WorldWideScience

Sample records for vascular tissue hydrolysates

  1. Changes in vascularization of internal organs in rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis, treated with protein hydrolysate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demireva, K.; Popdimitrov, I.

    1979-01-01

    The vascularization of the internal organs of rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis was studied by the method of Sapirstein with 86 rubidium. Experiments were carried out on male Chinchilla rabbits, fed cholesterol in a dose of 0,2 g/kg of body weight daily for a period of 90 days. Part of the animals were treated with protein hydrolysate in a dose of 5 ml/kg of body weight subcutaneously and the remaining - with physiologic saline. There was reduced vascularization in the heart, kidneys, intestines, liver, adrenals, pancreas and other internal organs in rabbits fed cholestrol and treated with physiologic saline. Administration of protein hydrolysate had protective effect on organ vascularization. Accumulation of 86 rubidium in a large part of the animals was greater than in control group. It is shown that protein hydrolysate amino acids stabilize the endothelial cells and stimulate the local vascularization. (author)

  2. Bioprinting for vascular and vascularized tissue biofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Pallab; Ayan, Bugra; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2017-03-15

    Bioprinting is a promising technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision. Bioprinting enables the deposition of various biologics including growth factors, cells, genes, neo-tissues and extra-cellular matrix-like hydrogels. Benefits of bioprinting have started to make a mark in the fields of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and pharmaceutics. Specifically, in the field of tissue engineering, the creation of vascularized tissue constructs has remained a principal challenge till date. However, given the myriad advantages over other biofabrication methods, it becomes organic to expect that bioprinting can provide a viable solution for the vascularization problem, and facilitate the clinical translation of tissue engineered constructs. This article provides a comprehensive account of bioprinting of vascular and vascularized tissue constructs. The review is structured as introducing the scope of bioprinting in tissue engineering applications, key vascular anatomical features and then a thorough coverage of 3D bioprinting using extrusion-, droplet- and laser-based bioprinting for fabrication of vascular tissue constructs. The review then provides the reader with the use of bioprinting for obtaining thick vascularized tissues using sacrificial bioink materials. Current challenges are discussed, a comparative evaluation of different bioprinting modalities is presented and future prospects are provided to the reader. Biofabrication of living tissues and organs at the clinically-relevant volumes vitally depends on the integration of vascular network. Despite the great progress in traditional biofabrication approaches, building perfusable hierarchical vascular network is a major challenge. Bioprinting is an emerging technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision

  3. Additive Manufacturing of Vascular Grafts and Vascularized Tissue Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elomaa, Laura; Yang, Yunzhi Peter

    2017-10-01

    There is a great need for engineered vascular grafts among patients with cardiovascular diseases who are in need of bypass therapy and lack autologous healthy blood vessels. In addition, because of the severe worldwide shortage of organ donors, there is an increasing need for engineered vascularized tissue constructs as an alternative to organ transplants. Additive manufacturing (AM) offers great advantages and flexibility of fabrication of cell-laden, multimaterial, and anatomically shaped vascular grafts and vascularized tissue constructs. Various inkjet-, extrusion-, and photocrosslinking-based AM techniques have been applied to the fabrication of both self-standing vascular grafts and porous, vascularized tissue constructs. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research on the use of AM for vascular applications and the key criteria for biomaterials in the AM of both acellular and cellular constructs. We envision that new smart printing materials that can adapt to their environment and encourage rapid endothelialization and remodeling will be the key factor in the future for the successful AM of personalized and dynamic vascular tissue applications.

  4. 3D bioprinting for vascularized tissue fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Dylan; Jia, Jia; Yost, Michael; Markwald, Roger; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    3D bioprinting holds remarkable promise for rapid fabrication of 3D tissue engineering constructs. Given its scalability, reproducibility, and precise multi-dimensional control that traditional fabrication methods do not provide, 3D bioprinting provides a powerful means to address one of the major challenges in tissue engineering: vascularization. Moderate success of current tissue engineering strategies have been attributed to the current inability to fabricate thick tissue engineering constructs that contain endogenous, engineered vasculature or nutrient channels that can integrate with the host tissue. Successful fabrication of a vascularized tissue construct requires synergy between high throughput, high-resolution bioprinting of larger perfusable channels and instructive bioink that promotes angiogenic sprouting and neovascularization. This review aims to cover the recent progress in the field of 3D bioprinting of vascularized tissues. It will cover the methods of bioprinting vascularized constructs, bioink for vascularization, and perspectives on recent innovations in 3D printing and biomaterials for the next generation of 3D bioprinting for vascularized tissue fabrication. PMID:27230253

  5. Using Polymeric Scaffolds for Vascular Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida Abruzzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the high occurrence of cardiovascular disease and increasing numbers of patients requiring vascular access, there is a significant need for small-diameter (<6 mm inner diameter vascular graft that can provide long-term patency. Despite the technological improvements, restenosis and graft thrombosis continue to hamper the success of the implants. Vascular tissue engineering is a new field that has undergone enormous growth over the last decade and has proposed valid solutions for blood vessels repair. The goal of vascular tissue engineering is to produce neovessels and neoorgan tissue from autologous cells using a biodegradable polymer as a scaffold. The most important advantage of tissue-engineered implants is that these tissues can grow, remodel, rebuild, and respond to injury. This review describes the development of polymeric materials over the years and current tissue engineering strategies for the improvement of vascular conduits.

  6. Vascular tissue engineering by computer-aided laser micromachining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doraiswamy, Anand; Narayan, Roger J

    2010-04-28

    Many conventional technologies for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds are not suitable for fabricating scaffolds with patient-specific attributes. For example, many conventional technologies for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds do not provide control over overall scaffold geometry or over cell position within the scaffold. In this study, the use of computer-aided laser micromachining to create scaffolds for vascular tissue networks was investigated. Computer-aided laser micromachining was used to construct patterned surfaces in agarose or in silicon, which were used for differential adherence and growth of cells into vascular tissue networks. Concentric three-ring structures were fabricated on agarose hydrogel substrates, in which the inner ring contained human aortic endothelial cells, the middle ring contained HA587 human elastin and the outer ring contained human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Basement membrane matrix containing vascular endothelial growth factor and heparin was to promote proliferation of human aortic endothelial cells within the vascular tissue networks. Computer-aided laser micromachining provides a unique approach to fabricate small-diameter blood vessels for bypass surgery as well as other artificial tissues with complex geometries.

  7. Rice bran protein hydrolysates reduce arterial stiffening, vascular remodeling and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-carbohydrate and high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaphan, Ketmanee; Sangartit, Weerapon; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Greenwald, Stephen E; Kukongviriyapan, Upa

    2018-02-01

    Rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPH) contain highly nutritional proteins and antioxidant compounds which show benefits against metabolic syndrome (MetS). Increased arterial stiffness and the components of MetS have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate whether RBPH could alleviate the metabolic disorders, arterial stiffening, vascular remodeling, and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-carbohydrate and high-fat (HCHF) diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard chow and tap water or a HCHF diet and 15 % fructose solution for 16 weeks. HCHF rats were treated orally with RBPH (250 or 500 mg/kg/day) for the final 6 weeks of the experimental period. Rats fed with HCHF diet had hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, increased aortic pulse wave velocity, aortic wall hypertrophy and vascular remodeling with increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. RBPH supplementation significantly alleviated these alterations (P stress was also alleviated after RBPH treatment by decreasing plasma malondialdehyde, reducing superoxide production and suppressing p47 phox NADPH oxidase expression in the vascular tissues of HCHF rats. RBPH increased plasma nitrate/nitrite level and up-regulated eNOS expression in the aortas of HCHF-diet-fed rats, indicating that RBPH increased NO production. RBPH mitigate the deleterious effects of HCHF through potential mechanisms involving enhanced NO bioavailability, anti-ACE, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. RBPH could be used as dietary supplements to minimize oxidative stress and vascular alterations triggered by MetS.

  8. Vascularization of soft tissue engineering constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel Carletto, Rodrigo

    nanotechnology-based paradigm for engineering vascularised liver tissue for transplantation”) and the Danish National Research Foundation and Villum Foundation’s Center for Intelligent Drug delivery and sensing Using microcontainers and Nanomechanics (Danish National Research Foundation (DNRF122).......Vascularization is recognized to be the biggest challenge for the fabrication of tissues and finally, organs in vitro. So far, several fabrication techniques have been proposed to create a perfusable vasculature within hydrogels, however, the vascularization and perfusion of hydrogels...... with mechanical properties in the range of soft tissues has not been fully achieved. My project focused on the fabrication and the active perfusion of hydrogel constructs with multi-dimensional vasculature and controlled mechanical properties targeting soft tissues. Specifically, the initial part of the research...

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Oscar M.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be used in the management of pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies for diagnosing and assessing extent of lesions and for evaluating response to therapy. MR imaging studies often involve a combination of T1- and T2-weighted images in addition to MR angiography and fat-suppressed post-contrast sequences. The MR imaging features of these vascular anomalies when combined with clinical findings can aid in diagnosis. In cases of complex vascular malformations and syndromes associated with vascular anomalies, MR imaging can be used to evaluate accompanying soft-tissue and bone anomalies. This article reviews the MR imaging protocols and appearances of the most common pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies. (orig.)

  10. Nanotechnology in vascular tissue engineering: from nanoscaffolding towards rapid vessel biofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, Vladimir; Kasyanov, Vladimir; Markwald, Roger R

    2008-06-01

    The existing methods of biofabrication for vascular tissue engineering are still bioreactor-based, extremely expensive, laborious and time consuming and, furthermore, not automated, which would be essential for an economically successful large-scale commercialization. The advances in nanotechnology can bring additional functionality to vascular scaffolds, optimize internal vascular graft surface and even help to direct the differentiation of stem cells into the vascular cell phenotype. The development of rapid nanotechnology-based methods of vascular tissue biofabrication represents one of most important recent technological breakthroughs in vascular tissue engineering because it dramatically accelerates vascular tissue assembly and, importantly, also eliminates the need for a bioreactor-based scaffold cellularization process.

  11. The use of microtechnology and nanotechnology in fabricating vascularized tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregón, Raquel; Ramón-Azcón, Javier; Ahadian, Samad; Shiku, Hitoshi; Bae, Hojae; Ramalingam, Murugan; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) is a multidisciplinary research area that combines medicine, biology, and material science. In recent decades, microtechnology and nanotechnology have also been gradually integrated into this field and have become essential components of TE research. Tissues and complex organs in the body depend on a branched blood vessel system. One of the main objectives for TE researchers is to replicate this vessel system and obtain functional vascularized structures within engineered tissues or organs. With the help of new nanotechnology and microtechnology, significant progress has been made. Achievements include the design of nanoscale-level scaffolds with new functionalities, development of integrated and rapid nanotechnology methods for biofabrication of vascular tissues, discovery of new composite materials to direct differentiation of stem and inducible pluripotent stem cells into the vascular phenotype. Although numerous challenges to replicating vascularized tissue for clinical uses remain, the combination of these new advances has yielded new tools for producing functional vascular tissues in the near future.

  12. Design Approaches to Myocardial and Vascular Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintewe, Olukemi O; Roberts, Erin G; Rim, Nae-Gyune; Ferguson, Michael A H; Wong, Joyce Y

    2017-06-21

    Engineered tissues represent an increasingly promising therapeutic approach for correcting structural defects and promoting tissue regeneration in cardiovascular diseases. One of the challenges associated with this approach has been the necessity for the replacement tissue to promote sufficient vascularization to maintain functionality after implantation. This review highlights a number of promising prevascularization design approaches for introducing vasculature into engineered tissues. Although we focus on encouraging blood vessel formation within myocardial implants, we also discuss techniques developed for other tissues that could eventually become relevant to engineered cardiac tissues. Because the ultimate solution to engineered tissue vascularization will require collaboration between wide-ranging disciplines such as developmental biology, tissue engineering, and computational modeling, we explore contributions from each field.

  13. A simple tissue model for practicing ultrasound guided vascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The use of ultrasound in anaesthetic practice continues to be more established and the use of ultrasound guidance in establishing vascular access is recommended by various groups. We have developed a tissue model for the practice and skills development in ultrasound vascular access. Method: The tissue ...

  14. Three-dimensional bioprinting of thick vascularized tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesky, David B.; Homan, Kimberly A.; Skylar-Scott, Mark A.; Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2016-03-01

    The advancement of tissue and, ultimately, organ engineering requires the ability to pattern human tissues composed of cells, extracellular matrix, and vasculature with controlled microenvironments that can be sustained over prolonged time periods. To date, bioprinting methods have yielded thin tissues that only survive for short durations. To improve their physiological relevance, we report a method for bioprinting 3D cell-laden, vascularized tissues that exceed 1 cm in thickness and can be perfused on chip for long time periods (>6 wk). Specifically, we integrate parenchyma, stroma, and endothelium into a single thick tissue by coprinting multiple inks composed of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human neonatal dermal fibroblasts (hNDFs) within a customized extracellular matrix alongside embedded vasculature, which is subsequently lined with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). These thick vascularized tissues are actively perfused with growth factors to differentiate hMSCs toward an osteogenic lineage in situ. This longitudinal study of emergent biological phenomena in complex microenvironments represents a foundational step in human tissue generation.

  15. Microfluidic Bioprinting for Engineering Vascularized Tissues and Organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Pi, Qingmeng; van Genderen, Anne Metje

    2017-08-11

    Engineering vascularized tissue constructs and organoids has been historically challenging. Here we describe a novel method based on microfluidic bioprinting to generate a scaffold with multilayer interlacing hydrogel microfibers. To achieve smooth bioprinting, a core-sheath microfluidic printhead containing a composite bioink formulation extruded from the core flow and the crosslinking solution carried by the sheath flow, was designed and fitted onto the bioprinter. By blending gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) with alginate, a polysaccharide that undergoes instantaneous ionic crosslinking in the presence of select divalent ions, followed by a secondary photocrosslinking of the GelMA component to achieve permanent stabilization, a microfibrous scaffold could be obtained using this bioprinting strategy. Importantly, the endothelial cells encapsulated inside the bioprinted microfibers can form the lumen-like structures resembling the vasculature over the course of culture for 16 days. The endothelialized microfibrous scaffold may be further used as a vascular bed to construct a vascularized tissue through subsequent seeding of the secondary cell type into the interstitial space of the microfibers. Microfluidic bioprinting provides a generalized strategy in convenient engineering of vascularized tissues at high fidelity.

  16. Effect of Protein Hydrolysates on Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossum, Carlo G.; Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    Effect of Fish Protein Hydrolysates on Pancreatic Cancer Cells Carlo G. Ossum1, Lisa Lystbæk Andersen2, Henrik Hauch Nielsen2, Else K. Hoffmann1, and Flemming Jessen2 1University of Copenhagen, Department of Biology, Denmark, 2Technical University of Denmark (DTU), National Food Institute, Denmark...... hydrolysates obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis on cancer cell proliferation. Skin and belly flap muscle from trout were hydrolysed with the unspecific proteases Alcalase, Neutrase, or UE1 (all from Novozymes, Bagsværd, Denmark) to a hydrolysis degree of 1-15%. The hydrolysates were tested for biological...... activities affecting cell proliferation and ability to modulate caspase activity in pancreatic cancer cells COLO357 and BxPC-3 in vitro. A number of the hydrolysates showed caspase promoting activity; in particular products containing muscle tissue, i.e. belly flap, were able to stimulate caspase activity...

  17. Self-Condensation Culture Enables Vascularization of Tissue Fragments for Efficient Therapeutic Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinobu Takahashi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Clinical transplantation of tissue fragments, including islets, faces a critical challenge because of a lack of effective strategies that ensure efficient engraftment through the timely integration of vascular networks. We recently developed a complex organoid engineering method by “self-condensation” culture based on mesenchymal cell-dependent contraction, thereby enabling dissociated heterotypic lineages including endothelial cells to self-organize in a spatiotemporal manner. Here, we report the successful adaptation of this method for generating complex tissues from diverse tissue fragments derived from various organs, including pancreatic islets. The self-condensation of human and mouse islets with endothelial cells not only promoted functionalization in culture but also massively improved post-transplant engraftment. Therapeutically, fulminant diabetic mice were more efficiently treated by a vascularized islet transplant compared with the conventional approach. Given the general limitations of post-transplant vascularization associated with 3D tissue-based therapy, our approach offers a promising means of enhancing efficacy in the context of therapeutic tissue transplantation. : Takahashi et al. report on generating vascularized islet tissue from humans and mice. After transplantation, vascularized islets significantly improve survival of diabetic mice, demonstrating the quick normalization of blood glucose compared with conventional islet transplantation. Keywords: tissue engineering, tissue-based therapy, vascularization, islet transplantation, organoid

  18. Engineering the mechanical and biological properties of nanofibrous vascular grafts for in situ vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jeffrey J D; Yu, Jian; Wang, Aijun; Lee, Randall; Fang, Jun; Li, Song

    2017-08-17

    Synthetic small diameter vascular grafts have a high failure rate, and endothelialization is critical for preventing thrombosis and graft occlusion. A promising approach is in situ tissue engineering, whereby an acellular scaffold is implanted and provides stimulatory cues to guide the in situ remodeling into a functional blood vessel. An ideal scaffold should have sufficient binding sites for biomolecule immobilization and a mechanical property similar to native tissue. Here we developed a novel method to blend low molecular weight (LMW) elastic polymer during electrospinning process to increase conjugation sites and to improve the mechanical property of vascular grafts. LMW elastic polymer improved the elasticity of the scaffolds, and significantly increased the amount of heparin conjugated to the micro/nanofibrous scaffolds, which in turn increased the loading capacity of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and prolonged the release of VEGF. Vascular grafts were implanted into the carotid artery of rats to evaluate the in vivo performance. VEGF treatment significantly enhanced endothelium formation and the overall patency of vascular grafts. Heparin coating also increased cell infiltration into the electrospun grafts, thus increasing the production of collagen and elastin within the graft wall. This work demonstrates that LMW elastic polymer blending is an approach to engineer the mechanical and biological property of micro/nanofibrous vascular grafts for in situ vascular tissue engineering.

  19. Cell sheet engineering using the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue as a vascularization strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, M.; Cerqueira, Mariana Teixeira; Santos, T. C.; Marques, Belém Sampaio; Ludovico, Paula; Marques, A. P.; Pirraco, Rogério P.; Reis, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Current vascularization strategies for Tissue Engineering constructs, in particular cell sheet-based, are limited by time-consuming and expensive endothelial cell isolation and/or by the complexity of using extrinsic growth factors. Herein, we propose an alternative strategy using angiogenic cell sheets (CS) obtained from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue that can be incorporated into more complex constructs. Cells from the SVF were cultured in normoxic and hypoxic conditi...

  20. Acceleration of vascularized bone tissue-engineered constructs in a large animal model combining intrinsic and extrinsic vascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Annika; Beier, Justus P; Hess, Andreas; Gerber, Thomas; Arkudas, Andreas; Horch, Raymund E; Boos, Anja M

    2015-05-01

    During the last decades, a range of excellent and promising strategies in Bone Tissue Engineering have been developed. However, the remaining major problem is the lack of vascularization. In this study, extrinsic and intrinsic vascularization strategies were combined for acceleration of vascularization. For optimal biomechanical stability of the defect site and simplifying future transition into clinical application, a primary stable and approved nanostructured bone substitute in clinically relevant size was used. An arteriovenous (AV) loop was microsurgically created in sheep and implanted, together with the bone substitute, in either perforated titanium chambers (intrinsic/extrinsic) for different time intervals of up to 18 weeks or isolated Teflon(®) chambers (intrinsic) for 18 weeks. Over time, magnetic resonance imaging and micro-computed tomography (CT) analyses illustrate the dense vascularization arising from the AV loop. The bone substitute was completely interspersed with newly formed tissue after 12 weeks of intrinsic/extrinsic vascularization and after 18 weeks of intrinsic/extrinsic and intrinsic vascularization. Successful matrix change from an inorganic to an organic scaffold could be demonstrated in vascularized areas with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Using the intrinsic vascularization method only, the degradation of the scaffold and osteoclastic activity was significantly lower after 18 weeks, compared with 12 and 18 weeks in the combined intrinsic-extrinsic model. Immunohistochemical staining revealed an increase in bone tissue formation over time, without a difference between intrinsic/extrinsic and intrinsic vascularization after 18 weeks. This study presents the combination of extrinsic and intrinsic vascularization strategies for the generation of an axially vascularized bone substitute in clinically relevant size using a large animal model. The additional extrinsic vascularization promotes tissue

  1. [Research progress of co-culture system for constructing vascularized tissue engineered bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Weili; Xiang, Zhou

    2014-02-01

    To review the research progress of the co-culture system for constructing vascularized tissue engineered bone. The recent literature concerning the co-culture system for constructing vascularized tissue engineered bone was reviewed, including the selection of osteogenic and endothelial lineages, the design and surface modification of scaffolds, the models and dimensions of the co-culture system, the mechanism, the culture conditions, and their application progress. The construction of vascularized tissue engineered bone is the prerequisite for their survival and further clinical application in vivo. Mesenchymal stem cells (owning the excellent osteogenic potential) and endothelial progenitor cells (capable of directional differentiation into endothelial cell) are considered as attractive cell types for the co-culture system to construct vascularized tissue engineered bone. The culture conditions need to be further optimized. Furthermore, how to achieve the clinical goals of minimal invasion and autologous transplantation also need to be further studied. The strategy of the co-culture system for constructing vascularized tissue engineered bone would have a very broad prospects for clinical application in future.

  2. Experimental comparison study of the tissue characteristics in transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and vascular stent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Qin; An Yanli; Deng Gang; Fang Wen; Zhu Guangyu; Niu Huanzhang; Yu Hui; Li Guozhao; Teng Gaojun; Wang Zhen; Wei Xiaoying

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the tissue characteristics within vascular stent and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt(TIPS) on swine and to provide more information for the understanding and prevention of vascular stent and TIPS restenosis. Methods: Animal models for TIPS were built in 6 swine and vascular stents were implanted in iliac veins simultaneously. 14-28 days after the operation, the 6 swine were killed to remove the TIPS and vascular stent and the pathological examinations were performed on the tissues within the shunt and stent. The similarities and differences of the tissues within the shunt and stent were analyzed with Krttskal Wallis test. Results: Restenosis of TIPS occurred in 4 models and complete occlusion were seen in 2, while all vascular stents were patent and coated with a thin layer of intimal tissue. Electron microscopic results showed that the tissues in restenotic TIPS were loose and with more extra matrix and fibers, and less smooth muscle, fibroblastic and myofibroblastic cells with different and irregular shape and rich secretory granules. The tissues in patent TIPS contained more extra fibers, smooth muscle and fibroblastic cells with normal organelle. The intimal tissues in vascular stent contained more fibers and fibroblasts cells, less smooth muscle cells. On immunohistochemical staining, the tissues in restenotic and patent TIPS as well as the intimal tissues in vascular stent had strong positive expression for anti-SMC- actin-α, the expression were gradually weakened for PCNA, the intimal tissues in vascular stent had a strong positive expression for vimentin, while the expression of the tissues in restenotic and patent TIPS were weakened gradually. For myoglobulin, the tissues in restenotic TIPS had weakly positive expression, the expression in patent TIPS and vascular stent were almost negative. Western blot results for TGF-β showed that the absorbance ratios of the intima tissues in vascular stent, normal vascular

  3. Do cell based tissue engineering products for meniscus regeneration influence vascularization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Matthias; Ehrenreich, Tobias; Koehl, Gudrun; Pattappa, Girish; Pfeifer, Christian; Loibl, Markus; Müller, Michael; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter; Zellner, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Meniscus regeneration is observed within the peripheral, vascularized zone but decreases in the inner two thirds alongside the vascularization. Within this avascular area, cell-based tissue-engineering-approaches appear to be a promising strategy for the treatment of meniscal defects. Evaluation of the angiogenic potential of cell-based tissue-engineering-products for meniscus healing. Evaluation of angiogenesis induced by rabbit meniscus-pellets, meniscus-cells (MC) or mesenchymal stem-cells (MSC) in cell-based tissue-engineering-products within a rabbit meniscus-ring was performed using a transparent dorsal skin fold chamber in nude mice. Observations were undertaken during a 14 days period. Cell preconditioning differed between experimental groups. Immunohistochemical analysis of the regenerated tissue in the meniscus-ring induced by cell loaded composite scaffolds for differentiation and anti-angiogenic factors were performed. Meniscus-pellets and MSC-/MC-based tissue-engineering-products induced angiogenesis. An accelerated vascularization was detected in the group of meniscus-pellets derived from the vascularized zone compared to avascular meniscus-pellets. In terms of cell-based tissue-engineering-products, chondrogenic preconditioning resulted in significantly increased vessel growth. MSC-constructs showed an accelerated angiogenesis. Immunohistochemical evaluation showed a progressive differentiation and lower content for anti-angiogenic endostatin in the precultured group. Preconditioning of MC-/MSC-based tissue-engineering-products is a promising tool to influence the angiogenic potential of tissue-engineering-products and to adapt these properties according to the aimed tissue qualities.

  4. Tissue-Engineered Vascular Rings from Human iPSC-Derived Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biraja C. Dash

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need for an efficient approach to obtain a large-scale and renewable source of functional human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs to establish robust, patient-specific tissue model systems for studying the pathogenesis of vascular disease, and for developing novel therapeutic interventions. Here, we have derived a large quantity of highly enriched functional VSMCs from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-VSMCs. Furthermore, we have engineered 3D tissue rings from hiPSC-VSMCs using a facile one-step cellular self-assembly approach. The tissue rings are mechanically robust and can be used for vascular tissue engineering and disease modeling of supravalvular aortic stenosis syndrome. Our method may serve as a model system, extendable to study other vascular proliferative diseases for drug screening. Thus, this report describes an exciting platform technology with broad utility for manufacturing cell-based tissues and materials for various biomedical applications.

  5. Dietary fish protein hydrolysates containing bioactive motifs affect serum and adipose tissue fatty acid compositions, serum lipids, postprandial glucose regulation and growth in obese Zucker fa/fa rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drotningsvik, Aslaug; Mjøs, Svein A; Pampanin, Daniela M; Slizyte, Rasa; Carvajal, Ana; Remman, Tore; Høgøy, Ingmar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2016-10-01

    The world's fisheries and aquaculture industries produce vast amounts of protein-containing by-products that can be enzymatically hydrolysed to smaller peptides and possibly be used as additives to functional foods and nutraceuticals targeted for patients with obesity-related metabolic disorders. To investigate the effects of fish protein hydrolysates on markers of metabolic disorders, obese Zucker fa/fa rats consumed diets with 75 % of protein from casein/whey (CAS) and 25 % from herring (HER) or salmon (SAL) protein hydrolysate from rest raw material, or 100 % protein from CAS for 4 weeks. The fatty acid compositions were similar in the experimental diets, and none of them contained any long-chain n-3 PUFA. Ratios of lysine:arginine and methionine:glycine were lower in HER and SAL diets when compared with CAS, and taurine was detected only in fish protein hydrolysate diets. Motifs with reported hypocholesterolemic or antidiabetic activities were identified in both fish protein hydrolysates. Rats fed HER diet had lower serum HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, and higher serum TAG, MUFA and n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio compared with CAS-fed rats. SAL rats gained more weight and had better postprandial glucose regulation compared with CAS rats. Serum lipids and fatty acids were only marginally affected by SAL, but adipose tissue contained less total SFA and more total n-3 PUFA when compared with CAS. To conclude, diets containing hydrolysed rest raw material from herring or salmon proteins may affect growth, lipid metabolism, postprandial glucose regulation and fatty acid composition in serum and adipose tissue in obese Zucker rats.

  6. Tissue vascularization through 3D printing: Will technology bring us flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, S J; Miller, J S

    2015-05-01

    Though in vivo models provide the most physiologically relevant environment for studying tissue function, in vitro studies provide researchers with explicit control over experimental conditions and the potential to develop high throughput testing methods. In recent years, advancements in developmental biology research and imaging techniques have significantly improved our understanding of the processes involved in vascular development. However, the task of recreating the complex, multi-scale vasculature seen in in vivo systems remains elusive. 3D bioprinting offers a potential method to generate controlled vascular networks with hierarchical structure approaching that of in vivo networks. Bioprinting is an interdisciplinary field that relies on advances in 3D printing technology along with advances in imaging and computational modeling, which allow researchers to monitor cellular function and to better understand cellular environment within the printed tissue. As bioprinting technologies improve with regards to resolution, printing speed, available materials, and automation, 3D printing could be used to generate highly controlled vascularized tissues in a high throughput manner for use in regenerative medicine and the development of in vitro tissue models for research in developmental biology and vascular diseases. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. High-performance liquid chromatographic quantitation of desmosine plus isodesmosine in elastin and whole tissue hydrolysates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soskel, N.T.

    1987-01-01

    Quantitation of desmosine and isodesmosine, the major crosslinks in elastin, has been of interest because of their uniqueness and use as markers of that protein. Accurate measurement of these crosslinks may allow determination of elastin degradation in vivo and elastin content in tissues, obviating lengthy extraction procedures. We have developed a method of quantitating desmosine plus isodesmosine in hydrolysates of tissue and insoluble elastin using high-performance liquid chromatographic separation and absorbance detection that is rapid (21-35 min) and sensitive (accurate linearity from 100 pmol to 5 nmol). This method has been used to quantitate desmosines in elastin from bovine nuchal ligament and lung and in whole aorta from hamsters. The ability to completely separate [ 3 H]lysine from desmosine plus isodesmosine allows the method to be used to study incorporation of lysine into crosslinks in elastin

  8. Inhibitory Compounds in Lignocellulosic Biomass Hydrolysates during Hydrolysate Fermentation Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zha, Y.; Muilwijk, B.; Coulier, L.C.; Punt, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    To compare the composition and performance of various lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates as fermentation media, 8 hydrolysates were generated from a grass-like and a wood biomass. The hydrolysate preparation methods used were 1) dilute acid, 2) mild alkaline, 3) alkaline/peracetic acid, and 4)

  9. The fractionation of adipose tissue procedure to obtain stromal vascular fractions for regenerative purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, Joris A.; Stevens, Hieronymus P.; Parvizi, Mojtaba; van der Lei, Berend; Harmsen, Martin C.

    2016-01-01

    Autologous adipose tissue transplantation is clinically used to reduce dermal scarring and to restore volume loss. The therapeutic benefit on tissue damage more likely depends on the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue than on the adipocyte fraction. This stromal vascular fraction can be

  10. The effects of vascularized tissue transfer on re-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, K.; Ashton, M.W.; Taylor, G.I.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Nowadays, radical re-irradiation of locally recurrent squamous cell carcinoma is being increasingly tried. The process usually involves some form of surgical excision and vascularized tissue transfer followed by re-irradiation. The aim of this study was to examine the extent of protection from the effects of re-irradiation provided by vascularized tissue transfer. Methods and Materials: One hundred Sprague Dawley rats had their left thighs irradiated to a total dose of 72Gy in 8 fractions, one fraction per day, 5 days per week. The rats were then divided into two groups: At 4 months, one half of the rats had 50% of their quadriceps musculature excised and replaced with a vascularized non-irradiated rectus abdominous myocutaneous flap. The other group served as the control. Six months following the initial radiotherapy all rats were then re-irradiated with either 75 or 90% of the original dose. Incidence of necrosis and the extent of necrosis was measured. Microvasculature of control, transplanted muscle and recipient site was studied by micro-corrosion cast technique and histology of cast specimen. tissues were sampled at pre-irradiation and at 2, 6 and 12 months post re-irradiation. Microvascular surface area was measured from the histology of cast specimen. Results: Necrosis in the control group was clinically evident at 6 weeks post re irradiation and by 10 months all rats developed necrosis. Forty per cent of the thigh that received 75% of the original dose on re-irradiation did not develop any necrosis by 13 months. Other groups developed necrosis to variable extents, however a rim of tissue around the graft always survived. The average thickness of surviving tissue was 9mm. (range being 4-25 mm). None of the transferred flap nor re-irradiated recipient quadriceps developed necrosis. Conclusion: 1. Transplanted rectus abdominus myocutaneous flap and undisturbed muscle have similar radiation tolerance. 2. Vascularized myocutaneous flap offers

  11. Prefabrication of axial vascularized tissue engineering coral bone by an arteriovenous loop: A better model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Qingshan; Shang Hongtao; Wu Wei; Chen Fulin; Zhang Junrui; Guo Jiaping; Mao Tianqiu

    2012-01-01

    The most important problem for the survival of thick 3-dimensional tissues is the lack of vascularization in the context of bone tissue engineering. In this study, a modified arteriovenous loop (AVL) was developed to prefabricate an axial vascularized tissue engineering coral bone in rabbit, with comparison of the arteriovenous bundle (AVB) model. An arteriovenous fistula between rabbit femoral artery and vein was anastomosed to form an AVL. It was placed in a circular side groove of the coral block. The complex was wrapped with an expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene membrane and implanted beneath inguinal skin. After 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks, the degree of vascularization was evaluated by India ink perfusion, histological examination, vascular casts, and scanning electron microscopy images of vascular endangium. Newly formed fibrous tissues and vasculature extended over the surfaces and invaded the interspaces of entire coral block. The new blood vessels robustly sprouted from the AVL. Those invaginated cavities in the vascular endangium from scanning electron microscopy indicated vessel's sprouted pores. Above indexes in AVL model are all superior to that in AVB model, indicating that the modified AVL model could more effectively develop vascularization in larger tissue engineering bone. - Highlights: ► A modified arteriovenous loop (AVL) model in rabbit was developed in this study. ► Axial prevascularization was induced in a larger coral block by using the AVL. ► The prefabrication of axial vascularized coral bone is superior as vascular carrier.

  12. Prefabrication of axial vascularized tissue engineering coral bone by an arteriovenous loop: a better model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qing-shan; Shang, Hong-tao; Wu, Wei; Chen, Fu-lin; Zhang, Jun-rui; Guo, Jia-ping; Mao, Tian-qiu

    2012-08-01

    The most important problem for the survival of thick 3-dimensional tissues is the lack of vascularization in the context of bone tissue engineering. In this study, a modified arteriovenous loop (AVL) was developed to prefabricate an axial vascularized tissue engineering coral bone in rabbit, with comparison of the arteriovenous bundle (AVB) model. An arteriovenous fistula between rabbit femoral artery and vein was anastomosed to form an AVL. It was placed in a circular side groove of the coral block. The complex was wrapped with an expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene membrane and implanted beneath inguinal skin. After 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks, the degree of vascularization was evaluated by India ink perfusion, histological examination, vascular casts, and scanning electron microscopy images of vascular endangium. Newly formed fibrous tissues and vasculature extended over the surfaces and invaded the interspaces of entire coral block. The new blood vessels robustly sprouted from the AVL. Those invaginated cavities in the vascular endangium from scanning electron microscopy indicated vessel's sprouted pores. Above indexes in AVL model are all superior to that in AVB model, indicating that the modified AVL model could more effectively develop vascularization in larger tissue engineering bone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Vascular and micro-environmental influences on MSC-coral hydroxyapatite construct-based bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lei; Wang, Qian; Gu, Congmin; Wu, Jingguo; Wang, Jian; Kang, Ning; Hu, Jiewei; Xie, Fang; Yan, Li; Liu, Xia; Cao, Yilin; Xiao, Ran

    2011-11-01

    Bone tissue engineering (BTE) has been demonstrated an effective approach to generate bone tissue and repair bone defect in ectopic and orthotopic sites. The strategy of using a prevascularized tissue-engineered bone grafts (TEBG) fabricated ectopically to repair bone defects, which is called live bone graft surgery, has not been reported. And the quantitative advantages of vascularization and osteogenic environment in promoting engineered bone formation have not been defined yet. In the current study we generated a tissue engineered bone flap with a vascular pedicle of saphenous arteriovenous in which an organized vascular network was observed after 4 weeks implantation, and followed by a successful repaire of fibular defect in beagle dogs. Besides, after a 9 months long term observation of engineered bone formation in ectopic and orthotopic sites, four CHA (coral hydroxyapatite) scaffold groups were evaluated by CT (computed tomography) analysis. By the comparison of bone formation and scaffold degradation between different groups, the influences of vascularization and micro-environment on tissue engineered bone were quantitatively analyzed. The results showed that in the first 3 months vascularization improved engineered bone formation by 2 times of non-vascular group and bone defect micro-environment improved it by 3 times of ectopic group, and the CHA-scaffold degradation was accelerated as well. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tissue engineered vascular grafts: Origins, development, and current strategies for clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benrashid, Ehsan; McCoy, Christopher C; Youngwirth, Linda M; Kim, Jina; Manson, Roberto J; Otto, James C; Lawson, Jeffrey H

    2016-04-15

    Since the development of a dependable and durable synthetic non-autogenous vascular conduit in the mid-twentieth century, the field of vascular surgery has experienced tremendous growth. Concomitant with this growth, development in the field of bioengineering and the development of different tissue engineering techniques have expanded the armamentarium of the surgeon for treating a variety of complex cardiovascular diseases. The recent development of completely tissue engineered vascular conduits that can be implanted for clinical application is a particularly exciting development in this field. With the rapid advances in the field of tissue engineering, the great hope of the surgeon remains that this conduit will function like a true blood vessel with an intact endothelial layer, with the ability to respond to endogenous vasoactive compounds. Eventually, these engineered tissues may have the potential to supplant older organic but not truly biologic technologies, which are used currently. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cell sheet engineering using the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue as a vascularization strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marina; Cerqueira, Mariana T; Santos, Tírcia C; Sampaio-Marques, Belém; Ludovico, Paula; Marques, Alexandra P; Pirraco, Rogério P; Reis, Rui L

    2017-06-01

    Current vascularization strategies for Tissue Engineering constructs, in particular cell sheet-based, are limited by time-consuming and expensive endothelial cell isolation and/or by the complexity of using extrinsic growth factors. Herein, we propose an alternative strategy using angiogenic cell sheets (CS) obtained from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue that can be incorporated into more complex constructs. Cells from the SVF were cultured in normoxic and hypoxic conditions for up to 8days in the absence of extrinsic growth factors. Immunocytochemistry against CD31 and CD146 revealed spontaneous organization in capillary-like structures, more complex after hypoxic conditioning. Inhibition of HIF-1α pathway hindered capillary-like structure formation in SVF cells cultured in hypoxia, suggesting a role of HIF-1α. Moreover, hypoxic SVF cells showed a trend for increased secretion of angiogenic factors, which was reflected in increased network formation by endothelial cells cultured on matrigel using that conditioned medium. In vivo implantation of SVF CS in a mouse hind limb ischemia model revealed that hypoxia-conditioned CS led to improved restoration of blood flow. Both in vitro and in vivo data suggest that SVF CS can be used as simple and cost-efficient tools to promote functional vascularization of TE constructs. Neovascularization after implantation is a major obstacle for producing clinically viable cell sheet-based tissue engineered constructs. Strategies using endothelial cells and extrinsic angiogenic growth factors are expensive and time consuming and may raise concerns of tumorigenicity. In this manuscript, we describe a simplified approach using angiogenic cell sheets fabricated from the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue. The strong angiogenic behavior of these cell sheets, achieved without the use of external growth factors, was further stimulated by low oxygen culture. When implanted in an in vivo model of hind limb

  16. Bioreactor-induced mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation and elastic fiber assembly in engineered vascular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shigang; Mequanint, Kibret

    2017-09-01

    In vitro maturation of engineered vascular tissues (EVT) requires the appropriate incorporation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) and extracellular matrix (ECM) components similar to native arteries. To this end, the aim of the current study was to fabricate 4mm inner diameter vascular tissues using mesenchymal progenitor cells seeded into tubular scaffolds. A dual-pump bioreactor operating either in perfusion or pulsatile perfusion mode was used to generate physiological-like stimuli to promote progenitor cell differentiation, extracellular elastin production, and tissue maturation. Our data demonstrated that pulsatile forces and perfusion of 3D tubular constructs from both the lumenal and ablumenal sides with culture media significantly improved tissue assembly, effectively inducing mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation to SMCs with contemporaneous elastin production. With bioreactor cultivation, progenitor cells differentiated toward smooth muscle lineage characterized by the expression of smooth muscle (SM)-specific markers smooth muscle alpha actin (SM-α-actin) and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC). More importantly, pulsatile perfusion bioreactor cultivation enhanced the synthesis of tropoelastin and its extracellular cross-linking into elastic fiber compared with static culture controls. Taken together, the current study demonstrated progenitor cell differentiation and vascular tissue assembly, and provides insights into elastin synthesis and assembly to fibers. Incorporation of elastin into engineered vascular tissues represents a critical design goal for both mechanical and biological functions. In the present study, we seeded porous tubular scaffolds with multipotent mesenchymal progenitor cells and cultured in dual-pump pulsatile perfusion bioreactor. Physiological-like stimuli generated by bioreactor not only induced mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation to vascular smooth muscle lineage but also actively promoted elastin synthesis and

  17. Tailoring the foreign body response for in situ vascular tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothuizen, T.C.; Damanik, Febriyani; Anderson, J.; Lavrijsen, T.; Cox, M.A.J.; Rabelink, T.J.; Moroni, Lorenzo; Rotmans, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a screening platform for a guided in situ vascular tissue engineering approach. Polymer rods were developed that upon 3 weeks of subcutaneous implantation evoke a controlled inflammatory response culminating in encapsulation by a tube-shaped autologous fibrocellular tissue

  18. Synergistic actions of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells in vascularizing bioengineered tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo K Moioli

    Full Text Available Poor angiogenesis is a major road block for tissue repair. The regeneration of virtually all tissues is limited by angiogenesis, given the diffusion of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products is limited to a few hundred micrometers. We postulated that co-transplantation of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells improves angiogenesis of tissue repair and hence the outcome of regeneration. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by using bone as a model whose regeneration is impaired unless it is vascularized. Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs were isolated from each of three healthy human bone marrow samples and reconstituted in a porous scaffold. MSCs were seeded in micropores of 3D calcium phosphate (CP scaffolds, followed by infusion of gel-suspended CD34(+ hematopoietic cells. Co-transplantation of CD34(+ HSCs and CD34(- MSCs in microporous CP scaffolds subcutaneously in the dorsum of immunocompromised mice yielded vascularized tissue. The average vascular number of co-transplanted CD34(+ and MSC scaffolds was substantially greater than MSC transplantation alone. Human osteocalcin was expressed in the micropores of CP scaffolds and was significantly increased upon co-transplantation of MSCs and CD34(+ cells. Human nuclear staining revealed the engraftment of transplanted human cells in vascular endothelium upon co-transplantation of MSCs and CD34(+ cells. Based on additional in vitro results of endothelial differentiation of CD34(+ cells by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, we adsorbed VEGF with co-transplanted CD34(+ and MSCs in the microporous CP scaffolds in vivo, and discovered that vascular number and diameter further increased, likely owing to the promotion of endothelial differentiation of CD34(+ cells by VEGF. Together, co-transplantation of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells may improve the regeneration of vascular dependent tissues such as bone

  19. Pattern of Bone Generation after Irradiation in Vascularized Tissue Engineered Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eweida, Ahmad; Fathi, Ibrahim; Eltawila, Ahmed M; Elsherif, Ahmad M; Elkerm, Yasser; Harhaus, Leila; Kneser, Ulrich; Sakr, Mahmoud F

    2018-02-01

     Regenerative medicine modalities provide promising alternatives to conventional reconstruction techniques but are still deficient after malignant tumor excision or irradiation due to defective vascularization.  We investigated the pattern of bone formation in axially vascularized tissue engineering constructs (AVTECs) after irradiation in a study that mimics the clinical scenario after head and neck cancer. Heterotopic bone generation was induced in a subcutaneously implanted AVTEC in the thigh of six male New Zealand rabbits. The tissue construct was made up of Nanobone (Artoss GmbH; Rostock, Germany) granules mixed with autogenous bone marrow and 80 μL of bone morphogenic protein-2 at a concentration of 1.5 μg/μL. An arteriovenous loop was created microsurgically between the saphenous vessels and implanted in the core of the construct to induce axial vascularization. The constructs were subjected to external beam irradiation on postoperative day 20 with a single dose of 15 Gy. The constructs were removed 20 days after irradiation and subjected to histological and immunohistochemical analysis for vascularization, bone formation, apoptosis, and cellular proliferation.  The vascularized constructs showed homogenous vascularization and bone formation both in their central and peripheral regions. Although vascularity, proliferation, and apoptosis were similar between central and peripheral regions of the constructs, significantly more bone was formed in the central regions of the constructs.  The study shows for the first time the pattern of bone formation in AVTECs after irradiation using doses comparable to those applied after head and neck cancer. Axial vascularization probably enhances the osteoinductive properties in the central regions of AVTECs after irradiation. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. The Vascular Niche in Tissue Repair: A Therapeutic Target for Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, Francisco J.; Silva, Maria Elena; Aigner, Ludwig

    2017-01-01

    Editorial on the Research Topic The Vascular Niche in Tissue Repair: A Therapeutic Target for Regeneration In mammals, although regeneration is quite restricted to a number of tissues and organs, this particular healing process is possible through the existence of tissue-resident stem/progenitor cells. Upon injury, these cells are activated, they proliferate, migrate, and differentiate into tissue-specific cells and functionally replace the damaged or lost cells. Besides this, angio...

  1. Vascular imaging with contrast agent in hard and soft tissues using microcomputed-tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blery, P; Pilet, P; Bossche, A Vanden-; Thery, A; Guicheux, J; Amouriq, Y; Espitalier, F; Mathieu, N; Weiss, P

    2016-04-01

    Vascularization is essential for many tissues and is a main requisite for various tissue-engineering strategies. Different techniques are used for highlighting vasculature, in vivo and ex vivo, in 2-D or 3-D including histological staining, immunohistochemistry, radiography, angiography, microscopy, computed tomography (CT) or micro-CT, both stand-alone and synchrotron system. Vascularization can be studied with or without a contrast agent. This paper presents the results obtained with the latest Skyscan micro-CT (Skyscan 1272, Bruker, Belgium) following barium sulphate injection replacing the bloodstream in comparison with results obtained with a Skyscan In Vivo 1076. Different hard and soft tissues were perfused with contrast agent and were harvested. Samples were analysed using both forms of micro-CT, and improved results were shown using this new micro-CT. This study highlights the vasculature using micro-CT methods. The results obtained with the Skyscan 1272 are clearly defined compared to results obtained with Skyscan 1076. In particular, this instrument highlights the high number of small vessels, which were not seen before at lower resolution. This new micro-CT opens broader possibilities in detection and characterization of the 3-D vascular tree to assess vascular tissue engineering strategies. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  2. Scintigraphic assessment of vascularity and blood-tissue barrier of human brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Front, D.

    1978-01-01

    Assessment of vascularity and blood-tissue barrier was performed by sequential scintigraphy in 43 patients with brain tumours. The blood-tumour barrier was evaluated by use of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, and vascularity using sup(99m)Tc-labelled red blood cells. Three groups of tumours were found: tumours with low vascularity and permeable barrier, tumours with high vascularity and permeable barrier, and tumours with low vascularity and relatively impermeable barrier. The first group indicates that when vessels are permeable, there may be a rapid penetration of large amounts of pertechnetate into the tumour even when vascularity is not increased. In the other two groups penetration of pertechnetate into the tumour is affected by vascularity, as it determines the total area where passage of the radiopharmaceutical takes place. It is suggested that the permeability of the blood-tumour barrier and the amount of vascularity may have an effect on the success of chemotherapy in brain tumours. (author)

  3. Antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of the dipeptide isoleucine-tryptophan and whey protein hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M; Kopaliani, I; Jannasch, A; Mund, C; Todorov, V; Henle, T; Deussen, A

    2015-12-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are treatment of choice in hypertensive patients. Clinically used inhibitors exhibit a structural similarity to naturally occurring peptides. This study evaluated antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of ACE-inhibiting peptides derived from food proteins in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Isoleucine-tryptophan (in vitro IC50 for ACE = 0.7 μm), a whey protein hydrolysate containing an augmented fraction of isoleucine-tryptophan, or captopril was given to spontaneously hypertensive rats (n = 60) over 14 weeks. Two further groups, receiving either no supplement (Placebo) or intact whey protein, served as controls. Systolic blood pressure age-dependently increased in the Placebo group, whereas the blood pressure rise was effectively blunted by isoleucine-tryptophan, whey protein hydrolysate and captopril (-42 ± 3, -38 ± 5, -55 ± 4 mm Hg vs. Placebo). At study end, myocardial mass was lower in isoleucine-tryptophan and captopril groups but only partially in the hydrolysate group. Coronary flow reserve (1 μm adenosine) was improved in isoleucine-tryptophan and captopril groups. Plasma ACE activity was significantly decreased in isoleucine-tryptophan, hydrolysate and captopril groups, but in aortic tissue only after isoleucine-tryptophan or captopril treatment. This was associated with lowered expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2. Following isoleucine-tryptophan and captopril treatments, gene expression of renin was significantly increased indicating an active feedback within renin-angiotensin system. Whey protein hydrolysate and isoleucine-tryptophan powerfully inhibit plasma ACE resulting in antihypertensive effects. Moreover, isoleucine-tryptophan blunts tissue ACE activity, reduces matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity and improves coronary flow reserve. Thus, whey protein hydrolysate and particularly isoleucine-tryptophan may serve as innovative food additives with the goal of attenuating

  4. Patient-specific cardiovascular progenitor cells derived from integration-free induced pluripotent stem cells for vascular tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiang; Wang, Yongyu; Jiao, Jiao; Liu, Zhongning; Zhao, Chao; Zhou, Zhou; Zhang, Zhanpeng; Forde, Kaitlynn; Wang, Lunchang; Wang, Jiangang; Baylink, David J; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Gao, Shaorong; Yang, Bo; Chen, Y Eugene; Ma, Peter X

    2015-12-01

    Tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) are promising in regenerating a live vascular replacement. However, the vascular cell source is limited, and it is crucial to develop a scaffold that accommodates new type of vascular progenitor cells and facilitates in vivo lineage specification of the cells into functional vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to regenerate vascular tissue. In the present study, integration-free human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) were established from patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells through episomal vector nucleofection of reprogramming factors. The established hiPSCs were then induced into mesoderm-originated cardiovascular progenitor cells (CVPCs) with a highly efficient directed lineage specification method. The derived CVPCs were demonstrated to be able to differentiate into functional VSMCs. Subcutaneous implantation of CVPCs seeded on macroporous nanofibrous poly(l-lactide) scaffolds led to in vivo VSMC lineage specification and matrix deposition inside the scaffolds. In summary, we established integration-free patient-specific hiPSCs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, derived CVPCs through directed lineage specification, and developed an advanced scaffold for these progenitor cells to further differentiate in vivo into VSMCs and regenerate vascular tissue in a subcutaneous implantation model. This study has established an efficient patient-specific approach towards in vivo regeneration of vascular tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen matching practices in vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation: a survey of major transplantation centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashvetiya, Tamara; Mundinger, Gerhard S; Kukuruga, Debra; Bojovic, Branko; Christy, Michael R; Dorafshar, Amir H; Rodriguez, Eduardo D

    2014-07-01

    Vascularized composite tissue allotransplant recipients are often highly sensitized to human leukocyte antigens because of multiple prior blood transfusions and other reconstructive operations. The use of peripheral blood obtained from dead donors for crossmatching may be insufficient because of life support measures taken for the donor before donation. No study has been published investigating human leukocyte antigen matching practices in this field. A survey addressing human leukocyte antigen crossmatching methods was generated and sent to 22 vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation centers with active protocols worldwide. Results were compiled by center and compared using two-tailed t tests. Twenty of 22 centers (91 percent) responded to the survey. Peripheral blood was the most commonly reported donor sample for vascularized composite tissue allotransplant crossmatching [78 percent of centers (n=14)], with only 22 percent (n=4) using lymph nodes. However, 56 percent of the 18 centers (n=10) that had performed vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation reported that they harvested lymph nodes for crossmatching. Of responding individuals, 62.5 percent (10 of 16 individuals) felt that lymph nodes were the best donor sample for crossmatching. A slight majority of vascularized composite tissue allotransplant centers that have performed clinical transplants have used lymph nodes for human leukocyte antigen matching, and centers appear to be divided on the utility of lymph node harvest. The use of lymph nodes may offer a number of potential benefits. This study highlights the need for institutional review board-approved crossmatching protocols specific to vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation, and the need for global databases for sharing of vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation experiences.

  6. A Robust Method to Generate Mechanically Anisotropic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Sheets for Vascular Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Daniel E; LeSavage, Bauer L; Shah, Shivem B; Wong, Joyce Y

    2017-06-01

    In arterial tissue engineering, mimicking native structure and mechanical properties is essential because compliance mismatch can lead to graft failure and further disease. With bottom-up tissue engineering approaches, designing tissue components with proper microscale mechanical properties is crucial to achieve the necessary macroscale properties in the final implant. This study develops a thermoresponsive cell culture platform for growing aligned vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) sheets by photografting N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) onto micropatterned poly(dimethysiloxane) (PDMS). The grafting process is experimentally and computationally optimized to produce PNIPAAm-PDMS substrates optimal for VSMC attachment. To allow long-term VSMC sheet culture and increase the rate of VSMC sheet formation, PNIPAAm-PDMS surfaces were further modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane yielding a robust, thermoresponsive cell culture platform for culturing VSMC sheets. VSMC cell sheets cultured on patterned thermoresponsive substrates exhibit cellular and collagen alignment in the direction of the micropattern. Mechanical characterization of patterned, single-layer VSMC sheets reveals increased stiffness in the aligned direction compared to the perpendicular direction whereas nonpatterned cell sheets exhibit no directional dependence. Structural and mechanical anisotropy of aligned, single-layer VSMC sheets makes this platform an attractive microstructural building block for engineering a vascular graft to match the in vivo mechanical properties of native arterial tissue. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The influence of perivascular adipose tissue on vascular homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Theodora; Bomfim, Gisele Facholi; Webb, R Clinton

    2013-01-01

    The perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is now recognized as an active contributor to vascular function. Adipocytes and stromal cells contained within PVAT are a source of an ever-growing list of molecules with varied paracrine effects on the underlying smooth muscle and endothelial cells, including adipokines, cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and gaseous compounds. Their secretion is regulated by systemic or local cues and modulates complex processes, including vascular contraction and relaxation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, and vascular inflammation. Recent evidence demonstrates that metabolic and cardiovascular diseases alter the morphological and secretory characteristics of PVAT, with notable consequences. In obesity and diabetes, the expanded PVAT contributes to vascular insulin resistance. PVAT-derived cytokines may influence key steps of atherogenesis. The physiological anticontractile effect of PVAT is severely diminished in hypertension. Above all, a common denominator of the PVAT dysfunction in all these conditions is the immune cell infiltration, which triggers the subsequent inflammation, oxidative stress, and hypoxic processes to promote vascular dysfunction. In this review, we discuss the currently known mechanisms by which the PVAT influences blood vessel function. The important discoveries in the study of PVAT that have been made in recent years need to be further advanced, to identify the mechanisms of the anticontractile effects of PVAT, to explore the vascular-bed and species differences in PVAT function, to understand the regulation of PVAT secretion of mediators, and finally, to uncover ways to ameliorate cardiovascular disease by targeting therapeutic approaches to PVAT.

  8. Antioxidative Activity of Tobacco Leaf Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Rao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Discarded tobacco leaf protein hydrolysate (DTLPH was prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis using papain and then separated using ultrafiltration (UF membranes with molecular mass cut-off (MMCO of 10, 5, 3 and 1 kDa. Four permeate fractions including 10-K, 5-K, 3-K and 1-K (the permeate fractions from 10, 5, 3 and 1 kDa hydrolysate fractions were obtained. The 5-K hydrolysate fraction had high oxidation inhibilitory ratio (42.62 %, which was about twofold higher than the original hydrolysate and as high as that of vitamin E (α-tocopherol. The fractionated hydrolysates were superior to the original hydrolysate in the antioxidative activity tested. Moreover, these separated hydrolysates showed the enhanced functional property. The amino acid composition of 5-K hydrolysate was analyzed and the results show that the high antioxidative activity of 5-K hydrolysate was derived from high content of histidine, methionine, cystine and tryptophan.

  9. Surface modification and endothelialization of biomaterials as potential scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiangkui; Feng, Yakai; Guo, Jintang; Wang, Haixia; Li, Qian; Yang, Jing; Hao, Xuefang; Lv, Juan; Ma, Nan; Li, Wenzhong

    2015-08-07

    Surface modification and endothelialization of vascular biomaterials are common approaches that are used to both resist the nonspecific adhesion of proteins and improve the hemocompatibility and long-term patency of artificial vascular grafts. Surface modification of vascular grafts using hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol), zwitterionic polymers, heparin or other bioactive molecules can efficiently enhance hemocompatibility, and consequently prevent thrombosis on artificial vascular grafts. However, these modified surfaces may be excessively hydrophilic, which limits initial vascular endothelial cell adhesion and formation of a confluent endothelial lining. Therefore, the improvement of endothelialization on these grafts by chemical modification with specific peptides and genes is now arousing more and more interest. Several active peptides, such as RGD, CAG, REDV and YIGSR, can be specifically recognized by endothelial cells. Consequently, graft surfaces that are modified by these peptides can exhibit targeting selectivity for the adhesion of endothelial cells, and genes can be delivered by targeting carriers to specific tissues to enhance the promotion and regeneration of blood vessels. These methods could effectively accelerate selective endothelial cell recruitment and functional endothelialization. In this review, recent developments in the surface modification and endothelialization of biomaterials in vascular tissue engineering are summarized. Both gene engineering and targeting ligand immobilization are promising methods to improve the clinical outcome of artificial vascular grafts.

  10. Pepsin Egg White Hydrolysate Ameliorates Obesity-Related Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Steatosis in Zucker Fatty Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Garcés-Rimón

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the administration of egg white hydrolysates on obesity-related disorders, with a focus on lipid metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress, in Zucker fatty rats. Obese Zucker rats received water, pepsin egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day or Rhizopus aminopeptidase egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks. Lean Zucker rats received water. Body weight, solid and liquid intakes were weekly measured. At the end of the study, urine, faeces, different organs and blood samples were collected. The consumption of egg white hydrolysed with pepsin significantly decreased the epididymal adipose tissue, improved hepatic steatosis, and lowered plasmatic concentration of free fatty acids in the obese animals. It also decreased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and reduced oxidative stress. Pepsin egg white hydrolysate could be used as a tool to improve obesity-related complications.

  11. Decreased expression of transient receptor potential channels in cerebral vascular tissue from patients after hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Suess, Olaf; Liu, Ying

    2011-01-01

    , TRPC5, TRPC6, TRPM4, TRPM6, and TRPM7 channels were detected in cerebral vascular tissue by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Control cerebral vascular tissue was obtained from normotensive patients who underwent neurosurgical operation because of brain tumor. To examine a possible relation between...

  12. Bioengineering vascularized tissue constructs using an injectable cell-laden enzymatically crosslinked collagen hydrogel derived from dermal extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Kuan-Chih; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Tien, Han-Wen; Wu, Pei-Yun; Li, Yen-Cheng; Melero-Martin, Juan M; Chen, Ying-Chieh

    2015-11-01

    Tissue engineering promises to restore or replace diseased or damaged tissue by creating functional and transplantable artificial tissues. The development of artificial tissues with large dimensions that exceed the diffusion limitation will require nutrients and oxygen to be delivered via perfusion instead of diffusion alone over a short time period. One approach to perfusion is to vascularize engineered tissues, creating a de novo three-dimensional (3D) microvascular network within the tissue construct. This significantly shortens the time of in vivo anastomosis, perfusion and graft integration with the host. In this study, we aimed to develop injectable allogeneic collagen-phenolic hydroxyl (collagen-Ph) hydrogels that are capable of controlling a wide range of physicochemical properties, including stiffness, water absorption and degradability. We tested whether collagen-Ph hydrogels could support the formation of vascularized engineered tissue graft by human blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in vivo. First, we studied the growth of adherent ECFCs and MSCs on or in the hydrogels. To examine the potential formation of functional vascular networks in vivo, a liquid pre-polymer solution of collagen-Ph containing human ECFCs and MSCs, horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide was injected into the subcutaneous space or abdominal muscle defect of an immunodeficient mouse before gelation, to form a 3D cell-laden polymerized construct. These results showed that extensive human ECFC-lined vascular networks can be generated within 7 days, the engineered vascular density inside collagen-Ph hydrogel constructs can be manipulated through refinable mechanical properties and proteolytic degradability, and these networks can form functional anastomoses with the existing vasculature to further support the survival of host muscle tissues. Finally, optimized conditions of the cell-laden collagen

  13. Protein Hydrolysates/Peptides in Animal Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, Jeff; Waugh, Terry; Lohry, Eric

    The use of protein hydrolysates as an important nutrient for growth and maintenance has been increasing in animal nutrition. Although animal proteins and protein hydrolysates are widely used however, recently vegetable protein hydrolysates are gaining importance. This chapter reviews the use of protein hydrolysates developed by enzyme hydrolysis and by solid state fermentation process in animal nutrition especially for piglets and compares it with the standard products such as plasma and fishmeal.

  14. Sensory Characteristics of Mud Clam (Polymesoda Erosa) Hydrolysate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normah Ismail; Noorasma Mustakim

    2016-01-01

    Mud clam (Polymesoda erosa) was hydrolysed using two different microbial enzymes; alcalase and flavourzyme. The volatile compounds, amino acids and molecular weight associated with umami and bitter taste in mud clam hydrolysate were determined by head space solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography (HS-SPME-GCMS), High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The characteristics of hydrolysates produced using alcalase and flavourzyme were compared. In total, eighteen, seven and six volatile compounds were identified in the flesh, alcalase hydrolysate and flavourzyme hydrolysate, respectively. 2-piperidinone volatile compound content which is associated with bitterness was 6.79 % in alcalase hydrolysate and 3.78 % in flavourzyme hydrolysate. SDS-PAGE results showed that alcalase hydrolysate contains smaller peptide (<52 kDa) compared to flavourzyme hydrolysate (<126 kDa). In addition, sensory analysis using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) showed that flavourzyme hydroysate was the least bitter but elicited more umami taste compared to alcalase hydrolysate. Further treatments are still needed to enhance umami taste and to remove bitter taste in mud clam hydrolysate. (author)

  15. The influence of perivascular adipose tissue on vascular homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szasz T

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Theodora Szasz,1 Gisele Facholi Bomfim,2 R Clinton Webb1 1Department of Physiology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, USA; 2Department of Pharmacology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: The perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT is now recognized as an active contributor to vascular function. Adipocytes and stromal cells contained within PVAT are a source of an ever-growing list of molecules with varied paracrine effects on the underlying smooth muscle and endothelial cells, including adipokines, cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and gaseous compounds. Their secretion is regulated by systemic or local cues and modulates complex processes, including vascular contraction and relaxation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, and vascular inflammation. Recent evidence demonstrates that metabolic and cardiovascular diseases alter the morphological and secretory characteristics of PVAT, with notable consequences. In obesity and diabetes, the expanded PVAT contributes to vascular insulin resistance. PVAT-derived cytokines may influence key steps of atherogenesis. The physiological anticontractile effect of PVAT is severely diminished in hypertension. Above all, a common denominator of the PVAT dysfunction in all these conditions is the immune cell infiltration, which triggers the subsequent inflammation, oxidative stress, and hypoxic processes to promote vascular dysfunction. In this review, we discuss the currently known mechanisms by which the PVAT influences blood vessel function. The important discoveries in the study of PVAT that have been made in recent years need to be further advanced, to identify the mechanisms of the anticontractile effects of PVAT, to explore the vascular-bed and species differences in PVAT function, to understand the regulation of PVAT secretion of mediators, and finally, to uncover ways to ameliorate cardiovascular disease by targeting therapeutic approaches to PVAT. Keywords: adipokines

  16. An examination of the genetic control of Douglas-fir vascular tissue phytochemicals: implications for black bear foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. Kimball; G.R. Johnson; Dale L. Nolte; Doreen L. Griffin

    1999-01-01

    Silvicultural practices can influence black bear (Ursus americanus) foraging preferences for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) cambial-zone vascular tissues, but little is known about the role of genetics. To study the impact of genetic selection, vascular tissue samples were collected from Douglas-fir trees in six half-sib families from five...

  17. Low Immunogenic Endothelial Cells Maintain Morphological and Functional Properties Required for Vascular Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Skadi; Eicke, Dorothee; Carvalho Oliveira, Marco; Wiegmann, Bettina; Schrimpf, Claudia; Haverich, Axel; Blasczyk, Rainer; Wilhelmi, Mathias; Figueiredo, Constança; Böer, Ulrike

    2018-03-01

    The limited availability of native vessels suitable for the application as hemodialysis shunts or bypass material demands new strategies in cardiovascular surgery. Tissue-engineered vascular grafts containing autologous cells are considered ideal vessel replacements due to the low risk of rejection. However, endothelial cells (EC), which are central components of natural blood vessels, are difficult to obtain from elderly patients of poor health. Umbilical cord blood represents a promising alternative source for EC, but their allogeneic origin corresponds with the risk of rejection after allotransplantation. To reduce this risk, the human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA I) complex was stably silenced by lentiviral vector-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) in EC from peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood and vein. EC from all three sources were transduced by 93.1% ± 4.8% and effectively, HLA I-silenced by up to 67% compared to nontransduced (NT) cells or transduced with a nonspecific short hairpin RNA, respectively. Silenced EC remained capable to express characteristic endothelial surface markers such as CD31 and vascular endothelial cadherin important for constructing a tight barrier, as well as von Willebrand factor and endothelial nitric oxide synthase important for blood coagulation and vessel tone regulation. Moreover, HLA I-silenced EC were still able to align under unidirectional flow, to take up acetylated low-density lipoprotein, and to form capillary-like tube structures in three-dimensional fibrin gels similar to NT cells. In particular, addition of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells significantly improved tube formation capability of HLA I-silenced EC toward long and widely branched vascular networks necessary for prevascularizing vascular grafts. Thus, silencing HLA I by RNAi represents a promising technique to reduce the immunogenic potential of EC from three different sources without interfering with EC-specific morphological and

  18. Effectiveness of Vascular Markers (Immunohistochemical Stains) in Soft Tissue Sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Namra; Mushtaq, Sajid; Akhter, Noreen; Hussain, Mudassar; Hassan, Usman

    2018-05-01

    To ascertain the effectiveness of IHC markers of vascular origin like CD31, CD34, FLI1 and ERG in vascular soft tissue sarcomas including angiosarcomas, Kaposi sarcomas, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and a non-vascular soft tissue sarcoma (Epithelioid sarcoma). Descriptive study. Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, from 2011 to 2017. Diagnosed cases of angiosarcomas (n=48), epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (n=9), Kaposi sarcoma (n=9) and epithelioid sarcoma (n=20) were selected. Immunohistochemical staining as performed on formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections. The sections were stained for the following markers: CD34 (VENTANA clone Q Bend 10), CD31 (Leica clone 1 A 10), FLI1 (CELL MARQUE clone MRQ-1) and ERG (CELL MARQUE clone EP111). A complete panel of CD34, CD31 and ERG was applied on 8/48 cases of angiosarcomas with triple positivity in 6 cases. Eight cases showed positivity for only CD31 and ERG and 2 cases showed positivity for only ERG. A complete panel of CD34, CD31 and ERG was applied on 3/9 cases of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma with positivity for all markers in 2 cases. Combined positivity for ERG and CD34 was seen in 2 cases and on 4 cases only CD31 immunohistochemical was solely applied with 100% positivity. FLI1 was not applied on any case. Among 9 cases of Kaposi sarcoma, ERG, CD34 and CD31 in combination were applied on only 1 case with triple positivity. Remaining cases show positivity for either CD34, CD31 or FLI1. Majority of cases of epithelioid sarcomas were diagnosed on the basis of cytokeratin and CD34 positivity with loss of INI1. The other vascular markers showed negativity in all cases. Among these four markers, ERG immunohistochemical stain is highly effective for endothelial differentiation due to its specific nuclear staining pattern in normal blood vessel endothelial cells (internal control) as well as neoplastic cells of vascular tumors and lack of background staining.

  19. Reconstruction with vascularized composite tissue in patients with excessive injury following surgery and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafin, D.; DeLand, M.; Lesesne, C.B.; Smith, P.J.; Noell, K.T.; Georgiade, N.

    1982-01-01

    The biological effects of a single high dose of radiation are examined. Both cellular injury and repair are reviewed during early, intermediate, and late phases. Anticipated composite tissue morbidity is detailed for therapeutic radiation doses administered to the head and neck, breast and thorax, and perineum. Patients who demonstrated excessive time-dose fractionation values were irradiated with lower x-ray energies. Those in whom there was an overlap of treatment fields presented a serious challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. Judicious selection of well-vascularized composite tissue outside the portals of irradiation, preferably with a long vascular pedicle, facilitated reconstruction. When possible, both donor and recipient vasculature should be outside the irradiated area to ensure uninterrupted blood flow to the transferred or transplanted tissue

  20. Protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Anssi H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been suggested that protein hydrolysates providing mainly di- and tripeptides are superior to intact (whole proteins and free amino acids in terms of skeletal muscle protein anabolism. This review provides a critical examination of protein hydrolysate studies conducted in healthy humans with special reference to sports nutrition. The effects of protein hydrolysate ingestion on blood amino acid levels, muscle protein anabolism, body composition, exercise performance and muscle glycogen resynthesis are discussed.

  1. Changes In water translocation in the vascular tissue of grape during fruit development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhaosen, X.; Forney, C.F.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between vascular water translocation in grapes and berry growth was investigated. Berry growth, firmness and turgor were measured, and the structure and function of the vascular bundles for water translocation was observed. During phase I fruit development, the dorsal and central vascular bundles rapidly translocated introduced dye in the pedicle. The speed of dye translocation was highest in the dorsal vascular bundles of phase I fruit with a speed of 0.97cm/h. After phase II, both the distribution of dye and the speed of dye translocation in the fruit vascular tissue decreased, with speeds in the dorsal and central vascular bundles being 0.08 cm/h and 0.72 cm/h, respectively. During phase III, the distribution of dye was still lower than phase I. After phase II, the walls of some xylem vessels were indistinct and broken. After phase III, even though the water translocation efficiency of the xylem decreased, sugar accumulation in the berry as well as osmoregulation increased. (author)

  2. Chemical composition and immunomodulatory effects of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamaiah, M; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Bhaskarachary, K; Vajreswari, A; Ramesh Kumar, R; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare protein hydrolysates from underutilized common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg and to investigate their immunomodulatory effects in vivo. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg (roe) was hydrolysed by pepsin, trypsin, and Alcalase. Chemical composition (proximate, amino acid, mineral and fatty acid compositions) and molecular mass distribution of the three hydrolysates were determined. The carp egg protein hydrolysates (CEPHs) were evaluated for their immunomodulatory effects in BALB/c mice. CEPHs (0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg body weight) were orally administered daily to female BALB/c mice (4-6 wk, 18-20 g) for a period of 45 d. After 45 d, mice were sacrificed and different tissues were collected for the immunologic investigations. The three hydrolysates contained high protein content (64%-73%) with all essential amino acids, and good proportion of ω-3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid. Molecular mass analysis of hydrolysates confirmed the conversion of large-molecular-weight roe proteins into peptides of different sizes (5-90 kDa). The three hydrolysates significantly enhanced the proliferation of spleen lymphocytes. Pepsin hydrolysate (0.5 g/kg body weight) significantly increased the splenic natural killer cell cytotoxicity, mucosal immunity (secretory immunoglobulin A) in the gut and level of serum immunoglobulin A. Whereas Alcalase hydrolysate induced significant increases in the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in spleen. The results demonstrate that CEPHs are able to improve the immune system and further reveal that different CEPHs may exert differential influences on the immune function. These results indicate that CEPHs could be useful for several applications in the health food, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced elastin synthesis and maturation in human vascular smooth muscle tissue derived from induced-pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eoh, Joon H; Shen, Nian; Burke, Jacqueline A; Hinderer, Svenja; Xia, Zhiyong; Schenke-Layland, Katja; Gerecht, Sharon

    2017-04-01

    Obtaining vascular smooth muscle tissue with mature, functional elastic fibers is a key obstacle in tissue-engineered blood vessels. Poor elastin secretion and organization leads to a loss of specialization in contractile smooth muscle cells, resulting in over proliferation and graft failure. In this study, human induced-pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) were differentiated into early smooth muscle cells, seeded onto a hybrid poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate/poly (l-lactide) (PEGdma-PLA) scaffold and cultured in a bioreactor while exposed to pulsatile flow, towards maturation into contractile smooth muscle tissue. We evaluated the effects of pulsatile flow on cellular organization as well as elastin expression and assembly in the engineered tissue compared to a static control through immunohistochemistry, gene expression and functionality assays. We show that culturing under pulsatile flow resulted in organized and functional hiPSC derived smooth muscle tissue. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed hiPSC-smooth muscle tissue with robust, well-organized cells and elastic fibers and the supporting microfibril proteins necessary for elastic fiber assembly. Through qRT-PCR analysis, we found significantly increased expression of elastin, fibronectin, and collagen I, indicating the synthesis of necessary extracellular matrix components. Functionality assays revealed that hiPSC-smooth muscle tissue cultured in the bioreactor had an increased calcium signaling and contraction in response to a cholinergic agonist, significantly higher mature elastin content and improved mechanical properties in comparison to the static control. The findings presented here detail an effective approach to engineering elastic human vascular smooth muscle tissue with the functionality necessary for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Obtaining robust, mature elastic fibers is a key obstacle in tissue-engineered blood vessels. Human induced-pluripotent stem cells have

  4. Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates as Natural Antibacterial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Ghanbari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Actinopyga lecanora, a type of sea cucumber commonly known as stone fish with relatively high protein content, was explored as raw material for bioactive peptides production. Six proteolytic enzymes, namely alcalase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, bromelain and flavourzyme were used to hydrolyze A. lecanora at different times and their respective degrees of hydrolysis (DH were calculated. Subsequently, antibacterial activity of the A. lecanora hydrolysates, against some common pathogenic Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas sp. were evaluated. Papain hydrolysis showed the highest DH value (89.44%, followed by alcalase hydrolysis (83.35%. Bromelain hydrolysate after one and seven hours of hydrolysis exhibited the highest antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 51.85%, 30.07% and 30.45%, respectively compared to the other hydrolysates. Protein hydrolysate generated by papain after 8 h hydrolysis showed maximum antibacterial activity against S. aureus at 20.19%. The potent hydrolysates were further fractionated using RP-HPLC and antibacterial activity of the collected fractions from each hydrolysate were evaluated, wherein among them only three fractions from the bromelain hydrolysates exhibited inhibitory activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 24%, 25.5% and 27.1%, respectively and one fraction of papain hydrolysate showed antibacterial activity of 33.1% against S. aureus. The evaluation of the relationship between DH and antibacterial activities of papain and bromelain hydrolysates revealed a meaningful correlation of four and six order functions.

  5. Fermentation of pretreated corncob hemicellulose hydrolysate to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    academicjournal

    single carbon source because the ethanol conversion of glucose was higher than that of xylose. Using parallel fermentation of corncob hemicellulose acid hydrolysate and the artificially prepared hydrolysate, it was found that complex components in the corncob hemicellulose acid hydrolysate probably promoted ethanol ...

  6. Mid-term clinical results of tissue-engineered vascular autografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Goki; Shin'oka, Toshiharu; Hibino, Narutoshi; Saito, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Takahiko; Ichihara, Yuki; Hobo, Kyoko; Miyamoto, Shin'ka; Kurosawa, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    Prosthetic and bioprosthetic materials currently in use lack growth potential and therefore must be repeatedly replaced in pediatric patients as they grow. Tissue engineering is a new discipline that offers the potential for creating replacement structures from autologous cells and biodegradable polymer scaffolds. In May 2000, we initiated clinical application of tissue-engineered vascular grafts seeded with cultured cells. However, cell culturing is time-consuming, and xenoserum must be used. To overcome these disadvantages, we began to use bone marrow cells, readily available on the day of surgery, as a cell source. Since September 2001, tissue-engineered grafts seeded with autologous bone marrow cells have been implanted in 44 patients. The patients or their parents were fully informed and had given consent to the procedure. A 3 to 10 ml/kg specimen of bone marrow was aspirated with the patient under general anesthesia before the skin incision. The polymer tube serving as a scaffold for the cells was composed of a copolymer of lactide and ε-caprolactone (50:50) which degrades by hydrolysis. Polyglycolic or poly-l-lactic acid woven fabric was used for reinforcement. Twenty-six tissue-engineered conduits and 19 tissue-engineered patches were used for the repair of congenital heart defects. The patients' ages ranged from 1 to 24 years (median 7.4 years). All patients underwent a catheterization study, CT scan, or both, for evaluation after the operation. There were 4 late deaths due to heart failure with or without multiple organ failure or brain bleeding in this series; these were unrelated to the tissue-engineered graft function. One patient required percutaneous balloon angioplasty for tubular graft-stenosis and 4 patients for the stenosis of the patch-shaped tissue engineered material. Two patients required re-do operation; one for recurrent pulmonary stenosis and another for a resulting R-L shunt after the lateral tunnel method. Kaplan-Meier analysis in

  7. Tissue-engineered vascular grafts for use in the treatment of congenital heart disease: from the bench to the clinic and back again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Joseph T; Gilliland, Thomas; Maxfield, Mark W; Church, Spencer; Naito, Yuji; Shinoka, Toshiharu; Breuer, Christopher K

    2012-05-01

    Since the first tissue-engineered vascular graft (TEVG) was implanted in a child over a decade ago, growth in the field of vascular tissue engineering has been driven by clinical demand for improved vascular prostheses with performance and durability similar to an autologous blood vessel. Great strides were made in pediatric congenital heart surgery using the classical tissue engineering paradigm, and cell seeding of scaffolds in vitro remained the cornerstone of neotissue formation. Our second-generation bone marrow cell-seeded TEVG diverged from tissue engineering dogma with a design that induces the recipient to regenerate vascular tissue in situ. New insights suggest that neovessel development is guided by cell signals derived from both seeded cells and host inflammatory cells that infiltrate the graft. The identification of these signals and the regulatory interactions that influence cell migration, phenotype and extracellular matrix deposition during TEVG remodeling are yielding a next-generation TEVG engineered to guide neotissue regeneration without the use of seeded cells. These developments represent steady progress towards our goal of an off-the-shelf tissue-engineered vascular conduit for pediatric congenital heart surgery.

  8. Treatment of Vascular Soft Tissue Sarcomas With Razoxane, Vindesine, and Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhomberg, Walter; Wink, Anna; Pokrajac, Boris; Eiter, Helmut; Hackl, Arnulf; Pakisch, Brigitte; Ginestet, Angela; Lukas, Peter; Poetter, Richard Prof.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In previous studies, razoxane and vindesine together with radiotherapy was proved to be effective in soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Because razoxane leads to a redifferentiation of pathological tumor blood vessels, it was of particular interest to study the influence of this drug combination in vascular soft tissue sarcomas. Methods and Materials: This open multicenter Phase II study was performed by the Austrian Society of Radiooncology. Among 13 evaluable patients (10 angiosarcomas and 3 hemangio-pericytomas), 9 had unresectable measurable disease, 3 showed microscopic residuals, and 1 had a resection with clear margins. They received a basic treatment with razoxane and vindesine supported by radiation therapy. Outcome measures were objective response rates, survival time, and the incidence of distant metastases. Results: In nine patients with measurable vascular soft tissue sarcomas (eight angiosarcomas and one hemangiopericytoma), 6 complete remissions, 2 partial remissions, and 1 minor remission were achieved, corresponding to a major response rate of 89%. A maintenance therapy with razoxane and vindesine of 1 year or longer led to a suppression of distant metastases. The median survival time from the start of the treatment is 23+ months (range, 3-120+) for 12 patients with macroscopic and microscopic residual disease. The progression-free survival at 6 months was 75%. The combined treatment was associated with a low general toxicity, but attention must be given to increased normal tissue reactions. Conclusions: This trimodal treatment leads to excellent response rates, and it suppresses distant metastases when given as maintenance therapy.

  9. Possible role of mechanical force in regulating regeneration of the vascularized fat flap inside a tissue engineering chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yuan; Yuan, Yi; Lu, Feng; Gao, Jianhua

    2015-12-01

    In plastic and reconstructive surgery, adipose tissue is widely used as effective filler for tissue defects. Strategies for treating soft tissue deficiency, which include free adipose tissue grafts, use of hyaluronic acid, collagen injections, and implantation of synthetic materials, have several clinical limitations. With the aim of overcoming these limitations, researchers have recently utilized tissue engineering chambers to produce large volumes of engineered vascularized fat tissue. However, the process of growing fat tissue in a chamber is still relatively limited, and can result in unpredictable or dissatisfactory final tissue volumes. Therefore, detailed understanding of the process is both necessary and urgent. Many studies have shown that mechanical force can change the function of cells via mechanotransduction. Here, we hypothesized that, besides the inflammatory response, one of the key factors to control the regeneration of vascularized fat flap inside a tissue engineering chamber might be the balance of mechanical forces. To test our hypothesis, we intend to change the balance of forces by means of measures in order to make the equilibrium point in favor of the direction of regeneration. If those measures proved to be feasible, they could be applied in clinical practice to engineer vascularized adipose tissue of predictable size and shape, which would in turn help in the advancement of tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. In-depth evaluation of commercially available human vascular smooth muscle cells phenotype: Implications for vascular tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timraz, Sara B.H., E-mail: sara.timraz@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Khalifa University, PO Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Farhat, Ilyas A.H., E-mail: ilyas.farhat@outlook.com [Department of Applied Mathematics and Sciences, Khalifa University, PO Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Alhussein, Ghada, E-mail: ghada.alhussein@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Khalifa University, PO Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Christoforou, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.christoforou@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Khalifa University, PO Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Teo, Jeremy C.M., E-mail: jeremy.teo@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Khalifa University, PO Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-05-01

    In vitro research on vascular tissue engineering has extensively used isolated primary human or animal smooth muscle cells (SMC). Research programs that lack such facilities tend towards commercially available primary cells sources. Here, we aim to evaluate the capacity of commercially available human SMC to maintain their contractile phenotype, and determine if dedifferentiation towards the synthetic phenotype occurs in response to conventional cell culture and passaging without any external biochemical or mechanical stimuli. Lower passage SMC adopted a contractile phenotype marked by a relatively slower proliferation rate, higher expression of proteins of the contractile apparatus and smoothelin, elongated morphology, and reduced deposition of collagen types I and III. As the passage number increased, migratory capacity was enhanced, average cell speed, total distance and net distance travelled increased up to passage 8. Through the various assays, corroborative evidence pinpoints SMC at passage 7 as the transition point between the contractile and synthetic phenotypes, while passage 8 distinctly and consistently exhibited characteristics of synthetic phenotype. This knowledge is particularly useful in selecting SMC of appropriate passage number for the target vascular tissue engineering application, for example, a homeostatic vascular graft for blood vessel replacement versus recreating atherosclerotic blood vessel model in vitro. - Highlights: • Ability of human smooth muscle cells to alter phenotype in culture is evaluated. • Examined the effect of passaging human smooth muscle cells on phenotype. • Phenotype is assessed based on morphology, proliferation, markers, and migration. • Multi-resolution assessment methodology, single-cell and cell-population. • Lower and higher passages than P7 adopted a contractile and synthetic phenotype respectively.

  11. In-depth evaluation of commercially available human vascular smooth muscle cells phenotype: Implications for vascular tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timraz, Sara B.H.; Farhat, Ilyas A.H.; Alhussein, Ghada; Christoforou, Nicolas; Teo, Jeremy C.M.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro research on vascular tissue engineering has extensively used isolated primary human or animal smooth muscle cells (SMC). Research programs that lack such facilities tend towards commercially available primary cells sources. Here, we aim to evaluate the capacity of commercially available human SMC to maintain their contractile phenotype, and determine if dedifferentiation towards the synthetic phenotype occurs in response to conventional cell culture and passaging without any external biochemical or mechanical stimuli. Lower passage SMC adopted a contractile phenotype marked by a relatively slower proliferation rate, higher expression of proteins of the contractile apparatus and smoothelin, elongated morphology, and reduced deposition of collagen types I and III. As the passage number increased, migratory capacity was enhanced, average cell speed, total distance and net distance travelled increased up to passage 8. Through the various assays, corroborative evidence pinpoints SMC at passage 7 as the transition point between the contractile and synthetic phenotypes, while passage 8 distinctly and consistently exhibited characteristics of synthetic phenotype. This knowledge is particularly useful in selecting SMC of appropriate passage number for the target vascular tissue engineering application, for example, a homeostatic vascular graft for blood vessel replacement versus recreating atherosclerotic blood vessel model in vitro. - Highlights: • Ability of human smooth muscle cells to alter phenotype in culture is evaluated. • Examined the effect of passaging human smooth muscle cells on phenotype. • Phenotype is assessed based on morphology, proliferation, markers, and migration. • Multi-resolution assessment methodology, single-cell and cell-population. • Lower and higher passages than P7 adopted a contractile and synthetic phenotype respectively.

  12. Vascular pattern formation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpella, Enrico; Helariutta, Ykä

    2010-01-01

    Reticulate tissue systems exist in most multicellular organisms, and the principles underlying the formation of cellular networks have fascinated philosophers, mathematicians, and biologists for centuries. In particular, the beautiful and varied arrangements of vascular tissues in plants have intrigued mankind since antiquity, yet the organizing signals have remained elusive. Plant vascular tissues form systems of interconnected cell files throughout the plant body. Vascular cells are aligned with one another along continuous lines, and vascular tissues differentiate at reproducible positions within organ environments. However, neither the precise path of vascular differentiation nor the exact geometry of vascular networks is fixed or immutable. Several recent advances converge to reconcile the seemingly conflicting predictability and plasticity of vascular tissue patterns. A control mechanism in which an apical-basal flow of signal establishes a basic coordinate system for body axis formation and vascular strand differentiation, and in which a superimposed level of radial organizing cues elaborates cell patterns, would generate a reproducible tissue configuration in the context of an underlying robust, self-organizing structure, and account for the simultaneous regularity and flexibility of vascular tissue patterns. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Vascular tissue reaction to acute malapposition in human coronary arteries sequential assessment with optical coherence tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Gutiérrez-Chico; J.J. Wykrzykowska (Joanna); E. Nüesch (Eveline); R.J.M. van Geuns (Robert Jan); K. Koch (Karel); J.J. Koolen (Jacques); C. di Mario (Carlo); S.W. Windecker (Stephan); G.A. van Es (Gerrit Anne); P. Gobbens (Pierre); P. Jüni (Peter); E.S. Regar (Eveline); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground-The vascular tissue reaction to acute incomplete stent apposition (ISA) is not well known. The aim of this study was to characterize the vascular response to acute ISA in vivo and to look for predictors of incomplete healing. Methods and Results-Optical coherence tomography

  14. Vascular Tissue Reaction to Acute Malapposition in Human Coronary Arteries Sequential Assessment With Optical Coherence Tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez-Chico, Juan Luis; Wykrzykowska, Joanna; Nüesch, Eveline; van Geuns, Robert Jan; Koch, Karel T.; Koolen, Jacques J.; Di Mario, Carlo; Windecker, Stephan; van Es, Gerrit-Anne; Gobbens, Pierre; Jüni, Peter; Regar, Evelyn; Serruys, Patrick W.

    2012-01-01

    Background-The vascular tissue reaction to acute incomplete stent apposition (ISA) is not well known. The aim of this study was to characterize the vascular response to acute ISA in vivo and to look for predictors of incomplete healing. Methods and Results-Optical coherence tomography studies of 66

  15. A Novel Strategy to Engineer Pre-Vascularized Full-Length Dental Pulp-like Tissue Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athirasala, Avathamsa; Lins, Fernanda; Tahayeri, Anthony; Hinds, Monica; Smith, Anthony J; Sedgley, Christine; Ferracane, Jack; Bertassoni, Luiz E

    2017-06-12

    The requirement for immediate vascularization of engineered dental pulp poses a major hurdle towards successful implementation of pulp regeneration as an effective therapeutic strategy for root canal therapy, especially in adult teeth. Here, we demonstrate a novel strategy to engineer pre-vascularized, cell-laden hydrogel pulp-like tissue constructs in full-length root canals for dental pulp regeneration. We utilized gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels with tunable physical and mechanical properties to determine the microenvironmental conditions (microstructure, degradation, swelling and elastic modulus) that enhanced viability, spreading and proliferation of encapsulated odontoblast-like cells (OD21), and the formation of endothelial monolayers by endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs). GelMA hydrogels with higher polymer concentration (15% w/v) and stiffness enhanced OD21 cell viability, spreading and proliferation, as well as endothelial cell spreading and monolayer formation. We then fabricated pre-vascularized, full-length, dental pulp-like tissue constructs by dispensing OD21 cell-laden GelMA hydrogel prepolymer in root canals of extracted teeth and fabricating 500 µm channels throughout the root canals. ECFCs seeded into the microchannels successfully formed monolayers and underwent angiogenic sprouting within 7 days in culture. In summary, the proposed approach is a simple and effective strategy for engineering of pre-vascularized dental pulp constructs offering potentially beneficial translational outcomes.

  16. Evaluating the Use of Monocytes with a Degradable Polyurethane for Vascular Tissue Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Kyle Giovanni

    Monocytes are one of the first cell types present following the implantation of a biomaterial or tissue engineered construct. Depending on the monocyte activation state supported by the biomaterial, monocytes and their derived macrophages (MDMs) can act as positive contributors to tissue regeneration and wound healing, or conversely promote a chronic inflammatory response that leads to fibrous encapsulation and implant rejection. A degradable polar hydrophobic iconic polyurethane (D-PHI) has been shown to reduce pro-inflammatory monocyte/macrophage response compared to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS), a substrate routinely used for in vitro culture of cells, as well as poly(lactide- co-glycolide) (PLGA), a standard synthetic biodegradable biomaterial in the tissue engineering field. D-PHI has also shown properties suitable for use in a vascular tissue engineering context. In order to understand the mechanism through which D-PHI attenuates pro-inflammatory monocyte response, this thesis investigated the ability of D-PHI to modulate interactions with adsorbed serum proteins and the properties of D-PHI that were important for this activity. D-PHI was shown to regulate protein adsorption in a manner that produced divergent monocyte responses compared to TCPS and PLGA when coated with the serum proteins alpha2-macroglobulin or immunoglobulin G (IgG). In the case of IgG, D-PHI was shown to reduce pro-inflammatory binding site exposure as a function of the material's polar, hydrophobic, and ionic character. Due to the favourable monocyte activation state supported by D-PHI, and the importance of monocytes/macrophages in regulating the response of tissue-specific cell types in vivo, the ability of a D-PHI-stimulated monocyte/macrophage activation state to contribute to modulating the response of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in a vascular tissue engineering context was investigated. D-PHI- stimulated monocytes promoted VSMC growth and migration through biomolecule

  17. The nutrition of the human meniscus: A computational analysis investigating the effect of vascular recession on tissue homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travascio, Francesco; Jackson, Alicia R

    2017-08-16

    The meniscus is essential to the functioning of the knee, offering load support, congruency, lubrication, and protection to the underlying cartilage. Meniscus degeneration affects ∼35% of the population, and potentially leads to knee osteoarthritis. The etiology of meniscal degeneration remains to be elucidated, although many factors have been considered. However, the role of nutritional supply to meniscus cells in the pathogenesis of meniscus degeneration has been so far overlooked. Nutrients are delivered to meniscal cells through the surrounding synovial fluid and the blood vessels present in the outer region of the meniscus. During maturation, vascularization progressively recedes up to the outer 10% of the tissue, leaving the majority avascular. It has been hypothesized that vascular recession might significantly reduce the nutrient supply to cells, thus contributing to meniscus degeneration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vascular recession on nutrient levels available to meniscus cells. This was done by developing a novel computational model for meniscus homeostasis based on mixture theory. It was found that transvascular transport of nutrients in the vascularized region of the meniscus contributes to more than 40% of the glucose content in the core of the tissue. However, vascular recession does not significantly alter nutrient levels in the meniscus, reducing at most 5% of the nutrient content in the central portion of the tissue. Therefore, our analysis suggests that reduced vascularity is not likely a primary initiating source in tissue degeneration. However, it does feasibly play a key role in inability for self-repair, as seen clinically. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Automatic quantitative micro-computed tomography evaluation of angiogenesis in an axially vascularized tissue-engineered bone construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkudas, Andreas; Beier, Justus Patrick; Pryymachuk, Galyna; Hoereth, Tobias; Bleiziffer, Oliver; Polykandriotis, Elias; Hess, Andreas; Gulle, Heinz; Horch, Raymund E; Kneser, Ulrich

    2010-12-01

    We invented an automatic observer-independent quantitative method to analyze vascularization using micro-computed tomography (CT) along with three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction in a tissue engineering model. An arteriovenous loop was created in the medial thigh of 30 rats and was placed in a particulated porous hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate matrix, filled with fibrin (10 mg/mL fibrinogen and 2 IU/mL thrombin) without (group A) or with (group B) application of fibrin-gel-immobilized angiogenetic growth factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF¹⁶⁵) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The explantation intervals were 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Specimens were investigated by means of micro-CT followed by an automatic 3D analysis, which was correlated to histomorphometrical findings. In both groups, the arteriovenous loop led to generation of dense vascularized connective tissue with differentiated and functional vessels inside the matrix. Quantitative analysis of vascularization using micro-CT showed to be superior to histological analysis. The micro-CT analysis also allows the assessment of different other, more complex vascularization parameters within 3D constructs, demonstrating an early improvement of vascularization by application of fibrin-gel-immobilized VEGF¹⁶⁵ and bFGF. In this study quantitative analysis of vascularization using micro-CT along with 3D reconstruction and automatic analysis exhibit to be a powerful method superior to histological evaluation of cross sections.

  19. Vascularization after treatment of gingival recession defects with platelet-rich fibrin or connective tissue graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Gülnihal; Kantarcı, Alpdoğan; Sculean, Anton; Atilla, Gül

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate histologically the following treatment of bilateral localized gingival recessions with coronally advanced flap (CAF) combined with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) or subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG). Tissue samples were harvested from 14 subjects either 1 or 6 months after the surgeries. The 2-mm punch biopsies were obtained from the mid-portion of the grafted sites. Neutral buffered formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded 5-μm thick tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin eosin and Masson's trichrome in order to analyze the collagen framework, epithelium thickness and rete-peg length. Multiple sequential sections were cut from paraffin-embedded blocks of tissue and immunohistochemically prepared for detection of vascular endothelial growth factor, CD31 and CD34, for the assessment of vascularization. Rete peg formation was significantly increased in the sites treated with PRF compared to the SCTG group after 6 months (p < 0.05). On the contrary, the number of vessels was increased in the SCTG group compared to the PRF group after 6 months (p < 0.05). No statistically significant differences were observed in the collagen density. Staining intensity of CD31 increased in submucosal area of PRF group than SCTG group after 1 month. Higher staining intensity of CD34 was observed in the submucosal area of PRF group compared with SCTG group after 6 months. The results of the present study suggest that in histological evaluation because of its biological compounds, PRF results earlier vessel formation and tissue maturation compared to connective tissue graft. PRF regulated the vascular response associated with an earlier wound healing.

  20. Antihypertensive potential of bioactive hydrolysate from edible bird's nest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Ravisangkar; Babji, Abdul Salam; Sani, Norrakiah Abdullah

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine and compare the proximate composition, the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and the antihypertensive activity of edible bird's nest (EBN) hydrolysates of two different drying methods. Four types of enzymes (alcalase, bromelain, pancreatin and papain) were used in this study and with different hydrolysis time (30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min). The highest DH for alcalase (79.48 - 84.09%), pancreatine (77.10 - 80.45%) and papain (82.33%) for EBN hydrolysates was produced with alcalase treatment at 60 - 90 min, pancreatine treatment at 30 - 90 min and papain treatment at 90 min. Bromelain generated hydrolysates showed low DH. EBN hydrolysed using alcalase, pancreatin and papain have significantly higher protein content compared to raw EBN and the moisture content of all hydrolysates treatments was significantly lower compared to raw EBN. For antihypertensive assay, freeze dried EBN hydrolysates have higher antihypertensive activity compared to spray dried hydrolysates. The highest antihypertensive activity for freeze dried samples was produced by alcalase, bromelain and pancreatin and in the range of 80.22 - 86.97%. Meanwhile, papain proved to be less effective in producing hydrolysate with antihypertensive ability. In conclusion, EBN hydrolysate prepared by alcalase, bromelain and pancreatin could be classified as a functional food as it showed significant antihypertensive activity.

  1. Longitudinal Stretching for Maturation of Vascular Tissues Using Magnetic Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Olsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellular spheroids were studied to determine their use as “bioinks” in the biofabrication of tissue engineered constructs. Specifically, magnetic forces were used to mediate the cyclic longitudinal stretching of tissues composed of Janus magnetic cellular spheroids (JMCSs, as part of a post-processing method for enhancing the deposition and mechanical properties of an extracellular matrix (ECM. The purpose was to accelerate the conventional tissue maturation process via novel post-processing techniques that accelerate the functional, structural, and mechanical mimicking of native tissues. The results of a forty-day study of JMCSs indicated an expression of collagen I, collagen IV, elastin, and fibronectin, which are important vascular ECM proteins. Most notably, the subsequent exposure of fused tissue sheets composed of JMCSs to magnetic forces did not hinder the production of these key proteins. Quantitative results demonstrate that cyclic longitudinal stretching of the tissue sheets mediated by these magnetic forces increased the Young’s modulus and induced collagen fiber alignment over a seven day period, when compared to statically conditioned controls. Specifically, the elastin and collagen content of these dynamically-conditioned sheets were 35- and three-fold greater, respectively, at seven days compared to the statically-conditioned controls at three days. These findings indicate the potential of using magnetic forces in tissue maturation, specifically through the cyclic longitudinal stretching of tissues.

  2. Identification of New Anti-inflammatory Peptides from Zein Hydrolysate after Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion and Transport in Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiufang; Chalamaiah, Meram; Ren, Xiaofeng; Ma, Haile; Wu, Jianping

    2018-02-07

    Chronic inflammation is an underlying contributor to various chronic diseases. The objectives of this study were to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of zein hydrolysate after simulated gastrointestinal digestion and Caco-2 cell absorption and to identify novel anti-inflammatory peptides after transport across Caco-2 cells. Three zein hydrolysates were prepared and further digested using gastrointestinal proteases; their transports were studied in Caco-2 cells. Anti-inflammatory activity was studied in endothelial EA.hy926 cells. Three zein hydrolysates and their digests significantly decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced pro-inflammatory vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) by 37.3-66.0%. Eleven novel peptides with 5-9 amino acid residues were sequenced; three peptides showed strong anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the VCAM-1 by 54-38.9% and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by 36.5-28.6% at 0.2 mM. A new approach to identify novel anti-inflammatory peptides that could survive gastrointestinal digestion and absorption was developed.

  3. 21 CFR 573.200 - Condensed animal protein hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. 573.200... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.200 Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. (a) Identity. The condensed animal protein hydrolysate is produced from the meat byproducts scraped from cured (salted) hides taken...

  4. Vascular smooth muscle cells for use in vascular tissue engineering obtained by endothelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EnMT) on collagen matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krenning, Guido; Moonen, Jan-Renier A. J.; van Luyn, Marja J. A.; Harmsen, Martin C.

    The discovery of the endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) has led to an intensive research effort into progenitor cell-based tissue engineering of (small-diameter) blood vessels. Herein, EPC are differentiated to vascular endothelial cells and serve as the inner lining of bioartificial vessels. As yet,

  5. Bitterness and Physichochemical Properties of Angelwing Clam (Pholas Orientalis) Hydrolysate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normah Ismail; Nurul Fasihah Razak

    2016-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates from angelwing clam were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis using bromelain. The bitterness of hydrolysates was evaluated based on the degree hydrolysis (DH), sensory analysis, molecular weight distribution and functional group. By using 3 % of enzyme substrate ratio bromelain resulted in high DH value at 12.57 % when angelwing clam was hydrolysed for 2 hours. Sensory analysis showed that angelwing hydrolysate was bitter. Angelwing hydrolysate had molecular weight below 50 kDa. The lower molecular weight indicated that the protein has been degraded into smaller peptide chains which contribute to bitter taste. Moreover, the high peak of amine group in angelwing hydrolysate (3385.6 cm -1 ) suggested that bitterness exists. Angelwing hydrolysate had higher protein content, lower fat content and had good water holding capacity than the flesh. This result suggested that angelwing hydrolysate could be useful as food ingredient even though bitter taste developed after the hydrolysis. Thus, debittering should be considered in order to pave the way for full utilization of angelwing clam hydrolysate as a food ingredient. (author)

  6. A fish protein hydrolysate alters fatty acid composition in liver and adipose tissue and increases plasma carnitine levels in a mouse model of chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Berge, Christ; Ramsvik, Marie Sannes; Svardal, Asbjørn; Bohov, Pavol; Skorve, Jon; Berge, Rolf K

    2013-10-07

    There is growing evidence that fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) diets affect mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism in animals. The aim of the study was to determine if FPH could influence fatty acid metabolism and inflammation in transgene mice expressing human tumor necrosis factor alpha (hTNFα). hTNFα mice (C57BL/6 hTNFα) were given a high-fat (23%, w/w) diet containing 20% casein (control group) or 15% FPH and 5% casein (FPH group) for two weeks. After an overnight fast, blood, adipose tissue, and liver samples were collected. Gene expression and enzyme activity was analysed in liver, fatty acid composition was analyzed in liver and ovarian white adipose tissue, and inflammatory parameters, carnitine, and acylcarnitines were analyzed in plasma. The n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio was higher in mice fed the FPH diet than in mice fed the control diet in both adipose tissue and liver, and the FPH diet affected the gene expression of ∆6 and ∆9 desaturases. Mice fed this diet also demonstrated lower hepatic activity of fatty acid synthase. Concomitantly, a lower plasma INF-γ level was observed. Plasma carnitine and the carnitine precursor γ-butyrobetaine was higher in the FPH-group compared to control, as was plasma short-chained and medium-chained acylcarnitine esters. The higher level of plasma acetylcarnitine may reflect a stimulated mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids, as the hepatic activities of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase 1 and mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase-II were higher in the FPH-fed mice. The FPH diet was shown to influence hepatic fatty acid metabolism and fatty acid composition. This indicates that effects on fatty acid metabolism are important for the bioactivity of protein hydrolysates of marine origin.

  7. Antiulcerative Activity of Milk Proteins Hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Wilman; Monteiro, Karin Maia; Martínez-Maqueda, Daniel; Ramos, Mercedes; Recio, Isidra; Carvalho, João Ernesto de

    2018-04-01

    Several studies have shown the protective effect of dairy products, especially α-lactalbumin and derived hydrolysates, against induced gastric ulcerative lesions. The mucus strengthening represents an important mechanism in the defense of gastrointestinal mucosa. Previously, a hydrolysate from casein (CNH) and a hydrolysate from whey protein concentrate rich in β-lactoglobulin (WPH) demonstrated a stimulatory activity on mucus production in intestinal goblet cells. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible antiulcerative activity of these two hydrolysates in an ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats. All tested samples significantly reduced the ulcerative lesions index (ULI), compared with the saline solution, using doses of 300 and 1000 mg kg -1 body weight with decreases up to 66.3% ULI. A dose-response relationship was found for both hydrolysates. The involvement of endogenous sulfhydryl (SH) groups and prostaglandins (PGs) in the antiulcerative activity was evaluated using their blockage. The antiulcerative activity of WPH showed a drastic decrease in presence of N-ethylmaleimide (from 41.4% to 9.2% ULI). However, the CNH antiulcerative properties were not significantly affected. The cytoprotective effect of WPH appears to depend on a PG-mediated mechanism. In conclusion, CNH and WPH demonstrated in vivo antiulcerative properties and represent a promising alternative as protectors of the gastric mucosa.

  8. Construction of tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts in fibrin scaffolds in 30 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Liqiong; Boyle, Michael J; Kamin, Yishai M; Huang, Angela H; Starcher, Barry C; Miller, Cheryl A; Vishnevetsky, Michael J; Niklason, Laura E

    2014-05-01

    Tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts have been developed as a promising alternative to native veins or arteries for replacement therapy. However, there is still a crucial need to improve the current approaches to render the tissue-engineered blood vessels more favorable for clinical applications. A completely biological blood vessel (3-mm inner diameter) was constructed by culturing a 50:50 mixture of bovine smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with neonatal human dermal fibroblasts in fibrin gels. After 30 days of culture under pulsatile stretching, the engineered blood vessels demonstrated an average burst pressure of 913.3±150.1 mmHg (n=6), a suture retention (53.3±15.4 g) that is suitable for implantation, and a compliance (3.1%±2.5% per 100 mmHg) that is comparable to native vessels. These engineered grafts contained circumferentially aligned collagen fibers, microfibrils and elastic fibers, and differentiated SMCs, mimicking a native artery. These promising mechanical and biochemical properties were achieved in a very short culture time of 30 days, suggesting the potential of co-culturing SMCs with fibroblasts in fibrin gels to generate functional small-diameter vascular grafts for vascular reconstruction surgery.

  9. Adult Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Tolerance Induction in Nonhuman Primates for Vascularized Composite Allograft Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-2-0042 TITLE: Adult Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Tolerance Induction in Nonhuman Primates for Vascularized Composite...2017 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2016 - 29 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Adult Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Tolerance Induction...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The utilization of adult derived adipose stem cells administration in composite tissue transplantation

  10. Stem cell differentiation on electrospun nanofibrous substrates for vascular tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Lin; Prabhakaran, Molamma P.; Qin, Xiaohong; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology has enabled the engineering of a variety of materials to meet the current challenges and requirements in vascular tissue regeneration. In our study, poly-L-lactide (PLLA) and hybrid PLLA/collagen (PLLA/Coll) nanofibers (3:1 and 1:1) with fiber diameters of 210 to 430 nm were fabricated by electrospinning. Their morphological, chemical and mechanical characterizations were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), and tensile instrument, respectively. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded on electrospun nanofibers that are capable of differentiating into vascular cells have great potential for repair of the vascular system. We investigated the potential of MSCs for vascular cell differentiation in vitro on electrospun PLLA/Coll nanofibrous scaffolds using endothelial differentiation media. After 20 days of culture, MSC proliferation on PLLA/Coll(1:1) scaffolds was found 256% higher than the cell proliferation on PLLA scaffolds. SEM images showed that the MSC differentiated endothelial cells on PLLA/Coll scaffolds showed cobblestone morphology in comparison to the fibroblastic type of undifferentiated MSCs. The functionality of the cells in the presence of ‘endothelial induction media’, was further demonstrated from the immunocytochemical analysis, where the MSCs on PLLA/Coll (1:1) scaffolds differentiated to endothelial cells and expressed the endothelial cell specific proteins such as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1 or CD31) and Von Willebrand factor (vWF). From the results of the SEM analysis and protein expression studies, we concluded that the electrospun PLLA/Coll nanofibers could mimic the native vascular ECM environment and might be promising substrates for potential application towards vascular regeneration. - Highlights: • PLLA and PLLA/Coll nanofibers were electrospun. • Incorporation of collagen reduced fiber

  11. Stem cell differentiation on electrospun nanofibrous substrates for vascular tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Lin [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, No. 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang, Shanghai 201620 (China); Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, E3-05-14, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Prabhakaran, Molamma P., E-mail: nnimpp@nus.edu.sg [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, E3-05-14, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Qin, Xiaohong, E-mail: xhqin@dhu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, No. 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang, Shanghai 201620 (China); Ramakrishna, Seeram [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, E3-05-14, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2013-12-01

    Nanotechnology has enabled the engineering of a variety of materials to meet the current challenges and requirements in vascular tissue regeneration. In our study, poly-L-lactide (PLLA) and hybrid PLLA/collagen (PLLA/Coll) nanofibers (3:1 and 1:1) with fiber diameters of 210 to 430 nm were fabricated by electrospinning. Their morphological, chemical and mechanical characterizations were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), and tensile instrument, respectively. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded on electrospun nanofibers that are capable of differentiating into vascular cells have great potential for repair of the vascular system. We investigated the potential of MSCs for vascular cell differentiation in vitro on electrospun PLLA/Coll nanofibrous scaffolds using endothelial differentiation media. After 20 days of culture, MSC proliferation on PLLA/Coll(1:1) scaffolds was found 256% higher than the cell proliferation on PLLA scaffolds. SEM images showed that the MSC differentiated endothelial cells on PLLA/Coll scaffolds showed cobblestone morphology in comparison to the fibroblastic type of undifferentiated MSCs. The functionality of the cells in the presence of ‘endothelial induction media’, was further demonstrated from the immunocytochemical analysis, where the MSCs on PLLA/Coll (1:1) scaffolds differentiated to endothelial cells and expressed the endothelial cell specific proteins such as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1 or CD31) and Von Willebrand factor (vWF). From the results of the SEM analysis and protein expression studies, we concluded that the electrospun PLLA/Coll nanofibers could mimic the native vascular ECM environment and might be promising substrates for potential application towards vascular regeneration. - Highlights: • PLLA and PLLA/Coll nanofibers were electrospun. • Incorporation of collagen reduced fiber

  12. Vascular Tissue Engineering: Effects of Integrating Collagen into a PCL Based Nanofiber Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Bertram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The engineering of vascular grafts is a growing field in regenerative medicine. Although numerous attempts have been made, the current vascular grafts made of polyurethane (PU, Dacron®, or Teflon® still display unsatisfying results. Electrospinning of biopolymers and native proteins has been in the focus of research to imitate the extracellular matrix (ECM of vessels to produce a small caliber, off-the-shelf tissue engineered vascular graft (TEVG as a substitute for poorly performing PU, Dacron, or Teflon prostheses. Blended poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL/collagen grafts have shown promising results regarding biomechanical and cell supporting features. In order to find a suitable PCL/collagen blend, we fabricated plane electrospun PCL scaffolds using various collagen type I concentrations ranging from 5% to 75%. We analyzed biocompatibility and morphological aspects in vitro. Our results show beneficial features of collagen I integration regarding cell viability and functionality, but also adverse effects like the loss of a confluent monolayer at high concentrations of collagen. Furthermore, electrospun PCL scaffolds containing 25% collagen I seem to be ideal for engineering vascular grafts.

  13. 23Na+- and 39K+-NMR studies of cation-polyanion interactions in vascular connective tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, G.; Walter, A.; Bostanjoglo, M.

    1987-01-01

    The ion binding properties of vascular connective tissue as well as of substances derived therefrom were studied in dependence on cation concentration by NMR and atomic absorption techniques. 16 refs.; 8 figs

  14. A Method for Combined Retinal Vascular and Tissue Oxygen Tension Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Anthony E; Wanek, Justin; Tan, Michael R; Blair, Norman P; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2017-09-06

    The retina requires adequate oxygenation to maintain cellular metabolism and visual function. Inner retinal oxygen metabolism is directly related to retinal vascular oxygen tension (PO 2 ) and inner retinal oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), whereas outer retinal oxygen consumption (QO 2 ) relies on oxygen availability by the choroid and is contingent upon retinal tissue oxygen tension (tPO 2 ) gradients across the retinal depth. Thus far, these oxygenation and metabolic parameters have been measured independently by different techniques in separate animals, precluding a comprehensive and correlative assessment of retinal oxygenation and metabolism dynamics. The purpose of the current study is to report an innovative optical system for dual oxyphor phosphorescence lifetime imaging to near-simultaneously measure retinal vascular PO 2 and tPO 2 in rats. The use of a new oxyphor with different spectral characteristics allowed differentiation of phosphorescence signals from the retinal vasculature and tissue. Concurrent measurements of retinal arterial and venous PO 2 , tPO 2 through the retinal depth, inner retinal OEF, and outer retinal QO 2 were demonstrated, permitting a correlative assessment of retinal oxygenation and metabolism. Future application of this method can be used to investigate the relations among retinal oxygen content, extraction and metabolism under pathologic conditions and thus advance knowledge of retinal hypoxia pathophysiology.

  15. Effect of Casein Hydrolysates on Yogurt Fermentation and Texture Properties during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang-Zhong Zhao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of casein hydrolysates by papain on acidification of the yogurts and growth of probiotic bacteria during yogurt fermentation have been investigated. The viability of probiotic bacteria and texture characteristics of the yogurts during storage at 4 °C have been evaluated. The hydrolysates strongly decreased the fermentation and coagulation time of the yogurts. The post-fermentation acidification was retarded by the hydrolysates. The hydrolysates increased the probiotic counts during initial fermentation stage. The growth of the probiotic organisms decreased at the final stage. Survival of probiotic bacteria was improved by the hydrolysates. The hydrolysates significantly (p<0.05 increased the adhesiveness of the yogurts except for 0.5 % of hydrolysate with degree of hydrolysis of 8.5 %. The sensory evaluation scores of the yogurts were significantly (p<0.05 improved by the hydrolysates after the storage. The effect of casein hydrolysates on fermentation and texture properties was related to the molecular mass of the hydrolysates.

  16. Curcumin Protects against Cadmium-Induced Vascular Dysfunction, Hypertension and Tissue Cadmium Accumulation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upa Kukongviriyapan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin from turmeric is commonly used worldwide as a spice and has been demonstrated to possess various biological activities. This study investigated the protective effect of curcumin on a mouse model of cadmium (Cd—induced hypertension, vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress. Male ICR mice were exposed to Cd (100 mg/L in drinking water for eight weeks. Curcumin (50 or 100 mg/kg was intragastrically administered in mice every other day concurrently with Cd. Cd induced hypertension and impaired vascular responses to phenylephrine, acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. Curcumin reduced the toxic effects of Cd and protected vascular dysfunction by increasing vascular responsiveness and normalizing the blood pressure levels. The vascular protective effect of curcumin in Cd exposed mice is associated with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS protein, restoration of glutathione redox ratio and alleviation of oxidative stress as indicated by decreasing superoxide production in the aortic tissues and reducing plasma malondialdehyde, plasma protein carbonyls, and urinary nitrate/nitrite levels. Curcumin also decreased Cd accumulation in the blood and various organs of Cd-intoxicated mice. These findings suggest that curcumin, due to its antioxidant and chelating properties, is a promising protective agent against hypertension and vascular dysfunction induced by Cd.

  17. Mixture of residual fish hydrolysate and fish extract hydrolysate to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... 42°C. Replacement of nutrient broth-starch with residual fish hydrolysate-starch led to the enzyme production to .... Paddy husk, raw unpolished rice, fertilizers such as ..... Saunders BC (eds) Practical Organic Chemistry. 4th.

  18. Safety of protein hydrolysates, fractions thereof and

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gertjan Schaafsma

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the safety for humans with regard to consumption of protein hydrolysates and fractions thereof, including bioactive peptides. The available literature on the safety of protein, protein hydrolysates, fractions thereof and free amino acids on relevant food legislation is reviewed

  19. The surrounding tissue modifies the placental stem villous vascular responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Torbjørn; Forman, Axel; Aalkjær, Christian

    2014-01-01

    is available. In-depth understanding of the mechanisms involved in control of placental vascular tone are needed to develop new tissue targets for therapeutic intervention. Method: From fresh born placentas segments of stem villous arteries were carefully dissected. The artery branches were divided....... The surrounding trophoblast was removed from one end and left intact in the other, and the segment was divided to give two ring preparations, with or without trophoblast. The preparations were mounted in wire myographs and responses to vasoactive agents were compared. Results: pD2values for PGF2α, Tx-analog U...... or endotheline-1. These differences partly disappeared in the presence of L-NAME. Conclusion: The perivascular tissue significantly reduces sensitivity and force development of stem villous arteries, partly due to release of NO This represents a new mechanism for control of human stem villous artery tone....

  20. Emergency repair of upper extremity large soft tissue and vascular injuries with flow-through anterolateral thigh free flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yi; Fu, Guo; Zhou, Xiang; He, Bo; Yan, Li-Wei; Zhu, Qing-Tang; Gu, Li-Qiang; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Qi, Jian

    2017-12-01

    Complex extremity trauma commonly involves both soft tissue and vascular injuries. Traditional two-stage surgical repair may delay rehabilitation and functional recovery, as well as increase the risk of infections. We report a single-stage reconstructive surgical method that repairs soft tissue defects and vascular injuries with flow-through free flaps to improve functional outcomes. Between March 2010 and December 2016 in our hospital, 5 patients with severe upper extremity trauma received single-stage reconstructive surgery, in which a flow-through anterolateral thigh free flap was applied to repair soft tissue defects and vascular injuries simultaneously. Cases of injured artery were reconstructed with the distal trunk of the descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery. A segment of adjacent vein was used if there was a second artery injury. Patients were followed to evaluate their functional recoveries, and received computed tomography angiography examinations to assess peripheral circulation. Two patients had post-operative thumb necrosis; one required amputation, and the other was healed after debridement and abdominal pedicle flap repair. The other 3 patients had no major complications (infection, necrosis) to the recipient or donor sites after surgery. All the patients had achieved satisfactory functional recovery by the end of the follow-up period. Computed tomography angiography showed adequate circulation in the peripheral vessels. The success of these cases shows that one-step reconstructive surgery with flow-through anterolateral thigh free flaps can be a safe and effective treatment option for patients with complex upper extremity trauma with soft tissue defects and vascular injuries. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Double-filter identification of vascular-expressed genes using Arabidopsis plants with vascular hypertrophy and hypotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ckurshumova, Wenzislava; Scarpella, Enrico; Goldstein, Rochelle S; Berleth, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Genes expressed in vascular tissues have been identified by several strategies, usually with a focus on mature vascular cells. In this study, we explored the possibility of using two opposite types of altered tissue compositions in combination with a double-filter selection to identify genes with a high probability of vascular expression in early organ primordia. Specifically, we generated full-transcriptome microarray profiles of plants with (a) genetically strongly reduced and (b) pharmacologically vastly increased vascular tissues and identified a reproducible cohort of 158 transcripts that fulfilled the dual requirement of being underrepresented in (a) and overrepresented in (b). In order to assess the predictive value of our identification scheme for vascular gene expression, we determined the expression patterns of genes in two unbiased subsamples. First, we assessed the expression patterns of all twenty annotated transcription factor genes from the cohort of 158 genes and found that seventeen of the twenty genes were preferentially expressed in leaf vascular cells. Remarkably, fifteen of these seventeen vascular genes were clearly expressed already very early in leaf vein development. Twelve genes with published leaf expression patterns served as a second subsample to monitor the representation of vascular genes in our cohort. Of those twelve genes, eleven were preferentially expressed in leaf vascular tissues. Based on these results we propose that our compendium of 158 genes represents a sample that is highly enriched for genes expressed in vascular tissues and that our approach is particularly suited to detect genes expressed in vascular cell lineages at early stages of their inception. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electricity generation by microbial fuel cells fuelled with wheat straw hydrolysate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Poulsen, Finn Willy; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    Electricity production from microbial fuel cells fueled with hydrolysate produced by hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw can achieve both energy production and domestic wastewater purification. The hydrolysate contained mainly xylan, carboxylic acids, and phenolic compounds. Power generation...... in 95% degradation of the xylan and glucan. The study demonstrates that lignocellulosic hydrolysate can be used for co-treatment with domestic wastewater for power generation in microbial fuel cells....... density with the hydrolysate was higher than the one with only xylan (120 mW m−2) and carboxylic acids as fuel. The higher power density can be caused by the presence of phenolic compounds in the hydrolysates, which could mediate electron transport. Electricity generation with the hydrolysate resulted...

  3. Whey protein hydrolysate and branched-chain amino acids downregulate inflammation-related genes in vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Marine S; Bigo, Cyril; Barbier, Olivier; Rudkowska, Iwona

    2017-02-01

    A recent review of clinical studies reports that dairy products may improve inflammation, a key etiologic cardiovascular disease risk factor. Yet the impact of dairy proteins on inflammatory markers is controversial and could be mediated by a differential impact of whey proteins and caseins. In this study, we hypothesized that whey proteins may have a greater anti-inflammatory effect than caseins. A model of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, with or without TNF-α stimulation, was used to investigate the effect of several dairy protein compounds on inflammation. Specifically, the impact of whey proteins either isolate or hydrolysate, caseins, and their amino acids on expression of TNF, VCAM-1, SOD2, and eNOS was examined. After a 24-hour incubation period, whey protein hydrolysate, leucine, isoleucine, and valine attenuated the TNF-α-induced endothelial inflammation by normalizing TNF and eNOS gene expression. This effect was not observed in unstimulated cells. Oppositely, caseins, a whey protein/casein mixture (1:4 w/w), and glutamine aggravated the TNF-α-induced TNF and SOD2 gene expression. Yet caseins and whey protein/casein mixture decreased VCAM-1 expression in both unstimulated and stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Measurement of TNF-α in cell supernatants by immunoassay substantiates gene expression data without reaching statistical significance. Taken together, this study showed that whey proteins and their major amino acids normalize TNF-α-induced proinflammatory gene expression in endothelial cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating 3D-printed biomaterials as scaffolds for vascularized bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Martha O; Vorwald, Charlotte E; Dreher, Maureen L; Mott, Eric J; Cheng, Ming-Huei; Cinar, Ali; Mehdizadeh, Hamidreza; Somo, Sami; Dean, David; Brey, Eric M; Fisher, John P

    2015-01-07

    There is an unmet need for a consistent set of tools for the evaluation of 3D-printed constructs. A toolbox developed to design, characterize, and evaluate 3D-printed poly(propylene fumarate) scaffolds is proposed for vascularized engineered tissues. This toolbox combines modular design and non-destructive fabricated design evaluation, evaluates biocompatibility and mechanical properties, and models angiogenesis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Human in vitro 3D co-culture model to engineer vascularized bone-mimicking tissues combining computational tools and statistical experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersini, Simone; Gilardi, Mara; Arrigoni, Chiara; Talò, Giuseppe; Zamai, Moreno; Zagra, Luigi; Caiolfa, Valeria; Moretti, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The generation of functional, vascularized tissues is a key challenge for both tissue engineering applications and the development of advanced in vitro models analyzing interactions among circulating cells, endothelium and organ-specific microenvironments. Since vascularization is a complex process guided by multiple synergic factors, it is critical to analyze the specific role that different experimental parameters play in the generation of physiological tissues. Our goals were to design a novel meso-scale model bridging the gap between microfluidic and macro-scale studies, and high-throughput screen the effects of multiple variables on the vascularization of bone-mimicking tissues. We investigated the influence of endothelial cell (EC) density (3-5 Mcells/ml), cell ratio among ECs, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and osteo-differentiated MSCs (1:1:0, 10:1:0, 10:1:1), culture medium (endothelial, endothelial + angiopoietin-1, 1:1 endothelial/osteo), hydrogel type (100%fibrin, 60%fibrin+40%collagen), tissue geometry (2 × 2 × 2, 2 × 2 × 5 mm(3)). We optimized the geometry and oxygen gradient inside hydrogels through computational simulations and we analyzed microvascular network features including total network length/area and vascular branch number/length. Particularly, we employed the "Design of Experiment" statistical approach to identify key differences among experimental conditions. We combined the generation of 3D functional tissue units with the fine control over the local microenvironment (e.g. oxygen gradients), and developed an effective strategy to enable the high-throughput screening of multiple experimental parameters. Our approach allowed to identify synergic correlations among critical parameters driving microvascular network development within a bone-mimicking environment and could be translated to any vascularized tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fabrication and preliminary study of a biomimetic tri-layer tubular graft based on fibers and fiber yarns for vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tong; Zhang, Jialing; Wang, Yuanfei; Li, Dandan; Sun, Binbin; El-Hamshary, Hany; Yin, Meng; Mo, Xiumei

    2018-01-01

    Designing a biomimetic and functional tissue-engineered vascular graft has been urgently needed for repairing and regenerating defected vascular tissues. Utilizing a multi-layered vascular scaffold is commonly considered an effective way, because multi-layered scaffolds can easily simulate the structure and function of natural blood vessels. Herein, we developed a novel tri-layer tubular graft consisted of Poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone)/collagen (PLCL/COL) fibers and Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/silk fibroin (PLGA/SF) yarns via a three-step electrospinning method. The tri-layer vascular graft consisted of PLCL/COL aligned fibers in inner layer, PLGA/SF yarns in middle layer, and PLCL/COL random fibers in outer layer. Each layer possessed tensile mechanical strength and elongation, and the entire tubular structure provided tensile and compressive supports. Furthermore, the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) proliferated well on the materials. Fluorescence staining images demonstrated that the axially aligned PLCL/COL fibers prearranged endothelium morphology in lumen and the circumferential oriented PLGA/SF yarns regulated SMCs organization along the single yarns. The outside PLCL/COL random fibers performed as the fixed layer to hold the entire tubular structure. The in vivo results showed that the tri-layer vascular graft supported cell infiltration, scaffold biodegradation and abundant collagen production after subcutaneous implantation for 10weeks, revealing the optimal biocompatibility and tissue regenerative capability of the tri-layer graft. Therefore, the specially designed tri-layer vascular graft will be beneficial to vascular reconstruction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Angiographic findings of congenital vascular malformation in soft tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dae Seob; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Joon Koo; Chung, Jin Wook; Moon, Woo Kyung; Han, Man Chung

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical, plain radiographic, and angiographic findings of congenital vascular malformation of the soft tissue. Retrospective analysis was performed in 36 patients. Pathological diagnosis was done in 25 patients by surgery and the others were clinically and angiographically diagnosed. On the basis of angiographic findings, we classified the lesions to three groups as arteriovenous malformation (AVM), hemangioma, and venous malformation. In pathologically proven 25 cases, we compared the angiographic diagnosis with the pathologic diagnosis. By angiographic classification, AVM was 13 cases, hemangioma 16 cases, and venous malformation 7 cases. The locations of the lesions were upper extremities in 14 cases, lower extremities in 20 cases, both extremities in 1 case, and back in 1 case. Clinical findings were bruit and thrill in 13 cases(12 AVMs,1 hemangioma) and varicosities in 16 cases(11 AVMs, 3 hemangiomas and 2 venous malformations). The varicosities in AVM were pulsating nature, but not in hemangioma and venous malformation. The concordance rate of the angiographic and pathologic diagnosis was 100%(6/6) in AVM, 71%(10/14) in hemangioma and 60% (3/5) in venous malformation. We think that angiography is an essential study for accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment of congenital vascular malformation

  8. Protein Hydrolysates as Promoters of Non-Haem Iron Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanan; Jiang, Han; Huang, Guangrong

    2017-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for human growth and health. Organic iron is an excellent iron supplement due to its bioavailability. Both amino acids and peptides improve iron bioavailability and absorption and are therefore valuable components of iron supplements. This review focuses on protein hydrolysates as potential promoters of iron absorption. The ability of protein hydrolysates to chelate iron is thought to be a key attribute for the promotion of iron absorption. Iron-chelatable protein hydrolysates are categorized by their absorption forms: amino acids, di- and tri-peptides and polypeptides. Their structural characteristics, including their size and amino acid sequence, as well as the presence of special amino acids, influence their iron chelation abilities and bioavailabilities. Protein hydrolysates promote iron absorption by keeping iron soluble, reducing ferric iron to ferrous iron, and promoting transport across cell membranes into the gut. We also discuss the use and relative merits of protein hydrolysates as iron supplements. PMID:28617327

  9. Protein Hydrolysates as Promoters of Non-Haem Iron Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe is an essential micronutrient for human growth and health. Organic iron is an excellent iron supplement due to its bioavailability. Both amino acids and peptides improve iron bioavailability and absorption and are therefore valuable components of iron supplements. This review focuses on protein hydrolysates as potential promoters of iron absorption. The ability of protein hydrolysates to chelate iron is thought to be a key attribute for the promotion of iron absorption. Iron-chelatable protein hydrolysates are categorized by their absorption forms: amino acids, di- and tri-peptides and polypeptides. Their structural characteristics, including their size and amino acid sequence, as well as the presence of special amino acids, influence their iron chelation abilities and bioavailabilities. Protein hydrolysates promote iron absorption by keeping iron soluble, reducing ferric iron to ferrous iron, and promoting transport across cell membranes into the gut. We also discuss the use and relative merits of protein hydrolysates as iron supplements.

  10. Tissue-Engineered Vascular Graft of Small Diameter Based on Electrospun Polylactide Microfibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Popryadukhin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tubular vascular grafts 1.1 mm in diameter based on poly(L-lactide microfibers were obtained by electrospinning. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy data demonstrated that the samples treated at T=70°C for 1 h in the fixed state on a cylindrical mandrel possessed dense fibrous structure; their degree of crystallinity was approximately 44%. Strength and deformation stability of these samples were higher than those of the native blood vessels; thus, it was possible to use them in tissue engineering as bioresorbable vascular grafts. The experiments on including implantation into rat abdominal aorta demonstrated that the obtained vascular grafts did not cause pathological reactions in the rats; in four weeks, inner side of the grafts became completely covered with endothelial cells, and fibroblasts grew throughout the wall. After exposure for 12 weeks, resorption of PLLA fibers started, and this process was completed in 64 weeks. Resorbed synthetic fibers were replaced by collagen and fibroblasts. At that time, the blood vessel was formed; its neointima and neoadventitia were close to those of the native vessel in structure and composition.

  11. Instructive role of the vascular niche in promoting tumour growth and tissue repair by angiocrine factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Jason M; Kobayashi, Hideki; Rafii, Shahin

    2010-02-01

    The precise mechanisms whereby anti-angiogenesis therapy blocks tumour growth or causes vascular toxicity are unknown. We propose that endothelial cells establish a vascular niche that promotes tumour growth and tissue repair not only by delivering nutrients and O2 but also through an 'angiocrine' mechanism by producing stem and progenitor cell-active trophogens. Identification of endothelial-derived instructive angiocrine factors will allow direct tumour targeting, while diminishing the unwanted side effects associated with the use of anti-angiogenic agents.

  12. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from antihypertensive skate (Okamejei kenojei) skin gelatin hydrolysate in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kang, Kyong-Hwa; Ryu, BoMi; Vo, Thanh-Sang; Jung, Won-Kyo; Byun, Hee-Guk; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate antihypertensive effect of bioactive peptides from skate (Okamejei kenojei) skin gelatin. The Alcalase/protease gelatin hydrolysate below 1 kDa (SAP) exhibited the highest angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition compared to other hydrolysates. SAP can decrease systolic blood pressure significantly in spontaneously hypertensive rats. SAP inhibited vasoconstriction via PPAR-γ expression, activation and phosphorylation of eNOS in lungs. Moreover, the expression levels of endothelin-1, RhoA, α-smooth muscle actin, cleaved caspase 3 and MAPK were decreased by SAP in lungs. Vascularity, muscularization and cellular proliferation in lungs were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Finally, two purified peptides (LGPLGHQ, 720Da and MVGSAPGVL, 829Da) showed potent ACE inhibition with IC50 values of 4.22 and 3.09 μM, respectively. These results indicate that bioactive peptides isolated from skate skin gelatin may serve as candidates against hypertension and could be used as functional food ingredients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling of heat transfer in a vascular tissue-like medium during an interstitial hyperthermia process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Saeid; Saboonchi, Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the role of small vessels in heat transfer mechanisms of a tissue-like medium during local intensive heating processes, for example, an interstitial hyperthermia treatment. To this purpose, a cylindrical tissue with two co- and counter-current vascular networks and a central heat source is introduced. Next, the energy equations of tissue, supply fluid (arterial blood), and return fluid (venous blood) are derived using porous media approach. Then, a 2D computer code is developed to predict the temperature of blood (fluid phase) and tissue (solid phase) by conventional volume averaging method and a more realistic solution method. In latter method, despite the volume averaging the blood of interconnect capillaries is separated from the arterial and venous blood phases. It is found that in addition to blood perfusion rate, the arrangement of vascular network has considerable effects on the pattern and amount of the achieved temperature. In contrast to counter-current network, the co-current network of vessels leads to considerable asymmetric pattern of temperature contours and relocation of heat affected zone along the blood flow direction. However this relocation can be prevented by changing the site of hyperthermia heat source. The results show that the cooling effect of co-current blood vessels during of interstitial heating is more efficient. Despite much anatomical dissimilarities, these findings can be useful in designing of protocols for hyperthermia cancer treatment of living tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Enzymatic protein hydrolysates from high pressure-pretreated isolated pea proteins have better antioxidant properties than similar hydrolysates produced from heat pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgih, Abraham T; Chao, Dongfang; Lin, Lin; He, Rong; Jung, Stephanie; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2015-12-01

    Isolated pea protein (IPP) dispersions (1%, w/v) were pretreated with high pressure (HP) of 200, 400, or 600 MPa for 5 min at 24 °C or high temperature (HT) for 30 min at 100 °C prior to hydrolysis with 1% (w/w) Alcalase. HP pretreatment of IPP at 400 and 600 MPa levels led to significantly (P40%) oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) of hydrolysates. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of pea protein hydrolysates were also significantly (PProtein hydrolysates from HT IPP showed no ORAC, superoxide or hydroxyl scavenging activity but had significantly (Pprotein hydrolysates had weaker antioxidant properties than glutathione but overall, the HP pretreatment was superior to HT pretreatment in facilitating enzymatic release of antioxidant peptides from IPP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Current Strategies for the Manufacture of Small Size Tissue Engineering Vascular Grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Carrabba

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Occlusive arterial disease, including coronary heart disease (CHD and peripheral arterial disease (PAD, is the main cause of death, with an annual mortality incidence predicted to rise to 23.3 million worldwide by 2030. Current revascularization techniques consist of angioplasty, placement of a stent, or surgical bypass grafting. Autologous vessels, such as the saphenous vein and internal thoracic artery, represent the gold standard grafts for small-diameter vessels. However, they require invasive harvesting and are often unavailable. Synthetic vascular grafts represent an alternative to autologous vessels. These grafts have shown satisfactory long-term results for replacement of large- and medium-diameter arteries, such as the carotid or common femoral artery, but have poor patency rates when applied to small-diameter vessels, such as coronary arteries and arteries below the knee. Considering the limitations of current vascular bypass conduits, a tissue-engineered vascular graft (TEVG with the ability to grow, remodel, and repair in vivo presents a potential solution for the future of vascular surgery. Here, we review the different methods that research groups have been investigating to create TEVGs in the last decades. We focus on the techniques employed in the manufacturing process of the grafts and categorize the approaches as scaffold-based (synthetic, natural, or hybrid or self-assembled (cell-sheet, microtissue aggregation and bioprinting. Moreover, we highlight the attempts made so far to translate this new strategy from the bench to the bedside.

  16. Vascular Gene Expression: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Concepción eMartínez-Navarro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular tissues. This tissue-specific expression in Arabidopsis is predicted by the overrepresentation of GA/CT-rich motifs in gene promoters. In this work we have searched for common motifs in upstream regions of the homologous genes from plants considered to possess a primitive vascular tissue (a lycophyte, as well as from others that lack a true vascular tissue (a bryophyte, and finally from chlorophytes. Both lycophyte and bryophyte display motifs similar to those found in Arabidopsis with a significantly low E-value, while the chlorophytes showed either a different conserved motif or no conserved motif at all. These results suggest that these same genes are expressed coordinately in non- vascular plants; this coordinate expression may have been one of the prerequisites for the development of conducting tissues in plants. We have also analyzed the phylogeny of conserved proteins that may be involved in phloem function and development. The presence of CmPP16, APL, FT and YDA in chlorophytes suggests the recruitment of ancient regulatory networks for the development of the vascular tissue during evolution while OPS is a novel protein specific to vascular plants.

  17. Acetone-butanol fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates for the butanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Tatyana; Semyonov, Sergey

    2017-11-01

    It is known that the use of lignocellulosic hydrolysates reduces the production cost of biofuel such as biobutanol and bioethanol. But for the most successful application of the hydrolysates for the biofuel production, it is necessary to apply an inexpensive and effective detoxification method and to use of cost-effective growth factors. In the present study, we evaluated the use of an acid hydrolysate of spruce and an enzymatic hydrolysate of miscanthus cellulose for the biobutanol production. To remove inhibitors from the hydrolysates, we applied the traditional physicochemical method with overliming and the biodetoxification method based on the use of the specially adapted activated sludge. Calcium hydroxide (150 g/L) was used for the neutralization. The biological method of detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates was carried out under non-sterile conditions at room temperature by the specially adapted activated sludge of the urban wastewater treatment plants. The acetone-butanol fermentation was carried out by a strain of bacteria Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The treatment by overliming removed 84-85 % and 83-86% of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and furfural from the hydrolysates respectively. Using the method of biodetoxification the content of furfural decreased by 98% and concentration of 5-HMF - by 97-99%. In the present study as an inexpensive source of growth substances for the fermentation of the hydrolysates it has been suggested to use decantate of the brewer's spent grain. The obtained results showed that the brewer's spent grain can be used in the biofuel production as efficiently as the synthetic growth substances.

  18. Preparation and features of polycaprolactone vascular grafts with the incorporated vascular endothelial growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevostyanova, V. V., E-mail: sevostyanova.victoria@gmail.com; Khodyrevskaya, Y. I.; Glushkova, T. V.; Antonova, L. V.; Kudryavtseva, Y. A.; Barbarash, O. L.; Barbarash, L. S. [Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The development of tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts is an urgent issue in cardiovascular surgery. In this study, we assessed how the incorporation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) affects morphological and mechanical properties of polycaprolactone (PCL) vascular grafts along with its release kinetics. Vascular grafts were prepared using two-phase electrospinning. In pursuing our aims, we performed scanning electron microscopy, mechanical testing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results demonstrated the preservation of a highly porous structure and improvement of PCL/VEGF scaffold mechanical properties as compared to PCL grafts. A prolonged VEGF release testifies the use of this construct as a scaffold for tissue-engineered vascular grafts.

  19. Bioconversion of corn stover hydrolysate to ethanol by a recombinant yeast strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jing; Xia, Liming

    2010-12-15

    Three corn stover hydrolysates, enzymatic hydrolysates prepared from acid and alkaline pretreatments separately and hemicellulosic hydrolysate prepared from acid pretreatment, were evaluated in composition and fermentability. For enzymatic hydrolysate from alkaline pretreatment, ethanol yield on fermentable sugars and fermentation efficiency reached highest among the three hydrolysates; meanwhile, ethanol yield on dry corn stover reached 0.175 g/g, higher than the sum of those of two hydrolysates from acid pretreatment. Fermentation process of the enzymatic hydrolysate from alkaline pretreatment was further investigated using free and immobilized cells of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae ZU-10. Concentrated hydrolysate containing 66.9 g/L glucose and 32.1 g/L xylose was utilized. In the fermentation with free cells, 41.2 g/L ethanol was obtained within 72 h with an ethanol yield on fermentable sugars of 0.416 g/g. Immobilized cells greatly enhanced the ethanol productivity, while the ethanol yield on fermentable sugars of 0.411 g/g could still be reached. Repeated batch fermentation with immobilized cells was further attempted up to six batches. The ethanol yield on fermentable sugars maintained above 0.403 g/g with all glucose and more than 92.83% xylose utilized in each batch. These results demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of ethanol production from corn stover hydrolysates. (author)

  20. Connective tissue growth factor is involved in structural retinal vascular changes in long-term experimental diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Geest, Rob J; Leeuwis, Jan Willem; Dendooven, Amélie; Pfister, Frederick; Bosch, Klazien; Hoeben, Kees A; Vogels, Ilse M C; Van der Giezen, Dionne M; Dietrich, Nadine; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Goldschmeding, Roel; Klaassen, Ingeborg; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F; Schlingemann, Reinier O

    Early retinal vascular changes in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) include capillary basal lamina (BL) thickening, pericyte loss and the development of acellular capillaries. Expression of the CCN (connective tissue growth factor/cysteine-rich 61/nephroblastoma overexpressed) family

  1. Connective tissue growth factor is involved in structural retinal vascular changes in long-term experimental diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geest, Rob J.; Leeuwis, Jan Willem; Dendooven, Amélie; Pfister, Frederick; Bosch, Klazien; Hoeben, Kees A.; Vogels, Ilse M. C.; van der Giezen, Dionne M.; Dietrich, Nadine; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Goldschmeding, Roel; Klaassen, Ingeborg; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Schlingemann, Reinier O.

    2014-01-01

    Early retinal vascular changes in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) include capillary basal lamina (BL) thickening, pericyte loss and the development of acellular capillaries. Expression of the CCN (connective tissue growth factor/cysteine-rich 61/nephroblastoma overexpressed) family

  2. Factors affecting antioxidant activity of soybean meal and caseine protein hydrolysates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korczak, J.

    1998-01-01

    Antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysates was dependent on the raw material, condition of hydrolysis and lipid substrate used in model systems. Soybean meal hydrolysate was more active in lard and in linoleic acid emulsion than caseine hydrolysate, whereas caseine was more active in vegetable oils. Antioxidant activity of evaluated protein hydrolysates in all lipid systems, with or without oxidation catalysts, suggests them as natural food additives for lipid stabilization, thus for improvement of its nutritional value and sensory properties

  3. Blood vessel replacement: 50 years of development and tissue engineering paradigms in vascular surgery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chlupáč, Jaroslav; Filová, Elena; Bačáková, Lucie

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 58, Suppl.2 (2009), S119-S139 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500110564 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : small-caliber vascular grafts * tissue engineering * dynamic bioreactor Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.430, year: 2009

  4. A synergistic approach to the design, fabrication and evaluation of 3D printed micro and nano featured scaffolds for vascularized bone tissue repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Benjamin; Bulusu, Kartik; Plesniak, Michael; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-01-01

    3D bioprinting has begun to show great promise in advancing the development of functional tissue/organ replacements. However, to realize the true potential of 3D bioprinted tissues for clinical use requires the fabrication of an interconnected and effective vascular network. Solving this challenge is critical, as human tissue relies on an adequate network of blood vessels to transport oxygen, nutrients, other chemicals, biological factors and waste, in and out of the tissue. Here, we have successfully designed and printed a series of novel 3D bone scaffolds with both bone formation supporting structures and highly interconnected 3D microvascular mimicking channels, for efficient and enhanced osteogenic bone regeneration as well as vascular cell growth. Using a chemical functionalization process, we have conjugated our samples with nano hydroxyapatite (nHA), for the creation of novel micro and nano featured devices for vascularized bone growth. We evaluated our scaffolds with mechanical testing, hydrodynamic measurements and in vitro human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) adhesion (4 h), proliferation (1, 3 and 5 d) and osteogenic differentiation (1, 2 and 3 weeks). These tests confirmed bone-like physical properties and vascular-like flow profiles, as well as demonstrated enhanced hMSC adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Additional in vitro experiments with human umbilical vein endothelial cells also demonstrated improved vascular cell growth, migration and organization on micro-nano featured scaffolds. (paper)

  5. A synergistic approach to the design, fabrication and evaluation of 3D printed micro and nano featured scaffolds for vascularized bone tissue repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Benjamin; Bulusu, Kartik; Plesniak, Michael; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-02-01

    3D bioprinting has begun to show great promise in advancing the development of functional tissue/organ replacements. However, to realize the true potential of 3D bioprinted tissues for clinical use requires the fabrication of an interconnected and effective vascular network. Solving this challenge is critical, as human tissue relies on an adequate network of blood vessels to transport oxygen, nutrients, other chemicals, biological factors and waste, in and out of the tissue. Here, we have successfully designed and printed a series of novel 3D bone scaffolds with both bone formation supporting structures and highly interconnected 3D microvascular mimicking channels, for efficient and enhanced osteogenic bone regeneration as well as vascular cell growth. Using a chemical functionalization process, we have conjugated our samples with nano hydroxyapatite (nHA), for the creation of novel micro and nano featured devices for vascularized bone growth. We evaluated our scaffolds with mechanical testing, hydrodynamic measurements and in vitro human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) adhesion (4 h), proliferation (1, 3 and 5 d) and osteogenic differentiation (1, 2 and 3 weeks). These tests confirmed bone-like physical properties and vascular-like flow profiles, as well as demonstrated enhanced hMSC adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Additional in vitro experiments with human umbilical vein endothelial cells also demonstrated improved vascular cell growth, migration and organization on micro-nano featured scaffolds.

  6. Development of Sausages Containing Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat Hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S K; Choi, J S; Choi, Y J; Lee, S J; Lee, S Y; Hur, S J

    2015-07-01

    Pork meat sausages were prepared using protein hydrolysates from mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM). In terms of the color, compared to the controls before and after storage, the redness (a*) was significantly higher in sausages containing MDCM hydrolysates, ascorbate, and sodium erythorbate. After storage, compared to the other sausage samples, the yellowness (b*) was lower in the sausages containing ascorbate and sodium erythorbate. TBARS was not significantly different among the sausage samples before storage, whereas TBARS and DPPH radical scavenging activities were significantly higher in the sausagescontainingascorbate and sodium erythorbate, compared to the other sausage samples after 4 wk of storage. In terms of sensory evaluation, the color was significantly higher in the sausages containing MDCM hydrolysates, ascorbate, and sodium erythorbate, compared to the other sausage samples after 4 wk of storage. The "off-flavor" and overall acceptability were significantly lower in the sausages containing MDCM hydrolysates than in the other sausage samples. In most of the developed countries, meat from spent laying hens is not consumed, leading toan urgent need for effectively utilization or disposal methods. In this study, sausages were prepared using spent laying hens and protein hydrolysates from mechanically deboned chicken meat. Sausage can be made by spent laying hens hydrolysates, although overall acceptability was lower than those of other sausage samples. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Processing Methods of Alkaline Hydrolysate from Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga D. Arefieva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper devoted to finding processing methods of alkaline hydrolysate produced from rice husk pre-extraction, and discusses alkaline hydrolysate processing schemed and disengagement of some products: amorphous silica of various quality, alkaline lignin, and water and alkaline extraction polysaccharides. Silica samples were characterized: crude (air-dried, burnt (no preliminary water treatment, washed in distilled water, and washed in distilled water and burnt. Waste water parameters upon the extraction of solids from alkaline hydrolysate dropped a few dozens or thousand times depending on the applied processing method. Color decreased a few thousand times, turbidity was virtually eliminated, chemical oxygen demanded about 20–136 times; polyphenols content might decrease 50% or be virtually eliminated. The most prospective scheme obtained the two following solid products from rice husk alkaline hydrolysate: amorphous silica and alkaline extraction polysaccharide. Chemical oxygen demand of the remaining waste water decreased about 140 times compared to the silica-free solution.

  8. Physiological Importance and Mechanisms of Protein Hydrolysate Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhanghi, Brian M.; Matthews, James C.

    Understanding opportunities to maximize the efficient digestion and assimilation by production animals of plant- and animal-derived protein products is critical for farmers, nutritionists, and feed manufacturers to sustain and expand the affordable production of high quality animal products for human consumption. The challenge to nutritionists is to match gastrointestinal tract load to existing or ­inducible digestive and absorptive capacities. The challenge to feed manufacturers is to develop products that are efficient substrates for digestion, absorption, and/or both events. Ultimately, the efficient absorption of digesta proteins depends on the mediated passage (transport) of protein hydrosylate products as dipeptides and unbound amino acids across the lumen- and blood-facing membranes of intestinal absorptive cells. Data testing the relative efficiency of supplying protein as hydrolysates or specific dipeptides versus as free amino acids, and the response of animals in several physiological states to feeding of protein hydrolysates, are presented and reviewed in this chapter. Next, data describing the transport mechanisms responsible for absorbing protein hydrolysate digestion products, and the known and putative regulation of these mechanisms by their substrates (small peptides) and hormones are presented and reviewed. Several conclusions are drawn regarding the efficient use of protein hydrolysate-based diets for particular physiological states, the economically-practical application of which likely will depend on technological advances in the manufacture of protein hydrolysate products.

  9. Analyzing Structure and Function of Vascularization in Engineered Bone Tissue by Video-Rate Intravital Microscopy and 3D Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yonggang; Tsigkou, Olga; Spencer, Joel A; Lin, Charles P; Neville, Craig; Grottkau, Brian

    2015-10-01

    Vascularization is a key challenge in tissue engineering. Three-dimensional structure and microcirculation are two fundamental parameters for evaluating vascularization. Microscopic techniques with cellular level resolution, fast continuous observation, and robust 3D postimage processing are essential for evaluation, but have not been applied previously because of technical difficulties. In this study, we report novel video-rate confocal microscopy and 3D postimage processing techniques to accomplish this goal. In an immune-deficient mouse model, vascularized bone tissue was successfully engineered using human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffold. Video-rate (30 FPS) intravital confocal microscopy was applied in vitro and in vivo to visualize the vascular structure in the engineered bone and the microcirculation of the blood cells. Postimage processing was applied to perform 3D image reconstruction, by analyzing microvascular networks and calculating blood cell viscosity. The 3D volume reconstructed images show that the hMSCs served as pericytes stabilizing the microvascular network formed by HUVECs. Using orthogonal imaging reconstruction and transparency adjustment, both the vessel structure and blood cells within the vessel lumen were visualized. Network length, network intersections, and intersection densities were successfully computed using our custom-developed software. Viscosity analysis of the blood cells provided functional evaluation of the microcirculation. These results show that by 8 weeks, the blood vessels in peripheral areas function quite similarly to the host vessels. However, the viscosity drops about fourfold where it is only 0.8 mm away from the host. In summary, we developed novel techniques combining intravital microscopy and 3D image processing to analyze the vascularization in engineered bone. These techniques have broad

  10. Application of chitosan scaffolds on vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2 expressions in tissue engineering principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariyati Retno Pratiwi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue engineering has given satisfactory results as biological tissue substitutes to restore, replace, or regenerate tissues that have a defect. Chitosan is an organic biomaterial often used in the biomedical field. Chitosan has biocompatible, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. Chitosan is osteoconductive, suitable for bone regeneration applications. Bone defect healing begins with inflammatory phase as a response to the presence of vascular injury, so new vascularization is required. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and basic fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2 are indicators of the beginning of bone regeneration process, playing an important role in angiogenesis. Purpose: This research was aimed to determine the effects of chitosan scaffold application on the expressions of VEGF and FGF2 in tissue engineering principles. Method: Chitosan was dissolved in CH3COOH and NaOH to form a gel. Chitosan gel was then printed in mould to freeze dry for 24 hours. Those rats with defected bones were divided into two groups. Group 1 was the control group which defected bones were not administrated with chitosan scaffolds. Group 2 was the treatment group which defected bones were administrated with chitosan scaffolds. Those rats were sacrificed on day 14. Tissue preparations were made, and then immunohistochemical staining was conducted. Finally, a statistical analysis was conducted using Kruskal Wallis test. Result: There was no significant difference in the expressions of VEGF and FGF2 between the control group and the treatment group (p>0.05. Conclusion: Chitosan scaffolds do not affect the expressions of VEGF and FGF2 during bone regeneration process on day 14 in tissue engineering principles

  11. Functional and antioxidant properties of protein hydrolysates obtained from white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorres, J M; Rios, D G; Saggiomo, G; Wasielesky, W; Prentice-Hernandez, C

    2018-02-01

    Protein hydrolysates from white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei ) with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH-10 and 20%) were prepared using the enzymes Alcalase 2.4 L and Protamex. The hydrolysates were evaluated for amino acid composition, solubility, foaming properties, emulsifying and antioxidant activity. All the hydrolysates showed high concentrations of Glutamic Acid, Aspartic acid, Arginine, Glycine, Lysine, Proline. It was found that the increase in the production of negatively charged amino acids was related to increase in DH. The hydrophobic amino acids were higher for hydrolysates obtained with Alcalase (10% DH) and Protamex (20% DH). The results indicated that higher degree of hydrolysis showed positive relation with the protein solubility of the hydrolysates, while negatively influenced foam and emulsification properties. The antioxidant properties presented by the white shrimp protein hydrolysates were influenced by the composition and peptides size. Hydrolysates with higher peptide chain showed the highest antioxidant power for the 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and reducing power, while hydrolysates with lower peptide chain showed higher antioxidant power for 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline sulfonic acid) radical scavenging. All hydrolysates showed dose-dependent antioxidant activities. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that white shrimp is a potential source of protein hydrolysates as bioactive ingredients for the use in the formulation of functional foods as well as natural antioxidants in lipid food systems.

  12. Modular tissue engineering for the vascularization of subcutaneously transplanted pancreatic islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Alexander E; Cober, Nicholas; Sefton, Michael V

    2017-08-29

    The transplantation of pancreatic islets, following the Edmonton Protocol, is a promising treatment for type I diabetics. However, the need for multiple donors to achieve insulin independence reflects the large loss of islets that occurs when islets are infused into the portal vein. Finding a less hostile transplantation site that is both minimally invasive and able to support a large transplant volume is necessary to advance this approach. Although the s.c. site satisfies both these criteria, the site is poorly vascularized, precluding its utility. To address this problem, we demonstrate that modular tissue engineering results in an s.c. vascularized bed that enables the transplantation of pancreatic islets. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic SCID/beige mice, the injection of 750 rat islet equivalents embedded in endothelialized collagen modules was sufficient to restore and maintain normoglycemia for 21 days; the same number of free islets was unable to affect glucose levels. Furthermore, using CLARITY, we showed that embedded islets became revascularized and integrated with the host's vasculature, a feature not seen in other s.c. Collagen-embedded islets drove a small (albeit not significant) shift toward a proangiogenic CD206 + MHCII - (M2-like) macrophage response, which was a feature of module-associated vascularization. While these results open the potential for using s.c. islet delivery as a treatment option for type I diabetes, the more immediate benefit may be for the exploration of revascularized islet biology.

  13. Aging exacerbates obesity-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in perivascular adipose tissue in mice: a paracrine mechanism contributing to vascular redox dysregulation and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey-Downs, Lora C; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Toth, Peter; Sosnowska, Danuta; Gautam, Tripti; Sonntag, William E; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2013-07-01

    Obesity in the elderly individuals is increasing at alarming rates and there is evidence suggesting that elderly individuals are more vulnerable to the deleterious cardiovascular effects of obesity than younger individuals. However, the specific mechanisms through which aging and obesity interact to promote the development of cardiovascular disease remain unclear. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that aging exacerbates obesity-induced inflammation in perivascular adipose tissue, which contributes to increased vascular oxidative stress and inflammation in a paracrine manner. To test this hypothesis, we assessed changes in the secretome, reactive oxygen species production, and macrophage infiltration in periaortic adipose tissue of young (7 month old) and aged (24 month old) high-fat diet-fed obese C57BL/6 mice. High-fat diet-induced vascular reactive oxygen species generation significantly increased in aged mice, which was associated with exacerbation of endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation. In young animals, high-fat diet-induced obesity promoted oxidative stress in the perivascular adipose tissue, which was associated with a marked proinflammatory shift in the profile of secreted cytokines and chemokines. Aging exacerbated obesity-induced oxidative stress and inflammation and significantly increased macrophage infiltration in periaortic adipose tissue. Using cultured arteries isolated from young control mice, we found that inflammatory factors secreted from the perivascular fat tissue of obese aged mice promote significant prooxidative and proinflammatory phenotypic alterations in the vascular wall, mimicking the aging phenotype. Overall, our findings support an important role for localized perivascular adipose tissue inflammation in exacerbation of vascular oxidative stress and inflammation in aging, an effect that likely enhances the risk for development of cardiovascular diseases from obesity in the elderly individuals.

  14. Dynamic adaption of vascular morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Fridolin; Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings

    2012-01-01

    The structure of vascular networks adapts continuously to meet changes in demand of the surrounding tissue. Most of the known vascular adaptation mechanisms are based on local reactions to local stimuli such as pressure and flow, which in turn reflects influence from the surrounding tissue. Here ...

  15. The parenchymo-vascular cambium and its derivative tissues in stems and roots of Bougainvillaea glabra Choisy (Nyctaginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Puławska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the shoots and roots of Bougainmllaea, the parenchymo-vascular cambium produces thinwalled secondary parenchyma to one side and the secondary vascular bundles embedded in the "conjunctive tissue" to the other. Periclinal division of a single cambial cell in one radial row brings about periclinal divisions of the adjacent cells of the neighbouring rows. Anticlinal division of a single cambial cell at one level, on the other hand, causes anticlinal. divisions of the adjacent cells of the overlying and underlying tiers.

  16. Vascular and metabolic effects of adrenaline in adipose tissue in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Galbo, H

    2012-01-01

    Objective:The aim was to investigate adipose tissue vascular and metabolic effects of an adrenaline infusion in vivo in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Design:Clinical intervention study with 1-h intravenous adrenaline infusion.Subjects:Eight male overweight T2DM subjects...... and eight male weight-matched, non-T2DM subjects were studied before, during and after an 1-h intravenous adrenaline infusion. Adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was determined by Xenon wash-out technique, and microvascular volume in the adipose tissue was studied by contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging...... infusion. One hour post adrenaline, ATBF was still increased in overweight T2DM subjects. Adrenaline increased microvascular volume in non-T2DM subjects while this response was impaired in overweight T2DM subjects. Adrenaline-induced increase in lipolysis was similar in both groups, but NEFA output from...

  17. Nutritional evaluation of caseins and whey proteins and their hydrolysates from Protamex*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindayikengera, Séverin; Xia, Wen-shui

    2006-01-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC 80) and sodium caseinate were hydrolyzed by Protamex to 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% degree of hydrolysis (DH). WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were then analyzed, compared and evaluated for their nutritional qualities. Their chemical composition, protein solubility, amino acid composition, essential amino acid index (EAA index), biological value (BV), nutritional index (NI), chemical score, enzymic protein efficiency ratio (E-PER) and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) were determined. The results indicated that the enzymatic hydrolysis of WPC 80 and sodium caseinate by Protamex improved the solubility and IVPD of their hydrolysates. WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were high-quality proteins and had a surplus of essential amino acids compared with the FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) reference standard. The nutritive value of WPC 80 and its hydrolysates was superior to that of sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates as indicated by some nutritional parameters such as the amino acid composition, chemical score, EAA index and predicted BV. However, the E-PER was lower for the WPC hydrolysates as compared to unhydrolyzed WPC 80 but sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates did not differ significantly. The nutritional qualities of WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were good and make them appropriate for food formulations or as nutritional supplements. PMID:16421963

  18. A Unique Immunofluorescence Protocol to Detect Protein Expression in Vascular Tissues: Tacking a Long Standing Pathological Hitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet GANDHI

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Autofluorescence induced interference is one of the major drawbacks in immunofluorescence analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, as it decreases the signal-to-noise ratio of specific labeling. Apart from aldehyde-fixation induced artifacts; collagen and elastin, red blood cells and endogenous fluorescent pigment lipofuscin are prime sources of autofluorescence in vascular and aging tissues. We describe herein, an optimized indirect-immunofluorescence method for archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues tissues and cryo sections, using a combination of 3-reagents in a specific order, to achieve optimal fluorescence signals and imaging. Material and Method: Human telomerase reverse transcriptase, a protein implicated as a proliferation marker, was chosen relevant to its expression in solid tumors along with 3 other intracellular proteins exhibiting nuclear and/or cytoplasmic expression. Staining was performed on 10 glioma tissue sections along with 5 of their cryo sections, 5 sections each of hepatocellular, lung, papillary-thyroid and renal cell carcinoma, with 10 non-malignant brain tissue samples serving as control. Specimens were imaged using epifluorescence microscopy, followed by software-based quantification of fluorescence signals for statistical analysis and validation. Results: We observed that the combined application of sodium-borohydride followed by crystal violet before antigen retrieval and a Sudan black B treatment after secondary antibody application proved to be most efficacious for masking autofluorescence/non-specific background in vascular tissues. Conclusion: This unique trio-methodology provides quantifiable observations with maximized fluorescence signal intensity of the target protein for longer retention time of the signal even after prolonged storage. The results can be extrapolated to other human tissues for different protein targets.

  19. A combined strategy to reduce restenosis for vascular tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hemang J; Su, Shih-Horng; Patterson, Cam; Nguyen, Kytai T

    2006-01-01

    Biodegradable polymers including poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) have been used to develop cardiovascular prostheses such as vascular grafts and stents. However, implant-associated thrombosis, inflammation, and restenosis are still major obstacles for the utility of these devices. The lack of an endothelial cell (EC) lining (endothelialization) on the implants and the responses of the immune systems toward the implants have been associated with these complications. In our research strategy, we have combined the drug delivery principle with the strategies of tissue engineering, the controlled release of anti-inflammation drugs and enhanced endothelialization, to reduce the implant-associated adverse responses. We first integrated curcumin, an anti-inflammatory drug and anti-smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferative drug, with PLLA. This curcumin-loaded PLLA material was then modified using adsorptive coating of adhesive proteins such as fibronectin, collagen-I, vitronectin, laminin, and matrigel to improve the endothelial cell (EC) adhesion and proliferation, and ECs were seeded on top of these modified surfaces. Our results showed steady drug release kinetics over the period of 50 days from curcumin-loaded PLLA materials. Additionally, integration of curcumin in PLLA increased the roughness of the scaffold at the nanometric scale using an atomic force microscopic analysis. Moreover, coating with fibronectin on curcumin-loaded PLLA surfaces gave the highest EC adhesion and proliferation compared to other adhesive proteins using PicoGreen DNA assays. The ability of our strategy to release the curcumin for producing anti-inflammation and anti-proliferation responses and to improve EC adhesion and growth after EC seeding suggests this strategy may reduce implant-associated adverse responses and be a better approach for vascular tissue engineering applications.

  20. Antioxidative activities of hydrolysates from edible birds nest using enzymatic hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Nurul Nadia; Babji, Abdul Salam; Ayub, Mohd Khan

    2015-09-01

    Edible bird's nest protein hydrolysates (EBN) were prepared via enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate its antioxidant activity. Two types of enzyme (alcalase and papain) were used in this study and EBN had been hydrolysed with different hydrolysis time (30, 60, 90 and 120 min). Antioxidant activities in EBN protein hydrolysate were measured using DPPH, ABTS+ and Reducing Power Assay. From this study, increased hydrolysis time from 30 min to 120 min contributed to higher DH, as shown by alcalase (40.59%) and papain (24.94%). For antioxidant assay, EBN hydrolysed with papain showed higher scavenging activity and reducing power ability compared to alcalase. The highest antioxidant activity for papain was at 120 min hydrolysis time with ABTS (54.245%), DPPH (49.78%) and Reducing Power (0.0680). Meanwhile for alcalase, the highest antioxidant activity was at 30 min hydrolysis time. Even though scavenging activity for EBN protein hydrolysates were high, the reducing power ability was quite low as compared to BHT and ascorbic Acid. This study showed that EBN protein hydrolysate with alcalase and papain treatments potentially exhibit high antioxidant activity which have not been reported before.

  1. Different Effects of Implanting Sensory Nerve or Blood Vessel on the Vascularization, Neurotization, and Osteogenesis of Tissue-Engineered Bone In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jun-jun; Mu, Tian-wang; Qin, Jun-jun; Bi, Long; Pei, Guo-xian

    2014-01-01

    To compare the different effects of implanting sensory nerve tracts or blood vessel on the osteogenesis, vascularization, and neurotization of the tissue-engineered bone in vivo, we constructed the tissue engineered bone and implanted the sensory nerve tracts (group SN), blood vessel (group VB), or nothing (group Blank) to the side channel of the bone graft to repair the femur defect in the rabbit. Better osteogenesis was observed in groups SN and VB than in group Blank, and no significant difference was found between groups SN and VB at 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. The neuropeptides expression and the number of new blood vessels in the bone tissues were increased at 8 weeks and then decreased at 12 weeks in all groups and were highest in group VB and lowest in group Blank at all three time points. We conclude that implanting either blood vessel or sensory nerve tract into the tissue-engineered bone can significantly enhance both the vascularization and neurotization simultaneously to get a better osteogenesis effect than TEB alone, and the method of implanting blood vessel has a little better effect of vascularization and neurotization but almost the same osteogenesis effect as implanting sensory nerve. PMID:25101279

  2. Vascular lesions following radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, L.F.; Berthrong, M.

    1988-01-01

    The special radiation sensitivity of the vascular system is mainly linked to that of endothelial cells, which are perhaps the most radiation-vulnerable elements of mesenchymal tissues. Within the vascular tree, radiation injures most often capillaries, sinusoids, and small arteries, in that order. Lesions of veins are observed less often, but in certain tissues the veins are regularly damaged (e.g., intestine) or are the most affected structures (i.e., liver). Large arteries do suffer the least; however, when significant damage does occur in an elastic artery (e.g., thrombosis or rupture), it tends to be clinically significant and even fatal. Although not always demonstrable in human tissues, radiation vasculopathy generally is dose and time dependent. Like other radiation-induced lesions, the morphology in the vessels is not specific, but it is characteristic enough to be often recognizable. Vascular injury, especially by therapeutic radiation is not just a morphologic marker. It is a mediator of tissue damage; perhaps the most consistent pathogenetic mechanism in delayed radiation injury

  3. Bitterness in sodium caseinate hydrolysates: role of enzyme preparation and degree of hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Dara; Nongonierma, Alice B; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2017-10-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium caseinate (NaCas) may lead to the development of bitterness. Careful selection of hydrolysis conditions (i.e. enzyme preparation and duration) yielding different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) may aid in the development of low bitterness. Eighteen NaCas hydrolysates were generated with four enzyme preparations (Alcalase 2.4L, Prolyve 1000, FlavorPro Whey and pepsin) to different DH values. Hydrolysate bitterness score, assessed using a trained panel (ten assessors), generally increased at higher DH values for Alcalase, Prolyve and pepsin hydrolysates. However, all FlavorPro Whey hydrolysates (DH 0.38-10.62%) displayed low bitterness score values ( 0.05). Enzyme preparation and DH affect the bitterness of NaCas hydrolysates. The results are relevant for the generation of NaCas hydrolysates with reduced bitterness. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Protein and protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Luc J C; Kies, Arie K; Saris, Wim H M

    2007-08-01

    With the increasing knowledge about the role of nutrition in increasing exercise performance, it has become clear over the last 2 decades that amino acids, protein, and protein hydrolysates can play an important role. Most of the attention has been focused on their effects at a muscular level. As these nutrients are ingested, however, it also means that gastrointestinal digestibility and absorption can modulate their efficacy significantly. Therefore, discussing the role of amino acids, protein, and protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition entails holding a discussion on all levels of the metabolic route. On May 28-29, 2007, a small group of researchers active in the field of exercise science and protein metabolism presented an overview of the different aspects of the application of protein and protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition. In addition, they were asked to share their opinions on the future progress in their fields of research. In this overview, an introduction to the workshop and a short summary of its outcome is provided.

  5. Meniscal repair by fibrocartilage in the dog : Characterization of the repair tissue and the role of vascularity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veth, RPH; Jansen, HWB; Nielsen, HKL; deGroot, JH; Pennings, AJ; Kuijer, R

    Lesions in the avascular part of 20 canine menisci were repaired by implantation of a porous polyurethane. Seven menisci were not repaired and served as controls. The repair tissue was characterized by biochemical and immunological analysis. The role of vascularity in healing was studied by

  6. Culture of equine bone marrow mononuclear fraction and adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction cells in different media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesiane Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the culture of equine bone marrow mononuclear fraction and adipose tissue - derived stromal vascular fraction cells in two different cell culture media. Five adult horses were submitted to bone marrow aspiration from the sternum, and then from the adipose tissue of the gluteal region near the base of the tail. Mononuclear fraction and stromal vascular fraction were isolated from the samples and cultivated in DMEM medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum or in AIM-V medium. The cultures were observed once a week with an inverted microscope, to perform a qualitative analysis of the morphology of the cells as well as the general appearance of the cell culture. Colony-forming units (CFU were counted on days 5, 15 and 25 of cell culture. During the first week of culture, differences were observed between the samples from the same source maintained in different culture media. The number of colonies was significantly higher in samples of bone marrow in relation to samples of adipose tissue.

  7. Mathematical Modeling of Uniaxial Mechanical Properties of Collagen Gel Scaffolds for Vascular Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro M. Irastorza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small diameter tissue-engineered arteries improve their mechanical and functional properties when they are mechanically stimulated. Applying a suitable stress and/or strain with or without a cycle to the scaffolds and cells during the culturing process resides in our ability to generate a suitable mechanical model. Collagen gel is one of the most used scaffolds in vascular tissue engineering, mainly because it is the principal constituent of the extracellular matrix for vascular cells in human. The mechanical modeling of such a material is not a trivial task, mainly for its viscoelastic nature. Computational and experimental methods for developing a suitable model for collagen gels are of primary importance for the field. In this research, we focused on mechanical properties of collagen gels under unconfined compression. First, mechanical viscoelastic models are discussed and framed in the control system theory. Second, models are fitted using system identification. Several models are evaluated and two nonlinear models are proposed: Mooney-Rivlin inspired and Hammerstein models. The results suggest that Mooney-Rivlin and Hammerstein models succeed in describing the mechanical behavior of collagen gels for cyclic tests on scaffolds (with best fitting parameters 58.3% and 75.8%, resp.. When Akaike criterion is used, the best is the Mooney-Rivlin inspired model.

  8. Mathematical modeling of uniaxial mechanical properties of collagen gel scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irastorza, Ramiro M; Drouin, Bernard; Blangino, Eugenia; Mantovani, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Small diameter tissue-engineered arteries improve their mechanical and functional properties when they are mechanically stimulated. Applying a suitable stress and/or strain with or without a cycle to the scaffolds and cells during the culturing process resides in our ability to generate a suitable mechanical model. Collagen gel is one of the most used scaffolds in vascular tissue engineering, mainly because it is the principal constituent of the extracellular matrix for vascular cells in human. The mechanical modeling of such a material is not a trivial task, mainly for its viscoelastic nature. Computational and experimental methods for developing a suitable model for collagen gels are of primary importance for the field. In this research, we focused on mechanical properties of collagen gels under unconfined compression. First, mechanical viscoelastic models are discussed and framed in the control system theory. Second, models are fitted using system identification. Several models are evaluated and two nonlinear models are proposed: Mooney-Rivlin inspired and Hammerstein models. The results suggest that Mooney-Rivlin and Hammerstein models succeed in describing the mechanical behavior of collagen gels for cyclic tests on scaffolds (with best fitting parameters 58.3% and 75.8%, resp.). When Akaike criterion is used, the best is the Mooney-Rivlin inspired model.

  9. Microbeam Radiation-Induced Tissue Damage Depends on the Stage of Vascular Maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatasso, Sara; Laissue, Jean Albert; Hlushchuk, Ruslan; Graber, Werner; Bravin, Alberto; Braeuer-Krisch, Elke; Corde, Stephanie; Blattmann, Hans; Gruber, Guenther; Djonov, Valentin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the effects of microbeam radiation (MR) on vascular biology, we used the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model of an almost pure vascular system with immature vessels (lacking periendothelial coverage) at Day 8 and mature vessels (with coverage) at Day 12 of development. Methods and Materials: CAMs were irradiated with microplanar beams (width, ∼25 μm; interbeam spacing, ∼200 μm) at entrance doses of 200 or 300 Gy and, for comparison, with a broad beam (seamless radiation [SLR]), with entrance doses of 5 to 40 Gy. Results: In vivo monitoring of Day-8 CAM vasculature 6 h after 200 Gy MR revealed a near total destruction of the immature capillary plexus. Conversely, 200 Gy MR barely affected Day-12 CAM mature microvasculature. Morphological evaluation of Day-12 CAMs after the dose was increased to 300 Gy revealed opened interendothelial junctions, which could explain the transient mesenchymal edema immediately after irradiation. Electron micrographs revealed cytoplasmic vacuolization of endothelial cells in the beam path, with disrupted luminal surfaces; often the lumen was engorged with erythrocytes and leukocytes. After 30 min, the capillary plexus adopted a striated metronomic pattern, with alternating destroyed and intact zones, corresponding to the beam and the interbeam paths within the array. SLR at a dose of 10 Gy caused growth retardation, resulting in a remarkable reduction in the vascular endpoint density 24 h postirradiation. A dose of 40 Gy damaged the entire CAM vasculature. Conclusions: The effects of MR are mediated by capillary damage, with tissue injury caused by insufficient blood supply. Vascular toxicity and physiological effects of MR depend on the stage of capillary maturation and appear in the first 15 to 60 min after irradiation. Conversely, the effects of SLR, due to the arrest of cell proliferation, persist for a longer time.

  10. Whey or Casein Hydrolysate with Carbohydrate for Metabolism and Performance in Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuyse, T; Carstens, M; Millen, A M E

    2015-07-01

    The protein type most suitable for ingestion during endurance exercise is undefined. This study compared co-ingestion of either 15 g/h whey or casein hydrolysate with 63 g/h fructose: maltodextrin (0.8:1) on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, exercise metabolism and performance. 2 h postprandial, 8 male cyclists ingested either: carbohydrate-only, carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate, carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate or placebo-water in a crossover, double-blind design during 2 h of exercise at 60%W max followed by a 16-km time trial. Data were evaluated by magnitude-based inferential statistics. Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, measured from (13)CO2 breath enrichment, was not substantially influenced by co-ingestion of either protein hydrolysate. However, only co-ingestion of carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate substantially decreased (98% very likely decrease) total carbohydrate oxidation (mean±SD, 242±44; 258±47; 277±33 g for carbohydrate-casein, carbohydrate-whey and carbohydrate-only, respectively) and substantially increased (93% likely increase) total fat oxidation (92±14; 83±27; 73±19 g) compared with carbohydrate-only. Furthermore, only carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate ingestion resulted in a faster time trial (-3.6%; 90% CI: ±3.2%) compared with placebo-water (95% likely benefit). However, neither protein hydrolysate enhanced time trial performance when compared with carbohydrate-only. Under the conditions of this study, ingesting carbohydrate-casein, but not carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate, favourably alters metabolism during prolonged moderate-strenuous cycling without substantially altering cycling performance compared with carbohydrate-only. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Basic Components of Vascular Connective Tissue and Extracellular Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halper, Jaroslava

    2018-01-01

    Though the composition of the three layers constituting the blood vessel wall varies among the different types of blood vessels, and some layers may even be missing in capillaries, certain basic components, and properties are shared by all blood vessels, though each histologically distinct layer contains a unique complement of extracellular components, growth factors and cytokines, and cell types as well. The structure and composition of vessel layers informs and is informed by the function of the particular blood vessel. The adaptation of the composition and the resulting function of the extracellular matrix (ECM) to changes in circulation/blood flow and a variety of other extravascular stimuli can be characterized as remodeling spearheaded by vascular cells. There is a surprising amount of cell traffic among the three layers. It starts with endothelial cell mediated transmigration of inflammatory cells from the bloodstream into the subendothelium, and then into tissue adjoining the blood vessel. Smooth muscle cells and a variety of adventitial cells reside in tunica media and tunica externa, respectively. The latter cells are a mixture of progenitor/stem cells, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, pericytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells and respond to endothelial injury by transdifferentiation as they travel into the two inner layers, intima and media for corrective mission in the ECM composition. This chapter addresses the role of various vascular cell types and ECM components synthesized by them in maintenance of normal structure and in their contribution to major pathological processes, such as atherosclerosis, organ fibrosis, and diabetic retinopathy. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Antibacterial activity of papain hydrolysed camel whey and its fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdel-Hamid, Mahmoud; Goda, Hanan A.; De Gobba, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Camel whey (ON) was hydrolysed with papain from Carica papaya and fractionated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The antibacterial activity of the CW, camel whey hydrolysate (CWH) and the obtained SEC-fractions was assessed using the disc-diffusion method. The CWH exhibited significantly...

  13. Sport Nutrition Drinks Based on Octopus Protein Hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Riyanto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSport nutrition drinks are well-known in escalating athlete’s performance and endurance. These product developed from whey protein hydrolysates and soybean protein hydrolysates have already been recognized, however expansion from marine product is comparatively rare. Octopus (Octopus cyanea widely acknowledged containing taurine and rich in amino acids is potential to be developed as ingredient for sport nutrition drink. The aims of this study were to create and characterize sport nutrition drinks based on marine peptides through Octopus protein hydrolyzate. Octopus protein hydrolysate has 77.78±2.69% degree of hydrolysis and 751.02±10.63 mg / 100g taurine. Sports nutrition drinks with the addition of 4% Octopus protein hydrolyzate was acceptable sensory panelists, and the serving size of 600 ml contained taurine 726.06±0.82 mg and detected 17 types of amino acids.

  14. Sport Nutrition Drinks Based on Octopus Protein Hydrolysate

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Riyanto; Wini Trilaksani; Rika Lestari

    2017-01-01

    AbstractSport nutrition drinks are well-known in escalating athlete’s performance and endurance. These product developed from whey protein hydrolysates and soybean protein hydrolysates have already been recognized, however expansion from marine product is comparatively rare. Octopus (Octopus cyanea) widely acknowledged containing taurine and rich in amino acids is potential to be developed as ingredient for sport nutrition drink. The aims of this study were to create and characterize sport nu...

  15. Outcomes of Soft Tissue Reconstruction for Traumatic Lower Extremity Fractures with Compromised Vascularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badash, Ido; Burtt, Karen E; Leland, Hyuma A; Gould, Daniel J; Rounds, Alexis D; Azadgoli, Beina; Patel, Ketan M; Carey, Joseph N

    2017-10-01

    Traumatic lower extremity fractures with compromised arterial flow are limb-threatening injuries. A retrospective review of 158 lower extremities with traumatic fractures, including 26 extremities with arterial injuries, was performed to determine the effects of vascular compromise on flap survival, successful limb salvage and complication rates. Patients with arterial injuries had a larger average flap surface area (255.1 vs 144.6 cm2, P = 0.02) and a greater number of operations (4.7 vs 3.8, P = 0.01) than patients without vascular compromise. Patients presenting with vascular injury were also more likely to require fasciotomy [odds ratio (OR): 6.5, confidence interval (CI): 2.3-18.2] and to have a nerve deficit (OR: 16.6, CI: 3.9-70.0), fracture of the distal third of the leg (OR: 2.9, CI: 1.15-7.1) and intracranial hemorrhage (OR: 3.84, CI: 1.1-12.9). After soft tissue reconstruction, patients with arterial injuries had a higher rate of amputation (OR: 8.5, CI: 1.3-53.6) and flap failure requiring a return to the operating room (OR: 4.5, CI: 1.5-13.2). Arterial injury did not correlate with infection or overall complication rate. In conclusion, arterial injuries resulted in significant complications for patients with lower extremity fractures requiring flap coverage, although limb salvage was still effective in most cases.

  16. The hypolipidemic effect and antithrombotic activity of Mucuna pruriens protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Chalé, Francisco; Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Betancur Ancona, David; Acevedo Fernández, Juan José; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolysates and peptide fractions (PF) obtained from M. pruriens protein concentrates with commercial and digestive enzymatic systems were studied for their hypolipidemic and antithrombotic activities. Hydrolysates obtained with Pepsin-Pancreatin (PP) and their peptide fractions inhibited cholesterol micellar solubility with a maximum value of 1.83% in PP. Wistar rats were used to evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of hydrolysates and PF. The higher reductions of cholesterol and triglyceride levels were exhibited by PP and both peptide fractions 10 kDa from both hydrolysates showed the maximum antithrombotic activity with values of 33.33% for PF > 10 kDa from AF and 31.72% for PF > 10 kDa from PP. The results suggest that M. pruriens bioactive peptides with the hypolipidemic effect and antithrombotic activity might be utilized as nutraceuticals.

  17. Cellulase Production from Spent Lignocellulose Hydrolysates by Recombinant Aspergillus niger▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alriksson, Björn; Rose, Shaunita H.; van Zyl, Willem H.; Sjöde, Anders; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof; Jönsson, Leif J.

    2009-01-01

    A recombinant Aspergillus niger strain expressing the Hypocrea jecorina endoglucanase Cel7B was grown on spent hydrolysates (stillage) from sugarcane bagasse and spruce wood. The spent hydrolysates served as excellent growth media for the Cel7B-producing strain, A. niger D15[egI], which displayed higher endoglucanase activities in the spent hydrolysates than in standard medium with a comparable monosaccharide content (e.g., 2,100 nkat/ml in spent bagasse hydrolysate compared to 480 nkat/ml in standard glucose-based medium). In addition, A. niger D15[egI] was also able to consume or convert other lignocellulose-derived compounds, such as acetic acid, furan aldehydes, and phenolic compounds, which are recognized as inhibitors of yeast during ethanolic fermentation. The results indicate that enzymes can be produced from the stillage stream as a high-value coproduct in second-generation bioethanol plants in a way that also facilitates recirculation of process water. PMID:19251882

  18. Comparison of Neuroprotective and Cognition-Enhancing Properties of Hydrolysates from Soybean, Walnut, and Peanut Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhi Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysates were prepared from soybean, walnut, and peanut protein by papain, respectively. Their amino acid compositions and molecular weight distributions, the effects of various hydrolysates on H2O2-induced injury PC12 cells, and cognition of mice were investigated, respectively. Results showed that the three hydrolysates were dominated by the peptides with 1–3 KDa with large amount of neurotrophic amino acids. All the hydrolysates exhibited much stronger inhibitory activity against H2O2-induced toxicity than cerebrolysin, and soy protein hydrolysate showed the highest activity. Moreover, the hydrolysates also could reduce the rate of nonviable apoptotic cells at the concentration of 2 mg/mL. The test of animal’s cognition indicated that three hydrolysates could present partly better effect of improving recurred memory ability of normal mice and consolidated memory ability of anisodine-treated mice than piracetam. Therefore, soybean, walnut, and peanut protein hydrolysates were recommended as a potential food raw material for prevention or treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  19. Low-temperature X-ray microanalysis of the differentiating vascular tissue in root tips of Lemna minor L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echlin, P [Univ. of Cambridge, England; Lai, C E; Hayes, T L

    1982-06-01

    The fracture faces of bulk-frozen tissue offer a number of advantages for the analysis of diffusible elements. They are easy to prepare, remain uncontaminated, and, unlike most frozen-hydrated sections, can be shown to exist in a fully hydrated state throughout examination and analysis. Root tips of Lemna minor briefly treated with a polymeric cryoprotectant are quench frozen in melting nitrogen. Fractures are prepared using the AMRAY Biochamber, lightly etched if necessary to reveal surface detail and carbon coated while maintaining the specimen at 110 K. The frozen-hydrated fracture faces are analyzed at 110 K using the P/B ratio method which is less sensitive to changes in surface geometry and variations in beam current. The method has been used to investigate the distribution of seven elements (Na/sup +/, Mg/sup + +/, P, S, Cl/sup -/, K/sup +/ and Ca/sup + +/) in the developing vascular tissue of the root tip. The microprobe can measure relative elemental ratios at the cellular level and the results from this present study reveal important variations in different parts of the root. The younger, more actively dividing cells, appear to have a slightly higher concentration of diffusible ions in comparison to the somewhat older tissues which have begun to differentiate into what are presumed to be functional vascular elements.

  20. Intrahepatic tissue pO2 during continuous or intermittent vascular inflow occlusion in a pig liver resection model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wagensveld, B. A.; van Gulik, T. M.; Gabeler, E. E.; van der Kleij, A. J.; Obertop, H.; Gouma, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Temporary vascular inflow occlusion of the liver (clamping of the hepatic pedicle) can prevent massive blood loss during liver resections. In this study, intrahepatic tissue pO2 was assessed as parameter of microcirculatory disturbances induced by ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) in the

  1. Vascularization and tissue infiltration of a biodegradable polyurethane matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganta, Sudhakar R.; Piesco, Nicholas P.; Long, Ping; Gassner, Robert; Motta, Luis F.; Papworth, Glenn D.; Stolz, Donna B.; Watkins, Simon C.; Agarwal, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Urethanes are frequently used in biomedical applications because of their excellent biocompatibility. However, their use has been limited to bioresistant polyurethanes. The aim of this study was to develop a nontoxic biodegradable polyurethane and to test its potential for tissue compatibility. A matrix was synthesized with pentane diisocyanate (PDI) as a hard segment and sucrose as a hydroxyl group donor to obtain a microtextured spongy urethane matrix. The matrix was biodegradable in an aqueous solution at 37°C in vitro as well as in vivo. The polymer was mechanically stable at body temperatures and exhibited a glass transition temperature (Tg) of 67°C. The porosity of the polymer network was between 10 and 2000 µm, with the majority of pores between 100 and 300 µm in diameter. This porosity was found to be adequate to support the adherence and proliferation of bone-marrow stromal cells (BMSC) and chondrocytes in vitro. The degradation products of the polymer were nontoxic to cells in vitro. Subdermal implants of the PDI–sucrose matrix did not exhibit toxicity in vivo and did not induce an acute inflammatory response in the host. However, some foreign-body giant cells did accumulate around the polymer and in its pores, suggesting its degradation is facilitated by hydrolysis as well as by giant cells. More important, subdermal implants of the polymer allowed marked infiltration of vascular and connective tissue, suggesting the free flow of fluids and nutrients in the implants. Because of the flexibility of the mechanical strength that can be obtained in urethanes and because of the ease with which a porous microtexture can be achieved, this matrix may be useful in many tissue-engineering applications. PMID:12522810

  2. Optical coherence tomography in quantifying the permeation of human plasma lipoproteins in vascular tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosn, M. G.; Mashiatulla, M.; Tuchin, V. V.; Morrisett, J. D.; Larin, K. V.

    2012-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most common underlying cause of vascular disease, occurring in multiple arterial beds including the carotid, coronary, and femoral arteries. Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process occurring in arterial tissue, involving the subintimal accumulation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Little is known about the rates at which these accumulations occur. Measurements of the permeability rate of LDL, and other lipoproteins such as high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), could help gain a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. The permeation of VLDL, LDL, HDL, and glucose was monitored and quantified in normal and diseased human carotid endarterectomy tissues at 20°C and 37°C using optical coherence tomography (OCT). The rates for LDL permeation through normal tissue at 20°C was (3.16 +/- 0.37) × 10-5 cm/sec and at 37°C was (4.77 +/- 0.48) × 10-5 cm/sec, significantly greater (plipoproteins.

  3. Short communication: Tryptic β-casein hydrolysate modulates enteric nervous system development in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossais, F; Clawin-Rädecker, I; Lorenzen, P C; Klempt, M

    2017-05-01

    The intestinal tract of the newborn is particularly sensitive to gastrointestinal disorders, such as infantile diarrhea or necrotizing colitis. Perinatal development of the gut also encompasses the maturation of the enteric nervous system (ENS), a main regulator of intestinal motility and barrier functions. It was recently shown that ENS maturation can be enhanced by nutritional factors to improve intestinal maturation. Bioactivity of milk proteins is often latent, requiring the release of bioactive peptides from inactive native proteins. Several casein-derived hydrolysates presenting immunomodulatory properties have been described recently. Furthermore, accumulating data indicate that milk-derived hydrolysate can enhance gut maturation and enrichment of milk formula with such hydrolysates has recently been proposed. However, the capability of milk-derived bioactive hydrolysate to target ENS maturation has not been analyzed so far. We, therefore, investigated the potential of a recently described tryptic β-casein hydrolysate to modulate ENS growth parameters in an in vitro model of rat primary culture of ENS. Rat primary cultures of ENS were incubated with a bioactive tryptic β-casein hydrolysate and compared with untreated controls or to cultures treated with native β-casein or a Prolyve β-casein hydrolysate (Lyven, Colombelles, France). Differentiation of enteric neurons and enteric glial cells, and establishment of enteric neural network were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR. Effect of tryptic β-casein hydrolysate on bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP)/Smad pathway, an essential regulator of ENS development, was further assessed using quantitative PCR and immunochemistry. Tryptic β-casein hydrolysate stimulated neurite outgrowth and simultaneously modulated the formation of enteric ganglia-like structures, whereas native β-casein or Prolyve β-casein hydrolysate did not. Additionally, treatment with tryptic bioactive

  4. FDG uptake in the fatty tissues of supraclavicular and the vascular structure of the lung hilum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Yaping; Liu Gang; Li Miao

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Supraclavicular region (SR) and lung hilum (LH) are common sites for lymph node metastases. A commonly reported site of non-malignant FDG uptake on PET imaging in the SR is muscular uptake. PET/CT offers a unique technique to correlate PET findings with CT anatomy in the SR and LH. We carried out this study to investigate FDG uptake in SR and LH to find out the exact tissues of FDG uptake. From September 2002 to March 2003, 147 consecutive patients imaged by FDG PET/CT whole-body scan (GE Discovery LS, CT attenuation correction, OSEM reconstruction) were retrospectively reviewed. The presence of abnormal FDG uptake on PET images in SR and LH regions was evaluated and the corresponding CT findings on the same regions were also assessed. Of the 147 patients, 8 cases (2M, 6F and mean age 44 years) were found with increased symmetrical FDG uptake in the regions of the lower neck and shoulder as well as costo-vertebral articulations. The positive rates were 2.1% and 11.3% for men and women respectively, and the average rate was 5.4%. However, no FDG uptake was seen in the greater muscular structures of the cervical or thoracic spine. FDG uptake was seen in the fatty tissue between the shoulder muscle and the dorsal thoracic wall, but not within the muscles itself. Five patients (3M, 2F, age 56-74 years, 3.4%) showed abnormal FDG uptake in LH, which were definitely localized in the vascular structure of the lung hilum by CT. Co-registered PET/CT imaging shows that the FDG uptake, though well known in the SR and LH regions, is not fully located in greater muscular structures and lymph nodes, but in the costo-vertebral articulation complex of the thoracic spine and fatty tissue of the shoulders as well as in the vascular structure of both lung hilum. The FDG uptake in the fatty tissue of the shoulders was mostly seen in women, while the uptake in vascular structure of the lung hilum were found in aged people. (author)

  5. FDG uptake in the fatty tissues of supraclavicular and the vascular structure of the lung hilum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Yaping; Liu Gang; Li Miao

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate FDG uptake on the sites of supraclavicular region (SR) and the lung hilum (LH) and find out the exact tissues of the uptake. Methods: Supraclavicular region (SR) and lung hilum (LH) are common sites for lymph node metastases. A commonly reported site of non-malignant FDG uptake on PET imaging in the SR is muscular uptake. PET/CT offers a unique technique to correlate PET findings with CT anatomy in the SR and EH. From September 2002 to March 2003, 147 consecutive clinical patients imaged by FDG PET/CT whole-body scan (GE Discovery LS, CT attenuation correction, OSEM reconstruction) were retrospectively reviewed. The presence of abnormal FDG uptake on PET images in the sites of SR and LH regions was evaluated and the corresponding CT findings on the same regions were also assessed. Results: Of 147 patients, 8 cases (2M, 6F and mean age 44 years) were found with increased symmetrical FDG uptake in the regions of the lower neck and shoulder as well as costo-vertebral articulations, the positive rates were 2.1% and 11.3 % for men and women respectively, and the average rate was 5.4%. However, no FDG uptake was seen in the greater muscular structures of the cervical or thoracic spine. FDG uptake was seen in the fatty tissue between the shoulder muscle and the dorsal thoracic wall, but not within the muscles itself. Five patients (3M, 2F, age 56-74 years,3.4%) showed abnormal LH FDG uptake, which were definitely localized in the vascular structure of the lung hilum by CT Conclusion: Co-registered PET/CT imaging shows that the FDG uptake been well known in the SR and LH regions are not fully located in greater muscular structures and lymph nodes, but in the costo-vertebral articulation complex of the thoracic spine and fatty tissue of the shoulders as well as in the vascular structure of both lung hilum. The FDG uptake in the fatty tissue of the shoulders was mostly seen in women, while the uptake in vascular structure of the lung hilum were

  6. An anisotropically and heterogeneously aligned patterned electrospun scaffold with tailored mechanical property and improved bioactivity for vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He; Li, Haiyan; Ke, Qinfei; Chang, Jiang

    2015-04-29

    The development of vascular scaffolds with controlled mechanical properties and stimulatory effects on biological activities of endothelial cells still remains a significant challenge to vascular tissue engineering. In this work, we reported an innovative approach to prepare a new type of vascular scaffolds with anisotropically and heterogeneously aligned patterns using electrospinning technique with unique wire spring templates, and further investigated the structural effects of the patterned electrospun scaffolds on mechanical properties and angiogenic differentiation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results showed that anisotropically aligned patterned nanofibrous structure was obtained by depositing nanofibers on template in a structurally different manner, one part of nanofibers densely deposited on the embossments of wire spring and formed cylindrical-like structures in the transverse direction, while others loosely suspended and aligned along the longitudinal direction, forming a three-dimensional porous microstructure. We further found that such structures could efficiently control the mechanical properties of electrospun vascular scaffolds in both longitudinal and transverse directions by altering the interval distances between the embossments of patterned scaffolds. When HUVECs were cultured on scaffolds with different microstructures, the patterned scaffolds distinctively promoted adhesion of HUVECs at early stage and proliferation during the culture period. Most importantly, cells experienced a large shape change associated with cell cytoskeleton and nuclei remodeling, leading to a stimulatory effect on angiogenesis differentiation of HUVECs by the patterned microstructures of electrospun scaffolds, and the scaffolds with larger distances of intervals showed a higher stimulatory effect. These results suggest that electrospun scaffolds with the anisotropically and heterogeneously aligned patterns, which could efficiently control the

  7. Ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate using Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canilha, Larissa; Carvalho, Walter; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida; Silva, João Batista de Almeida e; Giulietti, Marco

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ethanol production from the sugars contained in the sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate with the yeast Pichia stipitis DSM 3651. The fermentations were carried out in 250-mL Erlenmeyers with 100 mL of medium incubated at 200 rpm and 30 degrees C for 120 h. The medium was composed by raw (non-detoxified) hydrolysate or by hydrolysates detoxified by pH alteration followed by active charcoal adsorption or by adsorption into ion-exchange resins, all of them supplemented with yeast extract (3 g/L), malt extract (3 g/L), and peptone (5 g/L). The initial concentration of cells was 3 g/L. According to the results, the detoxification procedures removed inhibitory compounds from the hemicellulosic hydrolysate and, thus, improved the bioconversion of the sugars into ethanol. The fermentation using the non-detoxified hydrolysate led to 4.9 g/L ethanol in 120 h, with a yield of 0.20 g/g and a productivity of 0.04 g L(-1) h(-1). The detoxification by pH alteration and active charcoal adsorption led to 6.1 g/L ethanol in 48 h, with a yield of 0.30 g/g and a productivity of 0.13 g L(-1) h(-1). The detoxification by adsorption into ion-exchange resins, in turn, provided 7.5 g/L ethanol in 48 h, with a yield of 0.30 g/g and a productivity of 0.16 g L(-1) h(-1).

  8. Furfural production from biomass pretreatment hydrolysate using vapor-releasing reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Chang, Hou-Min; Jameel, Hasan; Park, Sunkyu

    2018-03-01

    Biomass hydrolysate from autohydrolysis pretreatment was used for furfural production considering it is in rich of xylose, xylo-oligomers, and other decomposition products from hemicellulose structure. By using the vapor-releasing reactor system, furfural was protected from degradation by separating it from the reaction media. The maximum furfural yield of 73% was achieved at 200 °C for biomass hydrolysate without the use of the catalyst. This is because the presence of organic acids such as acetic acid in hydrolysate functioned as a catalyst. According to the results in this study, biomass hydrolysate with a vapor-releasing system proves to be efficient for furfural production. The biorefinery process which allows the separation of xylose-rich autohydrolysate from other parts from biomass feedstock also improves the overall application of the biomass. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mobilization of Circulating Vascular Progenitors in Cancer Patients Receiving External Beam Radiation in Response to Tissue Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, David S.; Morgan, Scott C.; Birch, Paul E.; Yang, Lin; Halpenny, Michael J.; Gunanayagam, Angelo; Li Yuhua; Eapen, Libni

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Endothelial-like vascular progenitor cells (VPCs) are associated with the repair of ischemic tissue injury in several clinical settings. Because the endothelium is a principal target of radiation injury, VPCs may be important in limiting toxicity associated with radiotherapy (RT) in patients with cancer. Methods and Materials: We studied 30 patients undergoing RT for skin cancer (n = 5), head-and-neck cancer (n = 15), and prostate cancer (n = 10) prospectively, representing a wide range of irradiated mucosal volumes. Vascular progenitor cell levels were enumerated from peripheral blood at baseline, midway through RT, at the end of treatment, and 4 weeks after radiation. Acute toxicity was graded at each time point by use of the National Cancer Institute's Common Toxicity Criteria, version 3.0. Results: Significant increases in the proportion of CD34 + /CD133 + VPCs were observed after completion of RT, from 0.012% at baseline to 0.048% (p = 0.029), and the increase in this subpopulation was most marked in patients with Grade 2 peak toxicity or greater after RT (p = 0.034). Similarly, CD34 + /vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-positive VPCs were increased after the completion of radiation therapy in comparison to baseline (from 0.014% to 0.027%, p = 0.043), and there was a trend toward greater mobilization in patients with more significant toxicity (p = 0.08). The mobilization of CD34 + hematopoietic stem cells did not increase after treatment (p = 0.58), and there was no relationship with toxicity. Conclusions: We suggest that VPCs may play an important role in reducing radiation-induced tissue damage. Interventions that increase baseline VPC levels or enhance their mobilization and recruitment in response to RT may prove useful in facilitating more rapid and complete tissue healing.

  10. Biomaterial-mediated strategies targeting vascularization for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, José R; García, Andrés J

    2016-04-01

    Repair of non-healing bone defects through tissue engineering strategies remains a challenging feat in the clinic due to the aversive microenvironment surrounding the injured tissue. The vascular damage that occurs following a bone injury causes extreme ischemia and a loss of circulating cells that contribute to regeneration. Tissue-engineered constructs aimed at regenerating the injured bone suffer from complications based on the slow progression of endogenous vascular repair and often fail at bridging the bone defect. To that end, various strategies have been explored to increase blood vessel regeneration within defects to facilitate both tissue-engineered and natural repair processes. Developments that induce robust vascularization will need to consolidate various parameters including optimization of embedded therapeutics, scaffold characteristics, and successful integration between the construct and the biological tissue. This review provides an overview of current strategies as well as new developments in engineering biomaterials to induce reparation of a functional vascular supply in the context of bone repair.

  11. Development of mechanically expanded gelatin-AAc-PLLA/PLCL nanofibers for vascular tissue engineering by radiation-based techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jin Oh; Jeong, Sung In; Seo, Da Eun; Park, Jong Seok; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Ahn, Sung Jun; Lim, Youn Mook [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Young Min [Dept. of Bioengineering, Division of Applied Chemical and Bio Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Vascular tissue engineering has been accessed to mimic the natural composition of the blood vessel containing inmate, media, and adventitia layers. We fabricated mechanically expanded PLLA/PLCL nanofibers using electrospinning and UTM. The pore size of the meshes was increased the gelatin immobilized AAc-PLLA/PLCL nanofibers (203.30±49.62 microns) than PLLA/PLCL nanofibers (59.99±8.66 microns) after mechanical expansion. To increase the cell adhesion and proliferation, we introduced carboxyl group, and gelatin was conjugated on them. The properties of the PLLA/PLCL nanofibers were analyzed with SEM, ATR-FTIR, TBO staining, and water contact angle measurement, general cell responses on the PLLA/PLCL nanofibers such as adhesion, proliferation, and infiltration were also investigated using smooth muscle cell (SMC). During the SMC culture, the initial viability of the cells was significantly increased on the gelatin immobilized AAc-PLLA/PLCL nanofibers, and infiltration of the cells was also enhanced on them. Therefore, gelatin immobilized AAc-PLLA/PLCL nanofibers and mechanically expanded meshes may be a good tool for vascular tissue engineering application.

  12. In vitro model of vascularized bone: synergizing vascular development and osteogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Correia

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering provides unique opportunities for regenerating diseased or damaged tissues using cells obtained from tissue biopsies. Tissue engineered grafts can also be used as high fidelity models to probe cellular and molecular interactions underlying developmental processes. In this study, we co-cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs under various environmental conditions to elicit synergistic interactions leading to the colocalized development of capillary-like and bone-like tissues. Cells were encapsulated at the 1:1 ratio in fibrin gel to screen compositions of endothelial growth medium (EGM and osteogenic medium (OM. It was determined that, to form both tissues, co-cultures should first be supplied with EGM followed by a 1:1 cocktail of the two media types containing bone morphogenetic protein-2. Subsequent studies of HUVECs and MSCs cultured in decellularized, trabecular bone scaffolds for 6 weeks assessed the effects on tissue construct of both temporal variations in growth-factor availability and addition of fresh cells. The resulting grafts were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice to determine the phenotype stability and functionality of engineered vessels. Two important findings resulted from these studies: (i vascular development needs to be induced prior to osteogenesis, and (ii the addition of additional hMSCs at the osteogenic induction stage improves both tissue outcomes, as shown by increased bone volume fraction, osteoid deposition, close proximity of bone proteins to vascular networks, and anastomosis of vascular networks with the host vasculature. Interestingly, these observations compare well with what has been described for native development. We propose that our cultivation system can mimic various aspects of endothelial cell-osteogenic precursor interactions in vivo, and could find utility as a model for studies of heterotypic cellular interactions that

  13. Selection of lactic acid bacteria able to ferment inulin hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian BASTON

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight homofermentative lactic acid bacteria isolates were tested for lactic acid production using chicory and Jerusalem artichoke hydrolysate as substrate. The pH, lactic acid yield and productivity were used to select the best homolactic bacteria for lactic acid production. The selected strains produced lactic acid at maximum yield after 24 hours of fermentation and the productivity was greater at 24 hours of fermentation. From all studied strains, Lb1 and Lb2 showed the best results regarding lactic acid yields andproductivity. After 48 hours of chicory and Jerusalem artichhoke hydrolysates fermentation, from all the studied strains, Lb2 produced the highest lactic acid yield (0.97%. Lb2 produced after 48 hours of fermentation the lowest pH value of 3.45±0.01. Lb2 showed greater lactic acid productivity compared to the other studied lactic acid bacteria, the highest values, 0.13 g·L-1·h-1fromJerusalem artichoke hydrolysate and 0.11g·L-1·h-1 from chicory hydrolysate, being produced after 24 hours of fermentation.

  14. Ethanol production from marine algal hydrolysates using Escherichia coli KO11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nag-Jong; Li, Hui; Jung, Kwonsu; Chang, Ho Nam; Lee, Pyung Cheon

    2011-08-01

    Algae biomass is a potential raw material for the production of biofuels and other chemicals. In this study, biomass of the marine algae, Ulva lactuca, Gelidium amansii,Laminaria japonica, and Sargassum fulvellum, was treated with acid and commercially available hydrolytic enzymes. The hydrolysates contained glucose, mannose, galactose, and mannitol, among other sugars, at different ratios. The Laminaria japonica hydrolysate contained up to 30.5% mannitol and 6.98% glucose in the hydrolysate solids. Ethanogenic recombinant Escherichia coli KO11 was able to utilize both mannitol and glucose and produced 0.4g ethanol per g of carbohydrate when cultured in L. japonica hydrolysate supplemented with Luria-Bertani medium and hydrolytic enzymes. The strategy of acid hydrolysis followed by simultaneous enzyme treatment and inoculation with E. coli KO11 could be a viable strategy to produce ethanol from marine alga biomass. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fractionation and identification of novel antioxidant peptides from buffalo and bovine casein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shazly, Ahmed Behdal; He, Zhiyong; El-Aziz, Mahmoud Abd; Zeng, Maomao; Zhang, Shuang; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie

    2017-10-01

    Buffalo and bovine caseins were hydrolysed by alcalase and trypsin to produce novel antioxidant peptides. The casein hydrolysates were purified using ultrafiltration (UF) and further characterized by RP-HPLC. The fractions produced higher antioxidant activities were identified for their peptides using LC MS/MS. All UF-VI (MWcasein (UF-VI with 54.84-fold purification) showed higher antioxidant activity than that obtained by trypsin. Trypsin hydrolysate contained high amount of hydrophobic amino acids while alcalase hydrolysate consisted mainly of Ser, Arg, Ala and Leu. The antioxidant peptides identified by LC MS/MS were RELEE, MEDNKQ and TVA, EQL in buffalo casein hydrolysates produced by trypsin and alcalase, respectively. Mechanism and reaction pathways of selected antioxidant peptides with ABTS were proposed. Conclusively, buffalo casein provided antioxidant peptides similar to bovine, suggesting that buffalo casein is a novel source of antioxidant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate as a potential feedstock for red pigment production by Monascus ruber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terán Hilares, Ruly; de Souza, Rebeca Andrade; Marcelino, Paulo Franco

    2018-01-01

    condition (7.45 UA490nm). By using SCB hydrolysate-based medium, the highest red pigment production (18.71 AU490nm) was achieved under dark condition and the glucose and cellobiose present in the hydrolysate were metabolized. SCB enzymatic hydrolysate was demonstrated to be a promising carbon source...

  17. Debittering of Protein Hydrolysates by Lactobacillus LBL-4 Aminopeptidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozhidar Tchorbanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoghurt strain Lactobacillus LBL-4 cultivated for 8–10 h at pH ~6.0 was investigated as a considerable food-grade source of intracellular aminopeptidase. Cell-free extract manifesting >200 AP U/l was obtained from cells harvested from 1 L culture media. Subtilisin-induced hydrolysates of casein, soybean isolate, and Scenedesmus cell protein with degree of hydrolysis 20–22% incubated at 45∘C for 10 h by 10 AP U/g peptides caused an enlarging of DH up to 40–42%, 46–48%, and 38–40% respectively. The DH increased rapidly during the first 4 h, but gel chromatography studies on BioGel P-2 showed significant changes occurred during 4–10 h of enzyme action when the DH increased gradually. After the digestion, the remained AP activity can be recovered by ultrafiltration (yield 40–50%. Scenedesmus protein hydrolysate with DH 20% was inoculated by Lactobacillus LBL-4 cells, and after 72 h cultivation the DH reached 32%. The protein hydrolysates (DH above 40% obtained from casein and soybean isolate (high Q value demonstrated a negligible bitterness while Scenedesmus protein hydrolysates (low Q value after both treatments were free of bitterness.

  18. Detoxification of furfural residues hydrolysate for butanol fermentation by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jin-Jun; Han, Rui-Zhi; Xu, Guo-Chao; Gong, Lei; Xing, Wan-Ru; Ni, Ye

    2018-07-01

    The toxicity of furfural residues (FRs) hydrolysate is a major obstacle in its application. This work focused on the detoxification of FRs hydrolysate and its application in butanol fermentation. Combination of activated carbon and resin 717 was appropriate for the detoxification of hydrolysate. Mixed sterilization of FRs hydrolysate and corn steep liquor (CSL) was better than the separate ones, since proteins in CSL could adsorb and remove toxic components during sterilization. The results further confirmed that simultaneous sterilization of activated carbon + resin and fermentation medium was more efficient for detoxification and butanol production, in which 76.4% of phenolic compounds and 99.3% of Maillard reaction products were removed, 8.48 g/L butanol and 12.61 g/L total solvent were obtained. This study provides feasible and economic approaches for the detoxification of FRs hydrolysate and its application in butanol production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Improvement of the fermentability of oxalic acid hydrolysates by detoxification using electrodialysis and adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, So-Yeon; Trinh, Ly Thi Phi; Lee, Hong-Joo; Lee, Jae-Won

    2014-01-01

    A two-step detoxification process consisting of electrodialysis and adsorption was performed to improve the fermentability of oxalic acid hydrolysates. The constituents of the hydrolysate differed significantly between mixed hardwood and softwood. Acetic acid and furfural concentrations were high in the mixed hardwood, whereas 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) concentration was relatively low compared with that of the mixed softwood. The removal efficiency of acetic acid reached 100% by electrodialysis (ED) process in both hydrolysates, while those of furfural and HMF showed very low, due to non-ionizable properties. Most of the remaining inhibitors were removed by XAD-4 resin. In the mixed hardwood hydrolysate without removal of the inhibitors, ethanol fermentation was not completed. Meanwhile, both ED-treated hydrolysates successfully produced ethanol with 0.08 and 0.15 g/Lh ethanol productivity, respectively. The maximum ethanol productivity was attained after fermentation with 0.27 and 0.35 g/Lh of detoxified hydrolysates, which were treated by ED, followed by XAD-4 resin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes using hydrolysates of spent yeast cells and corn fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke-Quan; Li, Jian; Ma, Jiang-Feng; Jiang, Min; Wei, Ping; Liu, Zhong-Min; Ying, Han-Jie

    2011-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysate of spent yeast cells was evaluated as a nitrogen source for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113, using corn fiber hydrolysate as a carbon source. When spent yeast cell hydrolysate was used directly as a nitrogen source, a maximum succinic acid concentration of 35.5 g/l was obtained from a glucose concentration of 50 g/l, with a glucose utilization of 95.2%. Supplementation with individual vitamins showed that biotin was the most likely factor to be limiting for succinic acid production with spent yeast cell hydrolysate. After supplementing spent yeast cell hydrolysate and 90 g/l of glucose with 150 μg/l of biotin, cell growth increased 32.5%, glucose utilization increased 37.6%, and succinic acid concentration was enhanced 49.0%. As a result, when biotin-supplemented spent yeast cell hydrolysate was used with corn fiber hydrolysate, a succinic acid yield of 67.7% was obtained from 70.3 g/l of total sugar concentration, with a productivity of 0.63 g/(l h). Our results suggest that biotin-supplemented spent yeast cell hydrolysate may be an alternative nitrogen source for the efficient production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes NJ113, using renewable resources. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antioxidant properties of Australian canola meal protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alashi, Adeola M; Blanchard, Christopher L; Mailer, Rodney J; Agboola, Samson O; Mawson, A John; He, Rong; Girgih, Abraham; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2014-03-01

    Antioxidant activities of canola protein hydrolysates (CPHs) and peptide fractions prepared using five proteases and ultrafiltration membranes (1, 3, 5, and 10kDa) were investigated. CPHs had similar and adequate quantities of essential amino acids. The effective concentration that scavenged 50% (EC50) of the ABTS(+) was greatest for the <1kDa pancreatin fraction at 10.1μg/ml. CPHs and peptide fractions scavenged DPPH(+) with most of the EC50 values being <1.0mg/ml. Scavenging of superoxide radical was generally weak, except for the <1kDa pepsin peptide fraction that had a value of 51%. All CPHs inhibited linoleic acid oxidation with greater efficiency observed for pepsin hydrolysates. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity of Alcalase, chymotrypsin and pepsin hydrolysates was found to be better than that of glutathione (GSH) (p<0.05). These results show that CPHs have the potential to be used as bioactive ingredients in the formulation of functional foods against oxidative stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biostimulant action of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate produced through enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eColla

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the biostimulant action (hormone like activity, nitrogen uptake, and growth stimulation of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate by means of two laboratory bioassays: a corn (Zea mays L. coleoptile elongation rate test (experiment 1, a rooting test on tomato cuttings (experiment 2; and two greenhouse experiments: a dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L. growth test (experiment 3, and a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. nitrogen uptake trial (experiment 4. Protein hydrolysate treatments of corn caused an increase in coleoptile elongation rate when compared to the control, in a dose-dependent fashion, with no significant differences between the four concentrations tested (0.375, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L, and inodole-3-acetic acid (IAA treatment. The auxin-like effect of the protein hydrolysate on corn has been also observed in the rooting experiment of tomato cuttings. The shoot, root dry weight, root length, and root area were significantly higher by 21%, 35%, 24%, and 26%, respectively in tomato treated plants with the protein hydrolysate at 6 ml/L than untreated plants. In experiment 3, the application of the protein hydrolysate at all doses (0.375, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L significantly increased the shoot length of the giberellin (GA-deficient dwarf pea plants by an average value of 33% in comparison with the control treatment. Increasing the concentration of the protein hydrolysate from 0 to 10 ml/L increased the total dry biomass, SPAD index, and leaf nitrogen content by 20.5%, 15% and 21.5%, respectively. Thus the application of plant-derived protein hydrolysate containing amino acids and small peptides elicited a hormone-like activity, enhanced nitrogen uptake and consequently crop performances.

  3. Fabrication of viable and functional pre-vascularized modular bone tissues by coculturing MSCs and HUVECs on microcarriers in spinner flasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Songjie; Zhou, Min; Ye, Zhaoyang; Zhou, Yan; Tan, Wen-Song

    2017-08-01

    Slow vascularization often impedes the viability and function of engineered bone replacements. Prevascularization is a promising way to solve this problem. In this study, a new process was developed by integrating microcarrier culture and coculture to fabricate pre-vascularized bone microtissues with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Initially, coculture medium and cell ratio between MSCs and HUVECs were optimized in tissue culture plates concerning cell proliferation, osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Subsequently, cells were seeded onto CultiSpher S microcarriers in spinner flasks and subjected to a two-stage (proliferative-osteogenic) culture process for four weeks. Both cells proliferated and functioned well in chosen medium and a 1 : 1 ratio between MSCs and HUVECs was chosen for better angiogenesis. After four weeks of culture in spinner flasks, the microtissues were formed with high cellularity, evenly distributed cells and tube formation ability. While coculture with HUVECs exerted an inhibitory effect on osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, with downregulated alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization and gene expression of COLI, RUNX2 and OCN, this could be attenuated by employing a delayed seeding strategy of HUVECs against MSCs during the microtissue fabrication process. Collectively, this work established an effective method to fabricate pre-vascularized bone microtissues, which would lay a solid foundation for subsequent development of vascularized tissue grafts for bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Antioxidant activities of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) protein hydrolysates as influenced by thermolysin and alcalase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Nur'Aliah; Babji, Abdul Salam; Yusop, Salma Mohamad

    2013-11-01

    The hydrolysis process was performed on fish meat from Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by enzymes thermolysin and alcalase under optimum conditions. The hydrolysis was performed from 0 - 4 hours at 37°C. Hydrolysates after 2 hours incubation with thermolysin and alcalase had degree of hydrolysis of 76.29 % and 63.49 %, respectively. The freeze dried protein hydrolysate was tested for peptide content and characterized with respect to amino acid composition. The result of increased peptide content in Red Tilapia (O. Niloticus) hydrolysates obtained was directly proportional to the increase activities of different proteolytic enzymes. The result of amino acid composition showed that the sample used contained abundant Gly, Ala, Asp, Glu, Lys and Leu in residues or peptide sequences. Both enzymatic hydrolysates were tested for anti-oxidant activity with DPPH and ABTS assay. Alcalase yielded higher anti-oxidative activity than Thermolysin hydrolysates after 1 hour incubation, but both enzymes hydrolysates showed a significant decrease of anti-oxidant activity after 2 hours of incubation. Hydrolysates from Red Tilapia may contribute as a health promoting ingredient in functional foods to reduce oxidation stress caused by accumulated free radicals.

  5. Methods for histochemical demonstration of vascular structures at the muscle-bone interface from cryostate sections of demineralized tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S

    1981-01-01

    In tissue decalcified with MgNa2EDTA at a neutral pH activity for ATPase can used be for demonstration of the vascular structures at the muscle-bone interface. The GOMORI method for alkaline phosphatase is only of value, when fresh unfixed tissue is to be examined. The azo-dye method for alkaline...... phosphatase failed to give satisfactory results, and so did the alpha-amylase PAS method. 5'-nucleotidase activity is present in both capillaries and in cells lining the surfaces of bones, while larger blood vessels are poorly stained....

  6. [Free tissue transfers with lengthening of vascular pedicle using interpositional vein grafts. About 10 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, S; Perrot, P; Duteille, F

    2010-04-01

    The realization of free flaps with lack of reliable vessels nearby the loss of substance is a difficult problem for plastic surgeons. We report 10 cases of free tissue transfers with a one-stage technique lengthening the vascular pedicle of the free flap with interpositional vein grafts. Taking into consideration the good results and the low rate of morbidity, the authors emphasize the use of this technique rather than a two-stage procedure. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Stem development through vascular tissues: EPFL-ERECTA family signaling that bounces in and out of phloem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tameshige, Toshiaki; Ikematsu, Shuka; Torii, Keiko U; Uchida, Naoyuki

    2017-01-01

    Plant cells communicate with each other using a variety of signaling molecules. Recent studies have revealed that various types of secreted peptides, as well as phytohormones known since long ago, mediate cell-cell communication in diverse contexts of plant life. These peptides affect cellular activities, such as proliferation and cell fate decisions, through their perception by cell surface receptors located on the plasma membrane of target cells. ERECTA (ER), an Arabidopsis thaliana receptor kinase gene, was first identified as a stem growth regulator, and since then an increasing number of studies have shown that ER is involved in a wide range of developmental and physiological processes. In particular, molecular functions of ER have been extensively studied in stomatal patterning. Furthermore, the importance of ER signaling in vascular tissues of inflorescence stems, especially in phloem cells, has recently been highlighted. In this review article, first we briefly summarize the history of ER research including studies on stomatal development, then introduce ER functions in vascular tissues, and discuss its interactions with phytohormones and other receptor kinase signaling pathways. Future questions and challenges will also be addressed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Ting; Qiao, Hui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH) of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH), condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH) and condensed acid-...

  9. Subfailure overstretch injury leads to reversible functional impairment and purinergic P2X7 receptor activation in intact vascular tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifeng Luo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vascular stretch injury is associated with blunt trauma, vascular surgical procedures, and harvest of human saphenous vein for use in vascular bypass grafting. A model of subfailure overstretch in rat abdominal aorta was developed to characterize surgical vascular stretch injury. Longitudinal stretch of rat aorta was characterized ex vivo. Stretch to the haptic endpoint where the tissues would no longer lengthen, occurred at twice the resting length. The stress produced at this length was greater than physiologic mechanical forces but well below the level of mechanical disruption. Functional responses were determined in a muscle bath and this subfailure overstretch injury led to impaired smooth muscle function that was partially reversed by treatment with purinergic receptor (P2X7R antagonists. These data suggest that vasomotor dysfunction caused by subfailure overstretch injury may be due to activation of P2X7R. These studies have implications for our understanding of mechanical stretch injury of blood vessels and offer novel therapeutic opportunities.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of a casein hydrolysate and its peptide-enriched fractions on TNFα-challenged Caco-2 cells and LPS-challenged porcine colonic explants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhya, Anindya; Noronha, Nessa; Bahar, Bojlul; Ryan, Marion T; Murray, Brian A; Kelly, Phil M; O'Loughlin, Ian B; O'Doherty, John V; Sweeney, Torres

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive milk peptides are reported to illicit a range of physiological benefits and have been proposed as potential functional food ingredients. The objective of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory properties of sodium caseinate (NaCAS), its enzyme hydrolysate (EH) and peptide-enriched fractions (5 kDa retentate [R], 1 kDaR and 1 kDa permeate [P]), both in vitro using a Caco-2 cell line, and also ex vivo using a porcine colonic tissue explant system. Caco-2 cells were stimulated with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and co-treated with casein hydrolysates for 24 h. Following this, interleukin (IL)-8 concentrations in the supernatant were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Porcine colonic tissue was stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and co-treated with casein hydrolysates for 3 h. The expression of a panel of inflammatory cytokines was measured using qPCR. While dexamethasone reduced the IL-8 concentration by 41.6%, the 1 kDaR and 1 kDaP fractions reduced IL-8 by 68.7% and 66.1%, respectively, relative to TNFα-stimulated Caco-2 cells (P < 0.05). In the ex vivo system, only the 1 kDaR fraction elicited a decrease inIL1-α,IL1-β,IL-8,TGF-β andIL-10 expression (P < 0.05). This study provides evidence that the bioactive peptides present in the 1 kDaR fraction of the NaCAS hydrolysate possess anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and ex vivo. Further in vivo analysis of the anti-inflammatory properties of the 1 kDaR is proposed. PMID:25493190

  11. The effect of different protein hydrolysate/carbohydrate mixtures on postprandial glucagon and insulin responses in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, M; Calame, W; Siemensma, A D; van Baak, M A; Saris, W H M

    2009-01-01

    To study the effect of four protein hydrolysates from vegetable (pea, gluten, rice and soy) and two protein hydrolysates from animal origin (whey and egg) on glucagon and insulin responses. Eight healthy normal-weight male subjects participated in this study. The study employed a repeated-measures design with Latin square randomization and single-blind trials. Protein hydrolysates used in this study (pea, rice, soy, gluten, whey and egg protein hydrolysate) consisted of 0.2 g hydrolysate per kg body weight (bw) and 0.2 g maltodextrin per kg bw and were compared to maltodextrin alone. Postprandial plasma glucose, glucagon, insulin and amino acids were determined over 2 h. All protein hydrolysates induced an enhanced insulin secretion compared to maltodextrin alone and a correspondingly low plasma glucose response. A significant difference was observed in area under the curve (AUC) for plasma glucagon between protein hydrolysates and the maltodextrin control drink (Pprotein hydrolysate induced the lowest glucagon response. High amino-acid-induced glucagon response does not necessarily go together with low insulin response. Protein hydrolysate source affects AUC for glucagon more profoundly than for insulin, although the protein load used in this study seemed to be at lower level for significant physiological effects.

  12. Structure and vascular tissue expression of duplicated TERMINAL EAR1-like paralogues in poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon, Céline; Vivancos, Julien; Mazubert, Christelle; Paquet, Nicolas; Pilate, Gilles; Dron, Michel

    2010-02-01

    TERMINAL EAR1-like (TEL) genes encode putative RNA-binding proteins only found in land plants. Previous studies suggested that they may regulate tissue and organ initiation in Poaceae. Two TEL genes were identified in both Populus trichocarpa and the hybrid aspen Populus tremula x P. alba, named, respectively, PoptrTEL1-2 and PtaTEL1-2. The analysis of the organisation around the PoptrTEL genes in the P. trichocarpa genome and the estimation of the synonymous substitution rate for PtaTEL1-2 genes indicate that the paralogous link between these two Populus TEL genes probably results from the Salicoid large-scale gene-duplication event. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed their orthology link with the other TEL genes. The expression pattern of both PtaTEL genes appeared to be restricted to the mother cells of the plant body: leaf founder cells, leaf primordia, axillary buds and root differentiating tissues, as well as to mother cells of vascular tissues. Most interestingly, PtaTEL1-2 transcripts were found in differentiating cells of secondary xylem and phloem, but probably not in the cambium itself. Taken together, these results indicate specific expression of the TEL genes in differentiating cells controlling tissue and organ development in Populus (and other Angiosperm species).

  13. The skeletal vascular system - Breathing life into bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegen, Steve; Carmeliet, Geert

    2017-08-26

    During bone development, homeostasis and repair, a dense vascular system provides oxygen and nutrients to highly anabolic skeletal cells. Characteristic for the vascular system in bone is the serial organization of two capillary systems, each typified by specific morphological and physiological features. Especially the arterial capillaries mediate the growth of the bone vascular system, serve as a niche for skeletal and hematopoietic progenitors and couple angiogenesis to osteogenesis. Endothelial cells and osteoprogenitor cells interact not only physically, but also communicate to each other by secretion of growth factors. A vital angiogenic growth factor is vascular endothelial growth factor and its expression in skeletal cells is controlled by osteogenic transcription factors and hypoxia signaling, whereas the secretion of angiocrine factors by endothelial cells is regulated by Notch signaling, blood flow and possibly hypoxia. Bone loss and impaired fracture repair are often associated with reduced and disorganized blood vessel network and therapeutic targeting of the angiogenic response may contribute to enhanced bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Percutaneous removal of pulmonary artery emboli with hydrolyser catheter in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoursiere, L.; Millward, S.; Veinot, J.P.; Labinaz, M.

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Hydrolyser catheter for per,cutaneous treatment of massive pulmonary embolism in pigs. Twelve pigs, each weighing between 55 kg and 89 kg, were used. Radio-opaque 9 cm x 0.8 cm and 4.5 cm x 0.8 cm clots, produced by mixing pig blood with iodinated contrast agent in vacutainers, were injected via the jugular vein until central pulmonary embolism (main and proximal lobar arteries) was obtained with significant systemic and pulmonary hemodynamic modifications. From a femoral approach, the 7-French Hydrolyser thrombectomy catheter was run over a 0.025-inch (0.64-mm) guide wire to remove the pulmonary emboli. Hemodynamic, gasometric and angiographic monitoring was performed before and after treatment. The procedure's safety and completeness of emboli removal was assessed by cardiopulmonary autopsy. Three of the 12 pigs died during embolization. Thrombectomy was therefore performed in 9, and central emboli could be obtained in 7 of the 9. The Hydrolyser could be manipulated only in central pulmonary arteries and could aspirate only central emboli in 5 of the 7 pigs that had them. Despite minimal angiographic improvement seen in these 5, there was no significant hemodynamic and gasometric improvement after treatment. The procedure induced an increase in free hemoglobin blood levels. Autopsies revealed an average of 2 endothelial injuries per pig (mainly adherent endocardial thrombi) in both nontreated (n = 3) and Hydrolyser-treated (n = 9) groups. The Hydrolyser thrombectomy catheter can be promptly positioned and easily steered in central pulmonary arteries. It can be used to partially remove central emboli, but not peripheral pulmonary emboli. Most of the injuries observed may not have been strictly related to Hydrolyser use. The pig might not be a suitable animal model for treatment of massive pulmonary embolism. (author)

  15. Detoxification of acidic catalyzed hydrolysate of Kappaphycus alvarezii (cottonii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinita, Maria Dyah Nur; Hong, Yong-Ki; Jeong, Gwi-Taek

    2012-01-01

    Red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, holds great promise for use in biofuel production due to its high carbohydrate content. In this study, we investigated the effect of fermentation inhibitors to the K. alvarezii hydrolysate on cell growth and ethanol fermentation. In addition, detoxification of fermentation inhibitors was performed to decrease the fermentation inhibitory effect. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid, which are liberated from acidic hydrolysis, was also observed in the hydrolysate of K. alvarezii. These compounds inhibited ethanol fermentation. In order to remove these inhibitors, activated charcoal and calcium hydroxide were introduced. The efficiency of activated charcoals was examined and over-liming was used to remove the inhibitors. Activated charcoal was found to be more effective than calcium hydroxide to remove the inhibitors. Detoxification by activated charcoal strongly improved the fermentability of dilute acid hydrolysate in the production of bioethanol from K. alvarezii with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The optimal detoxifying conditions were found to be below an activated charcoal concentration of 5%.

  16. Bioactive L acidissima protein hydrolysates using Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Sachin K; Arya, Shalini S

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the extraction and hydrolysis of proteins using single factor and Box-Behnken Design (BBD). From single factor tests, optimised extraction parameters were 1% alkali concentration, 40 °C temperature, 60 min time, and 1:20 solid to alkali ratio. Under these conditions; 924.31 mg/g of total protein was obtained from Limonia acidissima (L acidissima). The maximum degree of hydrolysis was 39.82% at pH 2, enzyme to substrate ratio 2.5% (w/w), and hydrolysis time was 42.41 min using BBD design. L acidissima seed protein hydrolysate showed 32.94% DPPH and 88.18% of ABTS activity at concentration of 100 µg/ml and 1 mg/ml, respectively. Reducing power of 0.16 and metal chelating activity of 87.39% was obtained from 5 mg/ml protein hydrolysates. This implied that L acidissima seed protein hydrolysate could be utilised in protein rich product or as protein supplements.

  17. Role of vascular physiology in hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    The rate of blood supply to tumors significantly varies depending on the tumor type, site of tumor growth, and the stage of tumor growth. Even in the same tumor, blood flow is rather heterogeneous. The peripheral area of the tumors where the tissue pressure is relatively low is usually well perfused. Blood flow in the tumors may or may not be greater than that in the adjacent normal tissues. The response of newly formed tumor blood vessels to external stress, such as heat, it different from that in the normal tissues. Blood flow in the experimental rodent tumors initially increases up to twofold of control when heated at relatively low temperatures but tends to decrease when heated at temperatures above 42 0 -43 0 C. On the contrary, blood flow in the skin and muscle of rodents increases up to 20-fold before vascular damage occurs on heating at 43 0 -45 0 C. It thus appears that the vascular beds in tumors are more vulnerable to heat than those in normal tissues. Because of the large increase in blood flow in normal tissue on heating, heat dissipation by blood flow is usually greater in normal tissues than that in tumors during heating. Consequently, the temperature of tumors may rise higher than that in normal tissues. Preferential heating of tumors, however, may not be achieved all the time because the relative blood perfusion in some tumors or in parts of a tumor remains greater than that in the surrounding normal tissues. The intrinsically acidic intratumor environment becomes further acidic on heating owing to an increase in the synthesis of acidic metabolites and retarded removal of them as a result of heat-induced vascular damage. The intratumor environment also becomes hypoxic as a result of retardation of blood flow and vascular damage after heating

  18. Biomimicry, vascular restenosis and coronary stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R S; van der Giessen, W J; Holmes, D R

    1998-01-01

    Biomimicry is in its earliest stages and is being considered in the realm of tissue engineering. If arterial implants are to limit neointimal thickening, purely passive structures cannot succeed. Bioactivity must be present, either by pharmacologic intervention or by fabricating a 'living stent' that contains active cellular material. As tissue engineering evolves, useful solutions will emerge from applying this knowledge directly to vascular biologic problems resulting from angioplasty, stenting, and vascular prosthesis research.

  19. Protein hydrolysates and recovery of muscle damage following eccentric exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A whey protein hydrolysate (NatraBoost XR; WPHNB has been shown to speed repair muscle damage. We sought to determine whether this benefit is specific to this hydrolysate to evaluate a marker for quality control. Methods: Three hydrolysates of the same whey protein isolate (WPI were prepared (WPHNB, WPH1 and WPH2. Isometric knee extensor strength was measured in 39 sedentary male participants before and after 100 maximal eccentric contractions of the knee extensors to induce muscle damage. Participants were then randomised to consume 250 ml of flavoured water (FW, n=9, or 250 ml of FW containing 25 g of either NatraBoost XR (n=3, WPH1 (n=9, WPH2 (n=9 or WPI (n=9. Strength was reassessed over the next seven days while the supplements were consumed daily. Fibroblasts were cultured for 48 hr in the presence of the different hydrolysates, WPI, saline or fetal bovine serum to ascertain effects on cell proliferation. Results: Strength was reduced in all treatment groups after eccentric exercise (P<0.001. Strength recovered steadily over 7 days in the FW, WPI, WPH1 and WPH2 treatment groups (P<0.001, with no difference between treatments (P=0.87. WPHNB promoted faster strength recovery compared with the other treatments (P<0.001. Fibroblast proliferation was greater with WPHNB compared with saline, WPI or the other hydrolysates (P<0.001. Conclusions: Promoting recovery from muscle damage seems unique to WPHNB. In vitro fibroblast proliferation may be a useful marker for quality control. It is not clear whether effects on fibroblast proliferation contribute to the in vivo effect of WPHNB on muscle damage.

  20. Mechanisms of Vascular Damage by Hemorrhagic Snake Venom Metalloproteinases: Tissue Distribution and In Situ Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Cristiani; Jamora, Colin; Yamanouye, Norma; Zorn, Telma M.; Moura-da-Silva, Ana M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Envenoming by viper snakes constitutes an important public health problem in Brazil and other developing countries. Local hemorrhage is an important symptom of these accidents and is correlated with the action of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The degradation of vascular basement membrane has been proposed as a key event for the capillary vessel disruption. However, SVMPs that present similar catalytic activity towards extracellular matrix proteins differ in their hemorrhagic activity, suggesting that other mechanisms might be contributing to the accumulation of SVMPs at the snakebite area allowing capillary disruption. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we compared the tissue distribution and degradation of extracellular matrix proteins induced by jararhagin (highly hemorrhagic SVMP) and BnP1 (weakly hemorrhagic SVMP) using the mouse skin as experimental model. Jararhagin induced strong hemorrhage accompanied by hydrolysis of collagen fibers in the hypodermis and a marked degradation of type IV collagen at the vascular basement membrane. In contrast, BnP1 induced only a mild hemorrhage and did not disrupt collagen fibers or type IV collagen. Injection of Alexa488-labeled jararhagin revealed fluorescent staining around capillary vessels and co-localization with basement membrane type IV collagen. The same distribution pattern was detected with jararhagin-C (disintegrin-like/cysteine-rich domains of jararhagin). In opposition, BnP1 did not accumulate in the tissues. Conclusions/Significance These results show a particular tissue distribution of hemorrhagic toxins accumulating at the basement membrane. This probably occurs through binding to collagens, which are drastically hydrolyzed at the sites of hemorrhagic lesions. Toxin accumulation near blood vessels explains enhanced catalysis of basement membrane components, resulting in the strong hemorrhagic activity of SVMPs. This is a novel mechanism that underlies the difference between

  1. Arterial complications of vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleton, Matthew J

    2016-12-01

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a relatively rare genetic syndrome that occurs owing to disorders in the metabolism of fibrillary collagen. These defects affect the soft connective tissues resulting in abnormalities in the skin, joints, hollow organs, and blood vessels. Patients with these defects frequently present at a young age with spontaneous arterial complications involving the medium-sized arteries. Complications involving the hollow organs, such as spontaneous colonic perforation, are observed as well. Given the fragility of the soft tissue, open and endovascular intervention on patients with vascular EDS is fraught with high complication rates. A PubMed search was performed to identify manuscripts published related to vascular EDS. This search included more than 747 articles. These findings were cross-referenced using key terms, including endovascular, embolization, surgery, genetics, pathophysiology, connective tissue disorders, vascular complications, systematic review, type III collagen, and COL3A1. The references in key articles and review articles were evaluated for additional resources not identified in the PubMed search. Care must be taken to balance the risk of intervention vs the risk of continued observation. Life-threatening hemorrhage, however, mandates intervention. With careful, altered approaches to tissue handling, endovascular approaches may provide a safer option for managing the arterial complications observed in patients with vascular EDS. Additional hope may also be found in the use of pharmacologic agents that reduce the incidence and severity of the arterial complications. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Succinic acid production from acid hydrolysate of corn fiber by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kequan; Jiang, Min; Wei, Ping; Yao, Jiaming; Wu, Hao

    2010-01-01

    Dilute acid hydrolysate of corn fiber was used as carbon source for the production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113. The optimized hydrolysis conditions were obtained by orthogonal experiments. When corn fiber particles were of 20 mesh in size and treated with 1.0% sulfuric acid at 121 degrees C for 2 h, the total sugar yield could reach 63.3%. It was found that CaCO(3) neutralization combined with activated carbon adsorption was an effective method to remove fermentation inhibitors especially furfural that presented in the acid hydrolysate of corn fiber. Only 5.2% of the total sugar was lost, while 91.9% of furfural was removed. The yield of succinic acid was higher than 72.0% with the detoxified corn fiber hydrolysate as the carbon source in anaerobic bottles or 7.5 L fermentor cultures. It was proved that the corn fiber hydrolysate could be an alternative to glucose for the production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes NJ113.

  3. Elastomeric degradable biomaterials by photopolymerization-based CAD-CAM for vascular tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudis, Stefan; Nehl, Franziska; Ligon, S Clark; Liska, Robert [Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/163MC, A-1060 Vienna (Austria); Nigisch, Anneliese; Bernhard, David [Department of Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Bergmeister, Helga [Core Unit for Biomedical Research, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Stampfl, Juergen, E-mail: robert.liska@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Material Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Favoritenstrasse 9-11, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-10-15

    A predominant portion of mortalities in industrial countries can be attributed to diseases of the cardiovascular system. In the last decades great efforts have been undertaken to develop materials for artificial vascular constructs. However, bio-inert materials like ePTFE or PET fail as material for narrow blood vessel replacements (coronary bypasses). Therefore, we aim to design new biocompatible materials to overcome this. In this paper we investigate the use of photoelastomers for artificial vascular constructs since they may be precisely structured by means of additive manufacturing technologies. Hence, 3D computer aided design and manufacturing technologies (CAD-CAM) offer the possibility of creating cellular structures within the grafts that might favour ingrowth of tissue. Different monomer formulations were screened concerning their suitability for this application but all had drawbacks, especially concerning the suture tear resistance. Therefore, we chose to modify the original network architecture by including dithiol chain transfer agents which effectively co-react with the acrylates and reduce crosslink density. A commercial urethane diacrylate was chosen as base monomer. In combination with reactive diluents and dithiols, the properties of the photopolymers could be tailored and degradability could be introduced. The optimized photoelastomers were in good mechanical accordance with native blood vessels, showed good biocompatibility in in vitro tests, degraded similar to poly(lactic acid) and were successfully manufactured with the 3D CAD-CAM technology.

  4. Computer-aided design of microvasculature systems for use in vascular scaffold production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondy, William Lafayette; Cameron, Don; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; De Clerck, Nora; Sasov, Alexander; Casteleyn, Christophe; Piegl, Les A

    2009-01-01

    In vitro biomedical engineering of intact, functional vascular networks, which include capillary structures, is a prerequisite for adequate vascular scaffold production. Capillary structures are necessary since they provide the elements and compounds for the growth, function and maintenance of 3D tissue structures. Computer-aided modeling of stereolithographic (STL) micro-computer tomographic (micro-CT) 3D models is a technique that enables us to mimic the design of vascular tree systems containing capillary beds, found in tissues. In our first paper (Mondy et al 2009 Tissue Eng. at press), using micro-CT, we studied the possibility of using vascular tissues to produce data capable of aiding the design of vascular tree scaffolding, which would help in the reverse engineering of a complete vascular tree system including capillary bed structures. In this paper, we used STL models of large datasets of computer-aided design (CAD) data of vascular structures which contained capillary structures that mimic those in the dermal layers of rabbit skin. Using CAD software we created from 3D STL models a bio-CAD design for the development of capillary-containing vascular tree scaffolding for skin. This method is designed to enhance a variety of therapeutic protocols including, but not limited to, organ and tissue repair, systemic disease mediation and cell/tissue transplantation therapy. Our successful approach to in vitro vasculogenesis will allow the bioengineering of various other types of 3D tissue structures, and as such greatly expands the potential applications of biomedical engineering technology into the fields of biomedical research and medicine.

  5. Computer-aided design of microvasculature systems for use in vascular scaffold production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondy, William Lafayette [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, University of South Florida, FL (United States); Cameron, Don [Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, FL (United States); Timmermans, Jean-Pierre [Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp (Belgium); De Clerck, Nora [Department of Biomedical Sciences University of Antwerp (Belgium); Sasov, Alexander [Skyscan (Belgium); Casteleyn, Christophe [College of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University (Belgium); Piegl, Les A [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of South Florida, FL (United States)

    2009-09-15

    In vitro biomedical engineering of intact, functional vascular networks, which include capillary structures, is a prerequisite for adequate vascular scaffold production. Capillary structures are necessary since they provide the elements and compounds for the growth, function and maintenance of 3D tissue structures. Computer-aided modeling of stereolithographic (STL) micro-computer tomographic (micro-CT) 3D models is a technique that enables us to mimic the design of vascular tree systems containing capillary beds, found in tissues. In our first paper (Mondy et al 2009 Tissue Eng. at press), using micro-CT, we studied the possibility of using vascular tissues to produce data capable of aiding the design of vascular tree scaffolding, which would help in the reverse engineering of a complete vascular tree system including capillary bed structures. In this paper, we used STL models of large datasets of computer-aided design (CAD) data of vascular structures which contained capillary structures that mimic those in the dermal layers of rabbit skin. Using CAD software we created from 3D STL models a bio-CAD design for the development of capillary-containing vascular tree scaffolding for skin. This method is designed to enhance a variety of therapeutic protocols including, but not limited to, organ and tissue repair, systemic disease mediation and cell/tissue transplantation therapy. Our successful approach to in vitro vasculogenesis will allow the bioengineering of various other types of 3D tissue structures, and as such greatly expands the potential applications of biomedical engineering technology into the fields of biomedical research and medicine.

  6. Computer-aided design of microvasculature systems for use in vascular scaffold production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondy, William Lafayette; Cameron, Don; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; De Clerck, Nora; Sasov, Alexander; Casteleyn, Christophe; Piegl, Les A

    2009-09-01

    In vitro biomedical engineering of intact, functional vascular networks, which include capillary structures, is a prerequisite for adequate vascular scaffold production. Capillary structures are necessary since they provide the elements and compounds for the growth, function and maintenance of 3D tissue structures. Computer-aided modeling of stereolithographic (STL) micro-computer tomographic (micro-CT) 3D models is a technique that enables us to mimic the design of vascular tree systems containing capillary beds, found in tissues. In our first paper (Mondy et al 2009 Tissue Eng. at press), using micro-CT, we studied the possibility of using vascular tissues to produce data capable of aiding the design of vascular tree scaffolding, which would help in the reverse engineering of a complete vascular tree system including capillary bed structures. In this paper, we used STL models of large datasets of computer-aided design (CAD) data of vascular structures which contained capillary structures that mimic those in the dermal layers of rabbit skin. Using CAD software we created from 3D STL models a bio-CAD design for the development of capillary-containing vascular tree scaffolding for skin. This method is designed to enhance a variety of therapeutic protocols including, but not limited to, organ and tissue repair, systemic disease mediation and cell/tissue transplantation therapy. Our successful approach to in vitro vasculogenesis will allow the bioengineering of various other types of 3D tissue structures, and as such greatly expands the potential applications of biomedical engineering technology into the fields of biomedical research and medicine.

  7. Pork fat hydrolysed by Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, B. B.; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Zeuthen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is used as a starter culture in the production of fermented sausages. Its ability to hydrolyse pork fat was investigated. Within 15 days of incubation an interaction of bacterial growth, lipase production and lipase activity in a pork fat containing medium caused liberation...

  8. In vitro evaluation of carbon-nanotube-reinforced bioprintable vascular conduits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolati, Farzaneh; Yu, Yin; Zhang, Yahui; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T; Jesus, Aribet M De; Sander, Edward A

    2014-01-01

    Vascularization of thick engineered tissue and organ constructs like the heart, liver, pancreas or kidney remains a major challenge in tissue engineering. Vascularization is needed to supply oxygen and nutrients and remove waste in living tissues and organs through a network that should possess high perfusion ability and significant mechanical strength and elasticity. In this paper, we introduce a fabrication process to print vascular conduits directly, where conduits were reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to enhance their mechanical properties and bioprintability. In vitro evaluation of printed conduits encapsulated in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells was performed to characterize the effects of CNT reinforcement on the mechanical, perfusion and biological performance of the conduits. Perfusion and permeability, cell viability, extracellular matrix formation and tissue histology were assessed and discussed, and it was concluded that CNT-reinforced vascular conduits provided a foundation for mechanically appealing constructs where CNTs could be replaced with natural protein nanofibers for further integration of these conduits in large-scale tissue fabrication. (paper)

  9. Casein Hydrolysate with Glycemic Control Properties: Evidence from Cells, Animal Models, and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Elaine; Flynn, Sarah; Whelan, Helena; Nongonierma, Alice B; Holton, Thérèse A; Robinson, Aisling; Egan, Thelma; Cagney, Gerard; Shields, Denis C; Gibney, Eileen R; Newsholme, Philip; Gaudel, Celine; Jacquier, Jean-Christophe; Noronha, Nessa; FitzGerald, Richard J; Brennan, Lorraine

    2018-05-02

    Evidence exists to support the role of dairy derived proteins whey and casein in glycemic management. The objective of the present study was to use a cell screening method to identify a suitable casein hydrolysate and to examine its ability to impact glycemia related parameters in an animal model and in humans. Following screening for the ability to stimulate insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells, a casein hydrolysate was selected and further studied in the ob/ob mouse model. An acute postprandial study was performed in 62 overweight and obese adults. Acute and long-term supplementation with the casein hydrolysate in in vivo studies in mice revealed a glucose lowering effect and a lipid reducing effect of the hydrolysate (43% reduction in overall liver fat). The postprandial human study revealed a significant increase in insulin secretion ( p = 0.04) concomitant with a reduction in glucose ( p = 0.03). The area under the curve for the change in glucose decreased from 181.84 ± 14.6 to 153.87 ± 13.02 ( p = 0.009). Overall, the data supports further work on the hydrolysate to develop into a functional food product.

  10. Effect of nitrogen source concentration on curdlan production by Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 grown on prairie cordgrass hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen source concentration on the production of the polysaccharide curdlan by the bacterium Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 from hydrolysates of prairie cordgrass was examined. The highest curdlan concentrations were produced by ATCC 31749 when grown on a medium containing a solids-only hydrolysate and the nitrogen source ammonium phosphate (2.2 mM) or on a medium containing a complete hydrolysate and 3.3 mM ammonium phosphate. The latter medium sustained a higher level of bacterial curdlan production than the former medium after 144 hr. Biomass production by ATCC 31749 was highest after 144 hr when grown on a medium containing a solids-only hydrolysate and 2.2 or 8.7 mM ammonium phosphate. On the medium containing the complete hydrolysate, biomass production by ATCC 31749 was highest after 144 hr when 3.3 mM ammonium phosphate was present. Bacterial biomass production after 144 hr was greater on the complete hydrolysate medium compared to the solids-only hydrolysate medium. Curdlan yield produced by ATCC 31749 after 144 hr from the complete hydrolysate medium containing 3.3 mM ammonium phosphate was higher than from the solids-only hydrolysate medium containing 2.2 mM ammonium phosphate.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of electrospun poly-L-lactide/gelatin graded tubular scaffolds: Toward a new design for performance enhancement in vascular tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yazdanpanah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new design of graded tubular scaffolds have been developed for the performance enhancement in vascular tissue engineering. The graded poly-L-lactide (PLLA and gelatin fibrous scaffolds produced by electrospining were then characterized. The morphology, degradability, porosity, pore size and mechanical properties of four tubular scaffolds (graded PLLA/gelatin, layered PLLA/gelatin, PLLA and gelatin scaffolds have been investigated. The tensile tests demonstrated that the mechanical strength and also the estimated burst pressure of the graded scaffolds were significantly increased in comparison with the layered and gelatin scaffolds. This new design, resulting in an increase in the mechanical properties, suggested the widespread use of these scaffolds in vascular tissue engineering in order to prepare more strengthened vessels.

  12. Microsecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge plasma stimulation of tissue macrophages for treatment of peripheral vascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, V., E-mail: vmiller@coe.drexel.edu; Lin, A.; Brettschneider, J.; Fridman, G.; Fridman, A. [AJ Drexel Plasma Institute, Drexel University, Camden, New Jersey 08103 (United States); Kako, F.; Gabunia, K.; Kelemen, S.; Autieri, M. [Department of Physiology, Independence Blue Cross Cardiovascular Research Center, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels and normally occurs during the process of inflammatory reactions, wound healing, tissue repair, and restoration of blood flow after injury or insult. Stimulation of angiogenesis is a promising and an important step in the treatment of peripheral artery disease. Reactive oxygen species have been shown to be involved in stimulation of this process. For this reason, we have developed and validated a non-equilibrium atmospheric temperature and pressure short-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge plasma system, which can non-destructively generate reactive oxygen species and other active species at the surface of the tissue being treated. We show that this plasma treatment stimulates the production of vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and CXCL 1 that in turn induces angiogenesis in mouse aortic rings in vitro. This effect may be mediated by the direct effect of plasma generated reactive oxygen species on tissue.

  13. Optimization of Protein Hydrolysate Production Process from Jatropha curcas Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Waraporn Apiwatanapiwat; Pilanee Vaithanomsat; Phanu Somkliang; Taweesiri Malapant

    2009-01-01

    This was the first document revealing the investigation of protein hydrolysate production optimization from J. curcas cake. Proximate analysis of raw material showed 18.98% protein, 5.31% ash, 8.52% moisture and 12.18% lipid. The appropriate protein hydrolysate production process began with grinding the J. curcas cake into small pieces. Then it was suspended in 2.5% sodium hydroxide solution with ratio between solution/ J. curcas cake at 80:1 (v/w). The hydrolysis reactio...

  14. Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 in the choroid plexus: a potential link between vascular pro-inflammatory mediators and the CNS during peripheral tissue inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, K.; Yang, H.-Y. T.; Berk, J. D.; Tran, J. H.; Iadarola, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    During peripheral tissue inflammation, inflammatory processes in the CNS can be initiated by blood-borne pro-inflammatory mediators. The choroid plexus, the site of CSF production, is a highly specialized interface between the vascular system and CNS, and thus, this structure may be an important element in communication between the vascular compartment and the CNS during peripheral tissue inflammation. We investigated the potential participation of the choroid plexus in this process during peripheral tissue inflammation by examining expression of the SCYA2 gene which codes for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). MCP-1 protein was previously reported to be induced in a variety of cells during peripheral tissue inflammation. In the basal state, SCYA2 is highly expressed in the choroid plexus as compared to other CNS tissues. During hind paw inflammation, SCYA2 expression was significantly elevated in choroid plexus, whereas it remained unchanged in a variety of brain regions. The SCYA2-expressing cells were strongly associated with the choroid plexus as vascular depletion of blood cells by whole-body saline flush did not significantly alter SCYA2 expression in the choroid plexus. In situ hybridization suggested that the SCYA2-expressing cells were localized to the choroid plexus stroma. To elucidate potential molecular mechanisms of SCYA2 increase, we examined genes in the NF-κβ signaling cascade including TNF-α, IL-1β and IκBα in choroid tissue. Given that we also detected increased levels of MCP-1 protein by ELISA, we sought to identify potential downstream targets of MCP-1 and observed altered expression levels of mRNAs encoding tight junction proteins TJP2 and claudin 5. Finally, we detected a substantial up-regulation of the transcript encoding E-selectin, a molecule which could participate in leukocyte recruitment to the choroid plexus along with MCP-1. Together, these results suggest that profound changes occur in the choroid plexus during

  15. Towards an Understanding of How Protein Hydrolysates Stimulate More Efficient Biosynthesis in Cultured Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemensma, André; Babcock, James; Wilcox, Chris; Huttinga, Hans

    In the light of the growing demand for high quality plant-derived hydrolysates (i.e., HyPep™ and UltraPep™ series), Sheffield Bio-Science has developed a new hydrolysate platform that addresses the need for animal-free cell culture medium supplements while also minimizing variability concerns. The platform is based upon a novel approach to enzymatic digestion and more refined processing. At the heart of the platform is a rationally designed animal component-free (ACF) enzyme cocktail that includes both proteases and non-proteolytic enzymes (hydrolases) whose activities can also liberate primary components of the polymerized non-protein portion of the raw material. This enzyme system is added during a highly optimized process step that targets specific enzyme-substrate reactions to expand the range of beneficial nutritional factors made available to cells in culture. Such factors are fundamental to improving the bio-performance of the culture system, as they provide not merely growth-promoting peptides and amino acids, but also key carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, and vitamins that improve both rate and quality of protein expression, and serve to improve culture life due to osmo-protectant and anti-apoptotic properties. Also of significant note is that, compared to typical hydrolysates, the production process is greatly reduced and requires fewer steps, intrinsically yielding a better-controlled and therefore more reproducible product. Finally, the more sophisticated approach to enzymatic digestion renders hydrolysates more amenable to sterile filtration, allowing hydrolysate end users to experience streamlined media preparation and bioreactor supplementation activities. Current and future development activities will evolve from a better understanding of the complex interactions within a handful of key biochemical pathways that impact the growth and productivity of industrially relevant organisms. Presented in this chapter are some examples of the efforts that

  16. Production of Lupinus angustifolius protein hydrolysates with improved functional properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millán, Francisco

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein hydrolysates wer e obtained from lupin flour and from the purified globulin α -conglutin, and their functional properties were studied. Hydrolysis with alcalase for 60 minutes yielded degrees of hydrolysis ranging from 4 % to 11 % for lupin flour, and from 4 % to 13% for α -conglutin. Protein solubility, oil absorption, foam capacity and stability, emulsifying activity, and emulsion stability of hydrolysates with 6% degree of hydrolysis were determined and compared with the properties of the original flour. The protein hydrolysates showed better functional properties than the original proteins. Most importantly, the solubility of the α -conglutin and L. angustifolius flour hydrolysates was increased by 43 % and 52 %, respectively. Thus, lupin seed protein hydrolysates have improved functional properties and could be used in the elaboration of a variety of products such as breads, cakes, and salad dressings.Se obtuvieron hidrolizados proteicos de la harina del altramuz y de la globulina α - conglutina purificada y se estudiaron sus propiedades funcionales. La hidrólisis con alcalasa durante 60 minutos produjo hidrolizados con grados de hidrólisis entre el 4 % y el 11 % para la harina y entre el 4 % y el 13 % para la α - conglutina. Se estudió en un hidrolizado con un 6 % de grado de hidrólisis la solubilidad proteica, absorción de aceite, capacidad y estabilidad espumante y actividad y estabilidad emulsificante. Los hidrolizados proteicos mostraron mejores propiedades funcionales que las proteínas originales. Más aún, la solubilidad de los hidrolizados de α - conglutina y la harina se incrementó en un 43 % y 52 % respectivamente. Así pues, hidrolizados de proteínas de semilla de lupino presentan mejores propiedades funcionales y podrían usarse en la elaboración de productos como pan, dulces, salsas o cremas.

  17. Protein Hydrolysates as Hypoallergenic, Flavors and Palatants for Companion Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagodawithana, Tilak W.; Nelles, Lynn; Trivedi, Nayan B.

    Early civilizations have relied upon their good sense and experience to develop and improve their food quality. The discovery of soy sauce centuries ago can now be considered one of the earliest protein hydrolysates made by man to improve palatability of foods. Now, it is well known that such savory systems are not just sources for enjoyment but complex semiotic systems that direct the humans to satisfy the body's protein need for their sustenance. Recent developments have resulted in a wide range of cost effective savory flavorings, the best known of which are autolyzed yeast extracts and hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. New technologies have helped researchers to improve the savory characteristics of yeast extracts through the application of Maillard reaction and by generating specific flavor enhancers through the use of enzymes. An interesting parallel exists in the pet food industry, where a similar approach is taken in using animal protein hydrolysates to create palatability enhancers via Maillard reaction scheme. Protein hydrolysates are also utilized extensively as a source of nutrition to the elderly, young children and immuno-compromised patient population. These hydrolysates have an added advantage in having peptides small enough to avoid any chance of an allergenic reaction which sometimes occur with the consumption of larger sized peptides or proteins. Accordingly, protein hydrolysates are required to have an average molecular weight distribution in the range 800-1,500 Da to make them non-allergenic. The technical challenge for scientists involved in food and feed manufacture is to use an appropriate combination of enzymes within the existing economic constraints and other physical factors/limitations, such as heat, pH, and time, to create highly palatable, yet still nutritious and hypoallergenic food formulations.

  18. Detoxification of Corncob Acid Hydrolysate with SAA Pretreatment and Xylitol Production by Immobilized Candida tropicalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li-Hong; Tang, Yong; Liu, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Xylitol fermentation production from corncob acid hydrolysate has become an attractive and promising process. However, corncob acid hydrolysate cannot be directly used as fermentation substrate owing to various inhibitors. In this work, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) pretreatment was employed to reduce the inhibitors in acid hydrolysate. After detoxification, the corncob acid hydrolysate was fermented by immobilized Candida tropicalis cell to produce xylitol. Results revealed that SAA pretreatment showed high delignification and efficient removal of acetyl group compounds without effect on cellulose and xylan content. Acetic acid was completely removed, and the content of phenolic compounds was reduced by 80%. Furthermore, kinetic behaviors of xylitol production by immobilized C. tropicalis cell were elucidated from corncob acid hydrolysate detoxified with SAA pretreatment and two-step adsorption method, respectively. The immobilized C. tropicalis cell showed higher productivity efficiency using the corncob acid hydrolysate as fermentation substrate after detoxification with SAA pretreatment than by two-step adsorption method in the five successive batch fermentation rounds. After the fifth round fermentation, about 60 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for SAA pretreatment detoxification, while about 30 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for two-step adsorption detoxification. PMID:25133211

  19. Intermittent injections of osteocalcin reverse autophagic dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress resulting from diet-induced obesity in the vascular tissue via the NFκB-p65-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Li, Huixia; Liu, Jiali; Xu, Lin; Zang, Weijin; Wu, Shufang; Sun, Hongzhi

    2013-06-15

    The osteoblast-specific secreted molecule osteocalcin behaves as a hormone-regulating glucose and lipid metabolism, but the role of osteocalcin in cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the effect of osteocalcin on autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress secondary to diet-induced obesity in the vascular tissue of mice and in vascular cell models and clarified the intracellular events responsible for osteocalcin-mediated effects. The evidences showed that intermittent injections of osteocalcin in mice fed the high-fat diet were associated with a reduced body weight gain, decreased blood glucose and improved insulin sensitivity compared with mice fed the high-fat diet receiving vehicle. Simultaneously, the administration of osteocalcin not only attenuated autophagy and ER stress but also rescued impaired insulin signaling in vascular tissues of mice fed a high-fat diet. Consistent with these results in vivo, the addition of osteocalcin reversed autophagy and ER stress and restored defective insulin sensitivity in vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the presence of tunicamycin or in knockout XBP-1 (a transcription factor which mediates ER stress response) cells or in Atg7(-/-) cells. The protective effects of osteocalcin were nullified by suppression of Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) or nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), suggesting that osteocalcin inhibits autophagy, ER stress and improves insulin signaling in the vascular tissue and cells under insulin resistance in a NFκB-dependent manner, which may be a promising therapeutic strategies of cardiovascular dysfunction secondary to obesity.

  20. FTIR spectra of whey and casein hydrolysates in relation to their functional properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van der C.; Muresan, S.; Gruppen, H.; Bont, D.B.A.; Merck, K.B.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectra of whey and casein hydrolysates were recorded using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Multivariate data analysis techniques were used to investigate the capacity of FTIR spectra to classify hydrolysates and to study the ability of the spectra to predict bitterness,

  1. Engineering vascular development for tissue regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivron, N.C.

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine aim at restoring a damaged tissue by recreating in vitro or promoting its regeneratin in vovo. The vasculature is central to these therapies for the irrigation of the defective tissue (oxygen, nutrients or circulating regenerative cells) and as an

  2. The Cooperative Effect of Genistein and Protein Hydrolysates on the Proliferation and Survival of Osteoblastic Cells (hFOB 1.19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chum salmon skin gelatin, de-isoflavoned soy protein, and casein were hydrolyzed at two degrees of hydrolysis. Genistein, the prepared hydrolysates, and genistein-hydrolysate combinations were assessed for their proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects on human osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19 to clarify potential cooperative effects between genistein and these hydrolysates in these two activities. Genistein at 2.5 μg/L demonstrated the highest proliferative activity, while the higher dose of genistein inhibited cell growth. All hydrolysates promoted osteoblast proliferation by increasing cell viability to 102.9%–131.1%. Regarding etoposide- or NaF-induced osteoblast apoptosis, these hydrolysates at 0.05 g/L showed both preventive and therapeutic effects against apoptosis. In the mode of apoptotic prevention, the hydrolysates decreased apoptotic cells from 32.9% to 15.2%–23.7% (etoposide treatment or from 23.6% to 14.3%–19.6% (NaF treatment. In the mode of apoptotic rescue, the hydrolysates lessened the extent of apoptotic cells from 15.9% to 13.0%–15.3% (etoposide treatment or from 13.3% to 10.9%–12.7% (NaF treatment. Gelatin hydrolysates showed the highest activities among all hydrolysates in all cases. All investigated combinations (especially the genistein-gelatin hydrolysate combination had stronger proliferation, apoptotic prevention, and rescue than genistein itself or their counterpart hydrolysates alone, suggesting that genistein cooperated with these hydrolysates, rendering greater activities in osteoblast proliferation and anti-apoptosis.

  3. Preparation of antioxidant enzymatic hydrolysates from honeybee-collected pollen using plant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Margarita D; Tchorbanov, Bozhidar P

    2011-01-09

    Enzymatic hydrolysates of honeybee-collected pollen were prepared using food-grade proteinase and aminopeptidases entirely of plant origin. Bromelain from pineapple stem was applied (8 mAU/g substrate) in the first hydrolysis stage. Aminopeptidase (0.05 U/g substrate) and proline iminopeptidase (0.03 U/g substrate) from cabbage leaves (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), and aminopeptidase (0.2 U/g substrate) from chick-pea cotyledons (Cicer arietinum L.) were involved in the additional hydrolysis of the peptide mixtures. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), total phenolic contents, and protein contents of these hydrolysates were as follows: DH (about 20-28%), total phenolics (15.3-27.2 μg/mg sample powder), and proteins (162.7-242.8 μg/mg sample powder), respectively. The hydrolysates possessed high antiradical scavenging activity determined with DPPH (42-46% inhibition). The prepared hydrolysates of bee-collected flower pollen may be regarded as effective natural and functional dietary food supplements due to their remarkable content of polyphenol substances and significant radical-scavenging capacity with special regard to their nutritional-physiological implications.

  4. Effects of pretreatment methods for hazelnut shell hydrolysate fermentation with Pichia Stipitis to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Yeşim; Eken-Saraçoğlu, Nurdan

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the use of hazelnut shell as a renewable and low cost lignocellulosic material for bioethanol production for the first time. High lignin content of hazelnut shell is an important obstacle for such a biotransformation. Biomass hydrolysis with acids yields reducing sugar with several inhibitors which limit the fermentability of sugars. The various conditioning methods for biomass and hydrolysate were performed to overcome the toxicity and their effects on the subsequent fermentation of hazelnut shell hydrolysate by Pichia stipitis were evaluated with shaking flasks experiments. Hazelnut shells hydrolysis with 0.7M H(2)SO(4) yielded 49 gl(-1) total reducing sugars and fermentation inhibitors in untreated hydrolysate. First, it was shown that several hydrolysate detoxification methods were solely inefficient in achieving cell growth and ethanol production in the fermentation of hazelnut shell hydrolysates derived from non-delignified biomass. Next, different pretreatments of hazelnut shells were considered for delignification and employed before hydrolysis in conjunction with hydrolysate detoxification to improve alcohol fermentation. Among six delignification methods, the most effective pretreatment regarding to ethanol concentration includes the treatment of shells with 3% (w/v) NaOH at room temperature, which was integrated with sequential hydrolysate detoxification by overliming and then treatment with charcoal twice at 60 degrees C. This treatment brought about a total reduction of 97% in furans and 88.4% in phenolics. Almost all trialed treatments caused significant sugar loss. Under the best assayed conditions, ethanol concentration of 16.79gl(-1) was reached from a hazelnut shell hyrolysate containing initial 50g total reducing sugar l(-1) after partial synthetic xylose supplementation. This value is equal to 91.25% of ethanol concentration that was obtained from synthetic d-xylose under same conditions. The present study

  5. Production of hydrolysate from processed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus residues and assessment of its antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Miotto BERNARDI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to produce protein hydrolysates from by-products of the Nile tilapia fileting process, and to assess the effects of different hydrolysis times on the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysed animal-based protein, in free form and incorporated into a food matrix. Gutted tilapia heads and carcasses were hydrolysed by Alcalase® for different hydrolysis times producing six hydrolysates. The protein content, degree of hydrolysis, reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity by the ORAC, FRAP and TEAC methods were analysed. Three mini-hamburger formulations were produced and the lipidic oxidation of mini-hamburger was determined by TBARS. The protein contained in the residue was completely recovered in the process. The hydrolysates varied in their degree of hydrolysis, but presented similar levels of antioxidant activity. In the mini-hamburgers the hydrolysate was capable of delaying oxidation after 7 days of storage. Hydrolysis of tilapia processing by-products produced peptides may be used in the formulation of functional foods.

  6. Biodegradable alternative for removing toxic compounds from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysates for valorization in biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Fernandes, T; Santos, J C; Hasmann, F; Rodrigues, R C L B; Izario Filho, H J; Felipe, M G A

    2017-11-01

    Among the major challenges for hemicellulosic hydrolysate application in fermentative processes, there is the presence of toxic compounds generated during the pretreatment of the biomass, which can inhibit microbial growth. Therefore, the development of efficient, biodegradable and cost-effective detoxification methods for lignocellulosic hydrolysates is crucial. In this work, two tannin-based biopolymers (called A and B) were tested in the detoxification of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for subsequent fermentation by Candida guilliermondii. The effects of biopolymer concentration, pH, temperature, and contact time were studied using a 2 4 experimental design for both biopolymers. Results revealed that the biopolymer concentration and the pH were the most significant factors in the detoxification step. Biopolymer A removed phenolics, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and nickel from the hydrolysate more efficiently than biopolymer B, while biopolymer B was efficient to remove chromium at 15% (v/v). Detoxification enhanced the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate, and the biopolymers showed different influences on the process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional properties of tropical banded cricket (Gryllodes sigillatus) protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Felicia G; Jones, Owen G; O'Haire, Marguerite E; Liceaga, Andrea M

    2017-06-01

    Recently, the benefits of entomophagy have been widely discussed. Due to western cultures' reluctance, entomophagy practices are leaning more towards incorporating insects into food products. In this study, whole crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus) were hydrolyzed with alcalase at 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0% (w/w) for 30, 60, and 90min. Degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition, solubility, emulsion and foaming properties were evaluated. Hydrolysis produced peptides with 26-52% DH compared to the control containing no enzyme (5% DH). Protein solubility of hydrolysates improved (p30% soluble protein at pH 3 and 7 and 50-90% at alkaline pH, compared with the control. Emulsion activity index ranged from 7 to 32m 2 /g, while foamability ranged from 100 to 155% for all hydrolysates. These improved functional properties demonstrate the potential to develop cricket protein hydrolysates as a source of functional alternative protein in food ingredient formulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Xylitol Production from Eucalyptus Wood Hydrolysates in Low-Cost Fermentation Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Diz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Several aspects concerning the bioconversion of xylose-containing hydrolysates (obtained from Eucalyptus wood into xylitol were assessed. Debaryomyces hansenii yeast strains were adapted to fermentation media (obtained either by prehydrolysis or autohydrolysis- posthydrolysis of wood supplemented with low-cost nutrients. Media containing up to 80 g/L xylose were efficiently fermented when the hydrolysates were detoxified by charcoal adsorption and supplemented with corn steep liquor.

  9. Kinetic modeling of batch fermentation for Populus hydrolysate tolerant mutant and wild type strains of Clostridium thermocellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linville, Jessica L; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Cox, Chris D

    2013-11-01

    The extent of inhibition of two strains of Clostridium thermocellum by a Populus hydrolysate was investigated. A Monod-based model of wild type (WT) and Populus hydrolysate tolerant mutant (PM) strains of the cellulolytic bacterium C. thermocellum was developed to quantify growth kinetics in standard media and the extent of inhibition to a Populus hydrolysate. The PM was characterized by a higher growth rate (μmax=1.223 vs. 0.571 h(-1)) and less inhibition (KI,gen=0.991 vs. 0.757) in 10% v/v Populus hydrolysate compared to the WT. In 17.5% v/v Populus hydrolysate inhibition of PM increased slightly (KI,gen=0.888), whereas the WT was strongly inhibited and did not grow in a reproducible manner. Of the individual inhibitors tested, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid was the most inhibitory, followed by galacturonic acid. The PM did not have a greater ability to detoxify the hydrolysate than the WT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Detoxification of Corncob Acid Hydrolysate with SAA Pretreatment and Xylitol Production by Immobilized Candida tropicalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hong Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol fermentation production from corncob acid hydrolysate has become an attractive and promising process. However, corncob acid hydrolysate cannot be directly used as fermentation substrate owing to various inhibitors. In this work, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA pretreatment was employed to reduce the inhibitors in acid hydrolysate. After detoxification, the corncob acid hydrolysate was fermented by immobilized Candida tropicalis cell to produce xylitol. Results revealed that SAA pretreatment showed high delignification and efficient removal of acetyl group compounds without effect on cellulose and xylan content. Acetic acid was completely removed, and the content of phenolic compounds was reduced by 80%. Furthermore, kinetic behaviors of xylitol production by immobilized C. tropicalis cell were elucidated from corncob acid hydrolysate detoxified with SAA pretreatment and two-step adsorption method, respectively. The immobilized C. tropicalis cell showed higher productivity efficiency using the corncob acid hydrolysate as fermentation substrate after detoxification with SAA pretreatment than by two-step adsorption method in the five successive batch fermentation rounds. After the fifth round fermentation, about 60 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for SAA pretreatment detoxification, while about 30 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for two-step adsorption detoxification.

  11. Changes in the vascular tissue of fresh Hass avocados treated with cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arevalo, Lourdes; Bustos, Ma. Emilia; Saucedo, Cresenciano

    2002-01-01

    This research was based on fresh avocado fruit treated with gamma rays at quarantine doses and stored at room temperature. The effects of irradiation were analyzed and measured by three different types of studies: histological, biochemical and physiological. Histological studies were focused on the effect of Cobalt 60 gamma rays in the mesocarp of avocado irradiated at three different doses; 150, 250, and 350 Gy. Damage was observed principally in the parenchyma tissue where the cell membrane was plazmolized and a red color was observed due to the development of phenol compounds. Another important effect was an increase in the size of xylem and phloem cells in the vascular tissue even at the minimum dose of 150 Gy. The biochemical and the physiological studies were done on avocado fruit irradiated at 100 and 150 Gy. An increase in L-phenilalanine ammonialyase activity was observed and therefore, an increase in the concentration of phenol compounds. These changes were not perceived by panelists in a sensorial test. Irradiated fruits were accepted by panelists as well as control fruit as regards parameters of taste, internal color and external color. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using irradiation to disinfest avocado fruit using a minimum dose of 100 Gy

  12. Changes in the vascular tissue of fresh Hass avocados treated with cobalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arevalo, Lourdes; Bustos, Ma. Emilia; Saucedo, Cresenciano

    2002-03-01

    This research was based on fresh avocado fruit treated with gamma rays at quarantine doses and stored at room temperature. The effects of irradiation were analyzed and measured by three different types of studies: histological, biochemical and physiological. Histological studies were focused on the effect of Cobalt 60 gamma rays in the mesocarp of avocado irradiated at three different doses; 150, 250, and 350 Gy. Damage was observed principally in the parenchyma tissue where the cell membrane was plazmolized and a red color was observed due to the development of phenol compounds. Another important effect was an increase in the size of xylem and phloem cells in the vascular tissue even at the minimum dose of 150 Gy. The biochemical and the physiological studies were done on avocado fruit irradiated at 100 and 150 Gy. An increase in L-phenilalanine ammonialyase activity was observed and therefore, an increase in the concentration of phenol compounds. These changes were not perceived by panelists in a sensorial test. Irradiated fruits were accepted by panelists as well as control fruit as regards parameters of taste, internal color and external color. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using irradiation to disinfest avocado fruit using a minimum dose of 100 Gy.

  13. Hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yust, María del Mar; Millán-Linares, María del Carmen; Alcaide-Hidalgo, Juan María; Millán, Francisco; Pedroche, Justo

    2012-07-01

    Some dietary proteins possess biological properties which make them potential ingredients of functional or health-promoting foods. Many of these properties are attributed to bioactive peptides that can be released by controlled hydrolysis using exogenous proteases. The aim of this work was to test the improvement of hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities of chickpea protein isolate by means of hydrolysis with alcalase and flavourzyme. All hydrolysates tested exhibited better hypocholesterolaemic activity when compared with chickpea protein isolate. The highest cholesterol micellar solubility inhibition (50%) was found after 60 min of treatment with alcalase followed by 30 min of hydrolysis with flavourzyme. To test antioxidant activity of chickpea proteins three methods were used: β-carotene bleaching method, reducing power and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging effect since antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates may not be attributed to a single mechanism. Chickpea hydrolysates showed better antioxidant activity in all assays, especially reducing power and DPPH scavenging effect than chickpea protein isolate. The results of this study showed the good potential of chickpea protein hydrolysates as bioactive ingredients. The highest bioactive properties could be obtained by selecting the type of proteases and the hydrolysis time. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Integrated approaches to spatiotemporally directing angiogenesis in host and engineered tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Rajeev J; Coulombe, Kareen L K

    2018-03-15

    The field of tissue engineering has turned towards biomimicry to solve the problem of tissue oxygenation and nutrient/waste exchange through the development of vasculature. Induction of angiogenesis and subsequent development of a vascular bed in engineered tissues is actively being pursued through combinations of physical and chemical cues, notably through the presentation of topographies and growth factors. Presenting angiogenic signals in a spatiotemporal fashion is beginning to generate improved vascular networks, which will allow for the creation of large and dense engineered tissues. This review provides a brief background on the cells, mechanisms, and molecules driving vascular development (including angiogenesis), followed by how biomaterials and growth factors can be used to direct vessel formation and maturation. Techniques to accomplish spatiotemporal control of vascularization include incorporation or encapsulation of growth factors, topographical engineering, and 3D bioprinting. The vascularization of engineered tissues and their application in angiogenic therapy in vivo is reviewed herein with an emphasis on the most densely vascularized tissue of the human body - the heart. Vascularization is vital to wound healing and tissue regeneration, and development of hierarchical networks enables efficient nutrient transfer. In tissue engineering, vascularization is necessary to support physiologically dense engineered tissues, and thus the field seeks to induce vascular formation using biomaterials and chemical signals to provide appropriate, pro-angiogenic signals for cells. This review critically examines the materials and techniques used to generate scaffolds with spatiotemporal cues to direct vascularization in engineered and host tissues in vitro and in vivo. Assessment of the field's progress is intended to inspire vascular applications across all forms of tissue engineering with a specific focus on highlighting the nuances of cardiac tissue

  15. Development toward rapid and efficient screening for high performance hydrolysate lots in a recombinant monoclonal antibody manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Pierce, Karisa M

    2012-07-01

    Plant-derived hydrolysates are widely used in mammalian cell culture media to increase yields of recombinant proteins and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). However, these chemically varied and undefined raw materials can have negative impact on yield and/or product quality in large-scale cell culture processes. Traditional methods that rely on fractionation of hydrolysates yielded little success in improving hydrolysate quality. We took a holistic approach to develop an efficient and reliable method to screen intact soy hydrolysate lots for commercial recombinant mAb manufacturing. Combined high-resolution (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS) analysis led to a prediction model between product titer and NMR fingerprinting of soy hydrolysate with cross-validated correlation coefficient R(2) of 0.87 and root-mean-squared-error of cross-validation RMSECV% of 11.2%. This approach screens for high performance hydrolysate lots, therefore ensuring process consistency and product quality in the mAb manufacturing process. Furthermore, PLS analysis was successful in discerning multiple markers (DL-lactate, soy saccharides, citrate and succinate) among hydrolysate components that positively and negatively correlate with titer. Interestingly, these markers correlate to the metabolic characteristics of some strains of taxonomically diverse lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Thus our findings indicate that LAB strains may exist during hydrolysate manufacturing steps and their biochemical activities may attribute to the titer enhancement effect of soy hydrolysates. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  16. Modeling skin cooling using optical windows and cryogens during laser induced hyperthermia in a multilayer vascularized tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rupesh; Das, Koushik; Okajima, Junnosuke; Maruyama, Shigenao; Mishra, Subhash C.

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the spatial and the temporal evolution of tissue temperature during skin surface cooled laser induced hyperthermia. Three different skin surface cooling methodologies viz., optical window contact cooling, cryogenic spray cooling and cryogen cooled optical window contact cooling are considered. Sapphire, yttrium aluminum garnet, lithium tantalate, and magnesium oxide doped lithium niobate are the considered optical windows. The cryogens considered are liquid CO_2 and R1234yf. Heat transfer in the multilayer skin tissue embedded with thermally significant blood vessels pairs is modeled using the Pennes and Weinbaum–Jiji bioheat equations. Weinbaum–Jiji bioheat equation is used for the vascularized tissue. Laser transport in the tissue is modeled using the radiative transfer equation. Axial and radial (skin surface) temperature distributions for different combinations of optical windows and cryogens are analyzed. Liquid CO_2 cooled yttrium aluminum garnet is found to be the best surface cooling mechanism. - Highlights: • Skin surface cooled laser induced hyperthermia is studied. • A multi-layer 2-D cylindrical tissue geometry is considered. • Both Pennes and Weinbaum–Jiji bioheat models are considered. • Laser transport in the tissue is modeled using discrete ordinate method. • Results for 4 optical windows and 2 cryogens for skin cooling are presented.

  17. Gene Electrotransfer of Plasmid with Tissue Specific Promoter Encoding shRNA against Endoglin Exerts Antitumor Efficacy against Murine TS/A Tumors by Vascular Targeted Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Stimac

    Full Text Available Vascular targeted therapies, targeting specific endothelial cell markers, are promising approaches for the treatment of cancer. One of the targets is endoglin, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β co-receptor, which mediates proliferation, differentiation and migration of endothelial cells forming neovasculature. However, its specific, safe and long-lasting targeting remains the challenge. Therefore, in our study we evaluated the transfection efficacy, vascular targeted effects and therapeutic potential of the plasmid silencing endoglin with the tissue specific promoter, specific for endothelial cells marker endothelin-1 (ET (TS plasmid, in comparison to the plasmid with constitutive promoter (CON plasmid, in vitro and in vivo. Tissue specificity of TS plasmid was demonstrated in vitro on several cell lines, and its antiangiogenic efficacy was demonstrated by reducing tube formation of 2H11 endothelial cells. In vivo, on a murine mammary TS/A tumor model, we demonstrated good antitumor effect of gene electrotransfer (GET of either of both plasmids in treatment of smaller tumors still in avascular phase of growth, as well as on bigger tumors, already well vascularized. In support to the observations on predominantly vascular targeted effects of endoglin, histological analysis has demonstrated an increase in necrosis and a decrease in the number of blood vessels in therapeutic groups. A significant antitumor effect was observed in tumors in avascular and vascular phase of growth, possibly due to both, the antiangiogenic and the vascular disrupting effect. Furthermore, the study indicates on the potential use of TS plasmid in cancer gene therapy since the same efficacy as of CON plasmid was determined.

  18. Gene Electrotransfer of Plasmid with Tissue Specific Promoter Encoding shRNA against Endoglin Exerts Antitumor Efficacy against Murine TS/A Tumors by Vascular Targeted Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimac, Monika; Dolinsek, Tanja; Lampreht, Ursa; Cemazar, Maja; Sersa, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Vascular targeted therapies, targeting specific endothelial cell markers, are promising approaches for the treatment of cancer. One of the targets is endoglin, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) co-receptor, which mediates proliferation, differentiation and migration of endothelial cells forming neovasculature. However, its specific, safe and long-lasting targeting remains the challenge. Therefore, in our study we evaluated the transfection efficacy, vascular targeted effects and therapeutic potential of the plasmid silencing endoglin with the tissue specific promoter, specific for endothelial cells marker endothelin-1 (ET) (TS plasmid), in comparison to the plasmid with constitutive promoter (CON plasmid), in vitro and in vivo. Tissue specificity of TS plasmid was demonstrated in vitro on several cell lines, and its antiangiogenic efficacy was demonstrated by reducing tube formation of 2H11 endothelial cells. In vivo, on a murine mammary TS/A tumor model, we demonstrated good antitumor effect of gene electrotransfer (GET) of either of both plasmids in treatment of smaller tumors still in avascular phase of growth, as well as on bigger tumors, already well vascularized. In support to the observations on predominantly vascular targeted effects of endoglin, histological analysis has demonstrated an increase in necrosis and a decrease in the number of blood vessels in therapeutic groups. A significant antitumor effect was observed in tumors in avascular and vascular phase of growth, possibly due to both, the antiangiogenic and the vascular disrupting effect. Furthermore, the study indicates on the potential use of TS plasmid in cancer gene therapy since the same efficacy as of CON plasmid was determined.

  19. Antioxidant activities of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) protein hydrolysates and their membrane ultrafiltration fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arise, Abimbola K; Alashi, Adeola M; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Ijabadeniyi, Oluwatosin A; Aluko, Rotimi E; Amonsou, Eric O

    2016-05-18

    In this study, the bambara protein isolate (BPI) was digested with three proteases (alcalase, trypsin and pepsin), to produce bambara protein hydrolysates (BPHs). These hydrolysates were passed through ultrafiltration membranes to obtain peptide fractions of different sizes (fractions were investigated for antioxidant activities. The membrane fractions showed that peptides with sizes 3 kDa. This is in agreement with the result obtained for the ferric reducing power, metal chelating and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities where higher molecular weight peptides exhibited better activity (p fractions. However, for all the hydrolysates, the low molecular weight peptides were more effective diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavengers but not superoxide radicals when compared to the bigger peptides. In comparison with glutathione (GSH), BPHs and their membrane fractions had better (p fractions that did not show any metal chelating activity. However, the 5-10 kDa pepsin hydrolysate peptide fractions had greater (88%) hydroxyl scavenging activity than GSH, alcalase and trypsin hydrolysates (82%). These findings show the potential use of BPHs and their peptide fraction as antioxidants in reducing food spoilage or management of oxidative stress-related metabolic disorders.

  20. Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate as a potential feedstock for red pigment production by Monascus ruber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán Hilares, Ruly; de Souza, Rebeca Andrade; Marcelino, Paulo Franco; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Dragone, Giuliano; Mussatto, Solange I; Santos, Júlio César

    2018-04-15

    Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) hydrolysate could be an interesting source for red pigment production by Monascus ruber Tieghem IOC 2225. The influence of different wavelength of light-emitting diode (LED) at 250 μmol.m -2 .s -1 of photon flux density on red pigment production by M. ruber in glucose-based medium was evaluated. Then, SCB hydrolysate was used as carbon source under the previously selected light incidence conditions. In glucose-based medium, the highest pigment production was achieved in fermentation assisted with orange LED light (8.28 UA 490nm ), white light (8.26 UA 490nm ) and under dark condition (7.45 UA 490nm ). By using SCB hydrolysate-based medium, the highest red pigment production (18.71 AU 490nm ) was achieved under dark condition and the glucose and cellobiose present in the hydrolysate were metabolized. SCB enzymatic hydrolysate was demonstrated to be a promising carbon source for high thermal stability red pigment production (activation energy of 10.5 kcal.mol -1 ), turning an interesting alternative for implementation in biorefineries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Recovery of monosaccharides from lignocellulosic hydrolysates by ion exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Gabriele; Pellegrini, Laura Annamaria; Aliverti, Alessandro; Rivas Torres, Beatriz; Bernardi, Marco; Morbidelli, Massimo; Storti, Giuseppe

    2017-05-05

    The production of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass is the key to a sustainable, renewable chemical industry. Glucose, xylose and other monosaccharides can be easily produced by hydrolyzing cellulose and hemicellulose, the primary polysaccharides in biomass. However, the hydrolysis of biomass generates byproducts that, together with the mineral acid normally added in the hydrolysis step, have to be removed before the downstream conversion processes. In this work, the recovery of monosaccharides from lignocellulosic hydrolysates by means of Ion Exclusion Chromatography (IEC) has been studied. The analyzed process relies on new pretreatment and hydrolysis steps, involving the neutralization of the hydrolysate with sodium hydroxide. The adsorption behavior of the main components involved in the separation has been experimentally investigated. Pulse tests at the high loading encountered in preparative conditions have been performed for a selected group of model components found in the hydrolysates. For all the electrolytes, the retention volume fraction was always between the interparticle porosity and the total column porosity, confirming that ion exclusion was the dominant retention mechanism. On the other hand, sugars eluted before the total column porosity, indicating partial steric exclusion from the resin pores. This observation was then confirmed by size-exclusion experiments with polyethylene glycol standards, from which the distribution coefficient of the studied sugars has been determined. The comparison between the elution profiles of the same sugars in pure form and as a mixture present in the hydrolysate showed differences in both peak shape and retention times. Therefore, an investigation of the influence of the main electrolytes contained in the hydrolysates on sugars adsorption has been performed through the pulse on a plateau method. The electrolytes were found to enhance the sugars retention by promoting their adsorption onto the resin. However

  2. Improved vascularization of planar membrane diffusion devices following continuous infusion of vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, N; Steil, G M; Colton, C K; Bonner-Weir, S; Weir, G C

    2000-01-01

    Improving blood vessel formation around an immunobarrier device should improve the survival of the encapsulated tissue. In the present study we investigated the formation of new blood vessels around a planar membrane diffusion device (the Baxter Theracyte System) undergoing a continuous infusion of vascular endothelial growth factor through the membranes and into the surrounding tissue. Each device (20 microl) had both an inner immunoisolation membrane and an outer vascularizing membrane. Human recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor-165 was infused at 100 ng/day (low dose: n = 6) and 500 ng/day (high dose: n = 7) for 10 days into devices implanted s.c. in Sprague-Dawley rats; noninfused devices transplanted for an identical period were used as controls (n = 5). Two days following the termination of VEGF infusion, devices were loaded with 20 microl of Lispro insulin (1 U/kg) and the kinetics of insulin release from the lumen of the device was assessed. Devices were then explanted and the number of blood vessels (capillary and noncapillary) was quantified using morphometry. High-dose vascular endothelial growth factor infusion resulted in two- to threefold more blood vessels around the device than that obtained with the noninfused devices and devices infused with low-dose vascular endothelial growth factor. This increase in the number of blood vessels was accompanied by a modest increase in insulin diffusion from the device in the high-dose vascular endothelial growth factor infusion group. We conclude that vascular endothelial growth factor can be used to improve blood vessel formation adjacent to planar membrane diffusion devices.

  3. The impact of various scaffold components on vascularized bone constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eweida, Ahmad; Schulte, Matthias; Frisch, Oliver; Kneser, Ulrich; Harhaus, Leila

    2017-06-01

    Bone tissue engineering is gaining more interest in the field of craniofacial surgery where continuous efforts are being made to improve the outcomes via modulation of the scaffold components. In an in vitro three dimensional (3D) culture, the effect of bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2, 60 μg/ml) and the effect of different cell seeding densities (0.25, 0.5, and 1 × 104) of rat mesenchymal stem cells seeded on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite in silica gel matrix (Nanobone ® ) on the cell viability and differentiation were studied. Alkaline phosphatase and viability assays were performed at day 7, day 14, and day 21 to assess the differentiation and the relative fraction of viable cells in the 3D cell cultures. In a subsequent in vivo study, we examined the effect of axial vascularization, the scaffold's particle size and the nature of the matrix (collagen type I vs. diluted fibrin) on vascularization and tissue generation in vascularized bone construct in rats. Regarding vascularization, we compared constructs vascularized randomly by extrinsic vascularization from the periphery of the implanted construct with others vascularized axially via an implanted arteriovenous loop (AVL). Regarding the particle size, we compared constructs having a scaffold particle size of 0.2 mm (powder) with other constructs having a particle size of 2 × 0.6 mm (granules). Regarding the matrix we compared constructs having a collagen matrix with others having a fibrin matrix. Various groups were compared regarding the amount of tissue generation, vascularization, and cellular proliferation. The initial seeding density had a temporary and minimal effect on the overall osteogenic differentiation of the cells. On the contrary, adding BMP2 in a concentration of 60 μg/ml over one week led to an overall enhanced osteogenic differentiation despite depressed cell viability. Axial vascularization was mandatory for efficient tissue formation and vascularization of the bone construct

  4. Uracil in formic acid hydrolysates of deoxyribonucleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Arnold H.

    1966-01-01

    1. When DNA is hydrolysed with formic acid for 30min. at 175° and the hydrolysate is chromatographed on paper with propan-2-ol–2n-hydrochloric acid, in addition to expected ultraviolet-absorbing spots corresponding to guanine, adenine, cytosine and thymine, an ultraviolet-absorbing region with RF similar to that of uracil can be detected. Uracil was separated from this region and identified by its spectra in acid and alkali, and by its RF in several solvent systems. 2. Cytosine, deoxyribocytidine and deoxyribocytidylic acid similarly treated with formic acid all yielded uracil, as did a mixture of deoxyribonucleotides. 3. Approx. 4% of deoxyribonucleotide cytosine was converted into uracil by the formic acid treatment. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:5949371

  5. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-01-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC 50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries. - Highlights: ► Radiation was applied for the hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein. ► The degree of hydrolysis were increased by irradiation and the antioxidant activity of hydrolysate was higher than protein. ► This result suggest that radiation is useful method for the hydrolysis of protein.

  6. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting; Qiao, Hui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH) of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH), condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH) and condensed acid-catalyzed sulfite hydrolysate (CASH) as substrates, the concentration of lactic acid reached 45.39, 16.83, and 18.71 g/L by B. coagulans GKN316, respectively. But for B. coagulans NL01, only CASEH could be directly fermented to produce 15.47 g/L lactic acid. The individual inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBal) on xylose utilization by B. coagulans GKN316 was also studied. The strain B. coagulans GKN316 could effectively convert these toxic inhibitors to the less toxic corresponding alcohols in situ. These results suggested that B. coagulans GKN316 was well suited to production of lactic acid from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:26863012

  7. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting; Qiao, Hui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH) of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH), condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH) and condensed acid-catalyzed sulfite hydrolysate (CASH) as substrates, the concentration of lactic acid reached 45.39, 16.83, and 18.71 g/L by B. coagulans GKN316, respectively. But for B. coagulans NL01, only CASEH could be directly fermented to produce 15.47 g/L lactic acid. The individual inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBal) on xylose utilization by B. coagulans GKN316 was also studied. The strain B. coagulans GKN316 could effectively convert these toxic inhibitors to the less toxic corresponding alcohols in situ. These results suggested that B. coagulans GKN316 was well suited to production of lactic acid from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

  8. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Jiang

    Full Text Available An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH, condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH and condensed acid-catalyzed sulfite hydrolysate (CASH as substrates, the concentration of lactic acid reached 45.39, 16.83, and 18.71 g/L by B. coagulans GKN316, respectively. But for B. coagulans NL01, only CASEH could be directly fermented to produce 15.47 g/L lactic acid. The individual inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBal on xylose utilization by B. coagulans GKN316 was also studied. The strain B. coagulans GKN316 could effectively convert these toxic inhibitors to the less toxic corresponding alcohols in situ. These results suggested that B. coagulans GKN316 was well suited to production of lactic acid from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

  9. A prognostic model for soft tissue sarcoma of the extremities and trunk wall based on size, vascular invasion, necrosis, and growth pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, Ana; Bendahl, Par-Ola; Engellau, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    type, necrosis, and grade. METHODS:: Whole-tumor sections from 239 soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities were reviewed for the following prognostic factors: size, vascular invasion, necrosis, and growth pattern. A new prognostic model, referred to as SING (Size, Invasion, Necrosis, Growth...

  10. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORY ACTIVITY OF HYDROLYSATE OF MEAT PROTEIN OF INDONESIAN LOCAL LIVESTOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jamhari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to investigate the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitoryactivity of hydrolysate in meat protein of Bali cattle, Kacang goat, native chicken, and local duck. Themeats of Bali cattle, Kacang goat, native chicken, and local duck were used in this study. The meatswere ground using food processor added with aquadest to obtain meat extract. The meat extracts werethen hydrolyzed using protease enzymes to obtain hydrolysate of meat protein. Protein concentration ofmeat extract and hydrolysate of meat protein were determined, and were confirmed by sodium dodecylsulfate - poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. ACE inhibitory activity of hydrolysate ofmeat protein derived from Bali cattle, Kacang goat, native chicken, and local duck was also determined.The results showed that protein concentration of hydrolysate of meat protein of Bali cattle, Kacang goat,native chicken, and local duck meat was significantly higher than their meat extracts. SDS-PAGEanalysis indicated that hydrolysate of meat protein of Bali cattle, Kacang goat, native chicken, and localduck had more peptides with lower molecular weight, compared to their meat extracts. Hydrolysate ofmeat protein of Bali cattle, Kacang goat, native chicken, and local duck had potencies in inhibiting ACEactivity, so it will potentially reduce blood pressure.

  11. The influence of brewers' yeast addition on lactic acid fermentation of brewers' spent grain hydrolysate by Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    OpenAIRE

    Pejin, Jelena; Radosavljević, Miloš; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Đukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mladenović, Dragana; Mojović, Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    In this study brewers' spent grain (BSG) hydrolysate was produced using optimal conditions. Hydrolysates were used for lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The aim of this study was to evaluate possibilities of the BSG hydrolysate utilization as a substrate for lactic acid fermentation as well as the effect of dry brewers' yeast (1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 %) addition in hydrolysate on lactic acid fermentation parameters (L-(+)-lactic acid and reducing sugars concentration an...

  12. Production of pullulan from raw potato starch hydrolysates by a new strain of Auerobasidium pullulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun; Lu, Mingsheng; Chen, Jing; Fang, Yaowei; Wu, Leilei; Xu, Yan; Wang, Shujun

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, hydrolysis of potato starch with marine cold-adapted α-amylase and pullulan production from the hydrolysates by a new strain of Auerobasidium pullulans isolated from sea mud were conducted. The hydrolysis conditions were optimized as follows: reaction time 2h, pH 6.5, temperature 20°C, and α-amylase amount 12 U/g. Under these optimum hydrolysis conditions, the DE value of the potato starch hydrolysates reached to 49.56. The potato starch hydrolysates consist of glucose, maltose, isomaltose, maltotriose, and trace of other maltooligosaccharides with degree of polymerization ranged 4-7. The maximum production of pullulan at 96 h from the hydrolysate of potato starch was 36.17 g/L, which was higher than those obtained from glucose (22.07 g/L, p<0.05) and sucrose (31.42 g/L, p<0.05). Analysis of the high performance liquid chromatography of the hydrolysates of the pullulan product with pullulanase indicated that the main composition is maltotriose, thus confirming the pullulan structure of this pullulan product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of Optimum Condition of Leucine Content in Beef Protein Hydrolysate using Response Surface Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Roha Ab Mutalib; Zainal Samicho; Noriham Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the optimum condition of leucine content in beef hydrolysate. Beef hydrolysate was prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis using bromelain enzyme produced from pineapple peel. Parameter conditions such as concentration of bromelain, hydrolysis temperature and hydrolysis time were assessed to obtain the optimum leucine content of beef hydrolysate according to experimental design which was recommended by response surface methodology (RSM). Leucine content in beef hydrolysate was determined using AccQ. Tag amino acid analysis method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The condition of optimum leucine content was at bromelain concentration of 1.38 %, hydrolysis temperature of 42.5 degree Celcius and hydrolysis time of 31.59 hours with the predicted leucine content of 26.57 %. The optimum condition was verified with the leucine value obtained was 26.25 %. Since there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the predicted and verified leucine values, thus it indicates that the predicted optimum condition by RSM can be accepted to predict the optimum leucine content in beef hydrolysate. (author)

  14. Preparation of Antioxidant Enzymatic Hydrolysates from Honeybee-Collected Pollen Using Plant Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita D. Marinova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic hydrolysates of honeybee-collected pollen were prepared using food-grade proteinase and aminopeptidases entirely of plant origin. Bromelain from pineapple stem was applied (8 mAU/g substrate in the first hydrolysis stage. Aminopeptidase (0.05 U/g substrate and proline iminopeptidase (0.03 U/g substrate from cabbage leaves (Brassica oleracea var. capitata, and aminopeptidase (0.2 U/g substrate from chick-pea cotyledons (Cicer arietinum L. were involved in the additional hydrolysis of the peptide mixtures. The degree of hydrolysis (DH, total phenolic contents, and protein contents of these hydrolysates were as follows: DH (about 20–28%, total phenolics (15.3–27.2 μg/mg sample powder, and proteins (162.7–242.8 μg/mg sample powder, respectively. The hydrolysates possessed high antiradical scavenging activity determined with DPPH (42–46% inhibition. The prepared hydrolysates of bee-collected flower pollen may be regarded as effective natural and functional dietary food supplements due to their remarkable content of polyphenol substances and significant radical-scavenging capacity with special regard to their nutritional-physiological implications.

  15. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of lecithin free egg yolk protein preparation hydrolysates obtained with digestive enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zambrowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Several biological activities have now been associated with egg protein- derived peptides, including antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anticancer and antioxidantactivities, highlighting the importance of these biopeptides in human health, and disease prevention and treatment. Special attention has been given to peptides with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as a new source of natural preservatives in food industry. In this study, the antioxidant properties of the egg-yolk protein by-product (YP hydrolysates were evaluated based on their radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, Fe2+chelating effect and ferric reducing power (FRAP. Furthermore, antimicrobial properties of obtained hydrolysates against Bacillus species were studied. The degrees (DHs of hydrolysis for 4h hydrolysates were: 19.1%, 13.5% and 13.0%, for pepsin, chymotrypsin and trypsin, respectively. Pepsin was the most effective in producing the free amino groups (1410.3 μmolGly/g. The RP-HPLC profiles of the protein hydrolysates showed differences in the hydrophobicity of the generated peptides.Trypsin hydrolysate obtained after 4h reaction demonstrated the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging activity (0.85 µmol Troloxeq/mg. Trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysates obtained after 4h reaction exhibited 4 times higher ferric reducing capacity than those treated bypepsin. The hydrolysis products obtained from YP exhibited significant chelating activity. The 4h trypsin hydrolysate exhibited weak antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis B3; B. cereus B512; B. cereus B 3p and B. laterosporum B6.

  16. A prognostic model for soft tissue sarcoma of the extremities and trunk wall based on size, vascular invasion, necrosis, and growth pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, Ana; Bendahl, Par-Ola; Engellau, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    type, necrosis, and grade. METHODS:: Whole-tumor sections from 239 soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities were reviewed for the following prognostic factors: size, vascular invasion, necrosis, and growth pattern. A new prognostic model, referred to as SING (Size, Invasion, Necrosis, Growth......), was established and compared with other clinically applied systems. RESULTS:: Size, vascular invasion, necrosis, and peripheral tumor growth pattern provided independent prognostic information with hazard ratios of 2.2-2.6 for development of metastases in multivariate analysis. When these factors were combined...... into the prognostic model SING, high risk of metastasis was predicted with a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 85%. Moreover, the prognostic performance of SING compared favorably with other widely used systems. CONCLUSIONS:: SING represents a promising prognostic model, and vascular invasion and tumor growth...

  17. Production of xylitol from corn cob hydrolysate through acid and enzymatic hydrolysis by yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardawati, Efri; Andoyo, R.; Syukra, K. A.; Kresnowati, MTAP; Bindar, Y.

    2018-03-01

    The abundance of corn production in Indonesia offers the potential for its application as the raw material for biorefinery process. The hemicellulose content in corn cobs can be considered to be used as a raw material for xylitol production. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of hydrolysis methods for xylitol production and the effect of the hydrolyzed corn cobs to produce xylitol through fermentation. Hydrolysis methods that would be evaluated were acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. The result showed that the xylitol yield of fermented solution using enzymatic hydrolysates was 0.216 g-xylitol/g-xylose, which was higher than the one that used acid hydrolysates, which was 0.100 g-xylitol/g-xylose. Moreover, the specific growth rate of biomass in fermentation using enzymatic hydrolysates was also higher than the one that used acid hydrolysates, 0.039/h compared to 0.0056/h.

  18. Initial evaluation of vascular ingrowth into superporous hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskar, Vandana; Gandhi, Milind; Gemeinhart, Ernest J; Gemeinhart, Richard A

    2009-08-01

    There is a need for new materials and architectures for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Based upon our recent results developing novel scaffold architecture, we hypothesized that this new architecture would foster vascularization, a particular need for tissue engineering. We report on the potential of superporous hydrogel (SPH) scaffolds for in vivo cellular infiltration and vascularization. Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) SPH scaffolds were implanted in the dorsum of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and harvested after 4 weeks of in vivo implantation. The SPHs were visibly red and vascularized, as apparent when compared to the non-porous hydrogel controls, which were macroscopically avascular. Host cell infiltration was observed throughout the SPHs. Blood cells and vascular structures, confirmed through staining for CD34 and smooth muscle alpha-actin, were observed throughout the scaffolds. This novel soft material may be utilized for cell transplantation, tissue engineering and in combination with cell therapies. The neovasularization and limited fibrotic response suggest that the architecture may be conducive to cell survival and rapid vessel development.

  19. Casein Hydrolysates by Lactobacillus brevis and Lactococcus lactis Proteases: Peptide Profile Discriminates Strain-Dependent Enzyme Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounouala, Fatima Zohra; Roudj, Salima; Karam, Nour-Eddine; Recio, Isidra; Miralles, Beatriz

    2017-10-25

    Casein from ovine and bovine milk were hydrolyzed with two extracellular protease preparations from Lactobacillus brevis and Lactococcus lactis. The hydrolysates were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS for peptide identification. A strain-dependent peptide profile could be observed, regardless of the casein origin, and the specificity of these two proteases could be computationally ascribed. The cleavage pattern yielding phenylalanine, leucine, or tyrosine at C-terminal appeared both at L. lactis and Lb. brevis hydrolysates. However, the cleavage C-terminal to lysine was favored with Lb. brevis protease. The hydrolysates showed ACE-inhibitory activity with IC 50 in the 16-70 μg/mL range. Ovine casein hydrolysates yielded greater ACE-inhibitory activity. Previously described antihypertensive and opioid peptides were found in these ovine and bovine casein hydrolysates and prediction of the antihypertensive activity of the sequences based on quantitative structure and activity relationship (QSAR) was performed. This approach might represent a useful classification tool regarding health-related properties prior to further purification.

  20. Membrane capacitive deionization for biomass hydrolysate desalination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyskens, Celine; Helsen, J.; Groot, W.J.; Haan, de A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass hydrolysates are rapidly gaining interest as low-cost non-food renewable feedstocks for fermentation processes. However, since high concentrations of salt such as sodium and potassium can act toxic to microorganisms, there is a need to remove these salts to maintain high biochemical

  1. Changes in adipose tissue stromal-vascular cells in primary culture due to porcine sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewell, D.E.; Hausman, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the response of rat stromal-vascular cells to pig sea. Sera were collected from unselected contemporary (lean) and high backfat thickness selected (obese) pigs. Sera from obese pigs were collected either by exsanguination or cannulation. sera from lean pigs during the growing phase (45 kg) and the fattening phase (100-110 kg) were collected. Stromal-vascular cells derived rom rat inguinal tissue were cultured on either 25 cm 2 flasks, collagen-coated coverslips or petri dishes. Cell proliferation was measured by [ 3 H]-thymidine incorporation during the fourth day of culture. Coverslip cultures were used for histochemical analysis. Petri dish cultures were used for analysis of Sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity. All cells were plated for 24 hours in media containing 10 fetal bovine sera. Test media contained 2.5, 5.0, 10.0% sera. Sera from obese pigs increased GPDH activity and fat cell production when compared to the lean controls. The increased concentration of sera increased esterase activity and lipid as measured with oil red O. The sera from obese pigs collected at slaughter stimulated more fat cell production than obese sera collected by cannulation. These studies show there are adipogenic factors in obese pigs sera which promote fat cell development in primary cell culture

  2. Protein Hydrolysates from Non-bovine and Plant Sources Replaces Tryptone in Microbiological Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Yamini; Patel, Shifa; Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Meganathan, R.

    Tryptone (pancreatic digest of casein) is a common ingredient in laboratory and fermentation media for growing wild-type and genetically modified microorganisms. Many of the commercially manufactured products such as human growth hormone, antibiotics, insulin, etc. are produced by recombinant strains grown on materials derived from bovine sources. With the emergence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and the consequent increase in Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, elimination of materials of bovine origin from fermentation media is of paramount importance. To achieve this objective, a number of protein hydrolysates derived from non-bovine animal and plant sources were evaluated. Tryptone in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth was replaced with an equal quantity of alternate protein hydrolysates. Four of the six hydrolysates (one animal and three from plants) were found to efficiently replace the tryptone present in LB-medium as measured by growth rate and growth yield of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain. In addition, we have determined plasmid stability, inducibility and activity of the plasmid encoded β-galactosidase in the recombinant strain grown in the presence of various protein hydrolysates.

  3. Cucurbitaceae Seed Protein Hydrolysates as a Potential Source of Bioactive Peptides with Functional Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Ozuna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds from Cucurbitaceae plants (squashes, pumpkins, melons, etc. have been used both as protein-rich food ingredients and nutraceutical agents by many indigenous cultures for millennia. However, relatively little is known about the bioactive components (e.g., peptides of the Cucurbitaceae seed proteins (CSP and their specific effects on human health. Therefore, this paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of latest research on bioactive and functional properties of CSP isolates and hydrolysates. Enzymatic hydrolysis can introduce a series of changes to the CSP structure and improve its bioactive and functional properties, including the enhanced protein solubility over a wide range of pH values. Small-sized peptides in CSP hydrolysates seem to enhance their bioactive properties but adversely affect their functional properties. Therefore, medium degrees of hydrolysis seem to benefit the overall improvement of bioactive and functional properties of CSP hydrolysates. Among the reported bioactive properties of CSP isolates and hydrolysates, their antioxidant, antihypertensive, and antihyperglycaemic activities stand out. Therefore, they could potentially substitute synthetic antioxidants and drugs which might have adverse secondary effects on human health. CSP isolates and hydrolysates could also be implemented as functional food ingredients, thanks to their favorable amino acid composition and good emulsifying and foaming properties.

  4. Vascularization of soft tissue engineering constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel Carletto, Rodrigo

    with mechanical properties in the range of soft tissues has not been fully achieved. My project focused on the fabrication and the active perfusion of hydrogel constructs with multi-dimensional vasculature and controlled mechanical properties targeting soft tissues. Specifically, the initial part of the research...... nanotechnology-based paradigm for engineering vascularised liver tissue for transplantation”) and the Danish National Research Foundation and Villum Foundation’s Center for Intelligent Drug delivery and sensing Using microcontainers and Nanomechanics (Danish National Research Foundation (DNRF122)....

  5. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Ghanbari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, food protein-derived hydrolysates have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst the hydrolysates, those with anti-hypertensive and anti-oxidative activities are receiving special attention as both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities of Actinopyga lecanora (A. lecanora hydrolysates, which had been prepared by alcalase, papain, bromelain, flavourzyme, pepsin, and trypsin under their optimum conditions. The alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (69.8% after 8 h of hydrolysis while the highest anti-oxidative activities measured by 2,2-diphenyl 1-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH (56.00% and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC (59.00% methods were exhibited after 24 h and 8 h of hydrolysis, respectively. The ACE-inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities displayed dose-dependent trends, and increased with increasing protein hydrolysate concentrations. Moreover, strong positive correlations between angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities were also observed. This study indicates that A. lecanora hydrolysate can be exploited as a source of functional food owing to its anti-oxidant as well as anti-hypertension functions.

  6. Chemical structure, comparison antioxidant capacity and separation antioxidant of hen, duck and quail egg white protein hydrolysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatah, A.; Meihu, M.; Ning, Q.; Setiani, B. E.; Bintoro, V. P.

    2018-01-01

    Amino acid linkages as proteins are nutritional substance which important for diet intake. Purification protein procesing undergo heating procedure process followed by additional of proteolytic enzymes or acid had been resulting in protein hydrolysates. A protein hydrolysate describe as many free amino acids bound together through a complex mixture of peptides. Egg white protein hydrolysates is one of subject interested to study for human health or industry product. The objectives of the research are to determine and identification the antioxidant derived from egg white hydrolysate protein. Identification of chemical structure of albumen and albumen protein hydrolysate was examine using IR Spectrophotometry. While comparison of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant separation egg albumen was also investigate using FTIR method (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy). Hen, duck and quail albumen egg white and on hydrolisate form were used as research materials. The results were showing that different time and enzyme of hydrolysis were not influence at secondary structure of hydrolysate albumen protein. Phytochemical content such as alcohol and hydroxyl compound which have potential as functional group of antioxidant were detected in all of the samples. Their results of radical scavenging activities samples hydrolyzed by pepsin were respectively 89.40%, 50.25% and 85.13%. Whereas the radical scavenging activities of hydrolysates hydrolyzed by papain were 72.85%, 61% and 76.45% respectively.

  7. 3D-Printed Biodegradable Polymeric Vascular Grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorri, A J; Hibino, N; Best, C A; Yi, T; Lee, Y U; Kraynak, C A; Kimerer, L K; Krieger, A; Kim, P; Breuer, C K; Fisher, J P

    2016-02-04

    Congenital heart defect interventions may benefit from the fabrication of patient-specific vascular grafts because of the wide array of anatomies present in children with cardiovascular defects. 3D printing is used to establish a platform for the production of custom vascular grafts, which are biodegradable, mechanically compatible with vascular tissues, and support neotissue formation and growth. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Enhanced acetone-butanol-ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates by using starchy slurry as supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Kuittinen, Suvi; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Zhang, Junhua; Pappinen, Ari

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to improve acetone-butanol-ethanol production from the hydrolysates of lignocellulosic material by supplementing starchy slurry as nutrients. In the fermentations of glucose, xylose and the hydrolysates of Salix schwerinii, the normal supplements such as buffer, minerals, and vitamins solutions were replaced with the barley starchy slurry. The ABE production was increased from 0.86 to 14.7g/L by supplementation of starchy slurry in the fermentation of xylose and the utilization of xylose increased from 29% to 81%. In the fermentations of hemicellulosic and enzymatic hydrolysates from S. schwerinii, the ABE yields were increased from 0 and 0.26 to 0.35 and 0.33g/g sugars, respectively. The results suggested that the starchy slurry supplied the essential nutrients for ABE fermentation. The starchy slurry as supplement could improve the ABE production from both hemicellulosic and cellulosic hydrolysate of lignocelluloses, and it is particularly helpful for enhancing the utilization of xylose from hemicelluloses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Engineering Microvascularized 3D Tissue Using Alginate-Chitosan Microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wujie; Choi, Jung K; He, Xiaoming

    2017-02-01

    Construction of vascularized tissues is one of the major challenges of tissue engineering. The goal of this study was to engineer 3D microvascular tissues by incorporating the HUVEC-CS cells with a collagen/alginate-chitosan (AC) microcapsule scaffold. In the presence of AC microcapsules, a 3D vascular-like network was clearly observable. The results indicated the importance of AC microcapsules in engineering microvascular tissues -- providing support and guiding alignment of HUVEC-CS cells. This approach provides an alternative and promising method for constructing vascularized tissues.

  10. Transgene silencing of sucrose synthase in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stem vascular tissue suggests a role for invertase in cell wall cellulose synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samac, Deborah A; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Miller, Susan S; Yang, S Samuel; O'Rourke, Jamie A; Shin, Sanghyun; Vance, Carroll P

    2015-12-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a widely adapted perennial forage crop that has high biomass production potential. Enhanced cellulose content in alfalfa stems would increase the value of the crop as a bioenergy feedstock. We examined if increased expression of sucrose synthase (SUS; EC 2.4.1.13) would increase cellulose in stem cell walls. Alfalfa plants were transformed with a truncated alfalfa phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene promoter (PEPC7-P4) fused to an alfalfa nodule-enhanced SUS cDNA (MsSUS1) or the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene. Strong GUS expression was detected in xylem and phloem indicating that the PEPC7-P4 promoter was active in stem vascular tissue. In contrast to expectations, MsSUS1 transcript accumulation was reduced 75-90 % in alfalfa plants containing the PEPC7-P4::MsSUS1 transgene compared to controls. Enzyme assays indicated that SUS activity in stems of selected down-regulated transformants was reduced by greater than 95 % compared to the controls. Although SUS activity was detected in xylem and phloem of control plants by in situ enzyme assays, plants with the PEPC7-P4::MsSUS1 transgene lacked detectable SUS activity in post-elongation stem (PES) internodes and had very low SUS activity in elongating stem (ES) internodes. Loss of SUS protein in PES internodes of down-regulated lines was confirmed by immunoblots. Down-regulation of SUS expression and activity in stem tissue resulted in no obvious phenotype or significant change in cell wall sugar composition. However, alkaline/neutral (A/N) invertase activity increased in SUS down-regulated lines and high levels of acid invertase activity were observed. In situ enzyme assays of stem tissue showed localization of neutral invertase in vascular tissues of ES and PES internodes. These results suggest that invertases play a primary role in providing glucose for cellulose biosynthesis or compensate for the loss of SUS1 activity in stem vascular tissue.

  11. Production of arapaima protein hydrolysate using Aspergillus flavo-furcatis protease and pancreatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia de Carvalho Paiva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The processing of arapaima (Arapaima gigas generates a lot of residues that can be used for the development of new products of industrial interest. This study aimed at evaluating the production of protein hydrolysates from arapaima residues using Aspergillus flavo-furcatis protease and commercial pancreatin, as well as characterizing their nutritional and microbiological qualities. The raw material used was meat mechanically separated from arapaima carcasses (MMSA. Two products were developed: a protein hydrolysate of arapaima using a commercial enzyme (PHACE and another one using microbial enzyme (PHAME. The MMSA and the hydrolysates were analyzed for chemical composition, microbiological quality, degree of hydrolysis, digestibility and amino acid profile. The results showed that the PHACE protein content was 73.47 %. This value was significantly higher, when compared to the PHAME (58.03 %. However, both products showed high digestibility values, absence of microbial contaminants and reduced lipid content. Among the enzymes used, pancreatin was the most efficient one in the preparation of the final product, which showed essential amino acids content higher than the requirements for human adults. The hydrolysate developed using A. flavo-furcatis enzymes presented essential amino acids score lower than 1.0, being tryptophan the most limiting one.

  12. Bioprinting of a functional vascularized mouse thyroid gland construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanova, Elena A; Koudan, Elizaveta V; Degosserie, Jonathan; Heymans, Charlotte; Pereira, Frederico DAS; Parfenov, Vladislav A; Sun, Yi; Wang, Qi; Akhmedova, Suraya A; Sviridova, Irina K; Sergeeva, Natalia S; Frank, Georgy A; Khesuani, Yusef D; Pierreux, Christophe E; Mironov, Vladimir A

    2017-08-18

    Bioprinting can be defined as additive biofabrication of three-dimensional (3D) tissues and organ constructs using tissue spheroids, capable of self-assembly, as building blocks. The thyroid gland, a relatively simple endocrine organ, is suitable for testing the proposed bioprinting technology. Here we report the bioprinting of a functional vascularized mouse thyroid gland construct from embryonic tissue spheroids as a proof of concept. Based on the self-assembly principle, we generated thyroid tissue starting from thyroid spheroids (TS) and allantoic spheroids (AS) as a source of thyrocytes and endothelial cells (EC), respectively. Inspired by mathematical modeling of spheroid fusion, we used an original 3D bioprinter to print TS in close association with AS within a collagen hydrogel. During the culture, closely placed embryonic tissue spheroids fused into a single integral construct, EC from AS invaded and vascularized TS, and epithelial cells from the TS progressively formed follicles. In this experimental setting, we observed formation of a capillary network around follicular cells, as observed during in utero thyroid development when thyroid epithelium controls the recruitment, invasion and expansion of EC around follicles. To prove that EC from AS are responsible for vascularization of the thyroid gland construct, we depleted endogenous EC from TS before bioprinting. EC from AS completely revascularized depleted thyroid tissue. The cultured bioprinted construct was functional as it could normalize blood thyroxine levels and body temperature after grafting under the kidney capsule of hypothyroid mice. Bioprinting of functional vascularized mouse thyroid gland construct represents a further advance in bioprinting technology, exploring the self-assembling properties of tissue spheroids.

  13. Multifunctional silk-heparin biomaterials for vascular tissue engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, F. Philipp; Herklotz, Manuela; Burke, Kelly A.; Maitz, Manfred F.; Werner, Carsten; Kaplan, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, silk has been proposed for numerous biomedical applications that go beyond its traditional use as a suture material. Silk sutures are well tolerated in humans, but the use of silk for vascular engineering applications still requires extensive biocompatibility testing. Some studies have indicated a need to modify silk to yield a hemocompatible surface. This study examined the potential of low molecular weight heparin as a material for refining silk properties by acting as a carrier for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and improving silk hemocompatibility. Heparinized silk showed a controlled VEGF release over 6 days; the released VEGF was bioactive and supported the growth of human endothelial cells. Silk samples were then assessed using a humanized hemocompatibility system that employs whole blood and endothelial cells. The overall thrombogenic response for silk was very low and similar to the clinical reference material polytetrafluoroethylene. Despite an initial inflammatory response to silk, apparent as complement and leukocyte activation, the endothelium was maintained in a resting, anticoagulant state. The low thrombogenic response and the ability to control VEGF release support the further development of silk for vascular applications. PMID:24099708

  14. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates: Inhibition and detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmqvist, E.

    1998-02-01

    The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds produced during hydrolysis. Evaluation of the effect of various biological, physical and chemical detoxification treatments by fermentation assays using Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to characterise inhibitors. Inhibition of fermentation was decreased after removal of the non-volatile compounds, pre-fermentation by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei, treatment with the lignolytic enzyme laccase, extraction with ether, and treatment with alkali. Yeast growth in lignocellulosic hydrolysates was inhibited below a certain fermentation pH, most likely due to high concentrations of undissociated weak acids. The effect of individual compounds were studied in model fermentations. Furfural is reduced to furfuryl alcohol by yeast dehydrogenases, thereby affecting the intracellular redox balance. As a result, acetaldehyde accumulated during furfural reduction, which most likely contributed to inhibition of growth. Acetic acid (10 g 1{sup -1}) and furfural (3 g 1{sup -1}) interacted antagonistically causing decreased specific growth rate, whereas no significant individual or interaction effects were detected by the lignin-derived compound 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2 g 1{sup -1}). By maintaining a high cell mass density in the fermentor, the process was less sensitive to inhibitors affecting growth and to fluctuations in fermentation pH, and in addition the depletion rate of bioconvertible inhibitors was increased. A theoretical ethanol yield and high productivity was obtained in continuous fermentation of spruce hydrolysate when the cell mass concentration was maintained at a high level by applying cell recirculation 164 refs, 16 figs, 5 tabs

  15. Expression of vascular endothelial factor protein in the tumor tissues of patients with Stages I-II ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Karapetyan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To define tumor markers is presently the most interesting and promising direction for the diagnosis of malignancies. The expression of the major angiogenesis factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in primary tumor tissue was studied in ovarian cancer (OC patients to define the prognostic value of the marker.The study enrolled 48 patients with OC. The immunohistochemical technique was used to examine VEGF expression in the primary tu- mor tissue. The frequency of VEGF expression, which was associated with lower relapse-free survival rates, was found to be high (85.4% in OC patients (p > 0.05.The tumor expression of the angiogenic factor VEGF was shown to provide prognostic information in early-stage ovarian epithelial cancer.

  16. Antimicrobial potential for the combination of bovine lactoferrin or its hydrolysate with lactoferrin-resistant probiotics against foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P-W; Jheng, T T; Shyu, C-L; Mao, F C

    2013-03-01

    Previous reports have shown that several probiotic strains can resist the antibacterial activity of bovine lactoferrin (bLf), but the results are inconsistent. Moreover, a portion of orally administered apo-bLf is digested in vivo by pepsin to yield bLf hydrolysate, which produces stronger antibacterial activity than that observed with apo-bLf. However, whether bLf hydrolysate affects the growth of probiotic strains is unclear. Therefore, various probiotic strains in Taiwan were collected and evaluated for activity against apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate in vitro. Thirteen probiotic strains were evaluated, and the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, Lactobacillus salivarius ATCC 11741, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 15707, and Bifidobacterium lactis BCRC 17394 were inhibited by both apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate. The growth of 8 strains were not affected by apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate, including L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 23272, Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 11739, Lactobacillus coryniformis ATCC 25602, L. acidophilus BCRC 14065, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 15697, Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521, and Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8081. However, apo-bLf and its hydrolysate inhibited the growth of foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Moreover, the supernatants produced by L. fermentum, B. lactis, and B. longum inhibited the growth of most pathogens. Importantly, a combination of apo-bLf or bLf hydrolysate with the supernatants of cultures of the organisms described above showed synergistic or partially synergistic effects against the growth of most of the selected pathogens. In conclusion, several probiotic strains are resistant to apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate, warranting clinical studies to evaluate the antimicrobial potential for the combination of apo-bLf or its hydrolysate with specific probiotics. Copyright

  17. Tissue engineering of bladder using vascular endothelial growth factor gene-modified endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bai-Song; Xie, Hua; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Geng, Hong-Quan; Zhou, Jun-Mei; Pan, Jun; Chen, Fang

    2011-12-01

    This study assessed the use of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene-modified endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) seeded onto bladder acellular matrix grafts (BAMGs), to enhance the blood supply in tissue-engineered bladders in a porcine model. Autologous porcine peripheral EPCs were isolated, cultured, expanded, characterized, and modified with the VEGF gene using an adenovirus vector. The expression of VEGF was examined using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). VEGF gene modified EPCs were seeded onto BAMG and cultured for 3 days before implantation into pigs for bladder tissue engineering. A partial bladder cystectomy was performed in 12 pigs. The experimental group (6 pigs) received VEGF gene-modified EPC-seeded BAMG. The control group (6 pigs) received BAMG without seeded EPCs. The resulting tissue-engineered bladders were subject to a general and histological analysis. Microvessel density (MVD) was assessed using immunohistochemistry. The ex vivo transfection efficiency of EPCs was greater than 60%-70% when concentrated adenovirus was used. The genetically modified cells expressed both VEGF and green fluorescent protein (GFP). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Masson's trichrome staining of cross sections of the cultured cells seeded to BAMG showed cell attachment and proliferation on the surface of the BAMG. Histological examination revealed bladder regeneration in a time-dependent fashion. Significant increases in MVD were observed in the experimental group, in comparison with the control group. VEGF-modified EPCs significantly enhanced neovascularization, compared with BAMG alone. These results indicate that EPCs, combined with VEGF gene therapy, may be a suitable approach for increasing blood supply in the tissue engineering of bladders. Thus, a useful strategy to achieve a tissue-engineered bladder is indicated.

  18. Production of Transglutaminase by Streptoverticillium ladakanum NRRL-3191 Grown on Media Made from Hydrolysates of Sorghum Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón J. Téllez-Luis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to elucidate the suitability of the biotechnological production of transglutaminase by Streptoverticillium ladakanum NRRL-3191 grown on media made from hydrolysates of sorghum straw. Transglutaminase activity was determined in fermentations on sorghum straw hydrolysates and commercial xylose with initial xylose 10, 20 or 30 g/L. Using media containing commercial xylose 20 g/L, transglutaminase activity up to 0.282 U/mL was obtained in 96 h. Using neutralized, charcoal-treated hydrolysates of sorghum straw with xylose 30 g/L sterilized in autoclave at 121 °C, up to 0.155 U/mL was obtained in 96 h. However, when the sterilization was performed by filtration, using the same hydrolysates with xylose 20 g/L, up to 0.348 U/mL was obtained in 72 h. It was demonstrated that hydrolysates of sorghum straw are suitable media for transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium ladakanum.

  19. Enhanced lipid production with undetoxified corncob hydrolysate by Rhodotorula glutinis using a high cell density culture strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yating; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, energy crisis and environmental issues such as greenhouse effect, global warming, etc. has roused peoples' concern. Biodiesel, as renewable energy, has attracted much attention to deal with such problems. This work studied the lipid production by Rhodotorula glutinis with undetoxified corncob hydrolysate. The results indicated that R. glutinis had high tolerance to the inhibitors in corncob hydrolysate and it could utilize undetoxified corncob hydrolysate directly for lipid production. The cell grew well with undetoxified hydrolysate in the batch culture of 5L fermentor with the optimized C/N ratio of 75, lipid titer and lipid content reached 5.5g/L and 36.4%, respectively. High cell density culture with two-stage nitrogen feeding strategy was studied to enhance the lipid production, biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of 70.8, 33.5g/L and 47.2% were obtained. The results indicated the potential application for lipid production by R. glutinis with corncob hydrolysate directly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Decrease of Perivascular Adipose Tissue Browning Is Associated With Vascular Dysfunction in Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats During Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Ran Kong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT is necessary to maintain vascular physiology through both mechanical support and endocrine or paracrine ways. PVAT shows a brown adipose tissue (BAT-like feature and the browning level of PVAT is dependent on the anatomic location and species. However, it is not clear whether PVAT browning is involved in the vascular tone regulation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. In the present study, we aimed to illustrate the effect of aging on PVAT browning and subsequent vasomotor reaction in SHRs. Herein we utilized histological staining and western blot to detect the characteristics of thoracic PVAT (tPVAT in 8-week-old and 16-week-old SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats. We also detected vascular reactivity analysis to determine the effect of tPVAT on vasomotor reaction during aging. The results showed that tPVAT had a similar phenotype to BAT, including smaller adipocyte size and positive uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1 staining. Interestingly, the tPVAT of 8-week-old SHR showed increased BAT phenotypic marker expression compared to WKY, whereas the browning level of tPVAT had a more dramatic decrease from 8 to 16 weeks of age in SHR than age-matched WKY rats. The vasodilation effect of tPVAT on aortas had no significant difference in 8-week-old WKY and SHR, whereas this effect is obviously decreased in 16-week-old SHR compared to WKY. In contrast, tPVAT showed a similar vasoconstriction effect in 8- or 16-week-old WKY and SHR rats. Moreover, we identified an important vasodilator adenosine, which regulates adipocyte browning and may be a potential PVAT-derived relaxing factor. Adenosine is dramatically decreased from 8 to 16 weeks of age in the tPVAT of SHR. In summary, aging is associated with a decrease of tPVAT browning and adenosine production in SHR rats. These may result in attenuated vasodilation effect of the tPVAT in SHR during aging.

  1. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

  2. Low serum biotin in Japanese children fed with hydrolysate formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yasuhiro; Wakabayashi, Kenji; Ogawa, Eishin; Kodama, Hiroko; Mimaki, Masakazu

    2016-09-01

    Given that nutritional biotin deficiency in Japanese infants has been reported, a straightforward method for estimating biotin level is needed. The biotin content in infant formula, breast milk, and the sera of infants fed with various types of formula were measured using avidin-binding assay. A commercially available ELISA kit was used for the measurement of biotin in 54 types of formula, including hydrolysate formulas for milk allergy, as well as in breast milk and in the sera of 27 infants fed with these formulas. The biotin content reached the recommended value in only five formulas. All of the hydrolysate formulas and more than half of the special formulas contained biotin biotin was low in infants fed only with the hydrolysate formulas, and one of them had alopecia related to biotin deficiency. While many were asymptomatic, infants fed with formulas lacking biotin are at risk of developing symptomatic disease. The addition of biotin to breast milk substitutes was finally approved in the middle of 2014, however pediatricians in Japan should still be vigilant with regard to nutritional biotin deficiency in infants for the time being. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. Comparison of physicochemical properties of suppositories containing starch hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Belniak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of starch hydrolysates (SH on the physicochemical properties of suppositories. The study was conducted with suppositories with acetaminophen (AAP a typical antipyretic analgesic, as model drug on lipophilic (cocoa butter and hydrophilic base (polyethylene glycol 1500 + 400. The suppositories with and without the addition of SH were examined for physicochemical tests according to European Pharmacopoeia 8th edition (Ph. Eur.: the uniformity of mass of single-dose preparation test, the softening time determination of lipophilic suppositories test, the disintegration of suppositories test, and dissolution test with flow-through apparatus. The results confirm the possibility of using starch hydrolysates as a cheap and safe addition to modify physicochemical properties of suppositories.

  4. Comparison of physicochemical properties of suppositories containing starch hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belniak, Piotr; Świąder, Katarzyna; Szumiło, Michał; Hyla, Aleksandra; Poleszak, Ewa

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of starch hydrolysates (SH) on the physicochemical properties of suppositories. The study was conducted with suppositories with acetaminophen (AAP) a typical antipyretic analgesic, as model drug on lipophilic (cocoa butter) and hydrophilic base (polyethylene glycol 1500 + 400). The suppositories with and without the addition of SH were examined for physicochemical tests according to European Pharmacopoeia 8th edition (Ph. Eur.): the uniformity of mass of single-dose preparation test, the softening time determination of lipophilic suppositories test, the disintegration of suppositories test, and dissolution test with flow-through apparatus. The results confirm the possibility of using starch hydrolysates as a cheap and safe addition to modify physicochemical properties of suppositories.

  5. Industrial scale chromatographic separation of valuable compounds from biomass hydrolysates and side streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, P.

    2011-06-15

    Carbohydrates are composed of a number of various monosaccharides, glucose being the most abundant. Some of the monosaccharides are valuable compounds used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. They can be separated from biomass hydrolysates e.g. by chromatographic methods. In this thesis, chromatographic separation of valuable compounds using ion exchange resins was studied on an industrial scale. Of special interest were rare monosaccharides in biomass hydrolysates. A novel chromatographic separation process was developed for fucose, starting from pre-processed spent sulfite liquor. The core of the process consists of three chromatographic separations with different types of ion exchange resins. Chromatographic separation of galactose was tested with three biomass hydrolysates; lactose, gum arabic and hemicellulose hydrolysates. It was demonstrated that also galactose can be separated from complex carbohydrate mixtures. A recovery process for arabinose from citrus pectin liquid residual and for mannose from wood pulp hydrolysate were also developed and experimentally verified. In addition to monosaccharides, chromatographic separation of glycinebetaine from vinasse was examined with a hydrogen form weak acid cation exchange resin. The separation involves untypical peak formation depending, for example, on the pH and the cation composition. The retention mechanism was found to be hydrogen bonding between glycinebetaine and the resin. In the experimental part, all four resin types - strong acid cation, strong base anion, weak acid cation and weak base anion exchange resins - were used. In addition, adsorption equilibria data of seven monosaccharides and sucrose were measured with the resins in sodium and sulfate forms because such data have been lacking. It was found out that the isotherms of all sugars were linear under industrial conditions. A systematic method for conceptual process design and sequencing of chromatographic separation steps were developed

  6. Identification of furfural as a key toxin in lignocellulosic hydrolysates and evolution of a tolerant yeast strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Dominik; Sauer, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Summary The production of fuel ethanol from low‐cost lignocellulosic biomass currently suffers from several limitations. One of them is the presence of inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates that are released during pre‐treatment. These compounds inhibit growth and hamper the production of ethanol, thereby affecting process economics. To delineate the effects of such complex mixtures, we conducted a chemical analysis of four different real‐world lignocellulosic hydrolysates and determined their toxicological effect on yeast. By correlating the potential inhibitor abundance to the growth‐inhibiting properties of the corresponding hydrolysates, we identified furfural as an important contributor to hydrolysate toxicity for yeast. Subsequently, we conducted a targeted evolution experiment to improve growth behaviour of the half industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain TMB3400 in the hydrolysates. After about 300 generations, representative clones from these evolved populations exhibited significantly reduced lag phases in medium containing the single inhibitor furfural, but also in hydrolysate‐supplemented medium. Furthermore, these strains were able to grow at concentrations of hydrolysates that effectively killed the parental strain and exhibited significantly improved bioconversion characteristics under industrially relevant conditions. The improved resistance of our evolved strains was based on their capacity to remain viable in a toxic environment during the prolonged, furfural induced lag phase. PMID:21261870

  7. Extensive characterization and comparison of endothelial cells derived from dermis and adipose tissue : Potential use in tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsuur, H.N.; Weijers, E.M.; Niessen, F.B.; Gefen, A.; Koolwijk, P.; Gibbs, S.; van den Broek, L.J.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-engineered constructs need to become quickly vascularized in order to ensure graft take. One way of achieving this is to incorporate endothelial cells (EC) into the construct. The adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction (adipose-SVF) might provide an alternative source for endothelial cells

  8. Potential Use of Gelidium amansii Acid Hydrolysate for Lactic Acid Production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Soo Jang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Galactose and glucose are the main monosaccharides produced from the saccharification of Gelidium amansii. They were hydrolysed with 3 % (by volume H2SO4 at 140 °C for 5 min and obtained at concentrations of 19.60 and 10.21 g/L, respectively. G. amansii hydrolysate (5 %, by mass per volume was used as a substrate for L(+-lactic acid production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The maximum lactic acid yield (YP/S was 42.03 % with optical purity of 84.54 %. Lactic acid produced from G. amansii hydrolysate can be applicable, among others, for the production of lactic acid esters, like ethyl or methyl lactate, and disinfectant in seaweed cultivation.

  9. Inhibition of ice crystal growth in ice cream mix by gelatin hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Srinivasan

    2007-12-26

    The inhibition of ice crystal growth in ice cream mix by gelatin hydrolysate produced by papain action was studied. The ice crystal growth was monitored by thermal cycling between -14 and -12 degrees C at a rate of one cycle per 3 min. It is shown that the hydrolysate fraction containing peptides in the molecular weight range of about 2000-5000 Da exhibited the highest inhibitory activity on ice crystal growth in ice cream mix, whereas fractions containing peptides greater than 7000 Da did not inhibit ice crystal growth. The size distribution of gelatin peptides formed in the hydrolysate was influenced by the pH of hydrolysis. The optimum hydrolysis conditions for producing peptides with maximum ice crystal growth inhibitory activity was pH 7 at 37 degrees C for 10 min at a papain to gelatin ratio of 1:100. However, this may depend on the type and source of gelatin. The possible mechanism of ice crystal growth inhibition by peptides from gelatin is discussed. Molecular modeling of model gelatin peptides revealed that they form an oxygen triad plane at the C-terminus with oxygen-oxygen distances similar to those found in ice nuclei. Binding of this oxygen triad plane to the prism face of ice nuclei via hydrogen bonding appears to be the mechanism by which gelatin hydrolysate might be inhibiting ice crystal growth in ice cream mix.

  10. Identification of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitory peptides from mare whey protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J J; Wang, Q; Du, M; Ji, X M; Mao, X Y

    2017-09-01

    Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) activity is a promising strategy for treatment of type 2 diabetes. In the current study, DPP-IV inhibitory peptides were identified from mare whey protein hydrolysates obtained by papain. The results showed that all the mare whey protein hydrolysates obtained at various hydrolysis durations possessed more potent DPP-IV inhibitory activity compared with intact whey protein. The 4-h hydrolysates showed the greatest DPP-IV inhibitory activity with half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 0.18 mg/mL. The 2 novel peptides from 4-h hydrolysate fractions separated by successive chromatographic steps were characterized by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The novel peptides Asn-Leu-Glu-Ile-Ile-Leu-Arg and Thr-Gln-Met-Val-Asp-Glu-Glu-Ile-Met-Glu-Lys-Phe-Arg, which corresponded to β-lactoglobulin 1 f(71-77) and β-lactoglobulin 1 f(143-155), demonstrated DPP-IV inhibitory activity with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 86.34 and 69.84 μM, respectively. The DPP-IV inhibitory activity of the 2 peptides was retained or even improved after simulated gastrointestinal digestion in vitro. Our findings indicate that mare whey protein-derived peptides may possess potential as functional food ingredients in the management of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Protein hydrolysates are avoided by herbivores but not by omnivores in two-choice preference tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Field

    Full Text Available The negative sensory properties of casein hydrolysates (HC often limit their usage in products intended for human consumption, despite HC being nutritious and having many functional benefits. Recent, but taxonomically limited, evidence suggests that other animals also avoid consuming HC when alternatives exist.We evaluated ingestive responses of five herbivorous species (guinea pig, mountain beaver, gopher, vole, and rabbit and five omnivorous species (rat, coyote, house mouse, white-footed mouse, and deer mouse; N = 16-18/species using solid foods containing 20% HC in a series of two-choice preference tests that used a non-protein, cellulose-based alternative. Individuals were also tested with collagen hydrolysate (gelatin; GE to determine whether it would induce similar ingestive responses to those induced by HC. Despite HC and GE having very different nutritional and sensory qualities, both hydrolysates produced similar preference score patterns. We found that the herbivores generally avoided the hydrolysates while the omnivores consumed them at similar levels to the cellulose diet or, more rarely, preferred them (HC by the white-footed mouse; GE by the rat. Follow-up preference tests pairing HC and the nutritionally equivalent intact casein (C were performed on the three mouse species and the guinea pigs. For the mice, mean HC preference scores were lower in the HC v C compared to the HC v Cel tests, indicating that HC's sensory qualities negatively affected its consumption. However, responses were species-specific. For the guinea pigs, repeated exposure to HC or C (4.7-h sessions; N = 10 were found to increase subsequent HC preference scores in an HC v C preference test, which was interpreted in the light of conservative foraging strategies thought to typify herbivores.This is the first empirical study of dietary niche-related taxonomic differences in ingestive responses to protein hydrolysates using multiple species under comparable

  12. Degradation of S-nitrosocysteine in vascular tissue homogenates: role of divalent ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, P; Xu, B; Skiles, E H

    1999-04-01

    The objective of the study was to inquire about the mechanism(s) involved in the catabolism of S-nitrosothiols by vascular tissue under in vitro conditions. Incubations of S-nitrosocysteine (CYSNO) or S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) with homogenates isolated from porcine aortic smooth muscle resulted in only a marginal depletion of S-nitrosothiols from the reaction mixtures, which became statistically significant at relatively high concentrations of homogenate (> or =300 microg of protein/ml). Degradation of CYSNO (but not GSNO) was found to be potentiated several-fold by millimolar concentrations of either Mg2+ or Ca2+ ions. Under such conditions, the degradation of CYSNO was significantly suppressed by the removal of proteins by ultrafiltration (>80% inhibition) and eliminated completely by the alkylation of thiol groups with 1 mM N-ethylmaleimide. The potentiating effect of divalent ions on the degradation of CYSNO was insensitive to 0.1 mM neocuproine (selective chelator of Cu+ ions), although it was enhanced in the presence of 0.1 mM o-phenanthroline (selective chelator of Fe2+ ions). It is concluded that the degradation of CYSNO by tissue homogenate involves the interaction with protein-bound sulfhydryl groups, which is stimulated by Mg2+ or Ca2+ ions. The potentiating effect of o-phenanthroline suggests that the liberation of the nitrosonium moiety in such a process may be accompanied by its transfer to sulfur center(s) by transient formation of dinitrosyl-iron complexes.

  13. Granulocytes and vascularization regulate uterine bleeding and tissue remodeling in a mouse menstruation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Menning

    Full Text Available Menstruation-associated disorders negatively interfere with the quality of life of many women. However, mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of menstrual disorders remain poorly investigated up to date. Among others, this is based on a lack of appropriate pre-clinical animal models. We here employ a mouse menstruation model induced by priming mice with gonadal hormones and application of a physical stimulus into the uterus followed by progesterone removal. As in women, these events are accompanied by menstrual-like bleeding and tissue remodeling processes, i.e. disintegration of decidualized endometrium, as well as subsequent repair. We demonstrate that the onset of bleeding coincides with strong upregulation of inflammatory mediators and massive granulocyte influx into the uterus. Uterine granulocytes play a central role in regulating local tissue remodeling since depletion of these cells results in dysregulated expression of matrix modifying enzymes. As described here for the first time, uterine blood loss can be quantified by help of tampon-like cotton pads. Using this novel technique, we reveal that blood loss is strongly reduced upon inhibition of endometrial vascularization and thus, is a key regulator of menstrual bleeding. Taken together, we here identify angiogenesis and infiltrating granulocytes as critical determinants of uterine bleeding and tissue remodeling in a mouse menstruation model. Importantly, our study provides a technical and scientific basis allowing quantification of uterine blood loss in mice and thus, assessment of therapeutic intervention, proving great potential for future use in basic research and drug discovery.

  14. Gross and true ileal digestible amino acid contents of several animal body proteins and their hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J; Chong, B; Rutherfurd, S M; Wilkinson, B; Singh, H; Moughan, P J

    2013-07-01

    Amino acid compositions of ovine muscle, ovine myofibrillar protein, ovine spleen, ovine liver, bovine blood plasma, bovine blood globulins and bovine serum albumin and the amino acid compositions and in vivo (laboratory rat) true ileal amino acid digestibilities of hydrolysates (sequential hydrolysis with Neutrase, Alcalase and Flavourzyme) of these protein sources were determined. True ileal amino acid digestibility differed (Pprotein hydrolysates. The ovine myofibrillar protein and liver hydrolysates were the most digestible, with a mean true ileal digestibility across all amino acids of 99%. The least digestible protein hydrolysate was bovine serum albumin with a comparable mean true ileal digestibility of 93%. When the digestible amino acid contents were expressed as proportions relative to lysine, considerable differences, across the diverse protein sources, were found in the pattern of predicted absorbed amino acids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of Animal By-Product Hydrolysates to Be Used as Healthy and Bioactive Ingredients in Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Trine Desiree

    The world meat production and consumption has increased rapidly over the last couple of decades, due to population and income growth. In contrast to the meat, the consumption of animal by-products has been declining, leaving large amounts of by-products underutilized. As many by-products are highly...... nutritious as well as being good sources of protein, they represent interesting substrates for the generation of bioactive hydrolysates and peptides. Different porcine and bovine by-products were hydrolysed with a mixture consisting of Alcalase®and Protamex, and tested in relation to antioxidant capacity...... and their “meat factor” effect, i.e. their ability to enhance in vitro iron availability. Hydrolysates of different animal by-products displayed antioxidant capacities as observed by several assays intended to test different antioxidant mechanisms. The radical scavenging capacity of the hydrolysates was found...

  16. Air-spun PLA nanofibers modified with reductively sheddable hydrophilic surfaces for vascular tissue engineering: synthesis and surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Na Re; Sabbatier, Gad; Cunningham, Alexander; Laroche, Gaétan; Oh, Jung Kwon

    2014-02-01

    Polylactide (PLA) is a class of promising biomaterials that hold great promise for various biological and biomedical applications, particularly in the field of vascular tissue engineering where it can be used as a fibrous mesh to coat the inside of vascular prostheses. However, its hydrophobic surface providing nonspecific interactions and its limited ability to further modifications are challenges that need to be overcome. Here, the development of new air-spun PLA nanofibers modified with hydrophilic surfaces exhibiting reduction response is reported. Surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization allows for grafting pendant oligo(ethylene oxide)-containing polymethacrylate (POEOMA) from PLA air-spun fibers labeled with disulfide linkages. The resulting PLA-ss-POEOMA fibers exhibit enhanced thermal stability and improved surface properties, as well as thiol-responsive shedding of hydrophilic POEOMA by the cleavage of its disulfide linkages in response to reductive reactions, thus tuning the surface properties. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Vertical leaf mass per area gradient of mature sugar maple reflects both height-driven increases in vascular tissue and light-driven increases in palisade layer thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Adam P; Cavaleri, Molly A

    2017-10-01

    A key trait used in canopy and ecosystem function modeling, leaf mass per area (LMA), is influenced by changes in both leaf thickness and leaf density (LMA = Thickness × Density). In tall trees, LMA is understood to increase with height through two primary mechanisms: (i) increasing palisade layer thickness (and thus leaf thickness) in response to light and/or (ii) reduced cell expansion and intercellular air space in response to hydrostatic constraints, leading to increased leaf density. Our objective was to investigate within-canopy gradients in leaf anatomical traits in order to understand environmental factors that influence leaf morphology in a sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) forest canopy. We teased apart the effects of light and height on anatomical traits by sampling at exposed and closed canopies that had different light conditions at similar heights. As expected, palisade layer thickness responded strongly to cumulative light exposure. Mesophyll porosity, however, was weakly and negatively correlated with light and height (i.e., hydrostatic gradients). Reduced mesophyll porosity was not likely caused by limitations on cell expansion; in fact, epidermal cell width increased with height. Palisade layer thickness was better related to LMA, leaf density and leaf thickness than was mesophyll porosity. Vein diameter and fraction of vascular tissue also increased with height and LMA, density and thickness, revealing that greater investment in vascular and support tissue may be a third mechanism for increased LMA with height. Overall, decreasing mesophyll porosity with height was likely due to palisade cells expanding into the available air space and also greater investments in vascular and support tissue, rather than a reduction of cell expansion due to hydrostatic constraints. Our results provide evidence that light influences both palisade layer thickness and mesophyll porosity and indicate that hydrostatic gradients influence leaf vascular and support

  18. Elastin hydrolysate derived from fish enhances proliferation of human skin fibroblasts and elastin synthesis in human skin fibroblasts and improves the skin conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratsuchi, Eri; Nakaba, Misako; Yamada, Michio

    2016-03-30

    Recent studies have shown that certain peptides significantly improve skin conditions, such as skin elasticity and the moisture content of the skin of healthy woman. This study aimed to investigate the effects of elastin hydrolysate on human skin. Proliferation and elastin synthesis were evaluated in human skin fibroblasts exposed to elastin hydrolysate and proryl-glycine (Pro-Gly), which is present in human blood after elastin hydrolysate ingestion. We also performed an ingestion test with elastin hydrolysate in humans and evaluated skin condition. Elastin hydrolysate and Pro-Gly enhanced the proliferation of fibroblasts and elastin synthesis. Maximal proliferation response was observed at 25 ng mL(-1) Pro-Gly. Ingestion of elastin hydrolysate improved skin condition, such as elasticity, number of wrinkles, and blood flow. Elasticity improved by 4% in the elastin hydrolysate group compared with 2% in the placebo group. Therefore, elastin hydrolysate activates human skin fibroblasts and has beneficial effects on skin conditions. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Sequential recycling of enzymatic lipid-extracted hydrolysate in fermentations with a thraustochytrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Joshua; Armenta, Roberto E; Brooks, Marianne S

    2016-06-01

    This study extends the findings of prior studies proposing and validating nutrient recycling for the heterotrophic microalgae, Thraustochytrium sp. (T18), grown in optimized fed-batch conditions. Sequential nutrient recycling of enzymatically-derived hydrolysate in fermentors succeeded at growing the tested thraustochytrid strain, with little evidence of inhibition or detrimental effects upon culture health. The average maximum biomass obtained in the recycled hydrolysate was 63.68±1.46gL(-1) in 90h the first recycle followed by 65.27±1.15gL(-1) in 90h in the subsequent recycle of the same material. These compared to 58.59gL(-1) and 64.92gL(-1) observed in fresh media in the same time. Lipid production was slightly impaired, however, with a maximum total fatty acid content of 62.2±0.30% in the recycled hydrolysate compared to 69.4% in fresh control media. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term vascular contractility assay using genipin-modified muscular thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hald, Eric S; Steucke, Kerianne E; Reeves, Jack A; Win, Zaw; Alford, Patrick W

    2014-01-01

    Vascular disease is a leading cause of death globally and typically manifests chronically due to long-term maladaptive arterial growth and remodeling. To date, there is no in vitro technique for studying vascular function over relevant disease time courses that both mimics in vivo-like tissue structure and provides a simple readout of tissue stress. We aimed to extend tissue viability in our muscular thin film contractility assay by modifying the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate with micropatterned genipin, allowing extracellular matrix turnover without cell loss. To achieve this, we developed a microfluidic delivery system to pattern genipin and extracellular matrix proteins on PDMS prior to cell seeding. Tissues constructed using this method showed improved viability and maintenance of in vivo-like lamellar structure. Functional contractility of tissues fabricated on genipin-modified substrates remained consistent throughout two weeks in culture. These results suggest that muscular thin films with genipin-modified PDMS substrates are a viable method for conducting functional studies of arterial growth and remodeling in vascular diseases. (paper)

  1. Fed-batch production of green coconut hydrolysates for high-gravity second-generation bioethanol fermentation with cellulosic yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Jimmy; Demeke, Mekonnen M; Van de Velde, Miet; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R; Kerstens, Dorien; Sels, Bert F; Verplaetse, Alex; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro; Thevelein, Johan M; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

    2017-11-01

    The residual biomass obtained from the production of Cocos nucifera L. (coconut) is a potential source of feedstock for bioethanol production. Even though coconut hydrolysates for ethanol production have previously been obtained, high-solid loads to obtain high sugar and ethanol levels remain a challenge. We investigated the use of a fed-batch regime in the production of sugar-rich hydrolysates from the green coconut fruit and its mesocarp. Fermentation of the hydrolysates obtained from green coconut or its mesocarp, containing 8.4 and 9.7% (w/v) sugar, resulted in 3.8 and 4.3% (v/v) ethanol, respectively. However, green coconut hydrolysate showed a prolonged fermentation lag phase. The inhibitor profile suggested that fatty acids and acetic acid were the main fermentation inhibitors. Therefore, a fed-batch regime with mild alkaline pretreatment followed by saccharification, is presented as a strategy for fermentation of such challenging biomass hydrolysates, even though further improvement of yeast inhibitor tolerance is also needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chitosan mediated enhancement of hydrolysable tannin in Phyllanthus debilis Klein ex Willd via plant cell suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V, Malayaman; N, Sisubalan; R P, Senthilkumar; S, Sheik Mohamed; R, Ranjithkumar; M, Ghouse Basha

    2017-11-01

    Phyllanthus debilis Klein ex Willd. is wild medicinal plant used in the traditional system of medicine. This plant has been actively used for hepatoprotection and to cure many diseases including jaundice and so on; which leads to complete extinction of this particular species. Therefore, the chitosan mediated cost effective cell suspension method has been developed for the production of hydrolysable tannin. The hydrolysable tannins are the main therapeutically active constituents with antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial properties. An in vitro cell suspension culture was optimized by adding chitosan for production of hydrolysable tannin. According to the growth kinetics, a maximum biomass of 4.46±0.06g fresh cell weight and 1.33±0.04g dry cell weight were obtained from the optimal suspension medium consisted of MS medium+0.5mgL -1 BAP+1.5mgL -1 NAA. Chitosan was treated at the stationary phase which leads to the highest accumulation of hydrolysable tannin compared to the untreated control. Hydrolysable tannin was observed and compared using HPLC at the Rt of 4.91 in both chitosan treated and untreated cells. This is the first ever report where use of chitosan has been done to enhance the production of the hydrolysable tannin in P. debilis using cell suspension culture technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Post-exercise ingestion of a carbohydrate and casein hydrolysate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    casein hydrolysate) supplement on perceived muscle soreness and fatigue, in international level Sevens rugby players (n=23) during a pre-season training camp. Methods. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled design was used. Players ...

  4. An Image Registration Based Technique for Noninvasive Vascular Elastography

    OpenAIRE

    Valizadeh, Sina; Makkiabadi, Bahador; Mirbagheri, Alireza; Soozande, Mehdi; Manwar, Rayyan; Mozaffarzadeh, Moein; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2018-01-01

    Non-invasive vascular elastography is an emerging technique in vascular tissue imaging. During the past decades, several techniques have been suggested to estimate the tissue elasticity by measuring the displacement of the Carotid vessel wall. Cross correlation-based methods are the most prevalent approaches to measure the strain exerted in the wall vessel by the blood pressure. In the case of a low pressure, the displacement is too small to be apparent in ultrasound imaging, especially in th...

  5. Enhancing the radiation response of tumors but not early or late responding normal tissues using a vascular disrupting agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsman, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) damage tumor vasculature and enhance tumor radiation response. In this pre-clinical study, we combined radiation with the leading VDA in clinical development, combretastatin A-4 phosphate (CA4P), and compared the effects seen in tumors and relevant...... normal tissues. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Radiation was applied locally to tissues in CDF1 mice to produce full radiation dose-response curves. CA4P (250 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected within 30 minutes after irradiating. Response of 200 mm3 foot implanted C3H mammary carcinomas was assessed......% increase in ventilation rate measured by plethysmography within 9 months). A Chi-squared test was used for statistical comparisons (significance level of p 4P. The radiation...

  6. Amino acid composition and functional properties of giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus) collagen hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zunying; Su, Yicheng; Zeng, Mingyong

    2011-03-01

    Giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus) is an under-utilized species due to its high tendency to autolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of collagen hydrolysates from this species. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE, emulsion activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), foam expansion (FE), and foam stability (FS) of hydrolysates were investigated. The effects of pH on the EAI, ESI FE and FS of hydrolysates were also investigated. The results indicated that the β and α 1 chains of the collagen were effectively hydrolyzed by trypsin at 50°c with an Enzyme/Substrate (E/S) ration of 1:20 (w:w). The DH of collagen was up to 17.3% after 3 h hydrolysis with trypsin. The hydrolysates had a molecular weight distribution of 1.1-17 kDa, and were abundant in glycine (Gly), proline (Pro), glutamic acid (Glu), alanine (Ala) and hydroxyproline (Hyp) residues. The hydrolysates were fractionated into three fractions ( 10 kDa), and the fraction of 3-10 kDa exhibited a higher EAI value than the fraction of > 10 kDa ( P 10 kDa had higher FE and FS values than other fractions ( P 10 kDa showed higher FE value, respectively. They are hoped to be utilized as functional ingredients in food and nutraceutical industries.

  7. Influence of enzymatic hydrolysis and enzyme type on the nutritional and antioxidant properties of pumpkin meal hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuste, Muhamyankaka; Zhang, Xiaoming; Shoemaker, Charles F; Karangwa, Eric; Abbas, Shabbar; Kamdem, Patrick Eugene

    2013-04-30

    Nutritional and antioxidant properties of pumpkin meal and their hydrolysates prepared by hydrolysis with alcalase, flavourzyme, protamex or neutrase were evaluated. The hydrolysis process significantly increased protein content from 67.07% to 92.22%. All the essential amino acids met the Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations/World Health Organization (WHO/FAO) suggested requirements for children and adults. The amino acid score (AAS) of meal was increased from 65.59 to 73.00 except for flavourzyme (62.97) and protamex (62.50). The Biological Value (BV) was increased from 53.18 to 83.44 except for protamex (40.97). However hydrolysis decreased the Essential Amino Acid/Total Amino Acid ratio (EAA/TAA) from 32.98% to 29.43%. Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) was comparable to that of good quality protein (1.5) except for flavourzyme hydrolysate which had PER1 = 0.92, PER2 = 1.03, PER3 = 0.38. The in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) increased from 71.32% to 77.96%. Antioxidant activity increased in a dose-dependent manner. At 10 mg mL(-1), the hydrolysates had increased 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical scavenging activities from 21.89% to 85.27%, the reducing power increased from Abs(700nm) 0.21 to 0.48. Metal (Iron) chelating ability was improved from 30.50% to 80.03% at 1 mg mL(-1). Hydrolysates also showed better capabilities to suppress or delay lipid peroxidation in a linoleic acid model system. Different proteases lead to different Degrees of Hydrolysis (DH), molecular weight (MW) distribution, amino acid composition and sequence, which influenced the nutritional properties and antioxidant activities of the hydrolysates. Alcalase was the most promising protease in production of pumpkin protein hydrolysates with improved nutritional quality, while flavourzyme was best in production of hydrolysates with improved antioxidative activity among various assays. These results showed that hydrolysates from by-products of pumpkin oil

  8. Construction and characterization of an electrospun tubular scaffold for small-diameter tissue-engineered vascular grafts: a scaffold membrane approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jin-Jia; Chao, Wei-Chih; Lee, Pei-Yuan; Huang, Chih-Hao

    2012-09-01

    Based on a postulate that the microstructure of a scaffold can influence that of the resulting tissue and hence its mechanical behavior, we fabricated a small-diameter tubular scaffold (∼3 mm inner diameter) that has a microstructure similar to the arterial media using a scaffold membrane approach. Scaffold membranes that contain randomly oriented, moderately aligned, or highly aligned fibers were fabricated by collecting electrospun poly([epsilon]-caprolactone) fibers on a grounded rotating drum at three different drum rotation speeds (250, 1000, and 1500 rpm). Membranes of each type were wrapped around a small-diameter mandrel to form the tubular scaffolds. Particularly, the tubular scaffolds with three different off-axis fiber angles (30, 45, and 60 degree) were formed using membranes that contain aligned fibers. These scaffolds were subjected to biaxial mechanical testing to examine the effects of fiber directions as well as the distribution of fiber orientations on their mechanical properties. The circumferential elastic modulus of the tubular scaffold was closely related to the fiber directions; the larger the off-axis fiber angle the greater the circumferential elastic modulus. The distribution of fiber orientations, on the other hand, manifested itself in the mechanical behavior via the Poisson effect. Similar to cell sheet-based vascular tissue engineering, tubular cell-seeded constructs were prepared by wrapping cell-seeded scaffold membranes, alleviating the difficulty associated with cell seeding in electrospun scaffolds. Histology of the construct illustrated that cells were aligned to the fiber directions in the construct, demonstrating the potential to control the microstructure of tissue-engineered vascular grafts using the electrospun scaffold membrane. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of topical negative pressure therapy on tissue oxygenation and wound healing in vascular foot wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Nathaniel; Rodda, Odette A; Sleigh, Jamie; Vasudevan, Thodur

    2017-08-01

    Topical negative pressure (TNP) therapy is widely used in the treatment of acute wounds in vascular patients on the basis of proposed multifactorial benefits. However, numerous recent systematic reviews have concluded that there is inadequate evidence to support its benefits at a scientific level. This study evaluated the changes in wound volume, surface area, depth, collagen deposition, and tissue oxygenation when using TNP therapy compared with traditional dressings in patients with acute high-risk foot wounds. This study was performed with hospitalized vascular patients. Forty-eight patients were selected with an acute lower extremity wound after surgical débridement or minor amputation that had an adequate blood supply without requiring further surgical revascularization and were deemed suitable for TNP therapy. The 22 patients who completed the study were randomly allocated to a treatment group receiving TNP or to a control group receiving regular topical dressings. Wound volume and wound oxygenation were analyzed using a modern stereophotographic wound measurement system and a hyperspectral transcutaneous oxygenation measurement system, respectively. Laboratory analysis was conducted on wound biopsy samples to determine hydroxyproline levels, a surrogate marker to collagen. Differences in clinical or demographic characteristics or in the location of the foot wounds were not significant between the two groups. All patients, with the exception of two, had diabetes. The two patients who did not have diabetes had end-stage renal failure. There was no significance in the primary outcome of wound volume reduction between TNP and control patients on day 14 (44.2% and 20.9%, respectively; P = .15). Analyses of secondary outcomes showed a significant result of better healing rates in the TNP group by demonstrating a reduction in maximum wound depth at day 14 (36.0% TNP vs 17.6% control; P = .03). No significant findings were found for the other outcomes of changes

  10. Isoprene Production on Enzymatic Hydrolysate of Peanut Hull Using Different Pretreatment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is about the use of peanut hull for isoprene production. In this study, two pretreatment methods, hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAC and popping, were employed prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, which could destroy the lignocellulosic structure and accordingly improve the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. It is proven that the isoprene production on enzymatic hydrolysate with HPAC pretreatment is about 1.9-fold higher than that of popping pretreatment. Moreover, through High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analysis, the amount and category of inhibitors such as formic acid, acetic acid, and HMF were assayed and were varied in different enzymatic hydrolysates, which may be the reason leading to a decrease in isoprene production during fermentation. To further increase the isoprene yield, the enzymatic hydrolysate of HPAC was detoxified by activated carbon. As a result, using the detoxified enzymatic hydrolysate as the carbon source, the engineered strain YJM21 could accumulate 297.5 mg/L isoprene, which accounted for about 90% of isoprene production by YJM21 fermented on pure glucose (338.6 mg/L. This work is thought to be the first attempt on isoprene production by E. coli using peanut hull as the feedstock. More importantly, it also shows the prospect of peanut hull to be considered as an alternative feedstock for bio-based chemicals or biofuels production due to its easy access and high polysaccharide content.

  11. VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor II (VRI) induced vascular insufficiency in zebrafish as a model for studying vascular toxicity and vascular preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shang; Dang, Yuan Ye; Oi Lam Che, Ginny; Kwan, Yiu Wa; Chan, Shun Wan; Leung, George Pak Heng; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man

    2014-01-01

    In ischemic disorders such as chronic wounds and myocardial ischemia, there is inadequate tissue perfusion due to vascular insufficiency. Besides, it has been observed that prolonged use of anti-angiogenic agents in cancer therapy produces cardiovascular toxicity caused by impaired vessel integrity and regeneration. In the present study, we used VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor II (VRI) to chemically induce vascular insufficiency in zebrafish in vivo and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro to further study the mechanisms of vascular morphogenesis in these pathological conditions. We also explored the possibility of treating vascular insufficiency by enhancing vascular regeneration and repair with pharmacological intervention. We observed that pretreatment of VRI induced blood vessel loss in developing zebrafish by inhibiting angiogenesis and increasing endothelial cell apoptosis, accompanied by down-regulation of kdr, kdrl and flt-1 genes expression. The VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish could be restored by post-treatment of calycosin, a cardiovascular protective isoflavone. Similarly, VRI induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HUVEC which could be rescued by calycosin post-treatment. Further investigation of the underlying mechanisms showed that the PI3K/AKT/Bad cell survival pathway was a main contributor of the vascular regenerative effect of calycosin. These findings indicated that the cardiovascular toxicity in anti-angiogenic therapy was mainly caused by insufficient endothelial cell survival, suggesting its essential role in vascular integrity, repair and regeneration. In addition, we showed that VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish represented a simple and effective in vivo model for studying vascular insufficiency and evaluating cancer drug vascular toxicities. - Highlights: • In vivo VRI model • Rescue effects of calycosin • Calycosin EC survival pathways

  12. Nova técnica para treinamento em acessos vasculares guiados por ultrassom utilizando modelo de tecido animal New technique for ultrasound-guided vascular access training using an animal tissue model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Barbosa de Miranda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A ultrassonografia Doppler deixou de ter seu uso apenas como método diagnóstico e vem galgando espaço nos procedimentos terapêuticos. Com maior aplicabilidade e uso de cateteres venosos centrais e procedimentos guiados por ultrassom, há preocupação com a melhora da eficácia e segurança durante o procedimento, assim como com a diminuição das potenciais complicações. Para isso, o treinamento da técnica em modelos (phantoms é desejável. Os modelos industrializados para treinamento em acesso vascular guiado por ultrassom são caros e não reproduzem adequadamente a ecotextura e a densidade dos tecidos humanos. Na tentativa de treinar e aprimorar os profissionais para o uso do ultrassom em procedimentos de acessos vasculares, desenvolveu-se um modelo animal de baixo custo, fácil confecção e excelente aplicabilidade.Duplex ultrasonography has not been used only as a noninvasive diagnostic method. Recently it has been applied for therapeutic procedures. Due to the increasing use and applicability of central venous catheters and eco-guided vascular procedures, there are concerns about improving results regarding accuracy and safety, reducing complication rates during those procedures. It would be desirable that training was accomplished using phantoms before actual procedures in human subjects. Industrialized phantoms are expensive and they do not reproduce human's ecographic density and texture. In order to train and improve ultrasound guided vascular access, we have developed a cheap animal tissue model, which is of easy preparation and applicability.

  13. A biodegradable vascularizing membrane: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushiva, Anchal; Turzhitsky, Vladimir M; Darmoc, Marissa; Backman, Vadim; Ameer, Guillermo A

    2007-09-01

    Regenerative medicine and in vivo biosensor applications require the formation of mature vascular networks for long-term success. This study investigated whether biodegradable porous membranes could induce the formation of a vascularized fibrous capsule and, if so, the effect of degradation kinetics on neovascularization. Poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) membranes were created by a solvent casting/salt leaching method. Specifically, PLLA, PLGA 75:25 and PLGA 50:50 polymers were used to vary degradation kinetics. The membranes were designed to have an average 60mum pore diameter, as this pore size has been shown to be optimal for inducing blood vessel formation around nondegradable polymer materials. Membrane samples were imaged by scanning electron microscopy at several time points during in vitro degradation to assess any changes in pore structure. The in vivo performance of the membranes was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats by measuring vascularization within the fibrous capsule that forms adjacent to implants. The vascular density within 100microm of the membranes was compared with that seen in normal tissue, and to that surrounding the commercially available vascularizing membrane TheraCyte. The hemoglobin content of tissue containing the membranes was measured by four-dimensional elastic light scattering as a novel method to assess tissue perfusion. Results from this study show that slow-degrading membranes induce greater amounts of neovascularization and a thinner fibrous capsule relative to fast degrading membranes. These results may be due both to an initially increased number of macrophages surrounding the slower degrading membranes and to the maintenance of their initial pore structure.

  14. A shift in the balance of vascular endothelial growth factor and connective tissue growth factor by bevacizumab causes the angiofibrotic switch in proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geest, Rob J.; Lesnik-Oberstein, Sarit Y.; Tan, H. Stevie; Mura, Marco; Goldschmeding, Roel; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Klaassen, Ingeborg; Schlingemann, Reinier O.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) may cause blindness by neovascularisation followed by fibrosis of the retina. It has previously been shown that a shift in the balance between levels of CTGF

  15. Peptides from Fish By-product Protein Hydrolysates and Its Functional Properties: an Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Sillero, Juan; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Prentice, Carlos

    2018-04-01

    The inadequate management of fish processing waste or by-products is one of the major problems that fish industry has to face nowadays. The mismanagement of this raw material leads to economic loss and environmental problems. The demand for the use of these by-products has led to the development of several processes in order to recover biomolecules from fish by-products. An efficient way to add value to fish waste protein is protein hydrolysis. Protein hydrolysates improve the functional properties and allow the release of peptides of different sizes with several bioactivities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, or antihyperglycemic among others. This paper reviews different methods for the production of protein hydrolysates as well as current research about several fish by-products protein hydrolysates bioactive properties, aiming the dual objective: adding value to these underutilized by-products and minimizing their negative impact on the environment.

  16. Use of Protein Hydrolysates in Industrial Starter Culture Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummadi, Madhavi (Soni); Curic-Bawden, Mirjana

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used as starter cultures for fermenting foods long before the importance of microorganisms were recognized. The most important group of LAB are the lactococci, lactobacilli, streptococci, and pediococci. Additionally, bifidobacteria have been included as a probiotic, providing added value to the product. Since the genera involved are so diverse, the nutritional requirements (energy, carbon and nitrogen sources) differ significantly between and within species. Designing an optimum fermentation medium for production of active and vigorous LAB starter cultures and probiotics requires selecting the right raw ingredients, especially protein hydrolysates that can provide adequate nutrients for growth and viability. This chapter attempts to describe the application of various commercial protein hydrolysates used for production of dairy and meat starter cultures, with special emphasis on meeting the nitrogen requirements of industrially important LAB species.

  17. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from... exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast Extract...

  18. Pretreatment and fermentation strategies to overcome the toxicity of acetic acid in hemicellulosic hydrolysates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussatto, Solange I.

    Acetic acid is one of the most important toxic compounds present in hemicellulosic hydrolysates. In order to overcome this problem, several strategies were studied for both biomass pretreatment and fermentation steps. Biomass deacetylation by mild alkaline pretreatment or using high pressure CO2...... where acetic acid can also be integrated as a valuable final product. For the fermentation step, it is well known that hemicellulosic hydrolysates usually need to be detoxified prior use as fermentation medium in order to improve the performance of the microorganism to convert sugars in the product...... of interest. Although detoxification improves the fermentability of hydrolysates, this additional step adds cost and complexity to the process and generates extra waste products. In this sense, the adaptation of the fermenting microorganism to increased concentrations of acetic acid can be considered...

  19. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antihypertensive activities of protein hydrolysate from meat of Kacang goat (Capra aegagrus hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirdhayati, Irdha; Hermanianto, Joko; Wijaya, Christofora H; Sajuthi, Dondin; Arihara, Keizo

    2016-08-01

    The meat of Kacang goat has potential for production of a protein hydrolysate. Functional ingredients from protein hydrolysate of Kacang goat meat were determined by the consistency of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antihypertensive effect. This study examined the potency of Kacang goat protein hydrolysate in ACE inhibition and antihypertensive activity. Protein hydrolysates of Kacang goat meat were prepared using sequential digestion of endo-proteinase and protease complex at several concentrations and hydrolysis times. The highest ACE inhibitory activity resulted from a hydrolysate that was digested for 4 h with 5 g kg(-1) of both enzymes. An ACE inhibitory peptide was purified and a novel peptide found with a sequence of Phe-Gln-Pro-Ser (IC50 value of 27.0 µmol L(-1) ). Both protein hydrolysates and a synthesised peptide (Phe-Gln-Pro-Ser) demonstrated potent antihypertensive activities in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Protein hydrolysate of Kacang goat meat produced by sequential digestion with endo-proteinase and protease complex has great potential as a functional ingredient, particularly as an antihypertensive agent. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Identification of Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Enzymatic Hydrolysates of Razor Clam Sinonovacula constricta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activity of razor clam hydrolysates produced using five proteases, namely, pepsin, trypsin, alcalase, flavourzyme and proteases from Actinomucor elegans T3 was investigated. Flavourzyme hydrolysate showed the highest level of degree of hydrolysis (DH (45.87% followed by A. elegans T3 proteases hydrolysate (37.84% and alcalase (30.55%. The A. elegans T3 proteases was observed to be more effective in generating small peptides with ACE-inhibitory activity. The 3 kDa membrane permeate of A. elegans T3 proteases hydrolysate showed the highest ACE-inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 0.79 mg/mL. After chromatographic separation by Sephadex G-15 gel filtration and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography, the potent fraction was subjected to MALDI/TOF-TOF MS/MS for identification. A novel ACE-inhibitory peptide (VQY was identified exhibiting an IC50 of 9.8 μM. The inhibitory kinetics investigation by Lineweaver-Burk plots demonstrated that the peptide acts as a competitive ACE inhibitor. The razor clam hydrolysate obtained by A. elegans T3 proteases could serve as a source of functional peptides with ACE-inhibitory activity for physiological benefits.

  1. Application of high rate, high temperature anaerobic digestion to fungal thermozyme hydrolysates from carbohydrate wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, C; O'Reilly, C; McLaughlin, L; Gilleran, G; Tuohy, M; Colleran, E

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using a two-step, fully biological and sustainable strategy for the treatment of carbohydrate rich wastes. The primary step in this strategy involves the application of thermostable enzymes produced by the thermophilic, aerobic fungus, Talaromyces emersonii, to carbohydrate wastes producing a liquid hydrolysate discharged at elevated temperatures. To assess the potential of thermophilic treatment of this hydrolysate, a comparative study of thermophilic and mesophilic digestion of four sugar rich thermozyme hydrolysate waste streams was conducted by operating two high rate upflow anaerobic hybrid reactors (UAHR) at 37 degrees C (R1) and 55 degrees C (R2). The operational performance of both reactors was monitored from start-up by assessing COD removal efficiencies, volatile fatty acid (VFA) discharge and % methane of the biogas produced. Rapid start-up of both R1 and R2 was achieved on an influent composed of the typical sugar components of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). Both reactors were subsequently challenged in terms of volumetric loading rate (VLR) and it was found that a VLR of 9 gCOD l(-1)d(-1) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day severely affected the thermophilic reactor with instability characterised by a build up of volatile fatty acid (VFA) intermediates in the effluent. The influent to both reactors was changed to a simple glucose and sucrose-based influent supplied at a VLR of 4.5 gCOD l(-1)d(-1) and HRT of 2 days prior to the introduction of thermozyme hydrolysates. Four unique thermozyme hydrolysates were subsequently supplied to the reactors, each for a period of 10 HRTs. The applied hydrolysates were derived from apple pulp, bread, carob powder and cardboard, all of which were successfully and comparably converted by both reactors. The % total carbohydrate removal by both reactors was monitored during the application of the sugar rich thermozyme

  2. In Vitro Proliferation and Anti-Apoptosis of the Papain-Generated Casein and Soy Protein Hydrolysates towards Osteoblastic Cells (hFOB1.19).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiao-Wen; Zhao, Xin-Huai

    2015-06-17

    Casein and soy protein were digested by papain to three degrees of hydrolysis (DH) 7.3%-13.3%, to obtain respective six casein and soy protein hydrolysates, aiming to clarify their in vitro proliferation and anti-apoptosis towards a human osteoblastic cell line (hFOB1.19 cells). Six casein and soy protein hydrolysates at five levels (0.01-0.2 mg/mL) mostly showed proliferation as positive 17β-estradiol did, because they conferred the osteoblasts with cell viability of 100%-114% and 104%-123%, respectively. The hydrolysates of higher DH values had stronger proliferation. Casein and soy protein hydrolysates of the highest DH values altered cell cycle progression, and enhanced cell proportion of S-phase from 50.5% to 56.5% and 60.5%. The two also antagonized etoposide- and NaF-induced osteoblast apoptosis. In apoptotic prevention, apoptotic cells were decreased from 31.6% to 22.6% and 15.6% (etoposide treatment), or from 19.5% to 17.7% and 12.4% (NaF treatment), respectively. In apoptotic reversal, soy protein hydrolysate decreased apoptotic cells from 13.3% to 11.7% (etoposide treatment), or from 14.5% to 11.0% (NaF treatment), but casein hydrolysate showed no reversal effect. It is concluded that the hydrolysates of two kinds had estradiol-like action on the osteoblasts, and soy protein hydrolysates had stronger proliferation and anti-apoptosis on the osteoblasts than casein hydrolysates.

  3. Interfacial properties of whey protein and whey protein hydrolysates and their influence on O/W emulsion stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroder, A.J.; Berton-Carabin, C.C.; Venema, P.; Cornacchia, L.

    2017-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates are commonly used in high-tolerance or hypoallergenic formulae. The relation between the physicochemical properties of hydrolysed proteins (i.e., size, molecular weight distribution, charge, hydrophobicity), and their emulsifying properties is not fully understood. In this work,

  4. Fermented inulin hydrolysate by Bifidobacterium breve as cholesterol binder in functional food application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanie, Hakiki; Susilowati, Agustine; Maryati, Yati

    2017-01-01

    Inulin hydrolysate is a result of inulin hydrolysis by inulinase enzyme of Scopulariopsis sp.-CBS1 fungi isolated from dahlia tuber skin in the formation of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) as dietary fiber. Inulin hydrolysate fermented by Bifidobacterium breve has a potential as cholesterol binder in digestive system due to dietary fiber content in inulin. This study was conducted to evaluate the best cholesterol binding capacity by the variation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) culture concentration of 10%, 20% and 30% (v/v), respectively. Fermentation process were conducted with inulin hydrolysate concentration of 25% (w/v), skim milk 7,5% (w/v) and various LAB culture concentration at 40 °C for 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours. The results showed that the variation of LAB culture concentrations affect the cholesterol binding ability in fermented inulin hydrolysate. The fermentation process with 10% LAB culture concentration at 40°C for 48 hours resulted in the highest cholesterol binding capacity (CBC) of 13,69 mg/g at pH 7and 14,44 mg/g at pH 2 with composition of total acids of 0,787%, soluble dietary fiber of 0,396%, insoluble dietary fiber of 5,47%, total solids of 14,476%, total sugars of 472,484 mg/mL, reducing sugar of 92 mg/mL and total plate count (TPC) of 7,278 log CFU/mL, respectively.

  5. Production of functional protein hydrolysates from Egyptian breeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of functional protein hydrolysates from Egyptian breeds of soybean and lupin seeds. AA khalil, SS Mohamed, FS Taha, EN Karlsson. Abstract. Enzymatic hydrolysis is an agro-processing aid that can be utilized in order to improve nutritional quality of protein extracts from many sources. In this study, protein ...

  6. Inhibition of α-Amylases by Condensed and Hydrolysable Tannins: Focus on Kinetics and Hypoglycemic Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Gabriel Kato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the in vitro inhibitory effects on the salivary and pancreatic α-amylases and the in vivo hypoglycemic actions of the hydrolysable tannin from Chinese natural gall and the condensed tannin from Acacia mearnsii. The human salivary α-amylase was more strongly inhibited by the hydrolysable than by the condensed tannin, with the concentrations for 50% inhibition (IC50 being 47.0 and 285.4 μM, respectively. The inhibitory capacities of both tannins on the pancreatic α-amylase were also different, with IC50 values being 141.1 μM for the hydrolysable tannin and 248.1 μM for the condensed tannin. The kinetics of the inhibition presented complex patterns in that for both inhibitors more than one molecule can bind simultaneously to either the free enzyme of the substrate-complexed enzyme (parabolic mixed inhibition. Both tannins were able to inhibit the intestinal starch absorption. Inhibition by the hydrolysable tannin was concentration-dependent, with 53% inhibition at the dose of 58.8 μmol/kg and 88% inhibition at the dose of 294 μmol/kg. For the condensed tannin, inhibition was not substantially different for doses between 124.4 μmol/kg (49% and 620 μmol/kg (57%. It can be concluded that both tannins, but especially the hydrolysable one, could be useful in controlling the postprandial glycemic levels in diabetes.

  7. Vacuum assisted closure in vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beno, M; Martin, J; Sager, P

    2011-01-01

    Vacuum assisted closure (VAC-therapy) is a well established method in nearly all surgical disciplines. The aim is to present the efficiency of vacuum assisted closure in the treatment of acute and chronic wounds in patients admitted in the department of vascular surgery. Within the year 2008 there were 59 patients (44 men, 15 women) treated with VAC therapy in our Department of Vascular surgery (Landshut, Germany). VAC was used 22x (37.28 %) in therapy of ulcus cruris (venous, arterial, mixed genesis), 15x (25.42%) in patients with diabetic foot syndrome, 12x (20.33%) in secondary healing wounds and infected wounds, 5x (8.47%) in wounds after several injuries and soft skin tissue infections and 5x (8.47%) in wound infections connected with vascular graft infections after vascular revascularization. VAC therapy seems to be very effective in the management of patients with venous ulcers, especially after a proper surgical treatment (100%), patients with soft skin tissue infections (100%) and secondary healing wounds (100%) especially in combination with MESH-Grafting. In patients with diabetic foot syndrome (80%) and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (72.7%), an evaluation of peripheral blood perfusion and revascularization prior to VAC therapy is often necessary. Although VAC was used 5x in the therapy of infected vascular grafts, successful preservation of infected graft material was observed in only one case (infection of PTFE femoro-popliteal bypass graft). Vacuum assisted closure in vascular surgery proved to be simple and efficient method in therapy of acute and chronic wounds. The efficiency of VAC systems in therapy of infected graft material after revascularization needs further studies (Tab. 3, Ref. 10).

  8. Purification of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptide Derived From Kacang Goat Meat Protein Hydrolysate

    OpenAIRE

    Jamhari, J; Yusiati, L.M; Suryanto, E; Cahyanto, M.N; Erwanto, Y; Muguruma, M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitorypeptide derived from Kacang goat meat protein hydrolysate. Kacang goat meat loin section washydrolyzed with pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. Protein hydrolysate of Kacang goat meat was thentested the protein concentration and ACE inhibitory activity. ACE inhibitory peptide of the proteinhydrolysate was purified through several steps of purification by column SEP-PAK Plus C18 Cartridgeand RP-HPLC usi...

  9. Gelatin hydrolysates from farmed Giant catfish skin using alkaline proteases and its antioxidative function of simulated gastro-intestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketnawa, Sunantha; Martínez-Alvarez, Oscar; Benjakul, Soottawat; Rawdkuen, Saroat

    2016-02-01

    This work aims to evaluate the ability of different alkaline proteases to prepare active gelatin hydrolysates. Fish skin gelatin was hydrolysed by visceral alkaline-proteases from Giant catfish, commercial trypsin, and Izyme AL®. All antioxidant activity indices of the hydrolysates increased with increasing degree of hydrolysis (Pfish skin, could serve as a potential source of functional food ingredients for health promotion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lipidomics in vascular health: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovou, Genovefa; Kolovou, Vana; Mavrogeni, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the mechanisms that convert a healthy vascular wall to an atherosclerotic wall is of major importance since the consequences may lead to a shortened lifespan. Classical risk factors (age, smoking, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia) may result in the progression of atherosclerotic lesions by processes including inflammation and lipid accumulation. Thus, the evaluation of blood lipids and the full lipid complement produced by cells, organisms, or tissues (lipidomics) is an issue of importance. In this review, we shall describe the recent progress in vascular health research using lipidomic advances. We will begin with an overview of vascular wall biology and lipids, followed by a short analysis of lipidomics. Finally, we shall focus on the clinical implications of lipidomics and studies that have examined lipidomic approaches and vascular health.

  11. Prevention of hemodynamic and vascular albumin filtration changes in diabetic rats by aldose reductase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilton, R.G.; Chang, K.; Pugliese, G.; Eades, D.M.; Province, M.A.; Sherman, W.R.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This study investigated hemodynamic changes in diabetic rats and their relationship to changes in vascular albumin permeation and increased metabolism of glucose to sorbitol. The effects of 6 wk of streptozocin-induced diabetes and three structurally different inhibitors of aldose reductase were examined on (1) regional blood flow (assessed with 15-microns 85Sr-labeled microspheres) and vascular permeation by 125I-labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) and (2) glomerular filtration rate (assessed by plasma clearance of 57Co-labeled EDTA) and urinary albumin excretion (determined by radial immunodiffusion assay). In diabetic rats, blood flow was significantly increased in ocular tissues (anterior uvea, posterior uvea, retina, and optic nerve), sciatic nerve, kidney, new granulation tissue, cecum, and brain. 125I-BSA permeation was increased in all of these tissues except brain. Glomerular filtration rate and 24-h urinary albumin excretion were increased 2- and 29-fold, respectively, in diabetic rats. All three aldose reductase inhibitors completely prevented or markedly reduced these hemodynamic and vascular filtration changes and increases in tissue sorbitol levels in the anterior uvea, posterior uvea, retina, sciatic nerve, and granulation tissue. These observations indicate that early diabetes-induced hemodynamic changes and increased vascular albumin permeation and urinary albumin excretion are aldose reductase-linked phenomena. Discordant effects of aldose reductase inhibitors on blood flow and vascular albumin permeation in some tissues suggest that increased vascular albumin permeation is not entirely attributable to hemodynamic change

  12. The pars intermedia: an anatomic basis for a coordinated vascular response to female genital arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Cheryl; Cold, Christopher J; Yang, Claire C

    2013-06-01

    The pars intermedia is an area of the vulva that has been inconsistently described in the literature. We conducted anatomic studies to better describe the tissues and vascular structures of the pars intermedia and proposed a functional rationale of the pars intermedia in the female sexual response. Nine cadaveric vulvectomy specimens were used. Each was serially sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome. Histologic ultrastructural description of the pars intermedia. The pars intermedia contains veins traveling longitudinally in the angle of the clitoris, supported by collagen-rich stromal tissues. These veins drain the different vascular compartments of the vulva, including the clitoris, the bulbs, and labia minora; also, the interconnecting veins link the different vascular compartments. The pars intermedia is not composed of erectile tissue, distinguishing it from the erectile tissues of the corpora cavernosa of the clitoris as well as the corpus spongiosum of the clitoral (vestibular) bulbs. The venous communications of the pars intermedia, linking the erectile tissues with the other vascular compartments of the vulva, appear to provide the anatomic basis for a coordinated vascular response during female sexual arousal. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. Antioxidant Activity of Fish Protein Hydrolysates in in vitro Assays and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    The aim of this study was to screen different protein hydrolysates with respect to their antioxidative properties in order to select the most promising extracts for further evaluation in oil-in-water emulsions. Three fractions of protein hydrolysates (Crude, >5kDa and 5kDa, 3-5kDa and...

  14. Comparison of Nitrogen Bioaccessibility from Salmon and Whey Protein Hydrolysates using a Human Gastrointestinal Model (TIM-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomi Framroze

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The TIM-1 system is a computer-controlled multi-compartmental dynamic model that closely simulates in vivo gastrointestinal tract digestion in humans. During digestion, the compounds released from meal matrix by gastric and intestinal secretions (enzymes are progressively absorbed through semipermeable membranes depending on their molecular weight. These absorbed (dialysed compounds are considered as bioaccessible, which means that they can be theoretically absorbed by the small intestine in the body. Methods: Salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH, whey protein hydrolysates extensively (WPHHigh or weakly (WPH-Low hydrolysed, non-hydrolysed whey protein isolate (WPI and mixtures of WPI:SPH (90:10, 80:20 were digested in TIM-1 using the conditions for a fast gastrointestinal transit that simulate the digestion of a liquid meal in human adults. During digestion (2 hours, samples were collected in intestinal compartments (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum and in both jejunal and ileal dialysates to determine their nitrogen content. All the products were compared in terms of kinetics of nitrogen absorption through the semipermeable membranes (bioaccessible nitrogen and nitrogen distribution throughout the intestinal compartments at the end of the 2 hour digestion. Results: After a 2 h-digestion in TIM-1, SPH was the protein substrate from which the highest amount of nitrogen (67.0% becomes available for the small intestine absorption. WPH-High had the second highest amount (56.0% of bioaccessible nitrogen while this amount decreased to 38.5–42.2% for the other protein substrates. The high nitrogen bioaccessibility of SPH is consistent with its richness in low molecular weight peptides (50% < 1000 Da. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that SPH provides a higher proportion of bioaccessible nitrogen to a healthy adult compared to all forms of whey proteins, including extensively hydrolysed whey protein hydrolysate. The substitution of

  15. Protein hydrolysates from the alga Chlorella vulgaris 87/1 with potentialities in immuno nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Humberto J; Carrillo, Olimpia; Almarales, Angel; Bermudez, Rosa C; Alonso, Maria E; Borges, Leonardo; Quintana, Maria M; Fontaine, Roberto; Llaurado, Gabriel; Hernandez, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyta, Chlorophyceae) has received a particular attention in the programmes of microalgae utilisation in biotechnology. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cell proteins represents a very promising method to increase protein digestibility and thus, for obtaining hydrolysates with improved nutritional and functional properties. However, this technology has been little approached and the biological evaluation of hydrolysates has had a strictly nutritional nature. The design of hydrolysis conditions that combined for the first time, the use of C.vulgaris 87/1 treated with ethanol and pancreatin at pH values of 7.5-8.0, led to a product with a degree of hydrolysis of 20-22% and yields of 50-55%, characterised by a high digestibility (97.2%) and nitrogen solubility over a wide pH range (2.0-10.0). Hydrolysis curves were fitted to an exponential model, common to many food proteins. The bulk of the product dry matter consists of soluble peptides and free amino acids (47.7%) with three main peptides of molecular masses between 2 and 5 kDa. The oral administration of Chlorella hydrolysate (500 mg/kg) to undernourished Balb/c mice provided benefits in terms of liver protein metabolism and the induction of anabolic processes in gut mucosa. The hydrolysate also enhanced the immunological recovery, as judged by the stimulation of haemopoiesis, monocyte macrophage system activation, as well as humoral and cell mediated immune functions, like T-dependent antibody response and the reconstitution of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. These results represent the first findings in the world concerning the immunomodulating effects of a microalgae protein hydrolysate. (author)

  16. Comparison of non-volatile umami components in chicken soup and chicken enzymatic hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yan; Yang, Xiao; Ding, Qi; Zhang, Yu-Yu; Sun, Bao-Guo; Chen, Hai-Tao; Sun, Ying

    2017-12-01

    Umami taste is an important part to the taste of chicken. To isolate and identify non-volatile umami compounds, fractions from chicken soup and hydrolysate were prepared and analyzed. Amino acids were analyzed by amino acid analyzer. Organic acids and nucleotides were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Separation procedures utilizing ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-15 and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography were used to isolate umami taste peptides. Combined with sensory evaluation and LC-Q-TOF-MS, the amino acid sequences of 12 oligopeptides were determined. The amount of taste compounds was higher in chicken enzymatic hydrolysate than that of chicken soup. Eight oligopeptides from chicken enzymatic hydrolysate were identified, including Ala-Asp, Ala-Met, His-Ser, Val-Glu, Ala-Glu, Asp-Ala-Gly, Glu-Asp and Ala-Glu-Ala. Four oligopeptides from chicken soup were identified, including Val-Thr, Ala-His, Ala-Phe and Thr-Glu. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Recycling of lipid-extracted hydrolysate as nitrogen supplementation for production of thraustochytrid biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Joshua; Armenta, Roberto E; Brooks, Marianne S

    2016-08-01

    Efficient resource usage is important for cost-effective microalgae production, where the incorporation of waste streams and recycled water into the process has great potential. This study builds upon emerging research on nutrient recycling in thraustochytrid production, where waste streams are recovered after lipid extraction and recycled into future cultures. This research investigates the nitrogen flux of recycled hydrolysate derived from enzymatic lipid extraction of thraustochytrid biomass. Results indicated the proteinaceous content of the recycled hydrolysate can offset the need to supply fresh nitrogen in a secondary culture, without detrimental impact upon the produced biomass. The treatment employing the recycled hydrolysate with no nitrogen addition accumulated 14.86 g L(-1) of biomass in 141 h with 43.3 % (w/w) lipid content compared to the control which had 9.26 g L(-1) and 46.9 % (w/w), respectively. This improved nutrient efficiency and wastewater recovery represents considerable potential for enhanced resource efficiency of commercial thraustochytrid production.

  18. Corncob hydrolysate, an efficient substrate for Monascus pigment production through submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongxin; Yin, Zheng; Hu, Xiaoqing

    2014-01-01

    Monascus pigment has traditionally been produced by the fermentation of Monascus using rice powder or glucose as a culture substrate. Submerged fermentation can produce stable Monascus pigment yield and control the accumulation of the by-product, citrinin, which can then be more easily removed. To reduce the cost of Monascus submerged fermentation, the feasibility of corncob hydrolysate as an alternative substrate was investigated. Results showed that, when compared with a conventional glucose medium, the corncob hydrolysate medium produced an equivalent pigment yield without stimulating citrinin accumulation. Furthermore, the corncob hydrolysate medium and cultivation conditions were optimized to enhance pigment production and decrease citrinin synthesis. When Monascus sp. was cultured under dark conditions in the presence of caprylic acid, pigment production was increased to 25.8 ± 0.8 UA500 /mL, which was higher than that achieved in a glucose medium (24.0 ± 0.9 UA500 /mL), and those obtained in previously reported Monascus submerged fermentations using the same yield unit; on the other hand, citrinin accumulation was decreased to 26.2 ± 1.9 µg/L, which was significantly lower than that generated in the glucose control (44.3 ± 2.2 µg/L) and in those previously reported fermentations. Thus, corncob hydrolysate was proved to be an efficient alternative substrate for Monascus pigment production through submerged fermentation, which showed significant advantages over a conventional glucose substrate. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Transglutaminase-treated conjugation of sodium caseinate and corn fiber gum hydrolysate: Interfacial and dilatational properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Selig, Michael J; Yadav, Madhav P; Yin, Lijun; Abbaspourrad, Alireza

    2018-05-01

    This study compliments previous work where peroxidase was successfully used to crosslink corn fiber gum (CFG) with bovine serum albumin and improve CFG's emulsifying properties. Herein, an alternative type of enzyme, transglutaminase, was used to prepare conjugates of CFG and sodium caseinate. Additionally, the CFG was partially hydrolyzed by sulfuric acid and its crosslinking pattern with caseinate was evaluated. The interfacial crosslinking degree between caseinate and CFG increased after hydrolysis according to high performance size exclusion chromatography. The equilibrium interfacial tension of CFG hydrolysate-caseinate conjugate was lower than that of CFG-caseinate conjugate as the rearrangement rate of the CFG hydrolysate-caseinate conjugate was higher. The dilatational modulus of CFG hydrolysate decreased from that of CFG. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. S.E. Mitchell Vascular Anomalies Flow Chart (SEMVAFC): A visual pathway combining clinical and imaging findings for classification of soft-tissue vascular anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekes, A.; Koshy, J.; Kalayci, T.O.; Puttgen, K.; Cohen, B.; Redett, R.; Mitchell, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    Classification of vascular anomalies (VAs) is challenging due to overlapping clinical symptoms, confusing terminology in the literature and unfamiliarity with this complex entity. It is important to recognize that VAs include two distinct entities, vascular tumours (VTs) and vascular malformations (VaMs). In this article, we describe SE Mitchell Vascular Anomalies Flow Chart (SEMVAFC), which arises from a multidisciplinary approach that incorporates clinical symptoms, physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings to establish International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA)-based classification of the VAs. SEMVAFC provides a clear visual pathway for physicians to accurately diagnose Vas, which is important as treatment, management, and prognosis differ between VTs and VaMs

  1. Cell proliferation along vascular islands during microvascular network growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly-Goss Molly R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Observations in our laboratory provide evidence of vascular islands, defined as disconnected endothelial cell segments, in the adult microcirculation. The objective of this study was to determine if vascular islands are involved in angiogenesis during microvascular network growth. Results Mesenteric tissues, which allow visualization of entire microvascular networks at a single cell level, were harvested from unstimulated adult male Wistar rats and Wistar rats 3 and 10 days post angiogenesis stimulation by mast cell degranulation with compound 48/80. Tissues were immunolabeled for PECAM and BRDU. Identification of vessel lumens via injection of FITC-dextran confirmed that endothelial cell segments were disconnected from nearby patent networks. Stimulated networks displayed increases in vascular area, length density, and capillary sprouting. On day 3, the percentage of islands with at least one BRDU-positive cell increased compared to the unstimulated level and was equal to the percentage of capillary sprouts with at least one BRDU-positive cell. At day 10, the number of vascular islands per vascular area dramatically decreased compared to unstimulated and day 3 levels. Conclusions These results show that vascular islands have the ability to proliferate and suggest that they are able to incorporate into the microcirculation during the initial stages of microvascular network growth.

  2. Comparison of tissue processing methods for microvascular visualization in axolotls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Rodrigo; Dickie, Renee

    2017-01-01

    The vascular system, the pipeline for oxygen and nutrient delivery to tissues, is essential for vertebrate development, growth, injury repair, and regeneration. With their capacity to regenerate entire appendages throughout their lifespan, axolotls are an unparalleled model for vertebrate regeneration, but they lack many of the molecular tools that facilitate vascular imaging in other animal models. The determination of vascular metrics requires high quality image data for the discrimination of vessels from background tissue. Quantification of the vasculature using perfused, cleared specimens is well-established in mammalian systems, but has not been widely employed in amphibians. The objective of this study was to optimize tissue preparation methods for the visualization of the microvascular network in axolotls, providing a basis for the quantification of regenerative angiogenesis. To accomplish this aim, we performed intracardiac perfusion of pigment-based contrast agents and evaluated aqueous and non-aqueous clearing techniques. The methods were verified by comparing the quality of the vascular images and the observable vascular density across treatment groups. Simple and inexpensive, these tissue processing techniques will be of use in studies assessing vascular growth and remodeling within the context of regeneration. Advantages of this method include: •Higher contrast of the vasculature within the 3D context of the surrounding tissue •Enhanced detection of microvasculature facilitating vascular quantification •Compatibility with other labeling techniques.

  3. Poultry feed based on protein hydrolysate derived from chrome-tanned leather solid waste: creating value from waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Rubina; Pati, Anupama

    2016-04-01

    Leather industry generates huge amount of chrome-containing leather solid waste which creates major environment problems to tanners worldwide. Chrome-tanned leather solid waste is primarily chromium complex of collagen protein. The presence of chromium limits its protein application in animal feed industry. The purified protein hydrolysate with zero chromium could be used in poultry feed. In this study, an attempt has been made to assess performance of poultry with purified protein hydrolysate as a feed derived from chrome-tanned leather waste as partial replacement of soyabean meal as a sole source of protein for growing broiler chickens. Growth study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding protein hydrolysate on performance and physiochemical characteristics of meat of broiler chickens. Two experimental diets containing various levels of protein hydrolysate (EI-20 % and EII-30 %) were evaluated. The comparative study was performed as control with soyabean meal. Daily feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured from day 8 to day 35. At the end of the study, birds were randomly selected and slaughtered to evaluate for physiochemical characteristics of meat. Diet had significant effects on feed intake and body weight gain. Birds fed with 20 and 30 % protein hydrolysate consumed 9.5 and 17.5 % higher amount of feed and gained 6.5 and 16.6 % higher than soyabean meal-fed birds. The current study produced evidence that protein hydrolysate can replace up to 75 % of soyabean meal in broiler diets without affecting either growth performance or meat characteristics.

  4. Effect of Abalone Hydrolysates Encapsulated by Double Emulsion on the Physicochemical and Sensorial Properties of Fresh Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, HeeJeong; Kim, Soo-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2017-01-01

    The intake of dietary salt through food now exceeds current nutritional recommendations and is thought to have negative effects on human health, such as the increasing prevalence of hypertension. This study was performed to investigate whether W 1 /O/W 2 double emulsions can be used to enhance the saltiness of cheese without increasing the salt content (W 1 is distilled water or 1% abalone hydrolysate, and W 2 is 1% NaCl or 1% abalone hydrolysate + 1% NaCl solution). We also investigated the effect of adding abalone hydrolysate to the double emulsion as a saltiness enhancer. The cheeses were physico-chemically evaluated to determine curd yield, pH value, moisture content, color, texture, salt release rate, and sensory properties. No significant differences were observed in curd yield, pH value, moisture content, lightness, or redness between the cheeses made with and without the double emulsion. However, in the evaluation of salt release rate, fresh cheese made with double emulsion (W 1 = distilled water, W 2 = 1% NaCl + 1% abalone hydrolysate) was detected earlier than the control or the other treatments. In the sensory evaluation, fresh cheese made with the double emulsion showed higher scores for saltiness and overall preference than the control or the other treatments. We concluded that abalone hydrolysate encapsulated in a double emulsion (W 1 is water and W 2 is abalone hydrolysate and NaCl solution) could enhance the saltiness of fresh cheese while maintaining the same salt concentration, without altering its physical properties.

  5. Production and functional characterisation of antioxidative hydrolysates from corn protein via enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kequan; Sun, Shi; Canning, Corene

    2012-12-01

    Corn protein was hydrolysed by three microbial proteases and further separated by sequential ultra-filtration to 12 hydrolysate fractions which were investigated for free radical scavenging capacity and chelating activity. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of the hydrolysates varied significantly between 65.6 and 191.4μmoles Trolox equivalents (TE)/g dried weight with a small peptide fraction (NP-F3) produced by neutral protease (NP) possessing the highest antioxidant activity. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH()) scavenging activities of the hydrolysate fractions also varied significantly between 18.4 and 38.7μmoles TE/g. Two fractions (AP-F2 and AP-F3) produced by alkaline protease (AP) showed the strongest activity. However, no significant difference was detected on the chelating activity of the fractions. NP-F3, AP-F2, and AP-F3 were incorporated into ground beef to determine their effects on lipid oxidation during 15-day storage period. NP-F3 was the only fraction that inhibited lipid oxidation at both 250 and 500μg/g levels by as much as 52.9%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In situ vascular regeneration using substance P-immobilised poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone scaffolds: stem cell recruitment, angiogenesis, and tissue regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shafiq

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In situ tissue regeneration holds great promise for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering applications. However, to achieve control over long-term and localised presence of biomolecules, certain barriers must be overcome. The aim of this study was to develop electrospun scaffolds for the fabrication of artificial vascular grafts that can be remodelled within a host by endogenous cell recruitment. We fabricated scaffolds by mixing appropriate proportions of linear poly (l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone (PLCL and substance P (SP-immobilised PLCL, using electrospinning to develop vascular grafts. Substance P was released in a sustained fashion from electrospun membranes for up to 30 d, as revealed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immobilised SP remained bioactive and recruited human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs in an in vitro Trans-well migration assay. The biocompatibility and biological performance of the scaffolds were evaluated by in vivo experiments involving subcutaneous scaffold implantations in Sprague-Dawley rats for up to 28 d followed by histological and immunohistochemical studies. Histological analysis revealed a greater extent of accumulative host cell infiltration and collagen deposition in scaffolds containing higher contents of SP than observed in the control group at both time points. We also observed the presence of a large number of laminin-positive blood vessels and Von Willebrand factor (vWF+ cells in the explants containing SP. Additionally, scaffolds containing SP showed the existence of CD90+ and CD105+ MSCs. Collectively, these findings suggest that the methodology presented here may have broad applications in regenerative medicine, and the novel scaffolding materials can be used for in situ tissue regeneration of soft tissues.

  7. Assessment of tissue oxygen saturation during a vascular occlusion test using near-infrared spectroscopy: the role of probe spacing and measurement site studied in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, R.; Lima, A.; Myers, D.; Klijn, E.; Heger, M.; Goedhart, P.T.; Bakker, J.; Ince, C.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To assess potential metabolic and microcirculatory alterations in critically ill patients, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used, in combination with a vascular occlusion test (VOT), for the non-invasive measurement of tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), oxygen consumption, and

  8. Preventive effect of feeding high-risk infants a casein hydrolysate formula or an ultrafiltrated whey hydrolysate formula. A prospective, randomized, comparative clinical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A; Hansen, L G

    1993-01-01

    In a prospective study of a 1-year birth cohort of 158 high-risk infants the effect of feeding breastmilk, a casein hydrolysate (Nutramigen) or a new ultrafiltrated whey hydrolysate (Profylac) on the development of cow milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI) was assessed and compared. All...... the infants had biparental or severe single atopic predisposition, the latter combined with cord blood IgE > or = 0.5 kU/L. At birth all infants were randomized to Nutramigen or Profylac, which was used when breastfeeding was insufficient or not possible during the first 6 months of life. During the same...... period this regimen was combined with avoidance of solid foods and cow milk protein. All mothers had unrestricted diets and were encouraged to do breastfeeding only. Moreover, avoidance of daily exposure to tobacco smoking, furred pets and dust-collecting materials in the bedroom was advised. The infants...

  9. History of Bioelectrical Study and the Electrophysiology of the Primo Vascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyun Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Primo vascular system is a new anatomical structure whose research results have reported the possibility of a new circulatory system similar to the blood vascular system and cells. Electrophysiology, which measures and analyzes bioelectrical signals tissues and cells, is an important research area for investigating the function of tissues and cells. The bioelectrical study of the primo vascular system has been reported by using modern techniques since the early 1960s by Bonghan Kim. This paper reviews the research result of the electrophysiological study of the primo vascular system for the discussion of the circulatory function. We hope it would help to study the electrophysiology of the primo vascular system for researchers. This paper will use the following exchangeable expressions: Kyungrak system = Bonghan system = Bonghan circulatory system = primo vascular system = primo system; Bonghan corpuscle = primo node; Bonghan duct = primo vessel. We think that objective descriptions of reviewed papers are more important than unified expressions when citing the papers. That said, this paper will unify the expressions of the primo vascular system.

  10. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in pulmonary hypertension produces pathologic autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Kelley L; Cripe, Patrick J; Ivy, D Dunbar; Stenmark, Kurt R; Yeager, Michael E

    2013-11-01

    Autoimmunity has long been associated with pulmonary hypertension. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue plays important roles in antigen sampling and self-tolerance during infection and inflammation. We reasoned that activated bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue would be evident in rats with pulmonary hypertension, and that loss of self-tolerance would result in production of pathologic autoantibodies that drive vascular remodeling. We used animal models, histology, and gene expression assays to evaluate the role of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in pulmonary hypertension. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue was more numerous, larger, and more active in pulmonary hypertension compared with control animals. We found dendritic cells in and around lymphoid tissue, which were composed of CD3(+) T cells over a core of CD45RA(+) B cells. Antirat IgG and plasma from rats with pulmonary hypertension decorated B cells in lymphoid tissue, resistance vessels, and adventitia of large vessels. Lymphoid tissue in diseased rats was vascularized by aquaporin-1(+) high endothelial venules and vascular cell adhesion molecule-positive vessels. Autoantibodies are produced in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue and, when bound to pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts, change their phenotype to one that may promote inflammation. Passive transfer of autoantibodies into rats caused pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension. Diminution of lymphoid tissue reversed pulmonary hypertension, whereas immunologic blockade of CCR7 worsened pulmonary hypertension and hastened its onset. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue expands in pulmonary hypertension and is autoimmunologically active. Loss of self-tolerance contributes to pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension. Lymphoid tissue-directed therapies may be beneficial in treating pulmonary hypertension.

  11. Tissue physiology and the response to heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsman, Michael Robert

    2006-01-01

    physiological effects should occur in normal tissues, such combination therapies must be carefully applied. Heating tumours to higher temperatures typically causes a transient increase in perfusion during heating, followed by vascular collapse which if sufficient will increase tumour necrosis. The speed...... and degree of vascular collapse is dependent on heating time, temperature and tumour model used. Such vascular collapse generally occurs at temperatures that cause a substantial blood flow increase in certain normal tissues, thus preferential anti-tumour effects can be achieved. The tumour vascular supply...... can also be exploited to improve the response to heat. Decreasing blood flow, using transient physiological modifiers or longer acting vascular disrupting agents prior to the initiation of heating, can both increase the accumulation of physical heat in the tumour, as well as increase heat sensitivity...

  12. Diabetes and Retinal Vascular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Seok Shin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes predominantly affects the microvascular circulation of the retina resulting in a range of structural changes unique to this tissue. These changes ultimately lead to altered permeability, hyperproliferation of endothelial cells and edema, and abnormal vascularization of the retina with resulting loss of vision. Enhanced production of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress are primary insults with significant contribution to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR. We have determined the identity of the retinal vascular cells affected by hyperglycemia, and have delineated the cell autonomous impact of high glucose on function of these cells. We discuss some of the high glucose specific changes in retinal vascular cells and their contribution to retinal vascular dysfunction. This knowledge provides novel insight into the molecular and cellular defects contributing to the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy, and will aid in the development of innovative, as well as target specific therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of DR.

  13. Effects of Hydrolysed Whey Proteins on the Techno-Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein-Based Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Noller

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pure whey protein isolate (WPI-based cast films are very brittle due to its strong formation of protein cross-linking of disulphide bonding, hydrogen bonding as well as hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. However, this strong cross-linking is the reason for its final barrier performance. To overcome film brittleness of whey protein layers, plasticisers like glycerol are used. It reduces intermolecular interactions, increases the mobility of polymer chains and thus film flexibility can be achieved. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of hydrolysed whey protein isolate (WPI in whey protein isolate-based cast films on their techno-functional properties. Due to the fact, that the addition of glycerol is necessary but at the same time increases the free volume in the film leading to higher oxygen and water vapour permeability, the glycerol concentration was kept constant. Cast films with different ratios of hydrolysed and not hydrolysed WPI were produced. They were characterised in order to determine the influence of the lower molecular weight caused by the addition of hydrolysed WPI on the techno-functional properties. This study showed that increasing hydrolysed WPI concentrations significantly change the mechanical properties while maintaining the oxygen and water vapour permeability. The tensile and elastic film properties decreased significantly by reducing the average molecular weight whereas the yellowish coloration and the surface tension considerably increased. This study provided new data which put researchers and material developers in a position to tailor the characteristics of whey protein based films according to their intended application and further processing.

  14. Methane production from acid hydrolysates of Agave tequilana bagasse: evaluation of hydrolysis conditions and methane yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola-Vargas, Jorge; Ojeda-Castillo, Valeria; Snell-Castro, Raúl; Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Alatriste-Mondragón, Felipe; Méndez-Acosta, Hugo O

    2015-04-01

    Evaluation of diluted acid hydrolysis for sugar extraction from cooked and uncooked Agave tequilana bagasse and feasibility of using the hydrolysates as substrate for methane production, with and without nutrient addition, in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (AnSBR) were studied. Results showed that the hydrolysis over the cooked bagasse was more effective for sugar extraction at the studied conditions. Total sugars concentration in the cooked and uncooked bagasse hydrolysates were 27.9 g/L and 18.7 g/L, respectively. However, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was detected in the cooked bagasse hydrolysate, and therefore, the uncooked bagasse hydrolysate was selected as substrate for methane production. Interestingly, results showed that the AnSBR operated without nutrient addition obtained a constant methane production (0.26 L CH4/g COD), whereas the AnSBR operated with nutrient addition presented a gradual methane suppression. Molecular analyses suggested that methane suppression in the experiment with nutrient addition was due to a negative effect over the archaeal/bacterial ratio. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. SOYBEAN AND CASEIN HYDROLYSATES INDUCE GRAPEVINE IMMUNE RESPONSES AND RESISTANCE AGAINST PLASMOPARA VITICOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihed eLachhab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, is one of the most devastating grape pathogen in Europe and North America. Although phytochemicals are used to control pathogen infections, the appearance of resistant strains and the concern for possible adverse effects on environment and human health are increasing the search for alternative strategies. In the present investigation, we successfully tested two protein hydrolysates from soybean (soy and casein (cas to trigger grapevine resistance against P. viticola. On Vitis vinifera cv. Marselan plants, the application of soy and cas reduced the infected leaf surface by 76 and 63%, as compared to the control, respectively. Since both hydrolysates might trigger the plant immunity, we investigated their ability to elicit grapevine defence responses. On grapevine cell suspensions, a different free cytosolic calcium signature was recorded for each hydrolysate, whereas a similar transient phosphorylation of two MAP kinases of 45 and 49 kDa was observed. These signalling events were followed by transcriptome reprogramming, including the up-regulation of defence genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR proteins and the stilbene synthase enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of resveratrol, the main grapevine phytoalexin. Liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the production of resveratrol and its dimer metabolites, δ- and ε-viniferins. Overall, soy effects were more pronounced as compared to the cas one. Both hydrolysates proved to act as elicitors to enhance grapevine immunity against pathogen attack.

  16. Matrix Metalloproteinases: Inflammatory Regulators of Cell Behaviors in Vascular Formation and Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qishan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal angiogenesis and vascular remodeling contribute to pathogenesis of a number of disorders such as tumor, arthritis, atherosclerosis, restenosis, hypertension, and neurodegeneration. During angiogenesis and vascular remodeling, behaviors of stem/progenitor cells, endothelial cells (ECs, and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and its interaction with extracellular matrix (ECM play a critical role in the processes. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, well-known inflammatory mediators are a family of zinc-dependent proteolytic enzymes that degrade various components of ECM and non-ECM molecules mediating tissue remodeling in both physiological and pathological processes. MMPs including MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-12, and MT1-MMP, are stimulated and activated by various stimuli in vascular tissues. Once activated, MMPs degrade ECM proteins or other related signal molecules to promote recruitment of stem/progenitor cells and facilitate migration and invasion of ECs and VSMCs. Moreover, vascular cell proliferation and apoptosis can also be regulated by MMPs via proteolytically cleaving and modulating bioactive molecules and relevant signaling pathways. Regarding the importance of vascular cells in abnormal angiogenesis and vascular remodeling, regulation of vascular cell behaviors through modulating expression and activation of MMPs shows therapeutic potential.

  17. Corrected: The influence of brewers' yeast addition on lactic acid fermentation of brewers' spent grain hydrolysate by Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    OpenAIRE

    Pejin, Jelena; Radosavljević, Miloš; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Đukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mladenović, Dragana; Mojović, Ljiljana

    2016-01-01

    Brewers' spent grain (BSG) hydrolysates were used for lactic acid (LA) fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The aim of this study was to evaluate possibilities of the BSG hydrolysate utilization as a substrate for LA fermentation as well as the effect of dry brewers' yeast addition in hydrolysate on lactic acid fermentation parameters (L-(+)-LA and reducing sugar concentration and number of viable cell-viability). Very high L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 cell viability was achieved in a...

  18. Predictive model of thrombospondin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in breast tumor tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrs, Jennifer A; Sulistio, Christopher D; Finley, Stacey D

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood capillaries from pre-existing vessels, is a hallmark of cancer. Thus far, strategies for reducing tumor angiogenesis have focused on inhibiting pro-angiogenic factors, while less is known about the therapeutic effects of mimicking the actions of angiogenesis inhibitors. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) is an important endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis that has been investigated as an anti-angiogenic agent. TSP1 impedes the growth of new blood vessels in many ways, including crosstalk with pro-angiogenic factors. Due to the complexity of TSP1 signaling, a predictive systems biology model would provide quantitative understanding of the angiogenic balance in tumor tissue. Therefore, we have developed a molecular-detailed, mechanistic model of TSP1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a promoter of angiogenesis, in breast tumor tissue. The model predicts the distribution of the angiogenic factors in tumor tissue, revealing that TSP1 is primarily in an inactive, cleaved form due to the action of proteases, rather than bound to its cellular receptors or to VEGF. The model also predicts the effects of enhancing TSP1's interactions with its receptors and with VEGF. To provide additional predictions that can guide the development of new anti-angiogenic drugs, we simulate administration of exogenous TSP1 mimetics that bind specific targets. The model predicts that the CD47-binding TSP1 mimetic dramatically decreases the ratio of receptor-bound VEGF to receptor-bound TSP1, in favor of anti-angiogenesis. Thus, we have established a model that provides a quantitative framework to study the response to TSP1 mimetics.

  19. Engineering Microvascularized 3D Tissue Using Alginate-Chitosan Microcapsules

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wujie; Choi, Jung K.; He, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Construction of vascularized tissues is one of the major challenges of tissue engineering. The goal of this study was to engineer 3D microvascular tissues by incorporating the HUVEC-CS cells with a collagen/alginate-chitosan (AC) microcapsule scaffold. In the presence of AC microcapsules, a 3D vascular-like network was clearly observable. The results indicated the importance of AC microcapsules in engineering microvascular tissues -- providing support and guiding alignment of HUVEC-CS cells. ...

  20. Injuries to the vascular endothelium: vascular wall and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Vascular endothelial injury has multiple elements, and this article focuses on ischemia-related processes that have particular relevance to ischemic stroke. Distinctions between necrotic and apoptotic cell death provide a basic science context in which to better understand the significance of classical core and penumbra concepts of acute stroke, with apoptotic processes particularly prominent in the penumbra. The mitochondria are understood to serve as a reservoir of proteins that mediate apoptosis. Oxidative stress pathways generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) are prominent in endothelial injury, both ischemic and nonischemic, with prominent roles of enzyme- and nonenzymemediated pathways; mitochondria once again have a critical role, particularly in the nonenzymatic pathways generating ROS. Inflammation also contributes to vascular endothelial injury, and endothelial cells have the capacity to rapidly increase expression of inflammatory mediators following ischemic challenge; this leads to enhanced leukocyte-endothelial interactions mediated by selectins and adhesion molecules. Preconditioning consists of a minor version of an injurious event, which in turn may protect vascular endothelium from injury following a more substantial event. Presence of the blood-brain barrier creates unique responses to endothelial injury, with permeability changes due to impairment of endothelial-matrix interactions compounding altered vasomotor tone and tissue perfusion mediated by nitric oxide. Pharmacological protection against vascular endothelial injury can be provided by several of the phosphodiesterases (cilostazol and dipyridamole), along with statins. Optimal clinical responses for protection of brain vascular endothelium may use preconditioning as a model, and will likely require combined protection against apoptosis, ROS, and inflammation.

  1. Effect of collagen hydrolysate in articular pain: a 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyère, O; Zegels, B; Leonori, L; Rabenda, V; Janssen, A; Bourges, C; Reginster, J-Y

    2012-06-01

    Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a food supplement made of collagen hydrolysate 1200 mg/day versus placebo during 6 months, in subjects with joint pain at the lower or upper limbs or at the lumbar spine. Comparative double-blind randomized multicenter study in parallel groups. 200 patients of both genders of at least 50 years old with joint pain assessed as ≥30 mm on a visual analogical scale (VAS). Collagen hydrolysate 1200 mg/day or placebo during 6 months. Comparison of the percentage of clinical responder between the active collagen hydrolysate group and the placebo group after 6 months of study. A responder subject was defined as a subject experiencing a clinically significant improvement (i.e. by 20% or more) in the most painful joint using the VAS score. All analyses were performed using an intent-to-treat procedure. At 6 months, the proportion of clinical responders to the treatment, according to VAS scores, was significantly higher in the collagen hydrolysate (CH) group 51.6%, compared to the placebo group 36.5% (pvs. 39.6%, p=0.53). No significant difference in terms of security and tolerability was observed between the two groups. This study suggests that collagen hydrolysate 1200 mg/day could increase the number of clinical responders (i.e. improvement of at least 20% on the VAS) compared to placebo. More studies are needed to confirm the clinical interest of this food supplement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rheological and Functional Properties of Catfish Skin Protein Hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catfish skin is an abundant and underutilized resource that can be used as a unique protein source to make fish skin hydrolysates. The objectives of this study were to: isolating soluble and insoluble proteins from hydrolyzed catfish skin and study the chemical and functional properties of the prote...

  3. Production of butanol (a biofuel) from agricultural residues: Part II - Use of corn stover and switchgrass hydrolysates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Nasib; Saha, Badal C.; Hector, Ronald E.; Dien, Bruce; Iten, Loren; Bowman, Michael J.; Cotta, Michael A. [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research (NCAUR), Bioenergy Research, 1815 N. University Street, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States); Hughes, Stephen; Liu, Siqing [USDA-ARS-NCAUR, Renewable Product Technology, 1815 N. University Street, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States); Sarath, Gautam [USDA-ARS, Grain, Forage, and Bioenergy Research Unit, University of Nebraska, 314 Biochemistry Hall, East Campus, Lincoln, NE 68583 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) was produced from hydrolysed corn stover and switchgrass using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. A control experiment using glucose resulted in the production of 21.06 g L{sup -1} total ABE. In this experiment an ABE yield and productivity of 0.41 and 0.31 g L{sup -1} h{sup -1} was achieved, respectively. Fermentation of untreated corn stover hydrolysate (CSH) exhibited no growth and no ABE production; however, upon dilution with water (two fold) and wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH, ratio 1:1), 16.00 and 18.04 g L{sup -1} ABE was produced, respectively. These experiments resulted in ABE productivity of 0.17-0.21 g L{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Inhibitors present in CSH were removed by treating the hydrolysate with Ca(OH){sub 2} (overliming). The culture was able to produce 26.27 g L{sup -1} ABE after inhibitor removal. Untreated switchgrass hydrolysate (SGH) was poorly fermented and the culture did not produce more than 1.48 g L{sup -1} ABE which was improved to 14.61 g L{sup -1}. It is suggested that biomass pretreatment methods that do not generate inhibitors be investigated. Alternately, cultures resistant to inhibitors and able to produce butanol at high concentrations may be another approach to improve the current process. (author)

  4. Vascular thermal adaptation in tumors and normal tissue in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nah, Byung Sik; Choi, Ihl-Bohng; Oh, Won Young; Osborn, James L.; Song, Chang W.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The vascular thermal adaptation in the R3230 adenocarcinoma, skin and muscle in the legs of Fischer rats was studied. Methods and Materials: The legs of Fischer rats bearing the R3230 AC adenocarcinoma (subcutaneously) were heated once or twice with a water bath, and the blood flow in the tumor, skin and muscle of the legs was measured with the radioactive microsphere method. Results: The blood flow in control R3230 AC tumors was 23.9 ml/100 g/min. The tumor blood flow increased about 1.5 times in 30 min and then markedly decreased upon heating at 44.5 deg. C for 90 min. In the tumors preheated 16 h earlier at 42.5 deg. C for 60 min, reheating at 44.5 deg. C increased the tumor blood flow by 2.5-fold in 30 min. Contrary to the decline in blood flow following an initial increase during the 44.5 deg. C heating without preheating, the tumor blood flow remained elevated throughout the 90 min reheating at 44.5 deg. C. These results indicated that thermal adaptation or thermotolerance developed in the tumor vasculatures after the preheating at 42.5 deg. C for 60 min. The magnitude of vascular thermal adaptation in the tumors 24 h and 48 h after the preheating, as judged from the changes in blood flow, were smaller than that 16 h after the preheating. Heating at 42.5 deg. C for 60 min induced vascular thermal adaptation also in the skin and muscle, which peaked in 48 h and 24 h, respectively, after the heating. Conclusion: Heating at 42.5 deg. C for 1 h induced vascular thermal adaptation in the R3230 AC tumor, skin, and muscle of rats that peaked 16-48 h after the heating. When the tumor blood vessels were thermally adapted, the tumor blood flow increased upon heating at temperatures that would otherwise reduce the tumor blood flow. Such an increase in tumor blood flow may hinder raising the tumor temperature while it may increase tumor oxygenation.

  5. Fish protein hydrolysates: proximate composition, amino acid composition, antioxidant activities and applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamaiah, M; Dinesh Kumar, B; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T

    2012-12-15

    The fish processing industry produces more than 60% by-products as waste, which includes skin, head, viscera, trimmings, liver, frames, bones, and roes. These by-product wastes contain good amount of protein rich material that are normally processed into low market-value products, such as animal feed, fish meal and fertilizer. In view of utilizing these fish industry wastes, and for increasing the value to several underutilised fish species, protein hydrolysates from fish proteins are being prepared by several researchers all over the world. Fish protein hydrolysates are breakdown products of enzymatic conversion of fish proteins into smaller peptides, which normally contain 2-20 amino acids. In recent years, fish protein hydrolysates have attracted much attention of food biotechnologists due to the availability of large quantities of raw material for the process, and presence of high protein content with good amino acid balance and bioactive peptides (antioxidant, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory and antimicrobial peptides). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethanol fermentation from lignocellulosic hydrolysate by a recombinant xylose- and cellooligosaccharide-assimilating yeast strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katahira, Satoshi; Fukuda, Hideki [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Div. of Molecular Science; Mizuike, Atsuko; Kondo, Akihiko [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering

    2006-10-15

    The sulfuric acid hydrolysate of lignocellulosic biomass, such as wood chips, from the forest industry is an important material for fuel bioethanol production. In this study, we constructed a recombinant yeast strain that can ferment xylose and cellooligosaccharides by integrating genes for the intercellular expressions of xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase from Pichia stipitis, and xylulokinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a gene for displaying ss-glucosidase from Aspergillus acleatus on the cell surface. In the fermentation of the sulfuric acid hydrolysate of wood chips, xylose and cellooligosaccharides were completely fermented after 36 h by the recombinant strain, and then about 30 g/l ethanol was produced from 73 g/l total sugar added at the beginning. In this case, the ethanol yield of this recombinant yeast was much higher than that of the control yeast. These results demonstrate that the fermentation of the lignocellulose hydrolysate is performed efficiently by the recombinant Saccharomyces strain with abilities for xylose assimilation and cellooligosaccharide degradation. (orig.)

  7. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

    in the structure of fibrous collagen and myofibers at high-resolution. The results demonstrate that the collagen composition in the extra cellular matrix of Gadus morhua fish muscle is much more complex than previously anticipated, as it contains type III, IV, V  and VI collagen in addition to type I. The vascular....... Consequently, functional structures, ensuring "tissue maintenance" must form a major role of connective tissue, in addition that is to the force transmitting structures one typically finds in muscle. Vascular structures have also been shown to change their mechanical properties with age and it has been shown...

  8. Perioperative smoking cessation in vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, M.; Heesemann, Sabine; Tonnesen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of intensive smoking cessation programs on postoperative complications has never before been assessed in soft tissue surgery when smoking cessation is initiated on the day of surgery. Methods: A single-blinded randomized clinical trial conducted at two vascular surgery...... departments in Denmark. The intervention group was offered the Gold Standard Program (GSP) for smoking cessation intervention. The control group was offered the departments' standard care. Inclusion criteria were patients with planned open peripheral vascular surgery and who were daily smokers. According...

  9. Placental vascular responses are dependent on surrounding tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Torbjørn Halle

    -depth understanding of the mechanism regulating blood flow and perfusion is necessary if we are to come up with new ideas for intervention and treatment. Method: From fresh born placentas stem villi arteries were carefully dissected. The artery branches were divided. The surrounding tissue was removed from one end...... and was left untouched in the other end. Then using wire myography they were investigated in terms of contractility and sensitivity to physiological relevant human-like agonists. Results: Sensitivity to PGF2α, Tx-analog, 5-HT and endothelin-1 was significantly lower in arteries with intact surrounding tissue...... compared to arteries stripped of the tissue. The maximal force development was also significantly lower in arteries with surrounding tissue, when they were depolarized high extracellular [K+] or stimulated with PGF2α or endotheline-1. Conclusion: The perivascular tissue significantly alters stem villi...

  10. Placental vascular responses are dependent on surrounding tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Torbjørn Halle

    . Materials and methods. From fresh born placentas, stem villi arteries were carefully dissected. The artery branches were divided. The surrounding tissue was removed from one end and was left untouched in the other end.Then, using wire myography, they were investigated in terms of contractility...... and sensitivity to physiological relevant human-like agonists. Results. Sensitivity to PGF2α, Tx-analog, 5-HT and endothelin-1 was significantly lower in arteries with intact surrounding tissue compared to arteries stripped of the tissue. The maximal force development was also significantly lower in arteries...... with surrounding tissue when they were depolarized high extracellular [K+] or stimulated with PGF2α or endotheline-1. Conclusion. The perivascular tissue significantly alters stem villi arteries' sensitivity and force development in a suppressive way. This implicates a new aspect of blood flow regulation...

  11. Production and characterisation of whey protein hydrolysate having antioxidant activity from cheese whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athira, Syamala; Mann, Bimlesh; Saini, Prerna; Sharma, Rajan; Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Ashish Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cheese whey is a rich by-product in nutritional terms, possessing components with high biological value, excellent functional properties, and an inert flavour profile. In the present study, mozzarella cheese whey was ultra-filtrated to remove lactose and mineral. The retentate was hydrolysed with food-grade enzyme alcalase and the hydrolysis conditions (pH, temperature and time) were optimised for maximum antioxidant activity using response surface methodology. Whey protein hydrolysed for 8 h at pH 9 and 55 °C showed a maximum antioxidant activity of 1.18 ± 0.015 µmol Trolox mg(-1) protein. The antioxidant peptides were further enriched by ultra-filtration through a 3 kDa membrane. Seven peptides - β-Lg f(123-131), β-Lg f(122-131), β-Lg f(124-131), β-Lg f(123-134), β-Lg f(122-131), β-Lg f(96-100) and β-Lg f(94-100) - were identified by LC-MS/MS in the 3 kDa permeate of the hydrolysate. The incorporation of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) in lemon whey drink (5-10 g L(-1)) increased the antioxidant activity from 76% to 90% as compared to control. Hydrolysis of ultra-filtrated retentate of whey can be an energy- and cost-effective method for the direct production of WPH from whey compared to the industrial production of WPH from whey protein concentrate. This study suggests that WPH with good nutritional and biological properties can be effectively used in health-promoting foods as a biofunctional ingredient. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Relationships between the structure of wheat gluten and ACE inhibitory activity of hydrolysate: stepwise multiple linear regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Ma, Haile; Wang, Bei; Qu, Wenjuan; Wali, Asif; Zhou, Cunshan

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound pretreatment of wheat gluten (WG) before enzymolysis can improve the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates by alerting the structure of substrate proteins. Establishment of a relationship between the structure of WG and ACE inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates to judge the end point of the ultrasonic pretreatment is vital. The results of stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR) showed that the contents of free sulfhydryl, α-helix, disulfide bond, surface hydrophobicity and random coil were significantly correlated to ACE Inhibitory activity of the hydrolysate, with the standard partial regression coefficients were 3.729, -0.676, -0.252, 0.022 and 0.156, respectively. The R(2) of this model was 0.970. External validation showed that the stepwise MLR model could well predict the ACE inhibitory activity of hydrolysate based on the content of free sulfhydryl, α-helix, disulfide bond, surface hydrophobicity and random coil of WG before hydrolysis. A stepwise multiple linear regression model describing the quantitative relationships between the structure of WG and the ACE Inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates was established. This model can be used to predict the endpoint of the ultrasonic pretreatment. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Vascular function in health, hypertension, and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Gliemann, Lasse; Hellsten, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    muscle, which can affect muscle function. Central aspects in the vascular impairments are alterations in the formation of prostacyclin, the bioavailability of NO and an increased formation of vasoconstrictors and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Regular physical activity effectively improves vascular......, the increase in muscle blood flow required for oxygen supply during exercise is achieved through a substantial increase in vasodilators locally formed in the active muscle tissue that overcome the vasoconstrictor signals. Most of the vasodilator signals are mediated via endothelial cells, which lead...... to the formation of vasodilators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin. In essential hypertension and type II diabetes, the endothelial function and regulation of vascular tone is impaired with consequent increases in peripheral vascular resistance and inadequate regulation of oxygen supply to the skeletal...

  14. IMPACT OF ADULTERATION WITH GLUCOSE, FRUCTOSE AND HYDROLYSED INULIN SYRUP ON HONEY PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina ROPCIUC; Mircea OROIAN; Vlad OLARIU

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the adulteration with glucose, fructose, hydrolysed inulin syrup on honey physico-chemical properties (pH, aw, electrical conductivity (EC), water activity and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*, chroma)) of three honey samples of different botanical origins (acacia, tilia and polyfloral). The honeys were adulterated in different percentages (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% respectively) with glucose, fructose and hydrolysed inulin syrup. The moistu...

  15. Fibrovascular tissue in bilateral juxtafoveal telangiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D; Schatz, H; McDonald, H R; Johnson, R N

    1996-09-01

    To study the natural history and retinal findings associated with the intraretinal and subretinal fibrovascular tissues that develop in the late phases of bilateral juxtafoveal telangiectasis. The records of 10 patients (11 eyes) with bilateral juxtafoveal telangiectasis who developed these fibrovascular tissues were examined. Throughout the follow-up period (average 44 months), only 2 eyes (18%) lost 2 or more lines of vision; the final visual acuities were similar for the eyes both with and without fibrovascular tissues. Sixty-four percent of fibrovascular tissues showed little to no growth. Eyes with fibrovascular tissue commonly had retinal pigment epithelial hyperplasia (72%), draining retinal venules (82%), and retinal vascular distortion (64%). Fibrovascular tissues of bilateral juxtafoveal telangiectasis have little proliferative potential and minimal effects on visual acuity. Nevertheless, these fibrovascular tissues do remodel over time, leading to retinal vascular distortion. Given these benign findings, the role of laser photocoagulation treatment of these tissues is questionable.

  16. Tissue Engineering at the Blood-Contacting Surface: A Review of Challenges and Strategies in Vascular Graft Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Daniel; Jia, Wenkai; Sharma, Dhavan; Fena, Kemin; Wang, Guifang; Goldman, Jeremy; Zhao, Feng

    2018-05-07

    Tissue engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) are beginning to achieve clinical success and hold promise as a source of grafting material when donor grafts are unsuitable or unavailable. Significant technological advances have generated small-diameter TEVGs that are mechanically stable and promote functional remodeling by regenerating host cells. However, developing a biocompatible blood-contacting surface remains a major challenge. The TEVG luminal surface must avoid negative inflammatory responses and thrombogenesis immediately upon implantation and promote endothelialization. The surface has therefore become a primary focus for research and development efforts. The current state of TEVGs is herein reviewed with an emphasis on the blood-contacting surface. General vascular physiology and developmental challenges and strategies are briefly described, followed by an overview of the materials currently employed in TEVGs. The use of biodegradable materials and stem cells requires careful control of graft composition, degradation behavior, and cell recruitment ability to ensure that a physiologically relevant vessel structure is ultimately achieved. The establishment of a stable monolayer of endothelial cells and the quiescence of smooth muscle cells are critical to the maintenance of patency. Several strategies to modify blood-contacting surfaces to resist thrombosis and control cellular recruitment are reviewed, including coatings of biomimetic peptides and heparin. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Lactic acid production on brewers' spent grain hydrolysate by lactobacillus Rhamnosus and Lactobacillus fermentum

    OpenAIRE

    Pejin, Jelena; Mojović, Ljiljana; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Radosavljević, Miloš; Đukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Nikolić, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Brewers' spent grain (BSG) is the major by-product of the brewing industry, representing around 85% of the total by-products generated. Per 100 L of beer produced 20 kg of brewer's spent grain are obtained. BSG is a lignocellulosic material and due to its high content of protein and fibre, it can also serve as a raw material in biotechnology i.e. in lactic acid production. In this study brewer's spent grain hydrolysate was produced using optimal conditions. Hydrolysates were used for lactic a...

  18. Antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates from raw and heat-treated yellow string beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaś, Monika; Jakubczyk, Anna; Szymanowska, Urszula; Materska, Małgorzata; Zielińska, Ewelina

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, legume plants have been considered not only a source of valuable proteins necessary for the proper functioning and growth of the body but also a source of bioactive compounds such as bioactive peptides, that may be beneficial to human health and protect against negative change in food. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heat treatment on the release of antioxidant peptides obtained by hydrolysis of the yellow string beans protein. The antioxidant properties of the hydrolysates were evaluated through free radical scavenging activities (DPPH and ABTS) and inhibition of iron activities (chelation of Fe2+). The results show that the heat treatment had influence on both increased peptides content and antioxidant activity after pepsin hydrolysis of string bean protein. The peptides content after protein hydrolysis derived from raw and heat treated beans were noted 2.10 and 2.50 mg·ml-1, respectively. The hydrolysates obtained from raw (PHR) and heat treated (PHT) beans showed better antioxidant properties than protein isolates (PIR and PIT). Moreover, the hydrolysates obtained from heat treated beans showed the higher ability to scavenge DPPH• (46.12%) and ABTS+• (92.32%) than obtained from raw beans (38.02% and 88.24%, correspondingly). The IC50 value for Fe2+ chelating ability for pepsin hydrolysates obtained from raw and heat treatment beans were noted 0.81 and 0.19 mg·ml-1, respectively. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that the heat treatment string beans caused increase in the antioxidant activities of peptide-rich hydrolysates.

  19. Growth of oleaginous Rhodotorula glutinis in an internal-loop airlift bioreactor by using lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysate as the carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Chang, Jung-Tzu

    2015-05-01

    The conversion of abundant lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) to valuable compounds has become a very attractive idea recently. This study successfully used LCB (rice straw) hydrolysate as a carbon source for the cultivation of oleaginous yeast-Rhodotorula glutinis in an airlift bioreactor. The lipid content of 34.3 ± 0.6% was obtained in an airlift batch with 60 g reducing sugars/L of LCB hydrolysate at a 2 vvm aeration rate. While using LCB hydrolysate as the carbon source, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) were the predominant fatty acids of the microbial lipids. Using LCB hydrolysate in the airlift bioreactor at 2 vvm achieved the highest cell mass growth as compared to the agitation tank. Despite the low lipid content of the batch using LCB hydrolysate, this low cost feedstock has the potential of being adopted for the production of β-carotene instead of lipid accumulation in the airlift bioreactor for the cultivation of R. glutinis. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Local vascular adaptations after hybrid training in spinal cord-injured subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Heesterbeek, P.J.C.; Kuppevelt, D. van; Duysens, J.E.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: Studies investigating vascular adaptations in non-exercised areas during whole body exercise training show conflicting results. Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) provide a unique model to examine vascular adaptations in active tissue vs adjacent inactive areas. The purpose of this

  1. Substitution of the radiation requirement for sporulation by host tissue in Dendrophoma obscurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, F.L.; Lilly, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    Cultures of Dendrophoma obscurans growing on a 10--2 glucose-casein hydrolysate medium required radiation for sporulation. When leaf discs from host tissue or certain plants, particularly members of the Rosaceae, were added to the basal medium, sporulation occurred abundantly in darkness on the leaf surface. The ability to replace the radiation requirement for sporulation did not occur with all plant tissue tested. The active substance in powdered host tissue could be extracted with certain organic solvents but not with water. This crude extract could be concentrated, autoclaved, and when added to the basal medium supported sporulation in darkness

  2. Characterization of Peptides Found in Unprocessed and Extruded Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus Pepsin/Pancreatin Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Montoya-Rodríguez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize peptides found in unprocessed amaranth hydrolysates (UAH and extruded amaranth hydrolysates (EAH and to determine the effect of the hydrolysis time on the profile of peptides produced. Amaranth grain was extruded in a single screw extruder at 125 °C of extrusion temperature and 130 rpm of screw speed. Unprocessed and extruded amaranth flour were hydrolyzed with pepsin/pancreatin enzymes following a kinetic at 10, 25, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min for each enzyme. After 180 min of pepsin hydrolysis, aliquots were taken at each time during pancreatin hydrolysis to characterize the hydrolysates by MALDI-TOF/MS-MS. Molecular masses (MM (527, 567, 802, 984, 1295, 1545, 2034 and 2064 Da of peptides appeared consistently during hydrolysis, showing high intensity at 10 min (2064 Da, 120 min (802 Da and 180 min (567 Da in UAH. EAH showed high intensity at 10 min (2034 Da and 120 min (984, 1295 and 1545 Da. Extrusion produced more peptides with MM lower than 1000 Da immediately after 10 min of hydrolysis. Hydrolysis time impacted on the peptide profile, as longer the time lower the MM in both amaranth hydrolysates. Sequences obtained were analyzed for their biological activity at BIOPEP, showing important inhibitory activities related to chronic diseases. These peptides could be used as a food ingredient/supplement in a healthy diet to prevent the risk to develop chronic diseases.

  3. Xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase activities of Candida guilliermondii as a function of different treatments of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate employing experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Lourdes A; Vitolo, Michele; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; de Almeida e Silva, João Batista

    2002-01-01

    The sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate, which is rich in xylose, can be used as culture medium for Candida guilliermondii in xylitol production. However, the hydrolysate obtained from bagasse by acid hydrolysis at 120 degrees C for 20 min has by-products (acetic acid and furfural, among others), which are toxic to the yeast over certain concentrations. So, the hydrolysate must be pretreated before using in fermentation. The pretreatment variables considered were: adsorption time (15,37.5, and 60 min), type of acid used (H2So4 and H3Po4), hydrolysate concentration (original, twofold, and fourfold concentrated), and active charcoal (0.5, 1.75 and 3.0%). The suitability of the pretreatment was followed by measuring the xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XD) activity of yeast grown in each treated hydrolysate. The response surface methodology (2(4) full factorial design with a centered face) indicated that the hydrolysate might be concentrated fourfold and the pH adjusted to 7.0 with CaO, followed by reduction to 5.5 with H3PO4. After that it was treated with active charcoal (3.0%) by 60 min. This pretreated hydrolysate attained the high XR/XD ratio of 4.5.

  4. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batagini, Nayara Cioffi; Gornik, Heather; Kirksey, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (VEDS) is a rare autosomal dominant collagen vascular disorder. Different from other Ehler-Danlos Syndrome subtypes, VEDS has poor prognosis due to severe fragility of connective tissues and association with life-threatening vascular and gastrointestinal complications. Spontaneous splenic rupture is a rare but hazardous complication related to this syndrome. To date, only 2 cases have been reported in the literature. Here we present another case of this uncommon complication, occurring in a 54-year-old woman in clinical follow-up for VEDS who presented with sudden onset of abdominal pain and hypotension. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Hydrolysates of Fish Skin Collagen: An Opportunity for Valorizing Fish Industry Byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, María; Vázquez, José Antonio; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo I; Sotelo, Carmen G

    2017-05-05

    During fish processing operations, such as skinning and filleting, the removal of collagen-containing materials can account for up to 30% of the total fish byproducts. Collagen is the main structural protein in skin, representing up to 70% of dry weight depending on the species, age and season. It has a wide range of applications including cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food industry, and medical. In the present work, collagen was obtained by pepsin extraction from the skin of two species of teleost and two species of chondrychtyes with yields varying between 14.16% and 61.17%. The storage conditions of the skins appear to influence these collagen extractions yields. Pepsin soluble collagen (PSC) was enzymatically hydrolyzed and the resultant hydrolysates were ultrafiltrated and characterized. Electrophoretic patterns showed the typical composition of type I collagen, with denaturation temperatures ranged between 23 °C and 33 °C. In terms of antioxidant capacity, results revealed significant intraspecific differences between hydrolysates, retentate, and permeate fractions when using β -Carotene and DPPH methods and also showed interspecies differences between those fractions when using DPPH and ABTS methods. Under controlled conditions, PSC hydrolysates from Prionace glauca , Scyliorhinus canicula , Xiphias gladius, and Thunnus albacares provide a valuable source of peptides with antioxidant capacities constituting a feasible way to efficiently upgrade fish skin biomass.

  6. Vascular remodeling and mineralocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, K T; Sun, Y; Campbell, S E; Slight, S H; Ganjam, V K

    1995-01-01

    Circulating mineralocorticoid hormones are so named because of their important homeostatic properties that regulate salt and water balance via their action on epithelial cells. A broader range of functions in nonclassic target cellular sites has been proposed for these steroids and includes their contribution to wound healing following injury. A chronic, inappropriate (relative to intravascular volume and dietary sodium intake) elevation of these circulating hormones evokes a wound healing response in the absence of tissue injury--a wound healing response gone awry. The adverse remodeling of vascularized tissues seen in association with chronic mineralocorticoid excess is the focus of this review.

  7. Using biplanar fluoroscopy to guide radiopaque vascular injections: a new method for vascular imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley D O'Brien

    Full Text Available Studying vascular anatomy, especially in the context of relationships with hard tissues, is of great interest to biologists. Vascular studies have provided significant insight into physiology, function, phylogenetic relationships, and evolutionary patterns. Injection of resin or latex into the vascular system has been a standard technique for decades. There has been a recent surge in popularity of more modern methods, especially radiopaque latex vascular injection followed by CT scanning and digital "dissection." This technique best displays both blood vessels and bone, and allows injections to be performed on cadaveric specimens. Vascular injection is risky, however, because it is not a standardizable technique, as each specimen is variable with regard to injection pressure and timing. Moreover, it is not possible to view the perfusion of injection medium throughout the vascular system of interest. Both data and rare specimens can therefore be lost due to poor or excessive perfusion. Here, we use biplanar video fluoroscopy as a technique to guide craniovascular radiopaque latex injection. Cadaveric domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus were injected with radiopaque latex under guidance of fluoroscopy. This method was found to enable adjustments, in real-time, to the rate, location, and pressure at which latex is injected in order to avoid data and specimen loss. In addition to visualizing the injection process, this technique can be used to determine flow patterns, and has facilitated the development of consistent markers for complete perfusion.

  8. The Hepatic Lymphatic Vascular System: Structure, Function, Markers, and LymphangiogenesisSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatake Tanaka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The lymphatic vascular system has been minimally explored in the liver despite its essential functions including maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis. The discovery of specific markers for lymphatic endothelial cells has advanced the study of lymphatics by methods including imaging, cell isolation, and transgenic animal models and has resulted in rapid progress in lymphatic vascular research during the last decade. These studies have yielded concrete evidence that lymphatic vessel dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. This article reviews the current knowledge of the structure, function, and markers of the hepatic lymphatic vascular system as well as factors associated with hepatic lymphangiogenesis and compares liver lymphatics with those in other tissues. Keywords: VEGF, Inflammation, Cirrhosis, Portal Hypertension

  9. Hydraulic efficiency and safety of vascular and non-vascular components in Pinus pinaster leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Badel, Eric; Burlett, Régis; Cochard, Hervé; Delzon, Sylvain; Mayr, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    Leaves, the distal section of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum, exhibit the lowest water potentials in a plant. In contrast to angiosperm leaves, knowledge of the hydraulic architecture of conifer needles is scant. We investigated the hydraulic efficiency and safety of Pinus pinaster needles, comparing different techniques. The xylem hydraulic conductivity (k(s)) and embolism vulnerability (P(50)) of both needle and stem were measured using the cavitron technique. The conductance and vulnerability of whole needles were measured via rehydration kinetics, and Cryo-SEM and 3D X-ray microtomographic observations were used as reference tools to validate physical measurements. The needle xylem of P. pinaster had lower hydraulic efficiency (k(s) = 2.0 × 10(-4) m(2) MPa(-1) s(-1)) and safety (P(50) = - 1.5 MPa) than stem xylem (k(s) = 7.7 × 10(-4) m(2) MPa(-1) s(-1); P(50) = - 3.6 to - 3.2 MPa). P(50) of whole needles (both extra-vascular and vascular pathways) was - 0.5 MPa, suggesting that non-vascular tissues were more vulnerable than the xylem. During dehydration to - 3.5 MPa, collapse and embolism in xylem tracheids, and gap formation in surrounding tissues were observed. However, a discrepancy in hydraulic and acoustic results appeared compared with visualizations, arguing for greater caution with these techniques when applied to needles. Our results indicate that the most distal parts of the water transport pathway are limiting for hydraulics of P. pinaster. Needle tissues exhibit a low hydraulic efficiency and low hydraulic safety, but may also act to buffer short-term water deficits, thus preventing xylem embolism.

  10. Identifying inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates using an exometabolomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zha, Y.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Muilwijk, B.; Overkamp, K.M.; Nijmeijer, B.M.; Coulier, L.; Smilde, A.K.; Punt, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inhibitors are formed that reduce the fermentation performance of fermenting yeast during the pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. An exometabolomics approach was applied to systematically identify inhibitors in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates.Results: We studied the

  11. Identifying inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates using an exometabolomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zha, Y.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Muilwijk, B.; Overkamp, K.M.; Nijmeijer, B.M.; Coulier, L.; Smilde, A.K.; Punt, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inhibitors are formed that reduce the fermentation performance of fermenting yeast during the pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. An exometabolomics approach was applied to systematically identify inhibitors in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates. RESULTS: We studied the

  12. Bio-mimetic mineralization potential of collagen hydrolysate obtained from chromium tanned leather waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Pradipta; Madhu, S.; Chandra Babu, N.K.; Shanthi, C.

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics serve as an alternative to autogenous-free bone grafting by virtue of their excellent biocompatibility. However, chemically synthesized HA lacks the strong load-bearing capacity as required by bone. The bio-mimetic growth of HA crystals on collagen surface provides a feasible solution for synthesizing bone substitutes with the desired properties. This study deals with the utilization of the collagen hydrolysate recovered from leather waste as a substrate for promoting HA crystal growth. Bio-mimetic growth of HA was induced by subjecting the hydrolysate to various mineralization conditions. Parameters that would have a direct effect on crystal growth were varied to determine the optimal conditions necessary. Maximum mineralization was achieved with a combination of 10 mM of CaCl 2 , 5 mM of Na 2 HPO 4 , 100 mM of NaCl and 0.575% glutaraldehyde at a pH of 7.4. The metal–protein interactions leading to formation of HA were identified through Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The crystal dimensions were determined to be in the nanoscale range by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The size and crystallinity of bio-mimetically grown HA indicate that hydrolysate from leather waste can be used as an ideal alternative substrate for bone growth. - Highlights: • Collagen hydrolysate, extracted from leather industry waste is subjected to biomineralization. • Optimal conditions required for HA growth are identified. • FTIR studies reveal higher Ca−COO − and low C−N stretch with higher HA formation. • AFM and SEM studies reveal nanometer ranged HA crystals

  13. Evaluation of five DNA extraction methods for purification of DNA from atherosclerotic tissue and estimation of prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in tissue from a Danish population undergoing vascular repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindholt Jes S

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date PCR detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA in atherosclerotic lesions from Danish patients has been unsuccessful. To establish whether non-detection was caused by a suboptimal DNA extraction method, we tested five different DNA extraction methods for purification of DNA from atherosclerotic tissue. Results The five different DNA extraction methods were tested on homogenate of atherosclerotic tissue spiked with C. pneumoniae DNA or EB, on pure C. pneumoniae DNA samples and on whole C. pneumoniae EB. Recovery of DNA was measured with a C. pneumoniae-specific quantitative real-time PCR. A DNA extraction method based on DNA-binding to spin columns with a silica-gel membrane (DNeasy Tissue kit showed the highest recovery rate for the tissue samples and pure DNA samples. However, an automated extraction method based on magnetic glass particles (MagNA Pure performed best on intact EB and atherosclerotic tissue spiked with EB. The DNeasy Tissue kit and MagNA Pure methods and the highly sensitive real-time PCR were subsequently used on 78 atherosclerotic tissue samples from Danish patients undergoing vascular repair. None of the samples were positive for C. pneumoniae DNA. The atherosclerotic samples were tested for inhibition by spiking with two different, known amounts of C. pneumoniae DNA and no samples showed inhibition. Conclusion As a highly sensitive PCR method and an optimised DNA extraction method were used, non-detection in atherosclerotic tissue from the Danish population was probably not caused by use of inappropriate methods. However, more samples may need to be analysed per patient to be completely certain on this. Possible methodological and epidemiological reasons for non-detection of C. pneumoniae DNA in atherosclerotic tissue from the Danish population are discussed. Further testing of DNA extraction methods is needed as this study has shown considerable intra- and inter-method variation in DNA recovery.

  14. A bHLH-Based Feedback Loop Restricts Vascular Cell Proliferation in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Sirera, Francisco; De Rybel, Bert; Úrbez, Cristina; Kouklas, Evangelos; Pesquera, Marta; Álvarez-Mahecha, Juan Camilo; Minguet, Eugenio G; Tuominen, Hannele; Carbonell, Juan; Borst, Jan Willem; Weijers, Dolf; Blázquez, Miguel A

    2015-11-23

    Control of tissue dimensions in multicellular organisms requires the precise quantitative regulation of mitotic activity. In plants, where cells are immobile, tissue size is achieved through control of both cell division orientation and mitotic rate. The bHLH transcription factor heterodimer formed by target of monopteros5 (TMO5) and lonesome highway (LHW) is a central regulator of vascular width-increasing divisions. An important unanswered question is how its activity is limited to specify vascular tissue dimensions. Here we identify a regulatory network that restricts TMO5/LHW activity. We show that thermospermine synthase ACAULIS5 antagonizes TMO5/LHW activity by promoting the accumulation of SAC51-LIKE (SACL) bHLH transcription factors. SACL proteins heterodimerize with LHW-therefore likely competing with TMO5/LHW interactions-prevent activation of TMO5/LHW target genes, and suppress the over-proliferation caused by excess TMO5/LHW activity. These findings connect two thus-far disparate pathways and provide a mechanistic understanding of the quantitative control of vascular tissue growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vascular lumen formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Eckhard; Axnick, Jennifer

    2012-04-01

    The vascular system developed early in evolution. It is required in large multicellular organisms for the transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products to and from tissues. The vascular system is composed of hollow tubes, which have a high level of complexity in vertebrates. Vasculogenesis describes the de novo formation of blood vessels, e.g., aorta formation in vertebrate embryogenesis. In contrast, angiogenesis is the formation of blood vessels from preexisting ones, e.g., sprouting of intersomitic blood vessels from the aorta. Importantly, the lumen of all blood vessels in vertebrates is lined and formed by endothelial cells. In both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, lumen formation takes place in a cord of endothelial cells. It involves a complex molecular mechanism composed of endothelial cell repulsion at the cell-cell contacts within the endothelial cell cords, junctional rearrangement, and endothelial cell shape change. As the vascular system also participates in the course of many diseases, such as cancer, stroke, and myocardial infarction, it is important to understand and make use of the molecular mechanisms of blood vessel formation to better understand and manipulate the pathomechanisms involved.

  16. Efficient production of 2,3-butanediol from corn stover hydrolysate by using a thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixiang; Li, Kun; Wang, Kai; Chen, Chao; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis strain X10 was newly isolated for 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. Strain X10 could utilize glucose and xylose simultaneously without carbon catabolite repression. In addition, strain X10 possesses high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors including furfural, vanillin, formic acid, and acetic acid. In a fed-batch fermentation, 74.0g/L of 2,3-BD was obtained from corn stover hydrolysate, with a productivity of 2.1g/Lh and a yield of 94.6%. Thus, this thermophilic B. licheniformis strain is a candidate for the development of efficient industrial production of 2,3-BD from corn stover hydrolysate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kosterin, Paul [Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Salzberg, Brian M. [Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M. [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Thom, Stephen R., E-mail: sthom@smail.umaryland.edu [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: • Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. • MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. • CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. • Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice.

  18. Impact of Power Ultrasound on Antihypertensive Activity, Functional Properties, and Thermal Stability of Rapeseed Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Wali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of power ultrasound pretreatments on the degree of hydrolysis (DH, angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activity, amino acid composition, surface hydrophobicity, protein solubility, and thermal stability of ACE inhibition of rapeseed protein hydrolysates were evaluated. Ultrasonic pretreatments before enzymolysis in terms of power and exposure time increased the DH and ACE inhibitory activities over the control (without sonication. In this study, maximum DH 22.07% and ACE inhibitory activity 72.13% were achieved at 600 W and 12 min pretreatment. Compared to the hydrolysates obtained without sonication, the amino acid profile of ultrasound pretreated hydrolysates showed significant changes particularly in the proline content and hydrophobic amino acids with an increased rate of 2.47% and 6.31%, respectively. Ultrasound pretreatment (600 watts, 12 min improved functional properties of protein hydrolysates over control by enhancing surface hydrophobicity and solubility index with an increased rate of 130.76% and 34.22%. Moreover, the stability test showed that the ACE inhibitory activity remains stable against heat treatments. However, extensive heat, prolonged heating time, and alkaline conditions were not in the favor of stability test, while under mild heat and acidic conditions their ACE inhibitory activities were not significantly different from unheated samples.

  19. Ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates using engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae harboring xylose isomerase-based pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ja Kyong; Um, Youngsoon; Woo, Han Min; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Lee, Sun-Mi

    2016-06-01

    The efficient co-fermentation of glucose and xylose is necessary for the economically feasible bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Even with xylose utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the efficiency of the lignocellulosic ethanol production remains suboptimal mainly due to the low conversion yield of xylose to ethanol. In this study, we evaluated the co-fermentation performances of SXA-R2P-E, a recently engineered isomerase-based xylose utilizing strain, in mixed sugars and in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. In a high-sugar fermentation with 70g/L of glucose and 40g/L of xylose, SXA-R2P-E produced 50g/L of ethanol with an yield of 0.43gethanol/gsugars at 72h. From dilute acid-pretreated hydrolysates of rice straw and hardwood (oak), the strain produced 18-21g/L of ethanol with among the highest yield of 0.43-0.46gethanol/gsugars ever reported. This study shows a highly promising potential of a xylose isomerase-expressing strain as an industrially relevant ethanol producer from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. PURIFICATION OF ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORY PEPTIDE DERIVED FROM KACANG GOAT MEAT PROTEIN HYDROLYSATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jamhari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE inhibitorypeptide derived from Kacang goat meat protein hydrolysate. Kacang goat meat loin section washydrolyzed with pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. Protein hydrolysate of Kacang goat meat was thentested the protein concentration and ACE inhibitory activity. ACE inhibitory peptide of the proteinhydrolysate was purified through several steps of purification by column SEP-PAK Plus C18 Cartridgeand RP-HPLC using a Cosmosil column 5PE-SM, 4.6 x 250 mm. The sequence of amino acid of ACEinhibitory peptide was identified by amino acid sequencer. The results showed that amino acidssequence of ACE inhibitory peptide derived from protein hydrolysate of Kacang goat meat was leu-thrglu-ala-pro-leu-asn-pro-lys-ala-arg- asn-glu-lys. It had a molecular weight (MW of 1581 and occurredat the position of 20th to 33rd residues of b-actin of goat meat protein (Capra hircus. The ACE inhibitoryactivity (IC50 of the peptide was 190 mg/mL or 120 mM.

  1. Fish skin gelatin hydrolysates produced by visceral peptidase and bovine trypsin: Bioactivity and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketnawa, Sunantha; Benjakul, Soottawat; Martínez-Alvarez, Oscar; Rawdkuen, Saroat

    2017-01-15

    The peptidase from the viscera of farmed giant catfish was used for producing gelatin hydrolysates (HG) and compared with those produced from commercial bovine trypsin (HB). The degree of hydrolysis (DH) observed suggests that proteolytic cleavage rapidly occurred within the first 120min of incubation, and there was higher DH in HG than in HB. HG demonstrated the highest ACE-inhibitory activity, DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activity, and FRAP. HB showed the highest FRAP activity. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of HG was quite stable over the pH range of 1-11, but it increased slightly when the heating duration time reached 240min at 100°C. The ACE-inhibitory activity of HG showed the highest stability at a pH of 7, and it remained very stable at 100°C for over 15-240min. The visceral peptidase from farmed giant catfish could be an alternative protease for generating protein hydrolysates with desirable bioactivities. The resulting hydrolysates showed good stability, making them potential functional ingredients for food formulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Viral haemorrhagic fever and vascular alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrowicz, P; Wolf, K; Falzarano, D; Feldmann, H; Seebach, J; Schnittler, H

    2008-02-01

    Pathogenesis of viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF) is closely associated with alterations of the vascular system. Among the virus families causing VHF, filoviruses (Marburg and Ebola) are the most fatal, and will be focused on here. After entering the body, Ebola primarily targets monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells. Infected dendritic cells are largely impaired in their activation potency, likely contributing to the immune suppression that occurs during filovirus infection. Monocytes/macrophages, however, immediately activate after viral contact and release reasonable amounts of cytokines that target the vascular system, particularly the endothelial cells. Some underlying molecular mechanisms such as alteration of the vascular endothelial cadherin/catenin complex, tyrosine phosphorylation, expression of cell adhesion molecules, tissue factor and the effect of soluble viral proteins released from infected cells to the blood stream will be discussed.

  3. An interlaboratory comparison of the performance of ethanol-producing micro-organisms in a xylose-rich acid hydrolysate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B. (Dept. of Applied Microbiology, Lund Inst. of Technology/Univ. of Lund (Sweden)); Jeppsson, H. (Dept. of Applied Microbiology, Lund Inst. of Technology/Univ. of Lund (Sweden)); Olsson, L. (Dept. of Applied Microbiology, Lund Inst. of Technology/Univ. of Lund (Sweden)); Mohagheghi, A. (Bioprocess and Fuels Engineering Research Branch, National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States))

    1994-03-01

    A xylose-rich, dilute-acid-pretreated corn-cob hydrolysate was fermented by Escherichia coli ATCC 11303, recombinant (rec) E. coli B (pLOI 297 and KO11), Pichia stipitis (CBS 5773, 6054 and R), Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolate 3 in combination with xylose isomerase, rec S. cerevisiae (TJ1, H550 and H477) and Fusarium oxysporum VTT-D-80134 in an interlaboratory comparison. The micro-organisms were studied according to three different options: (A) fermentation under consistent conditions. (B) fermentation under optimal conditions for the organism, and (C) fermentation under optimal conditions for the organism with detoxification of the hydrolysate. The highest yields of ethanol, 0.24 g/g (A), 0.36 g/g (B) and 0.54 g/g (C), were obtained from rec E. coli B, KO11. P. stipitis and F. oxysporum were sensitive to the inhibitors present in the hydrolysate and produced a maximum yield of 0.34 g/g (C) and 0.04 g/g (B), respectively. The analysis of the corn-cob hydrolysate and aspects of process economy of the different fermentation options (pH, sterilization, nutrient supplementation, adaptation, detoxification) are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Regulatory mechanisms of anthrax toxin receptor 1-dependent vascular and connective tissue homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besschetnova, Tatiana Y; Ichimura, Takaharu; Katebi, Negin; St Croix, Brad; Bonventre, Joseph V; Olsen, Bjorn R

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that angiogenesis is linked to fibrotic processes in fibroproliferative diseases, but insights into pathophysiological processes are limited, due to lack of understanding of molecular mechanisms controlling endothelial and fibroblastic homeostasis. We demonstrate here that the matrix receptor anthrax toxin receptor 1 (ANTXR1), also known as tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8), is an essential component of these mechanisms. Loss of TEM8 function in mice causes reduced synthesis of endothelial basement membrane components and hyperproliferative and leaky blood vessels in skin. In addition, endothelial cell alterations in mutants are almost identical to those of endothelial cells in infantile hemangioma lesions, including activated VEGF receptor signaling in endothelial cells, increased expression of the downstream targets VEGF and CXCL12, and increased numbers of macrophages and mast cells. In contrast, loss of TEM8 in fibroblasts leads to increased rates of synthesis of fiber-forming collagens, resulting in progressive fibrosis in skin and other organs. Compromised interactions between TEM8-deficient endothelial and fibroblastic cells cause dramatic reduction in the activity of the matrix-degrading enzyme MMP2. In addition to insights into mechanisms of connective tissue homeostasis, our data provide molecular explanations for vascular and connective tissue abnormalities in GAPO syndrome, caused by loss-of-function mutations in ANTXR1. Furthermore, the loss of MMP2 activity suggests that fibrotic skin abnormalities in GAPO syndrome are, in part, the consequence of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying syndromes (NAO, Torg and Winchester) with multicentric skin nodulosis and osteolysis caused by homozygous loss-of-function mutations in MMP2. Copyright © 2014 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Gastric emptying, gastric secretion and enterogastrone response after administration of milk proteins or their peptide hydrolysates in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, Jose A L; Holst, Jens Juul

    2004-01-01

    peptide hydrolysate (WHY) or casein hydrolysate (CAHY). All solutions were matched for volume (600 mL), nitrogen content (9.3 g/L), energy density (1069-1092 kJ/L), osmolality (288-306 mosmol/kg), pH (6.9-7.0) and temperature (37 degrees C). RESULTS: Solutions were emptied at similar rates, with mean half...

  6. Process for calcium xylonate production as a concrete admixture derived from in-situ fermentation of wheat straw pre-hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Zhou, Xuelian; Tang, Xiusheng; Xu, Yong

    2018-08-01

    One of the major obstacles in process of lignocellulosic biorefinery is the utilization of pre-hydrolysate from pre-treatment. Although lignocellulosic pre-hydrolysate can serve as an economic starting material for xylonic acid production, the advancement of xylonic acid or xylonate is still limited by further commercial value or applications. In the present study, xylose in the high concentration wheat straw pre-hydrolysate was first in-situ biooxidized to xylonate by Gluconobacter oxydans. To meet the needs of commercialization, crude powdered calcium xylonate was prepared by drying process and calcium xylonate content in the prepared crude product was more than 70%. Then, the calcium xylonate product was evaluated as concrete admixture without any complex purification steps and the results demonstrated that xylonate could improve the performance of concrete. Overall, the crude xylonate product directly produced from low-cost wheat straw pre-hydrolysate can potentially be developed as retarding reducer, which could subsequently benefit lignocellulosic biorefinery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Removal and recovery of acetic acid and two furans during sugar purification of simulated phenols-free biomass hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Cheol

    2017-12-01

    A cost-effective five-step sugar purification process involving simultaneous removal and recovery of fermentation inhibitors from biomass hydrolysates was first proposed here. Only the three separation steps (PB, PC and PD) in the process were investigated here. Furfural was selectively removed up to 98.4% from a simulated five-component hydrolysate in a cross-current three-stage extraction system with n-hexane. Most of acetic acid in a simulated four-component hydrolysate was selectively removed by emulsion liquid membrane, and it could be concentrated in the stripping solution up to 4.5 times its initial concentration in the feed solution. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural was selectively removed from a simulated three-component hydrolysate in batch and continuous fixed-bed column adsorption systems with L-493 adsorbent. Also, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural could be concentrated to about 9 times its feed concentration in the continuous adsorption system through a fixed-bed column desorption experiment with aqueous ethanol solution. These results have shown that the proposed purification process was valid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biased visualization of hypoperfused tissue by computed tomography due to short imaging duration: improved classification by image down-sampling and vascular models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, Irene Klaerke; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard; Bekke, Susanne Lise; Tietze, Anna; Oestergaard, Leif; Mouridsen, Kim [Aarhus University Hospital, Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus C (Denmark); Jones, P.S.; Alawneh, Josef [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Puig, Josep; Pedraza, Salva [Dr. Josep Trueta Girona University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Girona Biomedical Research Institute, Girona (Spain); Gillard, Jonathan H. [University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Warburton, Elisabeth A. [Cambrigde University Hospitals, Addenbrooke, Stroke Unit, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Baron, Jean-Claude [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Centre Hospitalier Sainte Anne, INSERM U894, Paris (France)

    2015-07-15

    Lesion detection in acute stroke by computed-tomography perfusion (CTP) can be affected by incomplete bolus coverage in veins and hypoperfused tissue, so-called bolus truncation (BT), and low contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). We examined the BT-frequency and hypothesized that image down-sampling and a vascular model (VM) for perfusion calculation would improve normo- and hypoperfused tissue classification. CTP datasets from 40 acute stroke patients were retrospectively analysed for BT. In 16 patients with hypoperfused tissue but no BT, repeated 2-by-2 image down-sampling and uniform filtering was performed, comparing CNR to perfusion-MRI levels and tissue classification to that of unprocessed data. By simulating reduced scan duration, the minimum scan-duration at which estimated lesion volumes came within 10 % of their true volume was compared for VM and state-of-the-art algorithms. BT in veins and hypoperfused tissue was observed in 9/40 (22.5 %) and 17/40 patients (42.5 %), respectively. Down-sampling to 128 x 128 resolution yielded CNR comparable to MR data and improved tissue classification (p = 0.0069). VM reduced minimum scan duration, providing reliable maps of cerebral blood flow and mean transit time: 5 s (p = 0.03) and 7 s (p < 0.0001), respectively. BT is not uncommon in stroke CTP with 40-s scan duration. Applying image down-sampling and VM improve tissue classification. (orig.)

  9. Biased visualization of hypoperfused tissue by computed tomography due to short imaging duration: improved classification by image down-sampling and vascular models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, Irene Klaerke; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard; Bekke, Susanne Lise; Tietze, Anna; Oestergaard, Leif; Mouridsen, Kim; Jones, P.S.; Alawneh, Josef; Puig, Josep; Pedraza, Salva; Gillard, Jonathan H.; Warburton, Elisabeth A.; Baron, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Lesion detection in acute stroke by computed-tomography perfusion (CTP) can be affected by incomplete bolus coverage in veins and hypoperfused tissue, so-called bolus truncation (BT), and low contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). We examined the BT-frequency and hypothesized that image down-sampling and a vascular model (VM) for perfusion calculation would improve normo- and hypoperfused tissue classification. CTP datasets from 40 acute stroke patients were retrospectively analysed for BT. In 16 patients with hypoperfused tissue but no BT, repeated 2-by-2 image down-sampling and uniform filtering was performed, comparing CNR to perfusion-MRI levels and tissue classification to that of unprocessed data. By simulating reduced scan duration, the minimum scan-duration at which estimated lesion volumes came within 10 % of their true volume was compared for VM and state-of-the-art algorithms. BT in veins and hypoperfused tissue was observed in 9/40 (22.5 %) and 17/40 patients (42.5 %), respectively. Down-sampling to 128 x 128 resolution yielded CNR comparable to MR data and improved tissue classification (p = 0.0069). VM reduced minimum scan duration, providing reliable maps of cerebral blood flow and mean transit time: 5 s (p = 0.03) and 7 s (p < 0.0001), respectively. BT is not uncommon in stroke CTP with 40-s scan duration. Applying image down-sampling and VM improve tissue classification. (orig.)

  10. Viability of the microencapsulation of a casein hydrolysate in lipid microparticles of cupuacu butter and stearic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Cristina Pinho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE Solid lipid microparticles produced with a mixture of cupuacu butter and stearic acid were used to microencapsulate a commercial casein hydrolysate (Hyprol 8052. The composition of the lipid matrix used for the production of the lipid microparticles was chosen according to data on the wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC of bulk lipid mixtures, which indicated that the presence of 10 % cupuacu butter was sufficient to significantly change the crystalline arrangement of pure stearic acid. Preliminary tests indicated that a minimum proportion of 4 % of surfactant (polysorbate 80 was necessary to produce empty spherical lipid particles with average diameters below 10 mm. The lipid microparticles were produced using 20 % cupuacu butter and 80 % stearic acid and then stabilized with 4 % of polysorbate 80, exhibiting an encapsulation efficiency of approximately 74 % of the casein hydrolysate. The melting temperature of the casein hydrolysate-loaded lipid microparticles was detected at 65.2 °C, demonstrating that the particles were solid at room temperature as expected and indicating that the incorporation of peptides had not affected their thermal behavior. After 25 days of storage, however, there was a release of approximately 30 % of the initial amount of encapsulated casein hydrolysate. This release was not thought to have been caused by the liberation of encapsulated casein hydrolysate. Instead, it was attributed to the possible desorption of the adsorbed peptides present on the surface of the lipid microparticles.

  11. Leaf tissues proportion and chemical composition of Axonopus jesuiticus x A. scoparius as a function of pig slurry application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Reschke Lajús

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the chemical and anatomical attributes of leaves of giant missionary grass to application of 0, 62, 124, 186, 248 and 310m³ ha-1 of pig slurry. At 83 days after the last application of fertilizer, the leaf blades were collected, fixed in FAA 70%, sectioned, stained, photographed and digitalized. The transversal section of leaf blades were evaluated for proportion of epidermis, lignified vascular tissue + sclerenchyma, non-lignified vascular tissue and parenchyma with an image-processing system calibrated to 1mm pixel-1. Leaf samples were analyzed for crude protein, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber and hemicellulose content by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. The pig slurry application up to 310m³ ha-1 significantly increased the percentage of crude protein, parenchyma, epidermis, non-lignified vascular tissue and hemicellulose, while decreasing the percentage of acid detergent fiber and lignified vascular tissue + sclerenchyma. The Pearson's correlation was positive between crude protein and non-lignified vascular tissue, and between acid detergent fiber and lignified vascular tissue + sclerenchyma. The percentage of hemicellulose was positively correlated with epidermis, parenchyma and non-lignified vascular tissue. A negative correlation between acid detergent fiber and epidermis, parenchyma and non-lignified vascular tissue was observed.

  12. Engineering Complex Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIKOS, ANTONIOS G.; HERRING, SUSAN W.; OCHAREON, PANNEE; ELISSEEFF, JENNIFER; LU, HELEN H.; KANDEL, RITA; SCHOEN, FREDERICK J.; TONER, MEHMET; MOONEY, DAVID; ATALA, ANTHONY; VAN DYKE, MARK E.; KAPLAN, DAVID; VUNJAK-NOVAKOVIC, GORDANA

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the views expressed at the third session of the workshop “Tissue Engineering—The Next Generation,” which was devoted to the engineering of complex tissue structures. Antonios Mikos described the engineering of complex oral and craniofacial tissues as a “guided interplay” between biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors, and local cell populations toward the restoration of the original architecture and function of complex tissues. Susan Herring, reviewing osteogenesis and vasculogenesis, explained that the vascular arrangement precedes and dictates the architecture of the new bone, and proposed that engineering of osseous tissues might benefit from preconstruction of an appropriate vasculature. Jennifer Elisseeff explored the formation of complex tissue structures based on the example of stratified cartilage engineered using stem cells and hydrogels. Helen Lu discussed engineering of tissue interfaces, a problem critical for biological fixation of tendons and ligaments, and the development of a new generation of fixation devices. Rita Kandel discussed the challenges related to the re-creation of the cartilage-bone interface, in the context of tissue engineered joint repair. Frederick Schoen emphasized, in the context of heart valve engineering, the need for including the requirements derived from “adult biology” of tissue remodeling and establishing reliable early predictors of success or failure of tissue engineered implants. Mehmet Toner presented a review of biopreservation techniques and stressed that a new breakthrough in this field may be necessary to meet all the needs of tissue engineering. David Mooney described systems providing temporal and spatial regulation of growth factor availability, which may find utility in virtually all tissue engineering and regeneration applications, including directed in vitro and in vivo vascularization of tissues. Anthony Atala offered a clinician’s perspective for functional tissue

  13. Bioactivity of Cod and Chicken Protein Hydrolysates before and after in vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamnik, Polona; Istenič, Katja; Wulff, Tune

    2017-01-01

    , where values of cod and chicken were (95.5±1.2) and (90.5±0.7) %, respectively. Neither species nor digestion had any effect on cellular metabolic energy. At proteome level, digested hydrolysates gave again significantly stronger responses than undigested counterparts; cod peptides here also gave...... somewhat stronger response than chicken peptides. The knowledge of the action of food protein hydrolysates and their digests within live cells, also at proteome level, is important for further validation of their activity in higher eukaryotes to develop new products, such as in this case chicken and cod...... muscle-derived peptides as functional ingredients....

  14. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell yield and growth characteristics are affected by the tissue-harvesting procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oedayrajsingh-Varma, M. J.; van Ham, S. M.; Knippenberg, M.; Helder, M. N.; Klein-Nulend, J.; Schouten, T. E.; Ritt, M. J. P. F.; van Milligen, F. J.

    2006-01-01

    Adipose tissue contains a stromal vascular fraction that can be easily isolated and provides a rich source of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC). These ASC are a potential source of cells for tissue engineering. We studied whether the yield and growth characteristics of ASC were

  15. Angiogenesis and vascular targeting: Relevance for hyperthermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsman, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    The creation of a functional blood supply from the normal tissue vasculature via the process of angiogenesis is critical for the continued growth and development of solid tumours. This importance has led to the concept of targeting the tumour vasculature as a therapeutic strategy, and two major...... types of vascular targeting agents (VTAs) have developed; those that inhibit the angiogenic process-angiogenesis inhibiting agents (AIAs)-and those that specifically damage the already established neovasculature-vascular disrupting agents (VDAs). The tumour vasculature also plays a critical role...

  16. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane alters tissue response to implanted Ahmed glaucoma valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCroos, Francis Char; Ahmad, Sameer; Kondo, Yuji; Chow, Jessica; Mordes, Daniel; Lee, Maria Regina; Asrani, Sanjay; Allingham, R Rand; Olbrich, Kevin C; Klitzman, Bruce

    2009-07-01

    Long-term intraocular pressure control by glaucoma drainage implants is compromised by the formation of an avascular fibrous capsule that surrounds the glaucoma implant and increases aqueous outflow resistance. It is possible to alter this fibrotic tissue reaction and produce a more vascularized and potentially more permeable capsule around implanted devices by enclosing them in a porous membrane. Ahmed glaucoma implants modified with an outer 5-microm pore size membrane (termed porous retrofitted implant with modified enclosure or PRIME-Ahmed) and unmodified glaucoma implants were implanted into paired rabbit eyes. After 6 weeks, the devices were explanted and subject to histological analysis. A tissue response containing minimal vascularization, negligible immune response, and a thick fibrous capsule surrounded the unmodified Ahmed glaucoma implant. In comparison, the tissue response around the PRIME-Ahmed demonstrated a thinner fibrous capsule (46.4 +/- 10.8 microm for PRIME-Ahmed versus 94.9 +/- 21.2 microm for control, p vascularized near the tissue-material interface. A prominent chronic inflammatory response was noted as well. Encapsulating the aqueous outflow pathway with a porous membrane produces a more vascular tissue response and thinner fibrous capsule compared with a standard glaucoma implant plate. Enhanced vascularity and a thinner fibrous capsule may reduce aqueous outflow resistance and improve long-term glaucoma implant performance.

  17. Conversion of C6 and C5 sugars in undetoxified wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a potential feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production, rich in both glucan and xylan. This stresses the importance of utilizing both C6 and C5 sugars for conversion into ethanol in order to improve the process economics. During processing of the hydrolysate degradation...... products such as acetate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural are formed, which are known to inhibit microbial growth at higher concentrations. In the current study, conversion of both glucose and xylose sugars into ethanol in wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates was investigated without detoxification...... using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054, a native xylose utilizing yeast strain. The sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield (Yp/s) ranged from 88-100% and 0.33-0.41 ± 0.02 g/g, respectively, in all the hydrolysates tested. Hydrolysate after wet explosion at 185°C and 6 bar O2, composed...

  18. Tissue vascularization with endothelial-like mesenchymal stromal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portalska, K.K.

    2014-01-01

    Although most tissues in the human body have self-renewal capabilities, there are defects, e.g. caused by trauma or disease, which are beyond regenerative potential. Tissue engineering offers a possibility to heal such defects without the necessity of finding a suitable graft donor. While a number

  19. Tissue bioengineering and artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llames, Sara; García, Eva; Otero Hernández, Jesús; Meana, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    The scarcity of organs and tissues for transplant and the need of immunosuppressive drugs to avoid rejection constitute two reasons that justify organ and tissue production in the laboratory. Tissue engineering based tissues (TE) could allow to regenerate the whole organ from a fragment or even to produce several organs from an organ donor for grafting purposes. TE is based in: (1) the ex vivo expansion of cells, (2) the seeding of these expanded cells in tridimensional structures that mimic physiological conditions and, (3) grafting the prototype. In order to graft big structures it is necessary that the organ or tissue produced "ex vivo" bears a vascular tree to ensure the nutrition of its deep layers. At present, no technology has been developed to provide this vascular tree to TE derived products. Thus, these tissues must be thin enough to acquire nutrients during the first days by diffusion from surrounding tissues. This fact constitutes nowadays the greatest limitation of technologies for organ development in the laboratory.In this chapter, all these problems and their possible solutions are commented. Also, the present status of TE techniques in the regeneration of different organ systems is reviewed.

  20. Blood flow responses to mild-intensity exercise in ectopic vs. orthotopic prostate tumors; dependence upon host tissue hemodynamics and vascular reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Emmanuel; Becker, Veronika G C; McCullough, Danielle J; Stabley, John N; Gittemeier, Elizabeth M; Opoku-Acheampong, Alexander B; Sieman, Dietmar W; Behnke, Bradley J

    2016-07-01

    Given the critical role of tumor O2 delivery in patient prognosis and the rise in preclinical exercise oncology studies, we investigated tumor and host tissue blood flow at rest and during exercise as well as vascular reactivity using a rat prostate cancer model grown in two transplantation sites. In male COP/CrCrl rats, blood flow (via radiolabeled microspheres) to prostate tumors [R3327-MatLyLu cells injected in the left flank (ectopic) or ventral prostate (orthotopic)] and host tissue was measured at rest and during a bout of mild-intensity exercise. α-Adrenergic vasoconstriction to norepinephrine (NE: 10(-9) to 10(-4) M) was determined in arterioles perforating the tumors and host tissue. To determine host tissue exercise hyperemia in healthy tissue, a sham-operated group was included. Blood flow was lower at rest and during exercise in ectopic tumors and host tissue (subcutaneous adipose) vs. the orthotopic tumor and host tissue (prostate). During exercise, blood flow to the ectopic tumor significantly decreased by 25 ± 5% (SE), whereas flow to the orthotopic tumor increased by 181 ± 30%. Maximal vasoconstriction to NE was not different between arterioles from either tumor location. However, there was a significantly higher peak vasoconstriction to NE in subcutaneous adipose arterioles (92 ± 7%) vs. prostate arterioles (55 ± 7%). Establishment of the tumor did not alter host tissue blood flow from either location at rest or during exercise. These data demonstrate that blood flow in tumors is dependent on host tissue hemodynamics and that the location of the tumor may critically affect how exercise impacts the tumor microenvironment and treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Safety evaluation of an IPP tripeptide-containing milk protein hydrolysate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponstein-Simarro Doorten, A.Y.; Wiel, J.A.G. van de; Jonker, D.

    2009-01-01

    Tensguard™ is a milk protein hydrolysate containing the lactotripeptide IPP. It is derived from cow's milk, which is present in the human diet and has a safe history of consumption. The final Tensguard™ product, a supplement or a functional food ingredient, is intended for use by people who want to

  2. Management of vascular trauma from dog bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akingba, A George; Robinson, Eric A; Jester, Andrea L; Rapp, Brian M; Tsai, Anthony; Motaganahalli, Raghu L; Dalsing, Michael C; Murphy, Michael P

    2013-11-01

    Vascular trauma from large-dog bites present with a combination of crush and lacerating injuries to the vessel, as well as significant adjacent soft tissue injury and a high potential for wound complications. This retrospective case series evaluates our 15 years of experience in managing this uncommonly seen injury into suggested treatment recommendations. From our database, 371 adult patients presented with dog bites between July 1997 and June 2012. Twenty (5.4%) of those patients had vascular injuries requiring surgical intervention. Patient demographics, anatomic location of injury, clinical presentation, imaging modality, method of repair, and complication rates were reviewed to assess efficacy in preserving limb function. Pediatric patients were managed at the regional children's hospital and, therefore, not included in this study. Among the 20 surgically treated vascular injuries, there were 13 arterial-only injuries, two venous-only injuries, and five combination arterial and venous injuries. Seventeen patients (85%) had upper extremity injuries; three patients had lower extremity injuries (15%). The axillobrachial artery was the most commonly injured single vessel (n = 9/20; 45%), followed by the radial artery (n = 4/20; 20%). Surgical repair of vascular injuries consisted of resection and primary anastomosis (four), interposition bypass of artery with autogenous vein (13), and ligation (two), with (one) being a combination of bypass and ligation. All patients had debridement of devitalized tissue combined with pulse lavage irrigation and perioperative antibiotics. Associated injuries requiring repair included muscle and skin (n = 10/20; 50%), bone (n = 1/20; 5%), nerve (n = 1/20; 5%), and combinations of the three (n = 5/20; 25%). Postoperative antibiotic therapy was administered for 14.7 ± 8.2 days in all 20 patients. Four patients (20%) developed postoperative wound infections, although this did not compromise their vascular repair. Of the patients

  3. Systemic Multiple Aneurysms Caused by Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Xinyu; Li, Fangda; Wu, Lingeer; Zheng, Yuehong

    2016-07-01

    Systemic multiple aneurysms are rare and usually associated with collagen tissue disease, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) or Marfan syndrome. In the present case, we describe a 39-year-old male patient with systemic multiple aneurysms and acute intraperitoneal hemorrhage who was clinically diagnosed with vascular EDS. Coil embolization of the distal segment of the common hepatic artery was performed, which resolved the patient's symptoms. With this case presentation, we aim to increase the awareness of vascular EDS among clinicians and emphasize the extreme fragility of the arteries in patients with vascular EDS. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Molecular characterization of gluten hydrolysing Bacillus sp. and their efficacy and biotherapeutic potential as probiotics using Caco-2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashmi, B S; Gayathri, D

    2017-09-01

    To isolate and characterize indigenous gluten hydrolysing bacteria from wheat sourdough and curd samples and further evaluation of their probiotic potentiality. Indigenous gluten hydrolysing isolates GS 33, GS 143, GS 181 and GS 188 were identified as Bacillus sp. by molecular-typing methods and studied extensively for their functional and probiotic attributes. All the tested isolates could survive at pH 2 and toxicity of 0·3% bile and also exhibited cell surface hydrophobicity and autoaggregation phenotype. The isolates were adhered strongly to Caco-2 cells and coaggregated with Escherichia coli MTCC 433 and Listeria monocytogenes MTCC 1143 preventing pathogen invasion into Caco-2 cells in vitro. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentration of selected antibiotics for all the investigated gluten hydrolysing isolates was within the breakpoint values as recommended by the European Food Safety Authority. The indigenous high intensity gluten hydrolysing bacteria exhibited high resistance to gastric and pancreatic stress and possessed antibacterial, aggregation, adhesion and pathogen exclusion properties, and as a potential probiotics, either alone or in consortium would be useful in the development of gluten-free wheat foods. Exploring new indigenous gluten hydrolysing bacteria from wheat sourdough and curd samples would be beneficial in developing gluten-free wheat foods using potential indigenous probiotics. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Hydrolysates and Peptide Fractions Obtained by Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Selected Heat-Treated Edible Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Ewelina; Baraniak, Barbara; Karaś, Monika

    2017-09-02

    This study investigated the effect of heat treatment of edible insects on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of peptides obtained by in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and absorption process thereof. The antioxidant potential of edible insect hydrolysates was determined as free radical-scavenging activity, ion chelating activity, and reducing power, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity was expressed as lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory activity. The highest antiradical activity against DPPH • (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical) was noted for a peptide fraction from baked cricket Gryllodes sigillatus hydrolysate (IC 50 value 10.9 µg/mL) and that against ABTS •+ (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical) was the highest for raw mealworm Tenebrio molitor hydrolysate (inhibitory concentration (IC 50 value) 5.3 µg/mL). The peptides obtained from boiled locust Schistocerca gregaria hydrolysate showed the highest Fe 2+ chelation ability (IC 50 value 2.57 µg/mL); furthermore, the highest reducing power was observed for raw G. sigillatus hydrolysate (0.771). The peptide fraction from a protein preparation from the locust S. gregaria exhibited the most significant lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory activity (IC 50 value 3.13 µg/mL and 5.05 µg/mL, respectively).

  6. Enzymatic hydrolysis of Grass Carp fish skin hydrolysates able to promote the proliferation of Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Nan; Qin, Mei; Feng, Yu-Ying; Chen, Jian-Kang; Song, Yi-Shan

    2017-09-01

    The promotion effect on proliferation of Streptococcus thermophilus by enzymatic hydrolysates of aquatic products was firstly studied. The effect of influencing factors of the hydrolysis on the growth of S. thermophilus was investigated. Grass Carp fish skin was hydrolysed to peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis using protease ProteAX, and for the S. thermophilus growth, the optimal enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were temperature of 60 °C, initial pH of 9.0, enzyme concentration of 10 g kg -1 , hydrolysis time of 80 min, and ratio of material to liquid of 1:2. The Grass Carp fish skin hydrolysate (GCFSH) prepared under the optimum conditions was fractionated to five fragments (GCFSH 1, GCFSH 2, GCFSH 3, GCFSH 4, GCFSH 5) according to molecular weight sizes, in which the fragments GCFSH 4 and GCFSH 5, with molecular weights of less than 1000 Da, significantly promoted the growth of S. thermophilus. The hydrolysis process of Grass Carp fish skin can be simplified, and the peptides with molecular weights below 1000 Da in the hydrolysates are the best nitrogen source for proliferation of S. thermophilus. This work can provide a fundamental theoretical basis for the production of multi-component functional foods, especially in milk drinks or yogurt. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Production and characterization of cowpea protein hydrolysate with optimum nitrogen solubility by enzymatic hydrolysis using pepsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mune Mune, Martin Alain; Minka, Samuel René

    2017-06-01

    Cowpea is a source of low-cost and good nutritional quality protein for utilization in food formulations in replacement of animal proteins. Therefore it is necessary that cowpea protein exhibits good functionality, particularly protein solubility which affects the other functional properties. The objective of this study was to produce cowpea protein hydrolysate exhibiting optimum solubility by the adequate combination of hydrolysis parameters, namely time, solid/liquid ratio (SLR) and enzyme/substrate ratio (ESR), and to determine its functional properties and molecular characteristics. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used for the experiments, and a second-order polynomial to model the effects of hydrolysis time, SLR and ESR on the degree of hydrolysis and nitrogen solubility index. The optimum hydrolysis conditions of time 208.61 min, SLR 1/15 (w/w) and ESR 2.25% (w/w) yielded a nitrogen solubility of 75.71%. Protein breakdown and the peptide profile following enzymatic hydrolysis were evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography. Cowpea protein hydrolysate showed higher oil absorption capacity, emulsifying activity and foaming ability compared with the concentrate. The solubility of cowpea protein hydrolysate was adequately optimized by response surface methodology, and the hydrolysate showed adequate functionality for use in food. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Circulating Vascular Basement Membrane Fragments are Associated with the Diameter of the Abdominal Aorta and Their Expression Pattern is Altered in AAA Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsti, Mari; Wanhainen, Anders; Lundin, Christina; Björck, Martin; Tegler, Gustaf; Svensson, Johan; Sund, Malin

    2018-04-12

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterised by enhanced proteolytic activity, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling in the vascular wall. Type IV and XVIII collagen/endostatin are structural proteins in vascular basement membrane (VBM), a specialised ECM structure. Here the association between plasma levels of these collagens with the aortic diameter and expansion rate is studied, and their expression in aortic tissue characterised. This was a retrospective population based cohort study. Type IV and XVIII collagen/endostatin were analysed in plasma by ELISA assay in 615 men, divided into three groups based on the aortic diameter: 1) normal aorta ≤ 25 mm, 2) sub-aneurysmal aorta (SAA) 26-29 mm, and 3) AAA ≥ 30 mm. Follow up data were available for 159 men. The association between collagen levels and aortic diameter at baseline, and with the expansion rate at follow up were analysed in ordinal logistic regression and linear regression models, controlling for common confounding factors. Tissue expression of the collagens was analysed in normal aorta (n = 6) and AAA (n = 6) by immunofluorescence. Plasma levels of type XVIII collagen/endostatin (136 ng/mL [SD 29] in individuals with a normal aorta diameter, 154 ng/ml [SD 45] in SAA, and 162 ng/ml [SD 46] in AAA; p = .001) and type IV collagen (105 ng/mL [SD 42] normal aorta, 124 ng/ml [SD 46] SAA, and 127 ng/ml [SD 47] AAA; p = .037) were associated with a larger aortic diameter. A significant association was found between the baseline levels of type XVIII/endostatin and the aortic expansion rate (p = .035), but in the multivariable model, only the initial aortic diameter remained significantly associated with expansion (p = .005). Altered expression patterns of both collagens were observed in AAA tissue. Plasma levels of circulating type IV and XVIII collagen/endostatin increase with AAA diameter. The expression pattern of VBM proteins is altered in the aneurysm wall. Copyright

  9. Enteral Tube Feeding Nutritional Protein Hydrolysate Production Under Different Factors By Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen ThiQuynhHoa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydrolysis of proteins involves the cleavage of peptide bonds to give peptides of varying sizes and amino acid composition. There are a number of types of hydrolysis enzymatic acid or alkali hydrolysis. Chemical hydrolysis is difficult to control and reduces the nutritional quality of products destroying L-form amino acids and producing toxic substances such as lysino-alanine. Enzymatic hydrolysis works without destructing amino acids and by avoiding the extreme temperatures and pH levels required for chemical hydrolysis the nutritional properties of the protein hydrolysates remain largely unaffected. In this research we investigate the fat removal and protein hydrolysis from pork meat to produce the enteral tube feeding nutritional protein hydrolysate for patient. Our results are as follows meat moisture 75.1 protein 22.6 lipid 1.71 ash 0.5 vitamin B1 1.384mg100g n hexantreatment at 80oCin 45 minutes and drying 30 minutes in 90oC.Viscosity of the hydrolysate is very low 2.240 0.092 cPand high degree of hydrolysis 31.390 0.138 . The final protein powder has balance nutritional components and acid amines low microorganisms which are safety for human consumption.

  10. Impact of ultrafiltration and nanofiltration of an industrial fish protein hydrolysate on its bioactive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Laurent; Ravallec, Rozenn; Fouchereau-Péron, Martine; Vandanjon, Laurent; Jaouen, Pascal; Chaplain-Derouiniot, Maryse; Guérard, Fabienne; Chabeaud, Aurélie; Legal, Yves; Alvarez, Oscar Martinez; Bergé, Jean-Pascal; Piot, Jean-Marie; Batista, Irineu; Pires, Carla; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Delannoy, Charles; Jakobsen, Greta; Johansson, Inez; Bourseau, Patrick

    2010-08-30

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that in vitro controlled enzymatic hydrolysis of fish and shellfish proteins leads to bioactive peptides. Ultrafiltration (UF) and/or nanofiltration (NF) can be used to refine hydrolysates and also to fractionate them in order to obtain a peptide population enriched in selected sizes. This study was designed to highlight the impact of controlled UF and NF on the stability of biological activities of an industrial fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) and to understand whether fractionation could improve its content in bioactive peptides. The starting fish protein hydrolysate exhibited a balanced amino acid composition, a reproducible molecular weight (MW) profile, and a low sodium chloride content, allowing the study of its biological activity. Successive fractionation on UF and NF membranes allowed concentration of peptides of selected sizes, without, however, carrying out sharp separations, some MW classes being found in several fractions. Peptides containing Pro, Hyp, Asp and Glu were concentrated in the UF and NF retentates compared to the unfractionated hydrolysate and UF permeate, respectively. Gastrin/cholecystokinin-like peptides were present in the starting FPH, UF and NF fractions, but fractionation did not increase their concentration. In contrast, quantification of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-like peptides demonstrated an increase in CGRP-like activities in the UF permeate, relative to the starting FPH. The starting hydrolysate also showed a potent antioxidant and radical scavenging activity, and a moderate angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-1 inhibitory activity, which were not increased by UF and NF fractionation. Fractionation of an FPH using membrane separation, with a molecular weight cut-off adapted to the peptide composition, may provide an effective means to concentrate CGRP-like peptides and peptides enriched in selected amino acids. The peptide size distribution observed after UF and NF fractionation

  11. Effects of hypothyroidism on vascular 125I-albumin permeation and blood flow in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilton, R.G.; Pugliese, G.; Chang, K.; Speedy, A.; Province, M.A.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of hypothyroidism on vascular 125I-albumin permeation and on blood flow were assessed in multiple tissues of male Sprague-Dawley rats rendered hypothyroid by dietary supplementation with 0.5% (wt/wt) 2-thiouracil or by thyroidectomy. In both thiouracil-treated and thyroidectomized rats, body weights, kidney weight, arterial blood pressure, and pulse rate were decreased significantly v age-matched controls. After 10 to 12 weeks of thiouracil treatment, 125I-albumin permeation was increased significantly in the kidney, aorta, eye (anterior uvea, choroid, retina), skin, and new granulation tissue, remained unchanged in brain, sciatic nerve, and heart, and was decreased in forelimb skeletal muscle. A similar pattern was observed in thyroidectomized rats, except that increases in 125I-albumin permeation for all tissues were smaller than those observed in thiouracil-treated rats, and 125I-albumin permeation in retina did not differ from controls. In both thiouracil-treated and thyroidectomized rats, changes in blood flow (assessed with 15-microns, 85Sr-labeled microspheres) relative to the decrease in arterial blood pressure were indicative of a decrease in regional vascular resistance except in the choroid and in the kidney, in which vascular resistance was increased significantly. Glomerular filtration rate was decreased, but filtration fraction and urinary excretion of albumin remained unchanged by thiouracil treatment and thyroidectomy. These results indicate that vascular hemodynamics and endothelial cell barrier functional integrity are modulated in many different tissues by the thyroid. In view of the correspondence of hypothyroid- and diabetes-induced vascular permeability changes, these results raise the possibility that altered thyroid function in diabetes may play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease

  12. Inhibition of Notch signaling by Dll4-Fc promotes reperfusion of acutely ischemic tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ren [Department of Pathology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States); Trindade, Alexandre [Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao em Sanidade Animal (CIISA), Lisbon Technical University, Lisbon (Portugal); Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, Oeiras (Portugal); Sun, Zhanfeng [Department of Vascular Surgery, 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang (China); Kumar, Ram; Weaver, Fred A. [Department of Surgery, University of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States); Krasnoperov, Valery; Naga, Kranthi [Vasgene Therapeutics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Duarte, Antonio [Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao em Sanidade Animal (CIISA), Lisbon Technical University, Lisbon (Portugal); Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, Oeiras (Portugal); Gill, Parkash S., E-mail: parkashg@usc.edu [Department of Pathology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low dose Dll4-Fc increases vascular proliferation and overall perfusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low dose Dll4-Fc helps vascular injury recovery in hindlimb ischemia model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low dose Dll4-Fc helps vascular injury recovery in skin flap model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dll4 heterozygous deletion promotes vascular injury recovery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dll4 overexpression delays vascular injury recovery. -- Abstract: Notch pathway regulates vessel development and maturation. Dll4, a high-affinity ligand for Notch, is expressed predominantly in the arterial endothelium and is induced by hypoxia among other factors. Inhibition of Dll4 has paradoxical effects of reducing the maturation and perfusion in newly forming vessels while increasing the density of vessels. We hypothesized that partial and/or intermittent inhibition of Dll4 may lead to increased vascular response and still allow vascular maturation to occur. Thus tissue perfusion can be restored rapidly, allowing quicker recovery from ischemia or tissue injury. Our studies in two different models (hindlimb ischemia and skin flap) show that inhibition of Dll4 at low dose allows faster recovery from vascular and tissue injury. This opens a new possibility for Dll4 blockade's therapeutic application in promoting recovery from vascular injury and restoring blood supply to ischemic tissues.

  13. The effect of wool hydrolysates on squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro. Possible implications for cancer treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsiana Damps

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin is the second most common cutaneous malignancy. Despite various available treatment methods and advances in noninvasive diagnostic techniques, the incidence of metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is rising. Deficiency in effective preventive or treatment methods of transformed keratinocytes leads to necessity of searching for new anticancer agents. The present study aims to evaluate the possibility of using wool hydrolysates as such agents. Commercially available compounds such as 5-fluorouracil, ingenol mebutate, diclofenac sodium salt were also used in this study. The process of wool degradation was based on chemical pre-activation and enzymatic digestion of wool. The effect of mentioned compounds on cell viability of squamous carcinoma cell line and healthy keratinocytes was evaluated. The obtained data show a significantly stronger effect of selected wool hydrolysates compared to commercial compounds (p<0.05 on viability of cells. The wool hydrolysates decreased squamous cell carcinoma cells viability by up to 67% comparing to untreated cells. These results indicate bioactive properties of wool hydrolysates, which affect the viability of squamous carcinoma cells and decrease their number. We hypothesize that these agents may be used topically for treatment of transformed keratinocytes in actinic keratosis and invasive squamous skin cancer in humans.

  14. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saibo Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl2 treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE, longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone.

  15. Beech wood Fagus sylvatica dilute-acid hydrolysate as a feedstock to support Chlorella sorokiniana biomass, fatty acid and pigment production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miazek, Krystian; Remacle, Claire; Richel, Aurore; Goffin, Dorothee

    2017-04-01

    This work evaluates the possibility of using beech wood (Fagus sylvatica) dilute-acid (H 2 SO 4 ) hydrolysate as a feedstock for Chlorella sorokiniana growth, fatty acid and pigment production. Neutralized wood acid hydrolysate, containing organic and mineral compounds, was tested on Chlorella growth at different concentrations and compared to growth under phototrophic conditions. Chlorella growth was improved at lower loadings and inhibited at higher loadings. Based on these results, a 12% neutralized wood acid hydrolysate (Hyd12%) loading was selected to investigate its impact on Chlorella growth, fatty acid and pigment production. Hyd12% improved microalgal biomass, fatty acid and pigment productivities both in light and in dark, when compared to photoautotrophic control. Light intensity had substantial influence on fatty acid and pigment composition in Chlorella culture during Hyd12%-based growth. Moreover, heterotrophic Chlorella cultivation with Hyd12% also showed that wood hydrolysate can constitute an attractive feedstock for microalgae cultivation in case of lack of light. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of longitudinal tissue pO2 gradients as one cause for vascular hypoxia in window chamber tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewhirst, Mark W.; Ong, Edgardo T.; Braun, Rod D.; Evans, Sydney M.; Wilson, David

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: We have previously found that vascular hypoxia exists in tumors, even in vessels with active blood flow. We have also reported that the arteriolar input seems to be constrained to entry into the tumor in one surface of the tissue and that the pO2 of tumor arterioles is lower than in comparable arterioles of normal tissues. Both of these features contribute to lowered intravascular pO2 and tissue hypoxia. In this report, we investigated the hypothesis that the anatomical constraint of arteriolar supply from one side of the tumor will lead to longitudinal tissue gradients in pO2 (i.e. the farther removed one is from the arteriolar source, the more hypoxic the vasculature will be). Materials and Methods: Fischer-344 rats had dorsal flap window chambers implanted in the skin fold with simultaneous transplantation of the R3230AC tumor. Tumors were studied at 9-10 days post transplantation, at a diameter of 3-4mm; the tissue thickness was 200μm. For magnetic resonance microscopic imaging, 1.0ml of GdDTPA-BSA complex was injected i.v. into rats bearing window chamber tumors; the upper glass window was removed, and a suffusion medium of balanced salt solution added in its place, prior to injection of the contrast agent. After 15s the skin flap was immersed in 10% formalin and then removed from the animal. The sample was imaged at 9.4T, using spin warp encoding (TR=200ms, TE=6ms) and fourier transformation of the scanning data. The resultant images had a voxel size of 40μm 3 . Phosphorescence quench imaging (PQI) was used to measure vascular pO2 following i.v. administration of 3.5mg Pd-mesotetra-(4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin. Blue and green light excitations of the upper and lower surfaces of window chambers were made (penetration depth of light ∼ 50 vs >200μm, respectively). Results: In prior studies we demonstrated that arteriolar input into window chamber tumors appeared to be constrained to the fascial surface upon which the tumor grows. 3-D magnetic

  17. Modelling the development and arrangement of the primary vascular structure in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartenì, Fabrizio; Giannino, Francesco; Schweingruber, Fritz Hans; Mazzoleni, Stefano

    2014-09-01

    The process of vascular development in plants results in the formation of a specific array of bundles that run throughout the plant in a characteristic spatial arrangement. Although much is known about the genes involved in the specification of procambium, phloem and xylem, the dynamic processes and interactions that define the development of the radial arrangement of such tissues remain elusive. This study presents a spatially explicit reaction-diffusion model defining a set of logical and functional rules to simulate the differentiation of procambium, phloem and xylem and their spatial patterns, starting from a homogeneous group of undifferentiated cells. Simulation results showed that the model is capable of reproducing most vascular patterns observed in plants, from primitive and simple structures made up of a single strand of vascular bundles (protostele), to more complex and evolved structures, with separated vascular bundles arranged in an ordered pattern within the plant section (e.g. eustele). The results presented demonstrate, as a proof of concept, that a common genetic-molecular machinery can be the basis of different spatial patterns of plant vascular development. Moreover, the model has the potential to become a useful tool to test different hypotheses of genetic and molecular interactions involved in the specification of vascular tissues.

  18. Efficient Absorption of X-Hydroxyproline (Hyp)-Gly after Oral Administration of a Novel Gelatin Hydrolysate Prepared Using Ginger Protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taga, Yuki; Kusubata, Masashi; Ogawa-Goto, Kiyoko; Hattori, Shunji

    2016-04-13

    Recent studies have reported that oral intake of gelatin hydrolysate has various beneficial effects, such as reduction of joint pain and lowering of blood sugar levels. In this study, we produced a novel gelatin hydrolysate using a cysteine-type ginger protease having unique substrate specificity with preferential peptide cleavage with Pro at the P2 position. Substantial amounts of X-hydroxyproline (Hyp)-Gly-type tripeptides were generated up to 2.5% (w/w) concomitantly with Gly-Pro-Y-type tripeptides (5%; w/w) using ginger powder. The in vivo absorption of the ginger-degraded gelatin hydrolysate was estimated using mice. The plasma levels of collagen-derived oligopeptides, especially X-Hyp-Gly, were significantly high (e.g., 2.3-fold for Glu-Hyp-Gly, p < 0.05) compared with those of the control gelatin hydrolysate, which was prepared using gastrointestinal proteases and did not contain detectable X-Hyp-Gly. This study demonstrated that orally administered X-Hyp-Gly was effectively absorbed into the blood, probably due to the high protease resistance of this type of tripeptide.

  19. High-yield production of mannitol by Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides CTCC G123 from chicory-derived inulin hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Gu, Lei; Cheng, Chao; Zhu, Junru; Wu, Hao; Ma, Jiangfeng; Dong, Weiliang; Kong, Xiangping; Jiang, Min; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2017-08-01

    Chicory is an agricultural plant with considerable potential as a carbohydrate substrate for low-cost production of biochemicals. In this work, the production of mannitol by Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides CTCC G123 from chicory-derived inulin hydrolysate was investigated. The bioconversion process initially suffered from the leakage of fructose to the phosphoketolase pathway, resulting in a low mannitol yield. When inulin hydrolysate was supplemented with glucose as a substrate for mannitol production in combination with aeration induction and nicotinic acid induced redox modulation strategies, the mannitol yield greatly improved. Under these conditions, significant improvement in the glucose consumption rate, intracellular NADH levels and mannitol dehydrogenase specific activity were observed, with mannitol production increasing from 64.6 to 88.1 g/L and overall yield increase from 0.69 to 0.94 g/g. This work demonstrated an efficient method for the production of mannitol from inulin hydrolysate with a high overall yield.

  20. Characterization and identification of novel antidiabetic and anti-obesity peptides from camel milk protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Priti; Kamal, Hina; Yuen, Gan Chee; Maqsood, Sajid

    2018-09-01

    In-vitro inhibitory properties of peptides released from camel milk proteins against dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA), and porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) were studied. Results revealed that upon hydrolysis by different enzymes, camel milk proteins displayed dramatic increase in inhibition of DPP-IV and PPL, but slight improvement in PPA inhibition was noticed. Peptide sequencing revealed a total of 20 and 3 peptides for A9 and B9 hydrolysates respectively, obtained the score of 0.8 or more on peptide ranker and were categorized as potential DPP-IV inhibitory peptides. KDLWDDFKGL in A9 and MPSKPPLL in B9 were identified as most potent PPA inhibitory peptide. For PPL inhibition only 7 and 2 peptides qualified as PPL inhibitory peptides from hydrolysates A9 and B9, respectively. The present study report for the first time PPA and PPL inhibitory and only second for DPP-IV inhibitory potential of protein hydrolysates from camel milk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Wheat Gluten Hydrolysate and Its Ultrafiltration Fractions on Dough Properties and Bread Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouming Zhao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two fractions (50-K and permeate from a proteolytic hydrolysate (degree of hydrolysis, DH=3.8 % of wheat gluten were separated using ultrafiltration (UF membrane with molecular mass cut-off of 50 kDa. The effects of the wheat gluten hydrolysate (WGH and its UF fractions on the mixing behaviour and viscoelastic properties of wheat dough were presented. The WGH and its UF fractions modified the mixing properties of dough. The addition of these fractions improved the viscoelastic characteristics of wheat dough. A significant (p<0.05 effect of 50-K fraction on these characteristics of wheat dough was observed. After adding these fractions, the bread was considered acceptable by the sensory panel. Also, 50-K fraction resulted in significant (p<0.05 increase in the crumb firmness, while the bread made with wheat flour with WGH and permeate (P fraction showed softer crumbs compared to that of wheat flour. Moreover, these fractions had anti-staling properties for bread during storage. Hence, the wheat gluten hydrolysate and its UF fractions are the products with promising potential in the baking products.

  2. Stem cell-derived vasculature: A potent and multidimensional technology for basic research, disease modeling, and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Justin; Gerecht, Sharon

    2016-05-06

    Proper blood vessel networks are necessary for constructing and re-constructing tissues, promoting wound healing, and delivering metabolic necessities throughout the body. Conversely, an understanding of vascular dysfunction has provided insight into the pathogenesis and progression of diseases both common and rare. Recent advances in stem cell-based regenerative medicine - including advances in stem cell technologies and related progress in bioscaffold design and complex tissue engineering - have allowed rapid advances in the field of vascular biology, leading in turn to more advanced modeling of vascular pathophysiology and improved engineering of vascularized tissue constructs. In this review we examine recent advances in the field of stem cell-derived vasculature, providing an overview of stem cell technologies as a source for vascular cell types and then focusing on their use in three primary areas: studies of vascular development and angiogenesis, improved disease modeling, and the engineering of vascularized constructs for tissue-level modeling and cell-based therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rectal and splenic vascular malformation in klippel trenaunay weber syndrome: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ha Youn; Chang, Yun Woo; Lee, Dong Hwan [Soonchunhyang Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Klippel Trenaunay Weber syndrome (KTWS) is a rare congenital disorder, characterized by a cutaneous vascular nevus of the involved extremity, vascular malformations, bone and soft tissue hypertrophy of the extremity. We present the case of an 18 year old female patient with KTWS, showing a marked rectosigmoid wall thickening and phlebolith, and also variable sized cystic masses in the spleen, as a result of vascular malformations.

  4. Viabilidade celular da fração mononuclear da medula óssea e fração vascular estromal do tecido adiposo de equinos após o processo de congelamento e descongelamento Viability of equine bone marrow mononuclear fraction and adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction after freezing and thawing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesiane Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinco cavalos adultos foram submetidos à coleta de medula óssea do esterno e de tecido adiposo da região glútea. As amostras foram processadas para obtenção da fração mononuclear da medula óssea e fração vascular estromal do tecido adiposo, o número de células obtidas e a viabilidade celular foram determinados. Em seguida, realizou-se o congelamento das amostras em solução contendo 20% de soro fetal bovino e 10% de dimetilsulfóxido. Depois de um mês, realizou-se o descongelamento das amostras e a viabilidade celular foi novamente mensurada. Os resultados revelaram que as técnicas utilizadas tanto para coleta de medula óssea quanto de tecido adiposo em equinos são simples, rápidas e seguras. As metodologias adotadas para o processamento das amostras foram eficientes, obtendo-se aproximadamente 95% de viabilidade celular. Após o descongelamento, a viabilidade média das amostras de células mononucleares da medula óssea foi de 86% e da fração vascular estromal do tecido adiposo de 64%. Frente à importância da terapia celular na clínica médica de equinos, concluiu-se que é necessária a realização de mais estudos, visando padronizar uma técnica de criopreservação que mantenha a integridade das células da fração mononuclear da medula óssea e da fração vascular estromal do tecido adiposo de equinos.In five adult horses, bone marrow was aspirated from the sternum and adipose tissue extracted from the gluteal region. The samples were processed to obtain the mononuclear fraction of bone marrow and stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue, and the number of cells obtained and cell viability were determined. Next, the cell samples were frozen in medium containing 20% fetal bovine serum and 10% dimethylsulfoxide. After one month, the cells were thawed and cell viability was again determined. The results revealed that the techniques for collecting both bone marrow and adipose tissue in horses are simple, rapid and

  5. FGF-dependent metabolic control of vascular development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pengchun; Alves, Tiago C.; Fang, Jennifer S.; Xie, Yi; Zhu, Jie; Chen, Zehua; De Smet, Frederik; Zhang, Jiasheng; Jin, Suk-Won; Sun, Lele; Sun, Hongye; Kibbey, Richard G.; Hirschi, Karen K.; Hay, Nissim; Carmeliet, Peter; Chittenden, Thomas W.; Eichmann, Anne; Potente, Michael; Simons, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Blood and lymphatic vasculatures are intimately involved in tissue oxygenation and fluid homeostasis maintenance. Assembly of these vascular networks involves sprouting, migration and proliferation of endothelial cells. Recent studies have suggested that changes in cellular metabolism are of importance to these processes1. While much is known about vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-dependent regulation of vascular development and metabolism2,3, little is understood about the role of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) in this context4. Here we identify FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling as a critical regulator of vascular development. This is achieved by FGF-dependent control of c-MYC (MYC) expression that, in turn, regulates expression of the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase 2 (HK2). A decrease in HK2 levels in the absence of FGF signaling inputs results in decreased glycolysis leading to impaired endothelial cell proliferation and migration. Pan-endothelial- and lymphatic-specific Hk2 knockouts phenocopy blood and/or lymphatic vascular defects seen in Fgfr1/r3 double mutant mice while HK2 overexpression partially rescues the defects caused by suppression of FGF signaling. Thus, FGF-dependent regulation of endothelial glycolysis is a pivotal process in developmental and adult vascular growth and development. PMID:28467822

  6. Cues for cellular assembly of vascular elastin networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothapalli, Chandrasekhar R.

    Elastin, a structural protein distributed in the extracellular matrix of vascular tissues is critical to the maintenance of vascular mechanics, besides regulation of cell-signaling pathways involved in injury response and morphogenesis. Thus, congenital absence or disease-mediated degradation of vascular elastin and its malformation within native vessels due to innately poor elastin synthesis by adult vascular cells compromise vascular homeostasis. Current elastin regenerative strategies using tissue engineering principles are limited by the progressive destabilization of tropoelastin mRNA expression in adult vascular cells and the unavailability of scaffolds that can provide cellular cues necessary to up-regulate elastin synthesis and regenerate faithful mimics of native elastin. Since our earlier studies demonstrated the elastogenic utility of hyaluronan (HA)-based cues, we have currently sought to identify a unique set of culture conditions based on HA fragments (0.756-2000 kDa), growth factors (TGF-beta1, IGF-1) and other biomolecules (Cu2+ ions, LOX), which will together enhance synthesis, crosslinking, maturation and fibrous elastin matrix formation by adult SMCs, under both healthy and inflammatory conditions. It was observed that TGF-beta1 (1 ng/mL) together with HA oligomers (0.2 microg/mL) synergistically suppressed SMC proliferation, enhanced tropoelastin (8-fold) and matrix elastin synthesis (5.5-fold), besides improving matrix yield (4.5-fold), possibly by increasing production and activity of lysyl oxidase (LOX). Though addition of IGF-1 alone did not offer any advantage, HA fragments (20-200 kDa) in the presence of IGF-1 stimulated tropoelastin and soluble elastin synthesis more than 2.2-fold, with HMW HA contributing for ˜5-fold increase in crosslinked matrix elastin synthesis. Similarly, 0.1 M of Cu2+ ions, alone or together with HA fragments stimulated synthesis of tropoelastin (4-fold) and crosslinked matrix elastin (4.5-fold), via increases in

  7. Sensory analysis of hydrolysed meat preparations Análise sensorial de preparações com hidrolisados de carne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabeth Machado Pinto E Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of hydrolysed meat in diets contributes to the improvement of protein, vitamin and mineral supply. This work aims at checking the acceptance pattern in meat hydrolysates. Four preparations have been developed with three types of hydrolysates in domestic-like conditions. Acceptance was verified by means of sensory analysis using the nine-point hedonic scale. Sensory tests have been carried out in three sessions (according to the kind of hydrolysates. In the evaluation file, information on age groups has been included. The statistical analysis has been made by ANOVA and Tukey test. The best accepted preparation have been the turkey and chicken hydrolysed balls. Hydrolysates can be used in many different kinds of preparations, but it is necessary to know both the age group it will be used to and its sensory and chemical-physical features to ensure the taste and the original appearance of the final product.A utilização de hidrolisados de carne em dietas melhora seu conteúdo protéico, de vitaminas e minerais. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a aceitação de hidrolisados de carne. Quatro preparações foram desenvolvidas com três tipos de hidrolisados em condições similares às domésticas. . A aceitação foi avaliada com uso de escala hedônica de 9 pontos. Os testes foram realizados em três sessões (de acordo com o tipo de hidrolisado e, incluiu-se na ficha de avaliação informações de idade. A análise estatística foi realizada por ANOVA e teste de Tukey. As preparações mais aceitas foram os bolinhos com hidrolisados de peru e frango. Os hidrolisados podem ser utilizados em diversas preparações, sendo necessário o conhecimento da faixa etária a qual se destinam, suas características sensoriais e físico-químicas, para garantir o sabor e a aparência do produto final.

  8. Visual Enhancement of Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy With 3-Charge Coupled Device Camera: Assessing Intraoperative Tissue Perfusion and Vascular Anatomy by Visible Hemoglobin Spectral Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    reliably distinguish vascular structures during hilar dissection, and detect and monitor changes in renal tissue perfus:ion dw·ing and after warm...and in 25 patients with hilar tu- mors 16 in whom perioperative outcomes were com- parable to those of peripheral tumors. In a retro- spective study...Richstone et al also reported the safe performance of LPN for hilar tumors in 17 patients.17 Repeat partial nephrectomy for ipsilat- eral tumor has

  9. Development, characterisation and biocompatibility testing of a cobalt-containing titanium phosphate-based glass for engineering of vascularized hard tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In-Ho [Department of Nanobiomedical Science and WCU Research Center of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Hye-sun [Department of Nanobiomedical Science and WCU Research Center of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Lakhkar, Nilay J. [Division of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Eastman Dental Institute, University College London, 256 Gray' s Inn Road, London WC1X 8LD (United Kingdom); Kim, Hae-Won [Department of Nanobiomedical Science and WCU Research Center of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN), Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomaterials Science, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Gong, Myoung-Seon [Department of Nanobiomedical Science and WCU Research Center of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN), Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Knowles, Jonathan C. [Department of Nanobiomedical Science and WCU Research Center of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Eastman Dental Institute, University College London, 256 Gray' s Inn Road, London WC1X 8LD (United Kingdom); Wall, Ivan B., E-mail: i.wall@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Nanobiomedical Science and WCU Research Center of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-01

    There is a continuing need to develop scaffold materials that can promote vascularisation throughout the tissue engineered construct. This study investigated the effect of cobalt oxide (CoO) doped into titanium phosphate glasses on material properties, biocompatibility and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by osteoblastic MG63 cells. Glasses composed of (P{sub 2}O{sub 5}){sub 45}(Na{sub 2}O){sub 20}(TiO{sub 2}){sub 05}(CaO){sub 30−x}(CoO){sub x}(x = 0, 5, 10, and 15 mol%) were fabricated and the effect of Co on physicochemical properties including density, glass transition temperature (T{sub g}), degradation rate, ion release, and pH changes was assessed. The results showed that incorporation of CoO into the glass system produced an increase in density with little change in T{sub g}. It was then confirmed that the pH did not change significantly when CoO was incorporated in the glass, and stayed constant at around 6.5–7.0 throughout the dissolution study period of 336 h. Ion release results followed a specific pattern with increasing amounts of CoO. In general, although incorporation of CoO into a titanium phosphate glass increased its density, other bulk and surface properties of the glass did not show any significant changes. Cell culture studies performed using MG63 cells over a 7-day period indicated that the glasses provide a stable surface for cell attachment and are biocompatible. Furthermore, VEGF secretion was significantly enhanced on all glasses compared with standard tissue culture plastic and Co doping enhanced this effect further. In conclusion, the developed Co-doped glasses are stable and biocompatible and thus offer enhanced potential for engineering vascularized tissue. - Highlights: ► Phosphate-based glasses can be successfully doped with cobalt oxide. ► The resulting glass is highly stable with low degradation rate. ► Co-doped glasses are biocompatible but do not favour cell proliferation. ► Osteoblastic MG63 cells

  10. Congenital vascular malformations in scintigraphic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilecki, Stanisław; Gierach, Marcin; Gierach, Joanna; Świętaszczyk, Cyprian; Junik, Roman; Lasek, Władysław

    2014-01-01

    Congenital vascular malformations are tumour-like, non-neoplastic lesions caused by disorders of vascular tissue morphogenesis. They are characterised by a normal cell replacement cycle throughout all growth phases and do not undergo spontaneous involution. Here we present a scintigraphic image of familial congenital vascular malformations in two sisters. A 17-years-old young woman with a history of multiple hospitalisations for foci of vascular anomalies appearing progressively in the upper and lower right limbs, chest wall and spleen. A Parkes Weber syndrome was diagnosed based on the clinical picture. Due to the occurrence of new foci of malformations, a whole-body scintigraphic examination was performed. A 12-years-old girl reported a lump in the right lower limb present for approximately 2 years, which was clinically identified as a vascular lesion in the area of calcaneus and talus. Phleboscintigraphy visualized normal radiomarker outflow from the feet via the deep venous system, also observed in the superficial venous system once the tourniquets were released. In static and whole-body examinations vascular malformations were visualised in the area of the medial cuneiform, navicular and talus bones of the left foot, as well as in the projection of right calcaneus and above the right talocrural joint. People with undiagnosed disorders related to the presence of vascular malformations should undergo periodic follow-up to identify lesions that may be the cause of potentially serious complications and to assess the results of treatment. Presented scintigraphic methods may be used for both diagnosing and monitoring of disease progression

  11. Age related changes in tumor vascularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loerelius, L.E.; Stridbeck, H.

    1984-01-01

    VX 2 tumors in the rabbit hind leg were investigated at one, two and three weeks of age. Angiograms were compared with vascular casts. The tumors grew rapidly the first two weeks of age. Large variations in vascularity were noted between tumors of different ages. With increasing age arteriovenous shunts at the tumor periphery and areas of avascularity of necrosis in the tumor center increased in size. Possible reasons for tumor necrosis are increased tissue pressure, anoxia caused by arteriovenous shunts and elevation in venous pressure. The natural history of the VX 2 tumor must be considered in every experimental study of the effect of any treatment. (orig.)

  12. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle blood flow during mental stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linde, B.; Hjemdahl, P.; Freyschuss, U.; Juhlin-Dannfelt, A.

    1989-01-01

    Mental stress (a modified Stroop color word conflict test (CWT)) increased adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF; 133Xe clearance) by 70% and reduced adipose tissue vascular resistance (ATR) by 25% in healthy male volunteers. The vasculatures of adipose tissue (abdomen as well as thigh), skeletal muscle of the calf (133Xe clearance), and the entire calf (venous occlusion plethysmography) responded similarly. Arterial epinephrine (Epi) and glycerol levels were approximately doubled by stress. Beta-Blockade by metoprolol (beta 1-selective) or propranolol (nonselective) attenuated CWT-induced tachycardia similarly. Metoprolol attenuated stress-induced vasodilation in the calf and tended to do so in adipose tissue. Propranolol abolished vasodilation in the calf and resulted in vasoconstriction during CWT in adipose tissue. Decreases in ATR, but not in skeletal muscle or calf vascular resistances, were correlated to increases in arterial plasma glycerol (r = -0.42, P less than 0.05), whereas decreases in skeletal muscle and calf vascular resistances, but not in ATR, were correlated to increases in arterial Epi levels (r = -0.69, P less than 0.01; and r = -0.43, P less than 0.05, respectively). The results suggest that mental stress increases nutritive blood flow in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle considerably, both through the elevation of perfusion pressure and via vasodilatation. Withdrawal of vasoconstrictor nerve activity, vascular beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulation by circulating Epi, and metabolic mechanisms (in adipose tissue) may contribute to the vasodilatation.

  13. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle blood flow during mental stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, B.; Hjemdahl, P.; Freyschuss, U.; Juhlin-Dannfelt, A.

    1989-01-01

    Mental stress [a modified Stroop color word conflict test (CWT)] increased adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF; 133Xe clearance) by 70% and reduced adipose tissue vascular resistance (ATR) by 25% in healthy male volunteers. The vasculatures of adipose tissue (abdomen as well as thigh), skeletal muscle of the calf (133Xe clearance), and the entire calf (venous occlusion plethysmography) responded similarly. Arterial epinephrine (Epi) and glycerol levels were approximately doubled by stress. Beta-Blockade by metoprolol (beta 1-selective) or propranolol (nonselective) attenuated CWT-induced tachycardia similarly. Metoprolol attenuated stress-induced vasodilation in the calf and tended to do so in adipose tissue. Propranolol abolished vasodilation in the calf and resulted in vasoconstriction during CWT in adipose tissue. Decreases in ATR, but not in skeletal muscle or calf vascular resistances, were correlated to increases in arterial plasma glycerol (r = -0.42, P less than 0.05), whereas decreases in skeletal muscle and calf vascular resistances, but not in ATR, were correlated to increases in arterial Epi levels (r = -0.69, P less than 0.01; and r = -0.43, P less than 0.05, respectively). The results suggest that mental stress increases nutritive blood flow in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle considerably, both through the elevation of perfusion pressure and via vasodilatation. Withdrawal of vasoconstrictor nerve activity, vascular beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulation by circulating Epi, and metabolic mechanisms (in adipose tissue) may contribute to the vasodilatation

  14. Improvement of ACE inhibitory activity of casein hydrolysate by Maillard reaction with xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xu; Meng, Jun; Lu, Rong-Rong

    2015-01-01

    The Maillard reaction is widely used to improve the functional properties or biological activities of food. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the Maillard reaction on angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity in a casein hydrolysate-xylose system. Two-step hydrolysis was used to prepare casein ACE inhibitory peptides. Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were prepared by heating hydrolyzed casein with xylose at pH 8.0, 110 °C for up to 16 h. The results showed that the content of free amino group decreased (P Maillard reaction (P reaction in the MRPs. The study shows that the Maillard reaction under appropriate conditions can improve the ACE inhibitory activity of casein hydrolysate effectively. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Protective effects against H2O2-induced damage by enzymatic hydrolysates of an edible brown seaweed, sea tangle (Laminaria japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Pyo-Jam; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Seung-Jae; Park, Sun-Young; Kang, Dong-Soo; Jung, Bok-Mi; Kim, Kui-Shik; Je, Jae-Young; Ahn, Chang-Bum

    2009-02-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysates of Laminaria japonica were evaluated for antioxidative activities using hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and protective effects against H(2)O(2)-induced DNA and cell damage. In addition, activities of antioxidative enzymes, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase, of the enzymatic hydrolysates from L. japonica were also estimated. L. japonica was first enzymatically hydrolyzed by seven carbohydrases (Dextrozyme, AMG, Promozyme, Maltogenase, Termamyl, Viscozyme, and Celluclast [all from Novo Co., Novozyme Nordisk, Bagsvaerd, Denmark]) and five proteinases (Flavourzyme, Neutrase, Protamex, Alcalase [all from Novo Co.], and pancreatic trypsin). The hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of Promozyme and pancreatic trypsin hydrolysates from L. japonica were the highest as compared to those of the other carbohydrases and proteinases, and their 50% inhibitory concentration values were 1.67 and 317.49 mug/mL, respectively. The pancreatic trypsin hydrolysates of L. japonica exerted a protective effect on H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage. We also evaluated the protective effect on hydroxyl radical-induced oxidative damage in PC12 cells via propidium iodide staining using a flow cytometer. The AMG and pancreatic trypsin hydrolysates of L. japonica dose-dependently protected PC12 cells against cell death caused by hydroxyl radical-induced oxidative damage. Additionally, we analyzed the activity of antioxidative enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and the phase II biotransformation enzyme glutathione S-transferase in L. japonica-treated cells. The activity of all antioxidative enzymes was higher in L. japonica-treated cells compared with the nontreated cells. These results indicate that enzymatic hydrolysates of L. japonica possess antioxidative activity.

  16. Conversion of oligomeric starch, cellulose, hydrolysates or sugars to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silks, Louis A; Sutton, Andrew; Kim, Jin Kyung; Gordon, John Cameron; Wu, Ruilian; Kimball, David B.

    2017-09-05

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed to the conversion of a source material (e.g., a depolymerized oligosaccharide mixture, a monomeric sugar, a hydrolysate, or a mixture of monomeric sugars) to intermediate molecules containing 7 to 26 contiguous carbon atoms. These intermediates may also be converted to saturated hydrocarbons. Such saturated hydrocarbons are useful as, for example, fuels.

  17. Vascular Remodelling and Mesenchymal Transition in Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Andrea Nicolosi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrosis of the skin and of internal organs, autoimmunity, and vascular inflammation are hallmarks of Systemic Sclerosis (SSc. The injury and activation of endothelial cells, with hyperplasia of the intima and eventual obliteration of the vascular lumen, are early features of SSc. Reduced capillary blood flow coupled with deficient angiogenesis leads to chronic hypoxia and tissue ischemia, enforcing a positive feed-forward loop sustaining vascular remodelling, further exacerbated by extracellular matrix accumulation due to fibrosis. Despite numerous developments and a growing number of controlled clinical trials no treatment has been shown so far to alter SSc natural history, outlining the need of further investigation in the molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. We review some processes potentially involved in SSc vasculopathy, with attention to the possible effect of sustained vascular inflammation on the plasticity of vascular cells. Specifically we focus on mesenchymal transition, a key phenomenon in the cardiac and vascular development as well as in the remodelling of injured vessels. Recent work supports the role of transforming growth factor-beta, Wnt, and Notch signaling in these processes. Importantly, endothelial-mesenchymal transition may be reversible, possibly offering novel cues for treatment.

  18. Conversion of acid hydrolysate of oil palm empty fruit bunch to L-lactic acid by newly isolated Bacillus coagulans JI12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lidan; Hudari, Mohammad Sufian Bin; Zhou, Xingding; Zhang, Dongxu; Li, Zhi; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2013-06-01

    Cost-effective conversion of lignocellulose hydrolysate to optically pure lactic acid is commercially attractive but very challenging. Bacillus coagulans JI12 was isolated from natural environment and used to produce L-lactic acid (optical purity > 99.5 %) from lignocellulose sugars and acid hydrolysate of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) at 50 °C and pH 6.0 without sterilization of the medium. In fed-batch fermentation with 85 g/L initial xylose and 55 g/L xylose added after 7.5 h, 137.5 g/L lactic acid was produced with a yield of 98 % and a productivity of 4.4 g/L h. In batch fermentation of a sugar mixture containing 8.5 % xylose, 1 % glucose, and 1 % L-arabinose, the lactic acid yield and productivity reached 98 % and 4.8 g/L h, respectively. When EFB hydrolysate was used, 59.2 g/L of lactic acid was produced within 9.5 h at a yield of 97 % and a productivity of 6.2 g/L h, which are the highest among those ever reported from lignocellulose hydrolysates. These results indicate that B. coagulans JI12 is a promising strain for industrial production of L-lactic acid from lignocellulose hydrolysate.

  19. Comparison of the aggregation behavior of soy and bovine whey protein hydrolysates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, B.J.H.; Alting, A.C.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Soy-derived proteins (soy protein isolate, glycinin, and ß-conglycinin) and bovine whey-derived proteins (whey protein isolate, ¿-lactalbumin, ß-lactoglobulin) were hydrolyzed using subtilisin Carlsberg, chymotrypsin, trypsin, bromelain, and papain. The (in)solubility of the hydrolysates

  20. Electrospinning thermoplastic polyurethane/graphene oxide scaffolds for small diameter vascular graft applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Xin [National Engineering Research Center of Novel Equipment for Polymer Processing, The Key Laboratory of Polymer Processing Engineering of Ministry of Education, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin–Madison, WI (United States); Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin–Madison, WI (United States); Mi, Hao-Yang [National Engineering Research Center of Novel Equipment for Polymer Processing, The Key Laboratory of Polymer Processing Engineering of Ministry of Education, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Salick, Max R. [Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin–Madison, WI (United States); Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, WI (United States); Cordie, Travis M. [Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin–Madison, WI (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin–Madison, WI (United States); Peng, Xiang-Fang, E-mail: pmxfpeng@scut.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center of Novel Equipment for Polymer Processing, The Key Laboratory of Polymer Processing Engineering of Ministry of Education, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Turng, Lih-Sheng, E-mail: turng@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin–Madison, WI (United States); Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin–Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Fabrication of small diameter vascular grafts plays an important role in vascular tissue engineering. In this study, thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)/graphene oxide (GO) scaffolds were fabricated via electrospinning at different GO contents as potential candidates for small diameter vascular grafts. In terms of mechanical and surface properties, the tensile strength, Young's modulus, and hydrophilicity of the scaffolds increased with an increase of GO content while plasma treatment dramatically improved the scaffold hydrophilicity. Mouse fibroblast (3T3) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured on the scaffolds separately to study their biocompatibility and potential to be used as vascular grafts. It was found that cell viability for both types of cells, fibroblast proliferation, and HUVEC attachment were the highest at a 0.5 wt.% GO loading whereas oxygen plasma treatment also enhanced HUVEC viability and attachment significantly. In addition, the suture retention strength and burst pressure of tubular TPU/GO scaffolds containing 0.5 wt.% GO were found to meet the requirements of human blood vessels, and endothelial cells were able to attach to the inner surface of the tubular scaffolds. Platelet adhesion tests using mice blood indicated that vascular scaffolds containing 0.5% GO had low platelet adhesion and activation. Therefore, the electrospun TPU/GO tubular scaffolds have the potential to be used in vascular tissue engineering. - Highlights: • TPU/GO vascular scaffolds were prepared via electrospinning. • The addition of GO improved the modulus and hydrophilicity of the scaffolds. • Fibroblast cell culture verified the scaffolds' biocompatibility. • Endothelial cell culture verified the scaffolds' vascular graft affinity. • The mechanical properties fulfilled the requirements of vascular grafts.

  1. Effects of hypothyroidism on vascular /sup 125/I-albumin permeation and blood flow in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilton, R.G.; Pugliese, G.; Chang, K.; Speedy, A.; Province, M.A.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R.

    1989-05-01

    Effects of hypothyroidism on vascular 125I-albumin permeation and on blood flow were assessed in multiple tissues of male Sprague-Dawley rats rendered hypothyroid by dietary supplementation with 0.5% (wt/wt) 2-thiouracil or by thyroidectomy. In both thiouracil-treated and thyroidectomized rats, body weights, kidney weight, arterial blood pressure, and pulse rate were decreased significantly v age-matched controls. After 10 to 12 weeks of thiouracil treatment, 125I-albumin permeation was increased significantly in the kidney, aorta, eye (anterior uvea, choroid, retina), skin, and new granulation tissue, remained unchanged in brain, sciatic nerve, and heart, and was decreased in forelimb skeletal muscle. A similar pattern was observed in thyroidectomized rats, except that increases in 125I-albumin permeation for all tissues were smaller than those observed in thiouracil-treated rats, and 125I-albumin permeation in retina did not differ from controls. In both thiouracil-treated and thyroidectomized rats, changes in blood flow (assessed with 15-microns, 85Sr-labeled microspheres) relative to the decrease in arterial blood pressure were indicative of a decrease in regional vascular resistance except in the choroid and in the kidney, in which vascular resistance was increased significantly. Glomerular filtration rate was decreased, but filtration fraction and urinary excretion of albumin remained unchanged by thiouracil treatment and thyroidectomy. These results indicate that vascular hemodynamics and endothelial cell barrier functional integrity are modulated in many different tissues by the thyroid. In view of the correspondence of hypothyroid- and diabetes-induced vascular permeability changes, these results raise the possibility that altered thyroid function in diabetes may play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease.

  2. KAJIAN SIFAT FISIKOKIMIA DAN ORGANOLEPTIK HIDROLISAT TEMPE HASIL HIDROLISIS PROTEASE [Study on physicochemical and organoleptic properties of tempeh hydrolysate produced by protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Herry

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical and organoleptic properties of tempeh hydrolysate produced by protease were studied. The tempeh hydrolysate had different properties comparing with those of the unhydrolyzed tempeh powder. Hydrolysis of the tempeh protein could lower the antioxidant activity. Accordingly, the TBA value increased significantly when the tempeh was hydrolyzed by protease. This process also promoted Maillard reaction, resulting in a more brown color than that of the unhydrolyzed tempeh powder. Moreover, the tempeh hydrolysate had a better protein solubility, and a higher index of umami taste by organoleptic evaluation.

  3. Evaluation of Hypotensive and Antihypertensive Effects of Velvet Bean (Mucuna pruriens L.) Hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Galicia-Martínez, Saulo; Acevedo-Fernández, Juan José; Santaolalla-Tapia, Jesus; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension could cause significant worldwide health problems that affect 15-20% of all adults; according to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, about 29% of the adult population in the United States are hypertensive. Recent research has shown that peptides derived from the hydrolysis of food proteins can decrease blood pressure. This study was carried out to evaluate the hypotensive and antihypertensive potential of Mucuna pruriens protein hydrolysates in in vitro and in vivo models. M. pruriens protein concentrate was prepared by wet fractionation and enzymatically hydrolyzed using Alcalase ® , Flavourzyme ® , and the sequential system Alcalase-Flavourzyme at different times (5-120 min). The biological potential was measured in vitro based on the IC 50 value as well as in vivo effect, measuring the systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure in normotensive and antihypertensive Wistar-Kyoto rats by the tail-cuff method. Hydrolysis of M. pruriens protein concentrates with commercial enzymes generated extensive hydrolysates with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE-I) inhibitory activity (IC 50 : 0.589-0.993 mg/mL) and hypotensive (SBP: 0.6-47.43%, DBP: 1.94-43.47%) and antihypertensive (SBP: 8.84-27.29% DBP: 16.1-29.37%) effect. These results indicate that Mucuna pruriens protein hydrolysate (MPPH) could be used as a functional ingredient to prevent blood pressure increase.

  4. Oxygen tension in human tumours measured with polarographic needle electrodes and its relationship to vascular density, necrosis and hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyng, Heidi; Sundfoer, Kolbein; Rofstad, Einar K.

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: The use of polarographic needle electrodes for measurement of oxygen tension (pO 2 ) in tumours requires documentation of the validity of the method. In the present work the pO 2 values measured polarographically with the Eppendorf pO 2 histograph in human tumours were compared with the histological appearance of the tumour tissue, i.e. vascular density, fraction of necrosis and fraction of hypoxic tissue, to investigate whether the measurements reflected the expected pO 2 . Materials and methods: The pO 2 was measured in cervix tumours in patients and in human melanoma xenografted tumours in athymic mice. Vascular density was determined in the cervix tumours by histological analysis of biopsies from the pO 2 measurement tracks. Fraction of necrosis and fraction of hypoxic tissue, i.e. tissue binding the hypoxia marker pimonidazole, were determined in the melanomas by analysis of histological sections from the tumour planes in which the pO 2 measurements were performed. Results: The pO 2 distributions showed large intratumour heterogeneity. In cervix tumours, tumour regions with vascular density (vascular length per unit tissue volume) in the range of 47-77 mm/mm 3 showed higher pO 2 than tumour regions with vascular density in the range of 20-47 mm/mm 3 , which in turn showed higher pO 2 than tumour regions with vascular density in the range of 0-20 mm/mm 3 . In melanomas, tumour regions in which necrosis and hypoxia constituted more than 50% of the tissue showed lower pO 2 than other tumour regions. Conclusions: The pO 2 measured in the tumours was consistent with the histological appearance of the tissue in which the measurements were performed, suggesting that reliable pO 2 distributions of tumours can be obtained with polarographic needle electrodes

  5. Biogas production from wheat straw in batch and UASB reactors: the roles of pretreatment and seaweed hydrolysate as a co-substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkemka, Valentine Nkongndem; Murto, Marika

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated biogas production in batch and UASB reactors from pilot-scale acid catalysed steam pretreated and enzymatic hydrolysed wheat straw. The results showed that the pretreatment was efficient and, a sugar yield of 95% was obtained. The pretreatment improved the methane yield (0.28 m(3)/kg VS(added)) by 57% compared to untreated straw. Treatment of the straw hydrolysate with nutrient supplementation in a UASB reactor resulted in a high methane production rate, 2.70 m(3)/m(3).d at a sustainable OLR of 10.4 kg COD/m(3).d and with a COD reduction of 94%. Alternatively, co-digestion of the straw and seaweed hydrolysates in a UASB reactor also maintained a stable anaerobic process and can thus reduce the cost of nutrients addition. We have shown that biogas production from wheat straw can be competitive by pretreatment, high methane production rate in UASB reactors and also by co-digestion with seaweed hydrolysate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Measurements of pulmonary vascular permeability with PET and gallium-68 transferrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintun, M.A.; Dennis, D.R.; Welch, M.J.; Mathias, C.J.; Schuster, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    We quantified pulmonary vascular permeability with positron emission tomography (PET) and gallium-68-( 68 Ga) labeled transferrin. Six dogs with oleic acid-induced lung injury confined to the left lower lobe, two normal human volunteers, and two patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were evaluated. Lung tissue-activity measurements were obtained from sequential 1-5 min PET scans collected over 60 min, after in vivo labeling of transferrin through intravenous administration of [ 68 Ga]citrate. Blood-activity measurements were measured from simultaneously obtained peripheral blood samples. A forward rate constant describing the movement of transferrin from pulmonary vascular to extravascular compartments, the pulmonary transcapillary escape rate (PTCER), was then calculated from these data using a two-compartment model. In dogs, PTCER was 49 +/- 18 in normal lung tissue and 485 +/- 114 10(-4) min-1 in injured lung. A repeat study in these dogs 4 hr later showed no significant change. Values in the human subjects showed similarly marked differences between normal and abnormal lung tissue. We conclude that PET will be a useful method of evaluating vascular permeability changes after acute lung injury

  7. Effects of Different Working Modes of Ultrasound on Structural Characteristics of Zein and ACE Inhibitory Activity of Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Ren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound was used as a new technology to pretreat protein prior to proteolysis to improve enzymolysis efficiency. The effects of different working modes of ultrasound on the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activity of zein hydrolysates and the structural characteristics of zein were investigated. The solubility, surface hydrophobicity (H0, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectra, intrinsic fluorescence spectra, and circular dichroism (CD spectra of zein pretreated with ultrasound were determined. All ultrasound pretreatments significantly improved the ACE inhibitory activity of zein hydrolysates (p<0.05. The highest ACE inhibitory activity, representing an increase of 99.21% over the control, was obtained with dual sweeping frequency ultrasound of 33±2 and 68±2 kHz. The effects of single sweeping frequency and dual fixed frequency ultrasound were stronger than those of single fixed frequency ultrasound for improving the ACE inhibitory activity of zein. Structural changes in zein were induced by ultrasound, as confirmed by changes in the solubility, H0, UV-Vis spectra, intrinsic fluorescence spectra, and CD spectra of zein, and these were consistent with the corresponding ACE inhibitory activities of zein hydrolysates. Thus, ultrasound working mode and frequency have significant effects on the structure of zein and the ACE inhibitory activity of zein hydrolysates.

  8. Assessment of safety and efficiency of nitrogen organic fertilizers from animal-based protein hydrolysates--a laboratory multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte, Laura; Dell'abate, Maria Teresa; Magini, Alessandro; Migliore, Melania; Felici, Barbara; Roscini, Luca; Sardella,