycobacterial interspersed repeat units - variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR. A new prospect towards ME was introduced with the development of whole genome sequencing (WGS and the next generation sequencing (NGS methods, where the entire genome is sequenced that not only helps in pointing out minute differences between the various sequences but also saves time and the cost. NGS is also found to be useful in identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, comparative genomics and also various aspects about transmission dynamics. These techniques enable the identification of mycobacterial strains and also facilitate the study of their phylogenetic and evolutionary traits.

  8. Simple method for generating adjustable trains of picosecond electron bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Muggli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple, passive method for producing an adjustable train of picosecond electron bunches is demonstrated. The key component of this method is an electron beam mask consisting of an array of parallel wires that selectively spoils the beam emittance. This mask is positioned in a high magnetic dispersion, low beta-function region of the beam line. The incoming electron beam striking the mask has a time/energy correlation that corresponds to a time/position correlation at the mask location. The mask pattern is transformed into a time pattern or train of bunches when the dispersion is brought back to zero downstream of the mask. Results are presented of a proof-of-principle experiment demonstrating this novel technique that was performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility. This technique allows for easy tailoring of the bunch train for a particular application, including varying the bunch width and spacing, and enabling the generation of a trailing witness bunch.

  9. A Real-Time Interference Monitoring Technique for GNSS Based on a Twin Support Vector Machine Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wutao; Huang, Zhigang; Lang, Rongling; Qin, Honglei; Zhou, Kai; Cao, Yongbin

    2016-03-04

    Interferences can severely degrade the performance of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. As the first step of GNSS any anti-interference measures, interference monitoring for GNSS is extremely essential and necessary. Since interference monitoring can be considered as a classification problem, a real-time interference monitoring technique based on Twin Support Vector Machine (TWSVM) is proposed in this paper. A TWSVM model is established, and TWSVM is solved by the Least Squares Twin Support Vector Machine (LSTWSVM) algorithm. The interference monitoring indicators are analyzed to extract features from the interfered GNSS signals. The experimental results show that the chosen observations can be used as the interference monitoring indicators. The interference monitoring performance of the proposed method is verified by using GPS L1 C/A code signal and being compared with that of standard SVM. The experimental results indicate that the TWSVM-based interference monitoring is much faster than the conventional SVM. Furthermore, the training time of TWSVM is on millisecond (ms) level and the monitoring time is on microsecond (μs) level, which make the proposed approach usable in practical interference monitoring applications.

  10. An Adaptive Model Predictive Load Frequency Control Method for Multi-Area Interconnected Power Systems with Photovoltaic Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qiang Zeng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As the penetration level of renewable distributed generations such as wind turbine generator and photovoltaic stations increases, the load frequency control issue of a multi-area interconnected power system becomes more challenging. This paper presents an adaptive model predictive load frequency control method for a multi-area interconnected power system with photovoltaic generation by considering some nonlinear features such as a dead band for governor and generation rate constraint for steam turbine. The dynamic characteristic of this system is formulated as a discrete-time state space model firstly. Then, the predictive dynamic model is obtained by introducing an expanded state vector, and rolling optimization of control signal is implemented based on a cost function by minimizing the weighted sum of square predicted errors and square future control values. The simulation results on a typical two-area power system consisting of photovoltaic and thermal generator have demonstrated the superiority of the proposed model predictive control method to these state-of-the-art control techniques such as firefly algorithm, genetic algorithm, and population extremal optimization-based proportional-integral control methods in cases of normal conditions, load disturbance and parameters uncertainty.

  11. Downstream processing and chromatography based analytical methods for production of vaccines, gene therapy vectors, and bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramberger, Petra; Urbas, Lidija; Štrancar, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Downstream processing of nanoplexes (viruses, virus-like particles, bacteriophages) is characterized by complexity of the starting material, number of purification methods to choose from, regulations that are setting the frame for the final product and analytical methods for upstream and downstream monitoring. This review gives an overview on the nanoplex downstream challenges and chromatography based analytical methods for efficient monitoring of the nanoplex production. PMID:25751122

  12. A Novel High Order Time Domain Vector Finite Element Method for the Simulation of Electromagnetic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieben, Robert N. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is two-fold. The first part concerns the development of a numerical method for solving Maxwell's equations on unstructured hexahedral grids that employs both high order spatial and high order temporal discretizations. The second part involves the use of this method as a computational tool to perform high fidelity simulations of various electromagnetic devices such as optical transmission lines and photonic crystal structures to yield a level of accuracy that has previously been computationally cost prohibitive. This work is based on the initial research of Daniel White who developed a provably stable, charge and energy conserving method for solving Maxwell's equations in the time domain that is second order accurate in both space and time. The research presented here has involved the generalization of this procedure to higher order methods. High order methods are capable of yielding far more accurate numerical results for certain problems when compared to corresponding h-refined first order methods , and often times at a significant reduction in total computational cost. The first half of this dissertation presents the method as well as the necessary mathematics required for its derivation. The second half addresses the implementation of the method in a parallel computational environment, its validation using benchmark problems, and finally its use in large scale numerical simulations of electromagnetic transmission devices.

  13. Correlated Topic Vector for Scene Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pengxu; Qin, Fei; Wan, Fang; Zhu, Yi; Jiao, Jianbin; Ye, Qixiang

    2017-07-01

    Scene images usually involve semantic correlations, particularly when considering large-scale image data sets. This paper proposes a novel generative image representation, correlated topic vector, to model such semantic correlations. Oriented from the correlated topic model, correlated topic vector intends to naturally utilize the correlations among topics, which are seldom considered in the conventional feature encoding, e.g., Fisher vector, but do exist in scene images. It is expected that the involvement of correlations can increase the discriminative capability of the learned generative model and consequently improve the recognition accuracy. Incorporated with the Fisher kernel method, correlated topic vector inherits the advantages of Fisher vector. The contributions to the topics of visual words have been further employed by incorporating the Fisher kernel framework to indicate the differences among scenes. Combined with the deep convolutional neural network (CNN) features and Gibbs sampling solution, correlated topic vector shows great potential when processing large-scale and complex scene image data sets. Experiments on two scene image data sets demonstrate that correlated topic vector improves significantly the deep CNN features, and outperforms existing Fisher kernel-based features.

  14. Improved Methods For Generating Quasi-Gray Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Jansens, Dana; Carmi, Paz; Maheshwari, Anil; Morin, Pat; Smid, Michiel

    2010-01-01

    Consider a sequence of bit strings of length d, such that each string differs from the next in a constant number of bits. We call this sequence a quasi-Gray code. We examine the problem of efficiently generating such codes, by considering the number of bits read and written at each generating step, the average number of bits read while generating the entire code, and the number of strings generated in the code. Our results give a trade-off between these constraints, and present algorithms that do less work on average than previous results, and that increase the number of bit strings generated.

  15. Modal loss mechanism of micro-structured VCSELs studied using full vector FDTD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Du-Ho; Vu, Ngoc Hai; Kim, Jin-Tae; Hwang, In-Kag

    2011-09-12

    Modal properties of vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with holey structures are studied using a finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. We investigate loss behavior with respect to the variation of structural parameters, and explain the loss mechanism of VCSELs. We also propose an effective method to estimate the modal loss based on mode profiles obtained using FDTD simulation. Our results could provide an important guideline for optimization of the microstructures of high-power single-mode VCSELs.

  16. A novel method of protein secondary structure prediction with high segment overlap measure: support vector machine approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, S; Sun, Z

    2001-04-27

    We have introduced a new method of protein secondary structure prediction which is based on the theory of support vector machine (SVM). SVM represents a new approach to supervised pattern classification which has been successfully applied to a wide range of pattern recognition problems, including object recognition, speaker identification, gene function prediction with microarray expression profile, etc. In these cases, the performance of SVM either matches or is significantly better than that of traditional machine learning approaches, including neural networks.The first use of the SVM approach to predict protein secondary structure is described here. Unlike the previous studies, we first constructed several binary classifiers, then assembled a tertiary classifier for three secondary structure states (helix, sheet and coil) based on these binary classifiers. The SVM method achieved a good performance of segment overlap accuracy SOV=76.2 % through sevenfold cross validation on a database of 513 non-homologous protein chains with multiple sequence alignments, which out-performs existing methods. Meanwhile three-state overall per-residue accuracy Q(3) achieved 73.5 %, which is at least comparable to existing single prediction methods. Furthermore a useful "reliability index" for the predictions was developed. In addition, SVM has many attractive features, including effective avoidance of overfitting, the ability to handle large feature spaces, information condensing of the given data set, etc. The SVM method is conveniently applied to many other pattern classification tasks in biology. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  17. Combination of the Manifold Dimensionality Reduction Methods with Least Squares Support vector machines for Classifying the Species of Sorghum Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. M.; Lin, P.; He, J. Q.; He, Y.; Li, X. L.

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out for rapid and noninvasive determination of the class of sorghum species by using the manifold dimensionality reduction (MDR) method and the nonlinear regression method of least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) combing with the mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) techniques. The methods of Durbin and Run test of augmented partial residual plot (APaRP) were performed to diagnose the nonlinearity of the raw spectral data. The nonlinear MDR methods of isometric feature mapping (ISOMAP), local linear embedding, laplacian eigenmaps and local tangent space alignment, as well as the linear MDR methods of principle component analysis and metric multidimensional scaling were employed to extract the feature variables. The extracted characteristic variables were utilized as the input of LS-SVM and established the relationship between the spectra and the target attributes. The mean average precision (MAP) scores and prediction accuracy were respectively used to evaluate the performance of models. The prediction results showed that the ISOMAP-LS-SVM model obtained the best classification performance, where the MAP scores and prediction accuracy were 0.947 and 92.86%, respectively. It can be concluded that the ISOMAP-LS-SVM model combined with the MIRS technique has the potential of classifying the species of sorghum in a reasonable accuracy.

  18. Forecasting Air Passenger Traffic by Support Vector Machines with Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition and Slope-Based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukun Bao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to the nonlinearity and irregularity along with implicit seasonality and trend in the context of air passenger traffic forecasting, this study proposes an ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD based support vector machines (SVMs modeling framework incorporating a slope-based method to restrain the end effect issue occurring during the shifting process of EEMD, which is abbreviated as EEMD-Slope-SVMs. Real monthly air passenger traffic series including six selected airlines in USA and UK were collected to test the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Empirical results demonstrate that the proposed decomposition and ensemble modeling framework outperform the selected counterparts such as single SVMs (straightforward application of SVMs, Holt-Winters, and ARIMA in terms of RMSE, MAPE, GMRAE, and DS. Additional evidence is also shown to highlight the improved performance while compared with EEMD-SVM model not restraining the end effect.

  19. About vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Banesh

    1975-01-01

    From his unusual beginning in ""Defining a vector"" to his final comments on ""What then is a vector?"" author Banesh Hoffmann has written a book that is provocative and unconventional. In his emphasis on the unresolved issue of defining a vector, Hoffmann mixes pure and applied mathematics without using calculus. The result is a treatment that can serve as a supplement and corrective to textbooks, as well as collateral reading in all courses that deal with vectors. Major topics include vectors and the parallelogram law; algebraic notation and basic ideas; vector algebra; scalars and scalar p

  20. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Newell, Homer E

    2006-01-01

    When employed with skill and understanding, vector analysis can be a practical and powerful tool. This text develops the algebra and calculus of vectors in a manner useful to physicists and engineers. Numerous exercises (with answers) not only provide practice in manipulation but also help establish students' physical and geometric intuition in regard to vectors and vector concepts.Part I, the basic portion of the text, consists of a thorough treatment of vector algebra and the vector calculus. Part II presents the illustrative matter, demonstrating applications to kinematics, mechanics, and e

  1. Vector optimization and monotone operators via convex duality recent advances

    CERN Document Server

    Grad, Sorin-Mihai

    2014-01-01

    This book investigates several duality approaches for vector optimization problems, while also comparing them. Special attention is paid to duality for linear vector optimization problems, for which a vector dual that avoids the shortcomings of the classical ones is proposed. Moreover, the book addresses different efficiency concepts for vector optimization problems. Among the problems that appear when the framework is generalized by considering set-valued functions, an increasing interest is generated by those involving monotone operators, especially now that new methods for approaching them by means of convex analysis have been developed. Following this path, the book provides several results on different properties of sums of monotone operators.

  2. Determination of velocity vector angles using the directional cross-correlation method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2005-01-01

    and then select the angle with the highest normalized correlation between directional signals. The approach is investigated using Field II simulations and data from the experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS and with a parabolic flow having a peak velocity of 0.3 m/s. A 7 MHz linear array transducer is used......A method for determining both velocity magnitude and angle in any direction is suggested. The method uses focusing along the velocity direction and cross-correlation for finding the correct velocity magnitude. The angle is found from beamforming directional signals in a number of directions...

  3. Eddy current loss in double-sided cored slotless type permanent magnet linear synchronous generator using analytical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Gang-Hyeon; Koo, Min-Mo; Seo, Sung-Won; Hong, Keyyong; Choi, Jang-Young

    2017-05-01

    This paper describes the eddy current loss analysis of a double-sided cored slotless-type permanent magnet linear synchronous generator using the space harmonic method. To calculate the eddy current, an analytical solution was derived by applying the Maxwell equation, magnetic vector potential, and Faraday's law in a two-dimensional (2-D) Cartesian coordinate system. Based on the armature reaction field distribution produced by the armature winding current, we obtained an analytical solution for the eddy current density distribution. Then, an analytical solution for eddy current loss induced in a permanent magnet (PM) was derived using the equivalent electrical resistance calculated from the PM's volume and eddy current density distribution solution. Finally, the resulting current was determined based on analysis of the eddy current loss. The analytical results produced using this application of the space harmonic method were validated extensively through comparison with finite element method results.

  4. Eddy current loss in double-sided cored slotless type permanent magnet linear synchronous generator using analytical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang-Hyeon Jang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the eddy current loss analysis of a double-sided cored slotless-type permanent magnet linear synchronous generator using the space harmonic method. To calculate the eddy current, an analytical solution was derived by applying the Maxwell equation, magnetic vector potential, and Faraday’s law in a two-dimensional (2-D Cartesian coordinate system. Based on the armature reaction field distribution produced by the armature winding current, we obtained an analytical solution for the eddy current density distribution. Then, an analytical solution for eddy current loss induced in a permanent magnet (PM was derived using the equivalent electrical resistance calculated from the PM’s volume and eddy current density distribution solution. Finally, the resulting current was determined based on analysis of the eddy current loss. The analytical results produced using this application of the space harmonic method were validated extensively through comparison with finite element method results.

  5. Non-viral generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells by a six-factor-in-one-vector approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Debowski

    Full Text Available Groundbreaking studies showed that differentiated somatic cells of mouse and human origin could be reverted to a stable pluripotent state by the ectopic expression of only four proteins. The resulting pluripotent cells, called induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, could be an alternative to embryonic stem cells, which are under continuous ethical debate. Hence, iPS cell-derived functional cells such as neurons may become the key for an effective treatment of currently incurable degenerative diseases. However, besides the requirement of efficacy testing of the therapy also its long-term safety needs to be carefully evaluated in settings mirroring the clinical situation in an optimal way. In this context, we chose the long-lived common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus as a non-human primate species to generate iPS cells. The marmoset monkey is frequently used in biomedical research and is gaining more and more preclinical relevance due to the increasing number of disease models. Here, we describe, to our knowledge, the first-time generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells from postnatal skin fibroblasts by non-viral means. We used the transposon-based, fully reversible piggyback system. We cloned the marmoset monkey reprogramming factors and established robust and reproducible reprogramming protocols with a six-factor-in-one-construct approach. We generated six individual iPS cell lines and characterized them in comparison with marmoset monkey embryonic stem cells. The generated iPS cells are morphologically indistinguishable from marmoset ES cells. The iPS cells are fully reprogrammed as demonstrated by differentiation assays, pluripotency marker expression and transcriptome analysis. They are stable for numerous passages (more than 80 and exhibit euploidy. In summary, we have established efficient non-viral reprogramming protocols for the derivation of stable marmoset monkey iPS cells, which can be used to develop and test cell replacement

  6. Non-viral generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells by a six-factor-in-one-vector approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debowski, Katharina; Warthemann, Rita; Lentes, Jana; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Dressel, Ralf; Langenstroth, Daniel; Gromoll, Jörg; Sasaki, Erika; Behr, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Groundbreaking studies showed that differentiated somatic cells of mouse and human origin could be reverted to a stable pluripotent state by the ectopic expression of only four proteins. The resulting pluripotent cells, called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, could be an alternative to embryonic stem cells, which are under continuous ethical debate. Hence, iPS cell-derived functional cells such as neurons may become the key for an effective treatment of currently incurable degenerative diseases. However, besides the requirement of efficacy testing of the therapy also its long-term safety needs to be carefully evaluated in settings mirroring the clinical situation in an optimal way. In this context, we chose the long-lived common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) as a non-human primate species to generate iPS cells. The marmoset monkey is frequently used in biomedical research and is gaining more and more preclinical relevance due to the increasing number of disease models. Here, we describe, to our knowledge, the first-time generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells from postnatal skin fibroblasts by non-viral means. We used the transposon-based, fully reversible piggyback system. We cloned the marmoset monkey reprogramming factors and established robust and reproducible reprogramming protocols with a six-factor-in-one-construct approach. We generated six individual iPS cell lines and characterized them in comparison with marmoset monkey embryonic stem cells. The generated iPS cells are morphologically indistinguishable from marmoset ES cells. The iPS cells are fully reprogrammed as demonstrated by differentiation assays, pluripotency marker expression and transcriptome analysis. They are stable for numerous passages (more than 80) and exhibit euploidy. In summary, we have established efficient non-viral reprogramming protocols for the derivation of stable marmoset monkey iPS cells, which can be used to develop and test cell replacement therapies in

  7. "Method, system and storage medium for generating virtual brick models"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    of the original virtual brick model. Routines are provided for both storing user created building steps in and generating automated building instructions for virtual brick models, generating a bill of materials for a virtual brick model and ordering physical bricks corresponding to a virtual brick model....

  8. Vector control method applied to a traveling wave in a finite beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Frédéric; Giraud-Audine, Christophe; Amberg, Michel; Lemaire-Semail, Betty

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the closed-loop control of exciters to produce a traveling wave in a finite beam. This control is based on a dynamical modeling of the system established in a rotating reference frame. This method allows dynamic and independent control of the phase and amplitude of two vibration modes. The condition to obtain the traveling wave is written in this rotating frame, and requires having two vibration modes with the same amplitude, and imposing a phase shift of 90° between them. The advantage of the method is that it allows easy implementation of a closed loop control that can handle parameter drift of the system, after a temperature rise, for example. The modeling is compared with measurement on an experimental test bench which also implements real-time control. We managed to experimentally obtain a settling time of 250 ms for the traveling wave, and a standing wave ratio (SWR) of 1.3.

  9. Estimation of velocity vector angles using the directional cross-correlation method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2006-01-01

    and then select the angle with the highest normalized correlation between directional signals. The approach is investigated using Field II simulations and data from the experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS and a circulating flow rig with a parabolic flow having a peak velocity of 0.3 m/s. A 7 MHz linear array......A method for determining both velocity magnitude and angle in any direction is suggested. The method uses focusing along the velocity direction and cross-correlation for finding the correct velocity magnitude. The angle is found from beamforming directional signals in a number of directions...... transducer is used with a normal transmission of a focused ultrasound field. In the simulations the relative standard deviation of the velocity magnitude is between 0.7% and 7.7% for flow angles between 45 deg and 90 deg. The study showed that angle estimation by directional beamforming can be estimated...

  10. A Simple and High Performing Rate Control Initialization Method for H.264 AVC Coding Based on Motion Vector Map and Spatial Complexity at Low Bitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalin Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The temporal complexity of video sequences can be characterized by motion vector map which consists of motion vectors of each macroblock (MB. In order to obtain the optimal initial QP (quantization parameter for the various video sequences which have different spatial and temporal complexities, this paper proposes a simple and high performance initial QP determining method based on motion vector map and temporal complexity to decide an initial QP in given target bit rate. The proposed algorithm produces the reconstructed video sequences with outstanding and stable quality. For any video sequences, the initial QP can be easily determined from matrices by target bit rate and mapped spatial complexity using proposed mapping method. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can show more outstanding objective and subjective performance than other conventional determining methods.

  11. Weighted Transition Based Reordering, Columnwise Bit Filling, and Difference Vector: A Power-Aware Test Data Compression Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Mehta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Test data compression is the major issues for the external testing of IP core-based SoC. From a large pool of diverse available techniques for compression, run length-based schemes are most appropriate for IP cores. To improve the compression and to reduce the test power, the test data processing schemes like “don't care bit filling” and “reordering” which do not require any modification in internal structure and do not demand use of any test development tool can be used for SoC-containing IP cores with hidden structure. The proposed “Weighted Transition Based Reordering-Columnwise Bit Filling-Difference Vector (WTR-CBF-DV” is a modification to earlier proposed “Hamming Distance based Reordering—Columnwise Bit Filling and Difference vector.” This new method aims not only at very high compression but also aims at shift in test power reduction without any significant on-chip area overhead. The experiment results on ISCAS89 benchmark circuits show that the test data compression ratio has significantly improved for each case. It is also noteworthy that, in most of the case, this scheme does not involve any extra silicon area overhead compared to the base code with which it used. For few cases, it requires an extra XOR gate and feedback path only. As application of this scheme increases run length of zeroes in test set, as a result, the number of transitions during scan shifting is reduced. This may lower scan power. The proposed scheme can be easily integrated into the existing industrial flow.

  12. Current Control Method for Distributed Generation Power Generation Plants under Grid Fault Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Pedro; Luna, Alvaro; Hermoso, Juan Ramon

    2011-01-01

    The operation of distributed power generation systems under grid fault conditions is a key issue for the massive integration of renewable energy systems. Several studies have been conducted to improve the response of such distributed generation systems under voltage dips. In spite of being less...

  13. Emerging methods to generate artificial germ cells from stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanhui; Huang, Fajun; Guo, Jingjing; Hu, Xingchang; Liu, Changbai; Wang, Hu

    2015-04-01

    Germ cells are responsible for the transmission of genetic and epigenetic information across generations. At present, the number of infertile couples is increasing worldwide; these infertility problems can be traced to environmental pollutions, infectious diseases, cancer, psychological or work-related stress, and other factors, such as lifestyle and genetics. Notably, lack of germ cells and germ cell loss present real obstacles in infertility treatment. Recent research aimed at producing gametes through artificial germ cell generation from stem cells may offer great hope for affected couples to treat infertility in the future. Therefore, this rapidly emerging area of artificial germ cell generation from nongermline cells has gained considerable attention from basic and clinical research in the fields of stem cell biology, developmental biology, and reproductive biology. Here, we review the state of the art in artificial germ cell generation. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  14. Lung cancer gene expression database analysis incorporating prior knowledge with support vector machine-based classification method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Desheng

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A reliable and precise classification is essential for successful diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Gene expression microarrays have provided the high-throughput platform to discover genomic biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Rational use of the available bioinformation can not only effectively remove or suppress noise in gene chips, but also avoid one-sided results of separate experiment. However, only some studies have been aware of the importance of prior information in cancer classification. Methods Together with the application of support vector machine as the discriminant approach, we proposed one modified method that incorporated prior knowledge into cancer classification based on gene expression data to improve accuracy. A public well-known dataset, Malignant pleural mesothelioma and lung adenocarcinoma gene expression database, was used in this study. Prior knowledge is viewed here as a means of directing the classifier using known lung adenocarcinoma related genes. The procedures were performed by software R 2.80. Results The modified method performed better after incorporating prior knowledge. Accuracy of the modified method improved from 98.86% to 100% in training set and from 98.51% to 99.06% in test set. The standard deviations of the modified method decreased from 0.26% to 0 in training set and from 3.04% to 2.10% in test set. Conclusion The method that incorporates prior knowledge into discriminant analysis could effectively improve the capacity and reduce the impact of noise. This idea may have good future not only in practice but also in methodology.

  15. Cold weather hydrogen generation system and method of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Ken Wayne; Kowalski, Michael Thomas; Porter, Stephen Charles; Chow, Oscar Ken; Borland, Nicholas Paul; Goyette, Stephen Arthur

    2010-12-14

    A system for providing hydrogen gas is provided. The system includes a hydrogen generator that produces gas from water. One or more heat generation devices are arranged to provide heating of the enclosure during different modes of operation to prevent freezing of components. A plurality of temperature sensors are arranged and coupled to a controller to selectively activate a heat source if the temperature of the component is less than a predetermined temperature.

  16. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Vectorization of Advanced Methods for Molecular Electronic Structure

    CERN Document Server

    1984-01-01

    That there have been remarkable advances in the field of molecular electronic structure during the last decade is clear not only to those working in the field but also to anyone else who has used quantum chemical results to guide their own investiga­ tions. The progress in calculating the electronic structures of molecules has occurred through the truly ingenious theoretical and methodological developments that have made computationally tractable the underlying physics of electron distributions around a collection of nuclei. At the same time there has been consider­ able benefit from the great advances in computer technology. The growing sophistication, declining costs and increasing accessibi­ lity of computers have let theorists apply their methods to prob­ lems in virtually all areas of molecular science. Consequently, each year witnesses calculations on larger molecules than in the year before and calculations with greater accuracy and more com­ plete information on molecular properties. We can surel...

  17. Efficient protein production method for NMR using soluble protein tags with cold shock expression vector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Kokoro [Fujifilm Corporation, Analysis Technology Center (Japan); Kojima, Chojiro, E-mail: kojima@protein.osaka-u.ac.j [Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), Graduate School of Biological Sciences (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    The E. coli protein expression system is one of the most useful methods employed for NMR sample preparation. However, the production of some recombinant proteins in E. coli is often hampered by difficulties such as low expression level and low solubility. To address these problems, a modified cold-shock expression system containing a glutathione S-transferase (GST) tag, the pCold-GST system, was investigated. The pCold-GST system successfully expressed 9 out of 10 proteins that otherwise could not be expressed using a conventional E. coli expression system. Here, we applied the pCold-GST system to 84 proteins and 78 proteins were successfully expressed in the soluble fraction. Three other cold-shock expression systems containing a maltose binding protein tag (pCold-MBP), protein G B1 domain tag (pCold-GB1) or thioredoxin tag (pCold-Trx) were also developed to improve the yield. Additionally, we show that a C-terminal proline tag, which is invisible in {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N HSQC spectra, inhibits protein degradation and increases the final yield of unstable proteins. The purified proteins were amenable to NMR analyses. These data suggest that pCold expression systems combined with soluble protein tags can be utilized to improve the expression and purification of various proteins for NMR analysis.

  18. Vector mesons in matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    One consequence of the chiral restoration is the mixing of parity partners. We look for a possible signature of the mixing of vector and axial vector mesons in heavy-ion collisions. We suggest an experimental method for its observation. The dynamical evolution of the heavy-ion collision is described by a transport equation of ...

  19. Vector mesons in matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    kfki.hu. Abstract. One consequence of the chiral restoration is the mixing of parity partners. We look for a possible signature of the mixing of vector and axial vector mesons in heavy- ion collisions. We suggest an experimental method for its ...

  20. [Research on detection method of adulterated olive oil by Raman spectroscopy and least squares support vector machine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Qiang; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2012-06-01

    For the purpose of the authentication of sorts as well as the prediction of contents of the oils which were adulterated into olive oil, 117 olive oil samples adulterated with sunflower seed oil, soybean oil and corn oil were detected by Raman spectroscopy, and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) based on multiple iterative optimization was used to identify the type of the adulterant oil, and the composite recognition rate was 97%. In addition, methods such as LS-SVM, ANNs and PLSR were used to build the Raman spectra calibration model of the adulterant oil (sunflower seed oil, soybean oil and corn oil) contents respectively, the results indicated that LS-SVM had the best predictive performance, and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) ranged from 0.007 4 to 0.014 2. Research results showed the method based on Raman spectroscopy and LS-SVM was accurate, fast, simple and non-destructive for adulterated olive oil detection.

  1. Generation of octupled microwave signal via frequency multiplication method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mandeep; Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar

    2017-11-01

    We propose experimentally a technique to generate a low noise frequency octupled microwave signal. We demonstrate that by carefully arranging the phase of 90° between two MZMs (out of three), a low noise photonically assisted octupled microwave signal can be generated. A 25.6 GHz optical microwave signal is achieved with 3.2 GHz of local RF oscillator signal. Moreover, the intensity expressions at the output of photodiode are derived for both with and without dispersion terms. Finally, we advocate the impact of the electrical spurious suppression ratio on the extinction ratio of the modulators. Our experimental and simulation results agree well with the theoretical analysis.

  2. Into the environment of mosquito-borne disease: A spatial analysis of vector distribution using traditional and remotely sensed methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heidi E.

    Spatially explicit information is increasingly available for infectious disease modeling. However, such information is reluctantly or inappropriately incorporated. My dissertation research uses spatially explicit data to assess relationships between landscape and mosquito species distribution and discusses challenges regarding accurate predictive risk modeling. The goal of my research is to use remotely sensed environmental information and spatial statistical methods to better understand mosquito-borne disease epidemiology for improvement of public health responses. In addition to reviewing the progress of spatial infectious disease modeling, I present four research projects. I begin by evaluating the biases in surveillance data and build up to predictive modeling of mosquito species presence. In the first study I explore how mosquito surveillance trap types influence estimations of mosquito populations. Then. I use county-based human surveillance data and landscape variables to identify risk factors for West Nile virus disease. The third study uses satellite-based vegetation indices to identify spatial variation among West Nile virus vectors in an urban area and relates the variability to virus transmission dynamics. Finally, I explore how information from three satellite sensors of differing spatial and spectral resolution can be used to identify and distinguish mosquito habitat across central Connecticut wetlands. Analyses presented here constitute improvements to the prediction of mosquito distribution and therefore identification of disease risk factors. Current methods for mosquito surveillance data collection are labor intensive and provide an extremely limited, incomplete picture of the species composition and abundance. Human surveillance data offers additional challenges with respect to reporting bias and resolution, but is nonetheless informative in identifying environmental risk factors and disease transmission dynamics. Remotely sensed imagery supports

  3. Employing a chemical method for tubesheet sludge removal (steam generators)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolzenberg, N.R.; Thomas, R.C.; Thomas, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    A chemical technique has been developed for tubesheet sludge removal from PWR steam generators. The process was first applied commercially, with good results, at Millstone Point 2 where the conventional techniques of sludge lancing had not been found capable of removing sufficient sludge to arrest tube degradation.

  4. Novel feature selection method based on Stochastic Methods Coupled to Support Vector Machines using H- NMR data (data of olive and hazelnut oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Eduardo Gualdron

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the principal inconveniences that analysis and information processing presents is that of the representation of dataset. Normally, one encounters a high number of samples, each one with thousands of variables, and in many cases with irrelevant information and noise. Therefore, in order to represent findings in a clearer way, it is necessary to reduce the amount of variables. In this paper, a novel variable selection technique for multivariable data analysis, inspired on stochastic methods and designed to work with support vector machines (SVM, is described. The approach is demonstrated in a food application involving the detection of adulteration of olive oil (more expensive with hazelnut oil (cheaper. Fingerprinting by H NMR spectroscopy was used to analyze the different samples. Results show that it is possible to reduce the number of variables without affecting classification results.

  5. Wind turbine/generator set and method of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevington, Christopher M.; Bywaters, Garrett L.; Coleman, Clint C.; Costin, Daniel P.; Danforth, William L.; Lynch, Jonathan A.; Rolland, Robert H.

    2013-06-04

    A wind turbine comprising an electrical generator that includes a rotor assembly. A wind rotor that includes a wind rotor hub is directly coupled to the rotor assembly via a simplified connection. The wind rotor and generator rotor assembly are rotatably mounted on a central spindle via a bearing assembly. The wind rotor hub includes an opening having a diameter larger than the outside diameter of the central spindle adjacent the bearing assembly so as to allow access to the bearing assembly from a cavity inside the wind rotor hub. The spindle is attached to a turret supported by a tower. Each of the spindle, turret and tower has an interior cavity that permits personnel to traverse therethrough to the cavity of the wind rotor hub. The wind turbine further includes a frictional braking system for slowing, stopping or keeping stopped the rotation of the wind rotor and rotor assembly.

  6. Method for changing removable bearing for a wind turbine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya

    2008-04-22

    A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

  7. Work system innovation: Designing improvement methods for generative capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, David; Møller, Niels

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how a work system’s capability for improvement is influenced by its improvement methods. Based on explorative case study at a Lean manufacturing facility, the methods problem solving and Appreciative Inquiry were compared through in-depth qualitative studies over a 12-month...

  8. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brand, Louis

    2006-01-01

    The use of vectors not only simplifies treatments of differential geometry, mechanics, hydrodynamics, and electrodynamics, but also makes mathematical and physical concepts more tangible and easy to grasp. This text for undergraduates was designed as a short introductory course to give students the tools of vector algebra and calculus, as well as a brief glimpse into these subjects' manifold applications. The applications are developed to the extent that the uses of the potential function, both scalar and vector, are fully illustrated. Moreover, the basic postulates of vector analysis are brou

  9. Imaging quality analysis of computer-generated holograms using the point-based method and slice-based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Siqing; Zheng, Huadong; Sun, Tao; Yu, Yingjie; Gao, Hongyue; Asundi, Anand K.

    2017-06-01

    Computer holography has made a notably progress in recent years. The point-based method and slice-based method are chief calculation algorithms for generating holograms in holographic display. Although both two methods are validated numerically and optically, the differences of the imaging quality of these methods have not been specifically analyzed. In this paper, we analyze the imaging quality of computer-generated phase holograms generated by point-based Fresnel zone plates (PB-FZP), point-based Fresnel diffraction algorithm (PB-FDA) and slice-based Fresnel diffraction algorithm (SB-FDA). The calculation formula and hologram generation with three methods are demonstrated. In order to suppress the speckle noise, sequential phase-only holograms are generated in our work. The results of reconstructed images numerically and experimentally are also exhibited. By comparing the imaging quality, the merits and drawbacks with three methods are analyzed. Conclusions are given by us finally.

  10. A novel method of generating and remembering international morse codes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Charyulu, R.J.K.

    untethered communications have been advanced, despite as S.O.S International Morse Code will be at rescue as an emergency tool, when all other modes fail The details of hte method and actual codes have been enumerated....

  11. Nondestructive testing method for a new generation of electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Anton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the Smart City system needs reliable and smoothly operating electronic equipment. The study is aimed at developing a nondestructive testing method for electronic equipment and its components. This method can be used to identify critical design defects of printed circuit boards (PCB and to predict their service life, taking into account the nature of probable operating loads. The study uses an acoustic emission method to identify and localize critical design defects of printed circuit boards. Geometric dimensions of detected critical defects can be determined by the X-ray tomography method. Based on the results of the study, a method combining acoustic emission and X-ray tomography was developed for nondestructive testing of printed circuit boards. The stress-strain state of solder joints containing detected defects was analyzed. This paper gives an example of using the developed method for estimating the degree of damage to joints between PCB components and predicting the service life of the entire PCB.

  12. Single-step cloning-screening method: a new tool for developing and studying high-titer viral vector producer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, A F; Formas-Oliveira, A S; Guerreiro, M R; Tomás, H A; Alves, P M; Coroadinha, A S

    2015-09-01

    This article describes a novel method merging the cloning of viral vector producer cells with vector titer screening, allowing for screening 200-500 clones in 2 weeks. It makes use of a GFP separated into two fragments, S10 and S11 (Split GFP), fluorescing only upon transcomplementation. Producer cells carrying a S11 viral transgene are cloned in 96-well plates and co-cultured with target cells stably expressing S10. During the period of clone expansion, S11 viruses infect S10 target cells reconstituting the GFP signal. Transcomplemented fluorescence data provide direct estimation of the clone's productivity and can be analyzed in terms of density distribution, offering valuable information on the average productivity of the cell population and allowing the identification of high-producing clones. The method was validated by establishing a retrovirus producer from a nude cell line, in cell lines demonstrating that the latter sustains increased titers. Finally, it was used to study genetic manipulation of glutathione metabolism in retrovirus production showing that changing cell metabolism steers higher vector expression with titer increases of more than one order of magnitude.This method is a valuable tool not only for cell line development but also for genetic manipulation of viral vector and/or producer cells contributing to advancing the field of viral gene therapy.

  13. Modern Methods for fast generation of digital holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, P. W. M.; Liu, J. P.; Cheung, K. W. K.; Poon, T.-C.

    2010-06-01

    With the advancement of computers, digital holography (DH) has become an area of interest that has gained much popularity. Research findings derived from this technology enables holograms representing three dimensional (3-D) scenes to be acquired with optical means, or generated with numerical computation. In both cases, the holograms are in the form of numerical data that can be recorded, transmitted, and processed with digital techniques. On top of that, the availability of high capacity digital storage and wide-band communication technologies also cast light on the emergence of real time video holographic systems, enabling animated 3-D contents to be encoded as holographic data, and distributed via existing medium. At present, development in DH has reached a reasonable degree of maturity, but at the same time the heavy computation involved also imposes difficulty in practical applications. In this paper, a summary on a number of successful accomplishments that have been made recently in overcoming this problem is presented. Subsequently, we shall propose an economical framework that is suitable for real time generation and transmission of holographic video signals over existing distribution media. The proposed framework includes an aspect of extending the depth range of the object scene, which is important for the display of large-scale objects. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Method of generating hydrogen gas from sodium borohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Stanley H.; Hecht, Andrew M.; Sylwester, Alan P.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2007-12-11

    A compact solid source of hydrogen gas, where the gas is generated by contacting water with micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in the presence of a catalyst, such as cobalt or ruthenium. The micro-disperse particles can have a substantially uniform diameter of 1-10 microns, and preferably about 3-5 microns. Ruthenium or cobalt catalytic nanoparticles can be incorporated in the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride, which allows a rapid and complete reaction to occur without the problems associated with caking and scaling of the surface by the reactant product sodium metaborate. A closed loop water management system can be used to recycle wastewater from a PEM fuel cell to supply water for reacting with the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in a compact hydrogen gas generator. Capillary forces can wick water from a water reservoir into a packed bed of micro-disperse fuel particles, eliminating the need for using an active pump.

  15. A robust morphological classification of high-redshift galaxies using support vector machines on seeing limited images. I. Method description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas-Company, M.; Rouan, D.; Tasca, L.; Soucail, G.; Le Fèvre, O.

    2008-02-01

    Context: Morphology is the most accessible tracer of the physical structure of galaxies, but its interpretation in the framework of galaxy evolution still remains a problem. Its dependence on wavelength renders the comparison between local and high redshift populations difficult. Furthermore, the quality of the measured morphology being strongly dependent on the image resolution, the comparison between different surveys is also a problem. Aims: We present a new non-parametric method to quantify morphologies of galaxies based on a particular family of learning machines called support vector machines. The method, which can be seen as a generalization of the classical C/A classification but with an unlimited number of dimensions and non-linear boundaries between decision regions, is fully automated and thus particularly well adapted to large cosmological surveys. The source code is available for download at http://www.lesia.obspm.fr/~huertas/galsvm.html Methods: To test the method, we use a seeing limited near-infrared (Ks band, 2,16 μm) sample observed with WIRCam at CFHT at a median redshift of z ~ 0.8. The machine is trained with a simulated sample built from a local visually classified sample from the SDSS, chosen in the high-redshift sample's rest-frame (i band, 0.77 μm) and artificially redshifted to match the observing conditions. We use a 12-dimensional volume, including 5 morphological parameters, and other characteristics of galaxies such as luminosity and redshift. A fraction of the simulated sample is used to test the machine and assess its accuracy. Results: We show that a qualitative separation in two main morphological types (late type and early type) can be obtained with an error lower than 20% up to the completeness limit of the sample (KAB ~ 22), which is more than 2 times better that what would be obtained with a classical C/A classification on the same sample and indeed comparable to space data. The method is optimized to solve a specific problem

  16. A combined vector potential-scalar potential method for FE computation of 3D magnetic fields in electrical devices with iron cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Demerdash, N. A.

    1991-01-01

    A method of combined use of magnetic vector potential based finite-element (FE) formulations and magnetic scalar potential (MSP) based formulations for computation of three-dimensional magnetostatic fields is introduced. In this method, the curl-component of the magnetic field intensity is computed by a reduced magnetic vector potential. This field intensity forms the basic of a forcing function for a global magnetic scalar potential solution over the entire volume of the region. This method allows one to include iron portions sandwiched in between conductors within partitioned current-carrying subregions. The method is most suited for large-scale global-type 3-D magnetostatic field computations in electrical devices, and in particular rotating electric machinery.

  17. Transient dominant host-range selection using Chinese hamster ovary cells to generate marker-free recombinant viral vectors from vaccinia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Cooper, Tamara; Eldi, Preethi; Garcia-Valtanen, Pablo; Diener, Kerrilyn R; Howley, Paul M; Hayball, John D

    2017-04-01

    Recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVACVs) are promising antigen-delivery systems for vaccine development that are also useful as research tools. Two common methods for selection during construction of rVACV clones are (i) co-insertion of drug resistance or reporter protein genes, which requires the use of additional selection drugs or detection methods, and (ii) dominant host-range selection. The latter uses VACV variants rendered replication-incompetent in host cell lines by the deletion of host-range genes. Replicative ability is restored by co-insertion of the host-range genes, providing for dominant selection of the recombinant viruses. Here, we describe a new method for the construction of rVACVs using the cowpox CP77 protein and unmodified VACV as the starting material. Our selection system will expand the range of tools available for positive selection of rVACV during vector construction, and it is substantially more high-fidelity than approaches based on selection for drug resistance.

  18. Establishment of Sequence-Tagged Sites on 15q11-q13 by Alu-Vector PCR Cloning of Yac-Generated Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. Kim

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Angelman syndrome (AS is caused by the loss of function of undefined gene(s on human chromosome 15. The majority of subjects have deletions involving maternally-derived chromosome 15q II-q 13, and the shortest region of deletion overlap (SRO has been localized to the region between D15S10 and D15S113. In this study, yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs, 6G-D4, 9H-D2 and 37D-F9, mapping within the AS SRO, were isolated from the ICI Y AC library. Alu-vector PCR products were amplified from the YACs and from YACs A229A2 and A33FI 0 which had been obtained from the St. Louis Y AC library. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced, and three new sequence-tagged sites were generated within the AS SRO, facilitating the characterization of gene(s involved in the Angelman syndrome.

  19. Efficiency of Choice Set Generation Methods for Bicycle Routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Rieser-Schüssler, Nadine; W. Axhausen, Kay

    travelling information with GPS loggers, compared to self-reported RP data, is more accurate geographic locations and routes. Also, the GPS traces give more reliable information on times and prevent trip underreporting, and it is possible to collect information on many trips by the same person without......With a growing interest in sustainable transport systems, the interest has increased on encouraging more cycling. To encourage cycling, it is important to identify which network attributes influence cyclists route choice and evaluate the trade-offs among these attributes. To analyse travel...... reporting fatigue. GPS data require nevertheless extensive post-processing and in some cases mode imputation. They also require a very detailed digital network to map the routes accurately, which can lead to high computation times during choice set generation, as well as issues with behavioural realism...

  20. Immunogenicity of next-generation HPV vaccines in non-human primates: Measles-vectored HPV vaccine versus Pichia pastoris recombinant protein vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gaurav; Giannino, Viviana; Rishi, Narayan; Glueck, Reinhard

    2016-09-07

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide. HPVs are oncogenic small double-stranded DNA viruses that are the primary causal agent of cervical cancer and other types of cancers, including in the anus, oropharynx, vagina, vulva, and penis. Prophylactic vaccination against HPV is an attractive strategy for preventing cervical cancer and some other types of cancers. However, there are few safe and effective vaccines against HPV infections. Current first-generation commercial HPV vaccines are expensive to produce and deliver. The goal of this study was to develop an alternate potent HPV recombinant L1-based vaccines by producing HPV virus-like particles into a vaccine that is currently used worldwide. Live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines have a well-established safety and efficacy record, and recombinant MV (rMV) produced by reverse genetics may be useful for generating candidate HPV vaccines to meet the needs of the developing world. We studied in non-human primate rMV-vectored HPV vaccine in parallel with a classical alum adjuvant recombinant HPV16L1 and 18L1 protein vaccine produced in Pichia pastoris. A combined prime-boost approach using both vaccines was evaluated, as well as immune interference due to pre-existing immunity against the MV. The humoral immune response induced by the MV, Pichia-expressed vaccine, and their combination as priming and boosting approaches was found to elicit HPV16L1 and 18L1 specific total IgG and neutralizing antibody titres. Pre-existing antibodies against measles did not prevent the immune response against HPV16L1 and 18L1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Generating objects: a method bases on documents and scenarios ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper proposes an original method based on Froms and Scenarios analysis in the information systems( IS) Engineering domain with advantage of producing a conceptual object- oriented schema of the future IS. The advantages of our suggested approach consists in using simple elements (forms, information flowchart ...

  2. Next Generation Sequencing Methods for Diagnosis of Epilepsy Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Dunn

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by an increased predisposition for seizures. Although this definition suggests that it is a single disorder, epilepsy encompasses a group of disorders with diverse aetiologies and outcomes. A genetic basis for epilepsy syndromes has been postulated for several decades, with several mutations in specific genes identified that have increased our understanding of the genetic influence on epilepsies. With 70-80% of epilepsy cases identified to have a genetic cause, there are now hundreds of genes identified to be associated with epilepsy syndromes which can be analyzed using next generation sequencing (NGS techniques such as targeted gene panels, whole exome sequencing (WES and whole genome sequencing (WGS. For effective use of these methodologies, diagnostic laboratories and clinicians require information on the relevant workflows including analysis and sequencing depth to understand the specific clinical application and diagnostic capabilities of these gene sequencing techniques. As epilepsy is a complex disorder, the differences associated with each technique influence the ability to form a diagnosis along with an accurate detection of the genetic etiology of the disorder. In addition, for diagnostic testing, an important parameter is the cost-effectiveness and the specific diagnostic outcome of each technique. Here, we review these commonly used NGS techniques to determine their suitability for application to epilepsy genetic diagnostic testing.

  3. Practical methods for generating alternating magnetic fields for biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Michael G.; Howe, Christina M.; Bono, David C.; Perreault, David J.; Anikeeva, Polina

    2017-08-01

    Alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) cause magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to dissipate heat while leaving surrounding tissue unharmed, a mechanism that serves as the basis for a variety of emerging biomedical technologies. Unfortunately, the challenges and costs of developing experimental setups commonly used to produce AMFs with suitable field amplitudes and frequencies present a barrier to researchers. This paper first presents a simple, cost-effective, and robust alternative for small AMF working volumes that uses soft ferromagnetic cores to focus the flux into a gap. As the experimental length scale increases to accommodate animal models (working volumes of 100s of cm3 or greater), poor thermal conductivity and volumetrically scaled core losses render that strategy ineffective. Comparatively feasible strategies for these larger volumes instead use low loss resonant tank circuits to generate circulating currents of 1 kA or greater in order to produce the comparable field amplitudes. These principles can be extended to the problem of identifying practical routes for scaling AMF setups to humans, an infrequently acknowledged challenge that influences the extent to which many applications of MNPs may ever become clinically relevant.

  4. Phase conjugation of vector fields by degenerate four-wave mixing in a Fe-doped LiNbO₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Sheng-Xia; Li, Yongnan; Kong, Ling-Jun; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2014-08-15

    We propose a method to generate the phase-conjugate wave of the vector field by degenerate four-wave mixing in a c-cut Fe-doped LiNbO3 crystal. We demonstrate experimentally that the phase-conjugate wave of the vector field can be generated. In particular, the phase-conjugate vector field has also the peculiar function of compensating the polarization distortion, as the traditional phase-conjugate scaler field can compensate the phase distortion.

  5. A third-generation dispersion and third-generation hydrogen bonding corrected PM6 method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Jimmy Charnley; Christensen, Anders Steen; Svendsen, Casper Steinmann

    2014-01-01

    We present new dispersion and hydrogen bond corrections to the PM6 method, PM6-D3H+, and its implementation in the GAMESS program. The method combines the DFT-D3 dispersion correction by Grimme et al. with a modified version of the H+ hydrogen bond correction by Korth. Overall, the interaction en...... vibrational free energies. While the GAMESS implementation is up to 10 times slower for geometry optimizations of proteins in bulk solvent, compared to MOPAC, it is sufficiently fast to make geometry optimizations of small proteins practically feasible....

  6. INTERGENERATIONAL MOBILITY IN THE POST-1965 IMMIGRATION ERA: ESTIMATES BY AN IMMIGRANT GENERATION COHORT METHOD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    JULIE PARK; DOWELL MYERS

    2010-01-01

    .... The immigrant generation cohort method we introduce accounts for four distinct temporal dimensions of immigrant progress, clarifying inconsistencies in the literature and highlighting differences...

  7. An easy method for preparation of Cre-loxP regulated fluorescent adenoviral expression vectors and its application for direct reprogramming into hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitose Kurihara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The recombinant adenoviral gene expression system is a powerful tool for gene delivery. However, it is difficult to obtain high titers of infectious virus, principally due to the toxicity of the expressed gene which affects on virus replication in the host HEK293 cells. To avoid these problems, we generated a Cre-loxP-regulated fluorescent universal vector (termed pAxCALRL. This vector produces recombinant adenoviruses that express the red fluorescent protein (RFP instead of the inserted gene during proliferation, which limits toxicity and can be used to monitor viral replication. Expression of the gene of interest is induced by co-infection with an adenovirus that expresses Cre-recombinase (AxCANCre. Recombinant adenovirus produced by this system that express Hnf4α and Foxa2 were used to reprogram mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF into induced-hepatocyte-like cells (iHep following several rounds of infection, demonstrating the efficacy of this new system.

  8. A method for producing transgenic cells using a multi-integrase system on a human artificial chromosome vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeyuki Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available The production of cells capable of expressing gene(s of interest is important for a variety of applications in biomedicine and biotechnology, including gene therapy and animal transgenesis. The ability to insert transgenes at a precise location in the genome, using site-specific recombinases such as Cre, FLP, and ΦC31, has major benefits for the efficiency of transgenesis. Recent work on integrases from ΦC31, R4, TP901-1 and Bxb1 phages demonstrated that these recombinases catalyze site-specific recombination in mammalian cells. In the present study, we examined the activities of integrases on site-specific recombination and gene expression in mammalian cells. We designed a human artificial chromosome (HAC vector containing five recombination sites (ΦC31 attP, R4 attP, TP901-1 attP, Bxb1 attP and FRT; multi-integrase HAC vector and de novo mammalian codon-optimized integrases. The multi-integrase HAC vector has several functions, including gene integration in a precise locus and avoiding genomic position effects; therefore, it was used as a platform to investigate integrase activities. Integrases carried out site-specific recombination at frequencies ranging from 39.3-96.8%. Additionally, we observed homogenous gene expression in 77.3-87.5% of colonies obtained using the multi-integrase HAC vector. This vector is also transferable to another cell line, and is capable of accepting genes of interest in this environment. These data suggest that integrases have high DNA recombination efficiencies in mammalian cells. The multi-integrase HAC vector enables us to produce transgene-expressing cells efficiently and create platform cell lines for gene expression.

  9. A method for generation phage cocktail with great therapeutic potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmin Gu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacteriophage could be an alternative to conventional antibiotic therapy against multidrug-resistant bacteria. However, the emergence of resistant variants after phage treatment limited its therapeutic application. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, an approach, named "Step-by-Step" (SBS, has been established. This method takes advantage of the occurrence of phage-resistant bacteria variants and ensures that phages lytic for wild-type strain and its phage-resistant variants are selected. A phage cocktail lytic for Klebsiella pneumoniae was established by the SBS method. This phage cocktail consisted of three phages (GH-K1, GH-K2 and GH-K3 which have different but overlapping host strains. Several phage-resistant variants of Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated after different phages treatments. The virulence of these variants was much weaker [minimal lethal doses (MLD>1.3×10(9 cfu/mouse] than that of wild-type K7 countpart (MLD = 2.5×10(3 cfu/mouse. Compared with any single phage, the phage cocktail significantly reduced the mutation frequency of Klebsiella pneumoniae and effectively rescued Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia in a murine K7 strain challenge model. The minimal protective dose (MPD of the phage cocktail which was sufficient to protect bacteremic mice from lethal K7 infection was only 3.0×10(4 pfu, significantly smaller (p<0.01 than that of single monophage. Moreover, a delayed administration of this phage cocktail was still effective in protection against K7 challenge. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data showed that the phage cocktail was more effective in reducing bacterial mutation frequency and in the rescue of murine bacteremia than monophage suggesting that phage cocktail established by SBS method has great therapeutic potential for multidrug-resistant bacteria infection.

  10. The frequency-independent control method for distributed generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderi, Siamak; Pouresmaeil, Edris; Gao, Wenzhong David

    2012-01-01

    are controlled in the synchronously rotating orthogonal . dq reference frame. The transformed variables are used in control of the voltage source inverter that connects DG to distribution network. Due to importance of distributed resources in modern power systems, development of new, practical, cost......-effective and simple control strategies is obligatory. The new control method of this paper does not need a Phase Locked Loop (PLL) in control circuit and has fast dynamic response in providing active and reactive power to nonlinear load. From extensive simulation results, high performance of this control strategy...

  11. Cloning vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, R.A.; Smith, L.M.

    1994-12-27

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site. 2 figures.

  12. Cloning vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site.

  13. Data Mining Methods to Generate Severe Wind Gust Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subana Shanmuganathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaining knowledge on weather patterns, trends and the influence of their extremes on various crop production yields and quality continues to be a quest by scientists, agriculturists, and managers. Precise and timely information aids decision-making, which is widely accepted as intrinsically necessary for increased production and improved quality. Studies in this research domain, especially those related to data mining and interpretation are being carried out by the authors and their colleagues. Some of this work that relates to data definition, description, analysis, and modelling is described in this paper. This includes studies that have evaluated extreme dry/wet weather events against reported yield at different scales in general. They indicate the effects of weather extremes such as prolonged high temperatures, heavy rainfall, and severe wind gusts. Occurrences of these events are among the main weather extremes that impact on many crops worldwide. Wind gusts are difficult to anticipate due to their rapid manifestation and yet can have catastrophic effects on crops and buildings. This paper examines the use of data mining methods to reveal patterns in the weather conditions, such as time of the day, month of the year, wind direction, speed, and severity using a data set from a single location. Case study data is used to provide examples of how the methods used can elicit meaningful information and depict it in a fashion usable for management decision making. Historical weather data acquired between 2008 and 2012 has been used for this study from telemetry devices installed in a vineyard in the north of New Zealand. The results show that using data mining techniques and the local weather conditions, such as relative pressure, temperature, wind direction and speed recorded at irregular intervals, can produce new knowledge relating to wind gust patterns for vineyard management decision making.

  14. A Model-Based Method for Content Validation of Automatically Generated Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Gierl, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe a methodology to recover the item model used to generate multiple-choice test items with a novel graph theory approach. Beginning with the generated test items and working backward to recover the original item model provides a model-based method for validating the content used to automatically generate test…

  15. Discrimination of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus using near-infrared spectroscopy based on Support Vector Machine method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning MA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the feasibility of distinguishing between methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA using near-infrared spectroscopy and the Support Vector Machine analysis method. Methods The concentration standard curve of the MRSA and MSSA was prepared. The bacteria were amplified and prepared into the same concentration according to the concentration formula. Near-infrared spectroscopy data of the MRSA and MSSA were collected and pretreated with first derivative, smoothing, normalization and baseline correction. After the pretreatment, the correlation analysis of the two kinds of bacteria was executed. The spectral data of bacteria with the wavelength from 900 to 2200 nm were analyzed by principal components. According to the results of cumulative contribution rate, the first three principal components were extracted and used as the input vector to establish Support Vector Machine models in three classifiers (linear, polynomial and RBF and then a comparison of the three models was performed. Results The correlation coefficient of the pretreatment spectral curve of MRSA and MSSA was as high as 1.000. The training and test accuracies of the models were all over 95% after using the principal component analysis and Support Vector Machine models in three classifiers (linear, polynomial and RBF. The RBF classifier had the highest accuracy, and the result was 99.72%±0.21% for training accuracy and 99.47%±0.00% for the test accuracy. Conclusion Near-infrared spectroscopy and the Support Vector Machine analysis method has a high ability to discriminate between MSSA and MRSA. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.12.07

  16. An Efficient Large-Scale Retroviral Transduction Method Involving Preloading the Vector into a RetroNectin-Coated Bag with Low-Temperature Shaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodo, Katsuyuki; Chono, Hideto; Saito, Naoki; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Tahara, Kenichi; Nukaya, Ikuei; Mineno, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    In retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer, transduction efficiency can be hampered by inhibitory molecules derived from the culture fluid of virus producer cell lines. To remove these inhibitory molecules to enable better gene transduction, we had previously developed a transduction method using a fibronectin fragment-coated vessel (i.e., the RetroNectin-bound virus transduction method). In the present study, we developed a method that combined RetroNectin-bound virus transduction with low-temperature shaking and applied this method in manufacturing autologous retroviral-engineered T cells for adoptive transfer gene therapy in a large-scale closed system. Retroviral vector was preloaded into a RetroNectin-coated bag and incubated at 4°C for 16 h on a reciprocating shaker at 50 rounds per minute. After the supernatant was removed, activated T cells were added to the bag. The bag transduction method has the advantage of increasing transduction efficiency, as simply flipping over the bag during gene transduction facilitates more efficient utilization of the retroviral vector adsorbed on the top and bottom surfaces of the bag. Finally, we performed validation runs of endoribonuclease MazF-modified CD4+ T cell manufacturing for HIV-1 gene therapy and T cell receptor-modified T cell manufacturing for MAGE-A4 antigen-expressing cancer gene therapy and achieved over 200-fold (≥1010) and 100-fold (≥5×109) expansion, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the large-scale closed transduction system is highly efficient for retroviral vector-based T cell manufacturing for adoptive transfer gene therapy, and this technology is expected to be amenable to automation and improve current clinical gene therapy protocols. PMID:24454964

  17. State Generation Method for Humanoid Motion Planning Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyang Wang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to generate the original motion data for humanoid motion planning is presented in this paper. And a state generator is developed based on the genetic algorithm, which enables users to generate various motion states without using any reference motion data. By specifying various types of constraints such as configuration constraints and contact constraints, the state generator can generate stable states that satisfy the constraint conditions for humanoid robots. To deal with the multiple constraints and inverse kinematics, the state generation is finally simplified as a problem of optimizing and searching. In our method, we introduce a convenient mathematic representation for the constraints involved in the state generator, and solve the optimization problem with the genetic algorithm to acquire a desired state. To demonstrate the effectiveness and advantage of the method, a number of motion states are generated according to the requirements of the motion.

  18. State Generation Method for Humanoid Motion Planning Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyang Wang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to generate the original motion data for humanoid motion planning is presented in this paper. And a state generator is developed based on the genetic algorithm, which enables users to generate various motion states without using any reference motion data. By specifying various types of constraints such as configuration constraints and contact constraints, the state generator can generate stable states that satisfy the constraint conditions for humanoid robots.To deal with the multiple constraints and inverse kinematics, the state generation is finally simplified as a problem of optimizing and searching. In our method, we introduce a convenient mathematic representation for the constraints involved in the state generator, and solve the optimization problem with the genetic algorithm to acquire a desired state. To demonstrate the effectiveness and advantage of the method, a number of motion states are generated according to the requirements of the motion.

  19. On Discrete Killing Vector Fields and Patterns on Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Ben-Chen, Mirela

    2010-09-21

    Symmetry is one of the most important properties of a shape, unifying form and function. It encodes semantic information on one hand, and affects the shape\\'s aesthetic value on the other. Symmetry comes in many flavors, amongst the most interesting being intrinsic symmetry, which is defined only in terms of the intrinsic geometry of the shape. Continuous intrinsic symmetries can be represented using infinitesimal rigid transformations, which are given as tangent vector fields on the surface - known as Killing Vector Fields. As exact symmetries are quite rare, especially when considering noisy sampled surfaces, we propose a method for relaxing the exact symmetry constraint to allow for approximate symmetries and approximate Killing Vector Fields, and show how to discretize these concepts for generating such vector fields on a triangulated mesh. We discuss the properties of approximate Killing Vector Fields, and propose an application to utilize them for texture and geometry synthesis. Journal compilation © 2010 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Engineered XcmI cassette-containing vector for PCR-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    vectors, such as pGEM-T (Promega) and pT7Blue (Novagen), are expensive and cannot be re- generated in the laboratory for further use. We describe here the development of a simple and general method for constructing T-vectors bearing an ...

  1. Online Optimization Method for Operation of Generators in a Micro Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Miyamoto, Hideki; Matsuki, Junya; Iizuka, Toshio; Azuma, Hitoshi

    Recently a lot of studies and developments about distributed generator such as photovoltaic generation system, wind turbine generation system and fuel cell have been performed under the background of the global environment issues and deregulation of the electricity market, and the technique of these distributed generators have progressed. Especially, micro grid which consists of several distributed generators, loads and storage battery is expected as one of the new operation system of distributed generator. However, since precipitous load fluctuation occurs in micro grid for the reason of its smaller capacity compared with conventional power system, high-accuracy load forecasting and control scheme to balance of supply and demand are needed. Namely, it is necessary to improve the precision of operation in micro grid by observing load fluctuation and correcting start-stop schedule and output of generators online. But it is not easy to determine the operation schedule of each generator in short time, because the problem to determine start-up, shut-down and output of each generator in micro grid is a mixed integer programming problem. In this paper, the authors propose an online optimization method for the optimal operation schedule of generators in micro grid. The proposed method is based on enumeration method and particle swarm optimization (PSO). In the proposed method, after picking up all unit commitment patterns of each generators satisfied with minimum up time and minimum down time constraint by using enumeration method, optimal schedule and output of generators are determined under the other operational constraints by using PSO. Numerical simulation is carried out for a micro grid model with five generators and photovoltaic generation system in order to examine the validity of the proposed method.

  2. Generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin vector waves by a polarization-insensitive optical parametric amplifier for fiber-nonlinearity-tolerant transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiang(Research Center for Hadron and CSR Physics, Lanzhou University, Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China); Hu, Hao; Chandrasekhar, S.; Jopson, R. M.; Gnauck, A. H.; Dinu, M.; Xie, C; Winzer, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated vector twin waves (PCTWs), consisting of eight 128-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed QPSK signals and their idlers, by a broadband polarization-insensitive fiber optic parametric amplifier. This novel all-optical signal processing approach to generate WDM-PCTWs enables a 2-fold reduction in the needed optical transmitters as compared to the conventional approach where each idler is generated by a dedi...

  3. In-vivo examples of synthetic aperture vector flow imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Niels; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2007-01-01

    are processed, and movies of full vector flow images are generated. This paper presents still frames from different time instances of these movies. The movie from the femoral data tracks the accelerating velocity in the femoral artery during systole and a backwards flow at the end of the systole. A complex flow...... would be needed. Synthetic aperture vector flow imaging could potentially provide this. The purpose of this paper is to test the synthetic aperture vector flow imaging method on challenging in-vivo data. Two synthetic aperture in-vivo data sets are acquired using a commercial linear array transducer...

  4. Promoter interference mediated by the U3 region in early-generation HIV-1-derived lentivirus vectors can influence detection of transgene expression in a cell-type and species-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, Samantha L; Fleming, Jane; Rowe, Peter B; Alexander, Ian E

    2003-08-10

    In a previous study using an early-generation VSV-G-pseudotyped lentivirus vector encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the transcriptional control of a human cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early promoter, we examined transduction efficiency in dissociated dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cultures. In cultures of murine origin, transgene expression was observed solely in the sensory neurons with the stromal cell population failing to show evidence of transduction. In contrast, efficient and sustained transduction of both sensory neurons and the stromal cell population was observed in cultures of human origin. Given the widespread use of murine models in preclinical gene therapy studies, in the current study we investigated the basis of this apparent neuron specificity of lentivirus-mediated transduction in murine DRG cultures. The interspecies differences persisted at high multiplicities of infection, and irrespective of whether lentiviral vector stocks were packaged in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory proteins. Cell-type specificity of CMV promoter expression, tropism of the VSV-G envelope, and blocks to molecular transduction were also precluded as possible mechanisms, thereby implicating transcriptional repression of the internal heterologous promoter. This promoter interference effect was found to be mediated by cis-acting sequences upstream of the core promoter elements located in the U3 region of the proviral long terminal repeats (LTRs). Deletion of this region, as in late-generation self-inactivating (SIN) lentivirus vectors, relieves this effect. This provides a basis for reevaluating data produced using early-generation U3-bearing lentivirus vectors and for reconciling these with results obtained using more contemporary SIN lentivirus vectors carrying a U3 deletion.

  5. Image coding through predictive vector quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Ajai; Ramabadran, Tenkasi V.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a predictive vector quantizer (PVQ) for coding grayscale images. The method described can be regarded as an extension of an existing speech coding algorithm in 1- dimension to 2-dimensional images. The method applies vector quantization (VQ) to innovations generated by the well known scalar differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) method. It tries to exploit the advantages of both the simplicity of DPCM and the high compressibility of VQ. Two types of code books, viz., random and deterministic, are used in the implementation. Performance results of the method with both types of codebooks are presented for industrial radiographic images. The results are also compared with reconstructions obtained using the discrete cosine transform (DCT) method.

  6. Estimation of Motion Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the estimation of 2-D motion vector fields from time varying image sequences. We use a piecewise smooth model based on coupled vector/binary Markov random fields. We find the maximum a posteriori solution by simulated annealing. The algorithm generate sample...

  7. Analysis of the Two-Fraction Method for Generating Primitive Pythagoras Triples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babajee, Diyashvir Kreetee Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Finding methods for generating Pythagorean triples have been of great interest to Mathematicians since the Babylonians (from 1900 to 1600 BC). One of these methods is the less known two-fraction method which works for any two fractions whose product is 2. In this work, we analyse the method and show that it can be obtained from the fact that the…

  8. Combining Climatic Projections and Dispersal Ability: A Method for Estimating the Responses of Sandfly Vector Species to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dominik; Moeller, Philipp; Thomas, Stephanie M.; Naucke, Torsten J.; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Background In the Old World, sandfly species of the genus Phlebotomus are known vectors of Leishmania, Bartonella and several viruses. Recent sandfly catches and autochthonous cases of leishmaniasis hint on spreading tendencies of the vectors towards Central Europe. However, studies addressing potential future distribution of sandflies in the light of a changing European climate are missing. Methodology Here, we modelled bioclimatic envelopes using MaxEnt for five species with proven or assumed vector competence for Leishmania infantum, which are either predominantly located in (south-) western (Phlebotomus ariasi, P. mascittii and P. perniciosus) or south-eastern Europe (P. neglectus and P. perfiliewi). The determined bioclimatic envelopes were transferred to two climate change scenarios (A1B and B1) for Central Europe (Austria, Germany and Switzerland) using data of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM. We detected the most likely way of natural dispersal (“least-cost path”) for each species and hence determined the accessibility of potential future climatically suitable habitats by integrating landscape features, projected changes in climatic suitability and wind speed. Results and Relevance Results indicate that the Central European climate will become increasingly suitable especially for those vector species with a current south-western focus of distribution. In general, the highest suitability of Central Europe is projected for all species in the second half of the 21st century, except for P. perfiliewi. Nevertheless, we show that sandflies will hardly be able to occupy their climatically suitable habitats entirely, due to their limited natural dispersal ability. A northward spread of species with south-eastern focus of distribution may be constrained but not completely avoided by the Alps. Our results can be used to install specific monitoring systems to the projected risk zones of potential sandfly establishment. This is urgently needed for adaptation

  9. An Efficient Functional Test Generation Method For Processors Using Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, Ján; Gramatová, Elena

    2015-07-01

    The paper presents a new functional test generation method for processors testing based on genetic algorithms and evolutionary strategies. The tests are generated over an instruction set architecture and a processor description. Such functional tests belong to the software-oriented testing. Quality of the tests is evaluated by code coverage of the processor description using simulation. The presented test generation method uses VHDL models of processors and the professional simulator ModelSim. The rules, parameters and fitness functions were defined for various genetic algorithms used in automatic test generation. Functionality and effectiveness were evaluated using the RISC type processor DP32.

  10. Polar vectors as a method for evaluating the effectiveness of irritable bowel syndrome treatments: An analysis with pinaverium bromide 100 mg plus simethicone 300 mg po bid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. López-Alvarenga

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Analysis with polar vectors enables treatment response to be measured in different IBS subtypes. All the groups showed improvement with PB + S, but each one had its own characteristic response in relation to vector magnitude and direction. The proposed method can be implemented in clinical studies to evaluate the efficacy of IBS treatments.

  11. Comparing vector-based and Bayesian memory models using large-scale datasets: User-generated hashtag and tag prediction on Twitter and Stack Overflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Clayton; Byrne, Michael D

    2016-12-01

    The growth of social media and user-created content on online sites provides unique opportunities to study models of human declarative memory. By framing the task of choosing a hashtag for a tweet and tagging a post on Stack Overflow as a declarative memory retrieval problem, 2 cognitively plausible declarative memory models were applied to millions of posts and tweets and evaluated on how accurately they predict a user's chosen tags. An ACT-R based Bayesian model and a random permutation vector-based model were tested on the large data sets. The results show that past user behavior of tag use is a strong predictor of future behavior. Furthermore, past behavior was successfully incorporated into the random permutation model that previously used only context. Also, ACT-R's attentional weight term was linked to an entropy-weighting natural language processing method used to attenuate high-frequency words (e.g., articles and prepositions). Word order was not found to be a strong predictor of tag use, and the random permutation model performed comparably to the Bayesian model without including word order. This shows that the strength of the random permutation model is not in the ability to represent word order, but rather in the way in which context information is successfully compressed. The results of the large-scale exploration show how the architecture of the 2 memory models can be modified to significantly improve accuracy, and may suggest task-independent general modifications that can help improve model fit to human data in a much wider range of domains. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. New model for prediction binary mixture of antihistamine decongestant using artificial neural networks and least squares support vector machine by spectrophotometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofavvaz, Shirin; Sohrabi, Mahmoud Reza; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza

    2017-07-05

    In the present study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) as intelligent methods based on absorption spectra in the range of 230-300nm have been used for determination of antihistamine decongestant contents. In the first step, one type of network (feed-forward back-propagation) from the artificial neural network with two different training algorithms, Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) and gradient descent with momentum and adaptive learning rate back-propagation (GDX) algorithm, were employed and their performance was evaluated. The performance of the LM algorithm was better than the GDX algorithm. In the second one, the radial basis network was utilized and results compared with the previous network. In the last one, the other intelligent method named least squares support vector machine was proposed to construct the antihistamine decongestant prediction model and the results were compared with two of the aforementioned networks. The values of the statistical parameters mean square error (MSE), Regression coefficient (R2), correlation coefficient (r) and also mean recovery (%), relative standard deviation (RSD) used for selecting the best model between these methods. Moreover, the proposed methods were compared to the high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as a reference method. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test at the 95% confidence level applied to the comparison results of suggested and reference methods that there were no significant differences between them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. New model for prediction binary mixture of antihistamine decongestant using artificial neural networks and least squares support vector machine by spectrophotometry method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofavvaz, Shirin; Sohrabi, Mahmoud Reza; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) as intelligent methods based on absorption spectra in the range of 230-300 nm have been used for determination of antihistamine decongestant contents. In the first step, one type of network (feed-forward back-propagation) from the artificial neural network with two different training algorithms, Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) and gradient descent with momentum and adaptive learning rate back-propagation (GDX) algorithm, were employed and their performance was evaluated. The performance of the LM algorithm was better than the GDX algorithm. In the second one, the radial basis network was utilized and results compared with the previous network. In the last one, the other intelligent method named least squares support vector machine was proposed to construct the antihistamine decongestant prediction model and the results were compared with two of the aforementioned networks. The values of the statistical parameters mean square error (MSE), Regression coefficient (R2), correlation coefficient (r) and also mean recovery (%), relative standard deviation (RSD) used for selecting the best model between these methods. Moreover, the proposed methods were compared to the high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as a reference method. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test at the 95% confidence level applied to the comparison results of suggested and reference methods that there were no significant differences between them.

  14. A rapid and efficient polyethylenimine-based transfection method to prepare lentiviral or retroviral vectors: useful for making iPS cells and transduction of primary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaozhe; Shi, Haijun; Chu, Xinran; Zhou, Xiaoling; Sun, Pingnan

    2016-09-01

    To improve the efficiency, reproducibility and consistency of the PEI-based transfection method that is often used in preparation of recombinant lentiviral or retroviral vectors. The contributions to transfection efficiency of multi-factors including concentration of PEI or DNA, dilution buffer for PEI/DNA, manner to prepare PEI/DNA complexes, influence of serum, incubation time for PEI/DNA complexes, and transfection time were studied. Gentle mixing during the preparation of PEI/DNA transfection complexes is critical for a high transfection efficiency. PEI could be stored at room temperature or 4 °C, and most importantly, multigelation should be avoided. The transfection efficiency of the PEI-based new method in different types of cells, such as 293T, Cos-7, HeLa, HepG2, Hep3B, Huh7 and L02, was also higher than that of the previous method. After optimization, the titer of our lentiviral system or retroviral system produced by PEI-based new method was about 10- or 3-times greater than that produced by PEI-based previous method, respectively. We provide a rapid and efficient PEI-based method for preparation of recombinant lentiviral or retroviral vectors which is useful for making iPS cells as well as transduction of primary cell cultures.

  15. A computationally simple method for cost-efficient generation rescheduling and load shedding for congestion management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, B.K.; Sinha, A.K.; Mukhopadhyay, S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kharagpur (India); Bose, A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes a method of congestion management by generation rescheduling and load shedding. The sensitivities of the overloaded lines to bus injections and the costs of generation and load shedding are considered for ranking the generation and load buses. The new generation and load shedding schedule for these buses are then computed based on a simple method considering cost and sensitivity to line currents. The algorithm will help the system operator to generate the contingency plan quickly for secure operation of the system. Test results for three systems are presented. The results show that cost effective generation rescheduling and load shedding plans can be obtained to alleviate overloading of the transmission lines in a computationally efficient manner. (Author)

  16. Generation of an HIV-1-resistant immune system with CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells transduced with a triple-combination anti-HIV lentiviral vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jon E; Chen, Rachel X; McGee, Jeannine; Nacey, Catherine; Pollard, Richard B; Abedi, Mehrdad; Bauer, Gerhard; Nolta, Jan A; Anderson, Joseph S

    2012-05-01

    HIV gene therapy has the potential to offer an alternative to the use of current small-molecule antiretroviral drugs as a treatment strategy for HIV-infected individuals. Therapies designed to administer HIV-resistant stem cells to an infected patient may also provide a functional cure, as observed in a bone marrow transplant performed with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) homozygous for the CCR5-Δ32-bp allele. In our current studies, preclinical evaluation of a combination anti-HIV lentiviral vector was performed, in vivo, in humanized NOD-RAG1(-/-) IL2rγ(-/-) knockout mice. This combination vector, which displays strong preintegration inhibition of HIV-1 infection in vitro, contains a human/rhesus macaque TRIM5α isoform, a CCR5 short hairpin RNA (shRNA), and a TAR decoy. Multilineage hematopoiesis from anti-HIV lentiviral vector-transduced human CD34(+) HSCs was observed in the peripheral blood and in various lymphoid organs, including the thymus, spleen, and bone marrow, of engrafted mice. Anti-HIV vector-transduced CD34(+) cells displayed normal development of immune cells, including T cells, B cells, and macrophages. The anti-HIV vector-transduced cells also displayed knockdown of cell surface CCR5 due to the expression of the CCR5 shRNA. After in vivo challenge with either an R5-tropic BaL-1 or X4-tropic NL4-3 strain of HIV-1, maintenance of human CD4(+) cell levels and a selective survival advantage of anti-HIV gene-modified cells were observed in engrafted mice. The data provided from our study confirm the safety and efficacy of this combination anti-HIV lentiviral vector in a hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy setting for HIV and validates its potential application in future clinical trials.

  17. Generation of an HIV-1-Resistant Immune System with CD34+ Hematopoietic Stem Cells Transduced with a Triple-Combination Anti-HIV Lentiviral Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jon E.; Chen, Rachel X.; McGee, Jeannine; Nacey, Catherine; Pollard, Richard B.; Abedi, Mehrdad; Bauer, Gerhard; Nolta, Jan A.

    2012-01-01

    HIV gene therapy has the potential to offer an alternative to the use of current small-molecule antiretroviral drugs as a treatment strategy for HIV-infected individuals. Therapies designed to administer HIV-resistant stem cells to an infected patient may also provide a functional cure, as observed in a bone marrow transplant performed with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) homozygous for the CCR5-Δ32-bp allele. In our current studies, preclinical evaluation of a combination anti-HIV lentiviral vector was performed, in vivo, in humanized NOD-RAG1−/− IL2rγ−/− knockout mice. This combination vector, which displays strong preintegration inhibition of HIV-1 infection in vitro, contains a human/rhesus macaque TRIM5α isoform, a CCR5 short hairpin RNA (shRNA), and a TAR decoy. Multilineage hematopoiesis from anti-HIV lentiviral vector-transduced human CD34+ HSCs was observed in the peripheral blood and in various lymphoid organs, including the thymus, spleen, and bone marrow, of engrafted mice. Anti-HIV vector-transduced CD34+ cells displayed normal development of immune cells, including T cells, B cells, and macrophages. The anti-HIV vector-transduced cells also displayed knockdown of cell surface CCR5 due to the expression of the CCR5 shRNA. After in vivo challenge with either an R5-tropic BaL-1 or X4-tropic NL4-3 strain of HIV-1, maintenance of human CD4+ cell levels and a selective survival advantage of anti-HIV gene-modified cells were observed in engrafted mice. The data provided from our study confirm the safety and efficacy of this combination anti-HIV lentiviral vector in a hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy setting for HIV and validates its potential application in future clinical trials. PMID:22398281

  18. Fast calculation of spherical computer generated hologram using spherical wave spectrum method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackin, Boaz Jessie; Yatagai, Toyohiko

    2013-01-14

    A fast calculation method for computer generation of spherical holograms in proposed. This method is based on wave propagation defined in spectral domain and in spherical coordinates. The spherical wave spectrum and transfer function were derived from boundary value solutions to the scalar wave equation. It is a spectral propagation formula analogous to angular spectrum formula in cartesian coordinates. A numerical method to evaluate the derived formula is suggested, which uses only N(logN)2 operations for calculations on N sampling points. Simulation results are presented to verify the correctness of the proposed method. A spherical hologram for a spherical object was generated and reconstructed successfully using the proposed method.

  19. Acceleration of computer-generated holograms using tilted wavefront recording plane method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Daisuke; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Murano, Koki; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Hiyama, Daisuke; Kakue, Takashi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2015-01-26

    Computer Generated Holograms (CGH) are generated on computers; however, a great deal of computational power is required because the quality of the image is proportional to the number of point light sources of a 3D object. The Wavefront Recording Plane (WRP) method is an algorithm that enables reduction of the amount of calculations required. However, the WRP method also has a defect; it is not effective in the case of a 3D object with a deep structure. In this study, we propose two improved WRP methods: "Least Square Tilted WRP method" and "RANSAC Multi-Tilted WRP method."

  20. Comparative study of two linearization methods for time intervals generation of SVPWM technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled N. Faris

    2016-12-01

    In this paper a comparative study for two linearization methods are carried out for generating the time intervals of SVPWM technique. The proposed linearization methods achieve a minimum computational time rather than the trigonometric sine function which is considered the base for the time interval calculations of the SVPWM technique. The first linearization method is based on the first order equation, and the second method is the (Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy modeling system. The comparative study includes the accuracy of the two models, also a simulation model is carried out for current THD estimation using the two proposed methods compared with the current THD generated by SVPWM based on the trigonometric sine function.

  1. A New Method for Forensic DNA Analysis of the Blood Meal in Chagas Disease Vectors Demonstrated Using Triatoma infestans from Chuquisaca, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Juan Carlos; Stevens, Lori

    2008-01-01

    Background Feeding patterns of the vector are important in the epidemiology of Chagas disease, the leading cause of heart disease in Latin America. Chagas disease is caused by the parasite, Trypanasoma cruzi, which is transmitted by blood feeding insects. Historically, feeding behaviours of haematophagous insects have been investigated using serological reactions, which have detection limits in terms of both taxonomic resolution, and quantity and quality of the blood meal. They are labor intensive, require technical expertise, need fresh or frozen samples and antibodies often are either not available commercially or the resources for synthesis and purification are not available. We describe an assay to identify vertebrate blood meal sources, and the parasite T. cruzi using species-specific PCR assays from insect vectors and use the method to provide information regarding three questions: (1) Do domestic and peri-domestic (chicken coop and animal corral) habitats vary in the blood meals detected in the vectors? (2) What is the pattern of multiple blood meals? (3) Does the rate of T. cruzi infection vary among habitats and is it associated with specific blood meal types? Methodology/Principal Findings Assays based on the polymerase chain reaction were evaluated for identification of the blood meal source in the heamatophagous Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans. We evaluate a technique to identify 11 potential vertebrate food sources from the complex mixture extracted from the vector's abdomen. We tested the assay on 81 T. infestans specimens collected from the Andean highlands in the department of Chuquisaca, located in central Bolivia, one of the regions in South America where sylvatic T. infestans have been reported. This area is suggested to be the geographic origin of T. infestans and has very high human infection rates that may be related to sylvatic vector populations. Conclusion/Significance The results of the assays revealed that a high percentage of

  2. New methods for next generation sequencing based microRNA expression profiling

    OpenAIRE

    den Dunnen Johan T; van Ommen Gertjan; Ariyurek Yavuz; Buermans Henk PJ; 't Hoen Peter AC

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA transcripts that regulate post-transcriptional gene expression. The millions of short sequence reads generated by next generation sequencing technologies make this technique explicitly suitable for profiling of known and novel microRNAs. A modification to the small-RNA expression kit (SREK, Ambion) library preparation method for the SOLiD sequencing platform is described to generate microRNA sequencing libraries that are compatible with t...

  3. Design of 2D Time-Varying Vector Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guoning

    2012-10-01

    Design of time-varying vector fields, i.e., vector fields that can change over time, has a wide variety of important applications in computer graphics. Existing vector field design techniques do not address time-varying vector fields. In this paper, we present a framework for the design of time-varying vector fields, both for planar domains as well as manifold surfaces. Our system supports the creation and modification of various time-varying vector fields with desired spatial and temporal characteristics through several design metaphors, including streamlines, pathlines, singularity paths, and bifurcations. These design metaphors are integrated into an element-based design to generate the time-varying vector fields via a sequence of basis field summations or spatial constrained optimizations at the sampled times. The key-frame design and field deformation are also introduced to support other user design scenarios. Accordingly, a spatial-temporal constrained optimization and the time-varying transformation are employed to generate the desired fields for these two design scenarios, respectively. We apply the time-varying vector fields generated using our design system to a number of important computer graphics applications that require controllable dynamic effects, such as evolving surface appearance, dynamic scene design, steerable crowd movement, and painterly animation. Many of these are difficult or impossible to achieve via prior simulation-based methods. In these applications, the time-varying vector fields have been applied as either orientation fields or advection fields to control the instantaneous appearance or evolving trajectories of the dynamic effects. © 1995-2012 IEEE.

  4. A novel method for mapping village-scale outdoor resting microhabitats of the primary African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewald, Julius R; Fuller, Douglas O; Müller, Günter C; Beier, John C

    2016-09-22

    Knowledge of Anopheles resting habitats is needed to advance outdoor malaria vector control. This study presents a technique to map locations of resting habitats using high-resolution satellite imagery (world view 2) and probabilistic Dempster-Shafer (D-S) modelling, focused on a rural village in southern Mali, West Africa where field sampling was conducted to determine outdoor habitat preferences of Anopheles gambiae, the main vector in the study area. A combination of supervised and manual image classification was used to derive an accurate land-cover map from the satellite image that provided classes (i.e., photosynthetically active vegetation, water bodies, wetlands, and buildings) suitable for habitat assessment. Linear fuzzy functions were applied to the different image classes to scale resting habitat covariates into a common data range (0-1) with fuzzy breakpoints parameterized experimentally through comparison with mosquito outdoor resting data. Fuzzy layers were entered into a Dempster-Shafer (D-S) weight-of-evidence model that produced pixel-based probability of resting habitat locations. The D-S model provided a highly detailed suitability map of resting locations. The results indicated a significant difference (p  0.05) subsequent analysis suggested that the D-S modelling approach may provide a reasonable estimate locations of low-to-medium An. gambiae density. These results suggest that that D-S modelling performed well in identifying presence points and specifically resting habitats. The use of a D-S modelling framework for predicting the outdoor resting habitat locations provided novel information on this little-known aspect of anopheline ecology. The technique used here may be applied more broadly at different geographic scales using Google Earth, Landsat or other remotely-sensed imagery to assess the malaria vector resting habitats where outdoor control measures can reduce the burden of the disease in Africa and elsewhere.

  5. Transonic Airfoil Flow Simulation. Part I: Mesh Generation and Inviscid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir CARDOS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A calculation method for the subsonic and transonic viscous flow over airfoil using thedisplacement surface concept is described. Part I presents a mesh generation method forcomputational grid and a finite volume method for the time-dependent Euler equations. The inviscidsolution is used for the inviscid-viscous coupling procedure presented in the Part II.

  6. VECTOR INTEGRATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, E. G. F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the theory of integration of scalar functions with respect to a measure with values in a, not necessarily locally convex, topological vector space. It focuses on the extension of such integrals from bounded measurable functions to the class of integrable functions, proving

  7. Method for Generating Pseudorandom Sequences with the Assured Period Based on R-blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ivanov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the characteristics of a new class of fast-acting pseudorandom number generators, based on the use of stochastic adders or R-blocks. A new method for generating pseudorandom sequences with the assured length of period is offered.

  8. Mixed Methods Case Study of Generational Patterns in Responses to Shame and Guilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Moral socialization and moral learning are antecedents of moral motivation. As many as 4 generations interact in workplace and education settings; hence, a deeper understanding of the moral motivation of members of those generations is needed. The purpose of this convergent mixed methods case study was to understand the moral motivation of 5…

  9. Method and system for generating maps in an N-dimensional space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Meijers, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    A method for generating a vario-scale visual representation of n-dimensional objects (together forming a space partition) is presented comprising the steps of - generating a higher and a lower detailed n-dimensional object representation each comprising digital data representing objects by zones in

  10. Inculcation Method of Character Education Based on Personality Types Classification in Realizing Indonesia Golden Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarto, M. J. Dewiyani; Sagirani, Tri

    2014-01-01

    "The rise of Indonesia Golden Generation" is the theme of National Education Day in 2012. In an effort to create a golden generation; education must be interpreted as a complex problem, in particular the cultivation of character education that was originally using indoctrination method. Given the shifting of the changing times,…

  11. New methods for field collection of human skin volatiles and perspectives for their application in the chemical ecology of human-pathogen-vector interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormont, Laurent; Bessière, Jean-Marie; McKey, Doyle; Cohuet, Anna

    2013-08-01

    Odours emitted by human skin are of great interest to biologists in many fields, with practical applications in forensics, health diagnostic tools and the ecology of blood-sucking insect vectors of human disease. Convenient methods are required for sampling human skin volatiles under field conditions. We experimentally compared four modern methods for sampling skin odours: solvent extraction, headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME), and two new techniques not previously used for the study of mammal volatiles, contact SPME and dynamic headspace with a chromatoprobe design. These methods were tested and compared both on European subjects under laboratory conditions and on young African subjects under field conditions. All four methods permitted effective trapping of skin odours, including the major known human skin volatile compounds. In both laboratory and field experiments, contact SPME, in which the time of collection was restricted to 3 min, provided results very similar to those obtained with classical headspace SPME, a method that requires 45 min of collection. Chromatoprobe sampling also proved to be very sensitive, rapid and convenient for the collection of human-produced volatiles in natural settings. Both contact SPME and chromatoprobe design may considerably facilitate the study of human skin volatiles under field conditions, opening new possibilities for examining the olfactory cues mediating the host-seeking behaviour of mosquito vectors implicated in the transmission of major diseases.

  12. Search for pair production of vector-like quarks that decay to a Z boson and a third-generation quark in trilepton final states in pp collisions at √{ s} = 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Cheu, Elliott

    2017-01-01

    A search is outlined for the pair production of vector-like quarks that decay to a Z boson and a third-generation Standard Model quark. In the case of a charge + 2 / 3 vector-like quark (T), the decay targeted is T -> Zt , while the decay targeted for a charge - 1 / 3 vector-like quark (B) is B -> Zb . Selected events contain a high transverse momentum Z boson candidate reconstructed from a pair of oppositely charged same-flavor leptons (electrons or muons), and are analyzed in the final states defined by the presence of a third lepton. Hadronic jets, in particular those with properties consistent with the decay of a b-hadron, are also required to be present in selected events. The agreement between the simulated data and observed data is examined in various control regions defined by the absence of b-tagged jets and Z boson candidates with low transverse momentum. The expected lower limits are derived on the mass of vector-like T and B quarks considering only the statistical uncertainties under various branching ratio hypotheses. Current PhD student

  13. Improved method of generating bit reversed numbers for calculating fast fourier transform

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.

    Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is an important tool required for signal processing in defence applications. This paper reports an improved method for generating bit reversed numbers needed in calculating FFT using radix-2. The refined algorithm takes...

  14. Unveiling the nature of post-linear response Z-vector method for time-dependent density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Mariachiara; Assfeld, Xavier; Mosconi, Edoardo; Monari, Antonio; Etienne, Thibaud

    2017-07-01

    We report a theoretical study on the analysis of the relaxed one-particle difference density matrix characterizing the passage from the ground to the excited state of a molecular system, as obtained from time-dependent density functional theory. In particular, this work aims at using the physics contained in the so-called Z-vector, which differentiates between unrelaxed and relaxed difference density matrices to analyze excited states' nature. For this purpose, we introduce novel quantum-mechanical quantities, based on the detachment/attachment methodology, for analysing the Z-vector transformation for different molecules and density functional theory functionals. A derivation pathway of these novel descriptors is reported, involving a numerical integration to be performed in the Euclidean space on the density functions. This topological analysis is then applied to two sets of chromophores, and the correlation between the level of theory and the behavior of our descriptors is properly rationalized. In particular, the effect of range-separation on the relaxation amplitude is discussed. The relaxation term is finally shown to be system-specific (for a given level of theory) and independent of the number of electrons (i.e., the relaxation amplitude is not simply the result of a collective phenomenon).

  15. Progress and prospects: gene therapy for genetic diseases with helper-dependent adenoviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti-Pierri, N; Ng, P

    2008-04-01

    Preclinical studies in small and large animal models using helper-dependent adenoviral vectors (HDAds) have generated promising results for the treatment of genetic diseases. However, clinical translation is complicated by the dose-dependent, capsid-mediated acute toxic response following systemic vector injection. With the advancements in vectorology, a better understanding of vector-mediated toxicity, and improved delivery methods, HDAds may emerge as an important vector for gene therapy of genetic diseases and this report highlights recent progress and prospects in this field.

  16. Replication-defective recombinant Semliki Forest virus encoding GM-CSF as a vector system for rapid and facile generation of autologous human tumor cell vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withoff, S; Glazenburg, KL; van Veen, ML; Kraak, MMJ; Hospers, GAP; Storkel, S; de Vries, EGE; Wischut, J; Daemen, T

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the production of recombinant Semliki Forest virus encoding murine or human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and the capacity of these vectors to transduce murine and human tumor cells ex vivo. High-titer stocks (up to 3 x 10(9) particles/ml) of

  17. Hyperbolic grid generation method using upwind difference formulation and orthogonal property of generated grids; Kazakamigata sabunho wo mochiita sokyokugata koshigata seiho not koshi chokkosei no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, T.; Matsuno, K.; Satofuka, N. [Kyoto Inst. of Technology, Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    A new hyperbolic grid generation method is presented and developed for two-dimensional space in this paper. The method uses the backward-Euler implicit scheme in the marching direction, while a MUSCL-like upwind finite difference scheme with a minmod limiter is introduced in the other direction. Thus, the present hyperbolic grid generation method requires no further artificial damping terms, although a conventional hyperbolic grid generation method of a central difference scheme requires some artificial terms to dampen the oscillations. Body-fitted grids around a NACA0012 airfoil and a complicated U-shape body are generated. The hyperbolic grid generation method presented can be expected to produce excellent orthogonal property of grids. To investigate this, a criterion to estimate the orthogonal property of generated grids is introduced. The orthogonal property of the grids around the airfoil is demonstrated. The results show that the present method generates grids of good orthogonal property. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Light scalar and vector mesons in the large N{sub c} limit from unitarized chiral perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R. [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Dept. Fisica Teorica II

    2005-07-01

    We review the large N{sub c} behavior of light scalar and vector resonances generated from unitarized meson-meson scattering amplitudes at one loop in Chiral Perturbation Theory. The vectors nicely follow the behavior expected for qq-bar states, whereas scalar mesons do not. This suggests that the main component of light scalars is not q-barq. We also comment on t-channel vector exchange as well as on the large N{sub c} behavior of the mass splittings between the vectors generated from the inverse amplitude method. (author)

  19. Deterministic binary vectors for efficient automated indexing of MEDLINE/PubMed abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahle, Manuel; Widdows, Dominic; Herskovic, Jorge R; Bernstam, Elmer V; Cohen, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    The need to maintain accessibility of the biomedical literature has led to development of methods to assist human indexers by recommending index terms for newly encountered articles. Given the rapid expansion of this literature, it is essential that these methods be scalable. Document vector representations are commonly used for automated indexing, and Random Indexing (RI) provides the means to generate them efficiently. However, RI is difficult to implement in real-world indexing systems, as (1) efficient nearest-neighbor search requires retaining all document vectors in RAM, and (2) it is necessary to maintain a store of randomly generated term vectors to index future documents. Motivated by these concerns, this paper documents the development and evaluation of a deterministic binary variant of RI. The increased capacity demonstrated by binary vectors has implications for information retrieval, and the elimination of the need to retain term vectors facilitates distributed implementations, enhancing the scalability of RI.

  20. Photonic methods of millimeter-wave generation based on Brillouin fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbagh, R. K.; Al-Raweshidy, H. S.

    2016-05-01

    In optical communication link, generation and delivering millimeter-wave (mm-waves) in radio over fiber (RoF) systems has limitation due to fiber non-linearity effects. To solve this problem, photonic methods of mm-wave generation based on characterizations of Brillouin fiber laser are proposed in this work for the first time. Three novel photonic approaches for mm-wave generation methods based on Brillouin fiber laser and phase modulator are proposed and demonstrated by simulation. According to our theoretical analysis and simulation, mm-waves with frequency up to 80 GHz and good signal to noise ratio (SNR) up to 90 dB are generated by new and cost effective methods of generation that make them suitable for applications of the fifth generation (5G) networks. The proposed configurations increase the stability and the quality of the mm-wave generation system by using a single laser source as a pump wave and the fiber non-linearity effects are reduced. A key advantage of this research is that proposed a number of very simple generation methods and cost effective which only use standard components of optical telecommunications. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) effect that exists in the optical fiber is studied with the characterization of phase modulator. An all optically stable mm-wave carriers are achieved successfully in the three different methods with different frequencies from 20 GHz up to 80 GHz. Simulation results show that all these carriers have low phase noise, good SNR ranging between 60 and 90 dB and tuning capability in comparison with previous methods reported. This makes them suitable for mm-wave transmission in RoF systems to transmit data in the next generation networks.

  1. An Efficient Method for Generation of Transgenic Rats Avoiding Embryo Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhola Shankar Pradhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although rats are preferred over mice as an animal model, transgenic animals are generated predominantly using mouse embryos. There are limitations in the generation of transgenic rat by embryo manipulation. Unlike mouse embryos, most of the rat embryos do not survive after male pronuclear DNA injection which reduces the efficiency of generation of transgenic rat by this method. More importantly, this method requires hundreds of eggs collected by killing several females for insertion of transgene to generate transgenic rat. To this end, we developed a noninvasive and deathless technique for generation of transgenic rats by integrating transgene into the genome of the spermatogonial cells by testicular injection of DNA followed by electroporation. After standardization of this technique using EGFP as a transgene, a transgenic disease model displaying alpha thalassemia was successfully generated using rats. This efficient method will ease the generation of transgenic rats without killing the lives of rats while simultaneously reducing the number of rats used for generation of transgenic animal.

  2. An introduction to vectors, vector operators and vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Joag, Pramod S

    2016-01-01

    Ideal for undergraduate and graduate students of science and engineering, this book covers fundamental concepts of vectors and their applications in a single volume. The first unit deals with basic formulation, both conceptual and theoretical. It discusses applications of algebraic operations, Levi-Civita notation, and curvilinear coordinate systems like spherical polar and parabolic systems and structures, and analytical geometry of curves and surfaces. The second unit delves into the algebra of operators and their types and also explains the equivalence between the algebra of vector operators and the algebra of matrices. Formulation of eigen vectors and eigen values of a linear vector operator are elaborated using vector algebra. The third unit deals with vector analysis, discussing vector valued functions of a scalar variable and functions of vector argument (both scalar valued and vector valued), thus covering both the scalar vector fields and vector integration.

  3. A method for generating stochastic 3D tree models with Python in Autodesk Maya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Stojanović

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a method for generating 3D tree models using stochastic L-systems with stochastic parameters and Perlin noise. L-system is the most popular method for plant modeling and Perlin noise is extensively used for generating high detailed textures. Our approach is probabilistic. L-systems with a random choice of parameters can represent observed objects quite well and they are used for modeling and generating realistic plants. Textures and normal maps are generated with combinations of Perlin noises what make these trees completely unique. Script for generating these trees, textures and normal maps is written with Python/PyMEL/NumPy in Autodesk Maya.

  4. Test Gas Generation from Pure Liquids: An Application-Oriented Overview of Methods in a Nutshell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation of test gas from pure liquids has a wide variety of applications in laboratory and field experiments, for which the quality of the test gas is of significance. Therefore, various methods for test gas generation have been designed. Each method has unique advantages and disadvantages. Thus, a short overview is presented within the scope of this paper. Furthermore, a common bubbler system is presented, which was built to generate test gas from volatile organic compounds for experimental usage in laboratory applications. An analysis is conducted with respect to the generated concentrations at different temperatures and flow rates of the diluting gas. Accuracy and stability of this method are investigated.

  5. Orthogonal grid generation of an irregular region using a local polynomial collocation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan-Jing; Tsay, Ting-Kuei; Yang, Tun-Chi; Chang, Hung-Yuan

    2013-06-01

    In this study, a 2-D orthogonal grid generation model is developed by solving the governing equations of coordinate transformation with a local polynomial collocation method accompanied with the moving least squares (MLS) approach. This method was developed in a way that on the boundaries both the governing equation and boundary condition are satisfied, so it is more robust and accurate than conventional collocation methods. Though the method used to solve the coordinate transforming equations is meshless, it does not deteriorate the value of present work, because most numerical models in modern use are grid-dependent, and grid generation of service to these models is still strongly desired, particularly for finite difference models in irregular domains. Before applying to grid generation problems, the performance of present method is tested by a bench mark potential flow problem. Additional to two basic grid generation problems, a bottleneck problem of previous works, which contains zero-degree corners in the domain, is carried out. Finally, the model is applied to the orthogonal grid generation in a multi-connected domain. The correctness is testified by checking the orthogonality of the generated results.

  6. Comparison of support vector machine and neutral network classification method in hyperspectral mapping of ophiolite mélanges–A case study of east of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Bahrambeygi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ophiolitic regions are one of the most complex geology settings. Mapping in these parts need broad and precise studies and tools because of the mixture rocks and confusion units. Hyperion hyperspectral sensor data are one of the advanced tools for earth surface mapping that containing rich information of shallow electromagnetic reflection in 242 continuous bands. Because of some contaminated noise in tens of these bands we removed 87 most noisy bands and focused our study on 155 low noisy bands. In present study, tow spectral based classification algorithms of support vector machine and neutral network are compared on hyperion image for classification of cluttered units in an ophiolite set. Study area is Mesina region in collision ophiolitic belt of south east of Iran. In this region for design processing results validation rate, lots of random locations and control points were studied in field scale and were sampled for laboratory surveys. Samples were investigated in microscopic section and by electron microprobe system. Based on laboratory-field studies, the lithology of this area can divided into five general groups: (Melange series, metamorphic units, Oligocene – Miocene to Quaternary volcanic units, lime and flysch units. Based on field-laboratory works, some standard points defined for validate processing results accuracy rate. Therefore, the Support Vector Machine and neutral network method as advanced hyperspectral image processing methods respectively have overall accuracies of 52% and 65%. Consequently the method based neutral network theory for hyperspectral classification have acceptable ratio in separation of blended complicated units.

  7. Generator-Absorber heat exchange transfer apparatus and method using an intermediate liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI)

    1996-11-05

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium where the working solution has an intermediate liquor concentration.

  8. Generator-Absorber heat exchange transfer apparatus and method using an intermediate liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, B.A.; Zawacki, T.S.

    1996-11-05

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium where the working solution has an intermediate liquor concentration. 13 figs.

  9. Addressing Next Generation Science Standards: A Method for Supporting Classroom Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellien, Tamara; Rothenburger, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) will define science education for the foreseeable future, yet many educators struggle to see the bridge between current practice and future practices. The inquiry-based methods used by Extension professionals (Kress, 2006) can serve as a guide for classroom educators. Described herein is a method of…

  10. Support vector machine regression (SVR/LS-SVM)--an alternative to neural networks (ANN) for analytical chemistry? Comparison of nonlinear methods on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabin, Roman M; Lomakina, Ekaterina I

    2011-04-21

    In this study, we make a general comparison of the accuracy and robustness of five multivariate calibration models: partial least squares (PLS) regression or projection to latent structures, polynomial partial least squares (Poly-PLS) regression, artificial neural networks (ANNs), and two novel techniques based on support vector machines (SVMs) for multivariate data analysis: support vector regression (SVR) and least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVMs). The comparison is based on fourteen (14) different datasets: seven sets of gasoline data (density, benzene content, and fractional composition/boiling points), two sets of ethanol gasoline fuel data (density and ethanol content), one set of diesel fuel data (total sulfur content), three sets of petroleum (crude oil) macromolecules data (weight percentages of asphaltenes, resins, and paraffins), and one set of petroleum resins data (resins content). Vibrational (near-infrared, NIR) spectroscopic data are used to predict the properties and quality coefficients of gasoline, biofuel/biodiesel, diesel fuel, and other samples of interest. The four systems presented here range greatly in composition, properties, strength of intermolecular interactions (e.g., van der Waals forces, H-bonds), colloid structure, and phase behavior. Due to the high diversity of chemical systems studied, general conclusions about SVM regression methods can be made. We try to answer the following question: to what extent can SVM-based techniques replace ANN-based approaches in real-world (industrial/scientific) applications? The results show that both SVR and LS-SVM methods are comparable to ANNs in accuracy. Due to the much higher robustness of the former, the SVM-based approaches are recommended for practical (industrial) application. This has been shown to be especially true for complicated, highly nonlinear objects.

  11. GPU implementation of the Rosenbluth generation method for static Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yachong; Baulin, Vladimir A.

    2017-07-01

    We present parallel version of Rosenbluth Self-Avoiding Walk generation method implemented on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) using CUDA libraries. The method scales almost linearly with the number of CUDA cores and the method efficiency has only hardware limitations. The method is introduced in two realizations: on a cubic lattice and in real space. We find a good agreement between serial and parallel implementations and consistent results between lattice and real space realizations of the method for linear chain statistics. The developed GPU implementations of Rosenbluth algorithm can be used in Monte Carlo simulations and other computational methods that require large sampling of molecules conformations.

  12. A Current Sensorless MPPT Control Method for a Stand-Alone-Type PV Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itako, Kazutaka; Mori, Takeaki

    In this paper, a current sensorless MPPT control method for a stand-alone-type PV generation system is proposed. This control method offers advantages of the simplified hardware configuration and the low cost, by using only one sensor to measure the PV output voltage. In the application to stand-alone-type with a battery load, the experimental results show that the estimated values of PV output current are accurate, and the use of the proposed MPPT control increases the PV generated energy by 16.3% compared to the conventional system. Furthermore, it is clarified that the proposed method has extremely high UUF (Useful utilization factor) of 98.7%.

  13. Panel cutting method: new approach to generate panels on a hull in Rankine source potential approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jong Choi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a new hull panel generation algorithm, namely panel cutting method, was developed to predict flow phenomena around a ship using the Rankine source potential based panel method, where the iterative method was used to satisfy the nonlinear free surface condition and the trim and sinkage of the ship was taken into account. Numerical computations were performed to investigate the validity of the proposed hull panel generation algorithm for Series 60 (CB=0.60 hull and KRISO container ship (KCS, a container ship designed by Maritime and Ocean Engineering Research Institute (MOERI. The computational results were validated by comparing with the existing experimental data.

  14. Specialized CFD Grid Generation Methods for Near-Field Sonic Boom Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Michael A.; Campbell, Richard L.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Cliff, Susan E.; Nayani, Sudheer N.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing interest in analysis and design of low sonic boom supersonic transports re- quires accurate and ecient Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools. Specialized grid generation techniques are employed to predict near- eld acoustic signatures of these con- gurations. A fundamental examination of grid properties is performed including grid alignment with ow characteristics and element type. The issues a ecting the robustness of cylindrical surface extrusion are illustrated. This study will compare three methods in the extrusion family of grid generation methods that produce grids aligned with the freestream Mach angle. These methods are applied to con gurations from the First AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop.

  15. Double transverse wave-vector correlations in photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by Bessel-Gauss beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicuña-Hernández, Verónica; Santiago, José T.; Jerónimo-Moreno, Yasser; Ramírez-Alarcón, Roberto; Cruz-Ramírez, Héctor; U'Ren, Alfred B.; Jáuregui-Renaud, Rocio

    2016-12-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical study of type I, frequency-degenerate spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) with a Bessel-Gauss pump in which we include both paraxial and nonparaxial pump beam configurations. We present measurements of the SPDC angular spectrum (AS), of the conditional angular spectrum (CAS) of signal-mode single photons as heralded by the detection of an idler photon, and of the transverse wave-vector signal-idler correlations (TWC). We show that as the pump is made increasingly nonparaxial, the AS acquires a nonconcentric double-cone structure, with the CAS shape depending on the azimuthal location of the heralding detector, while the signal-idler wave-vector correlation region splits into characteristic doublet stripes, representing as yet unexplored nontrivial, nonlocal quantum correlations between the signal and idler photons. Our work provides further understanding of SPDC with a particular class of structured pump beams, and we believe that the controlled presence of double wave-vector correlations represents an interesting resource for photon-pair quantum-state engineering.

  16. Support Vector Components Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ree, Michiel; Roerdink, Johannes; Phillips, Christophe; Garraux, Gaetan; Salmon, Eric; Wiering, Marco

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel method for learning a distance metric in the process of training Support Vector Machines (SVMs) with the radial basis function kernel. A transformation matrix is adapted in such a way that the SVM dual objective of a classification problem is optimized. By using a

  17. Vector-borne Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-18

    This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods.  Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2011.

  18. Vector optimization set-valued and variational analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Guang-ya; Yang, Xiaogi

    2005-01-01

    This book is devoted to vector or multiple criteria approaches in optimization. Topics covered include: vector optimization, vector variational inequalities, vector variational principles, vector minmax inequalities and vector equilibrium problems. In particular, problems with variable ordering relations and set-valued mappings are treated. The nonlinear scalarization method is extensively used throughout the book to deal with various vector-related problems. The results presented are original and should be interesting to researchers and graduates in applied mathematics and operations research

  19. Matrix vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenman, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    This outstanding text and reference applies matrix ideas to vector methods, using physical ideas to illustrate and motivate mathematical concepts but employing a mathematical continuity of development rather than a physical approach. The author, who taught at the U.S. Air Force Academy, dispenses with the artificial barrier between vectors and matrices--and more generally, between pure and applied mathematics.Motivated examples introduce each idea, with interpretations of physical, algebraic, and geometric contexts, in addition to generalizations to theorems that reflect the essential structur

  20. Electrode assemblies, plasma apparatuses and systems including electrode assemblies, and methods for generating plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C; Grandy, Jon D; Detering, Brent A; Zuck, Larry D

    2013-09-17

    Electrode assemblies for plasma reactors include a structure or device for constraining an arc endpoint to a selected area or region on an electrode. In some embodiments, the structure or device may comprise one or more insulating members covering a portion of an electrode. In additional embodiments, the structure or device may provide a magnetic field configured to control a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Plasma generating modules, apparatus, and systems include such electrode assemblies. Methods for generating a plasma include covering at least a portion of a surface of an electrode with an electrically insulating member to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Additional methods for generating a plasma include generating a magnetic field to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on an electrode.

  1. A novel method for repeatedly generating speckle patterns used in digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Sweedy, Ahmed; Gitzhofer, François; Baroud, Gamal

    2018-01-01

    Speckle patterns play a key role in Digital Image Correlation (DIC) measurement, and generating an optimal speckle pattern has been the goal for decades now. The usual method of generating a speckle pattern is by manually spraying the paint on the specimen. However, this makes it difficult to reproduce the optimal pattern for maintaining identical testing conditions and achieving consistent DIC results. This study proposed and evaluated a novel method using an atomization system to repeatedly generate speckle patterns. To verify the repeatability of the speckle patterns generated by this system, simulation and experimental studies were systematically performed. The results from both studies showed that the speckle patterns and, accordingly, the DIC measurements become highly accurate and repeatable using the proposed atomization system.

  2. Modeling of Self-Excited Isolated Permanent Magnet Induction Generator Using Iterative Numerical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mostafa R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-Excited Permanent Magnet Induction Generator (PMIG is commonly used in wind energy generation systems. The difficulty of Self-Excited Permanent Magnet Induction Generator (SEPMIG modeling is the circuit parameters of the generator vary at each load conditions due to the a change in the frequency and stator voltage. The paper introduces a new modeling for SEPMIG using Gauss-sidle relaxation method. The SEPMIG characteristics using the proposed method are studied at different load conditions according to the wind speed variation, load impedance changes and different shunted capacitor values. The system modeling is investigated due to the magnetizing current variation, the efficiency variation, the power variation and power factor variation. The proposed modeling system satisfies high degree of simplicity and accuracy.

  3. Effect of excitation methods on electrical characteristics of fully superconducting generator model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muta, Itsuya; Tsukiji, H.; Handa, N.; Hoshino, Tsutomu; Mukai, E.

    1994-07-01

    We have fabricated a fully superconducting generator of 20 kW class, in which both of armature and field coils are made of superconductors. Two different types of excitation system were selected and tested: a brushless excitation method consisted of 'magnetic flux pump' and a conventional excitation method equipped with collector ring and brushes. The paper describes the experimental machine model and the comparison of test results between the two different types of excitation methods.

  4. Generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin vector waves by a polarization-insensitive optical parametric amplifier for fiber-nonlinearity-tolerant transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiang; Hu, Hao; Chandrasekhar, S.

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated vector twin waves (PCTWs), consisting of eight 128-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed QPSK signals and their idlers, by a broadband polarization-insensitive fiber optic parametric amplifier. This novel all...... reach in a dispersion-managed transmission link. We further study the impact of polarization-mode dispersion on the performance gain brought by the phase-conjugated twin waves, showing a gain of ∼3.8 dB in signal quality factors.......-optical signal processing approach to generate WDM-PCTWs enables a 2-fold reduction in the needed optical transmitters as compared to the conventional approach where each idler is generated by a dedicated transmitter. Digital coherent superposition of the twin waves at the receiver enables more than doubled...

  5. Impact Assessment of Various Methods for Control of Synchronous Generator Excitation on Quality of Transient Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. Filipchik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an impact of various methods for control of an exciting current pertaining to a synchronous generator on the nature of transient processes. A control algorithm for the exciting current in relation to changes in sliding and acceleration of a generator rotor has been proposed in the paper. The algorithm makes it possible to improve quality of the transient processes due to reduction of oscillation range concerning as an active power so a δ-angle as well.

  6. A novel method for estimating the entropy generation rate in a human body

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman Azizur Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to show a method for calculating entropy generation (Sgen) in a human body under various environmental and physiological conditions. The Sgen in a human body is a measure of activeness of motions, reactions, and irreversibility of processes occurring in a body and is a kind of holistic and thermodynamic index, which characterizes a human body as a whole. Human body at healthier and normal condition generates the least amount of Sgen. Heat transfer over a hu...

  7. Method and apparatus for optimizing operation of a power generating plant using artificial intelligence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, David [Mentor, OH; Katrompas, Alexander M [Concord, OH; Parikh, Neel J [Richmond Heights, OH

    2009-09-01

    A method and apparatus for optimizing the operation of a power generating plant using artificial intelligence techniques. One or more decisions D are determined for at least one consecutive time increment, where at least one of the decisions D is associated with a discrete variable for the operation of a power plant device in the power generating plant. In an illustrated embodiment, the power plant device is a soot cleaning device associated with a boiler.

  8. A method of computer aided design with self-generative models in NX Siemens environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.; Kempa, W.; Paprocka, I.

    2015-11-01

    Currently in CAD/CAE/CAM systems it is possible to create 3D design virtual models which are able to capture certain amount of knowledge. These models are especially useful in an automation of routine design tasks. These models are known as self-generative or auto generative and they can behave in an intelligent way. The main difference between the auto generative and fully parametric models consists in the auto generative models ability to self-organizing. In this case design model self-organizing means that aside from the possibility of making of automatic changes of model quantitative features these models possess knowledge how these changes should be made. Moreover they are able to change quality features according to specific knowledge. In spite of undoubted good points of self-generative models they are not so often used in design constructional process which is mainly caused by usually great complexity of these models. This complexity makes the process of self-generative time and labour consuming. It also needs a quite great investment outlays. The creation process of self-generative model consists of the three stages it is knowledge and information acquisition, model type selection and model implementation. In this paper methods of the computer aided design with self-generative models in NX Siemens CAD/CAE/CAM software are presented. There are the five methods of self-generative models preparation in NX with: parametric relations model, part families, GRIP language application, knowledge fusion and OPEN API mechanism. In the paper examples of each type of the self-generative model are presented. These methods make the constructional design process much faster. It is suggested to prepare this kind of self-generative models when there is a need of design variants creation. The conducted research on assessing the usefulness of elaborated models showed that they are highly recommended in case of routine tasks automation. But it is still difficult to distinguish

  9. Random fields generation on the GPU with the spectral turning bands method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, L.; Cosenza, B.; Kimeswenger, S.; Fahringer, T.

    2014-08-01

    Random field (RF) generation algorithms are of paramount importance for many scientific domains, such as astrophysics, geostatistics, computer graphics and many others. Some examples are the generation of initial conditions for cosmological simulations or hydrodynamical turbulence driving. In the latter a new random field is needed every time-step. Current approaches commonly make use of 3D FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) and require the whole generated field to be stored in memory. Moreover, they are limited to regular rectilinear meshes and need an extra processing step to support non-regular meshes. In this paper, we introduce TBARF (Turning BAnd Random Fields), a RF generation algorithm based on the turning band method that is optimized for massively parallel hardware such as GPUs. Our algorithm replaces the 3D FFT with a lower order, one-dimensional FFT followed by a projection step, and is further optimized with loop unrolling and blocking. We show that TBARF can easily generate RF on non-regular (non uniform) meshes and can afford mesh sizes bigger than the available GPU memory by using a streaming, out-of-core approach. TBARF is 2 to 5 times faster than the traditional methods when generating RFs with more than 16M cells. It can also generate RF on non-regular meshes, and has been successfully applied to two real case scenarios: planetary nebulae and cosmological simulations.

  10. hERG classification model based on a combination of support vector machine method and GRIND descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qiyuan; Jorgensen, Flemming Steen; Oprea, Tudor

    2008-01-01

    invest substantial effort in the assessment of cardiac toxicity of drugs. The development of in silico tools to filter out potential hERG channel inhibitors in earlystages of the drug discovery process is of considerable interest. Here, we describe binary classification models based on a large...... and diverse library of 495 compounds. The models combine pharmacophore-based GRIND descriptors with a support vector machine (SVM) classifier in order to discriminate between hERG blockers and nonblockers. Our models were applied at different thresholds from 1 to 40 mu m and achieved an overall accuracy up...... to 94% with a Matthews coefficient correlation (MCC) of 0.86 (F-measure of 0.90 for blockers and 0.95 for nonblockers). The model at a 40 urn threshold showed the best performance and was validated internally (MCC of 0.40 and F-measure of 0.57 for blockers and 0.81 for nonblockers, using a leave...

  11. Two methods for estimating limits to large-scale wind power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lee M; Brunsell, Nathaniel A; Mechem, David B; Gans, Fabian; Monaghan, Andrew J; Vautard, Robert; Keith, David W; Kleidon, Axel

    2015-09-08

    Wind turbines remove kinetic energy from the atmospheric flow, which reduces wind speeds and limits generation rates of large wind farms. These interactions can be approximated using a vertical kinetic energy (VKE) flux method, which predicts that the maximum power generation potential is 26% of the instantaneous downward transport of kinetic energy using the preturbine climatology. We compare the energy flux method to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional atmospheric model equipped with a wind turbine parameterization over a 10(5) km2 region in the central United States. The WRF simulations yield a maximum generation of 1.1 We⋅m(-2), whereas the VKE method predicts the time series while underestimating the maximum generation rate by about 50%. Because VKE derives the generation limit from the preturbine climatology, potential changes in the vertical kinetic energy flux from the free atmosphere are not considered. Such changes are important at night when WRF estimates are about twice the VKE value because wind turbines interact with the decoupled nocturnal low-level jet in this region. Daytime estimates agree better to 20% because the wind turbines induce comparatively small changes to the downward kinetic energy flux. This combination of downward transport limits and wind speed reductions explains why large-scale wind power generation in windy regions is limited to about 1 We⋅m(-2), with VKE capturing this combination in a comparatively simple way.

  12. A decomposition method for convective–radiative fin with heat generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranab Kanti Roy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed at studying the effect of environmental temperature such as radiation sink temperature, convection sink temperature and heat generation number on the temperature distribution and efficiency of a convective–radiative stationary fin. The Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM being one of the efficient numerical methods for highly non linear equations, the local temperature field and efficiencies are obtained using ADM in which Newton–Rapson method is used to estimate the fin temperature for insulated boundary conditions. It is found that the present ADM results are good agreement with the results available in literature using Galerkin Method (GM and Boundary Value problem Method (BVP.

  13. Precalculation method using spherical basic object light for computer-generated hologram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoyachi, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Ichikawa, Tsubasa; Sakamoto, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Precalculation methods for computer-generated holograms provide fast calculation by transforming precalculated object light in accordance with the subject shape in the spatial domain. In this paper, a novel method is proposed that uses precalculated object light recorded on a spherical surface, which makes the data size half that of the conventional method. Moreover, representations of the transforms by homogeneous coordinates on the spherical surface are discussed. These representations allow common operations of transforms and solve the calculation complexity that conventional precalculation methods have. The effectiveness of the proposed method was confirmed by optical image-reconstruction experiments successfully.

  14. Deletion of A44L, A46R and C12L Vaccinia Virus Genes from the MVA Genome Improved the Vector Immunogenicity by Modifying the Innate Immune Response Generating Enhanced and Optimized Specific T-Cell Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pía Holgado

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available MVA is an attenuated vector that still retains immunomodulatory genes. We have previously reported its optimization after deleting the C12L gene, coding for the IL-18 binding-protein. Here, we analyzed the immunogenicity of MVA vectors harboring the simultaneous deletion of A44L, related to steroid synthesis and A46R, a TLR-signaling inhibitor (MVAΔA44L-A46R; or also including a deletion of C12L (MVAΔC12L/ΔA44L-A46R. The absence of biological activities of the deleted genes in the MVA vectors was demonstrated. Adaptive T-cell responses against VACV epitopes, evaluated in spleen and draining lymph-nodes of C57Bl/6 mice at acute/memory phases, were of higher magnitude in those animals that received deleted MVAs compared to MVAwt. MVAΔC12L/ΔA44L-A46R generated cellular specific memory responses of higher quality characterized by bifunctionality (CD107a/b+/IFN-γ+ and proliferation capacity. Deletion of selected genes from MVA generated innate immune responses with higher levels of determining cytokines related to T-cell response generation, such as IL-12, IFN-γ, as well as IL-1β and IFN-β. This study describes for the first time that simultaneous deletion of the A44L, A46R and C12L genes from MVA improved its immunogenicity by enhancing the host adaptive and innate immune responses, suggesting that this approach comprises an appropriate strategy to increase the MVA vaccine potential.

  15. A New Method for Generating High Non-linearity S-Boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tesar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Substitution boxes are important parts in many block and stream ciphers. The emergence of a range of crypto-attacks has led to the development of criteria for repelling such attacks. The non-linearity criterion provides some protection against well- known attacks, such as linear cryptanalysis and differential cryptanalysis. The open problem is constructed by generating methods which will be rapid and will generate S-boxes with the highest possible non-linearity. This paper deals with a new rapid method for generating regular 8x8 S-boxes with non-linearity up to a value of 104. The new method combines the special genetic algorithm with total tree searching.

  16. Some advanced parametric methods for assessing waveform distortion in a smart grid with renewable generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Luisa

    2015-12-01

    Power quality (PQ) disturbances are becoming an important issue in smart grids (SGs) due to the significant economic consequences that they can generate on sensible loads. However, SGs include several distributed energy resources (DERs) that can be interconnected to the grid with static converters, which lead to a reduction of the PQ levels. Among DERs, wind turbines and photovoltaic systems are expected to be used extensively due to the forecasted reduction in investment costs and other economic incentives. These systems can introduce significant time-varying voltage and current waveform distortions that require advanced spectral analysis methods to be used. This paper provides an application of advanced parametric methods for assessing waveform distortions in SGs with dispersed generation. In particular, the Standard International Electrotechnical Committee (IEC) method, some parametric methods (such as Prony and Estimation of Signal Parameters by Rotational Invariance Technique (ESPRIT)), and some hybrid methods are critically compared on the basis of their accuracy and the computational effort required.

  17. Cyndi: a multi-objective evolution algorithm based method for bioactive molecular conformational generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Honglin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conformation generation is a ubiquitous problem in molecule modelling. Many applications require sampling the broad molecular conformational space or perceiving the bioactive conformers to ensure success. Numerous in silico methods have been proposed in an attempt to resolve the problem, ranging from deterministic to non-deterministic and systemic to stochastic ones. In this work, we described an efficient conformation sampling method named Cyndi, which is based on multi-objective evolution algorithm. Results The conformational perturbation is subjected to evolutionary operation on the genome encoded with dihedral torsions. Various objectives are designated to render the generated Pareto optimal conformers to be energy-favoured as well as evenly scattered across the conformational space. An optional objective concerning the degree of molecular extension is added to achieve geometrically extended or compact conformations which have been observed to impact the molecular bioactivity (J Comput -Aided Mol Des 2002, 16: 105–112. Testing the performance of Cyndi against a test set consisting of 329 small molecules reveals an average minimum RMSD of 0.864 Å to corresponding bioactive conformations, indicating Cyndi is highly competitive against other conformation generation methods. Meanwhile, the high-speed performance (0.49 ± 0.18 seconds per molecule renders Cyndi to be a practical toolkit for conformational database preparation and facilitates subsequent pharmacophore mapping or rigid docking. The copy of precompiled executable of Cyndi and the test set molecules in mol2 format are accessible in Additional file 1. Conclusion On the basis of MOEA algorithm, we present a new, highly efficient conformation generation method, Cyndi, and report the results of validation and performance studies comparing with other four methods. The results reveal that Cyndi is capable of generating geometrically diverse conformers and outperforms

  18. Short communication: evaluating the level of expressed HIV type 1 gp120 and gag proteins in the vCP1521 vector by two immunoplaque methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Ali; Edamura, Kerrie Nichol; Leung, Glenda; Gisonni-Lex, Lucy; Mallet, Laurent

    2013-02-01

    Over the past few years, several recombinant ALVAC constructs have been used as delivery systems in various vaccine research studies and trials. The ALVAC-HIV vCP1521 vector has been used as a vaccine delivery system in the RV144 study, a phase III HIV study that displayed over 31% protective efficacy. One of the important parameters for evaluating the potency of an ALVAC construct is the stable expression of proteins encoded by the inserted genes. Herein, the expression of inserted gp120 and gag genes in two manufactured ALVAC-HIV vCP1521 lots have been determined by two immunoplaque methods (dish and plaque lift). Both methods were specific and robust and demonstrated that the ALVAC-HIV vCP1521 lots were able to express gp120 and gag proteins in over 99% of the infectious plaques.

  19. Timetable-based simulation method for choice set generation in large-scale public transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Anderson, Marie Karen; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2016-01-01

    The composition and size of the choice sets are a key for the correct estimation of and prediction by route choice models. While existing literature has posed a great deal of attention towards the generation of path choice sets for private transport problems, the same does not apply to public...... transport problems. This study proposes a timetable-based simulation method for generating path choice sets in a multimodal public transport network. Moreover, this study illustrates the feasibility of its implementation by applying the method to reproduce 5131 real-life trips in the Greater Copenhagen Area...

  20. Isentropic compressive wave generator impact pillow and method of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Lynn M.

    1985-01-01

    An isentropic compressive wave generator and method of making same. The w generator comprises a disk or flat "pillow" member having component materials of different shock impedances formed in a configuration resulting in a smooth shock impedance gradient over the thickness thereof for interpositioning between an impactor member and a target specimen for producing a shock wave of a smooth predictable rise time. The method of making the pillow member comprises the reduction of the component materials to a powder form and forming the pillow member by sedimentation and compressive techniques.

  1. Modal generation of the design parameters of an elastic spacecraft by the random search method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, B. A.

    A method for the modal generation of the dynamic properties of an elastic spacecraft is proposed which is based on algorithms of random search in the space of design parameters. A practical implementation of this approach is illustrated by an example. It is shown that the modal parameter generation procedure based on the random search solves the problem of parameter selection. However, as in any other method, the accuracy of the computation of matrix elements is largely determined by the initial set of permissible values and the number of random samples in determining the subgradient of the objective function.

  2. Application of smooth exterior scaling method to calculate the high harmonic generation spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Dhruba J; Gupta, Ashish K

    2013-02-21

    We have calculated the high harmonic generation spectra from Xe atom by imposing different kinds of absorbing potentials. Owing to the center of inversion of the model system, one should get odd harmonics only. However, using negative imaginary potentials as an absorbing boundary condition, we have also got even order harmonics along with the odd order harmonics. These non-odd order harmonics are generated due to the spurious reflections occurring at the grid boundary. On the contrary, when smooth exterior scaling methods are used as an absorbing boundary condition, only odd order harmonics are obtained. Hence, smooth exterior scaling methods impose proper absorbing boundary condition.

  3. Vector boson scattering at CLIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilian, Wolfgang; Fleper, Christian [Department Physik, Universitaet Siegen, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Reuter, Juergen [DESY Theory Group, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Sekulla, Marco [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Linear colliders operating in a range of multiple TeV are able to investigate the details of vector boson scattering and electroweak symmetry breaking. We calculate cross sections with the Monte Carlo generator WHIZARD for vector boson scattering processes at the future linear e{sup +} e{sup -} collider CLIC. By finding suitable cuts, the vector boson scattering signal processes are isolated from the background. Finally, we are able to determine exclusion sensitivities on the non-Standard Model parameters of the relevant dimension eight operators.

  4. Upward-fusion urban DTM generating method using airborne Lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ziyue; Devereux, Bernard; Gao, Bingbo; Amable, Gabriel

    2012-08-01

    Airborne Lidar (Light detection and ranging) is an efficient tool for the generation of Digital Terrain Models (DTMs). Although many studies have been conducted in generating DTMs using Lidar data, it is still a challenging research area. The difficulty in filtering large buildings as well as a diversity of urban features makes the design of urban DTM generating methods an ongoing priority. This research adopted an upward-fusion methodology to generate urban DTMs using airborne Lidar data. Firstly, several preliminary DTMs of different resolutions were obtained using a local minimum method. Next, upward fusion was conducted between these DTMs. This process began with the DTM of the largest grid size, which was treated as a trend surface. A finer DTM was compared with this large scale DTM. By setting appropriate thresholds, a new DTM was achieved by selecting qualified elevation values from the finer DTM and retaining the value of the trend surface when the value from the finer DTM was beyond the threshold. This process continued iteratively until all preliminary DTMs had been included in the upward fusion and a refined DTM of high resolution was achieved. To further reduce possible errors in the resulting DTM, an extended local minimum method was proposed for filtering outliers and generating preliminary DTMs. A case study was carried out in the city of Cambridge, which represents an urban landscape with a variety of building forms, street patterns and vegetation structures. The time efficiency, results of the accuracy assessments and comparison with leading software proved the success of the case study and indicated that upward-fusion was an effective method for the generation of urban DTMs with airborne Lidar data and could improve the accuracy of other DTM generating algorithms. This paper also proposed possible approaches for further improvements on this methodology.

  5. Investigation of Pear Drying Performance by Different Methods and Regression of Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient with Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Das

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an air heated solar collector (AHSC dryer was designed to determine the drying characteristics of the pear. Flat pear slices of 10 mm thickness were used in the experiments. The pears were dried both in the AHSC dryer and under the sun. Panel glass temperature, panel floor temperature, panel inlet temperature, panel outlet temperature, drying cabinet inlet temperature, drying cabinet outlet temperature, drying cabinet temperature, drying cabinet moisture, solar radiation, pear internal temperature, air velocity and mass loss of pear were measured at 30 min intervals. Experiments were carried out during the periods of June 2017 in Elazig, Turkey. The experiments started at 8:00 a.m. and continued till 18:00. The experiments were continued until the weight changes in the pear slices stopped. Wet basis moisture content (MCw, dry basis moisture content (MCd, adjustable moisture ratio (MR, drying rate (DR, and convective heat transfer coefficient (hc were calculated with both in the AHSC dryer and the open sun drying experiment data. It was found that the values of hc in both drying systems with a range 12.4 and 20.8 W/m2 °C. Three different kernel models were used in the support vector machine (SVM regression to construct the predictive model of the calculated hc values for both systems. The mean absolute error (MAE, root mean squared error (RMSE, relative absolute error (RAE and root relative absolute error (RRAE analysis were performed to indicate the predictive model’s accuracy. As a result, the rate of drying of the pear was examined for both systems and it was observed that the pear had dried earlier in the AHSC drying system. A predictive model was obtained using the SVM regression for the calculated hc values for the pear in the AHSC drying system. The normalized polynomial kernel was determined as the best kernel model in SVM for estimating the hc values.

  6. Predicting the metabolizable energy content of corn for ducks: a comparison of support vector regression with other methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Faridi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Support vector regression (SVR is used in this study to develop models to estimate apparent metabolizable energy (AME, AME corrected for nitrogen (AMEn, true metabolizable energy (TME, and TME corrected for nitrogen (TMEn contents of corn fed to ducks based on its chemical composition. Performance of the SVR models was assessed by comparing their results with those of artificial neural network (ANN and multiple linear regression (MLR models. The input variables to estimate metabolizable energy content (MJ kg-1 of corn were crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, and ash (g kg-1. Goodness of fit of the models was examined using R2, mean square error, and bias. Based on these indices, the predictive performance of the SVR, ANN, and MLR models was acceptable. Comparison of models indicated that performance of SVR (in terms of R2 on the full data set (0.937 for AME, 0.954 for AMEn, 0.860 for TME, and 0.937 for TMEn was better than that of ANN (0.907 for AME, 0.922 for AMEn, 0.744 for TME, and 0.920 for TMEn and MLR (0.887 for AME, 0.903 for AMEn, 0.704 for TME, and 0.902 for TMEn. Similar findings were observed with the calibration and testing data sets. These results suggest SVR models are a promising tool for modelling the relationship between chemical composition and metabolizable energy of feedstuffs for poultry. Although from the present results the application of SVR models seems encouraging, the use of such models in other areas of animal nutrition needs to be evaluated.

  7. A comparative study of history-based versus vectorized Monte Carlo methods in the GPU/CUDA environment for a simple neutron eigenvalue problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianyu; Du, Xining; Ji, Wei; Xu, X. George; Brown, Forrest B.

    2014-06-01

    For nuclear reactor analysis such as the neutron eigenvalue calculations, the time consuming Monte Carlo (MC) simulations can be accelerated by using graphics processing units (GPUs). However, traditional MC methods are often history-based, and their performance on GPUs is affected significantly by the thread divergence problem. In this paper we describe the development of a newly designed event-based vectorized MC algorithm for solving the neutron eigenvalue problem. The code was implemented using NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), and tested on a NVIDIA Tesla M2090 GPU card. We found that although the vectorized MC algorithm greatly reduces the occurrence of thread divergence thus enhancing the warp execution efficiency, the overall simulation speed is roughly ten times slower than the history-based MC code on GPUs. Profiling results suggest that the slow speed is probably due to the memory access latency caused by the large amount of global memory transactions. Possible solutions to improve the code efficiency are discussed.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINING SUPPRESSOR CONCENTRATION IN THE MCU NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT (NGS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Fondeur, F.; White, T.; Diprete, D.; Milliken, C.

    2013-07-31

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with identifying and developing at least one, but preferably two methods for quantifying the suppressor in the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) system. The suppressor is a guanidine derivative, N,N',N"-tris(3,7-dimethyloctyl)guanidine (TiDG). A list of 10 possible methods was generated, and screening experiments were performed for 8 of the 10 methods. After completion of the screening experiments, the non-aqueous acid-base titration was determined to be the most promising, and was selected for further development as the primary method. {sup 1}H NMR also showed promising results from the screening experiments, and this method was selected for further development as the secondary method. Other methods, including {sup 36}Cl radiocounting and ion chromatography, also showed promise; however, due to the similarity to the primary method (titration) and the inability to differentiate between TiDG and TOA (tri-n-ocytlamine) in the blended solvent, {sup 1}H NMR was selected over these methods. Analysis of radioactive samples obtained from real waste ESS (extraction, scrub, strip) testing using the titration method showed good results. Based on these results, the titration method was selected as the method of choice for TiDG measurement. {sup 1}H NMR has been selected as the secondary (back-up) method, and additional work is planned to further develop this method and to verify the method using radioactive samples. Procedures for analyzing radioactive samples of both pure NGS and blended solvent were developed and issued for the both methods.

  9. Methods of Generating Key Sequences Based on Parameters of Handwritten Passwords and Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Lozhnikov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern encryption methods are reliable if strong keys (passwords are used, but the human factor issue cannot be solved by cryptographic methods. The best variant is binding all authenticators (passwords, encryption keys, and others to the identities. When a user is authenticated by biometrical characteristics, the problem of protecting a biometrical template stored on a remote server becomes a concern. The paper proposes several methods of generating keys (passwords by means of the fuzzy extractors method based on signature parameters without storing templates in an open way.

  10. Lentiviral Vector Mediated Transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barde, Isabelle; Verp, Sonia; Offner, Sandra; Trono, Didier

    2011-03-01

    The genetic manipulation of rodents through the generation of fully transgenic animals or via the modification of selective cells or organs is a procedure of paramount importance for biomedical research, either to address fundamental questions or to develop preclinical models of human diseases. Lentiviral vectors occupy the front stage in this scene, as they can mediate the integration and stable expression of transgenes both in vitro and in vivo. Widely used to modify a variety of cells, including re-implantable somatic and embryonic stem cells, lentiviral vectors can also be directly administered in vivo, for instance in the brain. However, perhaps their most spectacular research application is in the generation of transgenic animals. Compared with the three-decade-old DNA pronuclear injection technique, lentivector-mediated transgenesis is simple, cheap, and highly efficient. Furthermore, it can take full advantage of the great diversity of lentiviral vectors developed for other applications, and thus allows for ubiquitous or tissue-specific or constitutive or externally controllable transgene expression, as well as RNAi-mediated gene knockdown. Curr. Protoc. Mouse Biol. 1:169-184. © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Generation of transport lattice code KARMA library with doppler broadening rejection correction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ho Jin; Cho, Jin Young; Park, Sang Yoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Ser Gi [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kang Seog [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee (United States)

    2012-10-15

    In order to solve the exact neutron transport equations, the temperature-dependent neutron cross sections including scattering kernel are needed. However, the current cross section generation systems such as NJOY do not generate the temperature dependent scatting kernels. In Monte Carlo (MC) code, the sampling of velocity of target nucleus method is used to determine the energy and direction of outgoing neutron by the approximated constant cross section model. Recently, the Doppler-broadening rejection correction (DBRC) and weight correction method are proposed for the exact sampling. In this study, the KARMA(Kernel Analyzer by Ray tracing Method for fuel Assembly) library system incorporating McCARD calculations with the DBRC method are established and the effect of improved Doppler treatment will be examined.

  12. New modelling method for fast reactor neutronic behaviours analysis; Nouvelles methodes de modelisation neutronique des reacteurs rapides de quatrieme Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, P.

    2011-05-23

    Due to safety rules running on fourth generation reactors' core development, neutronics simulation tools have to be as accurate as never before. First part of this report enumerates every step of fast reactor's neutronics simulation implemented in current reference code: ECCO. Considering the field of fast reactors that meet criteria of fourth generation, ability of models to describe self-shielding phenomenon, to simulate neutrons leakage in a lattice of fuel assemblies and to produce representative macroscopic sections is evaluated. The second part of this thesis is dedicated to the simulation of fast reactors' core with steel reflector. These require the development of advanced methods of condensation and homogenization. Several methods are proposed and compared on a typical case: the ZONA2B core of MASURCA reactor. (author) [French] Les criteres de surete qui regissent le developpement de coeurs de reacteurs de quatrieme generation implique l'usage d'outils de calcul neutronique performants. Une premiere partie de la these reprend toutes les etapes de modelisation neutronique des reacteurs rapides actuellement d'usage dans le code de reference ECCO. La capacite des modeles a decrire le phenomene d'autoprotection, a representer les fuites neutroniques au niveau d'un reseau d'assemblages combustibles et a generer des sections macroscopiques representatives est appreciee sur le domaine des reacteurs rapides innovants respectant les criteres de quatrieme generation. La deuxieme partie de ce memoire se consacre a la modelisation des coeurs rapides avec reflecteur acier. Ces derniers necessitent le developpement de methodes avancees de condensation et d'homogenisation. Plusieurs methodes sont proposees et confrontees sur un probleme de modelisation typique: le coeur ZONA2B du reacteur maquette MASURCA

  13. Power Quality Improvement Of Grid Integrated Type I Wind Turbine Generation System Operating as DSTATCOM by d-q Control Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S V S Phani Kumar.Ch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years with the excessive consumption of electrical energy, the incongruity between generation and demand, the irrational structure of World’s energy as well as the environmental pollution have become progressively more evident. It has become crucial for ecological development to reduce the consumption of conventional energy and to enhance the development and utilization of renewable energy. Wind energy and Solar are unlimited supply of renewable energy and it has no pollution. But this concept suffer from the power quality issues from grid and generator side, this paper presents a control strategy for achieving maximum benefits from these grid-interfacing inverter when installed in 3-phase 4-wire distribution systems. The inverter can be controlled to perform as a multi-function device by incorporating active power filter functionality. The inverter can thus be utilized as: 1 power converter to inject power generated from RES to the grid and 2 shunt APF (Active Power Filter to compensate current unbalance, load current harmonics, load reactive power demand and load neutral current. All of these functions may be accomplished either individually or simultaneously. With such a control, the combination of grid-interfacing inverter and the 3-phase 4-wire linear/non-linear unbalanced load at point of common coupling appears as balanced linear load to the grid. The Paper propose design of 500kW Type I Wind Generation System 250kW each with Four Leg Inverter Controlled by d-q technique operated as DSTATCOM connected to 415V 4 wire Grid and also the results are compared with conventional Unit Vector Control. The proposed d-q method reduces the %THD of system to 1.97% from 24.12% where Unit Vector Control is of 3.94% which was on higher side , this is simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  14. A Time-Domain Method to Generate Artificial Time History from a Given Reference Response Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangsig Shin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Seismic qualification by test is widely used as a way to show the integrity and functionality of equipment that is related to the overall safety of nuclear power plants. Another means of seismic qualification is by direct integration analysis. Both approaches require a series of time histories as an input. However, in most cases, the possibility of using real earthquake data is limited. Thus, artificial time histories are widely used instead. In many cases, however, response spectra are given. Thus, most of the artificial time histories are generated from the given response spectra. Obtaining the response spectrum from a given time history is straightforward. However, the procedure for generating artificial time histories from a given response spectrum is difficult and complex to understand. Thus, this paper presents a simple time-domain method for generating a time history from a given response spectrum; the method was shown to satisfy conditions derived from nuclear regulatory guidance.

  15. Methods for iPS cell generation for basic research and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochiduki, Yuji; Okita, Keisuke

    2012-06-01

    The induction of pluripotency can be achieved by forced expression of defined factors in somatic cells. The established cells, termed induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, have pluripotency and an infinite capacity for self-renewal in common with embryonic stem (ES) cells. Patient-specific iPS cells could be a useful source for drug discovery and cell transplantation therapies; however, the original method for iPS cell generation had several issues that were obstacles to their clinical application. Recent studies have brought about various improvements for iPS cell generation and uncovered several characteristics of iPS cells. Here we summarize the current status of iPS cell studies, with a focus on the improved methods that can be used to generate iPS cells, and also refer to the future challenges. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Development of Closed-Loop Simulation Methods for a Next-Generation Terminal Area Automation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John E., III; Isaacson, Douglas R.

    2002-01-01

    A next-generation air traffic decision support tool, known as the Active Final Approach Spacing Tool (aFAST), will generate heading, speed and altitude commands to achieve more precise separation of aircraft in the terminal area. The techniques used to analyze the performance of earlier generation decision support tools are not adequate to analyze the performance of aFAST. This paper summarizes the development of a new and innovative fully closed-loop testing method for aFAST. This method, called trajectory feedback testing, closes each aircraft's control loop inside of the aFAST scheduling algorithm. Validation of trajectory feedback testing by examination of the variation of aircraft time-of-arrival predictions between schedule updates and the variation of aircraft excess separation distances between simulation runs is presented.

  17. Comparison of texture synthesis methods for content generation in ultrasound simulation for training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattausch, Oliver; Ren, Elizabeth; Bajka, Michael; Vanhoey, Kenneth; Goksel, Orcun

    2017-03-01

    Navigation and interpretation of ultrasound (US) images require substantial expertise, the training of which can be aided by virtual-reality simulators. However, a major challenge in creating plausible simulated US images is the generation of realistic ultrasound speckle. Since typical ultrasound speckle exhibits many properties of Markov Random Fields, it is conceivable to use texture synthesis for generating plausible US appearance. In this work, we investigate popular classes of texture synthesis methods for generating realistic US content. In a user study, we evaluate their performance for reproducing homogeneous tissue regions in B-mode US images from small image samples of similar tissue and report the best-performing synthesis methods. We further show that regression trees can be used on speckle texture features to learn a predictor for US realism.

  18. Support Vector Machine-based method for predicting Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms in coastal waters (Galician rias, NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Vilas, Luis; Spyrakos, Evangelos; Torres Palenzuela, Jesus M.; Pazos, Yolanda

    2014-05-01

    Phytoplanktonic blooms in the coastal embayments (rias) at the NW part of Spain were mentioned for the first time in 1918 and since then they have been associated numerous times with negatives impacts to a very important economic activity in the area, mussel production. In this study, eight years of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. abundance and associated meteorological and oceanographic data were used to develop and validate support vector machine (SVM) models for the prediction of these diatoms. SVM were used to identify presence/below low detection limit, bloom/no bloom conditions of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and finally to predict blooms due to these diatoms in the coastal systems of the Galician rias. The best SVM models were selected on the basis of C and γ parameters and their performance was evaluated in terms of accuracy and kappa statistics (κ). Regarding the presence/below low detection limit, bloom/no bloom models the best results in the validation dataset were achieved using all the variables: ria code, day of the year, temperature, salinity, upwelling indices and bloom occurrence in previous weeks. The best performing models were also tested in an independent dataset from the study area, where they showed high overall accuracy (78.53-82.18%), κ values (0.77-0.81) and true positive rates (62.60-78.18). In these models the bloom occurrence in previous weeks was identified as a key parameter to the prediction performance. In this paper, toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms could not be predicted due to limited information on toxin concentration and species composition. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that the approach followed here is capable for high predictive performance which could be of great aid in the monitoring of algal blooms and offer valuable information to the local shellfish industry. The reliable prediction of categorical Pseudo-nitzschia abundances using variables that are operationally determined or short-term predicted could provide early warning of

  19. A fast method for modelling skew and its effects in salient-pole synchronous generators

    OpenAIRE

    Nuzzo, Stefano; Galea, Michael; Gerada, C.; Brown, Neil

    2017-01-01

    The general effects of implementing skewing techniques in electrical machines are well known and have been extensively studied over the years. An important aspect of such techniques is related to the identification of optimal methods for analyzing and modelling any skewed components. This paper presents a fast, finite-element-based method, able to accurately analyze the effects of skew on wound-field, salient-pole synchronous generators in a relatively shorter time than the more traditional m...

  20. Efficient immune-GA method for DNOs in sizing and placement of distributed generation units

    OpenAIRE

    Soroudi, Alireza; Ehsan, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid heuristic optimization method based on genetic algorithm and immune systems to maximize the benefits of Distribution Network Operators (DNOs) accrued due to sizing and placement of Distributed Generation (DG) units in distribution networks. The effects of DG units in reducing the reinforcement costs and active power losses of distribution network have been investigated. In the presented method, the integration of DG units in distribution network is done considerin...