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Sample records for vascular albumin filtration

  1. Effects of hypothyroidism on vascular /sup 125/I-albumin permeation and blood flow in rats

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    Tilton, R.G.; Pugliese, G.; Chang, K.; Speedy, A.; Province, M.A.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R.

    1989-05-01

    Effects of hypothyroidism on vascular 125I-albumin permeation and on blood flow were assessed in multiple tissues of male Sprague-Dawley rats rendered hypothyroid by dietary supplementation with 0.5% (wt/wt) 2-thiouracil or by thyroidectomy. In both thiouracil-treated and thyroidectomized rats, body weights, kidney weight, arterial blood pressure, and pulse rate were decreased significantly v age-matched controls. After 10 to 12 weeks of thiouracil treatment, 125I-albumin permeation was increased significantly in the kidney, aorta, eye (anterior uvea, choroid, retina), skin, and new granulation tissue, remained unchanged in brain, sciatic nerve, and heart, and was decreased in forelimb skeletal muscle. A similar pattern was observed in thyroidectomized rats, except that increases in 125I-albumin permeation for all tissues were smaller than those observed in thiouracil-treated rats, and 125I-albumin permeation in retina did not differ from controls. In both thiouracil-treated and thyroidectomized rats, changes in blood flow (assessed with 15-microns, 85Sr-labeled microspheres) relative to the decrease in arterial blood pressure were indicative of a decrease in regional vascular resistance except in the choroid and in the kidney, in which vascular resistance was increased significantly. Glomerular filtration rate was decreased, but filtration fraction and urinary excretion of albumin remained unchanged by thiouracil treatment and thyroidectomy. These results indicate that vascular hemodynamics and endothelial cell barrier functional integrity are modulated in many different tissues by the thyroid. In view of the correspondence of hypothyroid- and diabetes-induced vascular permeability changes, these results raise the possibility that altered thyroid function in diabetes may play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease.

  2. Serum albumin levels predict vascular dysfunction with paradoxical pathogenesis in healthy individuals.

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    Kadono, Mayuko; Hasegawa, Goji; Shigeta, Masako; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Ueda, Miho; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Fukui, Michiaki; Nakamura, Naoto

    2010-03-01

    Serum albumin is affected by both nutritional status and inflammation. It is, therefore, thought to be highly linked with pathogenesis of vascular dysfunction. Cross-sectional data from 2091 individuals aged 23-87, who underwent a general health examination, were analyzed. First, we investigated the association between serum albumin level and vascular functions, as assessed by brachial-ankle pulse-wave velocity (PWV). Then, we evaluated the prevalence of hyperglycemia (fasting blood sugar >or=100mg/dl), metabolic syndrome as determined by NCEP criteria, and inflammation (CRP >or=0.4mg/dl), across tertiles of albumin levels. In a multivariate regression model, a U-shaped relationship between serum albumin and PWV was statistically significant when albumin level was treated as a continuous variable in g/dl and centered at 4.4g/dl (quadratic term P-value=0.006). The highest tertile of albumin level (4.6-5.4g/dl) was associated with increased odds ratios for hyperglycemia of 1.35 (1.07-1.70) compared to the middle tertile (4.4-4.5g/dl), whereas the lowest tertile (3.3-4.3g/dl) was associated with reduced odds ratios for hyperglycemia of 0.80 (0.65-0.99). The highest tertile was also associated with increased odds ratios for metabolic syndrome of 1.30 (0.96-1.76) compared to the middle tertile, whereas the lowest tertile was associated with reduced odds ratios of 0.70 (0.51-0.95). Furthermore, the lowest tertile was associated with increased prevalence of inflammation with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.85 (1.15-2.97). The current results demonstrate that extremes of serum albumin levels are linked to vascular dysfunction among healthy individuals. Furthermore, serum albumin is paradoxically linked to vascular disease under conditions both of overnutrition and of malnutrition and inflammation complex.

  3. The impact of hormonal contraceptives on blood pressure, urinary albumin excretion and glomerular filtration rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atthobari, Jarir; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Visser, Sipke T.; de Jong, Paul E.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.

    Aim In short-term studies, hormonal contraceptives (HC) have been suggested to induce a rise in blood pressure (BP) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE), while the effect of HC in renal function (GFR) is still under debate. Data on long-term and withdrawal effects of HC use on these outcomes are,

  4. Cohort study of predictive value of urinary albumin excretion for atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deckert, T; Yokoyama, H; Mathiesen, E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion precedes development of atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes independently of conventional atherogenic risk factors and of diabetic nephropathy. DESIGN: Cohort study with 11 year follow......, smoking habits, and serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, sialic acid, and von Willebrand factor. END POINT: atherosclerotic vascular disease assessed by death certificates, mailed questionnaires, and hospital records. RESULTS: Thirty patients developed...... atherosclerotic vascular disease during follow up of 2457 person year. Elevated urinary albumin excretion was significantly predictive of atherosclerotic vascular disease (hazard ratio 1.06 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.18) per 5 mg increase in 24 hour urinary albumin excretion, P = 0.002). Predictive effect...

  5. Serum uric acid concentration is associated with early changes of glomerular filtration rate in patients with diabetes type 1 without increased albumin excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaleniak, Sebastian; Korzeniewska-Dyl, Irmina; Moczulski, Dariusz

    2014-10-01

    The early loss of renal function in patients with type 1 diabetes may begin before proteinuria. Only 30% of patients with diabetes manifest overt proteinuria. According to the previous studies, increased urinary albumin excretion, which is considered a classic marker of progression of diabetic kidney disease, can regress to normal urine albumin excretion. The current studies conducted in patients with type 1 diabetes without increased urine albumin excretion showed that the uric acid concentration was an independent factor for the development of diabetic kidney disease. The aim of study was to assess the impact of uric acid concentration and to identify risk factors of the early glomerular filtration loss in patients with type 1 diabetes and normal urinary albumin excretion. 147 patients (61 women and 86 men) with type 1 diabetes without increased urine albumin excretion were analysed. GFR (gromerular filtration rate) was estimated based on the serum cystatin C concentration. Centile charts were used to determine the variation of uric acid concentration depending on GFR and gender. The mean value of the filtration rate for the study group was 117 ml/min/m2. The uric acid level above 90th percentile in relation to GFR was diagnosed in 8.2% of women and 0% of men, between 90th and 50th percentile in 44.3 % of women and 5.8% of men and below 50th percentile in 47.5% of women and 94.2% of men. Contrary to men in women higher serum acid concentration was strongly associated with higher glomerular filtration rate. Hyperfiltraion was diagnosed in 15 of women and 19 of men. The high normal uric acid concentration in women with type 1 diabetes might play a crucial role in development of hyperfiltration.

  6. PURIFICATION OF WATER SOLUBLE PROTEINS (2S ALBUMINS EXTRACTED FROM PEANUT DEFATTED FLOUR AND ISOLATION OF THEIR ISOFORMS BY GEL FILTRATION AND ANION EXCHANGE CHROMATOGRAPHY

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    IMÈNE BOUALEG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available 2S albumins are water-soluble seed storage proteins present in dicotyledonous plants, including legumes. In peanuts, 2S albumins have been identified as major allergens. In this work, we aimed to study these water soluble allergenic proteins. They were extracted in water from peanut defatted flour (oilcake. It was quantified by Bradford method. The total and insoluble proteins content was determined by Kjeldahl method (% P = N x 6.25. The crude 2S albumins were purified using gel-filtration chromatography. Anion exchange chromatography analysis was applied to isolate their isoforms. The recorded values for total and insoluble proteins are 45.49 % and 36.65 % consecutively. A value of 9.99 % was determined for water soluble proteins content which correspond to 20 % compared to the total proteins. Analysis by Sephadex G-75 chromatography of soluble extract gave two majors peaks in which, the Mr ~ 25 kDa peak was predicted to be pure 2S albumin fraction. Using DAEA-cellulose chromatography, two peaks were appeared from pure 2S albumins, it were predicted that 2S albumin isoforms theoretically represent the peanut major allergens Ara h2 and Ara h6. These approaches are the basis for further studies may involve immunological analysis to understand the impact of these biomolecules on peanut allergenicity.

  7. Controlled Release of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor from Heparin-Functionalized Gelatin Type A and Albumin Hydrogels

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    Christiane Claaßen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bio-based release systems for pro-angiogenic growth factors are of interest, to overcome insufficient vascularization and bio-integration of implants. In this study, we investigated heparin-functionalized hydrogels based on gelatin type A or albumin as storage and release systems for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. The hydrogels were crosslinked using carbodiimide chemistry in presence of heparin. Heparin-functionalization of the hydrogels was monitored by critical electrolyte concentration (CEC staining. The hydrogels were characterized in terms of swelling in buffer solution and VEGF-containing solutions, and their loading with and release of VEGF was monitored. The equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS was lower for albumin-based gels compared to gelatin-based gels. EDS was adjustable with the used carbodiimide concentration for both biopolymers. Furthermore, VEGF-loading and release were dependent on the carbodiimide concentration and loading conditions for both biopolymers. Loading of albumin-based gels was higher compared to gelatin-based gels, and its burst release was lower. Finally, elevated cumulative VEGF release after 21 days was determined for albumin-based hydrogels compared to gelatin A-based hydrogels. We consider the characteristic net charges of the proteins and degradation of albumin during release time as reasons for the observed effects. Both heparin-functionalized biomaterial systems, chemically crosslinked gelatin type A or albumin, had tunable physicochemical properties, and can be considered for controlled delivery of the pro-angiogenic growth factor VEGF.

  8. Glycated albumin as a marker of glycemia in diabetes and its vascular complications

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    Maria Warwas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective glycemic control is very important to prevent the onset and the progression of chronic complications in diabetic patients. It is known that glycation of various proteins is increased in diabetic patients compared with non-diabetics. Among these glycated proteins, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c is commonly used as a gold standard index of glycemic control in the clinical setting. However, it can be unreliable in conditions affecting the lifespan of erythrocytes (120 days as well as in the clinical state in which glycemic control alleviates or deteriorates in a short period. By overcoming the shortcomings of HbA1c, glycated albumin (GA has gained interest as a useful index for an intermediate glycation period (2 weeks and pathogenic protein.After giving a brief overview of the key role of HbA1c as a long-term glycemic marker, this review focuses on (a glycation of human albumin and its main properties, (b methods of GA determination, (c the recent clinical status of GA as a glycemic index in diabetic patients and its association with vascular complications. Finally, conditions with a possible inaccurate GA level are also mentioned.

  9. Pemberian diet ekstra formula komersial dan diet ekstra filtrat ikan gabus intradialisis serta pengaruhnya terhadap kadar serum albumin dan kreatinin pasien dengan hemodialisis di RSU Dr. Saiful Anwar Malang

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    Etik Sulistyowati

    2008-11-01

    Conclusion: There was significant effect of the supply of commercial formula and local catfish filtrate extra diet to increase of albumin serum level of the subject and there was no significant effect of the supply of extra diet to creatinine serum level; however, the supply of local catfish filtrate extra diet could maintain creatinine serum level.

  10. Relationship between Kidney Dysfunction and Ischemic Stroke Outcomes: Albuminuria, but Not Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate, Is Associated with the Risk of Further Vascular Events and Mortality after Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Lee, Dong-Geun

    2016-01-01

    Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria are known to be associated with ischemic stroke outcomes. In this study, we investigated the longitudinal relationships of the two markers with mortality, vascular events and functional outcomes in a stroke cohort. A total of 295 patients with acute ischemic stroke were prospectively recruited in a single center between May 2012 and February 2015. Renal dysfunction was defined as a decreased eGFR (albuminuria (urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g). Good functional outcome at 6 months was defined as a modified Rankin scale score ≤ 2, and the occurrence of major vascular events (stroke, acute coronary syndrome or peripheral artery occlusion) or death was monitored. The associations between renal dysfunction and mortality, major vascular events, and 6-month functional outcome were evaluated by the Cox proportional hazards model and logistic regression analysis. Unadjusted and adjusted hazards ratios (HRs), odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained. A Kaplan-Meier survival curve for composite adverse events (major vascular events or death) was also computed according to the presence or absence of albuminuria. Albuminuria, not eGFR, was significantly associated with mortality (P = 0.028; HR 2.15; 95% CI 1.09-4.25) and major vascular events (P = 0.044; HR 2.24; 95% CI 1.02-4.94) in the multivariate Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, current smoking, atrial fibrillation, previous stroke, alcohol history, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score and eGFR. In addition, albuminuria was negatively associated with 6-month functional outcome in the multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, current smoking, atrial fibrillation, previous stroke, alcohol history and eGFR (P = 0.001; OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.20-0.65), but the association disappeared when NIHSS score was

  11. Fetuin-A and albumin alter cytotoxic effects of calcium phosphate nanoparticles on human vascular smooth muscle cells.

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    Yana Dautova

    Full Text Available Calcification is a detrimental process in vascular ageing and in diseases such as atherosclerosis and arthritis. In particular, small calcium phosphate (CaP crystal deposits are associated with inflammation and atherosclerotic plaque de-stabilisation. We previously reported that CaP particles caused human vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC death and that serum reduced the toxic effects of the particles. Here, we found that the serum proteins fetuin-A and albumin (≥ 1 µM reduced intracellular Ca2+ elevations and cell death in VSMCs in response to CaP particles. In addition, CaP particles functionalised with fetuin-A, but not albumin, were less toxic than naked CaP particles. Electron microscopic studies revealed that CaP particles were internalised in different ways; via macropinocytosis, membrane invagination or plasma membrane damage, which occurred within 10 minutes of exposure to particles. However, cell death did not occur until approximately 30 minutes, suggesting that plasma membrane repair and survival mechanisms were activated. In the presence of fetuin-A, CaP particle-induced damage was inhibited and CaP/plasma membrane interactions and particle uptake were delayed. Fetuin-A also reduced dissolution of CaP particles under acidic conditions, which may contribute to its cytoprotective effects after CaP particle exposure to VSMCs. These studies are particularly relevant to the calcification observed in blood vessels in patients with kidney disease, where circulating levels of fetuin-A and albumin are low, and in pathological situations where CaP crystal formation outweighs calcification-inhibitory mechanisms.

  12. Indoor particles affect vascular function in the aged - An air filtration-based intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauner, E.V.; Forchhammer, L.; Moller, P.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: Exposure to particulate matter is associated with risk of cardiovascular events, possibly through endothelial dysfunction, and indoor air may be most important. Objectives: We investigated effects of controlled exposure to indoor air particles on microvascular function (MVF...... factors, P-selectin, plasma amyloid A, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, protein oxidation measured as 2-aminoadipic semialdehyde in plasma, urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F-2 alpha, and blood pressure. Indoor air filtration significantly improved MVF by 8.1% (95% confidence...... fraction. After Bonferroni correction, none of the secondary biomarkers changed significantly. Conclusions: Reduction of particle exposure by filtration of recirculated indoor air for only 48 hours improved MVF in healthy elderly citizens, suggesting that this may be a feasible way of reducing the risk...

  13. [Study on a novel vascular stent material (titanium oxide, Ti-O) coated with albumin and heparin: is it hemocompatible with fibrinogen].

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    Song, Jie; Wu, Xi; Huang, Nan; Xu, Biao; Jing, Fengjuan; Chen, Junying; Leng, Yongxiang; Yang, Ping; Wang, Jin; Sun, Hong; Zhao, Ansha

    2007-10-01

    The functional hemocompatibility between fibrinogen (FIG) and a novel vascular stent material (Ti-O film fixed with albumin and heparin) was investigated as follows: (1) Preparing the new biologic material (Ti-O) film; (2) Coating albumin and heparin on the Ti-O film; (3) Testing platelets (PL) adsorption; (4) Determining FIG adhesion number by use of enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA); (5) Implanting the films from the test group of Ti-O film and from the comparison group of stainless steel (SS) film into the left and right femoral arteries respectively in 4 dogs. It was proved that albumin and heparin were fixed on Ti-O film. After 6 months, the femoral arteries of the dogs were resected. In the test group of Ti-O film coated with albumin and heparin, few PL adhered to the coat, their form did not change, and no thrombus was found by scanning electron microscopy; the result was better than that of plain Ti-O film, and was much better than that of SS film. Ti-O maintained normal transformation condition of FIG, and no C terminal of gamma chain in FIG was revealed. As it is known whether the hemocompatibility of a biomaterial is good depends upon its adsorption of FIG, and Ti-O has excellent reaction on albumin and heparin by chemical processes. In this study, the Ti-O film coated with albumin and heparin further reduced the absorption of FIG and PL when compared against the plain Ti-O film. So the Ti-O film coated with albumin and heparin has the insistent and permanent anticoagulant character.

  14. Cystatin C, vascular biomarkers and measured glomerular filtration rate in patients with unresponsive hypertensive phenotype: a pilot study.

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    Čabarkapa, Velibor; Ilinčić, Branislava; Đerić, Mirjana; Vučaj Ćirilović, Viktorija; Kresoja, Milena; Žeravica, Radmila; Sakač, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    Biomarkers are commonly used to estimate the presence of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with essential arterial hypertension (HT). In addition to known association between cystatin C and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), elucidating the association between cystatin C and vascular biomarkers (intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (CCIMT), carotid plaque and renal artery resistance index (RRI)) in patients with unresponsive hypertensive phenotype could be of significant clinical interest. Participants (n = 200, median age 58 (52-64) years, 49% female) under treatment with antihypertensive drugs were stratified into two subgroups based on their blood pressure level as having responsive hypertension (RHT - compliant and responsive to treatment, n = 100), or nonresponsive (URHT - compliant but nonresponsive to treatment, n = 100). GFR was measured by isotopic (slope-intercept) method (99m Tc diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid - mGFR). The URHT group had significantly higher median cystatin C serum concentration (p = 0.02) and CCIMT (p = 0.00) compared to the RHT group, with no significant difference in RRI (p = 0.51) and mGFR among subgroups [69.9 ± 28.2 vs 76.74 ± 23.61 ml/min/1.73m(2), p = 0.27]. In the URHT group, cystatin C was found to be associated with CCIMT (p = 0.02), hsCRP (p = 0.01) and duration of HT (p = 0.02), independently of mGFR and age. Independent predictors of URHT phenotype were CCIMT (p= 0.02) and hsCRP (p= 0.04). In addition to GFR, cystatin C serum concentration is positively and independently associated with CCIMT in patient with URHT phenotype and subclinical CVD. Prospective larger studies should further investigate the clinical importance of this relationship.

  15. Higher vascular endothelial growth factor-C concentration in plasma is associated with increased forearm capillary filtration capacity in breast cancer-related lymphedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Radmer; Simonsen, Lene; Karlsmark, Tonny

    2015-01-01

    shown that the forearm capillary filtration coefficient (CFC) is increased bilaterally in BCRL. In this study, we aimed to elucidate if increased CFC is associated with low-grade inflammation and/or vascular endothelial growth factor-c (VEGF-C) signaling. Fourteen patients with unilateral BCRL and nine......Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is a frequent, chronic and debilitating swelling that mainly affects the ipsilateral arm and develops as a complication to breast cancer treatment. The pathophysiology is elusive opposing development of means for prediction and treatment. We have earlier...... increased forearm CFC in BCRL subjects. Interstitially increased MCP-1 levels may augment local microvascular protein permeability in BCRL....

  16. Improved metabolic control does not alter the charge-dependent glomerular filtration of albumin in uncomplicated type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kverneland, A; Welinder, B; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1988-01-01

    . It was, however, unaffected by 12 weeks of improved metabolic control with a mean decline in HbA1c of 1.9% in seven patients. We conclude that the increased electronegative charge of the glomerular filtration barrier observed in uncomplicated diabetes is related to long term metabolic control...... but not reversible during twelve weeks of strict metabolic control. This indicates a slow turnover of the components responsible for the increased charge selectivity in uncomplicated diabetes....

  17. Reduced glomerular filtration rate and its association with clinical outcome in older patients at risk of vascular events: secondary analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ford, Ian

    2009-01-20

    Reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in young and middle aged individuals. Associations with cardiovascular disease and mortality in older people are less clearly established. We aimed to determine the predictive value of the GFR for mortality and morbidity using data from the 5,804 participants randomized in the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER).

  18. Cohort study of predictive value of urinary albumin excretion for atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deckert, T; Yokoyama, H; Mathiesen, E

    1996-01-01

    , smoking habits, and serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, sialic acid, and von Willebrand factor. END POINT: atherosclerotic vascular disease assessed by death certificates, mailed questionnaires, and hospital records. RESULTS: Thirty patients developed...... was independent of age; sex; blood pressure; smoking; serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, sialic acid, and von Willebrand factor; level of haemoglobin A(lc); insulin dose, duration of diabetes, and diabetic nephropathy (hazard ratio 1.04 (1.01 to 1.08) per 5 mg...

  19. Inhaled nitric oxide prevents the increase in pulmonary vascular permeability caused by hydrogen peroxide.

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    Poss, W B; Timmons, O D; Farrukh, I S; Hoidal, J R; Michael, J R

    1995-09-01

    Given the interest in using inhaled nitric oxide (NO.) to treat acute lung injury and the importance of oxygen radicals in its pathogenesis, we studied the effects, in buffer-perfused isolated rabbit lungs, of inhaled NO. (24 ppm) on the injury caused by generating hydrogen peroxide with glucose and glucose oxidase (GOX). Experiments were performed at a constant pulmonary arterial pressure. GOX substantially augmented vascular permeability, as demonstrated by an increase in the lung-to-perfusate 125I-labeled albumin ratio, lavage-to-perfusate 125I-albumin ratio, wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, and pulmonary vascular filtration coefficient. Lungs treated with inhaled NO. before perfusion with GOX had lung-to-perfusate and lavage-to-perfusate 125I-albumin ratios that were not significantly different from control values and intermediate between the control and GOX groups. Inhaled NO. also prevented the increase in wet-to-dry lung weight ratio and pulmonary vascular filtration coefficient caused by GOX.. Thus inhaled NO. substantially reduced in the isolated lung the increase in pulmonary vascular permeability produced by the intravascular generation of hydrogen peroxide.

  20. Human serum albumin and oxidative stress in preeclamptic women and the mechanism of albumin for stress reduction

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    Hiroyuki Kinoshita

    2017-08-01

    Significance: Serum albumin relates to oxidative stress inversely, but to the endothelial function positively, in pregnant women. Human serum albumin appears to reduce oxidative stress via NADPH oxidase inhibition in the human vascular smooth muscle, indicating that the serum level may be a critical determinant of vascular oxidative stress in some human diseases.

  1. The relationship between the percentage of lung shunting on Tc-99m macroaggregated albumin (Tc-99m MAA scan and the grade of hepatocellular carcinoma vascularity

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    Rania Refaat

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Tc-99m MAA scan is fundamental prior to Y-90 microsphere SIRT as it minimizes the risk of post-radioembolization complications, hence, enhancing the safety of Y-90 microsphere subsequent administration. Moreover, the percentage of lung shunting varies considerably among patients with HCC relying on the grade of tumor vascularity.

  2. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

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    ... Microalbuminuria" is slowly being replaced with the term "albuminuria," which refers to any elevation of albumin in ... detectable small amounts of albumin in their urine (albuminuria) have an increased risk of developing progressive kidney ...

  3. Binding of anandamide to bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, I.N.; Hansen, Harald S.

    2003-01-01

    The endocannabinoid anandamide is of lipid nature and may thus bind to albumin in the vascular system, as do fatty acids. The knowledge of the free water-phase concentration of anandamide is essential for the investigations of its transfer from the binding protein to cellular membranes, because a...... in aqueous compartments. - Bojesen, I. N., and H. S. Hansen. Binding of anandamide to bovine serum albumin....

  4. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

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    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devicesThe Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  5. Blood flow vs. venous pressure effects on filtration coefficient in oleic acid-injured lung.

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    Anglade, D; Corboz, M; Menaouar, A; Parker, J C; Sanou, S; Bayat, S; Benchetrit, G; Grimbert, F A

    1998-03-01

    On the basis of changes in capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) in 24 rabbit lungs, we determined whether elevations in pulmonary venous pressure (Ppv) or blood flow (BF) produced differences in filtration surface area in oleic acid-injured (OA) or control (Con) lungs. Lungs were cyclically ventilated and perfused under zone 3 conditions by using blood and 5% albumin with no pharmacological modulation of vascular tone. Pulmonary arterial, venous, and capillary pressures were measured by using arterial, venous, and double occlusion. Before and during each Kfc-measurement maneuver, microvascular/total vascular compliance was measured by using venous occlusion. Kfc was measured before and 30 min after injury, by using a Ppv elevation of 7 cmH2O or a BF elevation from 1 to 2 l . min-1 . 100 g-1 to obtain a similar double occlusion pressure. Pulmonary arterial pressure increased more with BF than with Ppv in both Con and OA lungs [29 +/- 2 vs. 19 +/- 0.7 (means +/- SE) cmH2O; P Kfc (200 +/- 40 vs. 83 +/- 14%, respectively; P < 0.01) and microvascular/total vascular compliance ratio (86 +/- 4 vs. 68 +/- 5%, respectively; P < 0.01) increased more with BF than with Ppv. In conclusion, for a given OA-induced increase in hydraulic conductivity, BF elevation increased filtration surface area more than did Ppv elevation. The steep pulmonary pressure profile induced by increased BF could result in the recruitment of injured capillaries and could also shift downstream the compression point of blind (zone 1) and open injured vessels (zone 2).

  6. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) Ratio Toxoplasmosis Testing Trace Minerals Transferrin and Iron-binding Capacity ( ... Blood in Urine (Hematuria) Bone Marrow Disorders Breast Cancer Cancer Cardiovascular Disease Celiac Disease Cervical Cancer Chronic ...

  7. Glomerular filtration rate

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    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007305.htm Glomerular filtration rate To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a test used to check ...

  8. Rotary filtration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, David T [Aiken, SC; Maxwell, David N [Aiken, SC

    2011-04-19

    A rotary filtration apparatus for filtering a feed fluid into permeate is provided. The rotary filtration apparatus includes a container that has a feed fluid inlet. A shaft is at least partially disposed in the container and has a passageway for the transport of permeate. A disk stack made of a plurality of filtration disks is mounted onto the shaft so that rotation of the shaft causes rotation of the filtration disks. The filtration disks may be made of steel components and may be welded together. The shaft may penetrate a filtering section of the container at a single location. The rotary filtration apparatus may also incorporate a bellows seal to prevent leakage along the shaft, and an around the shaft union rotary joint to allow for removal of permeate. Various components of the rotary filtration apparatus may be removed as a single assembly.

  9. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... micrograms/l to 77 micrograms/l. Examination of the aluminium and nickel contents of the constituents for the production of one brand showed too low levels to explain the final contamination of the product. By following the aluminium and nickel concentrations of the same brand during the production...... of a batch of albumin solution, filtration was shown to contribute to contamination, although the largest increase in aluminium as well as nickel concentrations appeared during the bulk concentrating process. To avoid health risks to certain patients, regulations should be established requiring aluminium...

  10. Visualization of water flow during filtration using flat filtration materials

    OpenAIRE

    Hrůza Jakub; Šidlof Petr; Bílek Petr

    2012-01-01

    Filtration materials are very important elements of some industrial appliances. Water filtration is a separation of solid materials from fluid. Solid particles are captured on the frontal area of the filtration textile and only liquid passes through it. It is important to know the filtration process in a detailed way to be able to develop filtration materials. Visualization of filtration process enables a better view of the filtration. This method also enables to determine efficiency and homo...

  11. Measurement of water filtration in skeletal muscle in man by an osmotic transient method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, T; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1983-01-01

    Water filtration in the human forearm was determined with a new method using a hyperoncotic transient of albumin solution infused into the brachial artery. Baseline dilution of labelled albumin in deep forearm vein plasma in excess of the contribution from arterial blood and from infusate...... was assumed to originate from extravascular water filtered into the blood by the transient. The filtration coefficient (Fc) was determined as the ratio between filtered water and increase in colloid osmotic pressure in the blood samples, and gives the filtrative water permeability in the exchange areas...... of the microcirculation. In 10 normal volunteers, Fc was 0.00082 ml (ml mmHg)-1 (SD=0.00007). Multiplication of Fc by plasma flow in the forearm gave a filtration capacity (Kf) of 0.0036 ml (100 ml tissue min mmHg)-1 (SD=0.00137). This filtration capacity (Kf) represents that of fast flowing regions in the forearm...

  12. Administration of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor improves vascular function and urinary albumin excretion in low-risk essential hypertensive patients receiving anti-hypertensive treatment with calcium channel blockers. Organ-protecting effects independent of anti-hypertensive effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Takasugi, E; Shitakura, K; Okajima, K; Hota, N; Kubo, Y; Nunoda, S; Otsuka, K

    2011-01-01

    Concomitant administration of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) to hypertensive patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease can prevent cardiovascular disease occurrence, but the effects of this treatment on renal and vascular function in low-risk hypertensive patients are unknown. The current study was an open-label prospective study. Hypertensive patients with no history of cardiovascular disease who had not met their blood pressure (BP) goals with CCB treatment were administered perindopril and followed for 6 months. Both home and office BP were significantly lowered by perindopril administration. The morning/evening (M/E) ratios calculated from home BP were 1.31 and 1.05 for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), respectively. When the patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of an anti-hypertensive response, urinary albumin excretion, and cardio ankle vascular index were significantly reduced by perindopril administration in all the subjects, irrespective of the presence or absence of anti-hypertensive reaction. In low-risk hypertensive patients, perindopril improves renal and vascular function probably via its persistent anti-hypertensive effects and the concomitant effects of CCB.

  13. Transcapillary escape rate of albumin and right atrial pressure in chronic congestive heart failure before and after treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, B; Parving, H H; Lund-Jacobsen, H

    1976-01-01

    The transcapillary escape rate of albumin (TERalb), i.e., the fraction of intravascular mass of albumin that passes to the extravascular space per unit of time, was determined from the disappearance of intravenously injected 125I-labeled human serum albumin during the first 60 minutes after injec...... results best can be explained by increased filtration, mainly through the venous end of the microvasculature, due to the increased venous pressure in heart failure....

  14. Update on the glomerular filtration barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarad, George; Miner, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the review The nephrology community lacks a unified view of protein sieving through the glomerular capillary wall (GCW). The GCW consists of three distinct but closely interacting layers: the fenestrated endothelium, with its glycocalyx; the podocytes, with their interdigitated foot processes and slit diaphragms; and the intervening glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Proteinuria is associated with abnormalities in any one layer, suggesting that each contributes to the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB). Proteinuria can also be induced in the context of a normal GCW. Here we review some classic studies as well as some newer concepts and present competing hypotheses about the GFB. Recent findings Two almost forgotten concepts have recently emerged. One group has challenged the exquisite selectivity of the GFB to albumin and suggested that proteinuria is the result of abnormal tubular uptake. There has also been a reemphasis on diffusion through the GBM as the driving force behind macromolecular filtration. New evidence suggests that the endothelial glycocalyx is an important charge-selective barrier. Summary We suggest viewing the GFB as a dynamic rather than as a rigid barrier, requiring three healthy layers and a hemodynamic steady state. Multiple challenges to studying the endothelium, the tubular handling of albumin, and the role of hemodynamic forces will require new tools, new hypotheses, and open minds. PMID:19374010

  15. Update on the glomerular filtration barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarad, George; Miner, Jeffrey H

    2009-05-01

    The nephrology community lacks a unified view of protein sieving through the glomerular capillary wall. The glomerular capillary wall consists of three distinct but closely interacting layers: the fenestrated endothelium, with its glycocalyx; the podocytes, with their interdigitated foot processes and slit diaphragms; and the intervening glomerular basement membrane. Proteinuria is associated with abnormalities in any one layer, suggesting that each contributes to the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB). Proteinuria can also be induced in the context of a normal glomerular capillary wall. Here, we review some classic studies as well as some newer concepts and present competing hypotheses about the GFB. Two almost forgotten concepts have recently emerged. One group has challenged the exquisite selectivity of the GFB to albumin and suggested that proteinuria is the result of abnormal tubular uptake. There has also been a reemphasis on diffusion through the glomerular basement membrane as the driving force behind macromolecular filtration. New evidence suggests that the endothelial glycocalyx is an important charge-selective barrier. We suggest viewing the GFB as a dynamic rather than as a rigid barrier, requiring three healthy layers and a hemodynamic steady state. Multiple challenges to studying the endothelium, the tubular handling of albumin, and the role of hemodynamic forces will require new tools, new hypotheses, and open minds.

  16. [Current role of albumin in critical care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre Puig, P; Orallo Morán, M A; Pereira Matalobos, D; Prieto Requeijo, P

    2014-11-01

    The use of colloids in fluid therapy has been, and still continues to be a controversial topic, particularly when referring to the critical patient. The choice of the fluid that needs to be administered depends on several factors, many of which are theoretical, and continue being an object of debate. The interest in the clinical use of the albumin has emerged again, immediately after recent publications in the search of the most suitable colloid. It is the most abundant protein in the plasma, being responsible for 80% of the oncotic pressure. It regulates the balance between the intra- and extra-vascular volumes. Recent multicenter studies question the supposed lack of safety that was previously assigned to it. Furthermore, in vitro studies demonstrate other important actions besides oncotic, for example neutralization of free radicals, and exogenous (drugs) and endogenous substances (bile pigments, cholesterol). Being aware of these secondary properties of albumin, and evaluating the pathophysiology of the critical patient (in particular, sepsis), to maintain plasma albumin levels within the normal range, could be of great importance. Based on the most recent publications, the aim of this review is to briefly analyze the pathophysiology of albumin, as well as to discuss its possible indications in the critical patient. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Filtration in Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander

    There is a considerable and ongoing effort aimed at understanding the transport and the deposition of suspended particles in porous media, especially non-Fickian transport and non-exponential deposition of particles. In this work, the influential parameters in filtration models are studied...... to understand their effects on the non-Fickian transport and the non-exponential deposition. The filtration models are validated by the comparisons between the modelling results and the experimental data.The elliptic equation with distributed filtration coefficients may be applied to model non-Fickian transport...... and hyperexponential deposition. The filtration model accounting for the migration of surface associated particles may be applied for non-monotonic deposition....

  18. Water Filtration Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    American Water Corporation manufactures water filtration products which incorporate technology originally developed for manned space operations. The formula involves granular activated charcoal and other ingredients, and removes substances by catalytic reactions, mechanical filtration, and absorption. Details are proprietary. A NASA literature search contributed to development of the compound. The technology is being extended to a deodorizing compound called Biofresh which traps gas and moisture inside the unit. Further applications are anticipated.

  19. Elevated urinary albumin excretion is associated with impaired arterial dilatory capacity in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Jensen, G

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated urinary albumin excretion (UAE) predicts atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It is hypothesized that elevated UAE is associated with a generalized vascular dysfunction. This study tested this hypothesis for conduit arteries. METHODS AND RESULTS: Clinically healthy subject...

  20. Increased transcapillary escape rate of albumin in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1986-01-01

    The transcapillary escape rate, intravascular mass and outflux of albumin were measured in 75 Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. The groups were defined as: group 1: normal urinary albumin excretion, less than 30 mg/24 h (n = 21); group 2: microalbuminuria, 30-300 mg/24 h (n = 36); group...... 3: diabetic nephropathy, less than 300 mg/24 h (n = 18). Fifteen sex- and age-matched non-diabetic persons served as control subjects. The diabetes duration was: group 1: 20 +/- 9 years, group 2: 17 +/- 5 years, group 3: 19 +/- 7 years. The transcapillary escape rate of albumin was similar...... vascular leakage of albumin is an early event in the development of diabetic nephropathy, with the leakage of albumin being fully developed in the microalbuminuric patient. In contrast, long-term diabetic patients with normal urinary albumin excretion have a normal transcapillary escape rate of albumin....

  1. Visualization of water flow during filtration using flat filtration materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrůza Jakub

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Filtration materials are very important elements of some industrial appliances. Water filtration is a separation of solid materials from fluid. Solid particles are captured on the frontal area of the filtration textile and only liquid passes through it. It is important to know the filtration process in a detailed way to be able to develop filtration materials. Visualization of filtration process enables a better view of the filtration. This method also enables to determine efficiency and homogeneity of filtration using image analysis. For this purpose, a new waterfiltration measuring setup was proposed and constructed. Filtration material is mounted into the optically transparent place in the setup. Laser sheet is directed into this place as in the case of Particle Image Velocimetry measuring method. Monochrome and sensitive camera records the light scattered by seeding particles in water. The seeding particles passing through the filter serve for measuring filtration efficiency, and also for visualization of filtration process. Filtration setup enables to measure also the pressure drop and a flow. The signals are processed by National Instruments compactDAQ system and UMA software. Microfibrous and nanofibrous filtration materials are tested by this measuring method. In the case of nanofibrous filtration, appropriate size of seeding particles is needed to be used to perform a process of filtration.

  2. Visualization of water flow during filtration using flat filtration materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bílek, Petr; Šidlof, Petr; Hrůza, Jakub

    2012-04-01

    Filtration materials are very important elements of some industrial appliances. Water filtration is a separation of solid materials from fluid. Solid particles are captured on the frontal area of the filtration textile and only liquid passes through it. It is important to know the filtration process in a detailed way to be able to develop filtration materials. Visualization of filtration process enables a better view of the filtration. This method also enables to determine efficiency and homogeneity of filtration using image analysis. For this purpose, a new waterfiltration measuring setup was proposed and constructed. Filtration material is mounted into the optically transparent place in the setup. Laser sheet is directed into this place as in the case of Particle Image Velocimetry measuring method. Monochrome and sensitive camera records the light scattered by seeding particles in water. The seeding particles passing through the filter serve for measuring filtration efficiency, and also for visualization of filtration process. Filtration setup enables to measure also the pressure drop and a flow. The signals are processed by National Instruments compactDAQ system and UMA software. Microfibrous and nanofibrous filtration materials are tested by this measuring method. In the case of nanofibrous filtration, appropriate size of seeding particles is needed to be used to perform a process of filtration.

  3. Albumin antioxidant response to stress in diabetic nephropathy progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Medina-Navarro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A new component of the protein antioxidant capacity, designated Response Surplus (RS, was recently described. A major feature of this component is the close relationship between protein antioxidant capacity and molecular structure. Oxidative stress is associated with renal dysfunction in patients with renal failure, and plasma albumin is the target of massive oxidation in nephrotic syndrome and diabetic nephropathy. The aim of the present study was to explore the albumin redox state and the RS component of human albumin isolated from diabetic patients with progressive renal damage. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Serum aliquots were collected and albumin isolated from 125 diabetic patients divided into 5 groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR. In addition to clinical and biochemical variables, the albumin redox state, including antioxidant capacity, thiol group content, and RS component, were evaluated. The albumin antioxidant capacity and thiol group content were reciprocally related to the RS component in association with GFR reduction. The GFR decline and RS component were significantly negatively correlated (R = -0.83, p<0.0001. Age, creatinine, thiol groups, and antioxidant capacity were also significantly related to the GFR decline (R = -0.47, p < 0.001; R = -0.68, p<0.0001; R = 0.44, p < 0.001; and R = 0.72, p < 0.0001. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The response of human albumin to stress in relation to the progression of diabetic renal disease was evaluated. The findings confirm that the albumin molecular structure is closely related to its redox state, and is a key factor in the progression of diabetes nephropathy.

  4. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  5. Albumin-associated free fatty acids induce macropinocytosis in podocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jun-Jae; Huber, Tobias B; Gödel, Markus; Jarad, George; Hartleben, Björn; Kwoh, Christopher; Keil, Alexander; Karpitskiy, Aleksey; Hu, Jiancheng; Huh, Christine J; Cella, Marina; Gross, Richard W; Miner, Jeffrey H; Shaw, Andrey S

    2015-06-01

    Podocytes are specialized epithelial cells in the kidney glomerulus that play important structural and functional roles in maintaining the filtration barrier. Nephrotic syndrome results from a breakdown of the kidney filtration barrier and is associated with proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, and edema. Additionally, podocytes undergo changes in morphology and internalize plasma proteins in response to this disorder. Here, we used fluid-phase tracers in murine models and determined that podocytes actively internalize fluid from the plasma and that the rate of internalization is increased when the filtration barrier is disrupted. In cultured podocytes, the presence of free fatty acids (FFAs) associated with serum albumin stimulated macropinocytosis through a pathway that involves FFA receptors, the Gβ/Gγ complex, and RAC1. Moreover, mice with elevated levels of plasma FFAs as the result of a high-fat diet were more susceptible to Adriamycin-induced proteinuria than were animals on standard chow. Together, these results support a model in which podocytes sense the disruption of the filtration barrier via FFAs bound to albumin and respond by enhancing fluid-phase uptake. The response to FFAs may function in the development of nephrotic syndrome by amplifying the effects of proteinuria.

  6. Albumin-associated free fatty acids induce macropinocytosis in podocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jun-Jae; Huber, Tobias B.; Gödel, Markus; Jarad, George; Hartleben, Björn; Kwoh, Christopher; Keil, Alexander; Karpitskiy, Aleksey; Hu, Jiancheng; Huh, Christine J.; Cella, Marina; Gross, Richard W.; Miner, Jeffrey H.; Shaw, Andrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Podocytes are specialized epithelial cells in the kidney glomerulus that play important structural and functional roles in maintaining the filtration barrier. Nephrotic syndrome results from a breakdown of the kidney filtration barrier and is associated with proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, and edema. Additionally, podocytes undergo changes in morphology and internalize plasma proteins in response to this disorder. Here, we used fluid-phase tracers in murine models and determined that podocytes actively internalize fluid from the plasma and that the rate of internalization is increased when the filtration barrier is disrupted. In cultured podocytes, the presence of free fatty acids (FFAs) associated with serum albumin stimulated macropinocytosis through a pathway that involves FFA receptors, the Gβ/Gγ complex, and RAC1. Moreover, mice with elevated levels of plasma FFAs as the result of a high-fat diet were more susceptible to Adriamycin-induced proteinuria than were animals on standard chow. Together, these results support a model in which podocytes sense the disruption of the filtration barrier via FFAs bound to albumin and respond by enhancing fluid-phase uptake. The response to FFAs may function in the development of nephrotic syndrome by amplifying the effects of proteinuria. PMID:25915582

  7. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depaoli, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes.

  8. Evidence of active transport (filtration?) of plasma proteins across the capillary walls in muscle and subcutis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Ivan; Lassen, N A

    1979-01-01

    Under slight lymphatic stasis (tilting the body 15 degrees) we measured the arrival of locally injected 131I-albumin in the plasma pool. From 30 min to 90 min after the injection the return rate was zero, i.e. local back transport in the two tissues studied, muscle and subcutaneous fat, is very...... passive flux is proportional to the concentration, and since the interstitial albumin concentration is about half the plasma concentration, then also diffusion and/or pinocytosis of albumin from the plasma is negligible in the resting normal human. We suggest that filtration through large leaks...... is the main mechanism for transendothelial protein transport....

  9. Evidence of active transport (filtration?) of plasma proteins across the capillary walls in muscle and subcutis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Ivan; Lassen, N A

    1978-01-01

    Under slight lymphatic stasis (tilting the body 15 degrees) we measured the arrival of locally injected I-albumin to the plasma pool. From 30 min. to 90 min. after the injection the return rate was zero i.e. local back transport in the two tissues studied viz.muscle and subcutaneous fat is very....... As passive flux is proportional to the concentration and the interstitial albumin comcentration is about half the plasma concentration then also diffusion and or pinocytosis from the plasma of albumin is negligble in the resting normal man. We suggest filtration through big leaks as the main mechanism...... for transendothelial protein transport....

  10. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  11. VASCULAR DEMENTIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alekseyevna Cherdak

    2010-01-01

    vascular cognitive disorders and vascular dementia (VD. The heterogeneity of vascular cognitive disorders, concurrence of vascular and neurodegenerative diseases are discussed. Data from studies of specific therapy for VD are given.

  12. Human serum albumin and oxidative stress in preeclamptic women and the mechanism of albumin for stress reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Kazushi; Azma, Toshiharu; Feng, Guo-Gang; Akahori, Takahiko; Hayashi, Hisaki; Sato, Motohiko; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Wakatsuki, Akihiko

    2017-08-01

    The present study to address one of the mechanisms in preeclampsia, examined whether levels of oxidative stress, human serum albumin, and endothelial function correlate in pregnant women and whether human serum albumin reduces levels of superoxide produced by NADPH oxidase activation in the human vascular smooth muscle cells. Pregnant women with (Preeclampsia group, n = 33) and without preeclampsia (Normal group, n = 37) were recruited to determine levels of reactive oxygen species (serum diacron-reactive oxygen metabolite [d-ROM]), and the flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Human coronary arterial smooth muscle cells or omental arteries were subjected to evaluate isometric force recordings, levels of superoxide, western immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. The superoxide scavenging assay was also performed in a cell-free system. Women in the preeclampsia group demonstrated lower FMD and higher serum d-ROM values than those in the normal group. There were the inverse correlations between serum levels of d-ROM and the degree of FMD and between serum levels of albumin and those of d-ROM. D-glucose reduced the levcromakalim-induced dilation of human omental arteries, and it increased levels of superoxide and the recruitment of the NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox in human coronary arterial smooth muscle cells. Human serum albumin (0.05 to 0.5 g/dL) prevented these alterations whereas it exerted no superoxide scavenging effect. Serum albumin relates to oxidative stress inversely, but to the endothelial function positively, in pregnant women. Human serum albumin appears to reduce oxidative stress via NADPH oxidase inhibition in the human vascular smooth muscle, indicating that the serum level may be a critical determinant of vascular oxidative stress in some human diseases.

  13. KADAR ALBUMIN SERUM DAN FAAL GINJAL ANAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Kosnadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Serum albumin concentration (Sa is one of the determinants of single nephron glomerular filtration rate. Hypoalbuminemia is frequently encountered in our country due to protein calory malnutrition, liver function disorders and others. The renal function or glomerular filtration rate (GFR measurement in children suffering from renal diseases would be able to provide information regarding the extent of the renal damage. The aim of this study was to know the interaction between Sa and GFR in children. GFR was measured by standard inulin clearance (Cin and conventional endogenous creatinine clearance (Ccr in 112 children hospitalized with renal diseases. Standard renal function status test, namely IKA-1984 was utilized for the renal function measurement. Result of this study showed a positive correlation between : Sa, Cin and Ccr in pediatric patients with decreased renal function : Cin = 5,23 + 12,14 Sa (r = 0,50; p = 0,007; n = 26 and Cr = 7,10 + 14,47 Sa (r = 0,53; p = 0,005; n = 26, so that the lower Sa level, usually will indicate the lower renal function and the more severe the renal failure.

  14. Liquid filtration simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corey, I.; Bergman, W.

    1996-06-01

    We have a developed a computer code that simulates 3-D filtration of suspended particles in fluids in realistic filter structures. This code, being the most advanced filtration simulation package developed to date, provides LLNL and DOE with new capabilities to address problems in cleaning liquid wastes, medical fluid cleaning, and recycling liquids. The code is an integrated system of commercially available and LLNL-developed software; the most critical are the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver and the particle transport program. For the CFD solver, we used a commercial package based on Navier-Stokes equations and a LLNL-developed package based on Boltzman-lattice gas equations. For the particle transport program, we developed a cod based on the 3-D Langevin equation of motion and the DLVO theory of electrical interactions. A number of additional supporting packages were purchased or developed to integrate the simulation tasks and to provide visualization output.

  15. The investigation of changes in proteins expression (Apolipoprotein A1 and albumin in malignant astrocytoma brain tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Hashemi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The vascular microenvironment of glioma play a major role in determining the pathophysiological character is tics of the tumor. apo A1 and albumin are very significant due to their functional consequences in glioma tumor growth, migration and angiogenesis.

  16. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...

  17. DETERMINATION OF SERUM ALBUMIN WITH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reaction of tribromoarsenazo(TB-ASA) with serum albumin in the presence of emulgent OP was studied by spectrophotometry. In a Britton-Robinson buffer solution at pH 2.9, tribromoarsenazo and bovine serum albumin can immediately form a red compound in the presence of emulgent OP with a maximum absorption ...

  18. Iodide and albumin kinetics in normal canine wrists and knees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simkin, P.A.; Benedict, R.S. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The clearance rates of free iodide and of radioiodinated serum albumin were measured in the knee and wrist joints of 9 normal adult dogs. Iodide clearance from the knee was 3 times greater than that from the wrist. In contrast, radioiodinated serum albumin clearance from the knee was only slightly greater than that from the wrist. Interpreted as respective indices of effective synovial plasma flow and lymphatic drainage, these values indicate that the filtration fraction is normally greater in microvessels of the wrist than in those of the knee. These findings complement the results of companion studies of Starling forces that indicate a higher pressure microvascular bed in the wrist than in the knee.

  19. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  20. Latest aspects of mechanical filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Koláček; Michal Černý

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and unify all knowledge about mechanic filtration. The first part deals with the parameters and properties of filtration. Here some important basic concepts are explained such as pressure gradient, filter life, etc. There’s also a description of convenient filtration technology for coarse and fine materials, such as sand, smoke or soot. The second part primarily focuses on the real use and application of filters for liquid and gaseous media. The differenc...

  1. Urinary albumin excretion and history of acute myocardial infarction in a cross-sectional population study of 2,613 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preliminary studies have suggested that microalbuminuria--a slightly increased urinary excretion of albumin--is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to examine whether an association exists between urinary excretion of albumin and a history of acute myocardial......, plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and fibrinogen, serum albumin concentration and glomerular filtration rate. RESULTS: Among the participants, 3.6% presented with a history of acute myocardial infarction. There was a positive association between urinary albumin excretion rate...

  2. Increased transvascular escape rate and lymph drainage of albumin in pigs during intravenous diuretic medication. Relations to treatment in man and transport mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Parving, H H; Lassen, N A

    1982-01-01

    Transvascular escape rate of albumin (TERalb, i.e. the fraction of intravascular mass of albumin (IVMalb) passing to (or during steady state returning from) the extravascular space per unit time) was determined from the initial disappearance rate of i.v. injected radioiodinated serum albumin.......05). Pressures in artery, right atrium, hepatic and portal veins did not change significantly from control to diuretic period. TERalb equals the lymphatic return rate of albumin provided the transport mechanisms are filtrative-convective (i.e. no local back transport). Additional measurements in five pigs...

  3. Emulsions for interfacial filtration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillet, Anne Mary; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Souza, Caroline Ann; Welk, Margaret Ellen; Hartenberger, Joel David; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-11-01

    We have investigated a novel emulsion interfacial filter that is applicable for a wide range of materials, from nano-particles to cells and bacteria. This technology uses the interface between the two immiscible phases as the active surface area for adsorption of targeted materials. We showed that emulsion interfaces can effectively collect and trap materials from aqueous solution. We tested two aqueous systems, a bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution and coal bed methane produced water (CBMPW). Using a pendant drop technique to monitor the interfacial tension, we demonstrated that materials in both samples were adsorbed to the liquid-liquid interface, and did not readily desorb. A prototype system was built to test the emulsion interfacial filter concept. For the BSA system, a protein assay showed a progressive decrease in the residual BSA concentration as the sample was processed. Based on the initial prototype operation, we propose an improved system design.

  4. Cellular Specificity of the Blood-CSF Barrier for Albumin Transfer across the Choroid Plexus Epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liddelow, Shane A; Dzięgielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    positive signals with in situ PLAs in plasma, CSF and within individual plexus cells suggesting a possible molecular interaction. In contrast, in situ PLA experiments in brain sections from mice injected with human albumin showed positive signals for human albumin in the vascular compartment that were only......To maintain the precise internal milieu of the mammalian central nervous system, well-controlled transfer of molecules from periphery into brain is required. Recently the soluble and cell-surface albumin-binding glycoprotein SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) has been implicated...... in albumin transport into developing brain, however the exact mechanism remains unknown. We postulate that SPARC is a docking site for albumin, mediating its uptake and transfer by choroid plexus epithelial cells from blood into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We used in vivo physiological measurements...

  5. Transcapillary escape rate of albumin in hypertensive patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, K; Jensen, T; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1993-01-01

    . The systemic blood pressure and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin were measured in the following groups after 4 weeks without antihypertensive treatment: Group 1--eleven healthy control subjects. Group 2--ten Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy (urinary albumin...... excretion rate: 30-300 mg/24 h) and normal blood pressure. Group 3--eleven non-diabetic patients with essential hypertension. Group 4--nine Type 1 diabetic patients with hypertension but normal urinary albumin excretion (Type 1 diabetic patients with nephropathy (urinary......Diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (incipient or clinical nephropathy) also have an increased transcapillary escape rate of albumin. This study was designed to clarify whether this is caused by a general vascular dysfunction or by elevated systemic blood pressure...

  6. CENTRIFUGAL MEMBRANE FILTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William A. Greene; Patricia A. Kirk; Richard Hayes; Joshua Riley

    2005-10-28

    SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc., the developer of a centrifugal membrane filtration technology, has engineered and developed a system for use within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program. The technology uses supported microporous membranes rotating at high rpm, under pressure, to separate suspended and colloidal solids from liquid streams, yielding a solids-free permeate stream and a highly concentrated solids stream. This is a crosscutting technology that falls under the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program, with potential application to tank wastes, contaminated groundwater, landfill leachate, and secondary liquid waste streams from other remediation processes, including decontamination and decommissioning systems. SpinTek II High Shear Rotary Membrane Filtration System is a unique compact crossflow membrane system that has large, demonstrable advantages in performance and cost compared to currently available systems: (1) High fluid shear prevents membrane fouling even with very high solids content; hazardous and radioactive components can be concentrated to the consistency of a pasty slurry without fouling. (2) Induced turbulence and shear across the membrane increases membrane flux by a factor of ten over existing systems and allows operation on fluids not otherwise treatable. (3) Innovative ceramic membrane and mechanical sealing technology eliminates compatibility problems with aggressive DOE waste streams. (4) System design allows rapid, simple disassembly for inspection or complete decontamination. (5) Produces colloidal- and suspended-solids-free filtrate without the addition of chemicals. The first phase of this project (PRDA maturity stage 5) completed the physical scale-up of the SpinTek unit and verified successful scale-up with surrogate materials. Given successful scale-up and DOE concurrence, the second phase of this project (PRDA maturity stage 6) will provide for the installation and

  7. Filtration properties of nonwovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gador, W; Jankowska, E

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results and conclusions from experimental investigations concerning filtration properties of nonwovens. The needled nonwovens were made from polyester fibres (PTE) with average fibre diameter 12 micrometres and polypropylene fibres (PP) with average fibre diameter 32 micrometres. Nonwovens were produced out of each of those fibres or out of a mixture of polyester and polypropylene fibres. This paper also presents investigations of nonwoven fabric made of polypropylene fibres (PP) with average fibre diameter 2.6 micrometres, which was formed according to melt-blown technology. Oil mist, as challenge aerosol, was used to evaluate the performance of filter media at various aerosol velocities. The average oil mist test aerosol particle diameter was 0.3 micrometre. Filter penetration was measured at oil mist concentration 0.24 g/m(3).

  8. Akt recruits Dab2 to albumin endocytosis in the proximal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koral, Kelly; Li, Hui; Ganesh, Nandita; Birnbaum, Morris J; Hallows, Kenneth R; Erkan, Elif

    2014-12-15

    Proximal tubule epithelial cells have a highly sophisticated endocytic machinery to retrieve the albumin in the glomerular filtrate. The megalin-cubilin complex and the endocytic adaptor disabled-2 (Dab2) play a pivotal role in albumin endocytosis. We previously demonstrated that protein kinase B (Akt) regulates albumin endocytosis in the proximal tubule through an interaction with Dab2. Here, we examined the nature of Akt-Dab2 interaction. The pleckstrin homology (PH) and catalytic domains (CD) of Akt interacted with the proline-rich domain (PRD) of Dab2 based on yeast-two hybrid (Y2H) experiments. Pull-down experiments utilizing the truncated constructs of Dab2 demonstrated that the initial 11 amino acids of Dab2-PRD were sufficient to mediate the interaction between Akt and Dab2. Endocytosis experiments utilizing Akt1- and Akt2-silencing RNA revealed that both Akt1 and Akt2 mediate albumin endocytosis in proximal tubule epithelial cells; therefore, Akt1 and Akt2 may play a compensatory role in albumin endocytosis. Furthermore, both Akt isoforms phosphorylated Dab2 at Ser residues 448 and 449. Ser-to-Ala mutations of these Dab2 residues inhibited albumin endocytosis and resulted in a shift in location of Dab2 from the peripheral to the perinuclear area, suggesting the physiological relevance of these phosphorylation sites in albumin endocytosis. We conclude that both Akt1 and Akt2 are involved in albumin endocytosis, and phosphorylation of Dab2 by Akt induces albumin endocytosis in proximal tubule epithelial cells. Further delineation of how Akt affects expression/phosphorylation of endocytic adaptors and receptors will enhance our understanding of the molecular network triggered by albumin overload in the proximal tubule. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Losartan therapy decreases albuminuria with stable glomerular filtration and permselectivity in sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Marianne E; Lane, Peter A; Archer, David R; Joiner, Clinton H; Eckman, James R; Guasch, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    Sickle cell nephropathy begins with hyperfiltration and microalbuminuria and may progress to renal failure. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of losartan on glomerular function and albumin excretion in sickle cell anemia (SCA). Individuals with SCA on hydroxyurea with persistent albuminuria were enrolled in a 1-year study of losartan. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured by iohexol clearance, albumin excretion rate (AER), and fractional clearance of dextran were assessed at baseline, short-term (1-2month), and long-term (≥12month) intervals. Twelve subjects (6 microalbuminuria, 6 macroalbuminuria) completed short-term studies; 8 completed long-term studies. Baseline GFR was 112ml/min/1.73m 2 (71-147ml/min/1.73m 2 ). AER decreased significantly at the short-term (median decrease -134 mcg/min, p=0.0063). GFR was not significantly-different at short-term or long-term intervals. Dextran clearance improved for diameters smaller than albumin (therapy for ≥1year in sickle nephropathy results in lower albumin excretion with stable GFR. Filtration of neutral molecules ≥36Å was not changed by losartan, suggesting that the effect of losartan is a mechanism other than alteration of glomerular filtration size-selectivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Andersen Filtration and Hard Lefschetz

    OpenAIRE

    Soergel, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    On the space of homomorphisms from a Verma module to an indecomposable tilting module of the BGG-category O we define a natural filtration following Andersen and establish a formula expressing the dimensions of the filtration steps in terms of coefficients of Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomials.

  11. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  12. Pulse pressure and nocturnal fall in blood pressure are predictors of vascular, cardiac and renal target organ damage in hypertensive patients (LOD-RISK study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ortiz, Luis; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A; Martín-Moreiras, Javier; González-Elena, Luis J; Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I; Castaño-Sánchez, Yolanda; Grandes, Gonzalo; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos

    2009-08-01

    To analyse the relationship between various parameters derived from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and vascular, cardiac and renal target organ damage. A cross-sectional, descriptive study. It included 353 patients with short-term or recently diagnosed hypertension. ABPM, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), Cornell voltage-duration product (Cornell VDP), glomerular filtration rate and albumin/creatinine ratio to assess vascular, cardiac and renal damage. Two hundred and twenty-three patients (63.2%) were males, aged 56.12+/-11.21 years. The nocturnal fall in blood pressure was 11.33+/-8.41, with a dipper pattern in 49.0% (173), nondipper in 30.3% (107), extreme dipper in 12.7% (45) and riser in 7.9% (28). The IMT was lower in the extreme dipper (0.716+/-0.096 mm) and better in the riser pattern (0.794+/-0.122 mm) (P<0.05). The Cornell VDP and albumin/creatinine ratio were higher in the riser pattern (1818.94+/-1798.63 mm/ms and 140.78+/-366.38 mg/g, respectively) than in the other patterns. In the multivariate analysis after adjusting for age, sex and antihypertensive treatment, with IMT as dependent variable the 24-h pulse pressure (beta = 0.003), with Cornell VDP the rest pulse pressure (beta = 12.04), and with the albumin/creatinine ratio the percentage of nocturnal fall in systolic blood pressure (beta = -3.59), the rest heart rate (beta = 1.83) and the standard deviation of 24-h systolic blood pressure (beta = 5.30) remain within the equation. The estimated pulse pressure with ABPM is a predictor of vascular and cardiac organ damage. The nocturnal fall and the standard deviation in 24-h systolic blood pressure measured with the ABPM is a predictor of renal damage.

  13. [The influence of cardiogreen on the albumin binding of bilirubin in the neonatal period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, G W

    1975-01-01

    The albumin-binding of bilirubin may be disturbed by pharmacologically inert substances. This is true for Cardiogreen as used for dye dilution curves. The displacement of bilirubin from its albumin-bindung, examined in vitro by Sephadex filtration, is stronger for Cardiogreen than for Gantrisin known to cause kernicterus even in mild hyperbilirubinemia. However, from differences in dosage and the pharmacokinetics of the two substances it may be concluded, that the risk of possibly causing a kernicterus by Cardiogreen is limited to only extrem cases.

  14. Functional vascular changes of the kidney during pregnancy in animals: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen, J. van; Vries, R.B.M. de; Lotgering, F.K.; Smits, P.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Renal vascular responses to pregnancy have frequently been studied, by investigating renal vascular resistance (RVR), renal flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and renal artery responses to stimuli. Nonetheless, several questions remain: 1. Which vasodilator pathways are activated and to what

  15. Human serum albumin homeostasis: a new look at the roles of synthesis, catabolism, renal and gastrointestinal excretion, and the clinical value of serum albumin measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levitt DG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available David G Levitt,1,* Michael D Levitt2,* 1Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of Minnesota, 2Research Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Serum albumin concentration (CP is a remarkably strong prognostic indicator of morbidity and mortality in both sick and seemingly healthy subjects. Surprisingly, the specifics of the pathophysiology underlying the relationship between CP and ill-health are poorly understood. This review provides a summary that is not previously available in the literature, concerning how synthesis, catabolism, and renal and gastrointestinal clearance of albumin interact to bring about albumin homeostasis, with a focus on the clinical factors that influence this homeostasis. In normal humans, the albumin turnover time of about 25 days reflects a liver albumin synthesis rate of about 10.5 g/day balanced by renal (≈6%, gastrointestinal (≈10%, and catabolic (≈84% clearances. The acute development of hypoalbuminemia with sepsis or trauma results from increased albumin capillary permeability leading to redistribution of albumin from the vascular to interstitial space. The best understood mechanism of chronic hypoalbuminemia is the decreased albumin synthesis observed in liver disease. Decreased albumin production also accounts for hypoalbuminemia observed with a low-protein and normal caloric diet. However, a calorie- and protein-deficient diet does not reduce albumin synthesis and is not associated with hypoalbuminemia, and CP is not a useful marker of malnutrition. In most disease states other than liver disease, albumin synthesis is normal or increased, and hypoalbuminemia reflects an enhanced rate of albumin turnover resulting either from an increased rate of catabolism (a poorly understood phenomenon or enhanced loss of albumin into the urine (nephrosis or intestine (protein-losing enteropathy. The latter may occur

  16. Filtration as the main mechanism of increased protein extravasation in liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Parving, H H; Lassen, N A

    1980-01-01

    Transvascular escape rates of albumin and immunoglobulin-G, IgG (TERalb and TERIgG, i.e, the fractions of intravascular mass of albumin and IgG passing to the extravascular space per unit time) were determined simultaneously from the disappearance of intravenously injected 131I-labelled human ser...... filtration (bulk flow) is the dominant process of the increase microvascular protein escape in cirrhosis, due most likely to increased hepatic, but also to increased extrahepatic splanchnic transcapillary protein flux....

  17. Problems of multiphase fluid filtration

    CERN Document Server

    Konovalov, AN

    1994-01-01

    This book deals with a spectrum of problems related to the mathematical modeling of multiphase filtration. Emphasis is placed on an inseparable triad: model - algorithm - computer code. An analysis of new and traditional filtration problems from the point of view of both their numerical implementation and the reproduction of one or another technological characteristics of the processes under consideration is given. The basic principles which underlie the construction of efficient numerical methods taking into account the filtration problems are discussed: non-evolutionary nature, degeneration,

  18. Filtration model of plastic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarychev, Vladimir D.; Nevskii, Sergey A.; Cheremushkina, Elena V.; Gromov, Victor E.; Aifantis, Elias C.

    2014-12-01

    A filtration model for plastic flow based on the idea of a deformed material considered as a two-phase heterogeneous medium has been suggested. In this approach, the wave displacement is regarded as a shock transition in the medium. One of the phases (the excited one) is responsible for system restructuring, and the other phase (the normal one) is unrelated to structural transformations. The plastic wave is the result of the interaction of these two phases. The governing equations for the filtration model are obtained. They include the laws of momentum and mass conservation, as well as the filtration ratio of the phases.

  19. Vascular Cures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the first national program to bring the power of the patient to vascular research and care. ... Our recent national Vascular Research Summit brought together leaders from 31 institutions to generate collaborative projects for ...

  20. Bone mineral metabolism parameters and urinary albumin excretion in a representative US population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellam, Timothy; Fotheringham, James; Wilkie, Martin E; Francis, Sheila E; Chico, Timothy J A

    2014-01-01

    Even within accepted normal ranges, higher serum phosphorus, dietary phosphorus density, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Lower serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) also predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We hypothesized that vascular dysfunction accompanying subtle disturbances of these bone metabolism parameters would result in associations with increased low grade albuminuria. We examined participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2010 (N = 19,383) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m² and without severe albuminuria (urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) density, serum phosphorus and ALP were not associated with higher ACR or FE(alb). The lowest versus highest quintile of 25(OH)D was associated with greater albuminuria, but not after adjustment for other covariates including cardiovascular risk factors. An association between the highest versus lowest quintile of bone-specific ALP and greater ACR persisted after covariate adjustment, but was not accompanied by an independent association with FE(alb). Increasing quintiles of PTH demonstrated associations with both higher ACR and FE(alb) that were not abolished by adjusting for covariates including age, gender, race, body mass index, diabetes, blood pressure, history of cardiovascular disease, smoking, eGFR, 25(OH)D, season of measurement, lipids, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein. Adjusted increases in ACR and FE(alb) associated with the highest versus lowest quintile of PTH were 19% (95% confidence interval 7-28% pbone mineral parameters associated with cardiovascular outcomes, only PTH is independently associated with ACR and FE(alb).

  1. Filtration characteristics in membrane bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evenblij, H.

    2006-01-01

    Causes of and remedies for membrane fouling in Membrane Bioreactors for wastewater treatment are only poorly understood and described in scientific literature. A Filtration Characterisation Installation and a measurement protocol were developed with the aim of a) unequivocally determination and

  2. Latest aspects of mechanical filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Koláček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe and unify all knowledge about mechanic filtration. The first part deals with the parameters and properties of filtration. Here some important basic concepts are explained such as pressure gradient, filter life, etc. There’s also a description of convenient filtration technology for coarse and fine materials, such as sand, smoke or soot. The second part primarily focuses on the real use and application of filters for liquid and gaseous media. The differences in construction between different types of filters for filtration of fuels, oils, hydraulic fluids, air and cabin filters are described. The last section is focused mainly on new materials for the production of filters. These materials are ceramic or nanomaterials, which can actually be enriched for example with antibacterial silver or some fungicides.

  3. Albumin-based drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maja Thim; Kuhlmann, Matthias; Hvam, Michael Lykke

    2016-01-01

    binding sites, cellular receptor engagement, and a long circulatory half-life due to interaction with the recycling neonatal Fc receptor. Exploitation of these properties promotes albumin as an attractive candidate for half-life extension and targeted intracellular delivery of drugs attached by covalent...... conjugation, genetic fusions, association or ligand-mediated association. This review will give an overview of albumin-based products with focus on the natural biological properties and molecular interactions that can be harnessed for the design of a next-generation drug delivery platform.......The effectiveness of a drug is dependent on accumulation at the site of action at therapeutic levels, however, challenges such as rapid renal clearance, degradation or non-specific accumulation requires drug delivery enabling technologies. Albumin is a natural transport protein with multiple ligand...

  4. Albumin-based drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maja Thim; Kuhlmann, Matthias; Hvam, Michael Lykke

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of a drug is dependent on accumulation at the site of action at therapeutic levels, however, challenges such as rapid renal clearance, degradation or non-specific accumulation requires drug delivery enabling technologies. Albumin is a natural transport protein with multiple ligand...... binding sites, cellular receptor engagement, and a long circulatory half-life due to interaction with the recycling neonatal Fc receptor. Exploitation of these properties promotes albumin as an attractive candidate for half-life extension and targeted intracellular delivery of drugs attached by covalent...... conjugation, genetic fusions, association or ligand-mediated association. This review will give an overview of albumin-based products with focus on the natural biological properties and molecular interactions that can be harnessed for the design of a next-generation drug delivery platform....

  5. Health benefits of particle filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, W J

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7% to 25%. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air. Published 2013. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percent age improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  7. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, e.g., 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  8. Impaired autoregulation of glomerular filtration rate in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Kastrup, Helge; Smidt, U M

    1984-01-01

    The effect of acute lowering of arterial blood pressure upon kidney function in nephropathy was studied in 13 patients with long-term Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. Ten normal subjects (six normotensive and four hypertensive) and five short-term Type 1 diabetic patients without nephropathy...... micrograms) or saline (0.154 mmol/l). The arterial blood pressure was similar in the diabetic patients with nephropathy (mean 136 +/- 11 divided by 88 +/- mmHg) and in the non-diabetic control subjects (mean 140 +/- 25 divided by 92 +/- 15 mmHg). The clonidine injection induced similar reductions in mean...... arterial blood pressure in all three groups (16-18 mmHg). While glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin excretion rate remained unchanged in both control groups after clonidine injection, glomerular filtration rate diminished from 78 to 71 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (p les than 0.01), and urinary albumin...

  9. Metabolic acidosis components in advanced chronic kidney disease: association with serum albumin and parathyroid hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Daniele Pinto; Bayas de Queiroz, Rafaela Elizabeth; Ponte Costa, Tandara Maria; Rocha Guerreiro, Monique Queiroz; Oliveira Leitão, Maria Alessandra; Corrêa, Larissa Chagas; Libório, Alexandre Braga

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the associations between the 2 main components of metabolic acidosis (unmeasured anions [UA] and hyperchloremia) with serum albumin and intact parathormone (iPTH) in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. Cross-sectional study with advanced chronic kidney disease patients (estimated glomerular filtration rate acidosis, 45.7% had metabolic acidosis exclusively because of UA and 53.7% had a hyperchloremic component (either mixed metabolic acidosis or pure hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis). Considering the main acid-base status determinants, only UA had a significant correlation with serum albumin (r = -0.278, P acidosis with bone disorders and nutritional status, suggesting that the two main metabolic acidosis components (UA and hyperchloremia) have different effects on serum parathormone and serum albumin. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of a component of crystalline egg albumin bactericidal for thermophilic aerobic sporeformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, D H; Wilson, A A; Evancho, G M

    1975-11-01

    During an investigation of the effect of basic and acidic proteins on the growth of thermophilic aerobic sporeformers, crystalline egg albumin was found to be strongly bactericidal. This finding was uncharacteristic of acidic proteins. The bactericidal fraction was heat sensitive and separated from the non-bactericidal albumin fraction during gel filtration on Sephadex G-75. Cells of Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Bacillus stearothermophilus were lysed rapidly by the bactericidal component, leading to its tentative identification as lysozyme. The bactericidal substance possessed an electrophoretic mobility on polyacrylamide gel containing sodium dodecyl sulfate identical to that of crystalline egg white lysozyme. Users of crystalline egg albumin are cautioned that commerical preparations may be contaminated with lysozyme. Destruction of the thermophilic aerobes by lysozyme should be considered when performing counts on egg products.

  11. prolamin, albumin, globulin and glutelin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... It is on the basis of the above attribute of lectin and phorbolester that Aregheore et al. (2003) employed heat treatment, alkaline hydrolysis and solvent extraction for the detoxification of the Jatropha curcas seed cake. Meanwhile some valuable protein fractions (prolamin, albumin, globulin and glutelin) are ...

  12. Quality evaluation of human serum albumin prepared by heat denaturation in Iran: an experience for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorsand Mohammad Pour, Hashem; Banazadeh, Soudabeh; Aghaie, Afsaneh

    2014-04-01

    Blood and plasma are unique resources and access to these products save life. In this study, albumin demand and surplus plasma makes it possible to use local experiences in plasma industry for preparation of albumin so plasma was heated after stabilization; afterward denatured proteins were precipitated and separated by continuous centrifuge system. The supernatant contained albumin was filtrated, diafiltrated, ultrafiltrated, formulated and pasteurized. Albumin preparation in pilot scale with heat denaturation was performed for the first time in Iran. This method using surplus plasma is recommended for all countries that have no access to plasma fractionation industry. Therefore with more attention it has potential for use in the production of safe plasma derived products and thereby it can be used as a safe product in clinic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Removal of famoxadone, fluquinconazole and trifloxystrobin residues in red wines: effects of clarification and filtration processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Jose; Payá, Paula; Cámara, Miguel Angel; Barba, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The effects of six clarification agents [egg albumin, blood albumin, bentonite + gelatine, charcoal, polyvinylpolypyrrolidine (PVPP) and silica gel] on the removal of residues of three fungicides (famoxadone, fluquinconazole and trifloxystrobin) applied directly to a racked red wine, elaborated from Monastrell variety grapes from the D.O. Region of Jumilla (Murcia, Spain) were studied. The clarified wines were filtered with 0.45 microm nylon filters to determine the influence of this winemaking process in the disappearance of fungicide residues. Analytical determination of fluquinconazole and trifloxystrobin was performed by gas chromatography with electron captor detector (ECD), while that of famoxadone using an HPLC equipped with a diode array detector (DAD). Generally, trifloxystrobin is the fungicide that is the lowest persistent one in wines, except in the egg albumin study whereas, the most persistent one is fluquinconazole. The elimination depends on the nature of the active ingredient, though the water stability in the presence of light within it has more influence than the solubility and polarity of the product itself. The most effective clarifying agents were the charcoal and PVPP. The silica gel and bentonite plus gelatine were not enough to reduce considerably the residual contents in the wine clarified with them. In general terms, filtration is not an effective step in the elimination of wine residues. The greatest removal after filtration is obtained in wines clarified with egg albumine and bentonite plus gelatine, and the lowest in those clarified with PVPP.

  14. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Albumin (Human). 640.80 Section 640.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.80 Albumin (Human). (a) Proper...

  15. Associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with mortality and renal failure by sex: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsch, Dorothea; Grams, Morgan; Sang, Yingying; Black, Corri; Cirillo, Massimo; Djurdjev, Ognjenka; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Jassal, Simerjot K; Kimm, Heejin; Kronenberg, Florian; Øien, Cecilia M; Levin, Adeera; Woodward, Mark; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess for the presence of a sex interaction in the associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and end stage renal disease. Design Random effects meta-analysis using pooled individual participant data. Setting 46 cohorts from Europe, North and South America, Asia, and Australasia. Participants 2 051 158 participants (54% women) from general population cohorts (n=1 861 052), high risk cohorts (n=151 494), and chronic kidney disease cohorts (n=38 612). Eligible cohorts (except chronic kidney disease cohorts) had at least 1000 participants, outcomes of either mortality or end stage renal disease of ≥50 events, and baseline measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate according to the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation (mL/min/1.73 m2) and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (mg/g). Results Risks of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality were higher in men at all levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albumin-creatinine ratio. While higher risk was associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albumin-creatinine ratio in both sexes, the slope of the risk relationship for all-cause mortality and for cardiovascular mortality were steeper in women than in men. Compared with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 95, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality at estimated glomerular filtration rate 45 was 1.32 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.61) in women and 1.22 (1.00 to 1.48) in men (Pinteractiondisease risk. Conclusions Both sexes face increased risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and end stage renal disease with lower estimated glomerular filtration rates and higher albuminuria. These findings were robust across a large global consortium. PMID:23360717

  16. Lack of nephrotoxicity of gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced non-vascular MRI and MRI without contrast agent in patients at high-risk for acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok Oguz, Ebru; Kiykim, Ahmet; Turgutalp, Kenan; Olmaz, Refik; Ozhan, Onur; Muslu, Necati; Horoz, Mehmet; Bardak, Simge; Sungur, Mehmet Ali

    2013-11-06

    Gadolinium chelates (GCs) have been traditionally considered as non-nephrotoxic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast materials. However, it has been suggested in some recent articles that GCs may have a nephrotoxic potential, but most of these reports are retrospective. However, the evaluated contrast agents, their doses, and the tests used to determine the kidney function were not consistent across studies. We aimed to investigate the effect of magnetic field and an MRI contrast agent, gadopentetate dimeglumine (GD), on renal functions in patients at high risk for acute kidney injury (AKI). We designed a prospective case-control study with 2 age- and sex-matched groups of patients at high-risk for AKI (n=72 for each group). Patients in Group 1 received a fixed dose of (0.2 mmol/kg) GD-enhanced non-vascular MRI and patients in Group 2 received MRI without GD. Before the MRI and at 6, 24, 72, and 168 hours after the MRI, biochemical tests, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albumin/creatinine ratio in spot urine, and early AKI biomarkers (cystatin C, N-Acetyl-Glucosaminidase [NAG], Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL]) were measured. Serum creatinine, albumin/creatinine ratio, and eGFR were not different between Group 1 and 2 (p>0.05). There were no significant changes in renal function tests and AKI biomarkers (∆serum creatinine, ∆albumin/creatinine ratio, ∆GFR, ∆cystatin C, ∆NAG, and ∆NGAL) for either groups 6, 24, 72, and 168 hours after the procedures (p>0.05). MRI without contrast agent and non-vascular contrast-enhanced (GD, 0.2 mmol/kg) MRI are not nephrotoxic procedures for patients at high risk for AKI.

  17. Filtration and compression of organic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian

    is to use more simple systems. Dextran-MnO2 particles and polystyrene particles with a water-swollen polyacrylic acid shell have therefore been synthesised. These particles have been filtered and used to study the non-linear filtration behaviour. The compressibility of the formed cake has been investigated......The conventional filtration theory has been based on filtrations of incompressible particles such as anatase, kaolin and clay. The filtration models have later been used for organic slurries but can often not explain the observed experimental data. At constant pressure, the filtrate volume does...... and the discrepancy between the filtration theory and the observed filtration behaviour explained as a time-dependent collapse of the formed cake (creep). Thus, the creep phenomenon has been adopted in the conventional filtration models and it will be shown that the model can be used to simulate filtration data...

  18. Flocculation of diatomite by methylated egg albumin

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    2003-01-01

    A common and inexpensive protein, egg albumin, was applied to the solid-liquid separation or flocculation of diatomite. Egg albumin was methylated in a 0.1 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 90% of the carboxylic groups of egg albumin could be methylated within 24 h. The adsorption of egg albumin to diatomite at pH6.8 was remarkably enhanced by methylation. The adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin to diatomite at 30°C was about 100-fold larger than that of nativ...

  19. Optimization of suspensions filtration with compressible cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janacova Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper there is described filtering process for separating reaction mixture after enzymatic hydrolysis to process the chromium tanning waste. Filtration of this mixture is very complicated because it is case of mixture filtration with compressible cake. Successful process strongly depends on mathematical describing of filtration, calculating optimal values of pressure difference, specific resistant of filtration cake and temperature maintenance which is connected with viscosity change. The mathematic model of filtration with compressible cake we verified in laboratory conditions on special filtration device developed on our department.

  20. [Vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, H.F. de; Gijn, J. van

    2004-01-01

    Vascular dementia is one of the most frequently occurring dementia syndromes. Its prevalence is about 5% among subjects above 85 years of age. Elevated blood pressure and atherosclerosis are the most important risk factors. According to international criteria, vascular dementia usually occurs within

  1. sup 125 I-albumin may not be used as a tracer of absorption across the human nasal airway bassiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiff, L.; Pipkorn, U. (Lund Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology); Wollmer, P. (Lund Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Clinical Physiology); Persson, C.G.A. (Lund Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Clinical Pharmacology)

    1991-01-01

    This study set out to examine the effects of histamine on airway absorption of macromolecules. By employment of a novel 'nasal pool' technique instillates containing {sup 125}I-albumin with or without histamine, were kept for 15 min on human nasal mucosa. Unaffected by the presence of histamine, this instillations produced significant levels of plasma radioactivity, increasing for 60 min. However, gel-filtration data showed that only 30% of the plasma radioactivity was still bound to albumin. Incubation experiments indicated that radioiodine did not dissociate from albumin in nasal liquids nor in the blood. Further experiments involved oral ingestion of the entire nasal instillate. Prompts gastrointestinal absorption of radioactivity occurred, giving rise to plasma levels about two orders of magnitude higher than those recorded after the nasal applications. Moreover, only 25% of the plasma radioactivity was now bound to albumin. It must be considered unavoidable that a small portion (<1%) of the nasal instillate is swallowed. Hence, the plasma radioactivity detected in this study may largely, reflect gastrointestinal break-down of {sup 125}I-albumin and subsequent absorption of radioiodine. We conclude that {sup 125}I-albumin may not be employed in studies addressing macromolecular absorption across the human nasal mucosa and that previous work and conclusions based on nasal absorption of {sup 125}I-albumin are invalid. (au).

  2. Glycated albumin and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusyo, Norihiro; Hayashi, Jun

    2013-12-01

    Diabetes is a growing worldwide problem that is strongly associated with atherosclerosis. Screening and intervention for diabetes in the earliest stages are advocated for the prevention of diabetic complications and cardiovascular disease. This review gives a background of and discusses the potential clinical utility of glycated albumin (GA) in diabetes. GA is a ketoamine formed via a non-enzymatic glycation reaction of serum albumin and it reflects mean glycemia over two to three weeks. GA can be used for patients with anemia or hemoglobinopathies for whom the clinically measured hemoglobin A1c level may be inaccurate. Because both serum and plasma samples can be used, GA can be analyzed from the same samples as common biological markers. GA is a useful marker for the screening of diabetes in a medical evaluation. It can be also used to determine the effectiveness of treatment before initiating or changing medications for diabetic patients. GA is potentially an atherogenic protein in the development of diabetic atherosclerosis. GA measurement is useful as part of a routine examination to screen for both diabetes and atherosclerosis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Serum Albumin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Some observations on air filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluyver, A.J.; Visser, J.

    1950-01-01

    1. A method has been developed for testing the filtration efficiency of some filter materials. For each of the materials investigated — cotton wool, stillite and carbon — a suitable filter has been devised. 2. The filtered air was analyzed as to its germ content with the aid of a set of 3 capillary

  4. Filtration combustion: Smoldering and SHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkowsky, Bernard J.

    1995-01-01

    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of combustion waves propagating in porous media. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to insure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application may well differ. For example, smoldering generally occurs at a relatively low temperature and with a smaller propagation velocity than SHS filtration combustion waves. Nevertheless, the two areas of application have much in common, so that mechanisms learned about in one application can be used to advantage in the other. In this paper we discuss recent results in the areas of filtration combustion.

  5. Vascular ring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Mette S; Larsen, Signe H; Hjortdal, Vibeke E

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vascular ring is a rare cause of recurrent respiratory infections, dysphagia and stridor. Surgical repair is considered safe but the long-term outcomes are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mortality and morbidity following vascular ring surgery in a single...... age of 1.4 years (range 0.008-64 years) were operated for vascular ring. Median follow-up was 6.8 years (range 2.4-34 years). Presenting symptoms were stridor (52%), dysphagia or vomiting (52%) and recurrent respiratory infections (48%). There were no early or late deaths. Three months postoperatively...

  6. Filtration Understanding: FY10 Testing Results and Filtration Model Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Peterson, Reid A.; Russell, Renee L.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Shimskey, Rick W.

    2011-04-04

    This document completes the requirements of Milestone 2-4, Final Report of FY10 Testing, discussed in the scope of work outlined in the EM31 task plan WP-2.3.6-2010-1. The focus of task WP 2.3.6 is to improve the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) understanding of filtration operations for high-level waste (HLW) to improve filtration and cleaning efficiencies, thereby increasing process throughput and reducing the Na demand (through acid neutralization). Developing the cleaning/backpulsing requirements will produce much more efficient operations for both the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Savannah River Site (SRS), thereby significantly increasing throughput by limiting cleaning cycles. The scope of this work is to develop the understanding of filter fouling to allow developing this cleaning/backpulsing strategy.

  7. Flocculation of diatomite by methylated egg albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    2003-07-01

    A common and inexpensive protein, egg albumin, was applied to the solid-liquid separation or flocculation of diatomite. Egg albumin was methylated in a 0.05 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 90% of the carboxylic groups of egg albumin could be methylated within 24 h. The adsorption of egg albumin onto diatomite at pH 6.8 was remarkably enhanced by methylation. The adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin to diatomite at 30 degrees C was about 100-fold larger than that of native egg albumin; however, the adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin decreased to about 1/100 with temperature decreasing from 30 to 6 degrees C. The saturated adsorption amount of egg albumin was also increased by the methylation. The flocculating ability of methylated egg albumin was examined with a diatomite suspension at 6 and 30 degrees C in the pH range from pH 2 to 11. The diatomite suspension was effectively flocculated by the addition of small amounts of methylated egg albumin (only 0.5-1 wt% against diatomite) over a wide pH range from pH 3 to 10.

  8. Vascular anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Jyotsna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of vascular anomalies is an emerging multidisciplinary, super-specialisation field involving several surgical, medical and radiological specialties. Over the years, development in this field has been limited because of complex nomenclature and lack of consensus on the best practice for treatment of some of the more complex vascular anomalies. It was only in 1996 that the International Society of the Study of Vascular Anomalies defined nomenclature for the anomalies and gave clear guidelines on management, allowing for improved clinical practices. As in all fields of clinical medicine, the correct diagnosis of the vascular anomalies is essential to choose the appropriate treatment. This paper gives clear guidelines for diagnosis, understanding of the anomalies and discusses their management.

  9. Vascular Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Alekseyevna Cherdak; O V Uspenskaya

    2015-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00463-8 Vascular dementia is one of the most common causes of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, causing around 15% of cases. However, unlike Alzheimer's disease, there are no licensed treatments for vascular dementia. Progress in the specialty has been difficult because of uncertainties over disease classification and diagnostic criteria, controversy over the e...

  10. Vascular Vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazyar Hashemilar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vertigo is a common complaint in neurology and medicine. The most common causes of vertigo are benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, vestibular neuritis, Meniere’s disease, and vascular disorders. Vertigo of vascular origin is usually limited to migraine, transient ischemic attacks, and ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Vascular causes lead to various central or peripheral vestibular syndromes with vertigo. This review provides an overview of epidemiology and clinical syndromes of vascular vertigo. Vertigo is an illusion of movement caused by asymmetrical involvement of the vestibular system by various causes. Migraine is the most frequent vascular disorder that causes vertigo in all age groups. Vertigo may occur in up to 25% of patients with migraine. The lifetime prevalence of migrainous vertigo is almost 1%. Cerebrovascular disorders are estimated to account for 3% to 7% of patients with vertigo. Vestibular paroxysmia has been diagnosed in 1.8% to 4% of cases in various dizziness units. Vasculitic disorders are rare in the general population, but vertigo may be seen in almost up to 50% of patients with different vasculitic syndromes. Conclusions: Migraine, cerebrovascular disorders especially involving the vertebrobasilar territory, cardiocirculatory diseases, neurovascular compression of the eighth nerve, and vasculitis are vascular causes of vertigo syndromes.

  11. Overview of Albumin and Its Purification Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoufinia, Ramin; Mota, Ali; Keyhanvar, Neda; Safari, Fatemeh; Shamekhi, Sara; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal

    2016-12-01

    As the most frequent plasma protein, albumin constitutes more than 50% of the serum proteins in healthy individuals. It has a key role in oncotic pressure maintenance and it is known as a versatile protein carrier for transportation of various endogenous and exogenous ligands. Reduced amounts of albumin in the body will lead to different kinds of diseases such as hypovolemia and hypoproteinemia. It also has various indications in shocks, burns, cardiopulmonary bypass, acute liver failure and etc. Further applications in research consist of cell culture supplement, drug delivery carrier and protein/drug stabilizer. So, the demand for albumin increased annually worldwide. Due to different applications of albumin, many efforts have been accomplished to achieve albumin during a long period of time. In this review, an overview of serum albumin and different purification methods are summarized.

  12. Filtration characteristics in membrane bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Evenblij, H.

    2006-01-01

    Causes of and remedies for membrane fouling in Membrane Bioreactors for wastewater treatment are only poorly understood and described in scientific literature. A Filtration Characterisation Installation and a measurement protocol were developed with the aim of a) unequivocally determination and quantification of the filterability of an activated sludge and b) carrying out short term experiments at labscale to determine foulants and/or fouling propensity determining factors. The installation w...

  13. Cake creep during filtration of flocculated manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian

    that the discrepancy between the filtration theory and the observed filtration behaviour is due to a time-dependent collapse of the formed cake (creep). This can also explain the observed behaviour when flocculated manure is filtered. The filtration data can be simulated if cake creep is adopted in the filtration...... model. The calculation shows that the specific filter-cake resistance increases by a factor of 3 during the filtration. Thus, the impact of cake creep is significant when organic materials such as manure are filtered....

  14. Vascular Access Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Vascular Access Procedures A vascular access procedure inserts a flexible, ... the limitations of Vascular Access Procedures? What are Vascular Access Procedures? A vascular access procedure involves the insertion ...

  15. Vascular Access for Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adequacy Eating & Nutrition for Hemodialysis Vascular Access for Hemodialysis What is a vascular access? A vascular access ... Set Up the Vascular Access Well before Starting Hemodialysis Patients should set up a vascular access well ...

  16. What Is Vascular Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy What Is Vascular Disease? What Is Vascular Disease? Vascular disease is any abnormal condition of the blood ... Privacy Policy × Your ticket for the: What Is Vascular Disease? Title What Is Vascular Disease? USD Close Print

  17. Clinical analysis of single filtration plasmapheresis using continuous renal replacement therapy machines in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eunsoo; Kim, Yujeong; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Park, Inwhee; Kim, Heungsoo; Lee, Su Hyung; Oh, Chang-Kwon; Shin, Gyu-Tae

    2017-06-01

    Plasmapheresis has become an essential element of kidney transplantation (KT). In the present study, we report clinical outcomes of filtration plasmapheresis using continuous renal replacement therapy machines with a single filter for the first time in Korea. We retrospectively analyzed six patients who underwent filtration plasmapheresis for KT in our center; plasmapheresis was performed using the Plasmaflex (Baxter®) with a TPE 2000 filter set (Baxter®) in our hemodialysis unit. Five percent albumin was used as the replacement fluid, and intravenous immunoglobulin G was administered after each plasmapheresis session. The target preoperative ABO isoagglutinin titer was less than 1:8. Filtration plasmapheresis was performed in four patients for ABO-incompatible KT, one for antibody-mediated rejection after KT, and the last one for positive T cell crossmatch. Altogether, 46 sessions of plasmapheresis were performed. ABO isoagglutinin titers successfully declined to or below the target level in all patients, and all patients successfully received KT with no significant antibody titer rebound. Acute antibody-mediated rejection and positive T cell crossmatch were well treated with filtration plasmapheresis, and no patient required fresh frozen plasma infusion for coagulopathy. There were one episode of hypotension and three of hypocalcemia. No patients experienced bleeding, infection, or allergic reaction. Filtration plasmapheresis was effective and safe. Although our result is from a single center, our protocol appears to be promising.

  18. Clinical analysis of single filtration plasmapheresis using continuous renal replacement therapy machines in kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsoo Lim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plasmapheresis has become an essential element of kidney transplantation (KT. In the present study, we report clinical outcomes of filtration plasmapheresis using continuous renal replacement therapy machines with a single filter for the first time in Korea. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed six patients who underwent filtration plasmapheresis for KT in our center; plasmapheresis was performed using the Plasmaflex (Baxter® with a TPE 2000 filter set (Baxter® in our hemodialysis unit. Five percent albumin was used as the replacement fluid, and intravenous immunoglobulin G was administered after each plasmapheresis session. The target preoperative ABO isoagglutinin titer was less than 1:8. Results: Filtration plasmapheresis was performed in four patients for ABO-incompatible KT, one for antibody-mediated rejection after KT, and the last one for positive T cell crossmatch. Altogether, 46 sessions of plasmapheresis were performed. ABO isoagglutinin titers successfully declined to or below the target level in all patients, and all patients successfully received KT with no significant antibody titer rebound. Acute antibody-mediated rejection and positive T cell crossmatch were well treated with filtration plasmapheresis, and no patient required fresh frozen plasma infusion for coagulopathy. There were one episode of hypotension and three of hypocalcemia. No patients experienced bleeding, infection, or allergic reaction. Conclusion: Filtration plasmapheresis was effective and safe. Although our result is from a single center, our protocol appears to be promising.

  19. Optical measurements of lung microvascular filtration coefficient using polysulfone fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaesner, J W; Roselli, R J; Evans, S; Pou, N A; Parker, R E; Tack, G; Parham, M

    1994-01-01

    Lung fluid balance, which is governed by the product of net transvascular pressure difference and lung filtration coefficient, can be altered in pulmonary diseases. A simple measurement of the lung filtration coefficient (Kfc) would be clinically useful and has been examined by several researchers. Current methods of determining Kfc include gravimetric measurement in isolated lungs and lymph node cannulation, neither of which can be extended to human use. Optical measurements of protein concentration changes in venous blood can be combined with pressure measurements to calculate Kfc. Blood, though, contains red corpuscles, which tend to absorb and scatter light, obscuring these optical measurements. In this study, an optical system was developed in which a polysulfone filter cartridge was used to remove red blood cells before the filtrate was passed through a spectrophotometer. Absorbance changes caused by changes in concentration of albumin labeled with Evans Blue were monitored at 620 nm after venous pressure was elevated by about 13 cm H2O. Optical measurements of Kfc averaged 0.401 +/- 0.074 (ml/min cm H2O 100 g DLW) for an isolated canine lung. Optical measurements of Kfc (0.363 +/- 0.120 ml/min cm H2O 100 g DLW) were made for the first time in an intact, closed chest sheep in which pulmonary pressure was altered by inflating a Foley balloon in the left atrium. We conclude that absorbance and scattering artifacts introduced by red blood cells can be eliminated by first filtering the blood through polysulfone fibers. Kfc measurements using the optical method are similar to values obtained by others using gravimetric methods. Finally, we have demonstrated that the technique can be used to estimate Kfc in an intact animal.

  20. Risk factors for the failure to achieve normal albumin serum levels after albumin transfusion in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Arafuri

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions Failure to achieve normal albumin levels after transfusion in neonates was significantly associated with low albumin level prior to transfusion, critical illness, sepsis, and >24-hour interval between transfusion and post-transfusion albumin examination.[Paediatr Indones. 2016;56:129-33.].

  1. Rapid analysis of the interactions between drugs and human serum albumin (HSA) using high-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hee Seung; Wainer, Irving W.

    2008-01-01

    This study used a combination of zonal elution and frontal affinity chromatography on immobilized human serum albumin (HSA) high-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) column to examine the association constants of various compounds that have been studied by equilibrium dialysis or ultra filtration. A standard plot was generated from retention factors of reference compounds using zonal elution chromatography against association constants of reference compounds using frontal affinity chrom...

  2. SULFHYDRYL GROUPS IN FILMS OF EGG ALBUMIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsky, A E

    1941-07-20

    1. The same number of SH groups reduces ferricyanide in surface films of egg albumin as in albumin denatured by urea, guanidine hydrochloride, Duponol, or heat, provided the ferricyanide reacts with films while they still are at the surface and with the denatured proteins while the denaturing agent (urea, heat, etc.) is present. 2. The SH groups of a suspension of egg albumin made by clumping together many surface films react with ferricyanide in the same sluggish and incomplete manner as do the groups in egg albumin denatured by concentrated urea when the urea is diluted or in albumin denatured by heat when the solution is allowed to cool off. 3. The known change in configuration of the egg albumin molecule when it forms part of a surface film explains why SH groups in the film react with ferricyanide whereas those in native egg albumin do not. In the native egg albumin molecule groups in the interior are inaccessible to certain reagents. A film is so thin that there are no inaccessible groups. 4. Because of the marked resemblance in the properties of egg albumin in surface films and of egg albumin after denaturation by the recognized denaturing agents, it may be supposed that the same fundamental change takes place in denaturation as in film formation-indeed, that film formation is one of the numerous examples of denaturation. This would mean that in general the SH groups of denatured egg albumin reduce ferricyanide and react with certain other reagents because they are no longer inaccessible to these reagents.

  3. Vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, John T; Thomas, Alan

    2015-10-24

    Vascular dementia is one of the most common causes of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, causing around 15% of cases. However, unlike Alzheimer's disease, there are no licensed treatments for vascular dementia. Progress in the specialty has been difficult because of uncertainties over disease classification and diagnostic criteria, controversy over the exact nature of the relation between cerebrovascular pathology and cognitive impairment, and the paucity of identifiable tractable treatment targets. Although there is an established relation between vascular and degenerative Alzheimer's pathology, the mechanistic link between the two has not yet been identified. This Series paper critiques some of the key areas and controversies, summarises treatment trials so far, and makes suggestions for what progress is needed to advance our understanding of pathogenesis and thus maximise opportunities for the search for new and effective management approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Vascular trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, T; Nobori, M; Tanaka, N

    1999-07-01

    Vascular trauma is essentially acute arterial obstruction, often combined with hemorrhage, fracture, and infection. It can be both life-threatening and limb-threatening and needs an emergency operation. In vascular trauma patient, multiple fracture and organ injury, such as brain, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, or gastrointestinal tract should be evaluated to decide treatment priority. When the pulse distal from the injured site is absent or diminished, vascular trauma is most likely and reconstruction should be accomplished within "the golden time (6-8 hours)". Intimal damage followed by platelet aggregation and thrombus formation will necessitate resection and repair of the site instead of simple thrombectomy. Although autogenous vein is the first choice, artificial graft can be implanted for short segment in non-infected field.

  5. Low-density lipoprotein apheresis by membrane differential filtration (cascade filtration) via arteriovenous fistula performed in children with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülle, Saniye; Bak, Mustafa; Serdaroglu, Erkin; Can, Demet; Karabay, Ozalp

    2010-02-01

    Membrane differential filtration (cascade filtration) is an apheresis technique by which atherogenic lipoproteins can be eliminated from plasma on the basis of particle size. In this study, we aim to discuss the efficacy of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis performed by providing alternative vascular routes in two siblings with familial hypercholesterolemia who did not respond to medical treatment and diet. Of the two siblings, one was nine years old and the other one was three-and-a-half years old. Of the total of 78 apheresis processes performed, 24 were done via a permanent subclavian catheter, 36 were done via a subsequently provided arteriovenous fistula, and 18 were done via an arteriovenous graft. We observed a mean reduction in the plasma levels of total cholesterol (61.6%), LDL cholesterol (65.5%), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (38.6%). We noted that cascade filtration apheresis was effective in decreasing the LDL cholesterol in plasma, and no serious complications were noted. The success of the apheresis program depends on well-functioning blood access. An arteriovenous fistula may be the best route for the long-term treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia, which requires complication-free apheresis treatments.

  6. Co-administration of albumin-furosemide in patients with the nephrotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghafari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized edema is one of the most important complications in patients with nephrotic syndrome. Diuretics like furosemide are the first choice for reducing the edema. Hypo-albuminemia reduces the effect of furosemide, and thus, this drug is co-administered with albumin to reinforce the therapeutic effect and for the correction of reduced oncotic pressure. The aim of this study was to compare urine volume and 24-hour sodium levels after using furosemide alone versus using furosemide along with albumin in patients with nephrotic syndrome. In a randomized clinical trial, ten patients with nephrotic syndrome were chosen and were randomly allocated into four groups. Three therapeutic protocols were chosen, and at the end, each patient had received all three protocols randomly. Data were gathered and analyzed using non-parametric tests in SPSS software. The average urine volume after receiving albumin alone, furosemide alone and albumin plus furosemide were 742 mL (SD = 528, 1707 mL (SD = 745 and 2175 mL (SD = 971, respectively (P = 0.015; the fractional excretion of sodium was 1.96 (SD = 0.251, 3.18 (SD = 0.25, and 4.77 (SD = 8.45, respectively (P = 0.000; the 24-hour urinary sodium levels were 18.3 (SD = 6.68, 208.4 (SD = 5.27 and 206 (SD = 8.45, respectively; while the glomerular filtration rate (GFR was 104.5, 96.6 and 106.6 (P = 0.021, respectively, in the three therapy groups. Our study shows that albumin administration alone and with furosemide in patients with nephrotic syndrome who had normal kidney function, results in different urine volumes and sodium levels. Co-administration of albumin and furosemide increased the urine volume and sodium level, which is due to increase in the GFR as well as the diuretic effects of furosemide.

  7. Water Filtration Using Plant Xylem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Valerie; Venkatesh, Varsha; Karnik, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    Effective point-of-use devices for providing safe drinking water are urgently needed to reduce the global burden of waterborne disease. Here we show that plant xylem from the sapwood of coniferous trees – a readily available, inexpensive, biodegradable, and disposable material – can remove bacteria from water by simple pressure-driven filtration. Approximately 3 cm3 of sapwood can filter water at the rate of several liters per day, sufficient to meet the clean drinking water needs of one person. The results demonstrate the potential of plant xylem to address the need for pathogen-free drinking water in developing countries and resource-limited settings. PMID:24587134

  8. Fibrinogen adsorption on blocked surface of albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Hou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the adsorption of albumin and fibrinogen onto PET (polyethylene terephthalate) and glass surfaces and how pre-adsorption of albumin onto these surfaces can affect the adsorption of later added fibrinogen. For materials and devices being exposed to blood, adsorption...... of fibrinogen is often a non-wanted event, since fibrinogen is part of the clotting cascade and unspecific adsorption of fibrinogen can have an influence on the activation of platelets. Albumin is often used as blocking agent for avoiding unspecific protein adsorption onto surfaces in devices designed to handle...... energies, the adsorption of both albumin and fibrinogen has been monitored simultaneously on the same sample. Information about topography and coverage of adsorbed protein layers has been obtained using AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) analysis in liquid. Our studies show that albumin adsorbs in a multilayer...

  9. Albumin Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/albuminbloodtest.html Albumin Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Albumin Blood Test? An albumin blood test measures the amount of ...

  10. VASCULAR SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a complex and serious condition encompassing deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), usually in the lower extremities.1,2. Thromboses can result from venous stasis, vascular injury or hypercoagulability, and those involving the deep veins proximal to the knee are ...

  11. Evaluation of the plasma quality after filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mahmoodian Shooshtari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n "nBackground and the purpose of the study: The quality of some of the human plasma derived drugs such as coagulation factor VIII and coagulation factor IX which can be used for the treatment of hemophilia A and B, depends on their activity which may be affected by filtration. In this study the quality of plasma with respect to coagulation factors FVII, FVIII, FIX, FV, FXI, Fibrinogen, antithrombin III, anti-plasmin and antitrypsin activities obtained after plasma filtration with CPD (citrate-phosphate-dextrose using integral filter was evaluated. "nMethods:Sixty units of plasma were individually separated from whole blood by centrifugation and immediately filtered by integral filter system. Specific plasma filtration was carried out between 4 and 20 hrs after blood donation. Before filtration, 60 units of non filtered fresh plasmas were kept as control. "nCoagulation factors were determined by one-stage clotting assay in an automated system. Antithrombin III activity was determined by immunochrom assay in an automated system. Activity of anti-plasmin was determined by Berichrom α2 - antiplasmin and antitrypsin activity was assayed with human neutrophil elastase. "n  "nResults:The activity of coagulation factors FVIII, FIX, Fibrinogen, FV, and FXI, were not affected by filtration, in all experiments. Filtration only caused negligible change in FVII activity. Antithrombin III, anti-plasmin and antitrypsin activities were not influenced by filtration. Non-filtrated and filtrated plasma values were not significantly different (P> 0.05. Conclusions:Plasma filtration dose not result in a measurable impairment of coagulation factors and inhibitors. Although a little changes in FVII activity was observed after filtration, but these filtration-dependent changes apparently have no impact on the therapeutic quality of whole blood- filtered fresh plasma for transfusion.

  12. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-20

    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  13. Filtration Behaviour and Fouling Mechanisms of Polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Sondus; Chang, Sheng; Zhou, Hongde

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated filtration behaviors of polysaccharides solutions, both alone and in mixture with proteins, in the short-time constant flux filtration with the focus on factors affecting the transmembrane pressure (TMP) increase rate, the irreversible filtration resistance, and the membrane rejection behavior. The results showed that the TMP increase rates in the short-time constant flux filtration of alginate solutions were significantly affected by the calcium addition, alginate concentration, and flux. Although the addition of calcium resulted in a decrease in the TMP increase rate, it was found that the irreversible fouling developed during the filtration increased with the calcium addition, implying that the double-sided effect of calcium on membrane filtration and that the TMP increase rate observed in the filtration does not always reflect the irreversible membrane fouling development. It was also found that for the filtration of solutions containing mixed alginate and BSA, alginate exerted a dominant effect on the TMP increase rate and the membrane exhibited a reduced rejection to both alginate and BSA molecules compared to that in the filtration of the pure alginate or BSA. PMID:25007243

  14. Filtration Behaviour and Fouling Mechanisms of Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondus Jamal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated filtration behaviors of polysaccharides solutions, both alone and in mixture with proteins, in the short-time constant flux filtration with the focus on factors affecting the transmembrane pressure (TMP increase rate, the irreversible filtration resistance, and the membrane rejection behavior. The results showed that the TMP increase rates in the short-time constant flux filtration of alginate solutions were significantly affected by the calcium addition, alginate concentration, and flux. Although the addition of calcium resulted in a decrease in the TMP increase rate, it was found that the irreversible fouling developed during the filtration increased with the calcium addition, implying that the double-sided effect of calcium on membrane filtration and that the TMP increase rate observed in the filtration does not always reflect the irreversible membrane fouling development. It was also found that for the filtration of solutions containing mixed alginate and BSA, alginate exerted a dominant effect on the TMP increase rate and the membrane exhibited a reduced rejection to both alginate and BSA molecules compared to that in the filtration of the pure alginate or BSA.

  15. Demonstration of creep during filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Bugge, Thomas Vistisen; Kirchheiner, Anders Løvenbalk

    root of time. Even more clearly it is demonstrated by plotting the liquid pressure at the cake piston interface v.s. the relative deformation (to be shown). The phenomenon of a secondary consolidation processes is in short called creep. Provided that the secondary consolidation rate is of the same...... magnitude as the primary consolidation (defined by the hydraulic retardation), the creep phenomenon may occur during filtration. This will lead to Ruth's plots characterized by a concave with two (more or less) distinct slopes. The slopes are defined by the relationship between the porosity...... and the hydraulic resistance before and after the collapse of the solids structure. This has been observed and modelled for dewatering experiments with activated sludge. It will be argued that although a strong resemblance between blinding and creep exists, these two effects may readily be distinguished by virtue...

  16. Tangential Flow Filtration of Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guoyong; Harris, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Bovine and human hemoglobin (bHb and hHb, respectively) was purified from bovine and human red blood cells (bRBCs and hRBCs, respectively) via tangential flow filtration (TFF) in four successive stages. TFF is a fast and simple method to purify Hb from RBCs using filtration through hollow fiber (HF) membranes. Most of the Hb was retained in stage III (100 kDa HF membrane) and displayed methemoglobin levels less than 1%, yielding final concentrations of 318 and 300 mg/mL for bHb and hHb, respectively. Purified Hb exhibited much lower endotoxin levels than their respective RBCs. The purity of Hb was initially assessed via SDS-PAGE, and showed tiny impurity bands for the stage III retentate. The oxygen affinity (P50), and cooperativity coefficient (n) were regressed from the measured oxygen-RBC/Hb equilibrium curves of RBCs and purified Hb. These results suggest that TFF yielded oxygen affinities of bHb and hHb that are comparable to values in the literature. LC-MS was used to measure the molecular weight of the alpha (α) and beta (β) globin chains of purified Hb. No impurity peaks were present in the HPLC chromatograms of purified Hb. The mass of the molecular ions corresponding to the α and β globin chains agreed well with the calculated theoretical mass of the α-and β-globin chains. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HPLC grade Hb can be generated via TFF. In general, this method can be more broadly applied to purify Hb from any source of RBCs. This work is significant, since it outlines a simple method for generating Hb for synthesis and/or formulation of Hb-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs). PMID:19224583

  17. THE FILTRATION PROPERTIES OF POROUS DIATOMITE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    measure the properties in geometry similar to the application as much as possible. Diatomite is a siliceous material that is commonly used in the manufacture of filter elements for domestic and industrial filtration. This paper presents a study of flow of water. (filtration) through diatomaceous filters, under low and high intensity ...

  18. Albumin-stabilized fluorescent silver nanodots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sych, Tomash; Polyanichko, Alexander; Kononov, Alexei

    2017-07-01

    Ligand-stabilized Ag nanoclusters (NCs) possess many attractive features including high fluorescence quantum yield, large absorption cross-section, good photostability, large Stokes shift and two-photon absorption cross sections. While plenty of fluorescent clusters have been synthesized on various polymer templates, only a few studies have been reported on the fluorescent Ag clusters on peptides and proteins. We study silver NCs synthesized on different protein matrices, including bovine serum albumin, human serum albumin, egg albumin, equine serum albumin, and lysozyme. Our results show that red-emitting Ag NCs can effectively be stabilized by the disulfide bonds in proteins and that the looser structure of the denatured protein favors formation of the clusters.

  19. Using egg albumin foam to extinguish fires

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alsaati, Hytham A; Ditzler, Danielle; Burapatana, Vorakan; Tanner, Robert D

    2003-01-01

    ...) away from the flames and by ''blowing'' the flame away from its fuel source. Egg albumin is a relatively inexpensive protein and is representative of foaming proteins, which are candidates for use as fire suppression agents...

  20. Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  1. Interaction of phosphatidylcholine with bovine serum albumin. Specificity and properties of the complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, A

    1976-03-18

    Phosphatidylcholine dispersed on Celite was rapidly solubilized by neutral bovine serum albumin solutions. Stable protein-lipid complexes were isolated by Agrose gel filtration or by ultracentrifugal flotation in high density solvents, and the physicochemical properties of the complexes were investigated in terms of the stoichiometry of binding, effect of fatty acid ligands on phosphatidylcholine binding, effect of high ionic strength on the stability of the complexes, intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra, and sedimentation velocity coefficients. Complexes containing from 2 to 30 phosphatidylcholine molecules per protein molecule were observed; however, no saturation of binding sites could be detected in this range of molar ratios. Oleic acid binding by serum albumin prevents interaction of the protein with phosphatidylcholine, indicating possible competition of these ligands at low contents of the phospholipid. For molar ratios of up to 10 phosphatidylcholine molecules per serum albumin, binding is primarily due to hydrophobic interactions that have no effect on the overall shape and secondary structure of the native protein except for local modifications at tryptophan residues, whose fluorescence becomes quenched and blue shifted on phosphatidylcholine binding. Similar phosphatidylcholine uptake experiments performed with a series of globular proteins indicated that the lipid extraction from Celite surfaces is a non-specific process, accelerated by several other proteins (e.g. aldolase, egg albumin, chymotrypsinogen, soybean trypsin inhibitor, and the major apolipoprotein from bovine serum high density lipoprotein). Formation of stable protein-lipid complexes, however, was only observed with bovine serum albumin, which in contrast to the other proteins is known to have affinity binding sites for anions with hydrophobic side chains.

  2. Albumin nanostructures as advanced drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mahdi; Bahrami, Sajad; Ravari, Soodeh Baghaee; Zangabad, Parham Sahandi; Mirshekari, Hamed; Bozorgomid, Mahnaz; Shahreza, Somayeh; Sori, Masume; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    One of the biggest impacts that the nanotechnology has made on medicine and biology, has been in the area of drug delivery systems (DDSs). Many drugs suffer from serious problems concerning insolubility, instability in biological environments, poor uptake into cells and tissues, sub-optimal selectivity for targets and unwanted side effects. Nanocarriers can be designed as DDSs to overcome many of these drawbacks. One of the most versatile building blocks to prepare these nanocarriers is the ubiquitous, readily available and inexpensive protein, serum albumin. Areas covered: This review covers the use of different types of albumin (human, bovine, rat, and chicken egg) to prepare nanoparticle and microparticle-based structures to bind drugs. Various methods have been used to modify the albumin structure. A range of targeting ligands can be attached to the albumin that can be recognized by specific cell receptors that are expressed on target cells or tissues. Expert opinion: The particular advantages of albumin used in DDSs include ready availability, ease of chemical modification, good biocompatibility, and low immunogenicity. The regulatory approvals that have been received for several albumin-based therapeutic agents suggest that this approach will continue to be successfully explored.

  3. THE SULFHYDRYL GROUPS OF EGG ALBUMIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, M L

    1941-03-20

    1. 1 cc. of 0.001 M ferricyanide, tetrathionate, or p-chloromercuribenzoate is required to abolish the SH groups of 10 mg. of denatured egg albumin in guanidine hydrochloride or Duponol PC solution. Both the nitroprusside test and the ferricyanide reduction test are used to show that the SH groups have been abolished. 2. 1 cc. of 0.001 M ferrocyanide is formed when ferricyanide is added to 10 mg. of denatured egg albumin in neutral guanidine hydrochloride or urea solution. The amount of ferricyanide reduced to ferrocyanide by the SH groups of the denatured egg albumin is, within wide limits, independent of the ferricyanide concentration. 3. Ferricyanide and p-chloromercuribenzoate react more rapidly than tetrathionate with the SH groups of denatured egg albumin in both guanidine hydrochloride solution and in Duponol PC solution. 4. Cyanide inhibits the oxidation of the SH groups of denatured egg albumin by ferricyanide. 5. Some samples of guanidine hydrochloride contain impurities which bring about the abolition of SH groups of denatured egg albumin and so interfere with the SH titration and the nitroprusside test. This interference can be diminished by using especially purified guanidine hydrochloride, adding the titrating agent before the protein has been allowed to stand in guanidine hydrochloride solution, and carrying out the nitroprusside test in the presence of a small amount of cyanide. 6. The SH groups of egg albumin can be abolished by reaction of the native form of the protein with iodine. It is possible to oxidize all the SH groups with iodine without oxidizing many of the SH groups beyond the S-S stage and without converting many tyrosine groups into di-iodotyrosine groups. 7. p-chloromercuribenzoate combines with native egg albumin either not at all or much more loosely than it combines with the SH groups of denatured egg albumin or of cysteine. 8. The compound of mercuribenzoate and SH, like the compound of aldehyde and SH and like the SH in native

  4. PDF-based heterogeneous multiscale filtration model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jian; Rutland, Christopher J

    2015-04-21

    Motivated by modeling of gasoline particulate filters (GPFs), a probability density function (PDF) based heterogeneous multiscale filtration (HMF) model is developed to calculate filtration efficiency of clean particulate filters. A new methodology based on statistical theory and classic filtration theory is developed in the HMF model. Based on the analysis of experimental porosimetry data, a pore size probability density function is introduced to represent heterogeneity and multiscale characteristics of the porous wall. The filtration efficiency of a filter can be calculated as the sum of the contributions of individual collectors. The resulting HMF model overcomes the limitations of classic mean filtration models which rely on tuning of the mean collector size. Sensitivity analysis shows that the HMF model recovers the classical mean model when the pore size variance is very small. The HMF model is validated by fundamental filtration experimental data from different scales of filter samples. The model shows a good agreement with experimental data at various operating conditions. The effects of the microstructure of filters on filtration efficiency as well as the most penetrating particle size are correctly predicted by the model.

  5. Aging-associated oxidized albumin promotes cellular senescence and endothelial damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna C

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Luna,1,* Matilde Alique,2,* Estefanía Navalmoral,2 Maria-Victoria Noci,3 Lourdes Bohorquez-Magro,2 Julia Carracedo,1 Rafael Ramírez2 1Nephrology Unit, Instituto Maimónides de Investigación Biomédica de Córdoba (IMIBIC, Reina Sofía University Hospital, Córdoba, Spain; 2Department of Systems Biology, Physiology Unit, Universidad de Alcalá, Madrid, Spain; 3Anesthesia Unit, Reina sofía University Hospital, Córdoba, Spain*These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Increased levels of oxidized proteins with aging have been considered a cardiovascular risk factor. However, it is unclear whether oxidized albumin, which is the most abundant serum protein, induces endothelial damage. The results of this study indicated that with aging processes, the levels of oxidized proteins as well as endothelial microparticles release increased, a novel marker of endothelial damage. Among these, oxidized albumin seems to play a principal role. Through in vitro studies, endothelial cells cultured with oxidized albumin exhibited an increment of endothelial damage markers such as adhesion molecules and apoptosis levels. In addition, albumin oxidation increased the amount of endothelial microparticles that were released. Moreover, endothelial cells with increased oxidative stress undergo senescence. In addition, endothelial cells cultured with oxidized albumin shown a reduction in endothelial cell migration measured by wound healing. As a result, we provide the first evidence that oxidized albumin induces endothelial injury which then contributes to the increase of cardiovascular disease in the elderly subjects.Keywords: elderly, oxidative stress, microparticles, vascular damage

  6. Estimated glomerular filtration rate in the nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra, Julia M; Willems, Johannes L; Wetzels, Jack F M

    2011-02-01

    Plasma creatinine concentration and creatinine-based equations are most commonly used as markers of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The abbreviated MDRD formula is considered the best available formula. Altered renal handling of creatinine, which may occur in the nephrotic syndrome, will invalidate creatinine-based formulas. We have evaluated the abbreviated MDRD formula in a large cohort of patients with proteinuria. Data on a cohort of patients with glomerular diseases were available from a large database. We have studied the relationship between estimated GFR (MDRD formula), and plasma cystatin C (CysC) and plasma beta-2-microglobulin (β2m) as markers of GFR. The final analysis included 142 patients (93 M/49 F), median age 48 years (±15), plasma creatinine 101 μmol/L (42-368), plasma albumin 28.0 g/L (10.0-47.0), proteinuria 6.4 g/day (0.03-37.9), eGFR-MDRD4 64 mL/min/1.73 m2 (15-165), β2m 3.43 mg/L (0.7-13.8) and CysC 1.14 mg/mL (0.56-4.00). As expected, we observed a hyperbolic relationship between eGFR and both β2m and CysC. In multivariable analysis, plasma albumin concentration proved to be the most important predictor of the relationship between eGFR and both CysC and β2m. In the presence of hypoalbuminaemia, eGFR was ~ 30-40% higher at equal levels of plasma CysC or β2m. Conclusions were similar when using the recently developed CKD-EPI formula. Plasma albumin concentration did not effect the relationship between eGFR estimated by the six-variable original MDRD formula and β2m. Our data point to discrepancies between eGFR using the six-variable MDRD formula and eGFR using the abbreviated MDRD formula as well as the CKD-EPI formula in patients with hypoalbuminaemia. One should be aware of possible limitations of creatinine-based eGFR formulas in patients with a nephrotic syndrome.

  7. Vascular dysfunction in the diabetic placenta: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Lopa; Taylor, Alice; Sciota, Flavia

    2009-07-01

    The development and functioning of the human fetoplacental vascular system are vulnerable to the maternal diabetic milieu. These vessels are in direct continuum with the fetal vascular system and are therefore also vulnerable to fetal endocrine derangements. Increased angiogenesis, altered junctional maturity and molecular occupancy, together with increased leakiness, constitute a well-described phenotype of vessels in the Type 1 diabetic human placenta and can be related to increased levels of placental vascular endothelial growth factor. The causes of these observed changes, whether maternal hyperglycaemia or fetal hyperinsulinaemia, still remain to be shown in the human placenta. Mechanistic studies using different vascular systems have shown high glucose and insulin to have profound vascular effects, with elevations in vascular endothelial growth factor, nitric oxide and protein kinase C being behind alterations in junctional adhesion molecules such as occludin and vascular endothelial-cadherin and vascular leakage of albumin. The role of advanced glycation products and oxidative stress in this vascular pathology is also discussed. The altered molecular mechanisms underlying the vascular changes in the diabetic human placenta may reflect similar consequences of high glucose and hyperinsulinaemia.

  8. The role of albumin conformation in the binding of diazepam to human serum albumin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilting, J.; Hart, B.J. 't; Gier, J.J. de

    2006-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen, chloride and calcium ions on the binding of diazepare to human serum albumin has been studied by circular dichroism and equilibrium dialysis. In all cases the molar ellipticity of the diazepam-albumin complex increases with pH over the pH range 5 to 9. Under these

  9. Flux Enhancement in Crossflow Membrane Filtration: Fouling and It's Minimization by Flow Reversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2005-08-04

    Fouling problems are perhaps the single most important reason for relatively slow acceptance of ultrafiltration in many areas of chemical and biological processing. To overcome the losses in permeate flux associated with concentration polarization and fouling in cross flow membrane filtration, we investigated the concept of flow reversal as a method to enhance membrane flux in ultrafiltration. Conceptually, flow reversal prevents the formation of stable hydrodynamic and concentration boundary layers at or near the membrane surface. Further more, periodic reversal of the flow direction of the feed stream at the membrane surface results in prevention and mitigation of membrane fouling. Consequently, these advantages are expected to enhance membrane flux significantly. A crossflow membrane filtration unit was designed and built to test the concept of periodic flow reversal for flux enhancement. The essential elements of the system include a crossflow hollow fiber membrane module integrated with a two-way valve to direct the feed flow directions. The two-way valve is controlled by a controller-timer for periodic reversal of flow of feed stream. Another important feature of the system is that with changing feed flow direction, the permeate flow direction is also changed to maintain countercurrent feed and permeate flows for enhanced mass transfer driving force (concentration difference). Three feed solutions (Bovine serum albumin (BSA), apple juice and citrus fruit pectin) were studied in crossflow membrane filtration. These solutes are well-known in membrane filtration for their fouling and concentration polarization potentials. Laboratory-scale tests on a hollow-fiber ultrafiltration membrane module using each of the feed solutes show that under flow reversal conditions, the permeate flux is significantly enhanced when compared with the conventional unidirectional flow. The flux enhancement is dramatic (by an order of magnitude) with increased feed concentration and

  10. Abolishment of proximal tubule albumin endocytosis does not affect plasma albumin during nephrotic syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Kathrin; Andersen, Pia K; Schmidt, Kasper; Mollet, Geraldine; Antignac, Corinne; Birn, Henrik; Nielsen, Rikke; Christensen, Erik I

    2018-02-01

    The megalin/cubilin receptor complex is required for proximal tubular endocytosis and degradation of filtered albumin. An additional high-capacity retrieval pathway of intact albumin for the recovery of large amounts of filtered albumin has been proposed, possibly involving cooperation between megalin/cubilin and the neonatal Fc receptor. To clarify the potential role of such a pathway, we examined the effects of megalin/cubilin gene inactivation on tubular albumin uptake and plasma albumin levels in nephrotic, podocin knockout mice. Immunofluorescence microscopy of megalin/cubilin/podocin knockout mouse kidneys demonstrated abolishment of proximal tubule albumin uptake, in contrast to the excessive albumin accumulation observed in podocin knockout mice compared to controls. Correspondingly, urinary albumin excretion was increased 1.4 fold in megalin/cubilin/podocin compared to podocin knockout mice (albumin/creatinine: 226 vs. 157 mg/mg). However, no difference in plasma albumin levels was observed between megalin/cubilin/podocin and podocin knockout mice, as both were reduced to approximately 40% of controls. There were no differences in liver albumin synthesis by mRNA levels and protein abundance. Thus, megalin/cubilin knockout efficiently blocks proximal tubular albumin uptake in nephrotic mice but plasma albumin levels did not differ as a result of megalin/cubilin-deficiency, suggesting no significance of the megalin/cubilin-pathway for albumin homeostasis by retrieval of intact albumin. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reduction of retinal albumin leakage by the antioxidant calcium dobesilate in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Rossella; Chiavaroli, Carlo; Garay, Ricardo P; Hannaert, Patrick

    2004-07-14

    Calcium dobesilate stabilizes blood-retinal barrier in patients with diabetic retinopathy and possesses antioxidant properties in the retinas of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes, exposed ex vivo to ischemia-reperfusion. Here we investigated the action of calcium dobesilate on retinal albumin leakage in streptozotocin-diabetic rats, together with relevant in vivo retinal antioxidant and permeability markers, i.e., carboxymethyl-lysine-advanced glycation end product (CML-AGE) formation and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) overexpression. Twenty days after streptozotocin administration, diabetic rats were treated for 10 days with calcium dobesilate (100 mg/kg/day per os) or vehicle. Retinal albumin leakage, CML-AGE formation, and VEGF overexpression were evaluated by immunohistochemistry of frozen eye sections. Diabetic rats exhibited dramatic increases in: (i) retinal albumin leakage (31% of positive vessels vs. 0.2% in nondiabetic rats, Pdobesilate significantly reduced: (i) retinal albumin leakage (by 70%, Pdobesilate orally given to diabetic rats markedly reduced retinal hyperpermeability, CML-AGE contents, and VEGF overexpression. These results strongly suggest that calcium dobesilate stabilizes blood-retinal barrier in diabetic retinopathy via an in situ antioxidant action. Further studies in patients are required to confirm such view.

  12. On divisorial filtrations associated with Newton diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Ebeling, Wolfgang; Gusein-Zade, Sabir M.

    2010-01-01

    We consider divisorial filtration on the rings of functions on hypersurface singularities associated with Newton diagrams and their analogues for plane curve singularities. We compute the multi-variable Poincar\\'e series for the latter ones.

  13. Determination of glomerular filtration rate with radionuclide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of glomerular filtration rate with radionuclide renography and direct urinary activity quantitation. A. C. Otto, P. H. Pretorius, M. Dunn, M. G. Nel, A. van Aswegen, J. Marais, M. G. Lotter ...

  14. A High Capacity Advanced Fuel Filtration System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jen, Chang-Wei

    2000-01-01

    .... The filtration effect of the candidate filter media on the FSII contained in JP-8 has also been investigated. The test results lay a good foundation for the development of a prototype in Phase II.

  15. Portable Hybrid Powered Water Filtration Device

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Lourdes V. Balansay; Mary Rose Q. Añonuevo; Rexzel M. Cuenca; Ricmart V. Garbin

    2015-01-01

    .... The design of the portable hybrid powered water filtration device shows that the project has more advanced features such as portability and the power supply used such as photovoltaic module solar...

  16. Effects of clarification and filtration processes on the removal of fungicide residues in red wines (var. Monastrell).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, M J; Oliva, J; Barba, A; Cámara, M A

    2005-07-27

    The effects of six clarification agents (egg albumin, blood albumin, bentonite plus gelatin, charcoal, PVPP, and silica gel) on the removal of residues of four fungicides (cyprodinil, fludioxonil, pyrimethanil, and quinoxyfen) applied directly to a racked red wine, elaborated from Monastrell variety grapes from the D.O. region of Jumilla (Murcia, Spain), are studied. The clarified wines were filtered with 0.45 microm nylon filters to determine the influence of this winemaking process in the disappearance of fungicide residues. Analytical determination of cyprodinil, fludioxonil and pyrimethanil was performed by gas chromatography with an alkaline thermoionic detector (NPD), whereas that of quinoxyfen using an electron captor detector (ECD). In general, and for all of the fungicides except quinoxyfen, blood albumin has proved to be the most effective clarifying agent in the removal of residues, whereas silica gel proved to be ineffective against all of the pesticides with the exception of fludioxonil. Quinoxyfen is the least persistent fungicide in the clarified wines and that which appears with highest frequency in the lees. In general, filtration is not an effective step in the elimination of wine residues. The greatest elimination after filtration is obtained in wines clarified with charcoal and the lowest in those clarified with PVPP.

  17. Pig manure treatment and purification by filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makara, A; Kowalski, Z

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed to develop a new, complex pig manure treatment and filtration process. The final scheme, called the AMAK process, comprised the following successive steps: mineralization with mineral acids, alkalization with lime milk, superphosphate addition, a second alkalization, thermal treatment, and pressure filtration. The proposed method produced a filtrate with 95%, 80%, and 96% reductions in chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen content, and phosphorus content, respectively. An advantage of the proposed method was that it incorporated a crystalline phase into the solid organic part of the manure, which enabled high filtration rates (>1000 kg m(-2) h(-1)) and efficient separation. The process also eliminated odor emissions from the filtrate and sediment. The treated filtrate could be used to irrigate crops or it could be further treated in conventional biological wastewater treatment plants. The sediment could be used for producing mineral-organic fertilizer. The AMAK process is inexpensive, and it requires low investment costs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Properties of the filtrate from treatment of pig manure by filtration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makara Agnieszka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents properties of filtrate obtained from pig manure using the AMAK treatment process, which includes the mineralization of macro- and microfertilizer components by the hydrolyzing of organic matter into forms that are bioavailable to plants. Filtration produced two products, sediment and filtrate. The quality of the filtrate allowed for its use as a substitute of water to irrigate crops. Concentrations of heavy metals are very low and therefore the quality of the filtrate fully complies with European standard concerning fertilizers. The used mineralization process practically eliminated odors from the filtrate. The reduction of specific odor emission by 99.1-99.5% in samples taken from above the filtrate, respectively compared to the odor concentration found in samples taken from above raw pig manure. Sediment could be used as raw material for production of mineral-organic fertilizer. Filtrate and filtration sediments analyses show that the majority of nitrogen and other fertilizing compounds included in raw pig manure remains in sediment.

  19. Vasoconstrictor effect of high FFA/albumin ratios in adipose tissue in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Madsen, J; Astrup, A

    1985-01-01

    as well as in young dogs after this treatment. The administration of Intralipid did not per se induce the vasoconstriction. The vasoconstriction took place simultaneously with increasing FFA/albumin molar ratios. The results support our previous findings in perfused fat pads that high molar FFA......Subcutaneous or perirenal adipose tissue blood flow was measured with the 133Xe-washout technique before and after intravenous injection or infusion of Intralipid in six anesthetized, otherwise intact mongrel dogs. In four anesthetized mongrel puppies adipose tissue blood flow was measured....../albumin ratios increase vascular resistance in adipose tissue and they give further support to our suggestion that this vasoconstriction may be a link in a negative-feedback mechanism regulating FFA-mobilization in relation to FFA utilization....

  20. Enhanced performance of crumb rubber filtration for ballast water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhijian; Butkus, Michael A; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2009-03-01

    Waste-tire-derived crumb rubber was utilized as filter media to develop an efficient filter for ballast water treatment. In this study, the effects of coagulation, pressure filtration and dual-media (gravity) filtration on the performance of the crumb rubber filtration were investigated. The removal efficiencies of turbidity, phytoplankton and zooplankton, and head loss development were monitored during the filtration process. The addition of a coagulant enhanced the removal efficiencies of all targeted matter, but resulted in substantial increase of head loss. Pressure filtration increased filtration rates to 220 m(3)h(-1)m(-2) for 8-h operation and improved the zooplankton removal. Dual-media (crumb rubber/sand) gravity filtration also improved the removal efficiencies of phytoplankton and zooplankton over mono-media gravity crumb rubber filtration. However, these filtration techniques alone did not meet the criteria for removing indigenous organisms from ballast water. A combination of filtration and disinfection is suggested for future studies.

  1. Filtration as the main transport mechanism of protein exchange between plasma and the peritoneal cavity in hepatic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Lassen, N A; Parving, H H

    1980-01-01

    Fractional peritoneal reabsorption rates (FPRR) were determined from the plasma activity after simultaneous intraperitoneal injection of 131I-labelled serum albumin (a) and 125I-labelled immunoglobulin G-IgG (g) in eight patients with cirrhosis (+ ascites 6, -ascites 2) and in one patient...... with carcinomatous ascites. Trans-vascular escape rates of albumin (TERa) and IgG (TERg) were determined in the cirrhotic patients from the disappearance of simultaneously intravenously injected 131I-labelled serum albumin and 124I-labelled IgG. Peritoneal space to plasma appearance times ranged 0.1-3.3 h......, but significantly higher (P rate was on average 61 ml/h. TERa and TERg were on average 9.6 and 8.6% of intravascular protein masses per hour, mean TERg/TERa ratio was 0.95. Peritoneal space...

  2. Albumin, apolipoprotein E-epsilon4 and cognitive decline in community-dwelling Chinese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tze-Pin; Niti, Mathew; Feng, Lei; Kua, Ee-Heok; Yap, Keng-Bee

    2009-01-01

    To examine the association between serum albumin and cognitive impairment and decline in community-living older adults. Population-based cohort study, followed up to 2 years; serum albumin, apolipoprotein E (APOE)-epsilon4, and cognitive impairment measured at baseline and cognitive decline (> or =2-point drop in Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score). Odds ratios were controlled for age, sex, education, medical comorbidity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiac disease, stroke, smoking, alcohol drinking, depression, APOE-epsilon4, nutritional status, body mass index, anemia, glomerular filtration rate, and baseline MMSE. Local area whole population. One thousand six hundred sixty-four Chinese older adults aged 55 and older. The mean age of the cohort was 66.0+/-7.3, 65% were women, mean serum albumin was 42.3+/-3.1 g/L, and mean MMSE score was 27.2+/-3.2. Lower albumin tertile was associated with greater risk of cognitive impairment in cross-sectional analysis (low, odds ratio (OR)=2.30, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.31-4.03); medium, OR=1.59, 95% CI=0.88-2.88) versus high (P for trend=.002); and with cognitive decline in longitudinal analyses: low, OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.18-2.55; medium, OR=1.32, 95% CI=0.89-1.95, vs high (P for trend=.004). In cognitively unimpaired respondents at baseline (MMSE> or =24), similar associations with cognitive decline were observed (P for trends community-living older adults.

  3. Purification of human albumin by the combination of the method of Cohn with liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka K.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Large volumes of plasma can be fractionated by the method of Cohn at low cost. However, liquid chromatography is superior in terms of the quality of the product obtained. In order to combine the advantages of each method, we developed an integrated method for the production of human albumin and immunoglobulin G (IgG. The cryoprecipitate was first removed from plasma for the production of factor VIII and the supernatant of the cryoprecipitate was fractionated by the method of Cohn. The first precipitate, containing fractions (F-I + II + III, was used for the production of IgG by the chromatographic method (see Tanaka K et al. (1998 Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 31: 1375-1381. The supernatant of F-I + II + III was submitted to a second precipitation and F-IV was obtained and discarded. Albumin was obtained from the supernatant of the precipitate F-IV by liquid chromatography, ion-exchange on DEAE-Sepharose FF, filtration through Sephacryl S-200 HR and introduction of heat treatment for fatty acid precipitation. Viral inactivation was performed by pasteurization at 60ºC for 10 h. The albumin product obtained by the proposed procedure was more than 99% pure for the 15 lots of albumin produced, with a mean yield of 25.0 ± 0.5 g/l plasma, containing 99.0 to 99.3% monomer, 0.7 to 1.0% dimers, and no polymers. Prekallikrein activator levels were <=5 IU/ml. This product satisfies the requirements of the 1997 Pharmacopée Européenne.

  4. Determinants of urinary albumin excretion reduction in essential hypertension: A long-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Jose Maria; Rodilla, Enrique; Miralles, Amparo; Gonzalez, Carmen; Redon, Josep

    2006-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess factors related to long-term changes in urinary albumin excretion (UAE) of nondiabetic microalbuminuric (n = 252) or proteinuric hypertensive individuals (n = 58) in a prospective follow-up. After enrollment, patients were placed on usual care including nonpharmacological treatment and/or treatment with an antihypertensive drug regime to achieve blood pressure 50% from the initial values, plus reduction of UAE to or = 90 mmHg achieved during the follow-up (hazard ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.86; P = 0.001), even when adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, fasting glucose, presence of treatment at the beginning of the study and treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers during the follow-up. The reduction of urinary albumin excretion was linked to the preserved glomerular filtration rate and to adequate blood pressure control.

  5. Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration Allows Purification and Concentration of Lauric Acid-/Albumin-Coated Particles for Improved Magnetic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zaloga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs are frequently used for drug targeting, hyperthermia and other biomedical purposes. Recently, we have reported the synthesis of lauric acid-/albumin-coated iron oxide nanoparticles SEONLA-BSA, which were synthesized using excess albumin. For optimization of magnetic treatment applications, SPION suspensions need to be purified of excess surfactant and concentrated. Conventional methods for the purification and concentration of such ferrofluids often involve high shear stress and low purification rates for macromolecules, like albumin. In this work, removal of albumin by low shear stress tangential ultrafiltration and its influence on SEONLA-BSA particles was studied. Hydrodynamic size, surface properties and, consequently, colloidal stability of the nanoparticles remained unchanged by filtration or concentration up to four-fold (v/v. Thereby, the saturation magnetization of the suspension can be increased from 446.5 A/m up to 1667.9 A/m. In vitro analysis revealed that cellular uptake of SEONLA-BSA changed only marginally. The specific absorption rate (SAR was not greatly affected by concentration. In contrast, the maximum temperature Tmax in magnetic hyperthermia is greatly enhanced from 44.4 °C up to 64.9 °C by the concentration of the particles up to 16.9 mg/mL total iron. Taken together, tangential ultrafiltration is feasible for purifying and concentrating complex hybrid coated SPION suspensions without negatively influencing specific particle characteristics. This enhances their potential for magnetic treatment.

  6. Environmental Technology Verification--Baghouse Filtration Products: GE Energy QG061 Filtration Media (Tested September 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report reviews the filtration and pressure drop performance of GE Energy's QG061 filtration media. Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) testing of this technology/product was conducted during a series of tests in September 2008. The objective of the ETV Program is to ...

  7. Vascular endothelium receptors and transduction mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Gillis, C; Ryan, Una; Proceedings of the Advanced Studies Institute on "Vascular Endothelium: Receptors and Transduction Mechanisms"

    1989-01-01

    Beyond their obvious role of a barrier between blood and tissue, vascular endothelial cells are now firmly established as active and essential participants in a host of crucial physiological and pathophysiological functions. Probably the two most important factors responsible for promoting the current knowledge of endothelial functions are 1) observations in the late sixties-early seventies that many non-ventilatory properties of the lung could be attributed to the pulmonary endothelium and 2) the establishment, in the early and mid-seventies of procedures for routine culture of vascular endothelial cells. Many of these endothelial functions require the presence of receptors on the surface of the plasma membrane. There is now evidence for the existence among others of muscarinic, a-and /3-adrenergic, purine, insulin, histamine, bradykinin, lipoprotein, thrombin, paf, fibronectin, vitronectin, interleukin and albumin receptors. For some of these ligands, there is evidence only for the existence of endothelial ...

  8. Interaction of Citrinin with Human Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Poór

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrinin (CIT is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species. CIT occurs worldwide in different foods and drinks and causes health problems for humans and animals. Human serum albumin (HSA is the most abundant plasma protein in human circulation. Albumin forms stable complexes with many drugs and xenobiotics; therefore, HSA commonly plays important role in the pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of numerous compounds. However, the interaction of CIT with HSA is poorly characterized yet. In this study, the complex formation of CIT with HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration techniques. For the deeper understanding of the interaction, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies were performed as well. Our results suggest that CIT forms stable complex with HSA (logK ~ 5.3 and its primary binding site is located in subdomain IIA (Sudlow’s Site I. In vitro cell experiments also recommend that CIT-HSA interaction may have biological relevance. Finally, the complex formations of CIT with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumin were investigated, in order to test the potential species differences of CIT-albumin interactions.

  9. Drug binding properties of neonatal albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B

    1989-01-01

    Neonatal and adult albumin was isolated by gel chromatography on Sephacryl S-300, from adult and umbilical cord serum, respectively. Binding of monoacetyl-diamino-diphenyl sulfone, warfarin, sulfamethizole, and diazepam was studied by means of equilibrium dialysis and the binding data were analyz...

  10. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology and cha...

  11. Bidirectional peritoneal transport of albumin in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, P; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1995-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in order to assess bidirectional peritoneal kinetics of albumin after simultaneous i.v. and i.p. injection of radioiodinated albumin tracers (125I-RISA and 131I-RISA) in eight clinically stable uraemic patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis...... (CAPD). The plasma volume, intravascular albumin mass (IVM), and overall extravasation rate of albumin were not significantly different from that found in healthy controls. Albumin flux from the plasma into the peritoneal cavity was 3.71 +/- 0.82 (SD) mumol/h, which was only 3% of the overall...... extravasation rate (137 +/- 52 mumol/h). Albumin flux from the peritoneal cavity into the plasma was substantially lower (0.22 +/- 0.07 mumol/h, P peritoneal accumulation of the albumin from plasma over 4 h was 14 +/- 3.2 mumol, which was significantly lower than the intraperitoneal albumin...

  12. Vitamin D status and 5-year changes in urine albumin creatinine ratio and parathyroid hormone in a general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is associated with cardiovascular disease and renal function but the mechanisms are as yet unexplained. Microalbuminuria is associated with a higher risk of kidney function loss, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. Parathyroid hormone is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality...... and negatively correlated with glomerular filtration rate. We investigated the association between vitamin D status and 5-year changes in urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). A random sample of 6,784 individuals aged 30-60 years from a general population participated in the Inter...

  13. Release of macromolecules from albumin-heparin microspheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, Glen S.; Bae, You Han; Cremers, H.F.M.; Cremers, Harry; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan

    1992-01-01

    Hydrophilic microspheres based on albumin-heparin conjugates have been prepared as a macromolecular delivery system. The soluble albumin-heparin conjugate was synthesized and crosslinked in a water-in-oil emulsion with glutaraldehyde to form microspheres in the same manner as for albumin microsphere

  14. Effects of oral contraceptives on total serum proteins, albumin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total serum, albumin, globulin, albumin/globulin ratio and cholesterol levels were determined in 25 subjects on oral contraceptives and 25 controls. The mean serum total protein, globulin and cholesterol levels were significantly increased in oral contraceptive and their control counterparts. The albumin/globulin ratio in ...

  15. Cake formation and growth in cake filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.S.; Hsiau, S.S. [National Central University, Chungli (Taiwan)

    2009-06-15

    In this study we develop an experimental method to help understand the formation and growth of dust cakes. An on-line pressure-displacement measurement system is developed to measure the thickness of the dust cakes. A higher filtration superficial velocity resulted in a higher degree of compaction in the dust cakes and thus a higher specific cake resistance, hence a better collection efficiency could be achieved. The empirical equations for cake solidosity, and specific cake resistance as a function of the filtration superficial velocity are derived. We find that the cake filter is influenced by the cake thickness and the filtration superficial velocity. The results of this study can be applied to granular bed filters for the removal of dust particulates in advanced coal-fired power systems.

  16. Salt disposition alternatives filtration at SRTC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, B. W.; Hobbs, D.

    2000-01-27

    Several of the prospective salt disposition alternative technologies require a monosodium titanate (MST) contact to remove strontium and actinides from inorganic salt solution feedstock. This feedstock also contains sludge solids from waste removal operations and may contain defoamers added in the evaporator systems. Filtration is required to remove the sludge and MST solids before sending the salt solution for further processing. This report describes testing performed using the Parallel Theological Experimental Filter (PREF). The PREF contains two single tube Mott sintered metal crossflow filters. For this test one filter was isolated so that the maximum velocities could be achieved. Previous studies showed slurries of MST and sludge in the presence of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) were filterable since the NaTPB slurry formed a filter cake which aided in removing the smaller MST and sludge particles. Some of the salt disposition alternative technologies do not use NaTPB raising the question of how effective crossflow filtration is with a feed stream containing only sludge and MST. Variables investigated included axial velocity, transmembrane pressure, defoamer effects, and solids concentration (MST and sludge). Details of the tests are outlined in the technical report WSRC-RP-98-O0691. Key conclusions from this study are: (1) Severe fouling of the Mott sintered metal filter did not occur with any of the solutions filtered. (2) The highest fluxes, in the range of .46 to 1.02 gpm/f{sup 2}, were obtained when salt solution decanted from settled solids was fed to the filter. These fluxes would achieve 92 to 204 gpm filtrate production for the current ITP filters. The filtrate fluxes were close to the flux of 0.42 gpm/f{sup 2} reported for In Tank Precipitation Salt Solution by Morrisey. (3) For the range of solids loading studied, the filter flux ranged from .04 to .17 gpm/f{sup 2} which would result in a filtrate production rate of 9 to 31 gpm for the current HP

  17. A novel filtration system for point of care washing of cellular therapy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostoes, Rui; Dodgson, John R; Weil, Ben; Gerontas, Spyridon; Mason, Chris; Veraitch, Farlan

    2017-11-01

    The cell therapy industry would greatly benefit from a simple point of care solution to remove dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) from small-volume thawed cell suspensions before injection. A novel dead-end filtration device has been designed and validated, which takes advantage of the higher density of thawed cell suspensions to remove the DMSO and protein impurities from the cell suspension without fouling the filter membrane. The filter was designed to avoid fluid circuits and minimize the surface area that is contacted by the cell suspension, thus reducing cell losses by design. The filtration process was established through optimization of the fluid flow configuration, backflush cycles and filter geometry. Overall, this novel filtration device allows for a 1 ml of thawed cryopreserved cell suspensions, containing 10 7 cells of a fetal lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5), to be washed in less than 30 min. More than 95% of the DMSO and up to 94% of the albumin-fluorescein-isothiocyanate content can be removed while the viable cell recovery is higher than 80%. It is also demonstrated that this system can be used for bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells with more than 73% cell recovery and 85% DMSO reduction. This is the first time that a dead end (normal) filtration process has been used to successfully wash high-density human cell suspensions. In practice, this novel solid-liquid separation technology fills the need for small-volume washing in closed processing systems for cellular therapies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Plant Vascular Biology 2013: vascular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursache, Robertas; Heo, Jung-Ok; Helariutta, Ykä

    2014-04-01

    About 200 researchers from around the world attended the Third International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2013) held in July 2013 at the Rantapuisto Conference Center, in Helsinki, Finland (http://www.pvb2013.org). The plant vascular system, which connects every organ in the mature plant, continues to attract the interest of researchers representing a wide range of disciplines, including development, physiology, systems biology, and computational biology. At the meeting, participants discussed the latest research advances in vascular development, long- and short-distance vascular transport and long-distance signalling in plant defence, in addition to providing a context for how these studies intersect with each other. The meeting provided an opportunity for researchers working across a broad range of fields to share ideas and to discuss future directions in the expanding field of vascular biology. In this report, the latest advances in understanding the mechanism of vascular trafficking presented at the meeting have been summarized.

  19. Bioprinting for vascular and vascularized tissue biofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Pallab; Ayan, Bugra; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2017-03-15

    Bioprinting is a promising technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision. Bioprinting enables the deposition of various biologics including growth factors, cells, genes, neo-tissues and extra-cellular matrix-like hydrogels. Benefits of bioprinting have started to make a mark in the fields of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and pharmaceutics. Specifically, in the field of tissue engineering, the creation of vascularized tissue constructs has remained a principal challenge till date. However, given the myriad advantages over other biofabrication methods, it becomes organic to expect that bioprinting can provide a viable solution for the vascularization problem, and facilitate the clinical translation of tissue engineered constructs. This article provides a comprehensive account of bioprinting of vascular and vascularized tissue constructs. The review is structured as introducing the scope of bioprinting in tissue engineering applications, key vascular anatomical features and then a thorough coverage of 3D bioprinting using extrusion-, droplet- and laser-based bioprinting for fabrication of vascular tissue constructs. The review then provides the reader with the use of bioprinting for obtaining thick vascularized tissues using sacrificial bioink materials. Current challenges are discussed, a comparative evaluation of different bioprinting modalities is presented and future prospects are provided to the reader. Biofabrication of living tissues and organs at the clinically-relevant volumes vitally depends on the integration of vascular network. Despite the great progress in traditional biofabrication approaches, building perfusable hierarchical vascular network is a major challenge. Bioprinting is an emerging technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision

  20. Aerosol filtration - performance of filter media; Filtration des aerosols - performances des medias filtrants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemer, D.; Regnier, R. [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite (INRS), Dept. Ingenierie des Procedes, 75 - Paris (France); Calle, S.; Thomas, D.; Simon, X.; Appert-Collin, J.Ch. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. des Sciences du Genie Chimique de Nancy, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2006-03-15

    Set up in 2000, the Laboratoire de Filtration des Aerosols in Nancy (LFA), associating research teams from INRS (Institut National de Recherche et de Securite and LSGC (Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique - CNRS), has been commissioned to provide expertise in the aerosol filtration field to both CRAM (Caisse Regionale de l'Assurance Maladie) prevention specialists and industrialists. Following a theoretical review of fibre medium filtration, this paper summarises the different actions undertaken by the LFA: filter performance during clogging with liquid and solid aerosols, modelling, pneumatic unclogging of baghouse dust collectors, influence of micro-leaks, etc. (authors)

  1. ON CROSS REACTIONS OF EGG ALBUMIN SERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsteiner, K.; van der Scheer, J.

    1940-01-01

    Experiments are presented on the cross reactions of hen egg albumin immune sera with egg albumins of other species by means of exhaustion with heterologous proteins and by inhibition tests. From the results it can be concluded that the sera contain multiple, qualitatively distinct antibodies. For this, two not mutually exclusive explanations come into consideration: the presence in proteins of a number of different, perhaps similar, complex determinants, and the fact, established by previous results, that one antigenic grouping can call forth the formation of diverse antibodies. It is inferred that cross reactions between proteins of kindred species are ascribable, in general, to similarity in determinant structures, and not to the distribution of identical determinant groups among the related proteins. PMID:19870974

  2. Fluorescent holograms with albumin-acrylamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    We describe fluorescent holograms were made with photosensitive films of albumin (protein) quail, used as modified matrices. Albumin is mixed with acrylamide and eosin Y. Therefore, prepare a photosensitive emulsion and solid hydrated with the ability to phase transmission holograms and volume (VPH). Eosin Y is a fluorescent agent that acts as a photo-sensitizing dye which stimulates the polymerization of acrylamide. To record the interference pattern produced by two waves superimposed on the modified matrix, we use a He-Cd laser. To reconstruct the diffraction pattern is observed with He- Ne laser, λ = 632.8nm, the material is self-developing properties. Measure the diffraction efficiency of the diffracted orders (η[-1, +1]) as a function of exposure energy. We work with various thicknesses and measure the variation of the refractive index using the coupled wave theory of Kogelnik, the holographic gratings meet Bragg condition.

  3. Upflow gravel filtration for multiple uses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Torres, L.D.

    2016-01-01

    The use of upflow gravel filtration (UFG) is relevant for water supply systems in rural areas and small towns in Colombia, because water quality from surface sources is changing due to the deterioration of watersheds caused by deforestation, erosion, and the discharge of untreated wastewater. These

  4. Plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young I.; Fridman, Alexander; Gutsol, Alexander F.; Yang, Yong

    2014-07-22

    The present invention is directed to a novel method for cleaning a filter surface using a plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system. The method involves utilizing plasma discharges to induce short electric pulses of nanoseconds duration at high voltages. These electrical pulses generate strong Shockwaves that disintegrate and dislodge particulate matter located on the surface of the filter.

  5. Filtration of engineered nanoparticles using porous membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trzaskus, Krzystof

    2016-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis aims at providing a better understanding of the fundamental aspects responsible for nanoparticle removal and fouling development during filtration of engineered nanoparticles. The emphasis is put on the role of interparticle interactions in the feed solution,

  6. Determination of glomerular filtration rate with radionuclide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    r J Clin acin- armacal itidine n in man. Determination of glomerular filtration rate with radionuclide renography and direct urinary activity quantitation. A. C. 000, P. H. Pretorius, M. Dunn, M. G. Net,. A. van Aswegen, J. Marais, M. G. Latter. Objective. The direct urinary activity quantitation method is quick (approximately 40 ...

  7. Advances in hot gas filtration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.

    The past decade has seen the introduction of new filter media specifically designed for 'hot-gas' filtration. These media are available as woven or knitted fabrics and as non-wovens, i.e. needled felts. Needlefelted fabrics have proven so highly successful in the dedusting of hot gases that they are widely used nowadays in this new and necessary technology. Hot-gas filtration offers advantages in, for example, the saving or recycling of energy, the elimination of the cooling process, and the short-circuiting of process steps. This paper gives a survey of the types of textile fibres available for hot-gas filtration from the more recently developed organic fibres to refractory fibres. It describes, compares and contrasts their salient properties and lists the uses to which they may be put. It concentrates on such fibres which are generally referred to as 'high performance materials', since they are expected to provide satisfactory performance under extreme conditions of temperature, chemical environment and mechanical stress. It touches on filtration theory governing the collection mechanism. 9 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. On the structural formation of albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzoverya, M. E.; Shishpor, I. V.; Shcherbak, Yu. P.

    2017-09-01

    A microstructural analysis of the human serum albumin (HSA) samples dehydrated on a glass substrate from solutions with different concentrations of protein has been performed. The structuring effect of salt (NaCl) on the variations in the morphology of HSA interfaces has been shown experimentally. The substantiation of some structural effects has been given by taking into consideration the supramolecular organization and the polyelectrolyte nature of the protein molecule.

  9. Preparation and characterization of water-soluble albumin-bound curcumin nanoparticles with improved antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyung; Jiang, Hai Hua; Youn, Yu Seok; Park, Chan Woong; Tak, Kyung Kook; Lee, Seulki; Kim, Hyungjun; Jon, Sangyong; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Lee, Kang Choon

    2011-01-17

    Curcumin (CCM), a yellow natural polyphenol extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa), has potent anti-cancer properties as has been demonstrated in various human cancer cells. However, the widespread clinical application of this efficient agent in cancer and other diseases has been limited by its poor aqueous solubility and bioavailability. In this study, we prepared novel CCM-loaded human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles (CCM-HSA-NPs) for intravenous administration using albumin bound technology. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) investigation confirmed a narrow size distribution in the 130-150nm range. Furthermore, CCM-HSA-NPs showed much greater water solubility (300-fold) than free CCM, and on storage, the biological activity of CCM-HSA-NPs was preserved with negligible activity loss. In vivo distributions and vascular endothelial cells transport studies demonstrated the superiority of CCM-HSA-NPs over CCM. Amounts of CCM in tumors after treatment with CCM-HSA-NPs were about 14 times higher at 1h after injection than that achieved by CCM. Furthermore, vascular endothelial cell binding of CCM increased 5.5-fold, and transport of CCM across a vascular endothelial cell monolayer by Transwell testing was 7.7-fold greater for CCM-HSA-NPs than CCM. Finally, in vivo antitumor tests revealed that CCM-HSA-NPs (10 or 20mg/kg) had a greater therapeutic effect (50% or 66% tumor growth inhibition vs. PBS-treated controls) than CCM (18% inhibition vs. controls) in tumor xenograft HCT116 models without inducing toxicity. We attribute this potent antitumor activity of CCM-HSA-NPs to enhanced water solubility, increased accumulation in tumors, and an ability to traverse vascular endothelial cell. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional and molecular mapping of uncoupling between vascular permeability and loss of vascular maturation in ovarian carcinoma xenografts: the role of stroma cells in tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad, Assaf A; Israely, Tomer; Dafni, Hagit; Meir, Gila; Cohen, Batya; Neeman, Michal

    2005-11-01

    Maintaining homogeneous perfusion in tissues undergoing remodeling and vascular expansion requires tight orchestration of the signals leading to endothelial sprouting and subsequent recruitment of perivascular contractile cells and vascular maturation. This regulation, however, is frequently disrupted in tumors. We previously demonstrated the role of tumor-associated myofibroblasts in vascularization and exit from dormancy of human ovarian carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. The aim of this work was to determine the contribution of stroma- and tumor cell-derived angiogenic growth factors to the heterogeneity of vascular permeability and maturation in MLS human ovarian carcinoma tumors. We show by RT-PCR and by in situ hybridization that VEGF was expressed by the tumor cells, while angiopoietin-1 and -2 were expressed only by the infiltrating host stroma cells. Vascular maturation was detected in vivo by vasoreactivity to hypercapnia, measured by BOLD contrast MRI and validated by immunostaining of histologic sections to alpha-smooth muscle actin. Vascular permeability was measured in vivo by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI using albumin-based contrast material and validated in histologic sections by fluorescent staining of the biotinylated contrast material. MRI as well as histologic correlation maps between vascular maturation and vascular permeability revealed a wide range of vascular phenotypes, in which the distribution of vascular maturation and vasoreactivity did not overlap spatially with reduced permeability. The large heterogeneity in the degree of vascular maturation and permeability is consistent with the differential expression pattern of VEGF and angiopoietins during tumor angiogenesis.

  11. Extracellular purines' action on glomerular albumin permeability in isolated rat glomeruli: insights into the pathogenesis of albuminuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasztan, Małgorzata; Piwkowska, Agnieszka; Kreft, Ewelina; Rogacka, Dorota; Audzeyenka, Irena; Szczepanska-Konkel, Mirosława; Jankowski, Maciej

    2016-07-01

    Purinoceptors (adrengeric receptors and P2 receptors) are expressed on the cellular components of the glomerular filtration barrier, and their activation may affect glomerular permeability to albumin, which may ultimately lead to albuminuria, a well-established risk factor for the progression of chronic kidney disease and development of cardiovascular diseases. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the in vitro and in vivo purinergic actions on glomerular filter permeability to albumin by measuring convectional albumin permeability (Palb) in a single isolated rat glomerulus based on the video microscopy method. Primary cultured rat podocytes were used for the analysis of Palb, cGMP accumulation, PKG-Iα dimerization, and immunofluorescence. In vitro, natural nucleotides (ATP, ADP, UTP, and UDP) and nonmetabolized ATP analogs (2-meSATP and ATP-γ-S) increased Palb in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The effects were dependent on P2 receptor activation, nitric oxide synthase, and cytoplasmic guanylate cyclase. ATP analogs significantly increased Palb, cGMP accumulation, and subcortical actin reorganization in a PKG-dependent but nondimer-mediated route in cultured podocytes. In vivo, 2-meSATP and ATP-γ-S increased Palb but did not significantly affect urinary albumin excretion. Both agonists enhanced the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of albumin in podocytes. A product of adenine nucleotides hydrolysis, adenosine, increased the permeability of the glomerular barrier via adrenergic receptors in a dependent and independent manner. Our results suggest that the extracellular nucleotides that stimulate an increase of glomerular Palb involve nitric oxide synthase and cytoplasmic guanylate cyclase with actin reorganization in podocytes. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. OPTIMIZATION OF THE PROCESS OF DRYING THE FILTRATE DISTILLERY DREGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shevtsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of various factors affecting the process of drying the filtrate distillery dregs are investigated. Rational conditions for the process of drying the filtrate distillery dregs in a spray dryer are obtained.

  13. Injection of Pharmaceuticals Designed for Oral Use: Harms Experienced and Effective Harm Reduction Through Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Stuart; Patel, Rahul; Bruno, Raimondo

    Several pharmaceutical products are liable to 'abuse' or use outside their prescription, which frequently involves their injection. Examples are slow-release forms of morphine and oxycodone, and sublingual buprenorphine. During injection preparation, the drug is extracted into water, after crushing and heating the tablet if considered necessary. Since these products are designed for oral administration, they can contain excipients (ingredients other than the drug) which are poorly soluble, resulting in suspension of particles in the injection solution. Injected particles are able to produce medical complications such as the blockage of small blood vessels leading to ischaemia (inadequate blood flow) and tissue damage. Filtration can be used to remove particles from the suspension; including bacteria if the porosity is small enough (0.2 μm). However, filters are liable to blockage when overloaded, especially if the pore size is small. This problem can be minimised by using a larger pore size (e.g. 5-10 μm), but the resulting filtrate will contain many residual small particles. The use of two filters, coarse and fine, either sequentially or in a double membrane device, enables removal of the majority of particles as well as bacteria, although not quite meeting pharmaceutical standards for safe injection. Although not yet evaluated by a clinical trial, this highly effective filtration process would be expected to greatly reduce the risk of vascular and related complications, as well as non-viral infections. Careful technique ensures that drug is not lost by filtration, a priority for most drug consumers. Practical issues that affect acceptability of filtration by injecting drug users, including ease of use and cost, will need to be considered. However, given the laboratory evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of filters it is time to consider these tools as essential for safe injection as sterile needles/syringes for the world's approximately 16 million people

  14. Association of Hepatitis C Virus Infection with Proteinuria and Glomerular Filtration Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanova, Nargiza; Qayyum, Rehan

    2015-10-01

    Despite several studies, the extent to which hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains controversial. Thus, we examined the relationship between HCV and CKD using the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2012). Specimens positive for anti-HCV antibodies were retested and confirmed with recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). Proteinuria was defined as urine albumin creatinine ratio > 30 mg/g. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) proteinuria (OR = 1.40, p = 0.01 and OR = 1.50, p = 0.02, respectively). In both unadjusted and adjusted analyses, individuals with HCV had significantly higher GFR than individuals without (1.4 mL/min, p = 0.04 and 2.7 mL/min, p proteinuria and high GFR but not with CKD. The biological mechanism of the observed association needs further study. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Collagen vascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001223.htm Collagen vascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... previously said to have "connective tissue" or "collagen vascular" disease. We now have names for many specific conditions ...

  16. Internal filtration, filtration fraction, and blood flow resistance in high- and low-flux dialyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneditz, Daniel; Zierler, Edda; Vanholder, Raymond; Eloot, Sunny

    2014-01-01

    It was the aim to examine the fluid flow in blood and dialysate compartments of highly permeable hollow fiber dialyzers where internal filtration contributes to solute removal but where excessive filtration bears a risk of cell activation and damage. Flow characteristics of high- (HF) and low-flux (LF) dialyzers were studied in lab-bench experiments using whole bovine blood. Measurements obtained under different operating conditions and under zero net ultrafiltration were compared to theoretical calculations obtained from a mathematical model. Experimental resistances in the blood compartment were within ±2% of those calculated from the model when dialysate was used as a test fluid. With whole blood, the experimental resistances in the blood compartment were only 81.8 ± 2.8% and 83.7 ± 4.3% of those calculated for the LF and HF dialyzer, respectively. Surprisingly, measured blood flow resistance slightly but significantly decreased with increasing flow rate (p filtration fraction, while overall internal filtration increased. The increase in internal filtration when increasing blood flow is associated with a beneficial reduction in internal filtration fraction. Concerns of increased hemoconcentration when increasing blood flow therefore appear to be unwarranted.

  17. Retention of Acholeplasma laidlawii by sterile filtration membranes: effect of cultivation medium and filtration temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helling, Alexander; König, Hannes; Seiler, Felix; Berkholz, Ralph; Thom, Volkmar; Polakovic, Milan

    2018-01-17

    This experimental study compares cell size, zeta potential and the ability to penetrate tailor-made size exclusion membrane filters of mycoplasma A. laidlawii cultivated in five different cultivation media. The influence of relevant filtration process parameters, in particular transmembrane pressure and filtration temperature, on their respective retention was tested. The impact of the filtration temperature was further evaluated for the Gram-negative bacteria species Brevundimonas diminuta, the Gram-positive bacteria species Staphylococcus epidermidis, the Pseudomonas phage PP7 and the mycoplasma species M. orale. The findings were correlated to the different mechanical properties of the particles, especially also with respect to the different bacterial cell envelopes found in those species. This study suggests, that mycoplasma, surrounded by a flexible lipid bilayer, are significantly susceptible to changes in temperature, altering the stiffness of the cell envelope. Mycoplasma retention could thus be increased significantly by a decreased filtration temperature. In contrast, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria species, with a cell wall containing a cross-linked peptidoglycan layer, as well as bacteriophages PP7 exhibiting a rigid protein capsid, did not show a temperature dependent retention within the applied filtration temperatures between 2 and 35 °C. The trends of the retention of A. laidlawii with increasing temperature and transmembrane pressure were independent of cultivation media. Data obtained with mycoplasma M. orale suggest that the trend of mycoplasma retention at different filtration temperatures is also independent of the membrane pore size and thus retention level. Copyright © 2018, Parenteral Drug Association.

  18. Proteinuria precedes podocyte abnormalities inLamb2-/- mice, implicating the glomerular basement membrane as an albumin barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarad, George; Cunningham, Jeanette; Shaw, Andrey S; Miner, Jeffrey H

    2006-08-01

    Primary defects in either podocytes or the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) cause proteinuria, a fact that complicates defining the barrier to albumin. Laminin beta2 (LAMB2) is a GBM component required for proper functioning of the glomerular filtration barrier. To investigate the GBM's role in glomerular filtration, we characterized GBM and overlying podocyte architecture in relation to development and progression of proteinuria in Lamb2-/- mice, which model Pierson syndrome, a rare congenital nephrotic syndrome. We found ectopic deposition of several laminins and mislocalization of anionic sites in the GBM, which together suggest that the Lamb2-/- GBM is severely disorganized, although it is ultrastructurally intact. Importantly, albuminuria was detectable shortly after birth and preceded podocyte foot process effacement and loss of slit diaphragms by at least 7 days. Expression and localization of slit diaphragm and foot process-associated proteins appeared normal at early stages. GBM permeability to the electron-dense tracer ferritin was dramatically elevated in Lamb2-/- mice, even before widespread foot process effacement. Increased ferritin permeability was not observed in nephrotic CD2-associated protein-null (Cd2ap-/-) mice, which have a primary podocyte defect. Together these data show that the GBM serves as a barrier to protein in vivo and that the glomerular slit diaphragm alone is not sufficient to prevent the passage of albumin into the urinary space.

  19. Optical measurement of isolated canine lung filtration coefficients after alloxan infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaesner, J W; Pou, N A; Parker, R E; Finney, C; Roselli, R J

    1998-04-01

    In this study, lung filtration coefficient (Kfc) was measured in eight isolated canine lung preparations by using three methods: standard gravimetric (Std), blood-corrected gravimetric (BC), and optical. The lungs were held in zone III conditions and were subjected to an average venous pressure increase of 8.79 +/- 0.93 (mean +/- SD) cmH2O. The permeability of the lungs was increased with an infusion of alloxan (75 mg/kg). The resulting Kfc values (in milliliters . min-1 . cmH2O-1 . 100 g dry lung weight-1) measured by using Std and BC gravimetric techniques before vs. after alloxan infusion were statistically different: Std, 0.527 +/- 0.290 vs. 1. 966 +/- 0.283; BC, 0.313 +/- 0.290 vs. 1.384 +/- 0.290. However, the optical technique did not show any statistical difference between pre- and postinjury with alloxan, 0.280 +/- 0.305 vs. 0.483 +/- 0. 297, respectively. The alloxan injury, quantified by using multiple-indicator techniques, showed an increase in permeability and a corresponding decrease in reflection coefficient for albumin (sigmaf). Because the optical method measures the product of Kfc and sigmaf, this study shows that albumin should not be used as an intravascular optical filtration marker when permeability is elevated. However, the optical technique, along with another means of measuring Kfc (such as BC), can be used to calculate the sigmaf of a tracer (in this study, sigmaf of 0.894 at baseline and 0.348 after injury). Another important finding of this study was that the ratio of baseline-to-injury Kfc values was not statistically different for Std and BC techniques, indicating that the percent contribution of slow blood-volume increases does not change because of injury.

  20. An electrochemical albumin-sensing system utilizing microfluidic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao-June; Lu, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Thong-Yueh; Chou, Tse-Chuan; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2007-04-01

    This paper reports an integrated microfluidic chip capable of detecting the concentration of albumin in urine by using an electrochemical method in an automatic format. The integrated microfluidic chip was fabricated by using microelectromechanical system techniques. The albumin detection was conducted by using the electrochemical sensing method, in which the albumin in urine was detected by measuring the difference of peak currents between a bare reference electrode and an albumin-adsorption electrode. To perform the detection of the albumin in an automatic format, pneumatic microvalves and micropumps were integrated onto the microfluidic chip. The albumin sample and interference mixture solutions such as homovanillic acid, dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine were first stored in one of the three reservoirs. Then the solution comprising the albumin sample and interference solutions was transported to pass through the detection zone utilizing the pneumatic micropump. Experimental data showed that the developed system can successfully detect the concentration of the albumin in the existence of interference materials. When compared with the traditional albumin-sensing method, smaller amounts of samples were required to perform faster detection by using the integrated microfluidic chip. Additionally, the microfluidic chip integrated with pneumatic micropumps and microvalves facilitates the transportation of the samples in an automatic mode with lesser human intervention. The development of the integrated microfluidic albumin-sensing system may be promising for biomedical applications. Preliminary results of the current paper were presented at the 2nd International Meeting on Microsensors and Microsystems 2006 (National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, 15-18 January).

  1. Detecting microalbuminuria by urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Clausen, P; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria, i.e. a subclinical increase of the albumin excretion rate in urine, may be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor. This study aimed to test whether microalbuminuria can be identified by measurement of urinary albumin concentration or urinary albumin/creatinine concentra......BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria, i.e. a subclinical increase of the albumin excretion rate in urine, may be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor. This study aimed to test whether microalbuminuria can be identified by measurement of urinary albumin concentration or urinary albumin....../creatinine concentration ratio, instead of the usual measurement of the albumin excretion rate in a timed urine collection. METHODS: All 2579 subjects analysed were screened in a population based epidemiological study. Participants with diabetes mellitus, renal disease, haematuria, or urinary tract infection were...... not included. Urinary albumin (Ualb) and creatinine (Ucreat) concentrations were measured in an overnight collected sample by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and colorimetric assays, respectively. Urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio (Ualb/Ucreat) were calculated...

  2. Anion exchange fractionation of serum proteins versus albumin elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahab, Ziad J; Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

    2007-09-01

    Elimination of albumin, constituting more than 50% of total serum proteins, allows increased protein loads on immobilized pH gradient (IPG) gels and better visualization of low-abundance proteins; however, it may result in the loss of albumin-bound low-abundance proteins. In this study, we report the prefractionation of serum proteins by batch anion exchange chromatography into three fractions: one containing proteins with isoelectric points (pI values) higher than the pI of albumin, a second fraction containing proteins with pI values in the same range as the pI of albumin, and a third fraction containing proteins with pI values lower than the pI of albumin. This procedure uses common instrumentation, is carried out under denaturing conditions, and takes less than 30min. We also report the loss of a clinically established prostate cancer serum biomarker, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), after albumin is eliminated using two commercially available albumin elimination kits: one that uses Cibacron Blue F3GA, which achieves albumin depletion through dye-ligand binding, and one that uses specific albumin antibody. The loss of PSA secondary to albumin elimination exceeded that after batch anion exchange serum sample prefractionation.

  3. Comparison of phytoremediation and filtration in remediation Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experimental work was carried out on contaminated waters using filtration and phytoremediation methods to determine the most appropriate remediation method. Filtration method was by passing Arsenic acid of 100.0 mg/L concentrations through four different geo-materials (marble, activated charcoal, filtration carbon ...

  4. Cytotoxity of cell free filtrates of campylobacter jejuni isolated in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Culture filtrates of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from clinical specimens in Lagos Nigeria were tested for toxic activity. Two out of five filtrates tested manifested cytopathic effect on BHK cells. The effects were mainly cytotoxic and cytotonic. Toxic activity of C. jejuni filtrates was much lower than toxic activity elicited by ...

  5. 40 CFR 141.174 - Filtration sampling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filtration sampling requirements. 141... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving 10,000 or More People § 141.174 Filtration sampling requirements. (a) Monitoring...

  6. 40 CFR 141.171 - Criteria for avoiding filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria for avoiding filtration. 141... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems Serving 10,000 or More People § 141.171 Criteria for avoiding filtration. In addition to the...

  7. Origins of the poor filtration characteristics of wheat starch hydrolysates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matser, A.M.; Steeneken, P.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of wheat starch components on the filtration characteristics of wheat starch hydrolysates were investigated with a model-based approach. The filtration rate was not affected by the removal of the pentosans or by altering the conformation of the protein. On the other hand, the filtration

  8. 21 CFR 177.2910 - Ultra-filtration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ultra-filtration membranes. 177.2910 Section 177... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2910 Ultra-filtration membranes. Ultra-filtration membranes identified in paragraphs (a)(1), (a)(2), (a)(3), and (a)(4) of this section may be safely used in...

  9. Enlargement of filtration with finance in view

    CERN Document Server

    Aksamit, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents classical results of the theory of enlargement of filtration. The focus is on the behavior of martingales with respect to the enlarged filtration and related objects. The study is conducted in various contexts including immersion, progressive enlargement with a random time and initial enlargement with a random variable.  The aim of this book is to collect the main mathematical results (with proofs) previously spread among numerous papers, great part of which is only available in French. Many examples and applications to finance, in particular to credit risk modelling and the study of asymmetric information, are provided to illustrate the theory. A detailed summary of further connections and applications is given in bibliographic notes which enables to deepen study of the topic.  This book fills a gap in the literature and serves as a guide for graduate students and researchers interested in the role of information in financial mathematics and in econometric science. A basic knowledge of...

  10. Ultrasonic filtration of industrial chemical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosma, T.

    1974-01-01

    The practical results obtained as a result of filtering industrial chemical solutions under continuous flow conditions with the aid of an ultrasonic filter are presented. The main part of the assembly consists of an ultrasonic generator with an output power of about 400 W and the filtration assembly, in which there is a magnetostrictive amplifier constructed for 20.5 kHz. In addition to ensuring a continuous flow of filtered solution, ultrasonic filters can be replaced or cleaned at intervals of time that are 8-10 times greater than in the case of mechanical filters. They yield considerably better results as far as the size of the filtered particles is concerned. The parameters on which filtration quality depends are also presented.

  11. Nanoparticles filtration by leaked fibrous filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouret, Guillaume; Calle-Chazelet, Sandrine; Thomas, Dominique; Appert-Collin, Jean-Christophe [Nancy-Universite/LSGC/CNRS - 1 rue Grandville - BP 20451 - F-54001 Nancy Cedex (France)], E-mail: sandrine.calle@ensic.inpl-nancy.fr; Bemer, Denis [INRS - Avenue de Bourgogne - F-54501 Vandoeuvre les Nancy Cedex (France)

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this work is first to measured nanoparticles penetration through three different fiberglass filters intentionally-pierced with calibrated needles at different filtration velocity. Then a semi-empirical model based on the air flow resistances of the new and perforated filter media and on the mechanism of Brownian diffusion for the collection of ultrafine particles by the media enables to well predict the efficiency observed for all tested operating conditions. Results show that the increase of particles penetration is all the more important that the pinhole is large and that the particle diameter is low. Another result is that the filtration efficiency of the new filter media controlled the penetration. A high efficiency filter with a high resistance to air flow will be more damaged than a low efficiency filter when being perforated.

  12. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  13. Direct filtration of Biesbosch water and Algae and water treatment in the Netherlands : 3rd Direct Filtration Seminar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrusevski, B.; Vlaski, A.; Van Breemen, A.N.; Alaerts, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation summarises basic information on direct filtration, and demonstrates the main research findings, related to the performance of simple in-line direct filtration. The results reported are part of a comprehensive ongoing research programm "Direct filtration of Biesbosch water"

  14. Solar silicon refining; Inclusions, settling, filtration, wetting

    OpenAIRE

    Ciftja, Arjan

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the present work is the removal of inclusions from silicon scrap and metallurgical grade silicon. To reach this goal, two various routes are investigated. First, settling of SiC particles from molten silicon followed by directional solidification is reported in this thesis. Then, removal of SiC and Si3N4 inclusions in silicon scrap by filtration with foam filters and wettabilities of silicon on graphite materials are studied. To supply the increasing needs of the...

  15. Processing of let-down by filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfirrmann, T.

    1942-10-19

    Filtration used for complete separation of the solids in the let-down process is discussed. The conditions necessary for a filterable let-down were summarized as follows. Pasting with a middle oil rich in aromatics, limitation of the hydrogen consumption and consequent hydrogenation (producing a largely bituminous hydrogenation product), a low throughput at low and medium pressures, and a heavy oil return as low as possible. This applied to pressure up to about 450 atm. If the pressure was increased to 700 atm the operating conditions could be extended. The middle oil pasting remained the same, but the hydrogenation temperature could be increased to 470 to 480/sup 0/C and the throughput increased to 1.0 ton/m/sup 3/ converter vol/hr. The hydrogen consumption could also be increased, so that, besides the bituminous hydrogenation product, a greater proportion of liquid products, gasoline and middle oil, was produced. This operating method at 700 atm, therefore, represented an intermediate stage between hydrogenating extraction and normal hydrogenation, whose let-down was still practically unfilterable. (The filtration itself was fitted to the characteristics of the filter feed). The best type of filter was found to be a thin layer filter with a layer of filter aid of porous material, which was automatically removed with the filter residue. The filter residue contained 35 to 40% oil, largely easily distilled middle oil. The advantages of let-down processing by filtration, compared to the formerly usual methods of centrifuging and low-temperature carbonization, were mentioned. It was to be expected that with the future development of this operation the proportion of oil could be considerably increased, so that filtration might also be applied to fuel oil, or gasoline and middle oil, respectively, even with a modified operating method.

  16. Portable Hybrid Powered Water Filtration Device

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lourdes V. Balansay; Mary Rose Q. Añonuevo; Rexzel M. Cuenca; Ricmart V. Garbin

    2015-01-01

    The existing water filtration device has features that can be developed to be more useful and functional during emergency situations. The project’s development has been aided by following provisions in PEC, NEC, NEMA and Philippine National Standard for Safe Drinking Water provide standards for the construction of the project. These standards protect both the prototype and the user. These also served as guide for the maintenance of every component. The design of the portable hybri...

  17. Egg on their faces. The story of human albumin solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ian; Bunn, Frances

    2002-03-01

    In 1998, the Cochrane Injuries Group published the results of a systematic review of human albumin administration in critically ill patients. The results showed that the risk of death in patients receiving albumin was 14%, and the risk of death in patients not receiving albumin was 8%, suggesting that for every 17 critically ill patients treated with albumin there is one extra death. The results were widely reported in the television and print media throughout the world and stimulated an immediate response from the drug regulatory agencies, the plasma products industry, and the medical profession. Despite vigorous attempts by the plasma products industry to limit the effect of the systematic review on albumin sales, the use of albumin declined steeply, showing that evidence from systematic reviews can have an important effect on clinical care.

  18. The binding of flavopiridol to blood serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Daniel; Johnson, Louise; Baumli, Sonja; Siligardi, Giuliano

    2010-01-01

    Flavopiridol is a potent cyclin-dependant kinase (CDK) inhibitor and is in clinical trials for anticancer treatment. A limiting factor in its drug development has been the high dosage required in human clinical trials. The high dosage is suggested to be necessary because of significant flavopiridol binding to human blood serum. Albumin is the major protein component of blood serum and has been suggested as a likely high affinity binding target. We characterized the binding of human serum albumin to flavopiridol using circular dichroism (hereafter CD). Flavopiridol bound to human serum albumin has a diagnostic CD binding peak at 284 nm. The diagnostic CD binding peak was unobservable for flavopiridol with bovine serum albumin, using the same experimental conditions. However, under higher albumin concentrations a small CD signal is observed confirming, flavopiridol binds to bovine serum albumin as well. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Albumin adsorption onto surfaces of urine collection and analysis containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mary K; Caudill, Samuel P; Koch, David D; Ritchie, James; Hortin, Glen; Eckfeldt, John H; Sandberg, Sverre; Williams, Desmond; Myers, Gary; Miller, W Greg

    2014-04-20

    Adsorption of albumin onto urine collection and analysis containers may cause falsely low concentrations. We added (125)I-labeled human serum albumin to urine and to phosphate buffered solutions, incubated them with 22 plastic container materials and measured adsorption by liquid scintillation counting. Adsorption of urine albumin (UA) at 5-6 mg/l was containers, and to instrument sample cups and showed <1% change in concentration at 5 mg/l and <0.5% change at 20 mg/l or higher concentrations. Adsorption of albumin from phosphate buffered solutions (2-28%) was larger than that from urine. Albumin adsorption differed among urine samples and plastic materials, but the total influence of adsorption was <1% for all materials and urine samples tested. Adsorption of albumin from phosphate buffered solutions was larger than that from urine and could be a limitation for preparations used as calibrators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Serum Albumin Binding and Esterase Activity: Mechanistic Interactions with Organophosphates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay V. Goncharov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The albumin molecule, in contrast to many other plasma proteins, is not covered with a carbohydrate moiety and can bind and transport various molecules of endogenous and exogenous origin. The enzymatic activity of albumin, the existence of which many scientists perceive skeptically, is much less studied. In toxicology, understanding the mechanistic interactions of organophosphates with albumin is a special problem, and its solution could help in the development of new types of antidotes. In the present work, the history of the issue is briefly examined, then our in silico data on the interaction of human serum albumin with soman, as well as comparative in silico data of human and bovine serum albumin activities in relation to paraoxon, are presented. Information is given on the substrate specificity of albumin and we consider the possibility of its affiliation to certain classes in the nomenclature of enzymes.

  1. (-)-DEPRENYL INHIBITS VASCULAR HYPERPERMEABILITY FOLLOWING HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK

    Science.gov (United States)

    J., Binu Tharakan; Whaley, Greg; Hunter, Felicia A.; Smythe, W. Roy; Childs, Ed W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies from our laboratory demonstrated the involvement of endothelial cell reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and activation of apoptotic signaling in vascular hyperpermeability following hemorrhagic shock (HS). The objective of this study was to determine if (-)-deprenyl, an antioxidant with anti-apoptotic properties would attenuate HS-induced vascular hyperpermeability. In rats, HS was induced by withdrawing blood to reduce the MAP to 40 mmHg for 60 minutes followed by resuscitation for 60 minutes. To study hyperpermeability, the rats were injected with FITC-albumin (50 mg/kg) and the changes in integrated optical intensity of the mesenteric post-capillary venules were obtained intra and extra vascularly utilizing intravital microscopy. Mitochondrial ROS formation and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) were studied using dihydrorhodamine 123 and JC-1 respectively. Mitochondrial release of cytochrome c was determined using ELISA and caspase-3 activity by a fluorometric assay. Parallel studies were performed in rat lung microvascular endothelial cells (RLMEC) utilizing pro-apoptotic BAK as inducer of hyperpermeability. Hemorrhagic shock induced vascular hyperpermeability, mitochondrial ROS formation, decrease in ΔΨm, release of cytochrome c and caspase-3 activation (p < 0.05). (-)-Deprenyl (0.15 mg/Kg) attenuated all these effects (p < 0.05). Similarly in RLMEC, (-)-deprenyl attenuated BAK peptide induced monolayer hyperpermeability (p < 0.05), ROS formation, decrease in ΔΨm, cytochrome c release (p < 0.05) and activation of caspase-3 (p < 0.05). The protective effects of (-)-deprenyl on vascular barrier functions may be due to its protective effects on ΔΨm thereby preventing mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and caspase-3 mediated disruption of endothelial adherens junctions. PMID:19373132

  2. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... micrograms/l to 77 micrograms/l. Examination of the aluminium and nickel contents of the constituents for the production of one brand showed too low levels to explain the final contamination of the product. By following the aluminium and nickel concentrations of the same brand during the production...

  3. Portable Hybrid Powered Water Filtration Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lourdes V. Balansay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The existing water filtration device has features that can be developed to be more useful and functional during emergency situations. The project’s development has been aided by following provisions in PEC, NEC, NEMA and Philippine National Standard for Safe Drinking Water provide standards for the construction of the project. These standards protect both the prototype and the user. These also served as guide for the maintenance of every component. The design of the portable hybrid powered water filtration device shows that the project has more advanced features such as portability and the power supply used such as photovoltaic module solar cells and manually operated generator. This also shows its effectiveness and reliability based on the results of discharging test, water quality test and water production test. Based on analysis of the overall financial aspects, the machine can be profitable and the amount of revenue and operating cost will increase as years pass. Using the proper machine/ tools and methods of fabrication helps in easy assembly of the project. The materials and components used are cost effective and efficient. The best time for charging the battery using solar panel is 9:00 am onwards while the hand crank generator is too slow because the generated current is little. The water filtration device is very efficient regarding the operating hours and water production. The machine may have a great effect to society and economy in generation of clean available water at less cost.

  4. Prohibitin Signaling at the Kidney Filtration Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ising, Christina; Brinkkoetter, Paul T

    2017-01-01

    The kidney filtration barrier consists of three well-defined anatomic layers comprising a fenestrated endothelium, the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and glomerular epithelial cells, the podocytes. Podocytes are post-mitotic and terminally differentiated cells with primary and secondary processes. The latter are connected by a unique cell-cell contact, the slit diaphragm. Podocytes maintain the GBM and seal the kidney filtration barrier to prevent the onset of proteinuria. Loss of prohibitin-1/2 (PHB1/2) in podocytes results not only in a disturbed mitochondrial structure but also in an increased insulin/IGF-1 signaling leading to mTOR activation and a detrimental metabolic switch. As a consequence, PHB-knockout podocytes develop proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis and eventually loss of renal function. In addition, experimental evidence suggests that PHB1/2 confer additional, extra-mitochondrial functions in podocytes as they localize to the slit diaphragm and thereby stabilize the unique intercellular contact between podocytes required to maintain an effective filtration barrier.

  5. Soluble manganese removal by porous media filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Jung, S

    2008-12-01

    Filtration experiments were conducted to investigate soluble manganese removal in granular media filtration; sand, manganese oxide coated sand (MOCS), sand + MOCS (1:1) and granular activated carbon (GAC) were used as filter media. Manganese removal, manganese oxide accumulation, turbidity removal, and regeneration of MOCS under various conditions were examined. Soluble manganese removal by the MOCS column was rapid and efficient; most of the removal happened at the top (e.g. 5 cm) of the filter. When filter influent with an average manganese concentration of 0.204 mg l(-1) was fed through the filter columns, the sand + MOCS and MOCS columns removed 98.9% and 99.2% of manganese, respectively. However, manganese removal in sand and the GAC columns was not significant during the initial stage of filtration, but after eight months of filter run they could remove 99% and 35% of manganese, respectively. It was revealed that partial replacement of sand with MOCS showed comparable manganese removal to that of the MOCS filter media.

  6. Low admission serum albumin as prognostic determinant of 30-day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Receiver operating characteristics curve for optimal cut off point of serum albumin to predict survival or death within 30 days revealed area under the cure (AUC) of 0.870, p-value 0.0001, 95% C/I=0.759-0.982. Serum albumin of 1.55g /dL has sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 61.5%. NIHSS and serum albumin were ...

  7. Experimental investigation of the serum albumin fascia microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzoverya, M. E.; Shcherbak, Yu. P.; Shishpor, I. V.

    2012-09-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigation of biological liquids are reported. Structural effects observed in fascias are considered with account of the molecular features of albumin and the concept of supramolecular organization of polymers. It is revealed that the morphology of human serum albumin fascias depends on the concentration and quality of the solvent. It is shown that the water-salt fascias of albumin are more structured than water solutions with the same concentration.

  8. Lack of carbon air filtration impacts early embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munch, Erika M; Sparks, Amy E; Duran, Hakan E; Van Voorhis, Bradley J

    2015-07-01

    To assess human fertilization and preimplantation embryo development in the presence and in the absence of carbon filtration This is a retrospective cohort analysis of fresh, controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycles as well as previously cryopreserved pronuclear stage embryo transfer cycles in a single IVF center. Embryo development and cycle-based outcomes were compared among three groups: 1) when carbon filtration was present, 2) when carbon filtration was absent, and 3) when carbon filtration had been restored. A total of 524 fresh cycles and 156 cryopreserved embryo cycles were analyzed. Fertilization, cleavage, and blastocyst conversion rates for fresh cycles all declined during the period of absent carbon filtration and recovered after the restoration of carbon filtration. Cryopreserved embryos that were thawed and cultured during the period of absent filtration did not have changes in cleavage or blastocyst conversion rates compared to periods where carbon filtration was present. Clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were unchanged among the three time periods. The absence of carbon filtration in an IVF laboratory air handler is associated with poor fertilization and early embryo development for fresh cycles. Because development of previously frozen pronuclear stage embryos was unaffected, the lack of carbon filtration may preferentially affect embryos in the peri-fertilization period. Carbon filtration is an integral part to a successful human in-vitro fertilization laboratory.

  9. SULFHYDRYL GROUPS OF EGG ALBUMIN IN DIFFERENT DENATURING AGENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsky, A E

    1941-07-20

    1. The reaction between ferricyanide and egg albumin in solutions of urea, guanidine hydrochloride, and Duponol has been investigated. 2. In neutral medium ferricyanide oxidizes all the SH groups of egg albumin that give a color reaction with nitroprusside. In neutral medium ferricyanide appears to react only with the SH groups of egg albumin. The quantity of ferrocyanide formed can accordingly be considered the equivalent of the number of SH groups in egg albumin detectable with nitroprusside. 3. In solutions of urea, guanidine hydrochloride, and Duponol sufficiently concentrated so that all the egg albumin present is denatured, the same number of SH groups are found-equivalent to a cysteine content of 0.96 per cent. 4. In denaturation of egg albumin loss of solubility (solubility not in presence of the denaturing agent, but solubility examined in water at the isoelectric point) and appearance of reactive SH groups are integral parts of the same process. As denaturation proceeds in urea, SH groups are liberated only in the egg albumin with altered solubility and in this albumin the maximum number of SH groups is liberated. In a molecule of egg albumin either all of its SH groups that give a test with nitroprusside are liberated or none of them are.

  10. Smartphone based point-of-care detector of urine albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cmiel, Vratislav; Svoboda, Ondrej; Koscova, Pavlina; Provaznik, Ivo

    2016-03-01

    Albumin plays an important role in human body. Its changed level in urine may indicate serious kidney disorders. We present a new point-of-care solution for sensitive detection of urine albumin - the miniature optical adapter for iPhone with in-built optical filters and a sample slot. The adapter exploits smart-phone flash to generate excitation light and camera to measure the level of emitted light. Albumin Blue 580 is used as albumin reagent. The proposed light-weight adapter can be produced at low cost using a 3D printer. Thus, the miniaturized detector is easy to use out of lab.

  11. Nanofiber filter media for air filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Bharath Kumar

    Nanofibers have higher capture efficiencies in comparison to microfibers in the submicron particle size range of 100-500 nm because of small fiber diameter and increased surface area of the fibers. Pressure drop across the filter increases tremendously with decrease in fiber diameter in the continuum flow regime. Nanofibers with fiber diameter less than 300 nm are in the slip flow regime as a consequence of which steep increase in pressure drop is considerably reduced due to slip effect. The outlet or inlet gases have broad range of particle size distribution varying from few micrometers to nanometers. The economic benefits include capture of a wide range of particle sizes in the gas streams using compact filters composed of nanofibers and microfibers. Electrospinning technique was used to successfully fabricate polymeric and ceramic nanofibers. The nanofibers were long, continuous, and flexible with diameters in the range of 200--300 nm. Nanofibers were added to the filter medium either by mixing microfibers and nanofibers or by directly electrospinning nanofibers as thin layer on the surface of the microfiber filter medium. Experimental results showed that either by mixing Nylon 6 nanofibers with B glass fibers or by electrospinning Nylon 6 nanofibers as a thin layer on the surface of the microfiber medium in the surface area ratio of 1 which is 0.06 g of nanofibers for 2 g of microfibers performed better than microfiber filter media in air filtration tests. This improved performance is consistent with numerical modeling. The particle loading on a microfibrous filter were studied for air filtration tests. The experimental and modeling results showed that both pressure drop and capture efficiency increased with loading time. Nanofiber filter media has potential applications in many filtration applications and one of them being hot gas filtration. Ceramic nanofibers made of alumina and titania nanofibers can withstand in the range of 1000°C. Ceramic nanofibers

  12. Filtration Combustion in Smoldering and SHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkowsky, Bernard J.

    2001-01-01

    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of filtration combustion waves propagating in porous media. Smoldering combustion is important for the study of fire safety. Smoldering itself can cause damage, its products are toxic and it can also lead to the more dangerous gas phase combustion which corresponds to faster propagation at higher temperatures. In SHS , a porous solid sample, consisting of a finely ground powder mixture of reactants, is ignited at one end. A high temperature thermal wave, having a frontal structure, then propagates through the sample converting reactants to products. The SHS technology appears to enjoy a number of advantages over the conventional technology, in which the sample is placed in a furnace and "baked" until it is "well done". The advantages include shorter synthesis times, greater economy, in that the internal energy of the reactions is employed rather than the costly external energy of the furnace, purer products, simpler equipment and no intrinsic limitation on the size of the sample to be synthesized as exists in the conventional technology. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the combustion process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to ensure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application differ. Smoldering generally occurs at lower temperatures and propagation velocities than in SHS nevertheless, the two applications have much in common so that what is learned fit make application can be used to advantage in the other. In porous

  13. Mouse Hepatic Tumor Vascular Imaging by Experimental Selective Angiography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kyum Kim

    Full Text Available Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC has unique vascular features, which require selective imaging of hepatic arterial perfusion and portal venous perfusion with vascular catheterization for sufficient evaluation. Unlike in humans, vessels in mice are too small to catheterize, and the importance of separately imaging the feeding vessels of tumors is frequently overlooked in hepatic tumor models. The purpose of this study was to perform selective latex angiography in several mouse liver tumor models and assess their suitability.In several ectopic (Lewis lung carcinoma, B16/F10 melanoma cell lines and spontaneous liver tumor (Albumin-Cre/MST1fl/fl/MST2fl/fl, Albumin-Cre/WW45fl/fl, and H-ras12V genetically modified mouse models, the heart left ventricle and/or main portal vein of mice was punctured, and latex dye was infused to achieve selective latex arteriography and/or portography.H-ras12V transgenic mice (a HCC and hepatic adenoma model developed multiple liver nodules that displayed three different perfusion patterns (portal venous or hepatic artery perfusion predominant, mixed perfusion, indicating intra-tumoral vascular heterogeneity. Selective latex angiography revealed that the Lewis lung carcinoma implant model and the Albumin-Cre/WW45fl/fl model reproduced conventional angiography findings of human HCC. Specifically, these mice developed tumors with abundant feeding arteries but no portal venous perfusion.Different hepatic tumor models showed different tumor vessel characteristics that influence the suitability of the model and that should be considered when designing translational experiments. Selective latex angiography applied to certain mouse tumor models (both ectopic and spontaneous closely simulated typical characteristics of human HCC vascular imaging.

  14. Bovine Serum Albumin: a double allergy risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltolini, S; Spigno, F; Cioè, A; Cagnati, P; Bignardi, D; Minale, P

    2013-08-01

    We analyse two cases of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) allergy. The first regards a female laboratory technician with a history of bronchial asthma due to cat allergy, who developed an exacerbation of bronchial symptoms as a consequence of BSA powder inhalation at work. To date, sensitization to BSA as a cause of occupational asthma has rarely been reported in the scientific literature. The second case concerns a woman with a similar cat sensitivity, who presented an oral allergy syndrome-type clinical reaction, gastric pain and diarrhoea immediately after eating cooked pork meat. Subsequently, she developed the same reaction after eating goat meat and goat cheese, and then also after eating beef. Both patients resulted specifically sensitized to BSA and to other mammalian serum albumins which play a role as panallergens in animals. The two cases show that BSA, a well known cause of food allergy in childhood, may also provoke symptoms of food allergy in adulthood, though in case of powder inhalation, it may provoke respiratory symptoms. Prior animal sensitization appears to represent a risk factor.

  15. The association of mineral metabolism with vascular access patency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Joel E; Astor, Brad C; Deluca, Hector F; Yevzlin, Alexander S

    2016-09-21

    Declining kidney function leads to progressively dysregulated mineral homeostasis and contributes to vascular calcification and a pro-inflammatory milieu, both of which play a critical role in loss of dialysis vascular access patency. We designed this study to examine the relationship between markers of bone and mineral metabolism, vitamin D replacement medications, and vascular access outcomes. We hypothesized that higher levels of calcium, phosphorous, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and albumin are independently associated with vascular access patency and that vitamin D supplementation is associated with lower risk of access failure. We abstracted data on 204 consecutive patients referred for angiographic evaluation of their permanent arteriovenous access over a 25-month period. We followed patients from the time of access salvage until subsequent referral for access failure. The incidence of vascular access failure did not differ by serum phosphorus, PTH, calcium, calcium-phosphorus product or albumin level. Patients receiving any vitamin D replacement therapy, however, had a lower incidence of access failure compared to those receiving no therapy. Those receiving vitamin D3 therapy with or without paricalcitol (Zemplar, Abbot Laboratories, Abbot Park, IL) or calcitriol had an adjusted HR = 0.18 compared to those receiving no vitamin D therapy. This study suggests a relationship between vitamin D3 usage and better vascular access patency, independent of the effect of vitamin D on PTH. Though this relationship needs more rigorous investigation prior to clinical application, the known differences in the pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of various vitamin D metabolites provide a potential mechanism for these clinical observations.

  16. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... was moderately reproduced (kappa = 0.59). Vascular grade was significantly associated with axillary node involvement, tumour size, malignancy grade, oestrogen receptor status and histological type. In univariate analyses vascular grade significantly predicted recurrence free survival and overall survival for all...

  17. Circulating CD34-positive cells, glomerular filtration rate and triglycerides in relation to hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yuji; Sato, Shimpei; Koyamatsu, Jun; Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Nagayoshi, Mako; Kadota, Koichiro; Maeda, Takahiro

    2015-11-01

    Serum triglycerides have been reported to be independently associated with the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is known to play a role in vascular disturbance. On the other hand, circulating CD34-positve cells, including endothelial progenitor cells, are reported to contribute to vascular repair. However, no studies have reported on the correlation between triglycerides and the number of CD34-positive cells. Since hypertension is well known factor for vascular impairment, the degree of correlation between serum triglycerides and circulating CD34-positve cells should account for hypertension status. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 274 elderly Japanese men aged ≥ 60 years (range 60-79 years) undergoing general health checkups. Multiple linear regression analysis of non-hypertensive subjects adjusting for classical cardiovascular risk factors showed that although triglyceride levels (1SD increments; 64 mg/dL) did not significantly correlate with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (β = -2.06, p = 0.163), a significant positive correlation was seen between triglycerides and the number of circulating CD34-positive cells (β = 0.50, p = 0.004). In hypertensive subjects, a significant inverse correlation between triglycerides and GFR was observed (β = -2.66, p = 0.035), whereas no significant correlation between triglycerides and the number of circulating CD34-positive cells was noted (β = -0.004, p = 0.974). Since endothelial progenitor cells (CD34-positive cells) have been reported to contribute to vascular repair, our results indicate that in non-hypertensive subjects, triglycerides may stimulate an increase in circulating CD34-positive cells (vascular repair) by inducing vascular disturbance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Uterine vascular lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management.

  19. Vascular biology of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, L; Webster, R P

    2009-03-01

    Preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by hypertension, proteinuria and edema, resolves on delivery of the placenta. Normal pregnancy is itself characterized by systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and alterations in levels of angiogenic factors and vascular reactivity. This is exacerbated in preeclampsia with an associated breakdown of compensatory mechanisms, eventually leading to placental and vascular dysfunction. The underlying pathology of preeclampsia is thought to be a relatively hypoxic or ischemic placenta. Both the placenta and maternal vasculatures are major sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species which can interact to produce peroxynitrite a powerful prooxidant that covalently modifies proteins by nitration of tyrosine residues, to possibly alter vascular function in preeclampsia. The linkage between placental hypoxia and maternal vascular dysfunction has been proposed to be via placental syncytiotrophoblast basement membranes shed by the placenta or via angiogenic factors which include soluble flt1 and endoglin secreted by the placenta that bind vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PIGF) in the maternal circulation. There is also abundant evidence of altered reactivity of the maternal and placental vasculature and of the altered production of autocoids in preeclampsia. The occurrence of preeclampsia is increased in women with preexisting vascular disease and confers a long-term risk for development of cardiovascular disease. The vascular stress test of pregnancy thus identifies those women with a previously unrecognized at risk vascular system and promotes the development of preeclampsia. Preexisting maternal vascular dysfunction intensified by placental factors is possibly responsible for the individual pathologies of preeclampsia.

  20. Resolution of the three dimensional structure of components of the glomerular filtration barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The human glomerulus is the primary filtration unit of the kidney, and contains the Glomerular Filtration Barrier (GFB). The GFB had been thought to comprise 3 layers – the endothelium, the basement membrane and the podocyte foot processes. However, recent studies have suggested that at least two additional layers contribute to the function of the GFB, the endothelial glycocalyx on the vascular side, and the sub-podocyte space on the urinary side. To investigate the structure of these additional layers is difficult as it requires three-dimensional reconstruction of delicate sub-microscopic (filtration region (48 μm3 volume). Lastly Transmission Electron Tomography (Tom-TEM) was performed on a 0.3 μm3 volume to identify the fine structure of the glycocalyx. Results Tom-TEM clearly showed 20 nm fibre spacing in the glycocalyx, within a limited field of view. FIB-SEM demonstrated, in a far greater field of view, how the glycocalyx structure related to fenestrations and the filtration slits, though without the resolution of TomTEM. SBF-SEM was able to determine the extent of the sub-podocyte space and glycocalyx coverage, without additional heavy metal staining. Neither SBF- nor FIB-SEM suffered the anisotropic shrinkage under the electron beam that is seen with Tom-TEM. Conclusions These images demonstrate that the three dimensional structure of the GFB can be imaged, and investigated from the whole glomerulus to the fine structure of the glycocalyx using three dimensional electron microscopy techniques. This should allow the identification of structural features regulating physiology, and their disruption in pathological states, aiding the understanding of kidney disease. PMID:24484633

  1. Gas filtration in binary fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon, J. (Univ. de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real (Spain)); Guardiola, J.; Romero, A. (Univ. de Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain))

    1992-12-01

    A systematic experimental study of aerosol filtration in a binary fluidized bed of dielectric material is carried out. Measurements of the collection efficiency when such parameters as gas velocity, bed height, collecting mixture, and column diameter are varied over a wide range have been made. Experimental evidence is given to show that charges generated naturally by triboelectrification of the bed dielectric particles can considerably increase the efficiency of such beds. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a proper choice of the fluidized mixture can significantly improve the performance of such filters.

  2. Effects of glycation on meloxicam binding to human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trynda-Lemiesz, Lilianna; Wiglusz, Katarzyna

    2011-05-01

    The current study reports a binding of meloxicam a pharmacologically important new generation, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug to glycated form of the human serum albumin (HSA). The interaction of the meloxicam with nonglycated and glycated albumin has been studied at pH 7.4 in 0.05 M sodium phosphate buffer with 0.1 M NaCl, using fluorescence quenching technique and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Results of the present study have shown that the meloxicam could bind both forms of albumin glycated and nonglycated at a site, which was close to the tryptophan residues. Similarly, how for native albumin glycated form has had one high affinity site for the drug with association constants of the order of 10 5 M -1. The glycation process of the HSA significantly has affected the impact of the meloxicam on the binding of other ligands such as warfarin and bilirubin. The affinity of the glycated albumin for bilirubin as for native albumin has been reduced by meloxicam but observed effect was weaker by half (about 20%) compared with nonglycated albumin. In contrast to the native albumin meloxicam binding to glycated form of the protein only slightly affected the binding of warfarin. It seemed possible that the effects on warfarin binding might be entirely attributable to the Lys 199 modification which was in site I.

  3. Structural changes during the unfolding of Bovine serum albumin in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    400Da [9]. Low-angle X-ray scattering [10] and neutron scattering [11] also in- dicated serum albumin to be a prolate ellipsoid. However, studies using 1H NMR indicated that a prolate structure was unlikely; rather a heart-shaped structure was proposed [12]. The shape of albumin reveals a heart-shaped molecule that can.

  4. Sucrose/bovine serum albumin mediated biomimetic crystallization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To understand the role of the sucrose/bovine serum albumin system in the biomineralization process, we have tested the influence of different concentration of the sucrose/bovine serum albumin (BSA) on calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. The CaCO3 crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscope ...

  5. Interaction of indomethacin with adult human albumin and neonatal serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Brodersen, R; Robertson, A

    1983-01-01

    The binding of indomethacin to albumin was investigated at 37 degrees C, pH 7.4. The first stoichiometric binding constant is 2.5 X 10(5) M-1. Indomethacin utilizes both the bilirubin and diazepam binding functions equally. The effect on bilirubin binding to albumin is negligible at therapeutic...

  6. Interaction of cyclodextrins with human and bovine serum albumins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Interaction of cyclodextrins (CDs) with the two most abundant proteins, namely human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), has been investigated using steady-state and time-resolved fluorometric techniques, circular dichroism measurements and molecular docking simulation. The study reveals that the ...

  7. The relative role of serum albumin and urinary creatinine as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their weight, Body mass index, serum albumin and 24-hour urinary creatinine were determined before treatment, at the end of the 1st, 2nd, 4th and 6th month of treatment. Using ANOVA, the mean values of the weight, BIM and serum albumin were analysed with further analysis paired student T- test of the pre-treatment ...

  8. Structural changes during the unfolding of Bovine serum albumin in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The native form of serum albumin is the most important soluble protein in the body plasma. In order to investigate the structural changes of Bovine serum albumin (BSA) during its unfolding in the presence of urea, a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) study was performed. The scattering curves of dilute solutions of BSA ...

  9. Serum albumin--a non-saturable carrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B; Larsen, F G

    1984-01-01

    The shape of binding isotherms for sixteen ligands to human serum albumin showed no signs of approaching saturation at high ligand concentrations. It is suggested that ligand binding to serum albumin is essentially different from saturable binding of substrates to enzymes, of oxygen to haemoglobi...

  10. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...... and characteristic amyloid X-ray fiber diffraction peaks. Fibrillation occurs over minutes to hours without a lag phase, is independent of seeding and shows only moderate concentration dependence, suggesting intramolecular aggregation nuclei. Nevertheless, multi-exponential increases in dye-binding signal...... and changes in morphology suggest the existence of different aggregate species. Although beta-sheet content increases from 0 to ca. 40% upon aggregation, the aggregates retain significant amounts of alpha-helix structure, and lack a protease-resistant core. Thus BSA is able to form well-ordered beta...

  11. Suppression of SERPINA1-albumin complex formation by galectin-3 overexpression leads to paracrine growth promotion of chronic myelogenous leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Ryuko; Kuroda, Junya; Taniyama, Nobuko; Yamamoto-Sugitani, Mio; Wada, Sayori; Kiyota, Miki; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Chinen, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Nagoshi, Hisao; Shimura, Yuji; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Horiike, Shigeo; Sato, Kenji; Taniwaki, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Galectin-3 is induced in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells by co-culture with bone marrow stromal cells, making paracrine growth promotion of CML cells in conditioned medium (CM) from galectin-3 overexpressing CML cells more potent. We used gel filtration chromatography to demonstrate that the bovine SERPINA1-fetal bovine serum albumin (BSA) complex was specifically suppressed in CM from galectin-3 overexpressing cells. The SERPINA1-BSA complex as well as human plasma SERPINA1 inhibited the growth of CML cells, while exogenous galectin-3 partly offset this effect. These findings suggest that galectin-3 overexpression promotes paracrine growth of CML cells by interfering with the action of the growth inhibitory SERPINA1-albumin complex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 99mTc-albumin can replace 125I-albumin to determine plasma volume repeatedly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Peter K; Damgaard, Morten; Stokholm, Knud H

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma volume assessment may be of importance in several disorders. The purpose of the present study was to compare the reliability of plasma volume measurements by technetium-labeled human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-HSA) with a simultaneously performed plasma volume determination...... with iodine-labeled human serum albumin ((125)I-HSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 15 healthy volunteers, simultaneous plasma volume measurements with (99m)Tc-HSA and (125)I-HSA were performed after ½ hour in the supine position. Blood samples were obtained 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes after the injection....... It needs to be emphasized however, that repeated blood sampling for 1/2 hour after injection of the tracer is required to correct for the disappearance of (99m)Tc and (99m)Tc-HSA from the circulation....

  13. Dynamic optimization of a dead-end filtration trajectory: non-ideal cake filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, B.; Kattenbelt, C.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.

    2007-01-01

    A control strategy aimed at minimizing energy consumption is formulated for non-ideal dead-end cake filtration with an inside-out hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane system. The non-ideal behavior was assumed to originate from cake compression, non-linear cake resistance and a variable pump

  14. Dynamic optimization of a dead-end filtration trajectory : Non-ideal cake filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, Bastiaan; Kattenbelt, Carolien; Betlem, Ben H.L.; Roffel, Brian

    2007-01-01

    A control strategy aimed at minimizing energy consumption is formulated for non-ideal dead-end cake filtration with an inside-out hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane system. The non-ideal behavior was assumed to originate from cake compression, non-linear cake resistance and a variable pump

  15. Dynamic optimization of a dead-end filtration trajectory : Blocking filtration laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, Bastiaan; Betlem, Ben H.L.; Roffel, Brian

    2006-01-01

    An operating model for dead-end membrane filtration is proposed based on the well-known blocking laws. The resulting model contains three parameters representing, the operating strategy, the fouling mechanism and the fouling potential of the feed. The optimal control strategy is determined by

  16. Dynamic optimization of a dead-end filtration trajectory: Blocking filtration laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, B.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.

    2006-01-01

    An operating model for dead-end membrane filtration is proposed based on the well-known blocking laws. The resulting model contains three parameters representing, the operating strategy, the fouling mechanism and the fouling potential of the feed. The optimal control strategy is determined by

  17. Low-cost multi-stage filtration enhanced by coagulation-flocculation in upflow gravel filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez, L.D.; Marin, L.M.; Visscher, J.T.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the operational and design aspects of coagulation and flocculation in upflow gravel filters (CF-UGF) in a multi-stage filtration (MSF) plant. This study shows that CF-UGF units improve the performance of MSF considerably, when the system operates with turbidity above 30 NTU. It

  18. A study of dynamic filtration; Um estudo sobre filtracao dinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girao, Joaquim Helder S. [PETROBRAS, Natal, RN (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao da Bacia Potiguar. Div. de Tecnicas de Perfuracao

    1989-12-31

    The problems that cause cost increase such as: formation damage and borehole swelling or caving lead us to study the filtration of the liquid part of formation drilling fluid. With the aim of comparing static and dynamic filtration rates, we developed a modest dynamic filtration equipment, consisting of a modified API filter, connected to reservoir by means of a positive injection pump. We carried out various tests, and the results were set in charts and tables. Through these, it is possible to notice how the static and dynamic filtration curves come apart for a same pressure value. We also evaluated the effects of circulation speed, starch concentration and counter pressure. This paper does not include calculations or mathematical models accounting for filtrate invasion radii, but it demonstrates, for example, that cleaning circulation will cause lower filtration rates at lower flows. (author) 5 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. The effect of filter cake viscoelasticity on filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    Wastewater is usually treated biologically, and a by-product from this treatment is waste-activated sludge with high water content. Sludge is therefore often filtrated to reduce the volume for handling and disposal, and to minimise the water content before incineration of the sludge. However......, it is difficult to use the existing mathematical filtration models to simulate and optimise the filtration process. Activated sludge as well as synthetic model particles has been filtrated in this project. The study shows that compression of the formed filter cake is a time dependent process, and not only...... a function of pressure as assumed when using the conventional models. Moreover, it is shown how the existing filtration models can be modified and the filtration process for activated sludge simulated....

  20. Vision-related quality of life following glaucoma filtration surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka, Kazuyuki; Nitta, Eri; Ukegawa, Kaori; Tsujikawa, Akitaka

    2017-05-12

    To evaluate vision-related quality of life (VR-QOL) following glaucoma filtration surgery. A total of 103 glaucoma patients scheduled to undergo glaucoma filtration surgery. Prior to and at three months after glaucoma filtration surgery, trabeculectomy or EX-PRESS, all patients completed the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ-25). A total of 48 patients underwent combined cataract and filtration surgery. The clinical data collected pre- and postoperatively included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and intraocular pressure (IOP). The IOP decreased significantly from 19.0 ± 8.1 mmHg to 9.7 ± 3.9 mmHg (P glaucoma filtration surgery by itself did not decrease the VR-QOL in glaucoma patients, there was significant improvement in the VR-QOL after the patients underwent combined cataract and glaucoma filtration surgery.

  1. Filtration Systems Design for Universal Oils in Agricultural Tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Majdan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three filtration systems using the tractor hydraulic circuit were proposed and verified during the tractors operation. Using the tractor-implement hydraulic system and filter body with accessories the universally useful filtration systems were designed. The designed filtration systems are the second stage of universal oil filtration whereas the first stage is the standard tractor filter. The decrease in the content of iron reached the values 25.53 %, 32.95 % and 41.55 % and the average decrease in oil contamination characterized by average value of decrease in content of iron, copper and silicium reached values 24.3 %, 24.7 % and 35.53 % in dependence on the filtration system and an oil contamination level. The decrease in contamination level verified the ability of designed filtration systems for agricultural tractors.

  2. Electrospinning of nanofibers for filtration media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyoungjun

    Since particulate impurity is regarded as the primary cause of lung diseases, purification of air has been a crucial issue. Filtration is the most conventional method to obtain clean air, whereby particulate matter is collected on a fibrous media. The use of fibrous filters is prevalent because of their high filtration efficiency and low pressure drop. Fibrous filters were fabricated via the electrospinning process which can be used to produce continuous submicron-diameter sized fibers. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers with a mean fiber diameter of 224 nm were electrospun to form fibermats. Filtration tests on fibermats of PAN were conducted to confirm that filters of thinner fibers result in higher collection efficiencies and lower pressure drops than that of thicker fibers as predicted by the theoretical filtration mechanism. Results showed that electrospun PAN nanofibermats had a superior quality factor of 0.067+/-0 compared to 0.031+/-0.001 by the current state-of-the-art microfiber-based high particulate air (HEPA) filtration media. The verified theory implies that nanofibermats of other types of materials could also be considered as promising filtration media since filtration performance is independent of the material used. As materials for advanced next-generation filtration media, ceramics are favored over polymeric materials due to their robustness against environmental factors such as ultraviolet rays, abrasive particles, and high temperature all of which degrade and damage the fibrous structure. Amidst various ceramic materials, the anatase phase of TiO2 was selected due to its mechanical property and versatility as a photocatalyst and microwave-absorbing material. Anatase TiO2 fibers were fabricated by electrospinning followed by heat treatment at 500°C for 3 hours. However, early precipitation or gelation of the organic solvent-based TiO2 sol posed a practical challenge in the sample preparation. In order to enhance stability of the precursor sol, a

  3. Tailoring Supramolecular Nanofibers for Air Filtration Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Daniel; Skrybeck, Dominik; Misslitz, Holger; Nardini, David; Kern, Alexander; Kreger, Klaus; Schmidt, Hans-Werner

    2016-06-15

    The demand of new materials and processes for nanofiber fabrication to enhance the performance of air filters is steadily increasing. Typical approaches to obtain nanofibers are based on top-down processes such as melt blowing, centrifugal spinning, and electrospinning of polymer materials. However, fabrication of polymer nanofibers is limited with respect to either a sufficiently high throughput or the smallest achievable fiber diameter. This study reports comprehensively on a fast and simple bottom-up process to prepare supramolecular nanofibers in situ inside viscose/polyester microfiber nonwovens. Here, selected small molecules of the materials class of 1,3,5-benzenetrisamides are employed. The microfiber-nanofiber composites exhibit a homogeneous nanofiber distribution and morphology throughout the entire nonwoven scaffold. Small changes in molecular structure and processing solvent have a strong influence on the final nanofiber diameter and diameter distribution and, consequently, on the filtration performance. Choosing proper processing conditions, microfiber-nanofiber composites with surprisingly high filtration efficiencies of particulate matter are obtained. In addition, the microfiber-nanofiber composite integrity at elevated temperatures was determined and revealed that the morphology of supramolecular nanofibers is maintained compared to that of the utilized polymer nonwoven.

  4. Length filtration of the separable states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Doković, Dragomir Ž.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the separable states ρ of an arbitrary multi-partite quantum system with Hilbert space H of dimension d. The length L(ρ) of ρ is defined as the smallest number of pure product states having ρ as their mixture. The length filtration of the set of separable states, S , is the increasing chain ∅ ⊊S1‧⊆S2‧⊆⋯, where Si‧={ρ ∈S :L (ρ )≤i }. We define the maximum length, Lmax=maxρ ∈S L (ρ ), critical length, Lcrit, and yet another special length, Lc, which was defined by a simple formula in one of our previous papers. The critical length indicates the first term in the length filtration whose dimension is equal to Dim S . We show that in general d≤Lc≤Lcrit≤Lmax≤d2. We conjecture that the equality Lcrit=Lc holds for all finite-dimensional multi-partite quantum systems. Our main result is that Lcrit=Lc for the bipartite systems having a single qubit as one of the parties. This is accomplished by computing the rank of the Jacobian matrix of a suitable map having S as its range.

  5. Silica incorporated membrane for wastewater based filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, C. S.; Bilad, M. R.; Nordin, N. A. H. M.

    2017-10-01

    Membrane technology has long been applied for waste water treatment industries due to its numerous advantages compared to other conventional processes. However, the biggest challenge in pressure driven membrane process is membrane fouling. Fouling decreases the productivity and efficiency of the filtration, reduces the lifespan of the membrane and reduces the overall efficiency of water treatment processes. In this study, a novel membrane material is developed for water filtration. The developed membrane incorporates silica nanoparticles mainly to improve its structural properties. Membranes with different loadings of silica nanoparticles were applied in this study. The result shows an increase in clean water permeability and filterability of the membrane for treating activated sludge, microalgae solution, secondary effluent and raw sewage as feed. Adding silica into the membrane matrix does not significantly alter contact angle and membrane pore size. We believe that silica acts as an effective pore forming agent that increases the number of pores without significantly altering the pore sizes. A higher number of small pores on the surface of the membrane could reduce membrane fouling because of a low specific loading imposed to individual pores.

  6. Filtration kinetics of chitosan separation by electrofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gözke, Gözde; Kirschhöfer, Frank; Heissler, Stefan; Trutnau, Mirko; Brenner-Weiss, Gerald; Ondruschka, Jelka; Obst, Ursula; Posten, Clemens

    2012-02-01

    Downstream processing of chitosan requires several technological steps that contribute to the total production costs. Precipitation and especially evaporation are energy-consuming processes, resulting in higher costs and limiting industrial scale production. This study investigated the filtration kinetics of chitosan derived from cell walls of fungi and from exoskeletons of arthropods by electrofiltration, an alternative method, thus reducing the downstream processing steps and costs. Experiments with different voltages and pressures were conducted in order to demonstrate the effect of both parameters on filtration kinetics. The concentration of the biopolymer was obtained by the average factor of 40 by applying an electric field of 4 V/mm and pressure of 4 bars. A series of analytical experiments demonstrated the lack of structural and functional changes in chitosan molecules after electrofiltration. These results, combined with the reduction of energy and processing time, define the investigated method as a promising downstream step in the chitosan production technology. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. METC CFD simulations of hot gas filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, T.J.

    1995-06-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations of the fluid/particle flow in several hot gas filtration vessels will be presented. These simulations have been useful in designing filtration vessels and in diagnosing problems with filter operation. The simulations were performed using the commercial code FLUENT and the METC-developed code MFIX. Simulations of the initial configuration of the Karhula facility indicated that the dirty gas flow over the filter assemblage was very non-uniform. The force of the dirty gas inlet flow was inducing a large circulation pattern that caused flow around the candles to be in opposite directions on opposite sides of the vessel. By introducing a system of baffles, a more uniform flow pattern was developed. This modification may have contributed to the success of the project. Several simulations of configurations proposed by Industrial Filter and Pump were performed, varying the position of the inlet. A detailed resolution of the geometry of the candles allowed determination of the flow between the individual candles. Recent simulations in support of the METC/CeraMem Cooperative Research and Development Agreement have analyzed the flow in the vessel during the cleaning back-pulse. Visualization of experiments at the CeraMem cold-flow facility provided confidence in the use of CFD. Extensive simulations were then performed to assist in the design of the hot test facility being built by Ahlstrom/Pyropower. These tests are intended to demonstrate the CeraMem technology.

  8. Granular media filtration: old process, new thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, D F; Nason, J A

    2006-01-01

    The design of granular media filters has evolved over many years so that modern filters have larger media sizes and higher filtration velocities than in earlier times. The fundamental understanding of filtration has also improved over time, with current models that account reasonably for all characteristics of the media, the suspension and the filter operation. The methodology for design, however, has not kept pace with these improvements; current designs are based on pilot plants, past experience, or a simple guideline (the ratio of the bed depth to media grain size). We propose that design should be based universally on a characteristic removal length, with the provision of a bed depth that is some multiple of that characteristic length. This characteristic removal length is calculated using the most recent (and most complete) fundamental model and is based on the particle size with the minimum removal efficiency in a filter. The multiple of the characteristic length that yields the required bed depth has been calibrated to existing, successful filters.

  9. Vibrating membrane filtration as improved technology for microalgae dewatering

    OpenAIRE

    Torras, C.; Salvadó, J.; Clavero, E.; C. Nurra

    2014-01-01

    10.1016/j.biortech.2014.01.115 The effect of shear-enhanced filtration by vibratory process in microalgae dewatering is presented in this paper. The aim of this research was to investigate the technical performance and improvement of vibrating membrane filtration compared with conventional tangential cross-flow filtration in microalgae concentration. An industrial-scale available commercial set-up was used. Several membrane materials as polyethersulfone, polyacrylonitrile, etc., and mean ...

  10. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...

  11. Filtration in the Use of Individual Water Purification Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lundquist, Arthur; Clarke, Steven; Bettin, William

    2006-01-01

    .... Understanding the ability of filtration to reduce disease-causing microorganisms in water is important in protecting Soldiers, who are considering using this technology, from acute health threats...

  12. Short-term resistance training with blood flow restriction enhances microvascular filtration capacity of human calf muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Colin; Vance, Steven; Brown, Maggie

    2010-07-01

    Resistance training increases muscle strength and endurance but may require high intensity and long duration to enhance capillarity. Vascular occlusion during low-load resistance training augments the strength and endurance gains compared with low-load resistance training alone, but in this study we investigated whether it also promotes microvascular filtration capacity, an index of capillarity. Nine healthy males performed short-term low-intensity resistance training of the calf muscles (four sets of 50 heel raises, three times a week for 4 weeks) under restricted (thigh cuff inflated to 150 mmHg on the non-dominant leg) or unrestricted (dominant leg without thigh cuff) blood flow conditions. Before and after resistance training, calf filtration capacity and resting blood flow were assessed by strain gauge plethysmography, and calf muscle strength and fatigue were assessed respectively by maximal voluntary contraction and force decline during electrically evoked ischaemic contractions in both legs. Calf filtration capacity increased by 26% in the restricted leg but did not increase significantly in the unrestricted leg. Calf muscle strength was 18% greater in the restricted leg but unchanged in the unrestricted leg. Calf muscle fatigue and resting blood flow did not change in either leg. Resistance training promoted microvascular filtration capacity, an effect that was somewhat enhanced by blood flow restriction, and could be due to increased capillarization.

  13. Vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klavdija Ovčar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the developed world, five to ten percent of people older than 65 years have dementia. One fifth of dementia etiologies are due to vascular brain lesions (VaD – vascular dementia. A milder form is called vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. The main clinical criteria for VaD are: 1. cognitive decline verified with standardized cognitive test/scale, 2. evidence of the associated vascular brain lesion, 3. excluded reversible causes of cognitive decline. The main risk factors for VaD are age, atherosclerosis, diabetes and hypertension. They play a key role in pathogenesis of the cognitive impairment. Depending on the damaged brain region, different cognitive domains may be affected with or without other neurological signs. These diversities in the clinical picture challenge the correct diagnosis. Unique feature of VaD is its progression, which can be stopped, if patients receive an appropriate treatment.The treatment of VCI and VaD symptoms is similar to that in Alzheimer’s disease. More importantly, VCI may be slowed down or even stopped with proper secondary stroke prevention and good rehabilitation. The most efficient is primary stroke prevention with healthy lifestyle and treatment of acquired risk factors.

  14. Plasma concentrations of endothelial vasoactive substances in clinically healthy subjects. associations with urinary albumin excretion and ambulatory blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Jensent, G

    2000-01-01

    Elevated urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is a predictor of cardiovascular disease, and one possible explanation is that elevated UAE reflects a generalized vascular dysfunction. The present study tests whether the plasma concentrations of the two main endothelial vasoactive substances (nitric oxide...... and endothelin-1 [ET-1]) are changed in clinically healthy subjects with elevated UAE (>6.6 microg/ min-the 90th percentile in the background population) and to test associations between these concentrations and systemic blood pressure. Twenty-seven subjects with elevated UAE were compared with 46 matched...

  15. Vascular disease burden in Indian subjects with vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Mina; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Vascular disease factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, and ischaemic heart disease contribute to the development of vascular dementia. As comorbidity of vascular disease factors in vascular dementia is common, we investigated the vascular disease burden in subjects with vascular dementia. To investigate the vascular disease burden due to four vascular disease factors: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, and ischaemic heart disease in Indian subjects with vascular dementia. In this study, 159 subjects with probable vascular dementia (as per NINDS-AIREN criteria) attending the memory clinic at a tertiary care hospital were assessed for the presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, and ischaemic heart disease using standardised operational definitions and for severity of dementia on the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. The data obtained was subjected to appropriate statistical analysis. Dyslipidaemia (79.25 per cent) was the most common vascular disease factor followed by hypertension (73.58 per cent), ischaemic heart disease (58.49 per cent), and diabetes mellitus (40.80 per cent). Most subjects (81.1 per cent) had two or more vascular disease factors. Subjects with more severe dementia had more vascular disease factors (sig 0.001). People with moderate to severe dementia have a significantly higher vascular disease burden; therefore, higher vascular disease burden may be considered as a poor prognostic marker in vascular dementia. Subjects with vascular dementia and their caregivers must manage cognitive impairment and ADL alongside managing serious comorbid vascular diseases that may worsen the dementia.

  16. Changes in glomerular filtration rate, lithium clearance and plasma protein clearances in the early phase after unilateral nephrectomy in living healthy renal transplant donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandgaard, S; Kamper, A; Skaarup, P

    1988-01-01

    1. Glomerular and tubular function was studied before and 2 months after unilateral nephrectomy in 14 healthy kidney donors by measurement of the clearances of 51Cr-labelled ethylenediaminetetra-acetate, lithium, beta 2-microglobulin, albumin and immunoglobulin G. 2. The glomerular filtration rate...... (GFR) of the kidney that remained in the donor rose from 45 +/- 10 (mean +/- SD) to 59 +/- 10 ml/min (P less than 0.01) 5 days after contralateral nephrectomy and remained at this level through the observation period. 3. The lithium clearance (CLi) of the remaining kidney rose from 11.6 +/- 3.7 to 20...

  17. Indoor particles affect vascular function in the aged: an air filtration-based intervention study.

    OpenAIRE

    Brauner, Elvira Vaclavik; Forchhammer, Lykke; Moller, Peter; Barregard, Lars; Gunnarsen, Lars; Afshari, Alireza; Wahlin, Peter; Glasius, Marianne; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Basu, Samar; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Loft, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Comment in:Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008 Feb 15;177(4):366-367. RATIONALE: Exposure to particulate matter is associated with risk of cardiovascular events, possibly through endothelial dysfunction, and indoor air may be most important. OBJECTIVES: We investigated effects of controlled exposure to indoor air particles on microvascular function (MVF) as the primary endpoint and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress as secondary endpoints in a healthy elderly population. METHODS: ...

  18. Nephroprotective Potential of Human Albumin Infusion: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Christian J.; Joannidis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Albumin infusion improves renal function in cirrhosis; however, mechanisms are incompletely understood. In clinical practice, human albumin is used in various intensive care unit indications to deal with a wide range of problems, from volume replacement in hypovolemic shock, or sepsis, to treatment of ascites in patients with liver cirrhosis. Against the background of the results of recent studies on the use of human albumin in septic patients, the importance of the natural colloid in these critically ill patients is being redefined. In addition to the hemodynamic effects of administration of human albumin impacting on sympathetic tone, attention is being paid to other effects in which its pharmacodynamics is associated with the physiological importance of endogenous albumin. The morbidity and mortality data discussed in this paper support the importance of both the hemodynamic and the pharmacological effects of the administration of human albumin in various indications. The contribution that human albumin could make towards the maintenance of renal function in the course and treatment of severe sepsis and cirrhosis of the liver is the subject of this narrative review. PMID:26136776

  19. Albumin contributes to kidney disease progression in Alport syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarad, George; Knutsen, Russell H; Mecham, Robert P; Miner, Jeffrey H

    2016-07-01

    Alport syndrome is a familial kidney disease caused by defects in the collagen type IV network of the glomerular basement membrane. Lack of collagen-α3α4α5(IV) changes the glomerular basement membrane morphologically and functionally, rendering it leaky to albumin and other plasma proteins. Filtered albumin has been suggested to be a cause of the glomerular and tubular injuries observed at advanced stages of Alport syndrome. To directly investigate the role that albumin plays in the progression of disease in Alport syndrome, we generated albumin knockout (Alb(-/-)) mice to use as a tool for removing albuminuria as a component of kidney disease. Mice lacking albumin were healthy and indistinguishable from control littermates, although they developed hypertriglyceridemia. Dyslipidemia was observed in Alb(+/-) mice, which displayed half the normal plasma albumin concentration. Alb mutant mice were bred to collagen-α3(IV) knockout (Col4a3(-/-)) mice, which are a model for human Alport syndrome. Lack of circulating and filtered albumin in Col4a3(-/-);Alb(-/-) mice resulted in dramatically improved kidney disease outcomes, as these mice lived 64% longer than did Col4a3(-/-);Alb(+/+) and Col4a3(-/-);Alb(+/-) mice, despite similar blood pressures and serum triglyceride levels. Further investigations showed that the absence of albumin correlated with reduced transforming growth factor-β1 signaling as well as reduced tubulointerstitial, glomerular, and podocyte pathology. We conclude that filtered albumin is injurious to kidney cells in Alport syndrome and perhaps in other proteinuric kidney diseases, including diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Effect of candesartan on microalbuminuria and albumin excretion rate in diabetes: three randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilous, Rudy; Chaturvedi, Nish; Sjølie, Anne Katrin

    2009-01-01

    candesartan compared with placebo affects microalbuminuria incidence or rate of change in albuminuria in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: 3 randomized trials of the DIRECT (Diabetic Retinopathy Candesartan Trials) Program. SETTING: 309 secondary care centers. PATIENTS: 3326 and 1905 patients with type 1...... further collections were done. The primary end point was new microalbuminuria (3 or 4 collections of urinary albumin excretion rate >or=20 microg/min). The secondary end point was rate of change in albuminuria. RESULTS: Individual and pooled results of the 3 trials showed that candesartan had little...... normotensive patients or patients with well-controlled hypertension who were at low overall vascular risk, which resulted in a low rate of microalbuminuria. Studies were powered for retinal and not renal end points. CONCLUSION: Candesartan, 32 mg/d, for 4.7 years did not prevent microalbuminuria in mainly...

  1. Functional vascular changes of the kidney during pregnancy in animals: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Drongelen, J. van; Vries, R.B.M. de; Lotgering, F.K.; Smits, P.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Renal vascular responses to pregnancy have frequently been studied, by investigating renal vascular resistance (RVR), renal flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and renal artery responses to stimuli. Nonetheless, several questions remain: 1. Which vasodilator pathways are activated and to what extent do they affect RVR, renal flow and GFR across species, strains and gestational ages, 2. Are these changes dependent on renal artery adaptation, 3. At which cellular level does pregnancy affect...

  2. Fetal Renal Stem Cell Transplant in Nephrotic and Nonnephrotic Glomerulonephritis with Stage 2-4 Chronic Kidney Disease: Potential Effect on Proteinuria and Glomerular Filtration Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuganbekova, Saltanat; Gaipov, Abduzhappar; Turebekov, Zaiyrkhan; Saparbayev, Samat; Shaimardanova, Galiya; Popova, Nadezhda; Taubaldiyeva, Zhannat; Serebrennikova, Dina; Trimova, Rakhat

    2015-11-01

    Proteinuria is a major cause of glomerulosclerosis progression in glomerular diseases, and the development of end-stage renal disease is more rapid in nephrotic patients than in nonnephrotic ones. The renal parenchyma is less regenerable because it is a tissue consisting of renal cells. Thus, stem cells obtained from fetal kidney tissue might be effective for reducing proteinuria and delaying glomerulosclerosis in these patients. This report presents preliminary data from a prospective cohort study that included 17 patients with chronic glomerulonephritis in stage 2 to 4 chronic kidney disease who completed 3 visits during 1 year of follow-up. Fetal renal stem cells (multiple cells in suspension) were injected into the patient every 6 months. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to their nephrotic status, and 24-hour maximal proteinuria was recorded for at least 6 months (first group with proteinuria proteinuria > 3.5 g/24 h). During follow-up, group 1 was observed to have stable hemoglobin and total protein levels but significantly decreased albumin levels and glomerular filtration rates. In group 2, total protein with serum albumin significantly increased, and proteinuria and glomerular filtration rates significantly decreased. There was no significant difference in glomerular filtration rate decline between groups. Treatment with fetal renal stem cells significantly decreased proteinuria in nephrotic patients. However, this outcome also might have resulted from a reduction in glomerular filtration rate. Further studies with a larger number of patients and a control group would help to achieve better results that measure the efficacy of this treatment.

  3. Vascular remodelling in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Eugene Haydn; Soltani, Amir; Reid, David William; Ward, Chris

    2008-02-01

    We review the recent literature, focusing on 2006 and 2007, to produce an update on the patho-biology of angiogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor in the asthmatic airway. In terms of conceptual development in asthma research, airway inflammation and remodelling have been regarded as separate processes or perhaps as sequential, with early inflammation leading later to remodelling. Recent insights identify a central role for vascular endothelial growth factor in stimulating both inflammation and vascular remodelling coincidentally, with the full panoply of vascular endothelial growth factor mediated events being complex and wide. Both nitric oxide and matrix metalloproteinase-9 induction may be important downstream pathogenic mechanisms. Virus-mediated exacerbations are a prime manifestation of the oscillating trajectory of clinical asthma. The early stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production is probably a central aetiological mechanism, with secondary inflammation and angiogenesis. The time scale of the latter, especially, fits with the time scale of clinico-physiological changes after exacerbation. These vascular endothelial growth factor induced changes are potentially modifiable with therapy. Insights into the importance of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiogenesis in asthma pathogenesis now lead to potential new therapeutic possibilities and elucidate why recent advances in asthma therapeutics have been so successful.

  4. Adsorption of egg albumin onto methylated yeast biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira; Maruyama, Hideo

    2004-01-01

    A new biosorbent, methylated yeast (MeYE), was prepared for the adsorptive separation of proteins from aqueous solutions. Yeast was methylated in a 0.1 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 80% of the carboxylic groups of yeast could be methylated within 9 h. The adsorption of egg albumin to MeYE was studied to evaluate the protein adsorption ability of MeYE. At near neutral pH, egg albumin was scarcely adsorbed to unmethylated yeast and the adsorption amount of egg albumin...

  5. The Role of the Gut in Albumin Catabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, J. J.; Edwards, Kenneth W.; Lackey, William W.; Fitzgerald, John B.

    1963-01-01

    Using I131-albumin tracer methods, albumin breakdown rates were estimated in 7 rabbits following extensive gastrointestinal resection, including 5 with nearly complete enterectomy, 1 with total gastroenterectomy, and 1 with gastrectomy only, and in 4 sham operated rabbits. Breakdown rates in the resected animals varied from 48 to 187 per cent of the corresponding controls, with an average of 96 per cent. It is concluded that no more than one-half, and probably much less, of albumin breakdown occurs in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:13959286

  6. Urinary albumin excretion. An independent predictor of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Strandgaard, S

    1999-01-01

    ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a population-based cohort. In 1983, urinary albumin and creatinine levels were measured, along with the conventional atherosclerotic risk factors, in 2085 consecutive participants without IHD, renal disease, urinary tract infection, or diabetes mellitus. The participants......Cross-sectional studies suggest that an increased urinary albumin excretion rate is associated with cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to analyze prospectively whether the urinary albumin-to -creatinine (A/C) ratio can independently predict......, 1.3 to 3.9, P=0.002), and the 10-year disease-free survival decreased from 97% to 91% (P

  7. Filtration of ultrafine metallic particles in industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bémer, D; Morele, Y; Régnier, R

    2015-01-01

    Thermal metal spraying, metal cutting and arc welding processes generate large quantities of ultrafine particles that cause the irreversible clogging of industrial filters. The aim of the study performed was to identify the causes of the clogging of cartridge filters and investigate other paths for cleaning them. This study required the development of a test bench capable of reproducing a thermal spraying process to test the performances of different filtration techniques. This test instrument first, permitted the precise characterization of the aerosol generated by the process and, second, defined the clogging and cleaning conditions for filters. Several parameters were tested: the type of filter, online and off-line cleaning, pre-coating, cleaning by jets of high-speed compressed air via a probe.

  8. Membraneless water filtration using CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangwoo; Shardt, Orest; Warren, Patrick B.; Stone, Howard A.

    2017-05-01

    Water purification technologies such as microfiltration/ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis utilize porous membranes to remove suspended particles and solutes. These membranes, however, cause many drawbacks such as a high pumping cost and a need for periodic replacement due to fouling. Here we show an alternative membraneless method for separating suspended particles by exposing the colloidal suspension to CO2. Dissolution of CO2 into the suspension creates solute gradients that drive phoretic motion of particles. Due to the large diffusion potential generated by the dissociation of carbonic acid, colloidal particles move either away from or towards the gas-liquid interface depending on their surface charge. Using the directed motion of particles induced by exposure to CO2, we demonstrate a scalable, continuous flow, membraneless particle filtration process that exhibits low energy consumption, three orders of magnitude lower than conventional microfiltration/ultrafiltration processes, and is essentially free from fouling.

  9. Glomerular filtration rate in endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Banfi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Franchini, Massimo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2008-05-01

    The interpretation of biochemical testing in sportsmen requires caution. Although creatinine-based estimates of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) overcome some shortcomings of serum creatinine, there is scarce information on their use in endurance athletes. We evaluated GFR, estimated by the recommended Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation in athletes. Seventy-six professional male cyclists, 71 amateur male cyclists, and 65 healthy sedentary matched controls were included in the study. The mean serum creatinine level was significantly higher in the sedentary subjects (81 microM) than in amateur (75 microM; P intensity of daily physical exercise, but not the body mass index, was inversely associated with serum creatinine and positively associated with the estimated GFR. The MDRD equation should be used with caution in athletes, and it should consider intensity and type of physical exercise.

  10. [Central blood pressure and vascular damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lahiguera, Francisco; Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, José Antonio; Pascual, José María

    2015-07-20

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between central blood pressure and vascular damage. This cross-sectional study involved 393 never treated hypertensive patients (166 women). Clinical blood pressure (BP), 24h blood pressure (BP24h) and central blood pressure (CBP) were measured. Vascular organ damage (VOD) was assessed by calculating the albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), wave pulse pressure velocity and echocardiographic left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Patients with VOD had higher values of BP, BP24h, and CBP than patients without ACR. When comparing several systolic BP, systolic BP24h had a higher linear correlation with CBP (Z Steiger test: 2.26; P=.02) and LVMI (Z Steiger test: 3.23; P=.01) than PAC. In a multiple regression analysis corrected by age, sex and metabolic syndrome, all pressures were related with VOD but systolic BP24h showed the highest correlation. In a logistic regression analysis, having the highest tercile of systolic BP24h was the stronger predictor of VOD (multivariate odds ratio: 3.4; CI 95%: 2.5-5.5, P=.001). CBP does not have more correlation with VOD than other measurements of peripheral BP. Systolic BP24h is the BP measurement that best predicts VOD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Uptake of proteins and degradation of human serum albumin by Plasmodium falciparum – infected human erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhotra Pawan

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intraerythrocytic malaria parasites actively import obligate nutrients from serum and export proteins and lipids to erythrocyte cytoplasm and membrane. The import of macromolecules in the malaria parasite has been the subject of many debates. To understand the import of macromolecules by the parasite, we studied the uptake of proteins by Plasmodium falciparum infected human erythrocyte. Methods Proteins were biotin labelled individually, purified on a gel filtration column and added to uninfected and infected asynchronized culture. The uptake of these proteins by malaria parasites was determined by western blot analysis of parasite pellet and their different fractions using streptavidin-horseradish conjugate. To further confirm this import, we studied the uptake of 125I-labelled proteins by western blot analysis as well as used direct immunofluorescence method. Results Here we show that biotin labelled and radio-iodinated polypeptides of molecular sizes in the range of 45 to 206 kDa, when added in the culture medium, get direct access to the parasite membrane through a membrane network by by-passing the erythrocyte cytosol. The import of these polypeptides is ATP-dependent as sodium azide treatment blocks this uptake. We also show that malaria parasites have the ability to take up and degrade biotin labelled human serum albumin, which has been shown to be essential for the parasite growth. Conclusions These results can be used, as a basis to explore the role of human serum albumin in the intraerythrocytic development of parasites, and this in turn can be an important adjunct to the development of novel antimalarial drugs.

  12. Generation of urinary albumin fragments does not require proximal tubular uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Kathrin; Nielsen, Rikke; Christensen, Erik I; Birn, Henrik

    2012-04-01

    Urinary albumin excretion is an important diagnostic and prognostic marker of renal function. Both animal and human urine contain large amounts of albumin fragments, but whether these fragments originate from renal tubular degradation of filtered albumin is unknown. Here, we used mice with kidneys lacking megalin and cubilin, the coreceptors that mediate proximal tubular endocytosis of albumin, to determine whether proximal tubular degradation of albumin forms the detectable urinary albumin fragments. After intravenous administration of (125)I-labeled mouse albumin to knockout and control mice, we examined kidney uptake of albumin and urinary excretion of both intact albumin and its fragments using size exclusion chromatography. In control mice, all labeled albumin eluted as albumin fragments in the urine. In megalin/cubilin-deficient mice, we observed decreased uptake and degradation of albumin and increased urinary excretion of intact albumin; we did not, however, detect a decrease in the excretion of albumin fragments. These results show that the generation of urinary albumin fragments occurs independently of renal tubular uptake and degradation of albumin, suggesting that the pathophysiological implications of changes in urinary albumin fragments require reevaluation.

  13. Blood glucose fluctuation aggravates lower extremity vascular disease in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, X-M; Zhang, X-G; Xu, X U-P; Yi, C; Bin, C; Cheng, Q-P; Gong, Q-Q; Lv, X-F

    2014-01-01

    Lower-extremity vascular diseases are important complication of diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the influence of blood glucose fluctuation in type 2 diabetes-associated lower-extremity vascular diseases, and explore the possible mechanism. Patients with type 2 diabetes was assigned to Group B (without lower-extremity vascular disease) and group C (with lower-extremity vascular disease). Healthy subjects (Group A) served as normal controls. All patients received dynamic blood glucose monitoring for 72 h. The mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE) and the largest amplitude of glycemic excursion (LAGE) were estimated. The levels of von Willebrand factor (vWF), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and biochemical indices were examined, and the lower-extremity vascular diseases were scored in patients from group C. Groups B and C have higher systolic blood pressure (SBP), total cholesterol (TC) level, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level, HbA1c level, and vWF level and lower IMA level than those in Group A (p lower-extremity vascular diseases was associated with MAGE, LAGE, SBP, LDL-C, vWF, HbA1c, and IMA (p lower-extremity vascular diseases were involved with MAGE, IMA, and vWF. Enhanced fluctuation in patients with type 2 diabetes may promote the occurrence and development of lower-extremity vascular diseases through aggravating vascular endothelial injury.

  14. Serum Albumin and Cerebro-cardiovascular Mortality During a 15-year Study in a Community-based Cohort in Tanushimaru, a Cohort of the Seven Countries Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeki, Yoko; Adachi, Hisashi; Enomoto, Mika; Fukami, Ako; Nakamura, Sachiko; Nohara, Yume; Nakao, Erika; Sakaue, Akiko; Tsuru, Tomoko; Morikawa, Nagisa; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro

    Objective There is little long-term data on the association between the serum albumin levels and mortality in community-based populations. We aimed to determine whether the serum albumin level is an independent risk factor for all-cause and cause-specific death in a community-based cohort study in Japan. Methods In 1999, we performed a periodic epidemiological survey over a 15-year period in a population of 1,905 healthy subjects (783 males, 1,122 females) who were older than 40 years of age and who resided in Tanushimaru, a rural community, in Japan. Over the course of the study, we periodically examined the blood chemistry of the study subjects, including their serum albumin levels. Their baseline serum albumin levels were categorized into quartiles. Results The baseline albumin levels were significantly associated with age (inversely), body mass index (BMI), diastolic blood pressure, lipid profiles [high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) and triglycerides] and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). After adjusting for confounders, a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis demonstrated that a low serum albumin level was an independent predictor of all-cause death [hazard ratio (HR): 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.24-0.65], cancer death (HR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.18-0.99), death from infection (HR: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.06-0.73) and cerebro-cardiovascular death (HR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.06-0.63). The HRs for all-cause and cerebro-cardiovascular death in the highest quartile vs. the lowest quartile of albumin after adjusting for confounders were 0.59 (95%CI:0.39-0.88) and 0.15 (95%CI: 0.03-0.66), respectively. Conclusion The serum albumin level was thus found to be a predictor of all-cause and cerebro-cardiovascular death in a general population.

  15. glomerular filtration rate profiles in paediatric patients on cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-28

    May 28, 2013 ... The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is widely accepted as the best index of renal function in patients. Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment in the paediatric oncology unit at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Objectives: To determine the glomerular filtration rate profiles of paediatric oncology patients and ...

  16. Noisy signal filtration using complex wavelet basis sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, A. S.; Pavlova, O. N.; Pavlov, A. N.

    2017-07-01

    Methods of noisy signal filtration using a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) with real basis sets of the Daubechies family are compared to methods employing a double-density dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DDCWT) with excess (nonorthonormalized) basis sets. Recommendations concerning the choice of filter parameters for minimization of the error of noisy signal filtration are formulated.

  17. A mathematical model for the leukocyte filtration process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruil, A.; Bruil, Anton; Beugeling, T.; Beugeling, Tom; Feijen, Jan

    1995-01-01

    Leukocyte filters are applied clinically to remove leukocytes from blood. In order to optimize leukocyte filters, a mathematical model to describe the leukocyte filtration process was developed by modification of a general theoretical model for depth filtration. The model presented here can be used

  18. Dynamic optimization of dead-end membrane filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, B.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.; Marquardt, Wolfgang; Pantelides, Costas

    2006-01-01

    An operating strategy aimed at minimizing the energy consumption during the filtration phase of dead-end membrane filtration has been formulated. A method allowing fast calculation of trajectories is used to allow incorporation in a hierarchical optimization scheme. The optimal trajectory can be

  19. Vibrating membrane filtration as improved technology for microalgae dewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurra, Claudia; Clavero, Ester; Salvadó, Joan; Torras, Carles

    2014-04-01

    The effect of shear-enhanced filtration by vibratory process in microalgae dewatering is presented in this paper. The aim of this research was to investigate the technical performance and improvement of vibrating membrane filtration compared with conventional tangential cross-flow filtration in microalgae concentration. An industrial-scale available commercial set-up was used. Several membrane materials as polyethersulfone, polyacrylonitrile, etc., and mean pore sizes (from 7000Da to 0.2μm) were tested and compared in both filtration set-ups. Experiments were carried-out with Nannochloropsis gaditana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum microalgae. It has been demonstrated that, even if the choice of the membrane depends on its cut-off, its material and the type of microalgae filtrated, dynamic filtration is always the best technology over a conventional one. If with conventional filtration permeability values were in the vicinity of 10L/h/m(2)/bar in steady state phase, with dynamic filtration these values increased to 30L/h/m(2)/bar or more. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Scaling and particulate fouling in membrane filtration systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerlage, S.F.E.

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade, pressure driven membrane filtration processes; reverse osmosis, nano, ultra and micro-filtration have undergone steady growth. Drivers for this growth include desalination to combat water scarcity and the removal of various material from water to comply with increasingly

  1. Important clinical and laboratory correlates of glomerular filtration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Renal impairment is routinely assessed using the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and it may be helpful to obtain certain clinical or laboratory markers, which show relationship with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in sickle cell disease (SCD). Aim: To assess the relationship between important clinical ...

  2. Parthenium management by cultural filtrates of phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Arshad; Adrees, Huma

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, herbicidal activity of culture filtrates of nine phytopathogenic fungi, namely, Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl., Drechslera australiensis (Bugnicourt) Subramanian & Jain, Drechslera hawaiiensis (Curtis and Cooke) Shoemaker, Drechslera biseptata (Saccardo & Roumeguere) Richardson & Fraser., Drechslera rostrata (Drechsler) Ricardson & Fraser, Fusarium oxysporum (Massey) Synd. & Hans., Fusarium solani (Martius) Saccardo., Monilia stophila (Montagne) and Cladosporium sp. (Grey) de Hoff, was evaluated against parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.). In laboratory bioassays, the effect of original (100%) as well as lower concentrations (75, 50 and 25%) of these cultural filtrates was studied on germination and early seedling growth of parthenium. Cultural filtrates of different concentrations of A. alternata, Cladosporium sp. and D. rostrata significantly suppressed the germination of parthenium seeds by 70-90, 13-73 and 27-50%, respectively. Cultural filtrates of these fungi also exhibited pronounced adverse effects on the seedling root and shoot growth. Among other fungal species, cultural filtrates of D. australiensis, D. hawaiiensis, F. oxysprium and F. solani significantly reduced the root and shoot length of parthenium seedlings. Foliar spray bioassay was performed using cultural filtrates of three fungal species, namely A. alternata, F. solani and D. rostrata. In this bioassay, three sprays of fungal cultural filtrates, with 4 day intervals each, were carried out on 1 and 2 week-old pot-grown seedlings of parthenium. Cultural filtrates of all the three fungal species markedly suppressed root and shoot growth of parthenium weed.

  3. Life Support Filtration System Trade Study for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) technical developments for highly reliable life support systems aim to maximize the viability of long duration deep space missions. Among the life support system functions, airborne particulate matter filtration is a significant driver of launch mass because of the large geometry required to provide adequate filtration performance and because of the number of replacement filters needed to a sustain a mission. A trade analysis incorporating various launch, operational and maintenance parameters was conducted to investigate the trade-offs between the various particulate matter filtration configurations. In addition to typical launch parameters such as mass, volume and power, the amount of crew time dedicated to system maintenance becomes an increasingly crucial factor for long duration missions. The trade analysis evaluated these parameters for conventional particulate matter filtration technologies and a new multi-stage particulate matter filtration system under development by NASAs Glenn Research Center. The multi-stage filtration system features modular components that allow for physical configuration flexibility. Specifically, the filtration system components can be configured in distributed, centralized, and hybrid physical layouts that can result in considerable mass savings compared to conventional particulate matter filtration technologies. The trade analysis results are presented and implications for future transit and surface missions are discussed.

  4. Performance of multistage filtration using different filter media ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at introducing multistage filtration (MSF) (a combination of slow-sand filtration (SSF) and pretreatment system - horizontal flow roughing filter (HRF)) as an alternative water treatment technology to the conventional one. A pilot- plant study was undertaken to achieve this goal. Evaluating the MSF ...

  5. Purification of contaminated water by filtration through porous glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wydeven, T.; Leban, M. I.

    1972-01-01

    Method for purifying water that is contaminated with mineral salts and soluble organic compounds is described. Method consists of high pressure filtration of contaminated water through stabilized porous glass membranes. Procedure for conducting filtration is described. Types of materials by percentage amounts removed from the water are identified.

  6. Effects of processing methods on sorghum wort filtration | Igyor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brewing parameters measured were filtration rate, specific gravity, viscosity, reducing sugars, hot water extract, soluble extract level, fermentable extract level, and fermentability level. Results revealed that though the sorghum worts had faster filtration rate than barley in infusion at 65°C, other brewing parameters were all ...

  7. Simulation of impaction filtration by a porous filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghazaryan, L.; Lopez Penha, D.J.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Stolz, S.; Stolz, S.; Winkelmann, C.; Vafai, K.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new numerical approach for estimating filtration through porous media from first principles. We numerically simulate particle motion as arises in a carrier gas flow. The filtration we look at occurs due to impaction of particles with obstructing surfaces that are contained in the solid

  8. STORMWATER TREATMENT AT CRITICAL AREAS: EVALUATION OF FILTRATION MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Past research has identified urban runoff as a major contributor to the degradation of urban streams and rivers. Filtration, especially "slow" filtration, is of interest for stormwater runoff treatment because filters will work on intermittent flows without significant loss of ca...

  9. Application of granular media filtration in wastewater reclamation and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoda, M F; Al-Ghusain, I; Al-Jasem, D M

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted at room temperature (20-25 degrees C) using four identical filter columns made of Plexiglas, each of 1 m height and 15 cm internal diameter, packed with granular media of 70 cm depth. Each filter was operated at a constant filtration rate, thus four rates were tested in the range of 2-15 m(3) m(-2) d(-1). Mono-media (sand) and dual-media (sand and anthracite) were tested and three types of municipal wastewaters, namely raw, primary and secondary-treated effluents were applied. The results obtained indicate that considerable improvements in effluent quality could be attained by tertiary sand filtration. Removal of solids, organics and bacteria was not significantly affected by the increase in filtration rate from 2 to 15 m(3) m(-2) d(-1). The highest removal efficiency was obtained at low filtration rate of 2 m(3) m(-2) d(-1), but higher filtration rates achieved acceptable removal efficiencies and provided effluents of good quality to satisfy the irrigation water quality standards. Since the conventional sand filters in wastewater treatment plants operate at a rate in the range of 2-5 m(3) m(-2) d(-1), utilization of high rate filtration is advantageous and would result in significant cost savings. However, with high filtration rates the filters require more frequent backwashing. Dual-media filters achieved 50% reductions in BOD suggesting that filtration could be used to treat primary effluents in emergency cases.

  10. Albumin (BSA) adsorption onto graphite stepped surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Pereda, Pamela; Vilhena, J. G.; Takeuchi, Noboru; Serena, Pedro A.; Pérez, Rubén

    2017-06-01

    Nanomaterials are good candidates for the design of novel components with biomedical applications. For example, nano-patterned substrates may be used to immobilize protein molecules in order to integrate them in biosensing units. Here, we perform long MD simulations (up to 200 ns) using an explicit solvent and physiological ion concentrations to characterize the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) onto a nano-patterned graphite substrate. We have studied the effect of the orientation and step size on the protein adsorption and final conformation. Our results show that the protein is stable, with small changes in the protein secondary structure that are confined to the contact area and reveal the influence of nano-structuring on the spontaneous adsorption, protein-surface binding energies, and protein mobility. Although van der Waals (vdW) interactions play a dominant role, our simulations reveal the important role played by the hydrophobic lipid-binding sites of the BSA molecule in the adsorption process. The complex structure of these sites, that incorporate residues with different hydrophobic character, and their flexibility are crucial to understand the influence of the ion concentration and protein orientation in the different steps of the adsorption process. Our study provides useful information for the molecular engineering of components that require the immobilization of biomolecules and the preservation of their biological activity.

  11. Human serum albumin nanotubes with esterase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Teruyuki; Sato, Takaaki; Boettcher, Christoph

    2012-01-02

    A nanocylindrical wall structure was obtained by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of poly-L-arginine (PLA) and human serum albumin (HSA) and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning force microscopy (SFM), and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). SEM and SFM measurements of a lyophilized powder of (PLA/HSA)(3) nanotubes yielded images of round, chimney-like architectures with approximately 100 nm wall thickness. Cryo-TEM images of the hydrated sample revealed that the tube walls are composed of densely packed HSA molecules. Moreover, when small-angle X-ray scattering was used to characterize the individual PLA and HSA components in aqueous solutions, maximum diameters of approximately 28 nm and 8 nm were obtained, respectively. These values indicate the minimum thickness of wall layers consisting of PLA and HSA. It can also be concluded from SEM as well as from cryo-TEM images that the protein cylinders are considerably swollen in the presence of water. Furthermore, HSA retains esterase activity if assembled in nanotubes, as indicated by measurements of para-nitrophenyl acetate hydrolysis under semi-physiological conditions (pH 7.4, 22 °C). The enzyme activity parameters (Michaelis constant, K(m), and catalytic constant, k(cat)) were comparable to those of free HSA. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Virus trap in human serum albumin nanotube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Teruyuki; Qu, Xue; Ihara, Hiromi; Fujihara, Mitsuhiro; Azuma, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-03-16

    Infectious hepatitis B virus (HBV), namely Dane particles (DPs), consists of a core nucleocapsid including genome DNA covered with an envelope of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). We report the synthesis, structure, and HBV-trapping capability of multilayered protein nanotubes having an anti-HBsAg antibody (HBsAb) layer as an internal wall. The nanotubes were prepared using an alternating layer-by-layer assembly of human serum albumin (HSA) and oppositely charged poly-L-arginine (PLA) into a nanoporous polycarbonate (PC) membrane (pore size, 400 nm), followed by depositions of poly-L-glutamic acid (PLG) and HBsAb. Subsequent dissolution of the PC template yielded (PLA/HSA)(2)PLA/PLG/HBsAb nanotubes (AbNTs). The SEM measurements revealed the formation of uniform hollow cylinders with a 414 ± 16 nm outer diameter and 59 ± 4 nm wall thickness. In an aqueous medium, the swelled nanotubes captured noninfectious spherical small particles of HBsAg (SPs); the binding constant was 3.5 × 10(7) M(-1). Surprisingly, the amount of genome DNA in the HBV solution (HBsAg-positive plasma or DP-rich solution) decreased dramatically after incubation with the AbNTs (-3.9 log order), which implies that the infectious DPs were completely entrapped into the one-dimensional pore space of the AbNTs.

  13. Human serum albumin binding of certain antimalarials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Olivera S.; Cvijetić, Ilija N.; Zlatović, Mario V.; Opsenica, Igor M.; Konstantinović, Jelena M.; Terzić Jovanović, Nataša V.; Šolaja, Bogdan A.; Verbić, Tatjana Ž.

    2018-03-01

    Interactions between eight in-house synthesized aminoquinolines, along with well-known chloroquine, and human serum albumin (HSA) have been studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. The synthesized aminoquinolines, despite being structurally diverse, were found to be very potent antimalarials. Fluorescence measurements indicate that three compounds having additional thiophene or benzothiophene substructure bind more strongly to HSA than other studied compounds. Competitive binding experiments indicate that these three compounds bind significantly stronger to warfarin compared to diazepam binding site. Fluorescence quenching at three temperatures (20, 25, and 37 °C) was analyzed using classical Stern-Volmer equation, and a static quenching mechanism was proposed. The enthalpy and entropy changes upon sulphur-containing compound-HSA interactions were calculated using Van't Hoff equation. Positive values of enthalpy and entropy changes indicate that non-specific, hydrophobic interactions are the main contributors to HSA-compound interaction. Molecular docking and calculated lipophilicity descriptors indicate the same, pointing out that the increased lipophilicity of sulphur-containing compounds might be a reason for their better binding to HSA. Obtained results might contribute to design of novel derivatives with improved pharmacokinetic properties and drug efficacy.

  14. Some aspects of applying nanostructured materials in air filtration, water filtration and electrical engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmer, Dusan; Vincent, Ivo; Lovecka, Lenka; Kazda, Tomas; Giurg, Adam; Skorvan, Ondrej

    2017-05-01

    Nanostructures prepared from nanofibres and nanostructured composites prepared from nanofibres and fillers are gradually becoming increasingly demanded materials for applications in various industrial branches connected with catalysis, environment protection (air filtration, waste water treatment, sound absorption), in biological engineering, electronics (battery separators, electrode materials), etc. Selected applications of these materials prepared in the company SPUR a.s. are summed up in the following presentation.

  15. Harvesting microalgal biomass using crossflow membrane filtration: critical flux, filtration performance, and fouling characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcik, Harun; Cakmakci, Mehmet

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficient harvesting of microalgal biomass through crossflow membrane filtration. The microalgal biomass harvesting experiments were performed using one microfiltration membrane (pore size: 0.2 µm, made from polyvinylidene fluoride) and three ultrafiltration membranes (molecular weight cut-off: 150, 50, and 30 kDa, made from polyethersulfone, hydrophilic polyethersulfone, and regenerated cellulose, respectively). Initially, to minimize membrane fouling caused by microalgal cells, experiments with the objective of determining the critical flux were performed. Based on the critical flux calculations, the best performing membrane was confirmed to be the UH050 membrane, produced from hydrophilic polyethersulfone material. Furthermore, we also evaluated the effect of transmembrane pressure (TMP) and crossflow velocity (CFV) on filtration flux. It was observed that membrane fouling was affected not only by the membrane characteristics, but also by the TMP and CFV. In all the membranes, it was observed that increasing CFV was associated with increasing filtration flux, independent of the TMP.

  16. Fraction V of bovine albumin improves the adherence and survival ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-04

    2,3. , Y. Yong ... Key words: Adult, neocortex, primary culture, fraction V of bovine albumin. INTRODUCTION. Alzheimer's disease ... models to study development, aging and death (Lesuisse et al., 2002; Akasofu et al., 2006).

  17. Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin Ratio Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and as the principle component involved in maintaining osmotic pressure (preventing fluid from leaking out of blood ... of protein (e.g., inflammatory disorders, multiple myeloma ) Dehydration Some laboratories report total protein, albumin, and the ...

  18. 99M-technetium labeled macroaggregated human serum albumin pharmaceutical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer

    1977-05-17

    A reagent comprising macroaggregated human serum albumin having dispersed therein particles of stannous tin and a method for instantly making a labeled pharmaceutical therefrom, are disclosed. The labeled pharmaceutical is utilized in organ imaging.

  19. On the possible involvement of bovine serum albumin precursor in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    biotin affinity chromatography and mass finger printing analysis technique, herein we report the identification of a 70 kDa size protein (bovine serum albumin precursor, BSAP) which binds strongly with lipoplexes and may play role in lipofection ...

  20. Cardio-ankle vascular index is associated with cardiovascular target organ damage and vascular structure and function in patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome, LOD-DIABETES study: a case series report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Marcos, Manuel Ángel; Recio-Rodríguez, José Ignacio; Patino-Alonso, María Carmen; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Gómez-Sánchez, Leticia; Gomez-Sanchez, Marta; Rodríguez-Sanchez, Emiliano; Maderuelo-Fernandez, Jose Angel; García-Ortiz, Luís

    2015-01-16

    The cardio ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a new index of the overall stiffness of the artery from the origin of the aorta to the ankle. This index can estimate the risk of atherosclerosis. We aimed to find the relationship between CAVI and target organ damage (TOD), vascular structure and function, and cardiovascular risk factors in Caucasian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome. We included 110 subjects from the LOD-Diabetes study, whose mean age was 61 ± 11 years, and 37.3% were women. Measurements of CAVI, brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV), and ankle brachial index (ABI) were taken using the VaSera device. Cardiovascular risk factors, renal function by creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, and albumin creatinine index were also obtained, as well as cardiac TOD with ECG and vascular TOD and carotid intima media thickness (IMT), carotid femoral PWV (cf-PWV), and the central and peripheral augmentation index (CAIx and PAIx). The Framingham-D'Agostino scale was used to measure cardiovascular risk. Mean CAVI was 8.7 ± 1.3. More than half (54%) of the participants showed one or more TOD (10% cardiac, 13% renal; 48% vascular), and 13% had ba-PWV ≥ 17.5 m/s. Patients with any TOD had the highest CAVI values: 1.15 (CI 95% 0.70 to 1.61, p < 0.001) and 1.14 (CI 95% 0.68 to 1.60, p < 0.001) when vascular TOD was presented, and 1.30 (CI 95% 0.51 to 2.10, p = 0.002) for the cardiac TOD. The CAVI values had a positive correlation with HbA1c and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and a negative correlation with waist circumference and body mass index. The positive correlations of CAVI with IMT (β = 0.29; p < 0.01), cf-PWV (β = 0.83; p < 0.01), ba-PWV (β = 2.12; p < 0.01), CAIx (β = 3.42; p < 0.01), and PAIx (β = 5.05; p = 0.04) remained after adjustment for cardiovascular risk, body mass index, and antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and antidiabetic drugs. The

  1. Understanding Vascular Endothelium

    OpenAIRE

    Gimbrone, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding Vascular Endothelium : Nature’s Container for Blood The entire cardiovascular system, from the chambers of the heart to the smallest capillaries of peripheral tissues, is lined by a single-cell-thick continuous layer—the vascular endothelium. For many years, this gossamer membrane was thought to function largely as an inert barrier, passively separating the reactive components of the circulating blood from the cells and connective tissue matrix of the various organs of the body....

  2. Hypercholesterolaemia and vascular dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Appleton, Jason P.; Scutt, Polly; Sprigg, Nikola; Bath, Philip M.

    2017-01-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second commonest cause of dementia. Stroke is the leading cause of disability in adults in developed countries, the second major cause of dementia and the third commonest cause of death. Traditional vascular risk factors–diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension and smoking–are implicated as risk factors for VaD. The associations between cholesterol and small vessel disease (SVD), stroke, cognitive impairment and subsequent dementia are complex and as yet no...

  3. Adsorption of egg albumin onto methylated yeast biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira; Maruyama, Hideo

    2004-02-15

    A new biosorbent, methylated yeast (MeYE), was prepared for the adsorptive separation of proteins from aqueous solutions. Yeast was methylated in a 0.1 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 80% of the carboxylic groups of yeast could be methylated within 9 h. The adsorption of egg albumin onto MeYE was studied to evaluate the protein adsorption ability of MeYE. At near neutral pH, egg albumin was scarcely adsorbed onto unmethylated yeast and the adsorbed amount of egg albumin increased with increasing methylation degree. The amount of egg albumin adsorbed onto MeYE increased with increasing pH from 4 to 7 and steeply decreased above pH 7. The Langmuir isotherm was applied to determine the apparent adsorption constant and the saturated adsorbed amount of egg albumin on MeYE. Both the apparent adsorption constant and the saturated adsorbed amount increased with the degree of methylation. The saturated adsorbed amount of egg albumin onto MeYE having methylation degree 77% was 8.41 x 10(-6) mol g(-1) or 0.378 gg(-1) at near neutral pH.

  4. Adsorption of albumin on prosthetic materials: implication for tribological behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serro, A P; Gispert, M P; Martins, M C L; Brogueira, P; Colaço, R; Saramago, B

    2006-09-01

    The orthopedic prosthesis used to substitute damaged natural joints are lubricated by a pseudosynovial fluid that contains biological macromolecules with potential boundary lubrication properties. Proteins are some of those macromolecules whose role in the lubrication process is not yet completely understood. In a previous work, we investigated the influence of the presence of albumin, the major synovial protein, upon the tribological behavior of three of the most used pairs of artificial joint materials: ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) against counterfaces of alumina, CoCrMo alloy, and 316L stainless steel. Albumin was found to cause a significant decrease in the friction coefficient when the counterfaces were metallic because transfer of UHMWPE was avoided, but this effect was much weaker in the case of alumina. The objective of the present work was to look for an explanation for these differences in tribological behavior in terms of albumin adsorption. With this goal, studies on adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the counterface materials, from a biological model fluid (Hanks' balanced salt solution), were carried out using radiolabeled albumin ((125)I-BSA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The conclusion from all techniques is that the driving force for albumin adsorption is higher on the metals than on alumina. These results confirm that the greater the amount of protein adsorbed on the counterface, the more efficient is the protection against the transfer of polymeric film to the counterface.

  5. Mineralisation of two phosphate ceramics in HBSS: role of albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, P A A P; Serro, A P; Saramago, B J; Fernandes, A C; Magalhães, M C F; Correia, R N

    2003-02-01

    The role of albumin in the mineralisation process of commercial hydroxyapatite (HAp) and synthesised biphasic (HAp-tricalcium phosphate) ceramics in a bufferless simulated inorganic plasma (HBSS) was investigated by conventional in vitro tests and static and dynamic wettability measurements. Albumin was either pre-adsorbed or solubilised in HBSS. It was found that calcium complexation by albumin plays a key role in early mineralisation kinetics, so that mineralisation is favoured when albumin is pre-adsorbed and hindered when it is dissolved in HBSS. In the biphasic ceramic this picture is complicated by the fact that albumin, in solution, seems to promote the dissolution of tricalcium phosphate, and simultaneously compete for calcium with the ceramic. It also appears that albumin has a stabilising effect of octacalcium phosphate present in deposits on commercial HAp. The same effect may be present in the case of the biphasic ceramic, at earlier mineralisation times, when octacalcium phosphate appears as a precursor of HAp. Octacalcium phosphate formation on commercial apatite is accompanied by carbonate substitution in phosphate positions.

  6. Fluorescence lifetime measurements of native and glycated human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Narahari V.; Joshi, Virgina O. d.; Contreras, Silvia; Gil, Herminia; Medina, Honorio; Siemiarczuk, Aleksander

    1999-05-01

    Nonenzymatic glycation, also known as Maillard reaction, plays an important role in the secondary complications of the diabetic pathology and aging, therefore, human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were glycated by a conventional method in our laboratory using glucose as the glycating agent. Fluorescence lifetime measurements were carried out with a laser strobe fluorometer equipped with a nitrogen/dye laser and a frequency doubler as a pulsed excitation source. The samples were excited at 295 nm and the emission spectra were recorded at 345 nm. The obtained decay curves were tried for double and triple exponential functions. It has been found that the shorter lifetime increases for glycated proteins as compared with that of the native ones. For example, in the case of glycated BSA the lifetime increased from 1.36 ns to 2.30 ns. Similarly, for HSA, the lifetime increases from 1.58 ns to 2.26 ns. Meanwhile, the longer lifetime changed very slightly for both proteins (from 6.52 ns to 6.72 ns). The increase in the lifetime can be associated with the environmental effect; originated from the attachment of glucose to some lysine residues. A good example is Trp 214 which is in the cage of Lys 225, Lys 212, Lys 233, Lys 205, Lys 500, Lys 199 and Lys 195. If fluorescence lifetime technique is calibrated and properly used it could be employed for assessing glycation of proteins.

  7. Combination of low body mass index and serum albumin level is associated with chronic kidney disease progression: the chronic kidney disease-research of outcomes in treatment and epidemiology (CKD-ROUTE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hiroaki; Kanda, Eiichiro; Mandai, Shintaro; Akazawa, Masanobu; Iimori, Soichiro; Oi, Katsuyuki; Naito, Shotaro; Noda, Yumi; Toda, Takayuki; Tamura, Teiichi; Sasaki, Sei; Sohara, Eisei; Okado, Tomokazu; Rai, Tatemitsu; Uchida, Shinichi

    2017-02-01

    The relationship between protein-energy wasting and chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression is unknown. In the present prospective cohort study, we evaluated the hypothesis that a combination of low body mass index (BMI) and serum albumin level is associated with rapid CKD progression. The study cohort comprised 728 predialysis Japanese patients with CKD (stages 2-5) enrolled from 2010 to 2011. Patients were categorized into four groups according to their serum albumin levels and BMI: group 1, low serum albumin level (<4 g/dL) and low BMI (<23.5 kg/m(2)); group 2, high serum albumin level (≥4 g/dL) and low BMI; group 3, low serum albumin level and high BMI (≥23.5 kg/m(2)); and group 4, high serum albumin level and high BMI. The primary outcome was a 30 % decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or start of dialysis within 2 years. The secondary outcome was an annual GFR decline (mL/min/1.73 m(2)/year). Logistic regression analysis adjusted for baseline characteristics (reference, group 4) showed that only group 1 was associated with a significant risk of CKD progression, with adjusted odds ratio of 3.51 [95 % confidence interval (CI) (1.63, 7.56)]. A multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for baseline characteristics showed a significant difference in annual eGFR decline between groups 1 and 4 [coefficients β (standard error) -2.62 (0.75), p = 0.001]. This study suggests that combined effects of low BMI (<23.5 kg/m(2)) and serum albumin level (<4 g/dL) are associated with CKD progression.

  8. Proteinuria precedes podocyte abnormalities inLamb2–/– mice, implicating the glomerular basement membrane as an albumin barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarad, George; Cunningham, Jeanette; Shaw, Andrey S.; Miner, Jeffrey H.

    2006-01-01

    Primary defects in either podocytes or the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) cause proteinuria, a fact that complicates defining the barrier to albumin. Laminin β2 (LAMB2) is a GBM component required for proper functioning of the glomerular filtration barrier. To investigate the GBM’s role in glomerular filtration, we characterized GBM and overlying podocyte architecture in relation to development and progression of proteinuria in Lamb2–/– mice, which model Pierson syndrome, a rare congenital nephrotic syndrome. We found ectopic deposition of several laminins and mislocalization of anionic sites in the GBM, which together suggest that the Lamb2–/– GBM is severely disorganized, although it is ultrastructurally intact. Importantly, albuminuria was detectable shortly after birth and preceded podocyte foot process effacement and loss of slit diaphragms by at least 7 days. Expression and localization of slit diaphragm and foot process–associated proteins appeared normal at early stages. GBM permeability to the electron-dense tracer ferritin was dramatically elevated in Lamb2–/– mice, even before widespread foot process effacement. Increased ferritin permeability was not observed in nephrotic CD2-associated protein–null (Cd2ap–/–) mice, which have a primary podocyte defect. Together these data show that the GBM serves as a barrier to protein in vivo and that the glomerular slit diaphragm alone is not sufficient to prevent the passage of albumin into the urinary space. PMID:16886065

  9. Pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease: evidence for the role of reduced heparan sulfate proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tonny Joran

    1997-01-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetic patients with increased urinary albumin excretion are characterized by elevated blood pressure and declining kidney function. In addition, such patients have a high risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease, proliferative retinopathy, and cardiomyopathy, suggesting...... that albuminuria is a marker of widespread vascular dysfunction. Increased transport of macromolecules across the vascular wall, elevated plasma levels of von Willebrand factor, and impaired fibrinolytic capacity have been demonstrated in albuminuric patients. The cause of this vascular vulnerability...... in susceptible patients is unknown, but increasing evidence has suggested that loss of the proteoglycan heparan sulfate in the vasculature may explain the widespread nature of the disease. Heparan sulfate is important for the glomerular endothelial cell and basement membrane charge densities, the anticoagulant...

  10. Antioxidants and vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Mazzaglia, Donatella; Doldo, Elena; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-12-15

    Oxygen free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common products of normal aerobic cellular metabolism, but high levels of ROS lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage. Increased production of ROS favors vascular dysfunction, inducing altered vascular permeability and inflammation, accompanied by the loss of vascular modulatory function, the imbalance between vasorelaxation and vasoconstriction, and the aberrant expression of inflammatory adhesion molecules. Inflammatory stimuli promote oxidative stress generated from the increased activity of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, particularly of the Nox4 isoform, with the consequent impairment of mitochondrial β-oxidation. Vascular dysfunction due to the increase in Nox4 activity and ROS overproduction leads to the progression of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and neurological disorders. Considerable research into the development of effective antioxidant therapies using natural derivatives or new synthetic molecules has been conducted. Antioxidants may prevent cellular damage by reducing ROS overproduction or interfering in reactions that involve ROS. Vitamin E and ascorbic acid are well known as natural antioxidants that counteract lipid peroxidative damage by scavenging oxygen-derived free radicals, thus restoring vascular function. Recently, preliminary studies on natural antioxidants such as goji berries, thymus, rosemary, green tea ginseng, and garlic have been conducted for their efficacy in preventing vascular damage. N-acetyl-cysteine and propionyl-L-carnitine are synthetic compounds that regulate ROS production by replacing endogenous antioxidants in both endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In this review, we consider the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of oxidative stress-induced vascular dysfunction as well as the beneficial effects of antioxidant therapies.

  11. Efficient filtration system for paraffin-catalyst slurry separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodagholi Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The filtration efficiency for separating liquid paraffin (or water from a slurry consisting of 25 weight% spherical alumina in a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR comprised of a cylindrical tube of 10 cm diameter and 150 cm length was studied. Various differential pressures (ΔP were applied to two separate tubular sintered metal stainless steel filter elements with nominal pore size of 4 and 16μm. The experimental results disclosed that the rate of filtrations increased on applying higher differential pressure to the filter element. Albeit this phenomenon is limited to moderate ΔPs and for ΔP more than 1 bar is neither harmful nor helpful. The highest filtration rates at ΔPs higher than 1 bar were 170 and 248 ml/minute for 4 and 16μm respectively. Using water as the liquid in slurry the rate of filtration enhanced to 4 folds, and this issue reveals impact of viscosity on filtration efficiency clearly. In all situations, the total amount of particles present in the filtrate part never exceeded a few parts per million (ppm. The statistical analysis of the SEM image of the filtrate indicated that by applying higher pressure difference to the filter element the frequency percent of larger particle size increases. The operation of filter cake removing was performed with back flashing of 300 ml of clean liquid with pressures of 3-5 bar of N2 gas.

  12. THE REACTIONS OF DENATURED EGG ALBUMIN WITH FERRICYANIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, M L

    1939-11-20

    The following facts have been established experimentally. 1. In the presence of the synthetic detergent, Duponol PC, there is a definite reaction between dilute ferricyanide and denatured egg albumin. 0.001 mM of ferrocyanide is formed by the oxidation of 10 mg. of denatured egg albumin despite considerable variation in the time, temperature, and pH of the reaction and in the concentration of ferricyanide. 2. If the concentration of ferricyanide is sufficiently high, then the reaction between ferricyanide and denatured egg albumin in Duponol solution is indefinite. More ferrocyanide is formed the longer the time of reaction, the higher the temperature, the more alkaline the solution, and the higher the concentration of ferricyanide. 3. Denatured egg albumin which has been treated with formaldehyde or iodoacetamide, both of which abolish the SH groups of cysteine, does not reduce dilute ferricyanide in Duponol PC solution. 4. Cysteine is the only amino acid which is known to have a definite reaction with ferricyanide or which is known to react with dilute ferricyanide at all. The cysteine-free proteins which have been tried do not reduce dilute ferricyanide in Duponol PC solution. 5. Concentrated ferricyanide oxidizes cystine, tyrosine, and tryptophane and proteins which contain these amino acids but not cysteine. The reactions are indefinite, more ferrocyanide being formed, the higher the temperature and the concentration of ferricyanide. 6. The amount of ferrocyanide formed from denatured egg albumin and a given amount of ferricyanide is less in the absence than in the presence of Duponol PC. 7. The amount of ferrocyanide formed when denatured egg albumin reacts with ferricyanide in the absence of Duponol PC depends on the temperature and ferricyanide concentration throughout the whole range of ferricyanide concentrations, even in the low range of ferricyanide concentrations in which ferricyanide does not react with amino adds other than cysteine. The foregoing

  13. Filtration application from recycled expanded polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, C

    2006-10-01

    Water-in-oil emulsion with drop size less than 100 mum is difficult to separate. Coalescence filtration is economical and effective for separation of secondary dispersions. Coalescence performance depends on flow rate, bed depth, fiber surface properties, and drop size. The amount of surface area of the fibers directly affects the efficiency. A new recycling method was investigated in the previous work in which polystyrene (PS) sub-mum fibers were electro-spun from recycled expanded polystyrene (EPS). These fibers are mixed with micro glass fibers to modify the glass fiber filter media. The filter media are tested in the separation of water droplets from an emulsion of water droplets in oil. The experimental results in this work show that adding nanofibers to conventional micron sized fibrous filter media improves the separation efficiency of the filter media but also increases the pressure drop. An optimum in the performance occurs (significant increase in efficiency with minimal increase in pressure drop) with the addition of about 4% by mass of 500 nm diameter PS nanofibers to glass fibers for the filters.

  14. Crosslinked polytriazole membranes for organophilic filtration

    KAUST Repository

    Chisca, Stefan

    2016-12-30

    We report the preparation of crosslinked membranes for organophilic filtration, by reacting a new polytriazole with free OH groups, using non-toxic poly (ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDE). The OH-functionalized polymer was obtained by converting the oxadiazole to triazole rings with high yield (98%). The maximum degree of crosslinking is achieved after 6 h of reaction. The crosslinked polytriazole membranes are stable in a wide range of organic solvents and show high creep recovery, indicating the robustness of crosslinked membranes. The influence of different casting solutions and different crosslinking time on the membrane morphology and membrane performance was investigated. The membranes performance was studied in dimethylformamide (DMF) and (tetrahydrofuran) THF. We achieved a permeance for THF of 49 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 for membranes with molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of 7 kg mol−1 and a permeance for THF of 17.5 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 for membranes with MWCO of 3 kg mol−1. Our data indicate that by using the new polytriazole is possible to adjust the pore dimensions of the membranes to have a MWCO, which covers ultra- and nanofiltration range.

  15. Filtration of submicrometer particles by pelagic tunicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kelly R; Madin, Laurence P; Stocker, Roman

    2010-08-24

    Salps are common in oceanic waters and have higher per-individual filtration rates than any other zooplankton filter feeder. Although salps are centimeters in length, feeding via particle capture occurs on a fine, mucous mesh (fiber diameter d approximately 0.1 microm) at low velocity (U = 1.6 +/- 0.6 cmxs(-1), mean +/- SD) and is thus a low Reynolds-number (Re approximately 10(-3)) process. In contrast to the current view that particle encounter is dictated by simple sieving of particles larger than the mesh spacing, a low-Re mathematical model of encounter rates by the salp feeding apparatus for realistic oceanic particle-size distributions shows that submicron particles, due to their higher abundances, are encountered at higher rates (particles per time) than larger particles. Data from feeding experiments with 0.5-, 1-, and 3-microm diameter polystyrene spheres corroborate these findings. Although particles larger than 1 microm (e.g., flagellates, small diatoms) represent a larger carbon pool, smaller particles in the 0.1- to 1-microm range (e.g., bacteria, Prochlorococcus) may be more quickly digestible because they present more surface area, and we find that particles smaller than the mesh size (1.4 microm) can fully satisfy salp energetic needs. Furthermore, by packaging submicrometer particles into rapidly sinking fecal pellets, pelagic tunicates can substantially change particle-size spectra and increase downward fluxes in the ocean.

  16. Fibrosis of the Choroid Plexus Filtration Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parratt, John D. E.; Kirwan, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    We report a previously undescribed inflammatory lesion consisting of deposition of activated complement (C3d and C9neo) in association with major histocompatibility complex type II (MHC2)-positive activated microglia in choroid plexus villi exhibiting classical fibrous thickening of the pericapillary filtration membrane. The proportion of villi affected ranged from 5% to 90% in 56 adult subjects with diseases of the CNS and 11 subjects with no preexisting disease of the CNS. In 3 of the 4 children studied, 2% or less of examined villi showed stromal thickening, complement deposition, and the presence of MHC2-positive microglia; in adults, the proportion of villi affected increased with age. Other features of the lesion included loss of capillaries and failure by macrophages to clear extracellular particulate electron-dense material by clathrin-mediated phagocytosis. This choroid plexus lesion may relate pathogenetically to age-related macular degeneration and to Alzheimer disease, 2 other conditions with no known risk factors other than increasing age. All 3 conditions are characterized by the presence of damaged capillaries, inflammatory extracellular aggregates of mixed molecular composition and defective clearance of the deposits by macrophages. PMID:27444353

  17. Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Garasto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at reviewing age-related changes in kidney structure and function, methods for estimating kidney function, and impact of reduced kidney function on geriatric outcomes, as well as the reliability and applicability of equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate (eGFR in older patients. CKD is associated with different comorbidities and adverse outcomes such as disability and premature death in older populations. Creatinine clearance and other methods for estimating kidney function are not easy to apply in older subjects. Thus, an accurate and reliable method for calculating eGFR would be highly desirable for early detection and management of CKD in this vulnerable population. Equations based on serum creatinine, age, race, and gender have been widely used. However, these equations have their own limitations, and no equation seems better than the other ones in older people. New equations specifically developed for use in older populations, especially those based on serum cystatin C, hold promises. However, further studies are needed to definitely accept them as the reference method to estimate kidney function in older patients in the clinical setting.

  18. Swine wastewater treatment by media filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szögi, A A; Humenik, F J; Rice, J M; Hunt, P G

    1997-09-01

    A media filter was constructed to treat swine wastewater after anaerobic lagoon treatment. The media filter consisted of a tank (1.5-m-diameter x 0.6-m-height) filled with marl gravel. The marl gravel had a carbonate content of 300 g kg-1. Gravel particle size distributions were 85 and 14% in the 4.7- to 12.7-mm and 12.7- to 19-mm size classes, respectively. Pore space of the filtration unit was 57%. Wastewater flow rate was 606 L m-2 d-1, and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) load was 198 g m-2 d-1. The media filter removed 54% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) content after one cycle, but increased cycling did not produce additional COD reduction. Total suspended solids (TSS) removal after one cycle was 50% of initial levels, and additional cycling reduced TSS levels at a much lower rate of 7% per cycle. Removal efficiencies for total phosphorus (TP) ranged from 37% to 52% (one to four cycles), but long-term phosphorus removal would be limited by the sorption capacity of the gravel. Up to 24% of TKN was converted to nitrate-plus-nitrite-N (NO3+NO2-N). Effluents with high NO3+NO2-N levels can be treated further for denitrification with constructed wetlands or anaerobic lagoon. This is important in cases where land is limited for wastewater application.

  19. Rapid analysis of the interactions between drugs and human serum albumin (HSA) using high-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Seung; Wainer, Irving W

    2008-07-01

    This study used a combination of zonal elution and frontal affinity chromatography on immobilized human serum albumin (HSA) high-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) column to examine the association constants of various compounds that have been studied by equilibrium dialysis or ultra filtration. A standard plot was generated from retention factors of reference compounds using zonal elution chromatography against association constants of reference compounds using frontal affinity chromatography. The linear relationship was established (r2=0.9993) between retention factors and association constants of reference compounds. This standard plot was later used for rapid determination of association constants of various drugs which show low to medium binding affinity to HSA. Association constants of those drugs from this study were compared to that of more generally used methods (i.e., equilibrium dialysis or ultra filtration) from literature and resulted in a relatively high correlation (r2=0.945) value. This combination of zonal elution and frontal affinity chromatography method for determining association constants showed several advantages against traditional methods. Depending on drugs of interest, an association constant of drug to HSA can be measured as fast as 1.5 min. Other notable advantages include an ease of automation and its ability to distinguish association constants of chiral compounds at the same time. The same approach could be used for studying interaction of other drugs and proteins and should further improve overall drug screening process.

  20. From placenta to podocyte: vascular and podocyte pathophysiology in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Steven J; Craici, Iasmina M; Grande, Joseph P; Garovic, Vesna D

    2012-09-01

    Preeclampsia is a disorder of hypertension and proteinuria that affects 6 - 8% of normal pregnancies. Recent research has revealed many molecular mechanisms that may contribute to systemic endothelial dysfunction, glomerular capillary endotheliosis, dysregulation of the glomerular filtration apparatus, and podocyte loss. An ischemic placenta elaborates soluble FMS-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1), a soluble receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). A variety of mediators, including nitric oxide, Angiotensin II receptor autoantibodies (AT1AA), and endothelin-1 may serve to maintain placental ischemia and systemic endothelial dysfunction. Endothelin-1 and decreased vascular endothelial growth factor may adversely affect overall expression and distribution of podocyte foot process proteins, leading to proteinuria. Podocyte derangements may lead to podocyte apoptosis and loss, as evidenced by the detection of live podocytes and podocyte products in the urine of preeclamptic women. In this review, we explore recent research elucidating the interactions of placenta, endothelium, and podocyte leading to the clinical syndrome of preeclampsia.

  1. Multiple particle retention mechanisms during filtration in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A; Barros, P H L

    2010-04-01

    A statistical model for filtration in porous media is proposed and analytical solutions for particle concentrations are derived. The proposed model takes multiple particle capture mechanisms into account and allows a fundamental physical interpretation of the filtration coefficients. Considering two distinct particle capture mechanisms, the inverse problem solution was discussed and applied to determine the filtration coefficients by fitting experimental data from the literature. Finally, a comparison between the classic and proposed model predictions led to the conclusion that the proposed model showed better agreement with experimental data.

  2. C-reactive protein variability is associated with vascular access outcome in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wei-Hung; Lee, Yueh-Ting; Ng, Hwee-Yeong; Wang, Chun-Yeh; Wu, Chien-Hsing; Lee, Chien-Te

    2018-01-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) vascular access failure is one of the most important causes of morbidity and contributes to the cost of dialysis care. There is paucity of data evaluating long-term monitoring of C-reactive protein (CRP) on outcome of HD vascular access. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate whether variability of serum CRP level was associated with vascular access failure rate over a 7-year period. A total of 318 HD patients were included. Their demographic data, co-morbidities and biochemical data were reviewed and collected. Serum high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) level was measured every 6 months. Patients were divided into three groups according to their serial hs-CRP levels. Patients with their hs-CRP below 2 mg/L were defined as low group (n=65, 20.4%) and those with higher than 4 mg/L were defined as high (n=39, 12.3%). The rest were classified as fluctuated hs-CRP group (n=214, 67.3%). Treatment of vascular access failure includes angioplasty and access re-creation. Their body mass index, indicators of dialysis adequacy and serum albumin and hs-CRP levels differed significantly among three groups. The annual vascular access failure rate was significantly higher in fluctuated hs-CRP group than in high hs-CRP group (0.41 vs 0.36, P=.037). Serum albumin was a significant associate of vascular access failure. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated patients with high or fluctuated hs-CRP had shorter free interval of vascular access failure than low hs-CRP group. HD patients with fluctuated hs-CRP levels were associated with increased vascular access failure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. THE REACTIONS OF IODINE AND IODOACETAMIDE WITH NATIVE EGG ALBUMIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, M L

    1940-01-20

    The following experimental results have been obtained. 1. Native egg albumin treated with iodine and then denatured no longer gives a nitroprusside test or reduces dilute ferricyanide in neutral Duponol PC solution. 2. More iodine is needed to abolish the ferricyanide reduction if the reaction between native egg albumin and iodine is carried out at pH 6.8 than if the reaction is carried out at pH 3.2. At pH 6.8 iodine reacts with tyrosine as well as with cysteine. 3. Cysteine and tryptophane are the only amino acids with reducing groups which are known to react with dilute iodine at pH 3.2 The reducing power of cysteine is abolished by the reaction with iodine, whereas the reducing power of tryptophane remains intact. Pepsin and chymotrypsinogen which contain tryptophane but not cysteine, do not react at all with dilute iodine at pH 3.2. 4. Native egg albumin treated with iodoacetamide at pH 9.0 and then denatured by Duponol PC reduces only 60 per cent as much dilute ferricyanide as egg albumin which has not been treated with iodoacetamide. 5. The SH group is the only protein reducing group which is known to react with iodoacetamide. The simplest explanation of the new observation that the SH groups of egg albumin can be modified by reactions with the native form of the protein is that the native egg albumin has free and accessible but relatively unreactive SH groups which can react with iodine and iodoacetamide despite the fact that they do not react with ferricyanide, porphyrindin, or nitroprusside. Preliminary experiments suggested by the results with egg albumin indicate that the tobacco mosaic virus is modified by iodine at pH 2.8 without being inactivated and that the tobacco mosaic and rabbit papilloma viruses are not inactivated by iodoacetamide at pH 8.0.

  4. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asami Ota

    Full Text Available Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults.We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES. The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models.With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was -0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, -0.33 to -0.01 g/L. The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when "body mass index", "consumption of meat or fish", "self-rated health", "presence of medical conditions", "hyperlipidemia", or "respiratory disease "was included in the model.Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways.

  5. Using egg albumin foam to extinguish fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hytham A. Alsaati

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil, coal and chemical fires are often difficult to put out using water. In certain hydrocarbon fires, protein foam can extinguish fires better than water by keeping air (oxygen away from the flames and by ''blowing'' the flame away from its fuel source. Egg albumin is a relatively inexpensive protein and is representative of foaming proteins, which are candidates for use as fire suppression agents. This paper begins to deal with the effect of the foam bulk pH, foam protein concentration and generating air flow rate into the foam on the fire extinguishing time in laboratory experiments. A Bunsen burner was used to generate a small, controlled laboratory fire within a plastic container, which represented a point source in a partially open room in the experiments. The Bunsen burner represents a gaseous hydrocarbon fire, which can be difficult to extinguish. Both a low pH foam and one made with a high air flow rate favor a reduction in time required to put out the Bunsen burner flame.Chamas produzidas por óleo, carvão e produtos químicos (incêndios provocados são difíceis de ser extinguidos com água. Algumas chamas de hidrocarbonetos podem ser extinguidas por espumas protéicas melhor do que a manutenção de ar (oxigênio fora do alcance das chamas ou pelo sopramento da chama para longe da sua fonte. Albumina de ovo é uma proteína relativamente barata e é representativa dentre as proteínas usadas como espuma para a (supressão extinção de agentes causadores de incêndio. Este artigo trata do estudo do efeito do pH e concentração da espuma protéica, além da geração de ar no interior da espuma, sobre o tempo de extinção de incêndio em experimentos laboratoriais. Nos experimentos um bico de Bunsen foi usado para gerar uma pequena chama, controlada em um container de plástico, representando uma fonte pontual em um ambiente parcialmente aberto. A chama do bico de Bunsen representa uma chama gasosa de hidrocarbonetos, que são dif

  6. Detection of platelet deposition in cases of arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) using indium-111 platelets and Tc-99m human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitagawa, Kazuo; Miyai, Motonobu; Etani, Hideki

    1987-02-01

    We evaluated platelet deposition in vivo in 10 patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) of the lower limbs and 8 normal subjects with a dual-tracer technique using indium-111 platelets and Tc-99m human serum albumin. Each patient with ASO showed intermittent claudication and angiographically occlusive vascular lesions in either the aorta, common iliac artery, external iliac artery, internal iliac artery or femoral artery. Of the 8 patients who were not under antiplatelet medication, 5 showed positive platelet deposition at angiographically occlusive vascular sites, whereas none of the normal subjects showed in vivo platelet deposition. In three patients who showed platelet deposition without antiplatelet medication and thereafter received aspirin therapy (650 mg/day), platelet deposition at all occlusive vascular sites was resolved after aspirin therapy. This preliminary study indicated that platelet scintigraphy might be useful in evaluating thrombogenicity and the effect of antiplatelet medication in vivo, in patients with ASO.

  7. Quantitative determination of albumin in microlitre amounts of rat serum: With a short note on serum albumin levels in ageing rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw-Israel, F.R. de; Arp-Neefjes, J.M.; Hollander, C.F.

    1967-01-01

    A simple dye binding method for determining rat serum albumin, which employs the anionic dye 2-(4′-hydroxybenzneeazo) benzoic acid (HBABA) is described. Albumin in 5μ1 of serum is determined colorimetrically. Purified rat albumin is used as a primary standard and rat serum as a reference sample.

  8. Vascularized epiphyseal transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Marco; Delcroix, Luca; Romano, G Federico; Capanna, Rodolfo

    2007-01-01

    In skeletally immature patients, the transfer of vascularized epiphysis along with a variable amount of adjoining diaphysis may provide the potential for growth of such a graft, preventing future limb length discrepancy. This article describes the authors' experience with the vascularized transfer of the proximal fibular epiphysis in the reconstruction of large bone defects including the epiphysis in a series of 27 patients ranging in age from 2 to 11 years. The follow-up, ranging from 2 to 14 years, has been long enough to allow some evaluation of the validity, indications, and limits of this reconstructive option.

  9. EVALUATION OF SERUM ALBUMIN LEVELS IN ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in the world. Serum albumin levels are inversely related with age, smoking, blood pressure and obesity. It is not clear whether low serum albumin level is a nonspecific , prognostic variable, a marker of subclinical disease, or whether it is a part of causal mechanism leading to death due to cardiovascular disease. Some studies have reported an inverse association between serum albumin and cardiovascular mortality but oth ers have not . 1 The association between serum albumin and cardiovascular mortality remains controversial. This study was done to evaluate the serum albumin levels in patients with ST segment elevation Myocardial infarction (STEMI over a period of three days from the date of admission and whether the changes had any relationship with the prognosis of the patient. AIM: to associate changes in serum albumin levels in AMI patients over a period of three days i.e., day zero - at the time of admission, day+1 - the following day(12 to 30hrs after collecting first sample, day +2(32 to 54 hrs after collecting first sample with the clinical prognosis of the patient. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : Prospective follow up study in patents admitted with AMI in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: 30 pati ents admitted with STEMI were included in the study and serum albumin levels were estimated in them on admission and for two days thereafter. Statistical analysis used. The data was analysed using SPSS 15.0, STATA 8.0, MEDLAC 9.0.1, And SYSTAT 11 softwares. Repeated measures analysis of variance and student t test was used to find the significance in changes of serum albumin levels and prognosis of the patient on different days. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: This study found that there was fall in serum albumin le vels in patients with AMI in the course of three days compared with the day of admission and it was significantly associated with bad prognosis.

  10. Association of Glomerular Filtration Rate with Inflammation in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilay Ozturk Gozukara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and to determine the relationship between GFR with C-reactive protein (CRP and uric acid. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, one-hundred and forty PCOS women and 60 healthy subjects were evaluated. The study was carried out at Endocrinology Outpatient Clinic, Erzurum Training and Research Hospital, Erzurum, Turkey, from December 2010 to January 2011. GFRs were estimated by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD formula. CRP, urinary albumin excretion (UAE and uric acid levels were also measured. Results: GFRs were significantly higher in PCOS group than control (135.24 ± 25.62 vs. 114.92 ± 24.07 ml/min per 1.73 m2. CRP levels were significantly higher in PCOS patients (4.4 ± 3.4 vs. 2.12 ± 1.5 mg/l. The PCOS group had significantly higher serum uric acid levels (4.36 ± 1.3 mg/dl vs. 3.2 ± 0.73 mg/dl. There was also significantly higher proteinuria level in PCOS patients. Conclusion: Even though PCOS patients had higher GFR, serum uric acid and UAE values than control patients, the renal function was within normal limits. Increased GFR in PCOS women positively correlates with elevated serum CRP and uric acid.

  11. Estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria in Korean population evaluated for cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kayoung; Kim, Jinseung

    2016-05-01

    This study's purpose was to examine established cardiovascular risk prediction model scores for their associations with albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in Korean population. We calculated the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk estimated score, Korean coronary heart disease risk prediction score (KRS), and the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III risk score for 9733 South Koreans, aged 40-79 years, who were not diagnosed with stroke, angina pectoris, or myocardial ischemia using data from the 2011-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The associations between cardiovascular risk model scores and the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and eGFR tended to be stronger for the ASCVD risk score than for the other risk scores. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for increased albuminuria (UACR ≥ 30 mg/g) and decreased eGFR (albuminuria in women). The ASCVD risk score had a stronger relationship with and better predicted albuminuria and eGFR than did the KRS and ATP III risk score.

  12. Comparison of estimated glomerular filtration rate values calculated using serum cystatin C and serum creatinine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Türkyürek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to compare estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR formulas based on cystatin C and serum creatinine and investigate whether the formulas can detect the renal damage at microalbuminuric level in diabetic patients. Methods: Totally, 99 type 2 diabetic patients were included and divided into 3 groups according to 24 hour urine albumin levels as normoalbuminuric group (group 1, microalbuminuric group (group 2 and macroalbuminuric group (group 3. Creatinine clearance, Cockcroft-Gault (C-G, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD, The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology (CKD-EPI, eGFR1, eGFR2 and eGFR3 levels were calculated using formulas. Results: There were significant differences between group 1-3 and group 2-3, but there was no significant difference between group 1 and 2 in calculated GFR levels. Cystatin C-based formulas were found to have a better correlation with creatinine clearance. Conclusion: As a result, cystatin C-based formulas were found to predict creatinine clearance better than the other calculated GFR formulas in diabetic patients. However none of the formulas can discriminate the renal damage at microalbuminuric level. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (2: 91-95

  13. Random times and enlargements of filtrations in a Brownian setting

    CERN Document Server

    Mansuy, Roger

    2006-01-01

    In November 2004, M. Yor and R. Mansuy jointly gave six lectures at Columbia University, New York. These notes follow the contents of that course, covering expansion of filtration formulae; BDG inequalities up to any random time; martingales that vanish on the zero set of Brownian motion; the Azéma-Emery martingales and chaos representation; the filtration of truncated Brownian motion; attempts to characterize the Brownian filtration. The book accordingly sets out to acquaint its readers with the theory and main examples of enlargements of filtrations, of either the initial or the progressive kind. It is accessible to researchers and graduate students working in stochastic calculus and excursion theory, and more broadly to mathematicians acquainted with the basics of Brownian motion.

  14. Scaling and particulate fouling in membrane filtration systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerlage, S.F.E.

    2001-01-01

    Membrane filtration technologies have emerged as cost competitive and viable techniques in drinking and industrial water production. Despite advancements in membrane manufacturing and technology, membrane scaling and fouling remain major problems and may limit future growth in the industry. Scaling

  15. Performance of multistage filtration using different filter media ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    2004-07-03

    Jul 3, 2004 ... This study was aimed at introducing multistage filtration (MSF) (a combination of slow-sand ... nated by human and animal wastes, as well as industrial and ... Geriza Irrigation Scheme (Blue Nile Health Project), Guder's.

  16. Response of arum lily calli to culture filtrate of Pectobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    . Kumar JV, Kumari BDR, Sujatha G, Castan E (2008). Production of plants resistant to Alternaria carthami via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis of safflower cv. NARI-6 treated with fungal culture filtrates. Plant Cell ...

  17. Water quality and treatment of river bank filtrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vet, W.W.J.M.; Van Genuchten, C.C.A.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    In drinking water production, river bank filtration has the advantages of dampening peak concentrations of many dissolved components, substantially removing many micropollutants and removing, virtually completely, the pathogens and suspended solids. The production aquifer is not only fed by the

  18. Water quality and treatment of river bank filtrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vet, W.W.J.M.; Van Genuchten, C.C.A.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    In drinking water production, river bank filtration has the advantages of dampening peak concentrations of many dissolved components, substantially removing many micropollutants and removing, virtually completely, the pathogens and suspended solids. The production aquifer is not only fed by the

  19. Filtration recovery of extracellular DNA from environmental ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    qPCR methods are able to analyze DNA from microbes within hours of collecting water samples, providing the promptest notification and public awareness possible when unsafe pathogenic levels are reached. Health risk, however, may be overestimated by the presence of extracellular DNA (eDNA) that is co-recovered by the filtration procedure which is the most commonly used method to concentrate target microbes from environmental waters. Using C. parvum 18S rRNA gene fragment as a representative of eDNA, we examined the impact of filters (types and pore sizes) and physiochemical properties of surface water samples on the recovery of spiked DNA. Our results indicated that binding affinities of various filter membranes were quantifiably different for eDNA fragments with the polycarbonate (PC) binding the least and mixed cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate (MCE) binding the most as evidenced by up to 16% recovery of the spiked plasmid DNA with a pore size of 0.2µm. Water quality parameters also had a distinct influence on the recovery of eDNA which was enhanced by the presence of high total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations and reduced pH. At pH 5.5, with 150mg/L of clay, DNA recovery was increased to as much as 18%. By shielding the negative charge, thus increasing the interaction of DNA and colloids, the increase of Na+ and Ca+2 concentrations resulted in more DNA binding and consequently more recovery from environmental water samples. Therefore, in addition

  20. Ghrelin binding to serum albumin and its biological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufrano, Daniela; Trejo, Sebastián A; Llovera, Ramiro E; Salgueiro, Mariano; Fernandez, Gimena; Martínez Damonte, Valentina; González Flecha, F Luis; Raingo, Jesica; Ermácora, Mario R; Perelló, Mario

    2016-11-15

    Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide hormone that plays a key role in the regulation of the body weight and glucose homeostasis. In plasma, ghrelin circulates bound to larger proteins whose identities are partially established. Here, we used size exclusion chromatography, mass spectrometry and isothermal titration microcalorimetry to show that ghrelin interacts with serum albumin. Furthermore, we found that such interaction displays an estimated dissociation constant (KD) in the micromolar range and involves albumin fatty-acid binding sites as well as the octanoyl moiety of ghrelin. Notably, albumin-ghrelin interaction reduces the spontaneous deacylation of the hormone. Both in vitro experiments-assessing ghrelin ability to inhibit calcium channels-and in vivo studies-evaluating ghrelin orexigenic effects-indicate that the binding to albumin affects the bioactivity of the hormone. In conclusion, our results suggest that ghrelin binds to serum albumin and that this interaction impacts on the biological activity of the hormone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrically or ultrasonically enhanced membrane filtration of wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylloenen, H. [VTT Processes, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2005-10-15

    Flux decline due to concentration polarisation and membrane fouling is a serious problem in membrane filtration. In this thesis the effect of an external DC electric or ultrasonic field separately on the flux in crossflow membrane filtration of wastewater samples was studied. Significant enhancement of the flux compared with the flux with no electric field was achieved in the filtration of model wastewater. The most important parameters for the flux enhancement were the electrophoretic mobility and the applied electric field strength. However, the average electrophoretic mobility of the charged particles in the industrial wastewater samples studied was usually only slightly negative. Thus enhancements when using appropriate electric field strengths were not good enough. Another problem with the industrial wastewater samples was the high conductivity, which caused high consumption of energy. Ultrasound irradiation also provided enhancement in membrane filtration of wastewaters. There are several factors, which affect the cavitation and thus influence the effectiveness of ultrasound in membrane fouling prevention. This thesis was focused on the suitable ultrasound propagation direction and the effect of the transmembrane pressure, which previously have got little attention in the research of ultrasound assisted membrane filtration. According to this study a low frequency ultrasound irradiation from the permeate side of the tight membrane at the transmembrane pressure of zero bar is efficient and, at the same time, a gentle method in membrane cleaning. For open membranes the ultrasound propagation direction should be different or the irradiation from the feed side should be combined with other cleaning techniques. Electrofiltration is not a universal method for the filtration of industrial wastewater. It is a competitive method, when the average electrophoretic mobility in the sample is high and the conductivity is low. Ultrasound assisted filtration is less dependent

  2. Scaling and particulate fouling in membrane filtration systems

    OpenAIRE

    Boerlage, S.F.E.

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade, pressure driven membrane filtration processes; reverse osmosis, nano, ultra and micro-filtration have undergone steady growth. Drivers for this growth include desalination to combat water scarcity and the removal of various material from water to comply with increasingly stringent environmental legislation e.g. Giardia and Cryptosporidum removal guidelines of the Surface Water Treatment Rule (USA). Innovations in membrane manufacturing and process conditions have ...

  3. Local solution method for the problem of enlargement of filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Shiqi

    2013-01-01

    The enlargement of filtration theory is a study of semimartingales when the basic filtration changes. This theory provides particular techniques on stochastic calculus. We present here a technique, that we call the local solution method. We will show, with several examples, that the local solution method is an effective and flexible method. In particular, with the local solution method, we will give a unified proof of three of the classical formulas, namely Jacod's formula, the progressive en...

  4. Glomerular filtration barrier in rat offspring exposed to maternal undernutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh H. Alwasel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Poor diet during pregnancy can increase blood pressure in offspring of human and laboratory animals. The present study examined the effects of moderate intrauterine undernutrition on the ultrastructure of the glomerular filtration barrier in 20-day-old rat fetuses and six-month-old rat offspring. Pregnant rats were provided with either ad libitum food during pregnancy (control group, C or restricted to 50% of ad libitum food until delivery (food-restricted group, FR. Both groups were given free access to food after birth. The kidneys of embryonic day 20 and six-month-old rats were harvested. Transmission electron micrographs in glomeruli from both groups were obtained to study the ultrastructure of the glomerular filtration barrier. Blood pressure and glomerular filtration rate were measured in six-month-old rats. In comparison to the control group, the FR group had smaller body and kidney weights in both ages. Systemic blood pressure was significantly elevated in the FR group. The glomerular filtration rate was similar in both groups. A study of the glomerular ultrastructure showed a remarkable retardation in the development of the podocyte foot process in the FR group at embryonic day 20. Micrographs also showed remarkable changes in the glomerular filtration barrier of six-month-old rats including an increase in the thickness of the glomerular basement membrane and an increase in the width of filtration slits. These results suggest that maternal food restriction disturbs the development of the glomerular filtration barrier, which may contribute to hypertension in adult rat offspring. The long-term exposure to hypertension and glomerular hyperfiltration may have contributed to the damages observed in the glomerular filtration barrier of six-month-old rats exposed to intrauterine food restriction.

  5. Association of Microalbuminuria and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate With Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehdashti Shahrokh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Atherosclerosis is the main cause of cardiovascular diseases, and its risk enhances in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT by carotid artery ultrasonography and assess its correlation with microalbuminuria and estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR in the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was included 205 patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM. We recorded clinical and biochemical data such as FBS, lipid profile, and urinary albumin. Intima-media thickness of carotid arteries was measured in all patients by high frequency ultrasound. Results In simple correlation coefficients analysis, CIMT was significantly associated with total cholesterol (r = 0.197, P = 0.008, serum creatinine (r = 0.240, P = 0.001, and urinary albumin (r = 0.420, P = 0.000. Also, CIMT elevated significantly with the stage progression of chronic kidney disease (0.67 ± 0.15 mm in stage 1, 0.73 ± 0.22 mm in stage 2, and 0.82 ± 0.21 mm in stage 3 (P value = 0.024. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the duration of diabetes, weight, HDL, serum creatinine, urinary albumin, and estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR were independently associated with CIMT (P value < 0.05 for all. Conclusions Our study shows a relationship between CIMT and renal parameters, including eGFR and albuminuria. This study confirms the importance of intensive examinations for early detection of atherosclerosis and treatment of risk factors.

  6. Wind Turbine Gearbox Oil Filtration and Condition Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Shuangwen

    2015-10-25

    This is an invited presentation for a pre-conference workshop, titled advances and opportunities in lubrication: wind turbine, at the 2015 Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers (STLE) Tribology Frontiers Conference held in Denver, CO. It gives a brief overview of wind turbine gearbox oil filtration and condition monitoring by highlighting typical industry practices and challenges. The presentation starts with an introduction by covering recent growth of global wind industry, reliability challenges, benefits of oil filtration and condition monitoring, and financial incentives to conduct wind operation and maintenance research, which includes gearbox oil filtration and condition monitoring work presented herein. Then, the presentation moves on to oil filtration by stressing the benefits of filtration, discussing typical main- and offline-loop practices, highlighting important factors considered when specifying a filtration system, and illustrating real-world application challenges through a cold-start example. In the next section on oil condition monitoring, a discussion on oil sample analysis, oil debris monitoring, oil cleanliness measurements and filter analysis is given based on testing results mostly obtained by and at NREL, and by pointing out a few challenges with oil sample analysis. The presentation concludes with a brief touch on future research and development (R and D) opportunities. It is hoping that the information presented can inform the STLE community to start or redirect their R and D work to help the wind industry advance.

  7. Particle detachment during hydraulic shock loads in granular media filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J K; Lawler, D F

    2006-01-01

    Particle breakthrough can occur by either the breakoff of previously captured particles (or flocs) or the direct passage of some influent particles through the filter. Filtration experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale filter using spherical glass beads with a diameter of 0.55 mm as collectors. A single type of particle suspension (Min-U-Sil 5) and three different destabilisation methods (pH control, alum and polymer destabilisation) were used to destabilise particles. The filtration velocity of 5 m/h was similar to that used in standard media filtration practice. To assess the possibility of particle detachment during normal filtration, a hydraulic shock load (20% increase of flow rate) was applied after 4 h of normal filtration. The magnitude of particle detachment was proportional to the particle size for non-Brownian particles. At the same time, less favourable particles, i.e. particles with larger surface charge, were easily detached during the hydraulic shock load. Therefore, proper particle destabilisation before filtration is crucial for maximum particle removal, as well as minimum particle breakthrough.

  8. Hypercholesterolaemia and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Jason P; Scutt, Polly; Sprigg, Nikola; Bath, Philip M

    2017-07-15

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second commonest cause of dementia. Stroke is the leading cause of disability in adults in developed countries, the second major cause of dementia and the third commonest cause of death. Traditional vascular risk factors-diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension and smoking-are implicated as risk factors for VaD. The associations between cholesterol and small vessel disease (SVD), stroke, cognitive impairment and subsequent dementia are complex and as yet not fully understood. Similarly, the effects of lipids and lipid-lowering therapy on preventing or treating dementia remain unclear; the few trials that have assessed lipid-lowering therapy for preventing (two trials) or treating (four trials) dementia found no evidence to support the use of lipid-lowering therapy for these indications. It is appropriate to treat those patients with vascular risk factors that meet criteria for lipid-lowering therapy for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, and in line with current guidelines. Managing the individual patient in a holistic manner according to his or her own vascular risk profile is recommended. Although the paucity of randomized controlled evidence makes for challenging clinical decision making, it provides multiple opportunities for on-going and future research, as discussed here. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Depression in vascular dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naarding, P.; Koning, I. de; Kooten, F. van; Dippel, D.W.; Janzing, J.G.E.; Mast, R.C. van der; Koudstaal, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the presence of different dimensions of depression in subjects with vascular dementia. BACKGROUND: After a stroke, cognitive, affective and behavioural disturbances are common. It has been suggested that the nature of affective symptomatology can help to differentiate organic

  10. Vascular management in rotationplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Craig R; Hartman, Curtis W; Simon, Pamela J; Baxter, B Timothy; Neff, James R

    2008-05-01

    The Van Nes rotationplasty is a useful limb-preserving procedure for skeletally immature patients with distal femoral or proximal tibial malignancy. The vascular supply to the lower limb either must be maintained and rotated or transected and reanastomosed. We asked whether there would be any difference in the ankle brachial index or complication rate for the two methods of vascular management. Vessels were resected with the tumor in seven patients and preserved and rotated in nine patients. One amputation occurred in the group in which the vessels were preserved. Four patients died secondary to metastatic disease diagnosed preoperatively. The most recent ankle brachial indices were 0.96 and 0.82 for the posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries, respectively, in the reconstructed group. The ankle brachial indices were 0.98 and 0.96 for the posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries, respectively, in the rotated group. Outcomes appear similar using both methods of vascular management and one should not hesitate to perform an en bloc resection when there is a question of vascular involvement.

  11. Low urinary albumin excretion in astronauts during space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiological changes occur in man during space missions also at the renal level. Proteinuria was hypothesized for space missions but research data are missing. METHODS: Urinary albumin, as an index of proteinuria, and other variables were analyzed in 4 astronauts during space missions...... and on the ground. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary albumin excretion is low during space mission compared to data on the ground before or after mission. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....... onboard the MIR station and on the ground (control). Mission duration before first urine collection in the four astronauts was 4, 26, 26, and 106 days, respectively. On the ground, data were collected 2 months before mission in two astronauts, 6 months after in the other astronauts. A total of twenty...

  12. Effect of lidocaine on ovalbumin and egg albumin foam stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burapatana, Vorakan; Butler, Ernest E; Chauhan, Gaurav; Hartig, Sean; Kincaid, Helen; Wang, Tong; Samsudin, Shayrizal; Tanner, Robert D

    2003-01-01

    Foam fractionation is a simple separation process that can remove and concentrate hydrophobic molecules such as proteins, surfactants, and organic wastes from an aqueous solution. Bovine serum albumin and ovalbumin have been widely used as model proteins due to their strong foaming potential and low price. Here, we study the effect of lidocaine on albumin foam, since drugs like lidocaine are known to bind with albumin. We observed that lidocaine not only enhances the amount of foam produced but also the stability of that foam as well. The foam stability was evaluated as the decay rate constant of the foam, determined from a change in height (or volume) of the foam over a given time period.

  13. Determination of serum albumin with tribromoarsenazo by spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Zhou Zhai

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of tribromoarsenazo(TB-ASA with serum albumin in the presence of emulgent OP was studied by spectrophotometry. In a Britton-Robinson buffer solution at pH 2.9, tribromoarsenazo and bovine serum albumin can immediately form a red compound in the presence of emulgent OP with a maximum absorption wavelength at 354 nm. The presence of emulgent OP can increase the reaction sensitivity and the compound stability. The molar absorptivity of the compound is ε354 nm = 6.13 x 105 M-1•cm-1. Beer's law is obeyed over the range of 5.0-75.0 mg•L-1 for bovine serum albumin. The present method was applied to the determination of the total proteins in human serums with satisfactory results.

  14. Renal posttransplant's vascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bašić Dragoslav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Despite high graft and recipient survival figures worldwide today, a variety of technical complications can threaten the transplant in the postoperative period. Vascular complications are commonly related to technical problems in establishing vascular continuity or to damage that occurs during donor nephrectomy or preservation [13]. AIM The aim of the presenting study is to evaluate counts and rates of vascular complications after renal transplantation and to compare the outcome by donor type. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 463 kidneys (319 from living related donor LD and 144 from cadaveric donor - CD were transplanted during the period between June 1975 and December 1998 at the Urology & Nephrology Institute of Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade. Average recipients' age was 33.7 years (15-54 in LD group and 39.8 (19-62 in CD group. Retrospectively, we analyzed medical records of all recipients. Statistical analysis is estimated using Hi-squared test and Fischer's test of exact probability. RESULTS Major vascular complications including vascular anastomosis thrombosis, internal iliac artery stenosis, internal iliac artery rupture obliterant vasculitis and external iliac vein rupture were analyzed. In 25 recipients (5.4% some of major vascular complications were detected. Among these cases, 22 of them were from CD group vs. three from LD group. Relative rate of these complications was higher in CD group vs. LD group (p<0.0001. Among these complications dominant one was vascular anastomosis thrombosis which occurred in 18 recipients (17 from CD vs. one from LD. Of these recipients 16 from CD lost the graft, while the rest of two (one from each group had lethal outcome. DISCUSSION Thrombosis of renal allograft vascular anastomosis site is the most severe complication following renal transplantation. In the literature, renal allograft thrombosis is reported with different incidence rates, from 0.5-4% [14, 15, 16]. Data from the

  15. Studies on kinetics of albumin in uraemic patients on chronic haemodialysis: evidence of interstitial albumin wash-down

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, P; Jensen, H A; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1983-01-01

    Albumin-kinetic studies were performed in nine uraemic patients without oedema on chronic haemodialysis and in seven normal controls in order to determine microvascular leakiness and thereby, during steady state, lymph drainage of albumin. Transvascular escape rate of albumin [TERalb i.......e. the fraction of intravascular mass (IVMalb) passing into, or returning from, the extravascular space per unit time] and the distribution ratio (DRalb) between IVMalb and total albumin mass were determined from intravenously injected radioiodinated serum albumin. Before haemodialysis, TERalb was significantly...... elevated (mean 9 X 6% IVMalb h-1, range 5 X 9-14) as compared to the value 15 h after haemodialysis (mean 7 X 3, range 5 X 2-11, P less than 0 X 02) and to controls (mean 5 X 9, range 4 X 3-7 X 4, P less than 0 X 01). Average DRalb (mean 0 X 54, range 0 X 44-0 X 69) was clearly elevated in patients...

  16. Prediction of glomerular filtration rate in cancer patients by an equation for Japanese estimated glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, Yohei; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Kiyota, Naomi; Mukohara, Toru; Shimada, Takanobu; Toyoda, Masanori; Imamura, Yoshinori; Chayahara, Naoko; Umezu, Michio; Otsuki, Naoki; Nibu, Ken-ichi; Minami, Hironobu

    2013-03-01

    Assessment of renal function is important for safe cancer chemotherapy, and eligibility criteria for clinical trials often include creatinine clearance. However, creatinine clearance overestimates glomerular filtration rate, and various new formulae have been proposed to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Because these were developed mostly in patients with chronic kidney disease, we evaluated their validity in cancer patients without kidney disease. Glomerular filtration rate was measured by inulin clearance in 45 Japanese cancer patients, and compared with creatinine clearance measured by 24-h urine collection as well as that estimated by the Cockcroft-Gault formula, Japanese estimated glomerular filtration rate developed in chronic kidney disease patients, the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study equation and the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations were adjusted for the Japanese population by multiplying by 0.808 and 0.813, respectively. The mean inulin clearance was 79.2 ± 18.7 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Bias values to estimate glomerular filtration rate for Japanese estimated glomerular filtration rate, the Cockcroft-Gault formula, creatinine clearance measured by 24-h urine collection, the 0.808 × Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study equation and the 0.813 × Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation were 0.94, 9.75, 29.67, 5.26 and -0.92 ml/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. Precision (root-mean square error) was 14.7, 22.4, 39.8, 16.0 and 14.1 ml/min, respectively. Of the scatter plots of inulin clearance versus each estimation formula, the Japanese estimated glomerular filtration rate correlated most accurately with actual measured inulin clearance. The Japanese estimated glomerular filtration rate and the 0.813 × Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation estimated glomerular

  17. Albumin Telur Sebagai Lem pada Operasi Cangkok Konjungtiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Angga Kartiwa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Conjunctival graft has been frequently used in the field of ophthalmology. The frequently used methods to attach a conjunctival graft are suture technique and the use of fibrin glue. This study was to investigate albumin glue as an alternative to suture technique in attaching conjunctival grafts in rabbits. The aim of this study was to compare the conjunctival wound healing between albumin glue and suture technique in rabbit eye as a model. This was an experimental animal study that included 32 eyes (16 rabbits conducted at PT. Bio Farma (Persero and the Histology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran from March 2014 to July 2104. The subjects in this study were divided into albumin glue group and suture technique group. The examinations were comparison of conjunctival graft attachment and histologic microscopic examination to assess the wound gap. Data analysis was performed statistically using Mann-Whitney test for small sample. The statistical analysis results showed that the graft attachment was significantly better when using albumin glue (grade 4 compared to suture (grade 2–3 on day-1 after surgery (p=0.000. The wound gap was smaller using albumin glue (0-0,33 µm versus 5,33-14 µm; p0.0005 10 minutes after surgery and 0 µm versus 0.33–4 µm, p 0,0005, on day-7 after surgery. In conclusion, graft attachment using albumi n glue is better and the wound gap is smaller when using albumin glue compared to the suture technique. [MKB. 2016;48(4:241–8

  18. Gemcitabine-loaded magnetic albumin nanospheres for cancer chemohyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hongbo; Ke Fei; An Yanli; Hou Xinxin; Zhang Hao [School of Medicine, Southeast University (China); Lin Mei [Taizhou People' s Hospital (China); Zhang Dongsheng, E-mail: zdszds1222@163.com [School of Medicine, Southeast University (China)

    2013-03-15

    Eliminating cancer without harming normal body tissue remains a longstanding challenge in medicine. Toward this goal, we prepared nanosized magnetic albumin nanospheres encapsulating magnetic nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and antitumor drugs (Gemcitabine, GEM). Magnetic albumin nanospheres (average size Almost-Equal-To 224 nm) had good magnetic responsiveness upon exposure to an alternating magnetic field even though Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was encased in nanospheres. Thermodynamic test showed that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} could serve as a heating source under AMF and lead the nanospheres to reach their steady temperature (45 Degree-Sign C). The release results in vitro indicated that nanospheres had an obvious effect of sustained release of GEM. The result of cytotoxicity assay showed that the toxicity of this material was classified as grade 1, which belongs to no cytotoxicity. The antitumor efficacy of the GEM/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} albumin nanospheres combined with magnetic fluid hyperthermia on non-small lung cancer cell line GlC-82 was examined by MTT assay and flow cytometry assay. Compared with nanospheres entrapping GEM group, nanospheres entrapping Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} combined with MFH group, and GEM/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} albumin nanospheres without MFH group, the GEM/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} albumin nanospheres exhibited enhanced antitumor efficacy. Thus, the GEM/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} albumin nanospheres have promising applications in cancer treatment.

  19. Engineering bispecificity into a single albumin-binding domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Nilvebrant

    Full Text Available Bispecific antibodies as well as non-immunoglobulin based bispecific affinity proteins are considered to have a very high potential in future biotherapeutic applications. In this study, we report on a novel approach for generation of extremely small bispecific proteins comprised of only a single structural domain. Binding to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α was engineered into an albumin-binding domain while still retaining the original affinity for albumin, resulting in a bispecific protein composed of merely 46 amino acids. By diversification of the non albumin-binding side of the three-helix bundle domain, followed by display of the resulting library on phage particles, bispecific single-domain proteins were isolated using selections with TNF-α as target. Moreover, based on the obtained sequences from the phage selection, a second-generation library was designed in order to further increase the affinity of the bispecific candidates. Staphylococcal surface display was employed for the affinity maturation, enabling efficient isolation of improved binders as well as multiparameter-based sortings with both TNF-α and albumin as targets in the same selection cycle. Isolated variants were sequenced and the binding to albumin and TNF-α was analyzed. This analysis revealed an affinity for TNF-α below 5 nM for the strongest binders. From the multiparameter sorting that simultaneously targeted TNF-α and albumin, several bispecific candidates were isolated with high affinity to both antigens, suggesting that cell display in combination with fluorescence activated cell sorting is a suitable technology for engineering of bispecificity. To our knowledge, the new binders represent the smallest engineered bispecific proteins reported so far. Possibilities and challenges as well as potential future applications of this novel strategy are discussed.

  20. Influence of suspension concentration on cast formation time in pressure filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, Pieter Maarten; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Verweij, H.

    2000-01-01

    Expressions for the formation rate of an incompressible cast in batchwise pressure filtration are formally derived from Darcy's law and Kynch-theory for pure filtration and filtration with sedimentation and compared with experimental results from the filtration of submicron α-alumina dispersed in

  1. Four years experience with filtration systems in commercial nurseries for eliminating Phytophthora species from recirculation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Ufer; M. Posner; H.-P. Wessels; S. Wagner; K. Kaminski; T. Brand; Werres S.

    2008-01-01

    In a four year project, three different filtration systems were tested under commercial nursery conditions to eliminate Phytophthora spp. from irrigation water. Five nurseries were involved in the project. Slow sand filtration systems were tested in three nurseries. In the fourth nursery, a filtration system with lava grains (Shieer® Bio filtration)...

  2. Tse-2: a trans-dominant extinguisher of albumin gene expression in hepatoma hybrid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, A C; Fournier, R E

    1989-09-01

    Serum albumin gene expression is generally extinguished in hepatoma x fibroblast hybrids. To define the genetic basis of this phenomenon, we screened a panel of hepatoma hybrids retaining different fibroblast chromosomes for albumin production by immunofluorescence. We report that albumin extinction in these clones was strictly correlated with the retention of mouse chromosome 1. Furthermore, albumin was systematically reexpressed in chromosome 1 segregants. These data define a tissue-specific extinguisher locus (Tse-2) that affects albumin gene expression in trans. Two other liver genes, those encoding liver alcohol dehydrogenase and liv-10, were coordinately extinguished with albumin in monochromosomal hybrids that specifically retained mouse chromosome 1.

  3. THE DENATURATION OF EGG ALBUMIN BY ULTRA-VIOLET RADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Janet Howell

    1935-01-01

    The coagulation of isoelectric egg albumin solutions, on exposure to ultraviolet radiation, involves three distinct processes, (1) the light denaturation of the albumin molecule, (2) a reaction between the light denatured molecule and water which may be similar to heat denaturation but occurs at a lower temperature, and (3), the flocculation of the denatured molecules to form a coagulum. The light denaturation is unimolecular, independent of temperature, and occurs over a wide pH range. The reaction between the light denatured molecule and water has a temperature coefficient of 10+ and occurs rapidly at 40°C., a temperature at which heat denaturation is inappreciable. PMID:19872919

  4. Preparation and characterization of (125)i labeled bovine serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwitha Rai, K S; Jyothi; Rasmi, R R; Sarnaik, Jayula; Kadwad, V B; Shenoy, K B; Somashekarappa, H M

    2015-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin is a model protein, which has been conventionally used as protein standard and in many areas of biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. Radioiodination procedure for bovine serum albumin employing chloramine-T as an oxidant with slight modification was evaluated critically to establish the optimal conditions for the preparation of radiolabeled tracer ((125)I-BSA) with required specific activity without impairing the immune reactivity and biological activity. Optimized radioiodination procedure involving 10 µg of chloramine-T along with 20 µg of sodium metabisulphite with 60 seconds incubation at 2° yielded (125)I-BSA with high integrity.

  5. Preparation and Characterization of 125I Labeled Bovine Serum Albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwitha Rai, K. S.; Jyothi; Rasmi, R. R.; Sarnaik, Jayula; Kadwad, V. B.; Shenoy, K. B.; Somashekarappa, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin is a model protein, which has been conventionally used as protein standard and in many areas of biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. Radioiodination procedure for bovine serum albumin employing chloramine-T as an oxidant with slight modification was evaluated critically to establish the optimal conditions for the preparation of radiolabeled tracer (125I-BSA) with required specific activity without impairing the immune reactivity and biological activity. Optimized radioiodination procedure involving 10 µg of chloramine-T along with 20 µg of sodium metabisulphite with 60 seconds incubation at 2° yielded 125I-BSA with high integrity. PMID:25767326

  6. The giraffe kidney tolerates high arterial blood pressure by high renal interstitial pressure and low glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damkjaer, M; Wang, T; Brøndum, E; Østergaard, K H; Baandrup, U; Hørlyck, A; Hasenkam, J M; Smerup, M; Funder, J; Marcussen, N; Danielsen, C C; Bertelsen, M F; Grøndahl, C; Pedersen, M; Agger, P; Candy, G; Aalkjaer, C; Bie, P

    2015-08-01

    The tallest animal on earth, the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is endowed with a mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) twice that of other mammals. The kidneys reside at heart level and show no sign of hypertension-related damage. We hypothesized that a species-specific evolutionary adaption in the giraffe kidney allows normal for size renal haemodynamics and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) despite a MAP double that of other mammals. Fourteen anaesthetized giraffes were instrumented with vascular and bladder catheters to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF). Renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure (RIHP) was assessed by inserting a needle into the medullary parenchyma. Doppler ultrasound measurements provided renal artery resistive index (RI). Hormone concentrations as well as biomechanical, structural and histological characteristics of vascular and renal tissues were determined. GFR averaged 342 ± 99 mL min(-1) and ERPF 1252 ± 305 mL min(-1) . RIHP varied between 45 and 140 mmHg. Renal pelvic pressure was 39 ± 2 mmHg and renal venous pressure 32 ± 4 mmHg. A valve-like structure at the junction of the renal and vena cava generated a pressure drop of 12 ± 2 mmHg. RI was 0.27. The renal capsule was durable with a calculated burst pressure of 600 mmHg. Plasma renin and AngII were 2.6 ± 0.5 mIU L(-1) and 9.1 ± 1.5 pg mL(-1) respectively. In giraffes, GFR, ERPF and RI appear much lower than expected based on body mass. A strong renal capsule supports a RIHP, which is >10-fold that of other mammals effectively reducing the net filtration pressure and protecting against the high MAP. © 2015 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Vascular manifestations of Behcet's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Georgiyeva Goloeva

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion. Vascular disorders in BD were diagnosed in one fourth of the patients, mainly in young male patients. Severe thromboses with the development of chronic venous insignificance, Budd-Chiari syndrome, pulmonary and iliac artery aneurysms, and arterial thromboses were observed in male patients only. Vascular events were associated with erythema nodosum and epididymitis; in these concomitances, the vascular risk was substantially increased. Vascular death rates were 2,2%.

  8. Engineering vascularized skeletal muscle tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levenberg, Shulamit; Rouwkema, Jeroen; Macdonald, Mara; Garfein, Evan S.; Kohane, Daniel S.; Darland, Diane C.; Marini, Robert; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Mulligan, Richard C.; D'Amore, Patricia A.; Langer, Robert

    2005-01-01

    One of the major obstacles in engineering thick, complex tissues such as muscle is the need to vascularize the tissue in vitro. Vascularization in vitro could maintain cell viability during tissue growth, induce structural organization and promote vascularization upon implantation. Here we describe

  9. Urine Albumin-Creatinine Ratio Versus Albumin Excretion for Albuminuria Staging: A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vart, Priya; Scheven, Lieneke; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; de Jong, Paul E; de Zeeuw, Dick; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2016-01-01

    New guidelines advocate the use of albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) in a urine sample instead of 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE) for staging albuminuria. Concern has been expressed that this may result in misclassification for reasons including interindividual differences in urinary creatinine excretion. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. We examined 7,623 participants of the PREVEND and RENAAL studies for reclassified when using ACR instead of 24-hour UAE, the characteristics of reclassified participants, and their outcomes. Albuminuria was categorized into 3 ACR and UAE categories: 300mg/g or mg/24 h, respectively. Baseline ACR and 24-hour UAE. Cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality and all-cause mortality. When using ACR in the early morning void instead of 24-hour UAE, 88% of participants were classified in corresponding albuminuria categories. 307 (4.0%) participants were reclassified to a higher, and 603 (7.9%), to a lower category. Participants who were reclassified to a higher ACR category in general had a worse CV risk profile compared with nonreclassified participants, whereas the reverse was true for participants reclassified to a lower ACR category. Similarly, Cox proportional hazards regression analyses showed that reclassification to a higher ACR category was associated with a tendency for increased risk for CV morbidity and mortality and all-cause mortality, whereas reclassification to a lower ACR category was associated with a tendency for lower risk. Net reclassification improvement, adjusted for age, sex, and duration of follow-up, was 0.107 (P=0.002) for CV events and 0.089 (P<0.001) for all-cause mortality. Early morning void urine collection instead of spot urine collection. Our results indicate that there is high agreement between early morning void ACR and 24-hour UAE categories. Reclassification is therefore limited, but when present, is generally indicative of the presence of CV risk factors and prognosis. Copyright © 2016

  10. A comparison of facemask and respirator filtration test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengasamy, Samy; Shaffer, Ronald; Williams, Brandon; Smit, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    NIOSH published a Federal Register Notice to explore the possibility of incorporating FDA required filtration tests for surgical masks (SMs) in the 42 CFR Part 84 respirator certification process. There have been no published studies comparing the filtration efficiency test methods used for NIOSH certification of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (N95 FFRs) with those used by the FDA for clearance of SMs. To address this issue, filtration efficiencies of "N95 FFRs" including six N95 FFR models and three surgical N95 FFR models, and three SM models were measured using the NIOSH NaCl aerosol test method, and FDA required particulate filtration efficiency (PFE) and bacterial filtration efficiency (BFE) methods, and viral filtration efficiency (VFE) method. Five samples of each model were tested using each method. Both PFE and BFE tests were done using unneutralized particles as per FDA guidance document. PFE was measured using 0.1 µm size polystyrene latex particles and BFE with ∼3.0 µm size particles containing Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. VFE was obtained using ∼3.0 µm size particles containing phiX 174 as the challenge virus and Escherichia coli as the host. Results showed that the efficiencies measured by the NIOSH NaCl method for "N95 FFRs" were from 98.15-99.68% compared to 99.74-99.99% for PFE, 99.62-99.9% for BFE, and 99.8-99.9% for VFE methods. Efficiencies by the NIOSH NaCl method were significantly (p = filtration devices. The higher efficiencies obtained using PFE, BFE and VFE methods show that adding these supplemental particle penetration methods will not improve respirator certification.

  11. An indoor air filtration study in homes of elderly: cardiovascular and respiratory effects of exposure to particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to particulate air pollution increases respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly, possibly through inflammation and vascular dysfunction. Methods We examined potential beneficial effects of indoor air filtration in the homes of elderly, including people taking vasoactive drugs. Forty-eight nonsmoking subjects (51 to 81 years) in 27 homes were included in this randomized, double-blind, crossover intervention study with consecutive two-week periods with or without the inclusion of a high-efficiency particle air filter in re-circulating custom built units in their living room and bedroom. We measured blood pressure, microvascular and lung function and collected blood samples for hematological, inflammation, monocyte surface and lung cell damage markers before and at day 2, 7 and 14 during each exposure scenario. Results The particle filters reduced the median concentration of PM2.5 from approximately 8 to 4 μg/m3 and the particle number concentration from 7669 to 5352 particles/cm3. No statistically significant effects of filtration as category were observed on microvascular and lung function or the biomarkers of systemic inflammation among all subjects, or in the subgroups taking (n = 11) or not taking vasoactive drugs (n = 37). However, the filtration efficacy was variable and microvascular function was within 2 days significantly increased with the actual PM2.5 decrease in the bedroom, especially among 25 subjects not taking any drugs. Conclusion Substantial exposure contrasts in the bedroom and no confounding by drugs appear required for improved microvascular function by air filtration, whereas no other beneficial effect was found in this elderly population. PMID:24373585

  12. The Vascular Depression Hypothesis: Mechanisms Linking Vascular Disease with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Warren D.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Alexopoulos, George S.

    2013-01-01

    The ‘Vascular Depression’ hypothesis posits that cerebrovascular disease may predispose, precipitate, or perpetuate some geriatric depressive syndromes. This hypothesis stimulated much research that has improved our understanding of the complex relationships between late-life depression (LLD), vascular risk factors, and cognition. Succinctly, there are well-established relationships between late-life depression, vascular risk factors, and cerebral hyperintensities, the radiological hallmark of vascular depression. Cognitive dysfunction is common in late-life depression, particularly executive dysfunction, a finding predictive of poor antidepressant response. Over time, progression of hyperintensities and cognitive deficits predicts a poor course of depression and may reflect underlying worsening of vascular disease. This work laid the foundation for examining the mechanisms by which vascular disease influences brain circuits and influences the development and course of depression. We review data testing the vascular depression hypothesis with a focus on identifying potential underlying vascular mechanisms. We propose a disconnection hypothesis, wherein focal vascular damage and white matter lesion location is a crucial factor influencing neural connectivity that contributes to clinical symptomatology. We also propose inflammatory and hypoperfusion hypotheses, concepts that link underlying vascular processes with adverse effects on brain function that influence the development of depression. Testing such hypotheses will not only inform the relationship between vascular disease and depression but also provide guidance on the potential repurposing of pharmacological agents that may improve late-life depression outcomes. PMID:23439482

  13. Role of platelets in maintenance of pulmonary vascular permeability to protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, S.K.; Burhop, K.E.; Kaplan, J.E.; Malik, A.B. (Albany Medical College of Union Univ., NY (USA))

    1988-04-01

    The authors examined the role of platelets in maintenance of pulmonary vascular integrity by inducing thrombocytopenia in sheep using antiplatelet serum (APS). A causal relationship between thrombocytopenia and increase in pulmonary vascular permeability was established by platelet repletion using platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Sheep were chronically instrumented and lung lymph fistulas prepared to monitor pulmonary lymph flow (Q{sub lym}). A balloon catheter was positioned in the left atrium to assess pulmonary vascular permeability to protein after raising the left atrial pressure (P{sub la}). Thrombocytopenia was maintained for 3 days by daily intramuscular APS injections. In studies using cultured bovine pulmonary artery endothelial monolayers, transendothelia permeability of {sup 125}I-labeled albumin was reduced 50 and 95%, respectively, when 2.5 {times} 10{sup 7} or 5 {times} 10{sup 7} platelets were added onto endothelial monolayers. However, addition of 5 {times} 10{sup 6} platelets or 5 {times} 10{sup 7} red blood cells did not reduce endothelial monolayer albumin permeability. Results indicate that platelets are required for the maintenance of pulmonary vascular permeability. Reduction in permeability appears to involve an interaction of platelets with the endothelium.

  14. Response of Vitis vinifera cell cultures to Eutypa lata and Trichoderma atroviride culture filtrates: expression of defence-related genes and phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutawila, C; Stander, C; Halleen, F; Vivier, M A; Mostert, L

    2017-03-01

    Cell suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera cv. Dauphine berries were used to study the response to the vascular pathogen, Eutypa lata, in comparison with a biological control agent, Trichoderma atroviride, that was previously shown to be effective in pruning wound protection. The expression of genes coding for enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway and pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins was profiled over a 48-h period using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. The cell cultures responded to elicitors of both fungi with a hypersensitive-like response that lead to a decrease in cell viability. Similar genes were triggered by both the pathogen and biocontrol agent, but the timing patterns and magnitude of expression was dependent on the specific fungal elicitor. Culture filtrates of both fungi caused upregulation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 4-coumaroyl Co-A ligase (CCo-A) and stilbene synthase (STS), and a downregulation of chalcone synthase (CHS) genes. The pathogen filtrate caused a biphasic pattern in the upregulation of PAL and STS genes which was not observed in cells treated with filtrates of the biocontrol agent. Analytical assays showed significantly higher total phenolic content and chitinolytic enzyme activity in the cell cultures treated with the T. atroviride filtrate compared to the pathogen filtrate. These results corresponded well to the higher expression of PAL and chitinase class IV genes. The response of the cell cultures to T. atroviride filtrate provides support for the notion that the wound protection by the biocontrol agent at least partially relies on the induction of grapevine resistance mechanisms.

  15. Brain Vascular Imaging Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bàrbara Laviña

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent major improvements in a number of imaging techniques now allow for the study of the brain in ways that could not be considered previously. Researchers today have well-developed tools to specifically examine the dynamic nature of the blood vessels in the brain during development and adulthood; as well as to observe the vascular responses in disease situations in vivo. This review offers a concise summary and brief historical reference of different imaging techniques and how these tools can be applied to study the brain vasculature and the blood-brain barrier integrity in both healthy and disease states. Moreover, it offers an overview on available transgenic animal models to study vascular biology and a description of useful online brain atlases.

  16. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  17. Pathophysiology of vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzo Claudia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The concept of Vascular Dementia (VaD has been recognized for over a century, but its definition and diagnostic criteria remain unclear. Conventional definitions identify the patients too late, miss subjects with cognitive impairment short of dementia, and emphasize consequences rather than causes, the true bases for treatment and prevention. We should throw out current diagnostic categories and describe cognitive impairment clinically and according to commonly agreed instruments that document the demographic data in a standardized manner and undertake a systematic effort to identify the underlying aetiology in each case. Increased effort should be targeted towards the concept of and criteria for Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Post-Stroke Dementia as well as for genetic factors involved, especially as these categories hold promise for early prevention and treatment.

  18. Vascular cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Vakhnina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular pathology of the brain is the second most common cause of cognitive impairment after Alzheimer's disease. The article describes the modern concepts of etiology, pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical features and approaches to diagnosis and therapy of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. Cerebrovascular accident, chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency and their combination, sometimes in combination with a concomitant neurodegenerative process, are shown to be the major types of brain lesions leading to VCI. The clinical presentation of VCI is characterized by the neuropsychological status dominated by impairment of the executive frontal functions (planning, control, attention in combination with focal neurological symptoms. The diagnosis is based on comparing of the revealed neuropsychological and neurological features with neuroimaging data. Neurometabolic, acetylcholinergic, glutamatergic, and other vasoactive drugs and non-pharmacological methods are widely used to treat VCI. 

  19. Pathophysiology of vascular dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo Claudia; Duro Giovanni; Iemolo Francesco; Castiglia Laura; Hachinski Vladimir; Caruso Calogero

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The concept of Vascular Dementia (VaD) has been recognized for over a century, but its definition and diagnostic criteria remain unclear. Conventional definitions identify the patients too late, miss subjects with cognitive impairment short of dementia, and emphasize consequences rather than causes, the true bases for treatment and prevention. We should throw out current diagnostic categories and describe cognitive impairment clinically and according to commonly agreed instruments th...

  20. Bovine Serum Albumin Metal Complexes for Mimic of SOD

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    prospect in antioxidant drug field. Keywords. Bovine serum albumin; biopolymer metal complexes; .... cations, such as neoteric hydrophilic and drug delivery carriers.26 In our previous investigations, it was discov- ... monitor the interaction of metal ions with BSA. BSA has a high percentage of α-helical structure which.

  1. Albumin: Creatinine Ratio during long term Diabetes Mellitus in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albumin: Creatinine Ratio during long term Diabetes Mellitus in the Assessment of early Nephropathy in Sudanese Population. ... Further studies with 24 hour urine sample are recommended for assessment of Microalbuminuria in long term Diabetic patients, provided that the patients are on a normal diet with regular ...

  2. A single food bolus stimulates albumin synthesis in growing piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meer, K; Smolders, HC; Meesterburrie, J; de Sain-van der Velden, M; Voorbij, HAM; Okken, A; Reijngoud, DJ; Kulik, W

    Background: A stable isotope tracer method to quantify the synthesis of proteins of hepatic origin in response to feeding is described. The response of albumin synthesis on one mixed meal in a piglet model was investigated and the intragastric and intravenous administration modes of C-13-valine were

  3. Interaction of Tannin with Bovine Serum Albumin by Fluorescence Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Il, Kim; Son-Ae, Choe; Kye-Ryong, Sin

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between tannin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was examined by the fluorescent quenching. The process of elimination between BSA and tannin was the one of a stationary state, and the coupling coefficient was one. The working strength between the tannin and the beef serum was hydrophobic one.

  4. Serum total protein, albumin and globulin levels in Trypanosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    2Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, 405 Hilgard Avenue,. P.O. Box 951361, Los Angeles, ... total protein, albumin and globulin were investigated in rabbits over a period of twenty eight days. ..... dynamics of erythrocyte membrane sialic acid concentration during.

  5. Effects of Vitamin C Treatment on Serum Protein, Albumin, Beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Vitamin C Treatment on Serum Protein, Albumin, Beta-Globulin Profiles and Body Weight of Trypanosoma Brucei -Infected Rattus Noregicus. ... changes in serum protein and body weight of T. brucei – infected rats. Keywords: Trypanosoma brucei, Rattus norvegicus, Ascorbic acid, Body weight, Serum protein ...

  6. Isolation and purification of plasma albumin from human blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dried isolated plasma albumin was further characterized for purity using protein analysis, optical rotation, solubility and denaturation tests. The results show the plasma album contained 63.67% protein , with specific rotation at[á]598 32 at pH 7.2 of 80 and gradually dissolved in acidified water and ethanol. The plasma ...

  7. Sucrose/bovine serum albumin mediated biomimetic crystallization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    specific morphology by β-cyclodextrin. Glucan. 14 was used as a template to control synthesis of aragonite calcium carbonate. This paper mainly discusses the cooperative influ- ence of the sucrose/bovine serum albumin system which is close to biological organisms on calcium carbonate precipitation. The aim of these ...

  8. Serum total protein, albumin and globulin levels in Trypanosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of orally administered Scoparia dulcis on Trypanosoma brucei-induced changes in serum total protein, albumin and globulin were investigated in rabbits over a period of twenty eight days. Results obtained show that infection resulted in hyperproteinaemia, hyperglobulinaemia and hypoalbuminaemia. However ...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1035 - Albumin test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Albumin test system. 862.1035 Section 862.1035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862...

  10. Isolation of bovine serum albumin from whey using affinity chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to a chromatography resin with immobilised llama antibody fragments as affinity ligands was investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity of the affinity resin was 21.6 mg mL-1 with a Langmuir equilibrium constant of 20.4 mg mg-1. Using packed bed

  11. Effects of x- and ultraviolet radiation on egg albumin solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buturlakin, M.S.; Bolycheva, E.V.

    1978-01-01

    The changes in amino acid radicals of tyrosine and tryptophan under the influence of different forms of radiation with change in medium pH were investigated. Acid and neutral egg albumin solutions were exposed to x radiation and ultraviolet radiation and the absorbed doses were determined. The changes in solvent perturbation absorption spectra were discussed.

  12. Microdetermination of human serum albumin by differential pulse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A simple and highly sensitive electrochemical method for the determination of human serum albumin (HSA) using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), based on a silver electrode modified with a self-assembled monolayer of L-cysteine, was developed. L-cysteine can be modified onto a silver electrode by covalent bonding ...

  13. Albumin-heparin microspheres as carriers for cytostatic agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Harry; Feijen, Jan; Kwon, G.; Bae, Y.H.; Kim, S.W.; Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Mcvie, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    Much work has been done on adriamycin-loaded albumin microspheres (Alb-MS) for chemoembolization [1–4], the rationale being that site-specific drug delivery may increase the therapeutic efficacy of the drug. Alb-Ms are being investigated because of their biocompatibility and because the degradation

  14. Effects of oral contraceptives on total serum proteins, albumin,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rum total protein, globulin and cholesterol levels were sig-. nificantly increased in oral contraceptive and their control counterparts. The albumin/globulin ratio in subjects on oral contraceptives users is significantly decreased compared with controls. In view of the findings of this study, it is suggested that the biochemical ...

  15. Heterogeneity in the seed globulin and albumin fractions from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Successful fractionation of albumin, globulin and vicilin fractions from dry seeds of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) was achieved using established procedures for preparation of legume seed proteins. The resulting polypeptides were separated by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under both reducing ...

  16. Microdetermination of human serum albumin by differential pulse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Abstract. A simple and highly sensitive electrochemical method for the determination of human serum albumin (HSA) using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), based on a silver electrode modified with a self-assembled monolayer of L-cysteine, was developed. L-cysteine can be modified onto a silver elec- trode by ...

  17. serum albumin, creatinine, uric acid and hypertensive disorders of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-08-08

    Aug 8, 2003 ... Conclusion: Single estimation of serum uric acid and creatinine levels early in pregnancy are of little value in the ... define the value of serum albumin levels in pregnancy in the prediction of pre-eclampsia in the light of the ... and the isometric handgrip exercise test (8), and mean arterial pressure (9). Most of ...

  18. On the possible involvement of bovine serum albumin precursor in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-27

    Jan 27, 2014 ... mass finger printing analysis technique, herein we report the identification of a 70 kDa size protein (bovine serum albumin precursor, BSAP) .... Total cytoplasmic proteins from CHO cells were isolated using conventional cell ..... 2002 HIV-1 integration in the human genome favors active genes and local ...

  19. Plasma Levels of Total Proteins, Albumin, Globulin and Plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasma levels of total protein, albumin and globulin were estimated in 25 HIV positive subjects and 25 age and sex-matched controls. Test subjects were recruited from the Haematology day Clinic and Medical wards of the. OAUTHC, lle-Ife. The controls were equally obtained from staff and students within the OAUTHC, ...

  20. heterogeneity in the seed globulin and albumin fractions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic Resources Unit. These and other collections which have not yet been multiplied but which were used in this study are listed in. JESSE MACHUKA. Table 1. For convenience, the word “accession” is used to refer to all the accessions and collections described above. Fractionation of albumin and globulin- fractions.

  1. Oviposition Attractancy of Bacterial Culture Filtrates: response of Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Poonam

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition attractants could be used for monitoring as well as controlling mosquitoes by attracting them to lay eggs at chosen sites. In the present study, culture filtrates of seven bacterial species were tested for their attractancy against gravid females of Culex quinquefasciatus. When their oviposition active indices (OAI were studied, the culture filtrates of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens exhibited oviposition attractancy (OAI = >0.3 at 100 ppm and the OAI were respectively 0.70 and 0.47. Culture filtrates of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (wild type, B. t. var. israelensis (mutant and B. sphaericus showed attractancy at 2000 ppm with OAI of respectively 0.71, 0.59 and 0.68. However, the OAI of B. megaterium as well as Azospirillum brasilense was 0.13 (at 2000 ppm, which was less than 0.3 required to be considered them as attractants. When the oviposition attractancy of the bacterial culture filtrates were compared with that of a known oviposition attractant, p-cresol (at 10 ppm, the culture filtrates of B. t. var. israelensis (wild type and B. cereus were found to be more active than p-cresol, respectively with 64.2 and 54.3% oviposition.

  2. Water quality and treatment of river bank filtrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. W. J. M. de Vet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In drinking water production, river bank filtration has the advantages of dampening peak concentrations of many dissolved components, substantially removing many micropollutants and removing, virtually completely, the pathogens and suspended solids. The production aquifer is not only fed by the river bank infiltrate but also by water percolating through covering layers. In the polder areas, these top layers consist of peat and deposits from river sediments and sea intrusions.

    This paper discusses the origin and fate of macro components in river bank filtrate, based on extensive full-scale measurements in well fields and treatment systems of the Drinking Water Company Oasen in the Netherlands. First, it clarifies and illustrates redox reactions and the mixing of river bank filtrate and PW as the dominant processes determining the raw water quality for drinking water production. Next, full-scale results are elaborated on to evaluate trickling filtration as an efficient and proven one-step process to remove methane, iron, ammonium and manganese. The interaction of methane and manganese removal with nitrification in these systems is further analyzed. Methane is mostly stripped during trickling filtration and its removal hardly interferes with nitrification. Under specific conditions, microbial manganese removal may play a dominant role.

  3. Technology Review of Modern Gas Turbine Inlet Filtration Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Wilcox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An inlet air filtration system is essential for the successful operation of a gas turbine. The filtration system protects the gas turbine from harmful debris in the ambient air, which can lead to issues such as FOD, erosion, fouling, and corrosion. These issues if not addressed will result in a shorter operational life and reduced performance of the gas turbine. Modern day filtration systems are comprised of multiple filtration stages. Each stage is selected based on the local operating environment and the performance goals for the gas turbine. Selection of these systems can be a challenging task. This paper provides a review of the considerations for selecting an inlet filtration system by covering (1 the characteristics of filters and filter systems, (2 a review of the many types of filters, (3 a detailed look at the different environments where the gas turbine can operate, (4 a process for evaluating the site where the gas turbine will be or is installed, and (5 a method to compare various filter system options with life cycle cost analysis.

  4. Deep water treatment of mine water by double stage filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoryuk, E.V.; Semenenko, B.A.; Grishchenko, O.V.

    1983-06-01

    Presented was a double stage water filter used for treatment of mine water from underground coal mines in the Donbass. An experimental unit of the filter was developed by DonUGI. It consists of two chambers: the initial filtration chamber filled with claydite (grain size from 1.8 to 2.5 mm) and the chamber for repeated filtration filled with quartz sand (grain size from 0.8 to 1.6 mm). Productivity of the filter ranges from 25 to 30 m/SUP/3/h. The maximum content of solids suspended in mine water filtered by the DonUGI system had to be lower than 200 mg/l. Reagent consumption was about 20 mg/l. One filtration cycle was at least 6 h long. Filter cleaning by a fresh water stream flowing in the opposite direction took 8 min. Content of suspended matter in water after filtration was below 1.5 mg/l. Filter design is shown in a scheme. Advantages of filter use were compared to a system of settling tanks and single stage filtration systems. (In Russian)

  5. Impact of Acidification on Pollutants Fate and Soil Filtration Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Makovniková

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of simulated acid load on the fate of inorganic pollutants (Cd, Pb, soil sorption potential, soil filtration func-tion. We made use of a short-term acidification pot experiment with grown plant of spring barley cultivated at 4 different soil types (Fluvisol, Cambisol, Stagnosol, Podzol. The potential of soil filtration was evaluated according to the Eq.: [Soil filtration function]=[Potential of soil sorbents]+[Potential of total content of inor-ganic pollutants]. Potential of soil sorbents (PSS is defined by qualitative (pH, or-ganic matter quality - A400/600 and quantitative factors (carbon content-Cox, humus layer thickness-H according to the Eq.:[PSS]=F(pH+F(A465/665+F(Cox*F(H. Acid load significantly influenced soil sorption potential and thus affected increase in Cd and Pb mobility what was reflected in their transfer into the plants. Results of soil filtration function showed significant change of filtration function in Cambisol.

  6. Pulmonary vascular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedullo, P.F.; Shure, D.

    1987-03-01

    A wide range of pulmonary vascular imaging techniques are available for the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary vascular disease. The characteristics of any ideal technique would include high sensitivity and specificity, safety, simplicity, and sequential applicability. To date, no single technique meets these ideal characteristics. Conventional pulmonary angiography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute thromboembolic disease despite the introduction of newer techniques such as digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Improved noninvasive lower extremity venous testing methods, particularly impedance plethysmography, and ventilation-perfusion scanning can play significant roles in the noninvasive diagnosis of acute pulmonary emboli when properly applied. Ventilation-perfusion scanning may also be useful as a screening test to differentiate possible primary pulmonary hypertension from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. And, finally, angioscopy may be a useful adjunctive technique to detect chronic thromboembolic disease and determine operability. Optimal clinical decision-making, however, will continue to require the proper interpretation of adjunctive information obtained from the less-invasive techniques, applied with an understanding of the natural history of the various forms of pulmonary vascular disease and with a knowledge of the capabilities and shortcomings of the individual techniques.

  7. Update on Vascular Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ayesha; Kalaria, Raj N; Corbett, Anne; Ballard, Clive

    2016-09-01

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is a major contributor to the dementia syndrome and is described as having problems with reasoning, planning, judgment, and memory caused by impaired blood flow to the brain and damage to the blood vessels resulting from events such as stroke. There are a variety of etiologies that contribute to the development of vascular cognitive impairment and VaD, and these are often associated with other dementia-related pathologies such as Alzheimer disease. The diagnosis of VaD is difficult due to the number and types of lesions and their locations in the brain. Factors that increase the risk of vascular diseases such as stroke, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking also raise the risk of VaD. Therefore, controlling these risk factors can help lower the chances of developing VaD. This update describes the subtypes of VaD, with details of their complex presentation, associated pathological lesions, and issues with diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Ischemia-Modified Albumin as a Marker of Acute Coronary Syndrome: The Case for Revising the Concept of "N-Terminal Modification" to "Fatty Acid Occupation" of Albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oran, Ismail; Oran, Bulent

    2017-01-01

    Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) is assumed "N-terminal modified" albumin which is generated immediately following myocardial ischemia. The diagnosis of IMA is based on reduced cobalt binding affinity to albumin which is attributed mainly to incapability of cobalt to bind at albumin's modified N-terminus. Although the albumin cobalt binding test was accepted as a potentially powerful marker for discriminating acute coronary syndrome from nonischemic chest pain, its usefulness has been brought into question in recent years. Patients with acutely ischemic myocardium exhibit a rapid increase in serum levels of fatty acids (FAs). Almost all released FAs are strongly bound to albumin which create conformational changes in the protein with resultant reduced cobalt binding affinity. There is a clear metabolic and temporal relationship between IMA measured via albumin cobalt binding testing and serum levels of FAs. In line with what has been suggested recently in the literature, we conclude that a shift from the concept of "N-terminal modified" to "FA-occupied" albumin is required, as this better describes IMA in patients with acute coronary syndrome. We also offer "oxidation modified albumin, OMA," which is conceptually different from the "FA-occupied" IMA, to describe modification of albumin in chronic disease associated with increased oxidative stress.

  9. Water-phase palmitate concentrations in equilibrium with albumin-bound palmitate in a biological system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Inge Norby; Bojesen, Eigil

    1992-01-01

    Biokemi, erythrocyte ghosts, pamitate, bovine serum albumin, long-chain fatty acids, equilibrium constants......Biokemi, erythrocyte ghosts, pamitate, bovine serum albumin, long-chain fatty acids, equilibrium constants...

  10. Effect of Temperature on Tolbutamide Binding to Glycated Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Szkudlarek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycation process occurs in protein and becomes more pronounced in diabetes when an increased amount of reducing sugar is present in bloodstream. Glycation of protein may cause conformational changes resulting in the alterations of its binding properties even though they occur at a distance from the binding sites. The changes in protein properties could be related to several pathological consequences such as diabetic and nondiabetic cardiovascular diseases, cataract, renal dysfunction and Alzheimer’s disease. The experiment was designed to test the impact of glycation process on sulfonylurea drug tolbutamide-albumin binding under physiological (T = 309 K and inflammatory (T = 311 K and T = 313 K states using fluorescence and UV-VIS spectroscopies. It was found in fluorescence analysis experiments that the modification of serum albumin in tryptophanyl and tyrosyl residues environment may affect the tolbutamide (TB binding to albumin in subdomain IIA and/or IIIA (Sudlow’s site I and/or II, and also in subdomains IB and IIB. We estimated the binding of tolbutamide to albumin described by a mixed nature of interaction (specific and nonspecific. The association constants Ka (L∙mol−1 for tolbutamide at its high affinity sites on non-glycated albumin were in the range of 1.98–7.88 × 104 L∙mol−1 (λex = 275 nm, 1.20–1.64 × 104 L∙mol−1 (λex = 295 nm and decreased to 1.24–0.42 × 104 L∙mol−1 at λex = 275 nm (T = 309 K and T = 311 K and increased to 2.79 × 104 L∙mol−1 at λex = 275 nm (T = 313 K and to 4.43–6.61 × 104 L∙mol−1 at λex = 295 nm due to the glycation process. Temperature dependence suggests the important role of van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding in hydrophobic interactions between tolbutamide and both glycated and non-glycated albumin. We concluded that the changes in the environment of TB binding of albumin in subdomain IIA and/or IIIA as well as in subdomains IB and IIB influence on

  11. Does administering albumin to postoperative gastroschisis patients improve outcome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina A. Tannuri

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Newborns who undergo surgery for gastroschisis correction may present with oliguria, anasarca, prolonged postoperative ileus, and infection. New postoperative therapeutic procedures were tested with the objective of improving postoperative outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred thirty-six newborns participated in one of two phases. Newborns in the first phase received infusions of large volumes of crystalloid solution and integral enteral formula, and newborns in the second phase received crystalloid solutions in smaller volumes, with albumin solution infusion when necessary and the late introduction of a semi-elemental diet. The studied variables were serum sodium and albumin levels, the need for albumin solution expansion, the occurrence of anasarca, the length of time on parenteral nutrition, the length of time before initiating an enteral diet and reaching a full enteral diet, orotracheal intubation time, length of hospitalization, and survival rates. RESULTS: Serum sodium levels were higher in newborns in the second phase. There was a correlation between low serum sodium levels and orotracheal intubation time; additionally, low serum albumin levels correlated with the length of time before the initiation of an oral diet and the time until a full enteral diet was reached. However, the discharge weights of newborns in the second phase were higher than in the first phase. The other studied variables, including survival rates (83.4% and 92.0%, respectively, were similar for both phases. CONCLUSIONS: The administration of an albumin solution to newborns in the early postoperative period following gastroschisis repair increased their low serum sodium levels but did not improve the final outcome. The introduction of a semi-elemental diet promoted an increase in body weight at the time of discharge.

  12. Retinal vascular geometry and its association to microvascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M L; Broe, R; Frydkjaer-Olsen, U

    2017-01-01

    blood pressure, HbA1c, and presence of microvascular complications). Odds ratios were given per standard deviation in retinal vascular parameter. RESULTS: Retinal vascular analyses were performed in 181 patients. Mean age and duration of diabetes were 37.0 years and 29.4 years respectively, and 50......PURPOSE: To examine associations between retinal vascular geometry (tortuosity, branching coefficient [BC] and length-diameter ratio [LDR]) and diabetic proliferative retinopathy (PDR), nephropathy, and peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHODS: A cohort...... of patients with T1DM participated in a clinical examination in 2011. Blood and urine analyses were done and retinal images taken. PDR was defined as Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study level 61 or above, nephropathy as albumin-creatinin ratio ≥300 mg/g, and neuropathy as vibration perception threshold...

  13. Filtration des fluides de forage à travers les parois du puits - Bibliographie Filtration of Drilling Fluids Through Borehole Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Ce document résume un certain nombre de données déjà publiées, relatives à la filtration du fluide de forage, de l'annulaire vers les formations traversées, durant l'approfondissement du puits. On considère : - d'une part, les phénomènes de filtration : . le long des parois (filtration dynamique durant les périodes de circulation - filtration statique durant les arrêts, . sous l'outil ; - d'autre part, certaines de leurs conséquences, en particulier leur influence : . sur la vitesse d'avancement, . sur les risques de coincement de la garniture par pression différentielle, . sur l'envahissement des zones poreuses et perméables. Les phénomènes et leurs conséquences dépendent de très nombreux facteurs dont certains jouent des rôles d'importance très voisine. Leurs études nécessitent des moyens expérimentaux bien adaptés, permettant une simulation suffisamment rigoureuse des conditions de forage. Les résultats ne peuvent être généralisés et doivent être exprimés en fonction des paramètres opératoires choisis. This article reviews varions data which have already been published and which concern the filtration of drilling fluid from the annular space into the formations crossed through during the drilling of a borehole. The following aspects are considered: (i filtration phenomena along borehole walls (dynamic filtration during circulation, and static filtration during shutdowns and underneath the bit; (ii some of the consequences of this filtration, and especially its influence on the rate of penetration, on risks of drill string sticking as the result of differential pressure, and on the invasion of porous and permeable zones. Such phenomena and their consequences depend on a great many factor, some which play roles of quite similar importance. Resaerch on such phenomena requires well suited experimental facilities enabling the sufficiently cllose simulation of drilling conditions. the results of such research

  14. Descriptive study of relationship between cardio-ankle vascular index and biomarkers in vascular-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinbo; Liu, Huan; Zhao, Hongwei; Shang, Guangyun; Zhou, Yingyan; Li, Lihong; Wang, Hongyu

    2017-01-01

    Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) was supposed to be an independent predictor for vascular-related events. Biomarkers such as homocysteine (Hcy), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and urine albumin(microalbumin) (UAE) have involved the pathophysiological development of arteriosclerosis. The present study was to investigate relationship between CAVI and biomarkers in vascular-related diseases. A total of 656 subjects (M/F 272/384) from department of Vascular Medicine were enrolled into our study. They were divided into four groups according to the numbers of suffered diseases, healthy group (group 0: subjects without diseases of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), coronary heart disease (CHD); n = 186), group 1 (with one of diseases of hypertension, CHD, DM; n = 237), group 2 (with two of diseases of hypertension, CHD, DM; n = 174), and group 3 (with all diseases of hypertension, CHD, DM; n = 59). CAVI was measured by VS-1000 apparatus. CAVI was increasing with increasing numbers of suffered vascular-related diseases. Similar results were found in the parameters of biomarkers such as Hcy, log NT-ProBNP, and log UAE. There were positive correlation between log NT-proBNP, Hcy, log UAE, and CAVI in the entire study group and nonhealthy group. Positive correlation between log UAE and CAVI were found in the entire study group after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, uric acid, and lipids. Multivariate analysis showed that log UAE was an independent associating factor of CAVI in all subjects. CAVI was significantly higher in subjects with hypertension, CHD, and DM. There was correlation between arterial stiffness and biomarkers such as NT-proBNP, Hcy, and UAE.

  15. EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF HOUSEHOLD DRINKING WATER FILTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jezierska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of household drinking water filtration. This article demonstrates the possibilities of using study on the reaction of ascorbic acid degradation in aqueous solutions to develop a new method for determining the effectiveness of household drinking water filtration. Based on the measurements of absorbance of ascorbic acid a new parameters WCW (Coeffi cient of Water Purity and SF (Filtration Degree were defined. Correlations between the SF and the amount of filtered water (filter usage were investigated. With the filter usage decreasing effectiveness of calcium ions removal and drop of differences in conductivity between the tap and filtered water were observed. SF decreases proportionally to the filter usage and therefore the proposed method can be an effective tool to determine the effectiveness of domestic water filters.

  16. Formation of bacterial streamers during filtration in microfluidic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Aurélie; Roques, Christine; Causserand, Christel; Bacchin, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial behavior during filtration is complex and is influenced by numerous factors. The aim of this paper is to report on experiments designed to make progress in the understanding of bacterial transfer in filters and membranes. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microsystems were built to allow direct dynamic observation of bacterial transfer across different microchannel geometries mimicking filtration processes. When filtering Escherichia coli suspensions in such devices, the bacteria accumulated in the downstream zone of the filter forming long streamers undulating in the flow. Confocal microscopy and 3D reconstruction of streamers showed how the streamers are connected to the filter and how they form in the stream. Streamer development was found to be influenced by the flow configuration and the presence of connections or tortuosity between channels. Experiments showed that streamer formation was greatest in a filtration system composed of staggered arrays of squares 10 μm apart.

  17. Perlite filtration of phenolic compounds from cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami-Charati, Faramarz; Robati, Gholamreza Moradi; Naghizadeh, Farhad; Hosseini, Shahnaz; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad

    2013-01-01

    Adsorption of phenolic compounds and chemical analysis of them from a local production cigarette (named by Farvardin cigarette) smoke have been investigated by using perlite filtration. In this research, the mainstream smoke was tested by three filtration methods: Perlite filter, Cambridge filter and general cigarette filter. Then the used filter was extracted by pure methanol as solvent. After that, the extracted solution was analysed by GC-MS. By this consideration, the phenolic derivatives such as phenol, hydroquinone, resorcinol, pyrocatechol, m-cresol, p-cresol and o-cresol were detected. The structure of the perlite filtration after absorption was studied by SEM. In addition, its chemical structure was investigated by XRD and XRF.

  18. Simulations of Microbial-Enhanced Oil Recovery: Adsorption and Filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Nesterov, Igor; Shapiro, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    is introduced to study the process efficiency: the dimensionless time at which average recovery between pure water injection and maximum surfactant effect is reached. This characteristic recovery period (CRP) was studied as a function of the different MEOR parameters such as bacterial activity, filtration......In the context of microbial-enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) with injection of surfactant-producing bacteria into the reservoir, different types of bacteria attachment and growth scenarios are studied using a 1D simulator. The irreversible bacteria attachment due to filtration similar to the deep bed...... filtration (DBF) is examined along with the commonly used reversible equilibrium adsorption (REA). The characteristics of the two models are highlighted. The options for bacteria growth are the uniform growth in both phases and growth of attached bacteria only. It is found that uniform growth scenario...

  19. Fusion Kalman filtration with k-step delay sharing pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Zdzisław

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A fusion hierarchical state filtration with k−step delay sharing pattern for a multisensor system is considered. A global state estimate depends on local state estimates determined by local nodes using local information. Local available information consists of local measurements and k−step delay global information - global estimate sent from a central node. Local estimates are transmitted to the central node to be fused. The synthesis of local and global filters is presented. It is shown that a fusion filtration with k−step delay sharing pattern is equivalent to the optimal centralized classical Kalman filtration when local measurements are transmitted to the center node and used to determine a global state estimate. It is proved that the k−step delay sharing pattern can reduce covariances of local state errors.

  20. Early Identification of the Patient with Endotheliopathy of Trauma by Arrival Serum Albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Erika Gonzalez; Cardenas, Jessica C; Lopez, Ernesto

    2017-01-01

    . Low albumin patients were more likely to have EoT+, as well as higher soluble thrombomodulin (both p syndrome associated...... with leakage of albumin from the intravascular compartment, which reemphasizes that arrival albumin may be a novel and timely approach to the identification of patients needing endothelial rescue therapy....

  1. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to identify... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test...

  2. Renal albumin excretion: twin studies identify influences of heredity, environment, and adrenergic pathway polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, Fangwen; Wessel, Jennifer; Wen, Gen

    2007-01-01

    hydroxylase, chromogranin A, and sorting nexin 13. Dopamine D1 receptor polymorphism showed pleiotropic effects on both albumin and dopamine excretion. These studies establish new roles for heredity and environment in albumin excretion. Urinary excretions of albumin and catecholamines are highly heritable...

  3. Microalbuminuria reflects a generalized transvascular albumin leakiness in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Jensen, G

    1995-01-01

    transvascular albumin leakiness. In animal experiments the outflux of albumin and lipids to the arterial wall are highly correlated, and both are elevated in atherosclerosis. 2. All participants were recruited at random from a population-based epidemiological study, where the upper decile of urinary albumin...

  4. Pharmacokinetics and anti-HIV-1 efficacy of negatively charged human serum albumins in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, M E; Swart, P J; Schutten, Martin; Smit, C; Proost, J H; Osterhaus, A D; Meijer, D K

    Negatively charged albumins (NCAs, with the prototypes succinylated human serum albumin (Suc-HSA) and aconitylated human serum albumin (Aco-HSA)), modified proteins with a potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (anti-HIV-1) activity in vitro, were studied for their pharmacokinetic behaviour

  5. Normal overall leakiness of microvasculature for albumin in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kok-Jensen, A; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1984-01-01

    The overall extravasation rate of albumin, TER (i.e. the fraction of the intravascular albumin mass (IVM) passing into, and during steady state returning from, the extravascular space per unit time) was determined from the disappearance of i.v. injected radioiodinated serum albumin in seven...

  6. A three plus three parameters mechanistic model for viral filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Prakhar; Sinha, Abhishek; Rathore, Anurag S; Shukla, Anupam; Mir, Fasil Q

    2017-07-11

    Viral filtration is an expensive regulatory requirement in downstream processing of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). This process step is typically operated with an overdesigned filter in order to account for any batch to batch variability in the filter, as well as the feed characteristics. Here, we propose a simple, six-parameter mechanistic model for viral filtration where three parameters are membrane-specific while the other three depend on feed characteristics and membrane-feed interactions. Viruses are considered as passive particles which are retained by the membrane on the basis of size exclusion. The model envisages that the viral filter contains two kind of pores: virus-retentive, small-sized pores and non-retentive, large-sized pores. The small-sized pores get blocked during filtration resulting in decrease in active membrane area, while the large-sized pores get constricted during filtration. The length of constricted part increases during filtration and contributes to increase in hydraulic resistance of the filter. Rate of these processes (blocking and constriction) are assumed to be proportional to the instantaneous rate of retention of the viral particles. The general nature of the model is validated with the experimental data on viral filtration for four different commercial membranes used in biotech industries as well as different model viruses. The proposed model has been demonstrated to describe the behavior of filters with very good accuracy. The best-fit model parameter values indicate about the various phenomena that are responsible for differences in the behavior of the membranes as well as change in retention and flux with feed concentration. The proposed model can be used for improving design of virus filters as well as in appropriate sizing of the filters during processing. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  8. Fine dust filtration using a metal fiber bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Mi; Lee, Young Sup; Jo, Young Min

    2006-08-01

    A bed-type filter composed of thin metal alloy fiber was closely examined with dust capturing in cold and hot runs. The investigation of an individual mechanism across the filter bed indicated that the aerated dust could be initially collected by depth filtration, and after a while, surface filtration dominated the overall dust collection. The present metal fiber bed was comparable to the conventional ceramic filters because of its good collection efficiency with low pressure drop. It also showed potential to be used as a prefilter in a diesel exhaust trapping system.

  9. Pathogen filtration to control plant disease outbreak in greenhouse production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sangho; Krasnow, Charles; Bhalsod, Gemini; Granke, Leah; Harlan, Blair; Hausbeck, Mary; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has been extensively focused on understanding the fate and transport of human microbial pathogens in soil and water environments. However, little is known about the transport of plant pathogens, although these pathogens are often found in irrigation waters and could cause severe crop damage and economical loss. Water mold pathogens including Phytophthora spp. and Pythium spp. are infective to a wide range of vegetable and floriculture crops, and they are primarily harbored in soils and disseminated through water flow. It is challenging to control these pathogens because they often quickly develop resistance to many fungicides. Therefore, this multi-scale study aimed to investigate physical removal of plant pathogens from water by filtration, thus reducing the pathogen exposure risks to crops. In column-scale experiments, we studied controlling factors on the transport and retention of Phytophthora capsici zoospores in saturated columns packed with iron oxide coated-sand and uncoated-sand under varying solution chemistry. Biflagellate zoospores were less retained than encysted zoospores, and lower solution pH and greater iron oxide content increased the retention of encysted zoospores. These results provided insights on environmental dispersal of Phytophthora zoospores in natural soils as well as on developing cost-effective engineered filtration systems for pathogen removal. Using small-scale greenhouse filtration systems, we further investigated the performance of varying filter media (i.e., granular sand, iron oxide coated ceramic porous media, and activated carbon) in mitigating disease outbreaks of Phytophthora and Pythium for greenhouse-grown squash and poinsettia, respectively, in comparison with fungicide treatment. For squash, filtration by iron oxide coated media was more effective in reducing the Phytophthora infection, comparing to sand filtration and fungicide application. For poinsettia, sand filtration performed better in controlling

  10. Spin filtration of unpolarized electrons by impurity centers in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobin, E. G.; Berdinskiy, V. L., E-mail: bvl@unpk.osu.ru [Orenburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15

    It is shown that unpolarized paramagnetic centers can implement the spin filtration of unpolarized conduction electrons in semiconductors. This ability of paramagnetic centers is caused by the difference in the spin evolution of the states of electron-paramagnetic-center pairs and by the spin selectivity of electron capture exclusively from singlet pairs. The electron spin polarization should be opposite to the paramagneticcenter polarization. To implement spin filtration, an external magnetic field is necessary. The polarization can attain the largest values ({approx}10%) if the probability of spin-selective electron capture from singlet pairs exceeds the pair-decay rate by a factor of 5-7.

  11. Filtration ATF in automatic transmissions (AT of cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Dziubak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Functions and conditions of work of suction ATF filters are presented. Requirements ofATF filters are discussed. Sources of contaminations ATF are presented. ATF filtration system wascharacterized. Classification of ATF filters and their selection of design solutions are presented. Filtermaterials used for the production of ATF suction filters are presented and characterized. Conditions ofthe work of suction ATF filters were analyzed. Hydraulic and filtration characteristics are discussed.[b]Keywords: AT[/b] — automatic transmissions, ATF — automatic transmission fluid, ATF filter

  12. Visualisation studies and glomerular filtration in early diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Hiroshi

    2017-01-04

    The purpose of this mini-review is to show that more modern multi-photon microscopy approaches allow quantitative glomerular filtration experiments. Modern science has now entered a transition period from light microscopy to multi-photon confocal microscopy. Since the late 20th century, multi-photon microscopy has been applied in the study of organ function. In keeping with observations made in renal physiology and other representative studies throughout this transition period, and in the context of advancing microscopy techniques, this review has been presented as a comment on the glomerular filtration barrier, with a focus on the early aetiopathogenesis of diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [How Treatable is Vascular Dementia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Etsuro

    2016-04-01

    Vascular dementia is an umbrella term, encompassing the pathological changes in the brain due to cerebrovascular disease that result in dementia. Vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia, after Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, I outline the concept of vascular dementia, the key aspects of the disease that are yet to be clarified, and the current status of clinical trials. Assessing these factors, I discuss how treatable vascular dementia presently is. Use of the term'vascular dementia'is riddled with uncertainties regarding disease classification, and non-standardized diagnostic criteria. There are difficulties in determining the exact relationship between cerebrovascular pathology and cognitive impairment. The comorbid effects of Alzheimer's pathology in some individuals also present an obstacle to reliable clinical diagnosis, and hinder research into effective management approaches. Vascular dementia is preventable and treatable, as there are established primary and secondary prevention measures for the causative cerebrovascular diseases, such as vascular risk factor intervention, antiplatelet therapy, and anticoagulation, amongst others. However, unlike Alzheimer's disease, there are no established symptomatic treatments for vascular dementia. Clinical trials of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine indicate that they produce small cognitive benefits in patients with vascular dementia, though the exact clinical significance of these is uncertain. Data are insufficient to support the widespread use of these drugs in vascular dementia. Rehabilitation and physical and cognitive exercise may be beneficial, but evidence of cognitive benefit and relief of neuropsychiatric symptoms due to exercise is lacking.

  14. Prevalence of isolated non-albumin proteinuria in the US population tested for both, urine total protein and urine albumin: An unexpected discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayev, Alexander; Zebelman, Arthur M; Sharp, Thomas M; Samantha Flynn; Bernstein, Richard K

    2017-04-01

    Isolated non-albumin proteinuria (NAP) is a condition when urine total protein concentrations are elevated without elevation of urine albumin. The prevalence of NAP in the US population tested for both, urine total protein and albumin was assessed in this study. The database of a US nationwide laboratory network was queried for test results when random urine albumin was ordered together with urine total protein and also when timed 24-hour urine albumin was ordered together with urine total protein. The total prevalence of NAP in the US population tested for both, urine total protein and albumin was calculated for patient groups having normal and low-normal urine albumin (random and timed) with elevated and severely increased urine total protein (random and timed). Also, the prevalence of NAP was calculated for patients with normal urine albumin to assess the probability of missing proteinuria if only urine albumin is measured. The prevalence of NAP in the random samples group was 10.1% (15.2% for females and 4.7% for males). Among patients with normal random albumin, there were 20.0% (27.3% of females and 10.7% of males) patients with NAP. The prevalence of NAP in the timed samples group was 24.6% (29.8% for females and 18.5% for males). Among patients with normal timed urine albumin, there were 36.2% (40.0% of females and 30.8% of males) patients with NAP. There was a strong positive association with female gender and NAP in most patients groups. Testing for only urine (micro)albumin can miss up to 40% of females and 30.8% of males with gross proteinuria. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Estrogens and vascular thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmou, A

    1982-09-01

    The incidence of thromboses among young women has increased with widespread use of oral contraceptives (OCs) due to the significant thromboembolic risk of estrogen. Estrogens intervene at the vascular, platelet, and plasma levels as a function of hormonal variations in the menstrual cycle, increasing the aggregability of the platelets and thrombocytes, accelerating the formation of clots, and decreasing the amount of antithrombin III. Estrogens are used in medicine to treat breast and prostate cancers and in gynecology to treat dysmenorrhea, during the menopause, and in contraception. Smoking, cardiovascular disease and hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes are contraindicators to estrogen use. Thrombosis refers to blockage of a blood vessel by a clot or thrombus. Before estrogens are prescribed, a history of phlebitis, obesity, hyperlipidemia, or significant varicosities should be ruled out. A history of venous thrombosis, hyperlipoproteinemia, breast nodules, serious liver condition, allergies to progesterone, and some ocular diseases of vascular origin definitively rule out treatment with estrogens. A family history of infarct, embolism, diabetes, cancer, or vascular accidents at a young age signals a need for greater patient surveillance. All patients receiving estrogens should be carefully observed for signs of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypercoagulability, or diabetes. Nurses have a role to play in carefully eliciting the patient's history of smoking, personal and family medical problems, and previous and current laboratory results, as well as in informing the patients of the risks and possible side effects of OCs, especially for those who smoke. Nurses should educate patients receiving estrogens, especially those with histories of circulatory problems, to avoid standing in 1 position for prolonged periods, avoid heat which is a vasodilator, avoid obesity, excercise regularly, wear appropriate footgear, and follow other good health

  16. Selective ex vivo photothermal nano-therapy of solid liver tumors mediated by albumin conjugated gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Lucian; Matea, Cristian; Tabaran, Flaviu A; Mosteanu, Ofelia; Pop, Teodora; Puia, Cosmin; Agoston-Coldea, Lucia; Zaharie, Gabriela; Mocan, Teodora; Buzoianu, Anca Dana; Iancu, Cornel

    2017-03-01

    We have used albumin (BSA) bound to gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as active vectors to target liver cells. Our incentive to develop an original model of living liver cancer sprang from the ethical drawbacks that hindered the assessment of the selective character and the therapeutic capacity of these nano-biosystems in cancer patients. Ex vivo-perfused liver specimens were obtained from hepatocellular carcinoma patients similarly to the surgical technique of transplantation. Albumin bound to GNPs was inoculated intra-arterially onto the resulting specimen and determined the specific delivery of the nano-bioconjugate into the malignant tissue by means of the capillary bed. The extent of necrosis was considerable following laser therapy and at the same time surrounding parenchyma was not seriously affected. The selective photothermal ablation of the malignant liver tissue was obtained after the selective accumulation of BSA bound to GNPs into tumor cells following ex-vivo intra-vascular perfusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Renal type a intercalated cells contain albumin in organelles with aldosterone-regulated abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Buus Jensen

    Full Text Available Albumin has been identified in preparations of renal distal tubules and collecting ducts by mass spectrometry. This study aimed to establish whether albumin was a contaminant in those studies or actually present in the tubular cells, and if so, identify the albumin containing cells and commence exploration of the origin of the intracellular albumin. In addition to the expected proximal tubular albumin immunoreactivity, albumin was localized to mouse renal type-A intercalated cells and cells in the interstitium by three anti-albumin antibodies. Albumin did not colocalize with markers for early endosomes (EEA1, late endosomes/lysosomes (cathepsin D or recycling endosomes (Rab11. Immuno-gold electron microscopy confirmed the presence of albumin-containing large spherical membrane associated bodies in the basal parts of intercalated cells. Message for albumin was detected in mouse renal cortex as well as in a wide variety of other tissues by RT-PCR, but was absent from isolated connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts. Wild type I MDCK cells showed robust uptake of fluorescein-albumin from the basolateral side but not from the apical side when grown on permeable support. Only a subset of cells with low peanut agglutinin binding took up albumin. Albumin-aldosterone conjugates were also internalized from the basolateral side by MDCK cells. Aldosterone administration for 24 and 48 hours decreased albumin abundance in connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts from mouse kidneys. We suggest that albumin is produced within the renal interstitium and taken up from the basolateral side by type-A intercalated cells by clathrin and dynamin independent pathways and speculate that the protein might act as a carrier of less water-soluble substances across the renal interstitium from the capillaries to the tubular cells.

  18. Buoyancy-activated cell sorting using targeted biotinylated albumin microbubbles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ren Liou

    Full Text Available Cell analysis often requires the isolation of certain cell types. Various isolation methods have been applied to cell sorting, including fluorescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting. However, these conventional approaches involve exerting mechanical forces on the cells, thus risking cell damage. In this study we applied a novel isolation method called buoyancy-activated cell sorting, which involves using biotinylated albumin microbubbles (biotin-MBs conjugated with antibodies (i.e., targeted biotin-MBs. Albumin MBs are widely used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging due to their good biocompatibility and stability. For conjugating antibodies, biotin is conjugated onto the albumin MB shell via covalent bonds and the biotinylated antibodies are conjugated using an avidin-biotin system. The albumin microbubbles had a mean diameter of 2 μm with a polydispersity index of 0.16. For cell separation, the MDA-MB-231 cells are incubated with the targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 for 10 min, centrifuged at 10 g for 1 min, and then allowed 1 hour at 4 °C for separation. The results indicate that targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 antibodies can be used to separate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; more than 90% of the cells were collected in the MB layer when the ratio of the MBs to cells was higher than 70:1. Furthermore, we found that the separating efficiency was higher for targeted biotin-MBs than for targeted avidin-incorporated albumin MBs (avidin-MBs, which is the most common way to make targeted albumin MBs. We also demonstrated that the recovery rate of targeted biotin-MBs was up to 88% and the sorting purity was higher than 84% for a a heterogenous cell population containing MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44(+ and MDA-MB-453 cells (CD44-, which are classified as basal-like breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively. Knowing that the CD44(+ is a commonly used cancer

  19. Low-cost multi-stage filtration enhanced by coagulation-flocculation in upflow gravel filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Sánchez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the operational and design aspects of coagulation and flocculation in upflow gravel filters (CF-UGF in a multi-stage filtration (MSF plant. This study shows that CF-UGF units improve the performance of MSF considerably, when the system operates with turbidity above 30 NTU. It strongly reduces the load of particulate material before the water enters in the slow sand filters (SSF and therewith avoids short filter runs and prevents early interruption in SSF operations. The removal efficiency of turbidity in the CF-UGF with coagulant was between 85 and 96%, whereas the average efficiency without coagulant dosing was 46% (range: 21–76%. Operating with coagulant also improves the removal efficiency for total coliforms, E-coli and HPC. No reduction was observed in the microbial activity of the SSF, no obstruction of the SSF bed was demonstrated and SSF runs were maintained between 50 and 70 days for a maximum head loss of 0.70 m. The most important advantage is the flexibility of the system to operate with and without coagulant according to the influent turbidity. It was only necessary for 20% of the time to operate with the coagulant. The CF-UGF unit represented 7% of total construction costs and the O&M cost for the use of coagulant represented only 0.3%.

  20. Studies on the carotenoids in the muscle of salmon--V. Combination of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin with bovine serum albumin and egg albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henmi, H; Hata, M; Takeuchi, M

    1991-01-01

    1. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and/or egg albumin were bound to astaxanthin or canthaxanthin easily and the spectroscopic characteristics of these complexes were similar to those of astaxanthin or canthaxanthin in the salmon muscle. 2. This result indicates that astaxanthin-BSA, -egg albumin, canthaxanthin-BSA and -egg albumin complexes were basically similar to astaxanthin-actomyosin and/or canthaxanthin-actomyosin complex in the salmon muscle. 3. The binding of salmon actomyosin to astaxanthin or canthaxanthin is not specific.

  1. The pathobiology of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iadecola, Costantino

    2013-11-20

    Vascular cognitive impairment defines alterations in cognition, ranging from subtle deficits to full-blown dementia, attributable to cerebrovascular causes. Often coexisting with Alzheimer's disease, mixed vascular and neurodegenerative dementia has emerged as the leading cause of age-related cognitive impairment. Central to the disease mechanism is the crucial role that cerebral blood vessels play in brain health, not only for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients, but also for the trophic signaling that inextricably links the well-being of neurons and glia to that of cerebrovascular cells. This review will examine how vascular damage disrupts these vital homeostatic interactions, focusing on the hemispheric white matter, a region at heightened risk for vascular damage, and on the interplay between vascular factors and Alzheimer's disease. Finally, preventative and therapeutic prospects will be examined, highlighting the importance of midlife vascular risk factor control in the prevention of late-life dementia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of the therapeutic benefit of cationic copolymer administration to vascular endothelium under mechanical stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giantsos-Adams, Kristina; Lopez-Quintero, Veronica; Kopeckova, Pavla; Kopecek, Jindrich; Tarbell, John M.; Dull, Randal

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary edema and the associated increases in vascular permeability continue to represent a significant clinical problem in the intensive care setting, with no current treatment modality other than supportive care and mechanical ventilation. Therapeutic compound(s) capable of attenuating changes in vascular barrier function would represent a significant advance in critical care medicine. We have previously reported the development of HPMA-based copolymers, targeted to endothelial glycocalyx that are able to enhance barrier function. In this work, we report the refinement of copolymer design and extend our physiological studies todemonstrate that the polymers: 1) reduce both shear stress and pressure-mediated increase in hydraulic conductivity, 2) reduce nitric oxide production in response to elevated hydrostatic pressure and, 3) reduce the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) in an isolated perfused mouse lung model. These copolymers represent an important tool for use in mechanotransduction research and a novel strategy for developing clinically useful copolymers for the treatment of vascular permeability. PMID:20932573

  3. Anaesthesia for vascular emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellard, L; Djaiani, G

    2013-01-01

    Patients presenting with vascular emergencies including acute aortic syndrome, ruptured thoracic or abdominal aortic aneurysms, thoracic aortic trauma and acute lower limb ischaemia have a high risk of peri-operative morbidity and mortality. Although anatomical suitability is not universal, endovascular surgery may improve mortality and the results of ongoing randomised controlled trials are awaited. Permissive hypotension pre-operatively should be the standard of care with the systolic blood pressure kept to 50-100 mmHg as long as consciousness is maintained. The benefit of local anaesthesia over general anaesthesia is not definitive and this decision should be tailored for a given patient and circumstance. Cerebrospinal fluid drainage for prevention of paraplegia is often impractical in the emergency setting and is not backed by strong evidence; however, it should be considered postoperatively if symptoms develop. We discuss the pertinent anaesthetic issues when a patient presents with a vascular emergency and the impact that endovascular repair has on anaesthetic management. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  4. Pediatric vascularized composite allotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Gaby; Gharb, Bahar Bassiri; Rampazzo, Antonio; Papay, Francis; Siemionow, Maria Z; Zins, James E

    2014-10-01

    Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) has experienced a growing acceptance, which has led to a debate centered on extending the indications of the procedure to include pediatric patients. The aim of this article was to discuss such indications based on the evidence in pediatric solid organ transplantation, reconstructive surgery in children, and VCA in adult patients. Papers published on the outcomes of pediatric solid organ transplantation, growth after replantation of extremities, vascularized autologous tissue transfer, craniofacial surgery, orthognathic procedures, facial fractures, and outcomes after repair of peripheral nerves in children were reviewed. Although the outcomes of solid organ transplantation in children have improved, the transplanted organs continue to have a limited lifespan. Long-term immunosuppressive therapy exposes the patients to an increased lifetime risk of infections, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, and malignancy. Growth impairment and learning disabilities are other relevant drawbacks, which affect the pediatric recipients. Nonadherence to medication is a common cause of graft dysfunction and loss among the adolescent transplant recipients. Rejection episodes, hospitalizations, and medication adverse effects contribute negatively to the quality of life of the patients. Although normal growth after limb transplantation could be expected, pediatric facial transplant recipients may present with arrest of growth of transplanted midfacial skeleton. Considering the non-life-threatening nature of the conditions that lead to eligibility for VCA, it is suggested that it is premature to extend the indications of VCA to include pediatric patients under the currently available immunosuppressive protocols.

  5. An indoor air filtration study in homes of elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Spilak, Michal; Frederiksen, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to particulate air pollution increases respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly, possibly through inflammation and vascular dysfunction.......Exposure to particulate air pollution increases respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly, possibly through inflammation and vascular dysfunction....

  6. EVALUATION OF FILTRATION AND DISTILLATION METHODS FOR RECYCLING AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants at a New Jersey Department of Transportation garage. The specific recycling units evaluated are based on the technologies of filtrat...

  7. Modeling and analytical simulation of high-temperature gas filtration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High temperature filtration in combustion and gasification processes is a highly interdisciplinary field. Thus, particle technology in general has to be supported by elements of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics and heat and mass transfer processes. Presented in this paper is the analytical method for describing ...

  8. Glomerular filtration rate profiles in paediatric patients on cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: An accurate estimation of renal function in children is important in optimising the dose of many drugs used in paediatric oncology for allowing clinical monitoring of the nephrotoxic effects of cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is widely accepted as the best index of renal ...

  9. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and Risk of Survival in Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the risk of survival in acute stroke using the MDRD equation derived estimated glomerular filtration rate. Design: A prospective observational cross-sectional study. Setting: Medical wards of a tertiary care hospital. Subjects: Eighty three acute stroke patients had GFR calculated within 48 hours of ...

  10. Cumulative analysis of measurement processes and a correcting filtration

    OpenAIRE

    MEHDIYEVA A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The offered systematic approach to creation of information-measuring systems of considered parameters consists of cumulative analysis of measurement processes and a correcting filtration for the purpose of achievement of the balanced metrological, structurally-algorithmic and functional efficiency indicators of developed means.

  11. Hybrid filtration method for pre-treatment of stormwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johir, M A H; Vigneswaran, S; Kandasamy, J

    2010-01-01

    In this study the hybrid filtration process (combining fibre filter with deep bed dual media filtration) was investigated as pre-treatment to stormwater. This process was investigated in-terms of reduction in turbidity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), colour, headloss development across the filters, suspended solids removal, organic matter removal, nutrients and heavy matter (such as iron, copper, lead, zinc) removal efficiency. A comparison was made between the hybrid filter with single media (sand) deep bed filter and fibre filter. It was found that the hybrid filtration system successfully removed turbidity (98%), colour (99%), suspended solids (99%), and DOC (55%). The removal efficiency of heavy metal was relatively low as the concentration of heavy metals present in stormwater was low. The removal efficiency of nitrate, nitrite and phosphorous (as orthophosphate) was 27, 35 and 72% respectively. Hybrid filtration processes showed a better reduction of Modified Fouling Index (MFI) value (from 15.500 s/l(2) to 9 s/l(2)) compared with single media sand, anthracite and fibre filter which were 35 s/l(2), 13 s/l(2)and 14 s/l(2) respectively when operated at FeCl(3) dose of 15 mg/l.

  12. Successful Treatment Of Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia Using Cascade Filtration Plasmapheresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Kardas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study is to discuss the efficacy of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C apheresis procedure using the cascade filtration system for pediatric patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH, and to clarify the adverse effects and difficulties. METHODS: LDL apheresis using the cascade filtration system was performed in 3 pediatric patients with homozygous FH. In total, 120 apheresis sessions were performed for all patients. RESULTS: Cascade filtration therapy significantly reduced the mean LDL-C values from 418 ± 62 mg/dl to 145 ± 43 mg/dl (p<0.05. We determined an acute mean reduction in the plasma levels of total cholesterol (57.9%, LDL cholesterol (70.8%, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (40.7%. Treatments were well tolerated. The most frequent clinical adverse effects were hypotension in 3 sessions (2.5%, chills/feeling cold (1.7% in 2 sessions, and nausea and vomiting in 3 sessions (2.5%. CONCLUSION: Our experience with three patients using the cascade filtration system were, good clinical outcomes, laboratory findings, safety of usage, minor adverse effects and technical problems.

  13. Reduced glomerular filtration rate as a predictor of coronary artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic kidney disease is independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in high-risk populations according to several studies. However, findings from community-based population studies are insufficient. We studied the relationship between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and ...

  14. Glomerular filtration rate in steady state children with sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) affects mostly people of African origin. It causes kidney problems termed Sickle cell nephropathy (SCN). Increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) has been documented as one of the functional abnormalities seen in young SCA patients. Objective: To estimate GFR in Nigerian ...

  15. Estimated glomerular filtration rate in the nephrotic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, J.M.; Willems, J.L.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma creatinine concentration and creatinine-based equations are most commonly used as markers of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The abbreviated MDRD formula is considered the best available formula. Altered renal handling of creatinine, which may occur in the nephrotic syndrome,

  16. Superamphiphobic nanofibrous membranes for effective filtration of fine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Zhu, Zhigao; Sheng, Junlu; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2014-08-15

    The worldwide demands are rising for an energy-efficient and cost-effective approach that can provide advanced nanofibrous membranes with high filtration performance and superior antifouling properties. Here we report a novel synthesized fluorinated polyurethane (FPU) modified nanofibrous membrane optimized to achieve oil and non-oil aerosol particle filtration. By employing the FPU incorporation, the polyacrylonitrile/polyurethane (PAN/PU) composite membranes were endowed with superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 154° and superoleophobicity with an oil contact angle of 151°. Morphology, surface wettability, porous structure, and filtration performance could be manipulated by tuning the solution composition as well as the hierarchical structure. Furthermore, the as-prepared membranes can capture, for the first time, a range of different oil aerosol particles in a single-unit operation, with >99.9% filtration efficiency, by using the combined contribution of fiber diameter and surface roughness acting on the objective particles. Exemplified here by the construction of superamphiphobic nanofibrous membrane, numerous applications of this medium includes high efficiency particulate air filters, ultra-low penetration air filters, and respiratory protection equipment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Particle segregation during pressure filtration for cast formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Biesheuvel, Pieter Maarten

    2000-01-01

    When pressure filtration is used to produce composite materials from a mixed suspension, segregation of the different particle types is apt to occur due to different sedimentation velocities. This results in an inhomogeneous, thus inferior product. To understand and reduce segregation, a model is

  18. The filtration properties of porous diatomite | Odusote | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... through this material is fractal in the regime of low intensity transport. No fractal behaviour was observed under high intensity, indicating that the geometry of the material is subdued under high external driving forces. Keywords: Filtration, porous media, diatomite, intensity transport, fractal. > Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol.

  19. Membrane device and process for mass exchange, separation, and filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Canfield, Nathan L.

    2016-11-15

    A membrane device and processes for fabrication and for using are disclosed. The membrane device may include a number of porous metal membranes that provide a high membrane surface area per unit volume. The membrane device provides various operation modes that enhance throughput and selectivity for mass exchange, mass transfer, separation, and/or filtration applications between feed flow streams and permeate flow streams.

  20. Initial testing of electrospun nanofibre filters in water filtration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of nanofibre microfiltration membranes, spun by an innovative electrospinning technique, in water filtration applications. As such, this study bridges the gap between developments in electrospinning techniques for the production of flat-sheet membranes and the application of ...

  1. Sand-Filtration System For Improving Water Quality For Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of a pilot sand filtration plant for a small town water supply was monitored over a seven month period to evaluate the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of the filtered water from a system installed at Assin Praso in the Central Region of Ghana. The sand filter was effective in reducing turbidity by ...

  2. A biocoagulant slow sand filtration for disinfection of Toxoplasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considering that is widely used for various domestic chores; filtration disinfection of T. gondii was considered. A bench scale disinfection of oocysts of T. gondii with 0.2 g of powdered Moringa oleifera seeds per 10 ml of contaminated water from Mezam River showed a reduction of 50 oocysts per 10 ml to 10 oocysts in 15 ...

  3. RIVERBANK FILTRATION AS A PRETREATMENT FOR NANOFILTRATION MEMBRANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The loss of membrane efficiency due to fouling is one of the main impediments to the development of membrane processes for use in drinking water treatment. Surface waters, in general, have a greater proclivity towards fouling as compared to groundwaters. Riverbank filtration ch...

  4. Optimal adaptive scheduling and control of beer membrane filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigenburg, van L.G.; Vollebregt, H.M.; Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    An adaptive optimal scheduling and controller design is presented that attempts to improve the performance of beer membrane filtration over the ones currently obtained by operators. The research was performed as part of a large European research project called EU Cafe with the aim to investigate the

  5. Modelling Real World Using Stochastic Processes and Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeger Peter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available First we give an implementation in Mizar [2] basic important definitions of stochastic finance, i.e. filtration ([9], pp. 183 and 185, adapted stochastic process ([9], p. 185 and predictable stochastic process ([6], p. 224. Second we give some concrete formalization and verification to real world examples.

  6. Effect of filtration on subsequently stored platelet concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joustra-Dijkhuis, A. M.; Boomgaard, M. N.; Pietersz, R. N.; Steneker, I.; de Korte, D.; Loos, J. A.; Reesink, H. W.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of filtration on the quality of platelet concentrates (PC) during storage was investigated. Two leukocyte depletion filters (Pall PL50HF and Sepacell PL-10A) were applied to filter PC made from a pool of 4 buffy coats. For each experiment 3 PC were pooled and divided into 3 identical PC

  7. Baghouse operation and maintenance user and fabric filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This group of papers from the ninth in a series of A and WMA biannual Fabric Filtration conferences is of particular interest to engineers, operators, managers, and vendors of baghouses because it covers the topics from the perspective of the user. It features such topics as cement applications, boilers and incineration, and metals applications.

  8. Effect of internal filtration on slurry reactor performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizenga, P.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1999-01-01

    In slurry bubble column reactors, generally small particles (<200 m) are applied. These particles often introduce a strenuous liquid-solid separation in processes involving liquid-phase products. This operation can be facilitated by performing filtration inside the reactor and thereby utilizing the

  9. Initial testing of electrospun nanofibre filters in water filtration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-11-17

    Nov 17, 2009 ... 1 Research Group EnBichem, Departement of Industrial Engineering and Technology, University College West Flanders,. Ghent University Association ... techniques for the production of flat-sheet membranes and the application of these membranes in water filtration. Three dif- ferent applications were ...

  10. Simulation of impaction filtration of aerosol droplets in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghazaryan, L.; Lopez Penha, D.J.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Stolz, S.; Stolz, Steffen; Winkelmann, Christoph; Pereira, J.C.F; Sequeira, A.; Pereira, J.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the development of a method to simulate from first principles the particle filtration efficiency of filters that are composed of structured porous media. We assume that the ratio of particle density to the fluid density is high. We concentrate on the motion of the particles in a laminar

  11. Experiences on dual media filtration of WWTP effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrenberg, S M; Postma, P; Neef, R; Menkveld, H W H; Bechger, M; van der Graaf, J H J M

    2011-01-01

    This research is legislation driven by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Dutch Fourth Memorandum on Water Management. The objective of this research is to achieve the removal of total nitrogen and total phosphorus by Dual Media Filtration. The target value during this research for total nitrogen is 2.2 mg/L and for total phosphorus 0.15 mg/L. The results show that for NOx-N concentrations in the WWTP effluent up to 10 mg/L, a stable operation of the process can be reached with removal rates of 80% to 90%. The maximum nitrogen removal rate was 3.5 kg N/(m3.d). Above 10 mg/L a risk of filter bed clogging occurred. When the orthophosphorus concentration in the WWTP effluent exceeds the maximum of 0.3 mg/L, the total phosphorus concentration in the filtrate water will exceed the target value of 0.15 mg P-total/L. Temperature has a large impact in the phosphorus removal; the optimum temperature range is within 13 degrees C-18 degrees C. In conclusion, Dual Media Filtration is capable of producing reusable water with total phosphorus concentrations of filtrate water of <2.2 mg/L a NOx-N removal efficiency of nearly 100% is required.

  12. Assessment of endophytic fungi cultural filtrate on soybean seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean seeds have high amount of isoflavones but its germination is often confronted with a variety of environmental problems resulting in low germination rate and growth. To overcome this in eco-friendly manner, we investigated the influence of cultural filtrate (CF) of gibberellins-producing endophytic fungi on soybean ...

  13. Spinal Cord Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoreza Ghoreishi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The spinal cord is subject to many of the same vascular diseases that involve the brain, but its anatomy and embryology render it susceptible to some syndromes that do not have intracranial counterparts.The embryonic arterial supply to the spinal cord derives from intradural vessels that enter at each spinal level and divide to follow the dorsal and ventral roots. SPINAL CORD ISCHEMIA: The midthoracic levels of the spinal cord are traditionally considered to be the most vulnerable to compromise from hypoperfusion, but more recent evidence suggests that the lower thoracic cord is at greater risk . The actual prevalence of spinal cord infarction is unknown, but is generally cited as representing 1% to 2% of all central neurovascular events and 5% to 8% of all acute myelopathies. Weakness (100%, sensory loss (89%, back pain at onset (82%, and urinary complaints requiring catheterization (75% were the most common symptoms of cord ischemia at the time of presentation . Weakness most commonly affects both legs. Examination typically reveals flaccid paresis accompanied by diminished superficial and tendon reflexes below the level of the lesion. Preservation of strength and reflexes suggests the rare syndrome of posterior spinal artery territory infarction. Weakness most commonly affects both legs. Examination typically reveals flaccid paresis accompanied by diminished superficial and tendon reflexes below the level of the lesion. Preservation of strength and reflexes suggests the rare syndrome of posterior spinal artery territory infarction.   Aortic pathologies with regional hemodynamic compromise are the most common cause of spinal cord infarction, accounting for 30% to 40% of cases.                                                                                 The medical management of spinal cord ischemia is generally supportive and focused on reducing risk for

  14. Molecular basis of indomethacin-human serum albumin interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trivedi, V D; Vorum, H; Honoré, B

    1999-01-01

    Studies on the strength and extent of binding of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin to human serum albumin (HSA) have provided conflicting results. In the present work, the serum-binding of indomethacin was studied in 55 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) at 28 degrees C......, by using a fluorescence quench titration technique. The interaction of indomethacin with human serum albumin has been studied as a function of temperature, ionic strength and pH. The results suggest that electrostatic interaction plays a major role in the binding. The possible role of lysine residues...... in this interaction was studied by modifying exposed and buried lysine residues of HSA with potassium cyanate and studying indomethacin binding with the modified HSA. The data suggest that the interaction takes place via a salt bridge formation between the carboxylate group of indomethacin and a buried lysine residue...

  15. Novel lipid hybrid albumin nanoparticle greatly lowered toxicity of pirarubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Xuanmiao; Li, Mei; Wu, Wenqi; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Ling; Gong, Tao

    2013-10-07

    Pirarubicin (THP) is an effective anthracycline for the treatment of solid tumor. However, its potential side effects are prominent and clinical use is restricted. We aimed to develop a novel pirarubicin-oleic acid complex albumin nanoparticle (THP-OA-AN) in order to reduce the toxicity of THP. Oleic acid, human serum albumin (HSA), and egg yolk lecithin E80 was used to prepare THP-OA-AN. Prepared THP-OA-AN was characterized and animal experiments were conducted to assess its tumor suppression effect, distribution, and toxicity. Comparison between THP and THP-OA-AN showed that, with retained antitumor efficiency, the toxicity of THP-OA-AN is significantly reduced regarding bone marrow suppression, cardiotoxicity, renal toxicity, and gastrointestinal toxicity. This study developed a safe and effective formulation of THP, which has greater potential for clinic use in the tumor therapy.

  16. Albumin Suppresses Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Proliferation and the Cell Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Nojiri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many investigations have revealed that a low recurrence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is associated with high serum albumin levels in patients; therefore, high levels of serum albumin are a major indicator of a favorable prognosis. However, the mechanism inhibiting the proliferation of HCC has not yet been elucidated, so we investigated the effect of serum albumin on HCC cell proliferation. Hep3B was cultured in MEM with no serum or containing 5 g/dL human albumin. As control samples, Prionex was added to generate the same osmotic pressure as albumin. After 24-h incubation, the expressions of α-fetoprotein (AFP, p53, p21, and p57 were evaluated with real-time PCR using total RNA extracted from the liver. Protein expressions and the phosphorylation of Rb (retinoblastoma were determined by Western blot analysis using total protein extracted from the liver. For flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle, FACS analysis was performed. The percentages of cell cycle distribution were evaluated by PI staining, and all samples were analyzed employing FACScalibur (BD with appropriate software (ModFit LT; BD. The cell proliferation assay was performed by counting cells with using a Scepter handy automated cell counter (Millipore. The mRNA levels of AFP relative to Alb(−: Alb(−, Alb(+, and Prionex, were 1, 0.7 ± 0.2 (p < 0.001 for Alb(−, and 1 ± 0.3, respectively. The mRNA levels of p21 were 1, 1.58 ± 0.4 (p = 0.007 for Alb(− and p = 0.004 for Prionex, and 0.8 ± 0.2, respectively. The mRNA levels of p57 were 1, 4.4 ± 1.4 (p = 0.002 for Alb(− and Prionex, and 1.0 ± 0.1, respectively. The protein expression levels of Rb were similar in all culture media. The phosphorylation of P807/811 and P780 of Rb protein was reduced in Alb(+. More cells in the G0/G1 phase and fewer cells in S and G2/M phases were obtained in Alb(+ than in Alb(− (G0/G1: 60.9%, 67.7%, 61.5%; G2/M: 16.5%, 13.1%, 15.6%; S: 22.6%, 19.2%, 23.0%, Alb(−, Alb

  17. Tamoxifen and curcumin binding to serum albumin. Spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciążek-Jurczyk, M.; Maliszewska, M.; Pożycka, J.; Równicka-Zubik, J.; Góra, A.; Sułkowska, A.

    2013-07-01

    Tamoxifen (TMX) is widely used for the breast cancer treatment and is known as chemopreventive agent. Curcumin (CUR) is natural phenolic compound with broad spectrum of biological activity e.g. anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal and chemopreventive. Combination of tamoxifen and curcumin could be more effective with lower toxicity than each agent alone in use for the treatment or chemoprevention of breast cancer. Binding of drugs to serum albumin is an important factor, which determines toxicity and therapeutic dosage of the drugs. When two drugs are administered together the competition between them for the binding site on albumin can result in a decrease in bound fraction and an increase in the concentration of free biologically active fraction of drug.

  18. Interactive association of drugs binding to human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng; Zhang, Yao; Liang, Hong

    2014-02-27

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is an abundant plasma protein, which attracts great interest in the pharmaceutical industry since it can bind a remarkable variety of drugs impacting their delivery and efficacy and ultimately altering the drug's pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Additionally, HSA is widely used in clinical settings as a drug delivery system due to its potential for improving targeting while decreasing the side effects of drugs. It is thus of great importance from the viewpoint of pharmaceutical sciences to clarify the structure, function, and properties of HSA-drug complexes. This review will succinctly outline the properties of binding site of drugs in IIA subdomain within the structure of HSA. We will also give an overview on the binding characterization of interactive association of drugs to human serum albumin that may potentially lead to significant clinical applications.

  19. Tear fluid electrolytes and albumin in persons under environmental stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thygesen, J.E.; Bach, B.; Molhave, L.; Pedersen, O.F.; Prause, J.U.; Skov, P.

    1987-06-01

    Sixty-two subjects selected among 287 persons with indoor air complaints were exposed to a standard mixture of 22 different organic gases and vapors normally found in Danish houses. Persons were randomly assigned to one of four exposure groups, and each subject stayed during the test day from 10:00 AM to 4:00 PM under standardized conditions in a climate chamber. During exposure the blink frequency was recorded, and after exposure the tear fluid contents of serum albumin, potassium, and sodium were measured. It was found that the persons had an increased concentration of serum albumin in the tear fluid, and that exposure to high concentrations of organic gases and vapors induced a tear reflex-mediated dilution of the tears.

  20. Impaired Albumin Uptake and Processing Promote Albuminuria in OVE26 Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Y S; Zheng, S; Kralik, P M; Benz, F W; Epstein, P N

    2016-01-01

    The importance of proximal tubules dysfunction to diabetic albuminuria is uncertain. OVE26 mice have the most severe albuminuria of all diabetic mouse models but it is not known if impaired tubule uptake and processing are contributing factors. In the current study fluorescent albumin was used to follow the fate of albumin in OVE26 and normal mice. Compared to normal urine, OVE26 urine contained at least 23 times more intact fluorescent albumin but only 3-fold more 70 kD fluorescent dextran. This indicated that a function other than size selective glomerular sieving contributed to OVE26 albuminuria. Imaging of albumin was similar in normal and diabetic tubules for 3 hrs after injection. However 3 days after injection a subset of OVE26 tubules retained strong albumin fluorescence, which was never observed in normal mice. OVE26 tubules with prolonged retention of injected albumin lost the capacity to take up albumin and there was a significant correlation between tubules unable to eliminate fluorescent albumin and total albuminuria. TUNEL staining revealed a 76-fold increase in cell death in OVE26 tubules that retained fluorescent albumin. These results indicate that failure to process and dispose of internalized albumin leads to impaired albumin uptake, increased albuminuria, and tubule cell apoptosis.