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Sample records for varying discharge rates

  1. A Simulation of the Effects of Varying Repetition Rate and Pulse Width of Nanosecond Discharges on Premixed Lean Methane-Air Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Soo Bak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional kinetic simulation has been carried out to investigate the effects of repetition rate and pulse width of nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges on stabilizing premixed lean methane-air combustion. The repetition rate and pulse width are varied from 10 kHz to 50 kHz and from 9 ns to 2 ns while the total power is kept constant. The lower repetition rates provide larger amounts of radicals such as O, H, and OH. However, the effect on stabilization is found to be the same for all of the tested repetition rates. The shorter pulse width is found to favor the production of species in higher electronic states, but the varying effects on stabilization are also found to be small. Our results indicate that the total deposited power is the critical element that determines the extent of stabilization over this range of discharge properties studied.

  2. Lithium thionyl chloride high rate discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinedinst, K. A.

    1980-04-01

    Improvements in high rate lithium thionyl chloride power technology achieved by varying the electrolyte composition, operating temperature, cathode design, and cathode composition are discussed. Discharge capacities are plotted as a function of current density, cell voltage, and temperature.

  3. Branching of positive discharge streamers in air at varying pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briels, T.M.P.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Ebert, U.M.

    2005-01-01

    The formation of positive streamers in a 17-mm gap in air is studied at pressures varying in the range from 1010 to 100 mbar. An intensified charge coupled device camera is used to image the discharge. At high pressures, the discharge shows many branches, while at low pressure, fewer branches arise.

  4. Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruma,; Yoshihara, K.; Hosseini, S. H. R.; Sakugawa, T.; Akiyama, H.; Akiyama, M.; Lukeš, P.

    2014-01-01

    The properties of water surface discharge plasma for variety of pulse repetition rates are investigated. A magnetic pulse compression (MPC) pulsed power modulator able to deliver pulse repetition rates up to 1000 Hz, with 0.5 J per pulse energy output at 25 kV, was used as the pulsed power source. Positive pulse with a point-to-plane electrode configuration was used for the experiments. The concentration and production yield of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) were quantitatively measured and orange II organic dye was treated, to evaluate the chemical properties of the discharge reactor. Experimental results show that the physical and chemical properties of water surface discharge are not influenced by pulse repetition rate, very different from those observed for under water discharge. The production yield of H 2 O 2 and degradation rate per pulse of the dye did not significantly vary at different pulse repetition rates under a constant discharge mode on water surface. In addition, the solution temperature, pH, and conductivity for both water surface and underwater discharge reactors were measured to compare their plasma properties for different pulse repetition rates. The results confirm that surface discharge can be employed at high pulse repetition rates as a reliable and advantageous method for industrial and environmental decontamination applications.

  5. The role of periodically varying discharge on river plume structure and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yeping; Horner-Devine, Alexander R.; Avener, Margaret; Bevan, Shaun

    2018-04-01

    We present results from laboratory experiments that simulate the effects of periodically varying discharge on buoyant coastal plumes. Freshwater is discharged into a two meter diameter tank filled with saltwater on a rotating table. The mean inflow rate, tank rotation period and density of the ambient salt water are varied to simulate a range of inflow Froude and Rossby numbers. The amplitude and the period of the inflow modulation are varied across a range that simulates variability due to tides and storms. Using the optical thickness method, we measure the width and depth of the plume, plume volume and freshwater retention rate in the plume. With constant discharge, freshwater is retained in a growing anticyclonic bulge circulation near the river mouth, as observed in previous studies. When the discharge is varied, the bulge geometry oscillates between a circular plume structure that extends mainly in the offshore direction, and a compressed plume structure that extends mainly in the alongshore direction. The oscillations result in periodic variations in the width and depth of the bulge and the incidence angle formed where the bulge flow re-attaches with the coastal wall. The oscillations are more pronounced for longer modulation periods, but are relatively insensitive to the modulation amplitude. A phase difference between the time varying transport within the bulge and bulge geometry determines the fraction of the bulge flow discharged into the coastal current. As a result, the modulation period determines the variations in amount of freshwater that returns to the bulge. Freshwater retention in the bulge is increased in longer modulation periods and more pronounced for larger modulation amplitudes.

  6. TIME-VARYING DYNAMICAL STAR FORMATION RATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chang, Philip; Murray, Norman, E-mail: evelee@berkeley.edu [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2015-02-10

    We present numerical evidence of dynamic star formation in which the accreted stellar mass grows superlinearly with time, roughly as t {sup 2}. We perform simulations of star formation in self-gravitating hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that is continuously driven. By turning the self-gravity of the gas in the simulations on or off, we demonstrate that self-gravity is the dominant physical effect setting the mass accretion rate at early times before feedback effects take over, contrary to theories of turbulence-regulated star formation. We find that gravitational collapse steepens the density profile around stars, generating the power-law tail on what is otherwise a lognormal density probability distribution function. Furthermore, we find turbulent velocity profiles to flatten inside collapsing regions, altering the size-line width relation. This local flattening reflects enhancements of turbulent velocity on small scales, as verified by changes to the velocity power spectra. Our results indicate that gas self-gravity dynamically alters both density and velocity structures in clouds, giving rise to a time-varying star formation rate. We find that a substantial fraction of the gas that forms stars arrives via low-density flows, as opposed to accreting through high-density filaments.

  7. Granular discharge rate for submerged hoppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Wilson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of spherical grains from a hole in the bottom of a right circular cylinder is measured with the entire system underwater. We find that the discharge rate depends on filling height, in contrast to the well-known case of dry non-cohesive grains. It is further surprising that the rate increases up to about twenty five percent, as the hopper empties and the granular pressure head decreases. For deep filling, where the discharge rate is constant, we measure the behavior as a function of both grain and hole diameters. The discharge rate scale is set by the product of hole area and the terminal falling speed of isolated grains. But there is a small-hole cutoff of about two and half grain diameters, which is larger than the analogous cutoff in the Beverloo equation for dry grains. Received: 11 September 2014, Accepted: 10 October 2014; Reviewed by: L. Staron, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Institut Le Rond d'Alembert, Paris, France; Edited by: L. A. Pugnaloni; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4279/PIP.060009 Cite as: T J Wilson, C R Pfeifer, N Meysingier, D J Durian, Papers in Physics 6, 060009 (2014

  8. Milk Flow Rates from bottle nipples used after hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pados, Britt Frisk; Park, Jinhee; Thoyre, Suzanne M; Estrem, Hayley; Nix, W Brant

    To test the milk flow rates and variability in flow rates of bottle nipples used after hospital discharge. Twenty-six nipple types that represented 15 common brands as well as variety in price per nipple and store location sold (e.g., Babies R' Us, Walmart, Dollar Store) were chosen for testing. Ten of each nipple type (n = 260 total) were tested by measuring the amount of infant formula expressed in 1 minute using a breast pump. Mean milk flow rate (mL/min) and coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated. Flow rates of nipples within brand were compared statistically. Milk flow rates varied from 1.68 mL/min for the Avent Natural Newborn Flow to 85.34 mL/min for the Dr. Brown's Standard Y-cut. Variability between nipple types also varied widely, from .03 for the Dr. Brown's Standard Level 3 to .37 for MAM Nipple 1 Slow Flow. The extreme range of milk flow rates found may be significant for medically fragile infants being discharged home who are continuing to develop oral feeding skills. The name of the nipple does not provide clear information about the flow rate to guide parents in decision making. Variability in flow rates within nipples of the same type may complicate oral feeding for the medically fragile infant who may not be able to adapt easily to change in flow rates. Both flow rate and variability should be considered when guiding parents to a nipple choice.

  9. Time-Varying Networks of Inter-Ictal Discharging Reveal Epileptogenic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luyan; Liang, Yi; Li, Fali; Sun, Hongbin; Peng, Wenjing; Du, Peishan; Si, Yajing; Song, Limeng; Yu, Liang; Xu, Peng

    2017-01-01

    The neuronal synchronous discharging may cause an epileptic seizure. Currently, most of the studies conducted to investigate the mechanism of epilepsy are based on EEGs or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recorded during the ictal discharging or the resting-state, and few studies have probed into the dynamic patterns during the inter-ictal discharging that are much easier to record in clinical applications. Here, we propose a time-varying network analysis based on adaptive directed transfer function to uncover the dynamic brain network patterns during the inter-ictal discharging. In addition, an algorithm based on the time-varying outflow of information derived from the network analysis is developed to detect the epileptogenic zone. The analysis performed revealed the time-varying network patterns during different stages of inter-ictal discharging; the epileptogenic zone was activated prior to the discharge onset then worked as the source to propagate the activity to other brain regions. Consistence between the epileptogenic zones detected by our proposed approach and the actual epileptogenic zones proved that time-varying network analysis could not only reveal the underlying neural mechanism of epilepsy, but also function as a useful tool in detecting the epileptogenic zone based on the EEGs in the inter-ictal discharging.

  10. Evaluating Hospital Readmission Rates After Discharge From Inpatient Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daras, Laura Coots; Ingber, Melvin J; Carichner, Jessica; Barch, Daniel; Deutsch, Anne; Smith, Laura M; Levitt, Alan; Andress, Joel

    2017-08-09

    To examine facility-level rates of all-cause, unplanned hospital readmissions for 30 days after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs). Observational design. Inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries (N=567,850 patient-stays). Not applicable. The outcome is all-cause, unplanned hospital readmission rates for IRFs. We adapted previous risk-adjustment and statistical approaches used for acute care hospitals to develop a hierarchical logistic regression model that estimates a risk-standardized readmission rate for each IRF. The IRF risk-adjustment model takes into account patient demographic characteristics, hospital diagnoses and procedure codes, function at IRF admission, comorbidities, and prior hospital utilization. We presented national distributions of observed and risk-standardized readmission rates and estimated confidence intervals to make statistical comparisons relative to the national mean. We also analyzed the number of days from IRF discharge until hospital readmission. The national observed hospital readmission rate by 30 days postdischarge from IRFs was 13.1%. The mean unadjusted readmission rate for IRFs was 12.4%±3.5%, and the mean risk-standardized readmission rate was 13.1%±0.8%. The C-statistic for our risk-adjustment model was .70. Nearly three-quarters of IRFs (73.4%) had readmission rates that were significantly different from the mean. The mean number of days to readmission was 13.0±8.6 days and varied by rehabilitation diagnosis. Our results demonstrate the ability to assess 30-day, all-cause hospital readmission rates postdischarge from IRFs and the ability to discriminate between IRFs with higher- and lower-than-average hospital readmission rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Proposed test method for determining discharge rates from water closets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, V.; Fjord Jensen, T.

    At present the rates at which discharge takes place from sanitary appliances are mostly known only in the form of estimated average values. SBI has developed a measuring method enabling determination of the exact rate of discharge from a sanitary appliance as function of time. The methods depends...

  12. Entropy Rate of Time-Varying Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cika, Arta; Badiu, Mihai Alin; Coon, Justin P.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a detailed framework to analyze the evolution of the random topology of a time-varying wireless network via the information theoretic notion of entropy rate. We consider a propagation channel varying over time with random node positions in a closed space and Rayleigh...... fading affecting the connections between nodes. The existence of an edge between two nodes at given locations is modeled by a Markov chain, enabling memory effects in network dynamics. We then derive a lower and an upper bound on the entropy rate of the spatiotemporal network. The entropy rate measures...

  13. High-repetition-rate short-pulse gas discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulip, J; Seguin, H; Mace, P N

    1979-09-01

    A high-average-power short-pulse gas discharge is described. This consists of a volume-preionized transverse discharge of the type used in gas lasers driven by a Blumlein energy storage circuit. The Blumlein circuit is fabricated from coaxial cable, is pulse-charged from a high-repetition-rate Marx-bank generator, and is switched by a high-repetition-rate segmented rail gap. The operation of this discharge under conditions typical of rare-gas halide lasers is described. A maximum of 900 pps was obtained, giving a power flow into the discharge of 30 kW.

  14. Discrete simulations of spatio-temporal dynamics of small water bodies under varied stream flow discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daya Sagar, B. S.

    2005-01-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns of small water bodies (SWBs) under the influence of temporally varied stream flow discharge are simulated in discrete space by employing geomorphologically realistic expansion and contraction transformations. Cascades of expansion-contraction are systematically performed by synchronizing them with stream flow discharge simulated via the logistic map. Templates with definite characteristic information are defined from stream flow discharge pattern as the basis to model the spatio-temporal organization of randomly situated surface water bodies of various sizes and shapes. These spatio-temporal patterns under varied parameters (λs) controlling stream flow discharge patterns are characterized by estimating their fractal dimensions. At various λs, nonlinear control parameters, we show the union of boundaries of water bodies that traverse the water body and non-water body spaces as geomorphic attractors. The computed fractal dimensions of these attractors are 1.58, 1.53, 1.78, 1.76, 1.84, and 1.90, respectively, at λs of 1, 2, 3, 3.46, 3.57, and 3.99. These values are in line with general visual observations.

  15. Discrete simulations of spatio-temporal dynamics of small water bodies under varied stream flow discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Daya Sagar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatio-temporal patterns of small water bodies (SWBs under the influence of temporally varied stream flow discharge are simulated in discrete space by employing geomorphologically realistic expansion and contraction transformations. Cascades of expansion-contraction are systematically performed by synchronizing them with stream flow discharge simulated via the logistic map. Templates with definite characteristic information are defined from stream flow discharge pattern as the basis to model the spatio-temporal organization of randomly situated surface water bodies of various sizes and shapes. These spatio-temporal patterns under varied parameters (λs controlling stream flow discharge patterns are characterized by estimating their fractal dimensions. At various λs, nonlinear control parameters, we show the union of boundaries of water bodies that traverse the water body and non-water body spaces as geomorphic attractors. The computed fractal dimensions of these attractors are 1.58, 1.53, 1.78, 1.76, 1.84, and 1.90, respectively, at λs of 1, 2, 3, 3.46, 3.57, and 3.99. These values are in line with general visual observations.

  16. Adenoma detection rate varies greatly during colonoscopy training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Sascha C.; Klanderman, Robert B.; Hazewinkel, Yark; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien

    2015-01-01

    The adenoma detection rate (ADR) is considered the most important quality indicator for colonoscopy and varies widely among colonoscopists. It is unknown whether the ADR of gastroenterology consultants can already be predicted during their colonoscopy training. To evaluate the ADR of fellows in

  17. Evaluating the vulnerability of surface waters to antibiotic contamination from varying wastewater treatment plant discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batt, Angela L.; Bruce, Ian B.; Aga, Diana S.

    2006-01-01

    Effluents from three wastewater treatment plants with varying wastewater treatment technologies and design were analyzed for six antibiotics and caffeine on three sampling occasions. Sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and clindamycin were detected in the effluents at concentrations ranging from 0.090 to 6.0 μg/L. Caffeine was detected in all effluents at concentrations ranging from 0.19 to 9.9 μg/L. These findings indicate that several conventional wastewater management practices are not effective in the complete removal of antibiotics, and their discharges have a large potential to affect the aquatic environment. To evaluate the persistence of antibiotics coming from the wastewater discharges on the surrounding surface waters, samples were collected from the receiving streams at 10-, 20- and 100-m intervals. Ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycin (0.043 to 0.076 μg/L) were found as far as 100 m from the discharge point, which indicates the persistence of these drugs in surface waters. - This work investigates the extent of antibiotic concentrations in receiving waters from discharges of wastewater treatment plants

  18. Epidemic spread in coupled populations with seasonally varying migration rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyczyn, Adam; Shaw, Leah B.

    2009-03-01

    The H5N1 strain of avian influenza has spread worldwide, and this spread may be due to seasonal migration of birds and mixing of birds from different regions in the wintering grounds. We studied a multipatch model for avian influenza with seasonally varying migration rates. The bird population was divided into two spatially distinct patches, or subpopulations. Within each patch, the disease followed the SIR (susceptible-infected-recovered) model for epidemic spread. Migration rates were varied periodically, with a net flux toward the breeding grounds during the spring and towards the wintering grounds during the fall. The case of two symmetric patches reduced to single-patch SIR dynamics. However, asymmetry in the birth and contact rates in the breeding grounds and wintering grounds led to bifurcations to longer period orbits and chaotic dynamics. We studied the bifurcation structure of the model and the phase relationships between outbreaks in the two patches.

  19. Association of Changing Hospital Readmission Rates With Mortality Rates After Hospital Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongfei; Lin, Zhenqiu; Normand, Sharon-Lise T.; Ross, Joseph S.; Horwitz, Leora I.; Desai, Nihar R.; Suter, Lisa G.; Drye, Elizabeth E.; Bernheim, Susannah M.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2017-01-01

    Importance The Affordable Care Act has led to US national reductions in hospital 30-day readmission rates for heart failure (HF), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and pneumonia. Whether readmission reductions have had the unintended consequence of increasing mortality after hospitalization is unknown. Objective To examine the correlation of paired trends in hospital 30-day readmission rates and hospital 30-day mortality rates after discharge. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective study of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged 65 years or older hospitalized with HF, AMI, or pneumonia from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2014. Exposure Thirty-day risk-adjusted readmission rate (RARR). Main Outcomes and Measures Thirty-day RARRs and 30-day risk-adjusted mortality rates (RAMRs) after discharge were calculated for each condition in each month at each hospital in 2008 through 2014. Monthly trends in each hospital’s 30-day RARRs and 30-day RAMRs after discharge were examined for each condition. The weighted Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated for hospitals’ paired monthly trends in 30-day RARRs and 30-day RAMRs after discharge for each condition. Results In 2008 through 2014, 2 962 554 hospitalizations for HF, 1 229 939 for AMI, and 2 544 530 for pneumonia were identified at 5016, 4772, and 5057 hospitals, respectively. In January 2008, mean hospital 30-day RARRs and 30-day RAMRs after discharge were 24.6% and 8.4% for HF, 19.3% and 7.6% for AMI, and 18.3% and 8.5% for pneumonia. Hospital 30-day RARRs declined in the aggregate across hospitals from 2008 through 2014; monthly changes in RARRs were −0.053% (95% CI, −0.055% to −0.051%) for HF, −0.044% (95% CI, −0.047% to −0.041%) for AMI, and −0.033% (95% CI, −0.035% to −0.031%) for pneumonia. In contrast, monthly aggregate changes across hospitals in hospital 30-day RAMRs after discharge varied by condition: HF, 0.008% (95% CI, 0.007% to 0.010%); AMI, −0

  20. Maximum discharge rate of liquid-vapor mixtures from vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, F.J.

    1975-09-01

    A discrepancy exists in theoretical predictions of the two-phase equilibrium discharge rate from pipes attached to vessels. Theory which predicts critical flow data in terms of pipe exit pressure and quality severely overpredicts flow rates in terms of vessel fluid properties. This study shows that the discrepancy is explained by the flow pattern. Due to decompression and flashing as fluid accelerates into the pipe entrance, the maximum discharge rate from a vessel is limited by choking of a homogeneous bubbly mixture. The mixture tends toward a slip flow pattern as it travels through the pipe, finally reaching a different choked condition at the pipe exit

  1. Improving Posthospital Discharge Telephone Reach Rates Through Prehospital Discharge Face-to-Face Meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Franz H; Sheridan, Daniel J; Sullivan, Nancy J; Budhathoki, Chakra

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a face-to-face meeting with patients by a telephonic case manager prehospital discharge would result in increased telephone follow-up (TFU) reach rates posthospital discharge. Acute care adult medicine inpatient units. A quasiexperimental design was utilized. Two adult inpatient medicine units were selected as the intervention and comparison groups. The framework of the study is the transitions theory. A convenience sampling technique was used, whereby 88 eligible patients on the intervention unit received face-to-face meetings prehospital discharge whereas 123 patients on the comparison unit received standard care (no face-to-face meetings). Cross-tabulation and chi-square tests were employed to examine the association of face-to-face meeting intervention and TFU reach rates. Implementing brief (face-to-face meetings by a telephonic case manager prehospital discharge resulted in a TFU reach rate of 87% on the intervention unit, whereas the comparison unit only had a 58% TFU reach rate (p communication with more patients posthospital discharge. A brief prehospital discharge face-to-face meeting with patients assisted them to understand the reasons for a posthospital discharge telephone call, identified the best times to call using accurate telephone numbers, and taught patients how best to prepare for the call. In addition, by meeting patients face-to-face, the telephonic case manager was no longer an unknown person on the telephone asking them questions about their medical condition. These factors combined may have significantly helped to increase TFU reach rates.

  2. Home visits: why do rates vary so much?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stewart, P

    2012-03-01

    Data including information on patient age, gender, who initiated the visit and call classification was collected during office hours from 12 G.P. rural teaching practices with a combined GMS patient population of 24,720, over a 2 month period. There were a total of 603 home visits, giving an annual visiting rate of 143\\/1000. Visiting rates varied between practices from 45 to 305\\/1000 per year. When high visiting practices (>210\\/1000\\/year) were compared to low visiting rate practices (>90\\/1000\\/year), patients tended to be older (79.7 v. 74.5 years) and calls were 12 times more likely to be doctor initiated (16.6% v. 1.4%) or classified as routine( 50.7% v. 44.9%). The variation between practices was related in part to patient age but appears largely due to differences in doctor home visiting behaviour. There are no recent figures on home visiting in Ireland.

  3. Stage-discharge rating curves based on satellite altimetry and modeled discharge in the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Adrien; Dias de Paiva, Rodrigo; Santos da Silva, Joecila; Medeiros Moreira, Daniel; Calmant, Stephane; Garambois, Pierre-André; Collischonn, Walter; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Seyler, Frederique

    2016-05-01

    In this study, rating curves (RCs) were determined by applying satellite altimetry to a poorly gauged basin. This study demonstrates the synergistic application of remote sensing and watershed modeling to capture the dynamics and quantity of flow in the Amazon River Basin, respectively. Three major advancements for estimating basin-scale patterns in river discharge are described. The first advancement is the preservation of the hydrological meanings of the parameters expressed by Manning's equation to obtain a data set containing the elevations of the river beds throughout the basin. The second advancement is the provision of parameter uncertainties and, therefore, the uncertainties in the rated discharge. The third advancement concerns estimating the discharge while considering backwater effects. We analyzed the Amazon Basin using nearly one thousand series that were obtained from ENVISAT and Jason-2 altimetry for more than 100 tributaries. Discharge values and related uncertainties were obtained from the rain-discharge MGB-IPH model. We used a global optimization algorithm based on the Monte Carlo Markov Chain and Bayesian framework to determine the rating curves. The data were randomly allocated into 80% calibration and 20% validation subsets. A comparison with the validation samples produced a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (Ens) of 0.68. When the MGB discharge uncertainties were less than 5%, the Ens value increased to 0.81 (mean). A comparison with the in situ discharge resulted in an Ens value of 0.71 for the validation samples (and 0.77 for calibration). The Ens values at the mouths of the rivers that experienced backwater effects significantly improved when the mean monthly slope was included in the RC. Our RCs were not mission-dependent, and the Ens value was preserved when applying ENVISAT rating curves to Jason-2 altimetry at crossovers. The cease-to-flow parameter of our RCs provided a good proxy for determining river bed elevation. This proxy was validated

  4. Probing background ionization: positive streamers with varying pulse repetition rate and with a radioactive admixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijdam, S; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U; Wormeester, G

    2011-01-01

    Positive streamers need a source of free electrons ahead of them to propagate. A streamer can supply these electrons by itself through photo-ionization, or the electrons can be present due to external background ionization. Here we investigate the effects of background ionization on streamer propagation and morphology by changing the gas composition and the repetition rate of the voltage pulses, and by adding a small amount of radioactive 85 Kr. We find that the general morphology of a positive streamer discharge in high-purity nitrogen depends on background ionization: at lower background ionization levels the streamers branch more and have a more feather-like appearance. This is observed both when varying the repetition rate and when adding 85 Kr, though side branches are longer with the radioactive admixture. But velocities and minimal diameters of streamers are virtually independent of the background ionization level. In air, the inception cloud breaks up into streamers at a smaller radius when the repetition rate and therefore the background ionization level is higher. When measuring the effects of the pulse repetition rate and of the radioactive admixture on the discharge morphology, we found that our estimates of background ionization levels are consistent with these observations; this gives confidence in the estimates. Streamer channels generally do not follow the paths of previous discharge channels for repetition rates of up to 10 Hz. We estimate the effect of recombination and diffusion of ions and free electrons from the previous discharge and conclude that the old trail has largely disappeared at the moment of the next voltage pulse; therefore the next streamers indeed cannot follow the old trail.

  5. Temporal association between hospitalization and rate of falls after discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, J E; Palta, M; Johnson, J; Jalaluddin, M; Gray, S; Park, S; Sager, M

    2000-10-09

    Evidence suggests that acute illness and hospitalization may increase the risk for falls. To evaluate the rate of falls, and associated risk factors, for 90 days following hospital discharge. We consecutively enrolled 311 patients, aged 65 years and older, discharged from the hospital after an acute medical illness and receiving home-nursing services. Patients were assessed within 5 days of discharge for prehospital and current functioning by self-report, and balance, vision, cognition, and delirium by objective measures. Patients were followed up weekly for 13 weeks for falls, injuries, and health care use. The rate of falls was significantly higher in the first 2 weeks after hospitalization (8.0 per 1000 person-days) compared with 3 months later (1.7 per 1000 person-days) (P =.002). Fall-related injuries accounted for 15% of all hospitalizations in the first month after discharge. Independent prehospital risk factors significantly associated with falls included dependency in activities of daily living, use of a standard walker, 2 or more falls, and more hospitalizations in the year prior. Posthospital risk factors included use of a tertiary amine tricyclic antidepressant, probable delirium, and poorer balance, while use of a cane was protective. The rate of falls is substantially increased in the first month after medical hospitalization, and is an important cause of injury and morbidity. Posthospital risk factors may be potentially modifiable. Efforts to assess and modify risk factors should be integral to the hospital and posthospital care of older adults (those aged >/=65 years).

  6. Estimating contaminant discharge rates from stabilized uranium tailings embankments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    Estimates of contaminant discharge rates from stabilized uranium tailings embankments are essential in evaluating long-term impacts of tailings disposal on groundwater resources. Contaminant discharge rates are a function of water flux through tailings covers, the mass and distribution of tailings, and the concentrations of contaminants in percolating pore fluids. Simple calculations, laboratory and field testing, and analytical and numerical modeling may be used to estimate water flux through variably-saturated tailings under steady-state conditions, which develop after consolidation and dewatering have essentially ceased. Contaminant concentrations in water discharging from the tailings depend on tailings composition, leachability and solubility of contaminants, geochemical conditions within the embankment, tailings-water interactions, and flux of water through the embankment. These concentrations may be estimated based on maximum reported concentrations, pore water concentrations, extrapolations of column leaching data, or geochemical equilibria and reaction pathway modeling. Attempts to estimate contaminant discharge rates should begin with simple, conservative calculations and progress to more-complicated approaches, as necessary

  7. Relaxation of the vibrational distribution function in N2 time varying discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capitelli, M.; Gorse, C.; Ricard, A.

    1981-01-01

    Relaxation of the electron and vibrational distribution functions have been calculated in function of residence time in nitrogen electrical discharges and post-discharges. In the discharge the vibrational temperature get bigger with the residence time for t -2 s. In the post-discharge the vibrational distribution is evolving in such a manner that the high levels are overpopulated as the low vibrational level population is dropping

  8. Stage-discharge rating curves based on satellite altimetry and modeled discharge in the Amazon basin

    OpenAIRE

    Paris, Adrien; Dias de Paiva, Rodrigo; Santos da Silva, Joecila; Medeiros Moreira, Daniel; Calmant, Stephane; Garambois, Pierre-André; Collischonn, Walter; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Seyler, Frederique

    2016-01-01

    In this study, rating curves (RCs) were determined by applying satellite altimetry to a poorly gauged basin. This study demonstrates the synergistic application of remote sensing and watershed modeling to capture the dynamics and quantity of flow in the Amazon River Basin, respectively. Three major advancements for estimating basin-scale patterns in river discharge are described. The first advancement is the preservation of the hydrological meanings of the parameters expressed by ...

  9. Discharge Coefficient of Rectangular Short-Crested Weir with Varying Slope Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuejun Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rectangular short-crested weirs are widely used for simple structure and high discharge capacity. As one of the most important and influential factors of discharge capacity, side slope can improve the hydraulic characteristics of weirs at special conditions. In order to systemically study the effects of upstream and downstream slope coefficients S1 and S2 on overflow discharge coefficient in a rectangular short-crested weir the Volume of Fluid (VOF method and the Renormalization Group (RNG κ-ε turbulence model are used. In this study, the slope coefficient ranges from V to 3H:1V and each model corresponds to five total energy heads of H0 ranging from 8.0 to 24.0 cm. Comparisons of discharge coefficients and free surface profiles between simulated and laboratory results display a good agreement. The simulated results show that the difference of discharge coefficients will decrease with upstream slopes and increase with downstream slopes as H0 increases. For a given H0, the discharge coefficient has a convex parabolic relation with S1 and a piecewise linearity relation with S2. The maximum discharge coefficient is always obtained at S2 = 0.8. There exists a difference between upstream and downstream slope coefficients in the influence range of free surface curvatures. Furthermore, a proposed discharge coefficient equation by nonlinear regression is a function of upstream and downstream slope coefficients.

  10. Peanut canopy temperature and NDVI response to varying irrigation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems have the potential to conserve water by spatially allocating limited water resources. In this study, peanut was grown under a VRI system to evaluate the impact of differential irrigation rates on peanut yield. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of differenti...

  11. Dressed to Present: Ratings of Classroom Presentations Vary with Attire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Regan A. R.; Kempen, Laura; Klemm, Kayla; Senn, Rebecca; Wysocki, Rosie

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of formality of dress on ratings of classroom presentations. Participants (N = 65, 66% women) from a Midwestern university in the United States rated three female students giving a presentation designed for a health psychology class in one of four outfits: casual, party, business casual, or business formal.…

  12. Determination of varying consumption rates from radiotracer data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, L.L.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Data obtained on the uptake and elimination of phosphorus-32 by foraging grasshoppers were utilized to estimate consumption rates of blue grama grass (Bouteloua gracilis). Grasshoppers were caged in field enclosures containing blue grama grass labeled with 32 P. Periodic measurements were made to determine the body burdens of the grasshoppers and concentration of 32 P in the grass. This information, along with a two-component exponential function which was observed to best mathematically describe the retention of acutely ingested phosphorus, provided the basis for a convolution integral of the consumption rate. The consumption rate was estimated by dividing the observed body burden of the grasshopper by the convolution integral of the input (grass concentration) and impulse (retention curve) function over each observation period. Successive calculations of the consumption rates were made at various points in time as the body burden changed from continued feeding on labeled forage

  13. Discharge characteristics of He-Ne-Xe gas mixture with varying Xe contents and at varying sustain electrode gap lengths in the plasma display panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Ohyung; Whang, Ki-Woong; Bae, Hyun Sook

    2009-01-01

    The discharge characteristics of He-Ne-Xe gas mixture in the plasma display panel were investigated using a two-dimensional numerical simulation to understand the effects of adding He and varying the Xe contents in the gas mixture, and also varying sustain electrode gap. With 5% Xe content and 60 μm sustain electrode gap, decreased ionization led to the improvement of the vacuum ultraviolet (vuv) efficacy at increasing He mixing ratios. However, at 20% Xe content and 60 μm sustain electrode gap, increased electron heating improved the vuv efficacy until the He mixing ratio reached 0.7, but the efficacy decreased beyond the ratio of 0.7 due to the increased ionization of Xe atoms. At 5% Xe content and 200 μm sustain electrode gap, the vuv efficacy increased as a result of increased electron heating at the gap space at increasing He mixing ratios.

  14. THE IMPLICATIONS OF VARYING EXCHANGE RATES FOR THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandu Carmen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The benefit of international trade is a more efficient employment of the productive forces of the world. (John Stuart Mill The exchange rate is a primary factor that influences economy. This instrument is used by some countries in order to improve the lack of balance caused as a result of the financial crisis felt in many countries considered by then infallible. The negative effects of the financial crisis can also be found in the decreased volume of commodities involved in international trade exchanges, as a consequence of modified prices and decreased offer. The globalizing trend leads to a constant expansion of exchanges between countries and to the consolidation of international cooperation. Except that economic interdependence generates an increased risk under the influence of economic, financial, monetary or political factors. The currency risk can generate either a gain or loss during foreign trade operations. The long period of RON depreciation made possible the entry of Romanian products on the international markets due to their prices. Sheltered by the gain generated by the evolution of the exchange rate, most of the exporters were not concerned by the increase of product competitiveness or by avoiding the currency risk. The fact that, for many years, the evolution of the exchange rate generated substantial losses for the exporters shows that risk coverage in Romania is, in most cases, a purely theoretical concept.

  15. Stratification of living organisms in ballast tanks: how do organism concentrations vary as ballast water is discharged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, Matthew R; Robbins-Wamsley, Stephanie H; Riley, Scott C; Moser, Cameron S; Smith, George E; Tamburri, Mario N; Drake, Lisa A

    2013-05-07

    Vertical migrations of living organisms and settling of particle-attached organisms lead to uneven distributions of biota at different depths in the water column. In ballast tanks, heterogeneity could lead to different population estimates depending on the portion of the discharge sampled. For example, concentrations of organisms exceeding a discharge standard may not be detected if sampling occurs during periods of the discharge when concentrations are low. To determine the degree of stratification, water from ballast tanks was sampled at two experimental facilities as the tanks were drained after water was held for 1 or 5 days. Living organisms ≥50 μm were counted in discrete segments of the drain (e.g., the first 20 min of the drain operation, the second 20 min interval, etc.), thus representing different strata in the tank. In 1 and 5 day trials at both facilities, concentrations of organisms varied among drain segments, and the patterns of stratification varied among replicate trials. From numerical simulations, the optimal sampling strategy for stratified tanks is to collect multiple time-integrated samples spaced relatively evenly throughout the discharge event.

  16. Self-discharge rate of lithium thionyl-chloride cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieslak, W.R.

    1993-12-31

    Our low-rate lithium/thionyl-chloride ``D`` cell is required to provide power continuously for up to 10 years. The cell was designed at Sandia National Laboratories and manufactured at Eagle-Picher Industries, Joplin, Missouri. We have conducted accelerated aging studies at elevated temperatures to predict long-term performance of cells fabricated in 1992. Cells using 1.0M LiAlCl{sub 4} electrolyte follow Arrhenius kinetics with an activation energy of 14.6 Kcal/mol. This results in an annual capacity loss to self-discharge of 0.13 Ah at 25 C. Cells using a 1.0M LiAlCl{sub 4}{sm_bullet}SO{sub 2} electrolyte do not follow Arrhenius behavior. The performance of aged cells from an earlier fabrication lot is variable.

  17. Quantifying the Journey of a Turbidity Current: How Water and Sediment Discharges Vary with Distance in Monterey Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapplow, N.; Talling, P.; Cartigny, M.; Parsons, D. R.; Simmons, S.; Clare, M. A.; Paull, C. K.

    2017-12-01

    Turbidity currents transport vast quantities of sediment across the seafloor and form the largest sediment accumulations on Earth. Such flows pose a hazard to strategically important seafloor infrastructure and are important agents for the transport of organic carbon and nutrients that support deep-sea ecosystems. It is therefore important to quantify the scale of these flows, how much sediment they transport, and how their discharge evolves over time and space along their flow path. Two modes of flow evolution have been proposed based on experimental and numerical models. The first is termed ignition, where flows entrain seafloor sediment and become more voluminous and powerful and increase in discharge. The second is dissipation, where sediment falls out of suspension, flows decelerate and lose discharge. Field-scale turbidity currents have only been measured at a handful of sites worldwide, however, and never at multiple locations along their full course. Therefore, it has not been possible to determine when, where and why flows diverge into these two modes in the deep sea and how discharge of the flows varies. The ambitious multi-institution Coordinated Canyon Experiment measured turbidity currents at seven instrumented moorings along the Monterey Canyon, offshore California. Fifteen flows were recorded, including the fastest events yet measured at high resolution (>8 m/s). This remarkable dataset provides the first opportunity to quantify down-channel sediment and flow discharge evolution of turbidity currents in the deep sea. To understand whether flows ignite or dissipate, we derive total and sediment discharges for each of the flows at all seven mooring locations down the canyon. Discharges are calculated from measured velocities, and sediment concentrations derived using a novel inversion method. Two distinct flow modes are observed, where most flows rapidly dissipated in the upper reaches of the canyon, while three ran out for the full 50 km array length

  18. High-k shallow traps observed by charge pumping with varying discharging times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Szu-Han; Chen, Ching-En; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen; Chang, Ting-Chang; Lu, Ying-Hsin; Lo, Wen-Hung; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Ju; Wang, Bin-Wei; Cao, Xi-Xin; Chen, Hua-Mao; Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Chen, Tsai-Fu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of falling time and base level time on high-k bulk shallow traps measured by charge pumping technique in n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors with HfO 2 /metal gate stacks. N T -V high level characteristic curves with different duty ratios indicate that the electron detrapping time dominates the value of N T for extra contribution of I cp traps. N T is the number of traps, and I cp is charge pumping current. By fitting discharge formula at different temperatures, the results show that extra contribution of I cp traps at high voltage are in fact high-k bulk shallow traps. This is also verified through a comparison of different interlayer thicknesses and different Ti x N 1−x metal gate concentrations. Next, N T -V high level characteristic curves with different falling times (t falling time ) and base level times (t base level ) show that extra contribution of I cp traps decrease with an increase in t falling time . By fitting discharge formula for different t falling time , the results show that electrons trapped in high-k bulk shallow traps first discharge to the channel and then to source and drain during t falling time . This current cannot be measured by the charge pumping technique. Subsequent measurements of N T by charge pumping technique at t base level reveal a remainder of electrons trapped in high-k bulk shallow traps

  19. Modeling Electric Discharges with Entropy Production Rate Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Christen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Under which circumstances are variational principles based on entropy production rate useful tools for modeling steady states of electric (gas discharge systems far from equilibrium? It is first shown how various different approaches, as Steenbeck’s minimum voltage and Prigogine’s minimum entropy production rate principles are related to the maximum entropy production rate principle (MEPP. Secondly, three typical examples are discussed, which provide a certain insight in the structure of the models that are candidates for MEPP application. It is then thirdly argued that MEPP, although not being an exact physical law, may provide reasonable model parameter estimates, provided the constraints contain the relevant (nonlinear physical effects and the parameters to be determined are related to disregarded weak constraints that affect mainly global entropy production. Finally, it is additionally conjectured that a further reason for the success of MEPP in certain far from equilibrium systems might be based on a hidden linearity of the underlying kinetic equation(s.

  20. High-k shallow traps observed by charge pumping with varying discharging times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Szu-Han; Chen, Ching-En; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lu, Ying-Hsin; Lo, Wen-Hung; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Ju [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Wang, Bin-Wei; Cao, Xi-Xin [Department of Embedded System Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, P.R.China (China); Chen, Hua-Mao [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Chen, Tsai-Fu [Device Department, United Microelectronics Corporation, Tainan Science Park, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-07

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of falling time and base level time on high-k bulk shallow traps measured by charge pumping technique in n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors with HfO{sub 2}/metal gate stacks. N{sub T}-V{sub high} {sub level} characteristic curves with different duty ratios indicate that the electron detrapping time dominates the value of N{sub T} for extra contribution of I{sub cp} traps. N{sub T} is the number of traps, and I{sub cp} is charge pumping current. By fitting discharge formula at different temperatures, the results show that extra contribution of I{sub cp} traps at high voltage are in fact high-k bulk shallow traps. This is also verified through a comparison of different interlayer thicknesses and different Ti{sub x}N{sub 1−x} metal gate concentrations. Next, N{sub T}-V{sub high} {sub level} characteristic curves with different falling times (t{sub falling} {sub time}) and base level times (t{sub base} {sub level}) show that extra contribution of I{sub cp} traps decrease with an increase in t{sub falling} {sub time}. By fitting discharge formula for different t{sub falling} {sub time}, the results show that electrons trapped in high-k bulk shallow traps first discharge to the channel and then to source and drain during t{sub falling} {sub time}. This current cannot be measured by the charge pumping technique. Subsequent measurements of N{sub T} by charge pumping technique at t{sub base} {sub level} reveal a remainder of electrons trapped in high-k bulk shallow traps.

  1. Do illness rating systems predict discharge location, length of stay, and cost after total hip arthroplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Rudasill, BA

    2018-06-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that although ASA classifications predict discharge location and SOI scores predict length of stay and total costs, other factors beyond illness rating systems remain stronger predictors of discharge for THA patients.

  2. Sensorimotor-correlated discharge recorded from ensembles of cerebellar Purkinje cells varies across the estrous cycle of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S S

    1995-09-01

    1. In the present study, locomotor-correlated activity of cerebellar Purkinje cells, recorded using arrays of microwires chronically implanted in adult female rats, was examined across estrous-cycle-associated fluctuations in endogenous sex steroids. Ongoing studies from this laboratory have shown that systemic and local administration of the sex steroid 17 beta-estradiol (E2) augments excitatory responses of cerebellar Purkinje cells to iontophoretically applied glutamate, recorded in vivo from anesthetized female rats. In addition, this steroid potentiated discharge correlated with limb movement. For the present study, extracellular single-unit activity was recorded from as many as 5-11 Purkinje cells simultaneously during treadmill locomotion paradigms. Motor modulation of activity was recorded across three to five consecutive estrous cycles from behaviorally identified cohorts of neurons to test the hypothesis that fluctuations in endogenous sex steroids alter motor modulation of Purkinje cell discharge. 2. Locomotor-associated discharge correlated with treadmill locomotion was increased by a mean of 47% on proestrus, when E2 levels are elevated, relative to diestrus 1. These changes in discharge rate during treadmill locomotion were of significantly greater magnitude than corresponding cyclic alterations in discharge during stationary periods. 3. Correlations with the circadian cycle were also significant, because peak levels of locomotor-associated discharge on the night of behavioral estrus, following elevations in circulating E2, were on average 67% greater than corresponding discharge recorded during the light (proestrus). 4. Alterations in the step cycle were also observed across the estrous cycle: significant decreases in the duration of the flexion phase (by 265 ms, P estrus compared with diestrus. 5. When recorded on estrus, Purkinje cell discharge correlated with the stance or flexion phase of the step cycle was greater in magnitude and preceded the

  3. Estuarine abandoned channel sedimentation rates record peak fluvial discharge magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A. B.; Pasternack, G. B.; Watson, E. B.

    2018-04-01

    Fluvial sediment deposits can provide useful records of integrated watershed expressions including flood event magnitudes. However, floodplain and estuarine sediment deposits evolve through the interaction of watershed/marine sediment supply and transport characteristics with the local depositional environment. Thus extraction of watershed scale signals depends upon accounting for local scale effects on sediment deposition rates and character. This study presents an examination of the balance of fluvial sediment dynamics and local scale hydro-geomorphic controls on alluviation of an abandoned channel in the Salinas River Lagoon, CA. A set of three sediment cores contained discrete flood deposits that corresponded to the largest flood events over the period of accretion from 1969 to 2007. Sedimentation rates scaled with peak flood discharge and event scale sediment flux, but were not influenced by longer scale hydro-meteorological activities such as annual precipitation and water yield. Furthermore, the particle size distributions of flood deposits showed no relationship to event magnitudes. Both the responsiveness of sedimentation and unresponsiveness of particle size distributions to hydro-sedimentological event magnitudes appear to be controlled by aspects of local geomorphology that influence the connectivity of the abandoned channel to the Salinas River mainstem. Well-developed upstream plug bar formation precluded the entrainment of coarser bedload into the abandoned channel, while Salinas River mouth conditions (open/closed) in conjunction with tidal and storm surge conditions may play a role in influencing the delivery of coarser suspended load fractions. Channel adjacent sediment deposition can be valuable records of hydro-meteorological and sedimentological regimes, but local depositional settings may dominate the character of short term (interdecadal) signatures.

  4. Estimating fluvial wood discharge from timelapse photography with varying sampling intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, N. K.

    2013-12-01

    There is recent focus on calculating wood budgets for streams and rivers to help inform management decisions, ecological studies and carbon/nutrient cycling models. Most work has measured in situ wood in temporary storage along stream banks or estimated wood inputs from banks. Little effort has been employed monitoring and quantifying wood in transport during high flows. This paper outlines a procedure for estimating total seasonal wood loads using non-continuous coarse interval sampling and examines differences in estimation between sampling at 1, 5, 10 and 15 minutes. Analysis is performed on wood transport for the Slave River in Northwest Territories, Canada. Relative to the 1 minute dataset, precision decreased by 23%, 46% and 60% for the 5, 10 and 15 minute datasets, respectively. Five and 10 minute sampling intervals provided unbiased equal variance estimates of 1 minute sampling, whereas 15 minute intervals were biased towards underestimation by 6%. Stratifying estimates by day and by discharge increased precision over non-stratification by 4% and 3%, respectively. Not including wood transported during ice break-up, the total minimum wood load estimated at this site is 3300 × 800$ m3 for the 2012 runoff season. The vast majority of the imprecision in total wood volumes came from variance in estimating average volume per log. Comparison of proportions and variance across sample intervals using bootstrap sampling to achieve equal n. Each trial was sampled for n=100, 10,000 times and averaged. All trials were then averaged to obtain an estimate for each sample interval. Dashed lines represent values from the one minute dataset.

  5. Entrapment investigations of water-droplet behavior in a hot tin melt with varying discharge velocities and orifices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, G.; Mueller, K.

    1983-10-01

    Experiments were performed in which water was pressed through a thermally isolated tube into a clyindrical crucible (diameter 5 cm, height 7,5 cm both measured inside) filled with molten tin (600 K). The diameter of the circular water outlet was varied from 0.5 up to 10 mm and the discharge velocity of the water was in the range of 0.05 up to 20 m/s. In the tin melt the water divides into single drops, which emerged on the melt surface, if an interaction between water and tin melt did not occur. The probability for an interaction increased in experiments with higher discharge velocities of the water and smaller diameters of the water outlet. In experiments with discharge velocities ≥ 5 m/s and outlet diameters ≤ 2 mm one or more interactions occured in each case. At these interactions of water drops entrapped in the tin melt (called entrapment interactions) a portion of the melt was ejected from the crucible. The moment of the interaction and the pulse of the force toward the crucible bottom were recorded. (orig.) [de

  6. Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ruma, R.; Hosseini, S.H.R.; Yoshihara, K.; Akiyama, M.; Sakugawa, T.; Lukeš, Petr; Akiyama, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 12 (2014), s. 123304-123304 ISSN 0021-8979 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100431203 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma in air * water surface discharge * pulse frequency * hydrogen peroxide * organic dye Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.183, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1063/1.4896266

  7. Does a Teacher's Classroom Observation Rating Vary across Multiple Classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiaoxuan; Li, Hongli; Leroux, Audrey J.

    2018-01-01

    Classroom observations have been increasingly used for teacher evaluations, and it is important to examine the measurement quality and the use of observation ratings. When a teacher is observed in multiple classrooms, his or her observation ratings may vary across classrooms. In that case, using ratings from one classroom per teacher may not be…

  8. Should Unemployment Insurance Vary with the Unemployment Rate? Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Kroft, Kory; Notowidigdo, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    We study how optimal unemployment insurance (UI) benefits vary over the business cycle by estimating how the moral hazard cost and the consumption smoothing benefit of UI vary with the unemployment rate. We find that the moral hazard cost is procyclical, greater when the unemployment rate is relatively low. By contrast, our evidence suggests that the consumption smoothing benefit of UI is acyclical. Using these estimates to calibrate our job search model, we find that a one standard deviation...

  9. High Discharge Rate Electrodeposited Zinc Electrode for Use in Alkaline Microbattery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Nor Hairin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High discharge rate zinc electrode is prepared from electrodeposition process. The electrolytic bath consists of zinc chloride as the metal source and ammonium chloride as the supporting electrolyte. The concentration of the supporting electrolyte is varied from zero until 4 M, while the concentration of zinc chloride is fixed at 2 M. The aim is to produce a porous zinc coating with an enhanced and intimate interfacial area per unit volume. These characteristics shall contribute towards reduced ohmic losses, improved active material utilization, and subsequently producing high rate capacity electrochemical cell. Nitrogen physisorption at 77 K is used to measure the BET surface area and pore volume density of the zinc electrodeposits. The electrodeposited zinc electrodes are then fabricated into alkaline zinc-air microbattery measuring 1 cm2 area x ca. 305 µm thick. The use of inorganic MCM-41 membrane separator enables the fabrication of a compact cell design. The quality of the electrodeposited zinc electrodes is gauged directly from the electrochemical performance of zinc-air cell. Zinc electrodeposits prepared from electrolytic bath of 2 M NH4Cl produces the highest discharge capacity.ABSTRAK: Elektrod zink dengan kadar discas tinggi telah dihasilkan dengan proses saduran elektrokimia. Takungan elektrolit terdiri daripada zink klorida sebagai sumber logam dan ammonium klorida sebagai elektrolit sokongan. Kepekatan elektrolit sokongan diubah daripada sifar hingga 4 M, sementara kepekatan zink klorida ditetapkan pada 2 M. Ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan saduran zink yang poros dengan luas permukaan per unit isipadu dan sentuhan antaramuka yang dipertingkatkan. Ciri-ciri ini akan menyumbang terhadap pengurangan kehilangan disebabkan kerintangan, pertambahan dalam gunapakai bahan aktif dan akhirnya menghasilkan sel elektrokimia berprestasi tinggi. Physisorpsi nitrogen pada 77 K telah digunakan untuk mengukur luas permukaan BET dan isipadu liang

  10. Spatial Characteristics of Geothermal Spring Temperatures and Discharge Rates in the Tatun Volcanic Area, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, C. S.; Liu, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Tatun volcanic area is the only potential volcanic geothermal region in the Taiwan island, and abundant in hot spring resources owing to stream water mixing with fumarolic gases. According to the Meinzer's classification, spring temperatures and discharge rates are the most important properties for characterizing spring classifications. This study attempted to spatially characterize spring temperatures and discharge rates in the Tatun volcanic area, Taiwanusing indicator kriging (IK). First, data on spring temperatures and discharge rates, which were collected from surveyed data of the Taipei City Government, were divided into high, moderate and low categories according to spring classification criteria, and the various categories were regarded as estimation thresholds. Then, IK was adopted to model occurrence probabilities of specified temperatures and discharge rates in springs, and to determine their classifications based on estimated probabilities. Finally, nine combinations were obtained from the classifications of temperatures and discharge rates in springs. Moreover, the combinations and features of spring water were spatially quantified according to seven sub-zones of spring utilization. A suitable and sustainable development strategy of the spring area was proposed in each sub-zone based on probability-based combinations and features of spring water.The research results reveal that the probability-based classifications using IK provide an excellent insight in exploring the uncertainty of spatial features in springs, and can provide Taiwanese government administrators with detailed information on sustainable spring utilization and conservation in the overexploited spring tourism areas. The sub-zones BT (Beitou), RXY (Rd. Xingyi), ZSL (Zhongshanlou) and LSK (Lengshuikeng) with high or moderate discharge rates are suitable to supply spring water for tourism hotels.Local natural hot springs should be planned in the sub-zones DBT (Dingbeitou), ZSL, XYK

  11. Hydrodynamic mean-field solutions of 1D exclusion processes with spatially varying hopping rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, Greg; O' Brien, John; Chou, Tom [Department of Biomathematics and Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2006-03-10

    We analyse the open boundary partially asymmetric exclusion process with smoothly varying internal hopping rates in the infinite-size, mean-field limit. The mean-field equations for particle densities are written in terms of Ricatti equations with the steady-state current J as a parameter. These equations are solved both analytically and numerically. Upon imposing the boundary conditions set by the injection and extraction rates, the currents J are found self-consistently. We find a number of cases where analytic solutions can be found exactly or approximated. Results for J from asymptotic analyses for slowly varying hopping rates agree extremely well with those from extensive Monte Carlo simulations, suggesting that mean-field currents asymptotically approach the exact currents in the hydrodynamic limit, as the hopping rates vary slowly over the lattice. If the forward hopping rate is greater than or less than the backward hopping rate throughout the entire chain, the three standard steady-state phases are preserved. Our analysis reveals the sensitivity of the current to the relative phase between the forward and backward hopping rate functions.

  12. Hydrodynamic mean-field solutions of 1D exclusion processes with spatially varying hopping rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakatos, Greg; O'Brien, John; Chou, Tom

    2006-01-01

    We analyse the open boundary partially asymmetric exclusion process with smoothly varying internal hopping rates in the infinite-size, mean-field limit. The mean-field equations for particle densities are written in terms of Ricatti equations with the steady-state current J as a parameter. These equations are solved both analytically and numerically. Upon imposing the boundary conditions set by the injection and extraction rates, the currents J are found self-consistently. We find a number of cases where analytic solutions can be found exactly or approximated. Results for J from asymptotic analyses for slowly varying hopping rates agree extremely well with those from extensive Monte Carlo simulations, suggesting that mean-field currents asymptotically approach the exact currents in the hydrodynamic limit, as the hopping rates vary slowly over the lattice. If the forward hopping rate is greater than or less than the backward hopping rate throughout the entire chain, the three standard steady-state phases are preserved. Our analysis reveals the sensitivity of the current to the relative phase between the forward and backward hopping rate functions

  13. Sojourn time asymptotics in Processor Sharing queues with varying service rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egorova, R.; Mandjes, M.R.H.; Zwart, B.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This paper addresses the sojourn time asymptotics for a GI/GI/⋅ queue operating under the Processor Sharing (PS) discipline with stochastically varying service rate. Our focus is on the logarithmic estimates of the tail of sojourn-time distribution, under the assumption that the job-size

  14. Rate Control for Network-Coded Multipath Relaying with Time-Varying Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    Armen Babikyan, Nathaniel M. Jones, Thomas H. Shake, and Andrew P. Worthen MIT Lincoln Laboratory 244 Wood Street Lexington, MA 02420 DDRE, 1777...delay U U U U SAR 11 Zach Sweet 781-981-5997 1 Rate Control for Network-Coded Multipath Relaying with Time-Varying Connectivity Brooke Shrader, Armen

  15. Impact of Discharge Timings of Healthy Newborns on the Rates and Etiology of Neonatal Hospital Readmissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, H.S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of early hospital discharge after initial birth hospitalization on the rate and etiology of hospital readmissions during the neonatal period. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from October 2008 to September 2011. Methodology: Full-term normal newborns were included in this study, and all infants showing any features that would increase the chances of readmission were excluded. Initial birth hospitalization and readmission in the neonatal period were analyzed. Data was collected from the Discharge Abstract Database. Results: Overall, 12,728 normal newborns were delivered during the study period. Vaginally delivered infants were discharged early (within 48 hours), while those delivered via caesarean section had longer hospital stays (mean length of stay: 1.1 and 2.8 days, respectively). There were 166 readmissions, wherein the leading cause was neonatal sepsis (37.3%) followed by neonatal jaundice (26.5%). The readmission rate in early discharged (142 out of 9927) was significantly higher (p = 0.017) as compared to newborns who were discharged late after birth (24 out of 2801). Etiology of readmissions was not affected by discharge timings. Conclusion: Hospital discharge of neonates within 48 hours after delivery is counterproductive and significantly increases the risk for hospital readmission during the neonatal period. The pre-dominance of sepsis-related cases observed here indicates the need to explore its causes and determine an optimal prevention and management strategy. (author)

  16. Cesarean Delivery Rates Vary 10-Fold Among US Hospitals; Reducing Variation May Address Quality, Cost Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhimannil, Katy Backes; Law, Michael R.; Virnig, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Cesarean delivery is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the United States, and cesarean rates are increasing. Working with 2009 data from 593 US hospitals nationwide, we found that cesarean rates varied tenfold across hospitals, from 7.1 percent to 69.9 percent. Even for women with lower-risk pregnancies, in which more limited variation might be expected, cesarean rates varied fifteen-fold, from 2.4 percent to 36.5 percent. Thus, vast differences in practice patterns are likely to be driving the costly overuse of cesarean delivery in many US hospitals. Because Medicaid pays for nearly half of US births, government efforts to decrease variation are warranted. We focus on four promising directions for reducing these variations, including better coordination of maternity care, more data collection and measurement, tying Medicaid payment to quality improvement, and enhancing patient-centered decision making through public reporting. PMID:23459732

  17. Time-varying exchange rate pass-through: experiences of some industrial countries

    OpenAIRE

    Toshitaka Sekine

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates exchange rate pass-through of six major industrial countries using a time-varying parameter with stochastic volatility model. Exchange rate pass-through is divided into impacts of exchange rate fluctuations to import prices (first-stage pass-through) and those of import price movements to consumer prices (second-stage pass-through). The paper finds that both stages of pass-through have declined over time for all the sample countries. The decline in second-stage pass-throu...

  18. Modeling the time--varying subjective quality of HTTP video streams with rate adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Choi, Lark Kwon; de Veciana, Gustavo; Caramanis, Constantine; Heath, Robert W; Bovik, Alan C

    2014-05-01

    Newly developed hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)-based video streaming technologies enable flexible rate-adaptation under varying channel conditions. Accurately predicting the users' quality of experience (QoE) for rate-adaptive HTTP video streams is thus critical to achieve efficiency. An important aspect of understanding and modeling QoE is predicting the up-to-the-moment subjective quality of a video as it is played, which is difficult due to hysteresis effects and nonlinearities in human behavioral responses. This paper presents a Hammerstein-Wiener model for predicting the time-varying subjective quality (TVSQ) of rate-adaptive videos. To collect data for model parameterization and validation, a database of longer duration videos with time-varying distortions was built and the TVSQs of the videos were measured in a large-scale subjective study. The proposed method is able to reliably predict the TVSQ of rate adaptive videos. Since the Hammerstein-Wiener model has a very simple structure, the proposed method is suitable for online TVSQ prediction in HTTP-based streaming.

  19. Study of the switching rate of gas-discharge devices based on the open discharge with counter-propagating electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhan, P. A.; Gugin, P. P.; Lavrukhin, M. A.; Zakrevsky, Dm. E.

    2015-01-01

    The switching rate of gas-discharge devices “kivotrons” based on the open discharge with counter-propagating electron beams has been experimentally studied. Structures with 2-cm 2 overall cathode area were examined. The switching time was found to show a monotonic decrease with increasing the working-gas helium pressure and with increasing the voltage across the discharge gap at breakdown. The minimum switching time was found to be ∼240 ps at 17 kV voltage, and the maximum rate of electric-current rise limited by the discharge-circuit inductance was 3 × 10 12  A/s

  20. Efficient kinetic Monte Carlo method for reaction-diffusion problems with spatially varying annihilation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Karsten; Rieger, Heiko

    2013-03-01

    We present an efficient Monte Carlo method to simulate reaction-diffusion processes with spatially varying particle annihilation or transformation rates as it occurs for instance in the context of motor-driven intracellular transport. Like Green's function reaction dynamics and first-passage time methods, our algorithm avoids small diffusive hops by propagating sufficiently distant particles in large hops to the boundaries of protective domains. Since for spatially varying annihilation or transformation rates the single particle diffusion propagator is not known analytically, we present an algorithm that generates efficiently either particle displacements or annihilations with the correct statistics, as we prove rigorously. The numerical efficiency of the algorithm is demonstrated with an illustrative example.

  1. Estimation of exponential convergence rate and exponential stability for neural networks with time-varying delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Fenghua; Liao Xiaofeng

    2005-01-01

    We study the problem of estimating the exponential convergence rate and exponential stability for neural networks with time-varying delay. Some criteria for exponential stability are derived by using the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. They are less conservative than the existing ones. Some analytical methods are employed to investigate the bounds on the interconnection matrix and activation functions so that the systems are exponentially stable

  2. Structure/property relations of aluminum under varying rates and stress states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, Matthew T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Horstemeyer, Mark F [MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIV; Whittington, Wilburn R [MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIV; Solanki, Kiran N [MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIV.

    2010-11-19

    In this work we analyze the plasticity, damage, and fracture characteristics of three different processed aluminum alloys (rolled 5083-H13, cast A356-T6, and extruded 6061-T6) under varying stress states (tension, compression, and torsion) and strain rates (0.001/, 1/s., and 1000/s). The stress state difference had more of a flow stress effect than the applied strain rates for those given in this study (0.001/sec up to 1000/sec). The stress state and strain rate also had a profound effect on the damage evolution of each aluminum alloy. Tension and torsional straining gave much greater damage nucleation rates than compression. Although the damage of all three alloys was found to be void nucleation dominated, the A356-T6 and 5083-H131 aluminum alloys incurred void damage via micron scale particles where the 6061-T6 aluminum alloy incurred void damage from two scales, micron-scale particles and nanoscale precipitates. Having two length scales of particles that participated in the damage evolution made the 6061-T6 incur a strain rate sensitive damage rate that was different than the other two aluminum alloys. Under tension, as the strain rate increased, the 6061-T6 aluminum alloy's void nucleation rate decreased, but the A356-T6 and 5083-H131 aluminum alloys void nucleation rate increased.

  3. Rate of solidification of aluminium casting in varying wall thickness of cylindrical metallic moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina Christopher BALA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality of final casting mainly depends on the rate of solidification as rapid solidification produces fine grains structures with better mechanical properties. The analysis of heat transfer during the casting and solidification of aluminium alloy as well as the experimental investigation of the rate of solidification in varying thicknesses of cylindrical metallic mould was carried out. The temperature variation with time of the casting was recorded from which cooling curves were obtained for the determination of solidification time of the cast. The results showed that as the cylindrical mould thickness increases the solidification time decreases due to the chilling effect of the mould.

  4. Big bang nucleosynthesis with a varying fine structure constant and nonstandard expansion rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Kawasaki, Masahiro

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the primordial abundances of light elements produced during big bang nucleosynthesis when the fine structure constant and/or the cosmic expansion rate take nonstandard values. We compare them with the recent values of observed D, 4 He, and 7 Li abundances, which show a slight inconsistency among themselves in the standard big bang nucleosynthesis scenario. This inconsistency is not solved by considering either a varying fine structure constant or a nonstandard expansion rate separately but solutions are found by their simultaneous existence

  5. On Regularly Varying and History-Dependent Convergence Rates of Solutions of a Volterra Equation with Infinite Memory

    OpenAIRE

    John A. D. Appleby

    2010-01-01

    We consider the rate of convergence to equilibrium of Volterra integrodifferential equations with infinite memory. We show that if the kernel of Volterra operator is regularly varying at infinity, and the initial history is regularly varying at minus infinity, then the rate of convergence to the equilibrium is regularly varying at infinity, and the exact pointwise rate of convergence can be determined in terms of the rate of decay of the kernel and the rate of growth of the initial history. ...

  6. Selected hydraulic test analysis techniques for constant-rate discharge tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1993-03-01

    The constant-rate discharge test is the principal field method used in hydrogeologic investigations for characterizing the hydraulic properties of aquifers. To implement this test, the aquifer is stressed by withdrawing ground water from a well, by using a downhole pump. Discharge during the withdrawal period is regulated and maintained at a constant rate. Water-level response within the well is monitored during the active pumping phase (i.e., drawdown) and during the subsequent recovery phase following termination of pumping. The analysis of drawdown and recovery response within the stress well (and any monitored, nearby observation wells) provides a means for estimating the hydraulic properties of the tested aquifer, as well as discerning formational and nonformational flow conditions (e.g., wellbore storage, wellbore damage, presence of boundaries, etc.). Standard analytical methods that are used for constant-rate pumping tests include both log-log type-curve matching and semi-log straight-line methods. This report presents a current ''state of the art'' review of selected transient analysis procedures for constant-rate discharge tests. Specific topics examined include: analytical methods for constant-rate discharge tests conducted within confined and unconfined aquifers; effects of various nonideal formation factors (e.g., anisotropy, hydrologic boundaries) and well construction conditions (e.g., partial penetration, wellbore storage) on constant-rate test response; and the use of pressure derivatives in diagnostic analysis for the identification of specific formation, well construction, and boundary conditions

  7. Electric field measurements in the sheath of an argon RF discharge by probing with microparticles under varying gravity conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, J.; Stoffels, W.W.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Ockenga, T.; Wolter, M.; Kersten, H.

    2010-01-01

    The electric field profile in the plasma sheath of an argon rf plasma has been determined by measuring the equilibrium height and the resonance frequency of plasma-confined microparticles. In order to determine the electric field structure at any position in the plasma sheath without the discharge

  8. Stage discharge curve for Guillemard Bridge streamflow sation based on rating curve method using historical flood event data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros, F C; Sidek, L M; Desa, M N; Arifin, K; Tosaka, H

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the stage-discharge curves varies from water quality study, flood modelling study, can be used to project climate change scenarios and so on. As the bed of the river often changes due to the annual monsoon seasons that sometimes cause by massive floods, the capacity of the river will changed causing shifting controlled to happen. This study proposes to use the historical flood event data from 1960 to 2009 in calculating the stage-discharge curve of Guillemard Bridge located in Sg. Kelantan. Regression analysis was done to check the quality of the data and examine the correlation between the two variables, Q and H. The mean values of the two variables then were adopted to find the value of difference between zero gauge height and the level of zero flow, 'a', K and 'n' to fit into rating curve equation and finally plotting the stage-discharge rating curve. Regression analysis of the historical flood data indicate that 91 percent of the original uncertainty has been explained by the analysis with the standard error of 0.085.

  9. Simple estimate of entrainment rate of pollutants from a coastal discharge into the surf zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Simon H C; Monismith, Stephen G; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2013-10-15

    Microbial pollutants from coastal discharges can increase illness risks for swimmers and cause beach advisories. There is presently no predictive model for estimating the entrainment of pollution from coastal discharges into the surf zone. We present a novel, quantitative framework for estimating surf zone entrainment of pollution at a wave-dominant open beach. Using physical arguments, we identify a dimensionless parameter equal to the quotient of the surf zone width l(sz) and the cross-flow length scale of the discharge la = M(j) (1/2)/U(sz), where M(j) is the discharge's momentum flux and U(sz) is a representative alongshore velocity in the surf zone. We conducted numerical modeling of a nonbuoyant discharge at an alongshore uniform beach with constant slope using a wave-resolving hydrodynamic model. Using results from 144 numerical experiments we develop an empirical relationship between the surf zone entrainment rate α and l(sz)/(la). The empirical relationship can reasonably explain seven measurements of surf zone entrainment at three diverse coastal discharges. This predictive relationship can be a useful tool in coastal water quality management and can be used to develop predictive beach water quality models.

  10. Motor unit discharge rate in dynamic movements of the aging soleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallio, Jouni; Søgaard, Karen; Avela, Janne

    2014-01-01

    Aging is related to a variety of changes at the muscular level. It seems that the age-related changes in motor unit activation are muscle- and intensity dependent. The purpose of this study was to examine the motor unit discharge rate (MUDR) in both isometric and dynamic contractions of the aging...

  11. On the link between oil price and exchange rate: A time-varying VAR parameter approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremond, Vincent; Razafindrabe, Tovonony; Hache, Emmanuel

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the relationship between the effective exchange rate of the dollar and the oil price dynamics from 1976 to 2013. In this context, we propose to explore the economic literature dedicated to financial channels factors (exchange rate, monetary policy, and international liquidity) that could affect the oil price dynamics. In addition to oil prices and the effective exchange rate of the dollar, we use the dry cargo index as a proxy for the real economic activity and prices for precious and industrial raw materials. Using a Bayesian time-varying parameter vector auto-regressive estimation, our main results show that the US Dollar effective exchange rate elasticity of the crude oil prices is not constant across the time and remains negative from 1989. It then highlights that a depreciation of the effective exchange rate of the dollar leads to an increase of the crude oil prices. Our paper also demonstrates the growing influence of financial and commodities markets development upon the global economy. (authors)

  12. Hybrid Structure White Organic Light Emitting Diode for Enhanced Efficiency by Varied Doping Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Eun; Kang, Min-Jae; Park, Gwang-Ryeol; Kim, Nam-Kyu; Lee, Burm-Jong; Kwon, Young-Soo; Shin, Hoon-Kyu

    2016-03-01

    Novel materials based on Zn(HPB)2 and Ir-complexes were synthesized as blue or red emitters, respectively. White organic light emitting diodes were fabricated using the Zn(HPB)2 as a blue emitting layer, Ir-complexes as a red emitting layer and Alq3 as a green emitting layer. The obtained experimental results, were based on white OLEDs fabricated using double emission layers of Zn(HPB)2 and Alq3:Ir-complexes. The doping rate of the Ir-complexes was varied at 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1.0%. When the doping rate of the Alq3:Ir-complexes was 0.6%, a white emission was achieved. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of the device's white emission were (0.316, 0.331) at an applied voltage of 10.75 V.

  13. Simulation of spatially dependent excitation rates and power deposition in RF discharges for plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, M.J.; Anderson, H.M.; Hargis, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    In low pressure, radio frequency (RF) discharges of the type used in plasma processing of semiconductor materials, the rate of electron impact excitation and energy transfer processes depends upon both the phase of the RF excitation and position in the discharge. Electron impact collisions create radicals that diffuse or drift to the surfaces of interest where they are adsorbed or otherwise react. To the extent that these radicals have a finite lifetime, their transport time from point of creation to surface of interest is an important parameter. The spatial dependence of the rate of the initial electron impact collisions is therefore also an important parameter. The power that sustains the discharge is coupled into the system by two mechanisms: a high energy e-beam component of the electron distribution resulting from electrons falling through or being accelerated by the sheaths, and by joule heating in the body of the plasma. In this paper, the authors discuss the spatial dependence of excitation rates and the method of power deposition iin RF discharges of the type used for plasma processing

  14. Complication rates of ostomy surgery are high and vary significantly between hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheetz, Kyle H; Waits, Seth A; Krell, Robert W; Morris, Arden M; Englesbe, Michael J; Mullard, Andrew; Campbell, Darrell A; Hendren, Samantha

    2014-05-01

    Ostomy surgery is common and has traditionally been associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, suggesting an important target for quality improvement. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the variation in outcomes after ostomy creation surgery within Michigan to identify targets for quality improvement. This was a retrospective cohort study. The study took place within the 34-hospital Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative. Patients included were those undergoing ostomy creation surgery between 2006 and 2011. We evaluated hospital morbidity and mortality rates after risk adjustment (age, comorbidities, emergency vs elective, and procedure type). A total of 4250 patients underwent ostomy creation surgery; 3866 procedures (91.0%) were open and 384 (9.0%) were laparoscopic. Unadjusted morbidity and mortality rates were 43.9% and 10.7%. Unadjusted morbidity rates for specific procedures ranged from 32.7% for ostomy-creation-only procedures to 47.8% for Hartmann procedures. Risk-adjusted morbidity rates varied significantly between hospitals, ranging from 31.2% (95% CI, 18.4-43.9) to 60.8% (95% CI, 48.9-72.6). There were 5 statistically significant high-outlier hospitals and 3 statistically significant low-outlier hospitals for risk-adjusted morbidity. The pattern of complication types was similar between high- and low-outlier hospitals. Case volume, operative duration, and use of laparoscopic surgery did not explain the variation in morbidity rates across hospitals. This work was limited by its retrospective study design, by unmeasured variation in case severity, and by our inability to differentiate between colostomies and ileostomies because of the use of Current Procedural Terminology codes. Morbidity and mortality rates for modern ostomy surgery are high. Although this type of surgery has received little attention in healthcare policy, these data reveal that it is both common and uncommonly morbid. Variation in hospital performance provides an

  15. Transition rate diagrams and excitation of titanium in a glow discharge in argon and neon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Zdeněk; Steers, Edward B. M.; Pickering, Juliet C.

    2018-06-01

    Emission spectra of titanium in a Grimm-type glow discharge in argon and neon were studied using the formalism of transition rate diagrams. Ti I spectra in argon and neon discharges are similar, without signs of selective excitation, and populations of Ti I levels exhibit a decreasing trend as function of energy, except for some scatter. A major excitation process of Ti II in argon discharge is charge transfer from argon ions to neutral titanium. In neon discharge, a strong selective excitation was observed of Ti II levels at ≈13.3-13.4 eV relative to the Ti I ground state. It was attributed to charge transfer from doubly charged titanium ions to neutral titanium, while the Ti++ ions are produced by charge transfer and ionization of neutral titanium by neon ions. Cascade excitation is important for Ti II levels up to an energy of ≈13 eV relative to the Ti I ground state, both in argon and neon discharges.

  16. Modeling study on the effects of pulse rise rate in atmospheric pulsed discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Tao; Wang, Yan-Hui

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we present a modeling study on the discharge characteristics driven by short pulsed voltages, focusing on the effects of pulse rise rate based on the fluid description of atmospheric plasmas. The numerical results show that the breakdown voltage of short pulsed discharge is almost linearly dependent on the pulse rise rate, which is also confirmed by the derived equations from the fluid model. In other words, if the pulse rise rate is fixed as a constant, the simulation results clearly suggest that the breakdown voltage is almost unchanged, although the amplitude of pulsed voltage increases significantly. The spatial distribution of the electric field and electron density are given to reveal the underpinning physics. Additionally, the computational data and the analytical expression also indicate that an increased repetition frequency can effectively decrease the breakdown voltage and current density, which is consistent with the experimental observation.

  17. Meta-analytic methods for pooling rates when follow-up duration varies: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Fredric M

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analysis can be used to pool rate measures across studies, but challenges arise when follow-up duration varies. Our objective was to compare different statistical approaches for pooling count data of varying follow-up times in terms of estimates of effect, precision, and clinical interpretability. Methods We examined data from a published Cochrane Review of asthma self-management education in children. We selected two rate measures with the largest number of contributing studies: school absences and emergency room (ER visits. We estimated fixed- and random-effects standardized weighted mean differences (SMD, stratified incidence rate differences (IRD, and stratified incidence rate ratios (IRR. We also fit Poisson regression models, which allowed for further adjustment for clustering by study. Results For both outcomes, all methods gave qualitatively similar estimates of effect in favor of the intervention. For school absences, SMD showed modest results in favor of the intervention (SMD -0.14, 95% CI -0.23 to -0.04. IRD implied that the intervention reduced school absences by 1.8 days per year (IRD -0.15 days/child-month, 95% CI -0.19 to -0.11, while IRR suggested a 14% reduction in absences (IRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.90. For ER visits, SMD showed a modest benefit in favor of the intervention (SMD -0.27, 95% CI: -0.45 to -0.09. IRD implied that the intervention reduced ER visits by 1 visit every 2 years (IRD -0.04 visits/child-month, 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.03, while IRR suggested a 34% reduction in ER visits (IRR 0.66, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.74. In Poisson models, adjustment for clustering lowered the precision of the estimates relative to stratified IRR results. For ER visits but not school absences, failure to incorporate study indicators resulted in a different estimate of effect (unadjusted IRR 0.77, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.99. Conclusions Choice of method among the ones presented had little effect on inference but affected the

  18. Meta-analytic methods for pooling rates when follow-up duration varies: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, James P; Berlin, Jesse A; Wolf, Fredric M

    2004-07-12

    Meta-analysis can be used to pool rate measures across studies, but challenges arise when follow-up duration varies. Our objective was to compare different statistical approaches for pooling count data of varying follow-up times in terms of estimates of effect, precision, and clinical interpretability. We examined data from a published Cochrane Review of asthma self-management education in children. We selected two rate measures with the largest number of contributing studies: school absences and emergency room (ER) visits. We estimated fixed- and random-effects standardized weighted mean differences (SMD), stratified incidence rate differences (IRD), and stratified incidence rate ratios (IRR). We also fit Poisson regression models, which allowed for further adjustment for clustering by study. For both outcomes, all methods gave qualitatively similar estimates of effect in favor of the intervention. For school absences, SMD showed modest results in favor of the intervention (SMD -0.14, 95% CI -0.23 to -0.04). IRD implied that the intervention reduced school absences by 1.8 days per year (IRD -0.15 days/child-month, 95% CI -0.19 to -0.11), while IRR suggested a 14% reduction in absences (IRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.90). For ER visits, SMD showed a modest benefit in favor of the intervention (SMD -0.27, 95% CI: -0.45 to -0.09). IRD implied that the intervention reduced ER visits by 1 visit every 2 years (IRD -0.04 visits/child-month, 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.03), while IRR suggested a 34% reduction in ER visits (IRR 0.66, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.74). In Poisson models, adjustment for clustering lowered the precision of the estimates relative to stratified IRR results. For ER visits but not school absences, failure to incorporate study indicators resulted in a different estimate of effect (unadjusted IRR 0.77, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.99). Choice of method among the ones presented had little effect on inference but affected the clinical interpretability of the findings. Incidence rate

  19. Robust and Optimal Control of Magnetic Microparticles inside Fluidic Channels with Time-Varying Flow Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam S.M. Khalil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Targeted therapy using magnetic microparticles and nanoparticles has the potential to mitigate the negative side-effects associated with conventional medical treatment. Major technological challenges still need to be addressed in order to translate these particles into in vivo applications. For example, magnetic particles need to be navigated controllably in vessels against flowing streams of body fluid. This paper describes the motion control of paramagnetic microparticles in the flowing streams of fluidic channels with time-varying flow rates (maximum flow is 35 ml.hr−1. This control is designed using a magnetic-based proportional-derivative (PD control system to compensate for the time-varying flow inside the channels (with width and depth of 2 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively. First, we achieve point-to-point motion control against and along flow rates of 4 ml.hr−1, 6 ml.hr−1, 17 ml.hr−1, and 35 ml.hr−1. The average speeds of single microparticle (with average diameter of 100 μm against flow rates of 6 ml.hr−1 and 30 ml.hr−1 are calculated to be 45 μm.s−1 and 15 μm.s−1, respectively. Second, we implement PD control with disturbance estimation and compensation. This control decreases the steady-state error by 50%, 70%, 73%, and 78% at flow rates of 4 ml.hr−1, 6 ml.hr−1, 17 ml.hr−1, and 35 ml.hr−1, respectively. Finally, we consider the problem of finding the optimal path (minimal kinetic energy between two points using calculus of variation, against the mentioned flow rates. Not only do we find that an optimal path between two collinear points with the direction of maximum flow (middle of the fluidic channel decreases the rise time of the microparticles, but we also decrease the input current that is supplied to the electromagnetic coils by minimizing the kinetic energy of the microparticles, compared to a PD control with disturbance compensation.

  20. Spatially varying predictors of teenage birth rates among counties in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Shoff

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Limited information is available about teenage pregnancy and childbearing in rural areas, even though approximately 20 percent of the nation's youth live in rural areas. Identifying whether there are differences in the teenage birth rate (TBR across metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas is important because these differences may reflect modifiable ecological-level influences such as education, employment, laws, healthcare infrastructure, and policies that could potentially reduce the TBR. OBJECTIVE The goals of this study are to investigate whether there are spatially varying relationships between the TBR and the independent variables, and if so, whether these associations differ between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties. METHODS We explore the heterogeneity within metropolitan/nonmetropolitan county groups separately using geographically weighted regression (GWR, and investigate the difference between metropolitan/nonmetropolitan counties using spatial regime models with spatial errors. These analyses were applied to county-level data from the National Center for Health Statistics and the US Census Bureau. RESULTS GWR results suggested that non-stationarity exists in the associations between TBR and determinants within metropolitan/nonmetropolitan groups. The spatial regime analysis indicated that the effect of socioeconomic disadvantage on TBR significantly varied by the metropolitan status of counties. CONCLUSIONS While the spatially varying relationships between the TBR and independent variables were found within each metropolitan status of counties, only the magnitude of the impact of the socioeconomic disadvantage index is significantly stronger among metropolitan counties than nonmetropolitan counties. Our findings suggested that place-specific policies for the disadvantaged groups in a county could be implemented to reduce TBR in the US.

  1. Estimation of time-varying growth, uptake and excretion rates from dynamic metabolomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquemani, Eugenio; Laroute, Valérie; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel; de Jong, Hidde; Ropers, Delphine

    2017-07-15

    Technological advances in metabolomics have made it possible to monitor the concentration of extracellular metabolites over time. From these data, it is possible to compute the rates of uptake and excretion of the metabolites by a growing cell population, providing precious information on the functioning of intracellular metabolism. The computation of the rate of these exchange reactions, however, is difficult to achieve in practice for a number of reasons, notably noisy measurements, correlations between the concentration profiles of the different extracellular metabolites, and discontinuties in the profiles due to sudden changes in metabolic regime. We present a method for precisely estimating time-varying uptake and excretion rates from time-series measurements of extracellular metabolite concentrations, specifically addressing all of the above issues. The estimation problem is formulated in a regularized Bayesian framework and solved by a combination of extended Kalman filtering and smoothing. The method is shown to improve upon methods based on spline smoothing of the data. Moreover, when applied to two actual datasets, the method recovers known features of overflow metabolism in Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis , and provides evidence for acetate uptake by L. lactis after glucose exhaustion. The results raise interesting perspectives for further work on rate estimation from measurements of intracellular metabolites. The Matlab code for the estimation method is available for download at https://team.inria.fr/ibis/rate-estimation-software/ , together with the datasets. eugenio.cinquemani@inria.fr. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Impact of nitrogen rates on growth, yield and radiation use efficiency of maize under varying environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaliq, T.; Ahmad, A.; Hussain, A.

    2008-01-01

    Growth, yield and radiation use efficiency (RUE) of hybrid maize, in response to different nitrogen rates (150, 200, 250, 300, 350 kg ha/sub -1/ were analyzed for three different locations (Faisalabad, Sargodha and Sahiwal) in Punjab, Pakistan during 2004 and 2005. The results depicted a large yearly variations mainly attributed to more rainfall and incidence of solar radiation in 2005. Maize hybrids respond differently for all variable under study, at all sites except IPAR and radiation use efficiency 919 at different locations. Similar types of differences were noted in GGR and Final TOM. Increasing nitrogen rates had significant effects on CGR, final TOM and grain yield and RUE. The intercepted PAR, RUE/sub TDM/ and RUE/sub Gy/ were significantly affected by hybrid potential and nitrogen application rates. On an average RUE/sub TDM/ varied from 2.45 to 2.73 g MJ/sup -1/ at different locations, while RUE/sub Gy/ was recorded 1.12, 1.14 and 1.03 for Faisalabad, Sargodha and Sahiwal, respectively. Total dry matter and grain yield of different treatments was linearly related to IPAR at all location and the common regression (R/sup 2/) accounted for 94, 68, and 80 % for TDM and 64, 34, and 95% for grain yield at the Faisalabad, Sargodha and sahiwal, respectively. It was concluded that planting of hybrid Bemasal-202 with 300 kg N ha/sup -1/ is the best recommendation for semi-arid areas of Pakistan. (author)

  3. Effect of pulsed corona discharge voltage and feed gas flow rate on dissolved ozone concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasetyaningrum, A., E-mail: ajiprasetyaningrum@gmail.com; Ratnawati,; Jos, B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. H. Soedarto Tembalang, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia, 50276 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Ozonization is one of the methods extensively used for water purification and degradation of organic materials. Ozone (O{sub 3}) is recognized as a powerful oxidizing agent. Due to its strong oxidability and better environmental friendless, ozone increasing being used in domestic and industrial applications. Current technology in ozone production utilizes several techniques (corona discharge, ultra violet radiation and electrolysis). This experiment aimed to evaluating effect of voltage and gas flow rate on ozone production with corona discharge. The system consists of two net-type stainless steel electrode placed in a dielectric barrier. Three pulsed voltage (20, 30, 40 KV) and flow rate (5, 10, 15 L/min) were prepare for operation variable at high frequency (3.7 kHz) with AC pulsed power supply. The dissolved ozone concentration depends on the applied high-voltage level, gas flow rate and the discharge exposure duration. The ozone concentration increases with decreasing gas flow rate. Dissolved ozone concentrations greater than 200 ppm can be obtained with a minimum voltage 40 kV.

  4. Effect of pulsed corona discharge voltage and feed gas flow rate on dissolved ozone concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasetyaningrum, A.; Ratnawati,; Jos, B.

    2015-01-01

    Ozonization is one of the methods extensively used for water purification and degradation of organic materials. Ozone (O 3 ) is recognized as a powerful oxidizing agent. Due to its strong oxidability and better environmental friendless, ozone increasing being used in domestic and industrial applications. Current technology in ozone production utilizes several techniques (corona discharge, ultra violet radiation and electrolysis). This experiment aimed to evaluating effect of voltage and gas flow rate on ozone production with corona discharge. The system consists of two net-type stainless steel electrode placed in a dielectric barrier. Three pulsed voltage (20, 30, 40 KV) and flow rate (5, 10, 15 L/min) were prepare for operation variable at high frequency (3.7 kHz) with AC pulsed power supply. The dissolved ozone concentration depends on the applied high-voltage level, gas flow rate and the discharge exposure duration. The ozone concentration increases with decreasing gas flow rate. Dissolved ozone concentrations greater than 200 ppm can be obtained with a minimum voltage 40 kV

  5. Effect of pulsed corona discharge voltage and feed gas flow rate on dissolved ozone concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyaningrum, A.; Ratnawati, Jos, B.

    2015-12-01

    Ozonization is one of the methods extensively used for water purification and degradation of organic materials. Ozone (O3) is recognized as a powerful oxidizing agent. Due to its strong oxidability and better environmental friendless, ozone increasing being used in domestic and industrial applications. Current technology in ozone production utilizes several techniques (corona discharge, ultra violet radiation and electrolysis). This experiment aimed to evaluating effect of voltage and gas flow rate on ozone production with corona discharge. The system consists of two net-type stainless steel electrode placed in a dielectric barrier. Three pulsed voltage (20, 30, 40 KV) and flow rate (5, 10, 15 L/min) were prepare for operation variable at high frequency (3.7 kHz) with AC pulsed power supply. The dissolved ozone concentration depends on the applied high-voltage level, gas flow rate and the discharge exposure duration. The ozone concentration increases with decreasing gas flow rate. Dissolved ozone concentrations greater than 200 ppm can be obtained with a minimum voltage 40 kV.

  6. On-line statistical processing of radiation detector pulse trains with time-varying count rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolopoulos, G.

    2008-01-01

    Statistical analysis is of primary importance for the correct interpretation of nuclear measurements, due to the inherent random nature of radioactive decay processes. This paper discusses the application of statistical signal processing techniques to the random pulse trains generated by radiation detectors. The aims of the presented algorithms are: (i) continuous, on-line estimation of the underlying time-varying count rate θ(t) and its first-order derivative dθ/dt; (ii) detection of abrupt changes in both of these quantities and estimation of their new value after the change point. Maximum-likelihood techniques, based on the Poisson probability distribution, are employed for the on-line estimation of θ and dθ/dt. Detection of abrupt changes is achieved on the basis of the generalized likelihood ratio statistical test. The properties of the proposed algorithms are evaluated by extensive simulations and possible applications for on-line radiation monitoring are discussed

  7. On Regularly Varying and History-Dependent Convergence Rates of Solutions of a Volterra Equation with Infinite Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appleby JohnAD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the rate of convergence to equilibrium of Volterra integrodifferential equations with infinite memory. We show that if the kernel of Volterra operator is regularly varying at infinity, and the initial history is regularly varying at minus infinity, then the rate of convergence to the equilibrium is regularly varying at infinity, and the exact pointwise rate of convergence can be determined in terms of the rate of decay of the kernel and the rate of growth of the initial history. The result is considered both for a linear Volterra integrodifferential equation as well as for the delay logistic equation from population biology.

  8. Effect of Electric Discharge Machining on Material Removal Rate and White Layer Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAHID MEHMOOD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the MRR (Material Removal Rate of the aerospace grade (2024 T6 aluminum alloy 2024 T6 has been determined with copper electrode and kerosene oil is used as dielectric liquid. Discharge energy is controlled by electric current while keeping Pulse-ON time and Pulse-OFF time as constant. The characteristics of the EDMed (Electric Discharge Machined surface are discussed. The sub-surface defect due to arcing has been explained. As the surface material of tool electrode and workpiece melts simultaneously and there are chances of the contamination of both surfaces by the contents of each other. Therefore, the EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy of the white layer and base material of the workpiece was performed by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope at the discharge currents of 3, 6 and 12 amperes. It was conformed that the contamination of the surface of the workpiece material occurred by carbon, copper and oxygen contents. The quantitative analysis of these contents with respect to the discharge current has been presented in this paper.

  9. Indoor measurement of photovoltaic device characteristics at varying irradiance, temperature and spectrum for energy rating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, M; Betts, T R; Gottschalg, R

    2010-01-01

    The first three-dimensional performance matrix for use in photovoltaic (PV) energy rating is reported utilizing a novel energy rating solar simulator based on LEDs. Device characteristics are measured indoors at varying irradiance (G), temperature (T) and spectrum (E). This opens the possibility for a more accurate measurement system for energy yield prediction of PV devices, especially for devices with high spectral dependence such as wide bandgap solar cells as they take into account spectral changes in the light. The main aspects of the LED-based solar simulator used are briefly described. A measurement method is developed and detailed in the paper, which takes into account the current imperfections in the achievable spectrum. Measurement results for a crystalline silicon solar cell are used to demonstrate the measurement approach. An uncertainty analysis of the measurement system is given, resulting in an overall absolute uncertainty of 4.3% (coverage factor k = 2) in maximum power measurements at 765 W m −2 irradiance with scope for further improvements

  10. 46 CFR 108.437 - Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment. 108.437 Section 108.437 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.437 Pipe sizes and discharge rates for...

  11. DEM study of granular discharge rate through a vertical pipe with a bend outlet in small absorber sphere system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tianjin, E-mail: tjli@tsinghua.edu.cn; Zhang, He; Liu, Malin; Huang, Zhiyong; Bo, Hanliang; Dong, Yujie

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • The work concerns granular flow in a vertical pipe with a bend. • Discharge rate fluctuation in vertical pipe are mainly from velocity fluctuation. • Steady discharge rate decreases rapidly and saturates with μ{sub s} increasing. • Steady discharge rate W{sub s} still obey the 5/2 power law of pipe internal diameter. • A correlation developed for steady discharge rate for this new geometry. - Abstract: Absorber sphere pneumatic conveying is a special application of pneumatic conveying technique in the pebble bed High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR or HTR). Granular discharge through a vertical pipe with a bend outlet is one of the control modes to determine solid mass flowrate which is an important parameter for the design of absorber sphere pneumatic conveying. Granular discharge rate through the vertical pipe with a bend outlet in the small absorber sphere system are investigated by discrete element method simulation. The effect of geometry parameters on discharge rate, the discharge rate fluctuation in the vertical pipe, and the effect of friction on steady discharge rate (W{sub s}) are analyzed and discussed. The phenomena of discharge rate fluctuation in the vertical pipe are observed, which are mainly resulted from the evolution of the average downward granular velocity. The steady discharge rate decreases rapidly with sliding friction coefficient increasing from 0.125 to 0.5, and gradually saturates with the friction coefficient further increasing from 0.5 to 1. It is interesting that the linear relation between W{sub s}{sup 2/5} and pipe internal diameter D with zero intercept are found for the vertical pipe discharge with a bend outlet, which is different from the orifice discharge through a hopper or silo with none-zero intercept. A correlation similar to Beverloo’s correlation is developed to predict the steady discharge rate through the vertical pipe with a bend outlet. These results are helpful for the design of sphere

  12. Rare Earth Element Behavior During Incongruent Weathering and Varying Discharge Conditions in Silicate Dominated River Systems: The Australian Victorian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, K. B.; Cartwright, I.

    2008-12-01

    The distribution of rare earth elements (REE) and trace elements was measured by ICP-MS on fresh, slightly weathered and weathered granite and surface water samples from a network of 11 pristine rivers draining the Australian Victorian Alps during (i) high and (ii) low discharge conditions. River water REE concentrations are largely derived from atmospheric precipitation (rain, snow), as indicated by similar Chondrite normalized REE patterns (higher LREE over HREE; negative Ce anomalies, positive Eu anomalies) and similar total REE concentrations during both dry and wet seasons. Calculations based on the covariance between REE and Cl concentrations and oxygen and hydrogen isotopes indicate precipitation input coupled with subsequent evaporation may account for 30% o 100% of dissolved REE in stream waters. The dissolved contribution to the granitic substratum to stream water comes mainly from the transformation of plagioclase to smectite, kaolinite and gibbsite and minor apatite dissolution. However, since most REE of the regional granite are present in accessory minerals (titanite, zircon, etc.) they do not significantly contribute to the river REE pool. REE concentrations drop sharply downstream as a result of dilution and chemical attenuation. A trend of downstream enrichment of the heavier REE is due to selective partitioning of the lighter REE (as both free REE or REECO3 complexes) to hydrous oxides of suspended Al which, in turn, is controlled by a downstream increase of pH to values > 6.1 (for free REE) and > 7.3 (for REECO3 complexes). Although most circumneutral waters were supersaturated with REE phosphate compounds, precipitation of LnPO4 is not believed to have been a dominant process because the predicted phosphate fractionation pattern is inconsistent with the observed trends. Negative saturation indices of hydrous ferric oxides also militate against surface complexation onto goethite. Instead, REE attenuation most likely resulted from adsorption onto

  13. Contrast and autoshaping in multiple schedules varying reinforcer rate and duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, B E; Silberberg, A

    1978-07-01

    Thirteen master pigeons were exposed to multiple schedules in which reinforcement frequency (Experiment I) or duration (Experiment II) was varied. In Phases 1 and 3 of Experiment I, the values of the first and second components' random-interval schedules were 33 and 99 seconds, respectively. In Phase 2, these values were 99 seconds for both components. In Experiment II, a random-interval 33-second schedule was associated with each component. During Phases 1 and 3, the first and second components had hopper durations of 7.5 and 2.5 seconds respectively. During Phase 2, both components' hopper durations were 2.5 seconds. In each experiment, positive contrast obtained for about half the master subjects. The rest showed a rate increase in both components (positive induction). Each master subject's key colors and reinforcers were synchronously presented on a response-independent basis to a yoked control. Richer component key-pecking occurred during each experiment's Phases 1 and 3 among half these subjects. However, none responded during the contrast condition (unchanged component of each experiment's Phase 2). From this it is inferred that autoshaping did not contribute to the contrast and induction findings among master birds. Little evidence of local contrast (highest rate at beginning of richer component) was found in any subject. These data show that (a) contrast can occur independently from autoshaping, (b) contrast assays during equal-valued components may produce induction, (c) local contrast in multiple schedules often does not occur, and (d) differential hopper durations can produce autoshaping and contrast.

  14. Bayesian analysis of stage-fall-discharge rating curves and their uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansanarez, Valentin; Le Coz, Jérôme; Renard, Benjamin; Lang, Michel; Pierrefeu, Gilles; Le Boursicaud, Raphaël; Pobanz, Karine

    2016-04-01

    Stage-fall-discharge (SFD) rating curves are traditionally used to compute streamflow records at sites where the energy slope of the flow is variable due to variable backwater effects. Building on existing Bayesian approaches, we introduce an original hydraulics-based method for developing SFD rating curves used at twin gauge stations and estimating their uncertainties. Conventional power functions for channel and section controls are used, and transition to a backwater-affected channel control is computed based on a continuity condition, solved either analytically or numerically. The difference between the reference levels at the two stations is estimated as another uncertain parameter of the SFD model. The method proposed in this presentation incorporates information from both the hydraulic knowledge (equations of channel or section controls) and the information available in the stage-fall-discharge observations (gauging data). The obtained total uncertainty combines the parametric uncertainty and the remnant uncertainty related to the model of rating curve. This method provides a direct estimation of the physical inputs of the rating curve (roughness, width, slope bed, distance between twin gauges, etc.). The performance of the new method is tested using an application case affected by the variable backwater of a run-of-the-river dam: the Rhône river at Valence, France. In particular, a sensitivity analysis to the prior information and to the gauging dataset is performed. At that site, the stage-fall-discharge domain is well documented with gaugings conducted over a range of backwater affected and unaffected conditions. The performance of the new model was deemed to be satisfactory. Notably, transition to uniform flow when the overall range of the auxiliary stage is gauged is correctly simulated. The resulting curves are in good agreement with the observations (gaugings) and their uncertainty envelopes are acceptable for computing streamflow records. Similar

  15. Assessment of Estimation Methods ForStage-Discharge Rating Curve in Rippled Bed Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Maleki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Interactionbetweenwater flow characteristics andthe bed erodibilityplays an important role in sediment transport process. In order to reach stability, rivers with deposition or bottom erosion make a different bed form in the riverbed. One way to identify thebehavior of therivers is to study the structure and formation of bed forms within them. Ripples are the smallest of the bed forms. The longitudinal cross section of ripples are usually not symmetrical. The upstream face is long and has a gentle slope, and the downstream face is short and steep. The height of ripples is usually between 0.5 cm and 2 cm; the height ripple is not more than 5 cm. The wave lengths normally do not exceed 30cm, and they are usually within the range of 1 cm to 15 cm. Their occurrence is the result of the unstable viscous layer near the boundary. They can form in both shallow and deep water.With an increase of the flow velocity, the plan form of the ripples gradually develops form straight line to curves and then to a pattern like fish scales, symmetrical or unsymmetrical, as shown in Fig 1. Figure1-The patterndevelopment oftheripple Raudkivi (1966 was the first person that, the flow structure over ripples was investigated experimentally.Hethenestablishseveraldifferent conditionsonthemovingsandbedinanlaboratorychannelconsisted of a rectangular cross-section with base width of 70cm, wasable toform arow ofripples , he wassucceed toform arow ofripples.JafariMianaei and Keshavarzi(2008,studied the turbulentflow betweentwoartificialripples for investigate the change of kinetic energyandshearstress on overripples. The stage- discharge rating curve is one of the most important tools in the hydraulic studies. In alluvial rivers,bed rippled are formed and significantly affect the stage- discharge rating curve. In this research, the effects of two different type of ripples (parallel and flakeshape onthe hydraulic characteristicsof flow were experimentally studied

  16. High pressure pulsed avalanche discharges: Scaling of required preionization rate for homogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenning, N.; Axnaes, I.; Nilsson, J.O.; Eninger, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Homogeneous high-pressure discharges can be formed by pulsed avalanche breakdown, provided that the individual avalanche heads have diffused to a large enough radius to overlap before streamer breakdown occurs. The overlap condition can be met by using an external mechanism to preionize the neutral gas, e.g., x-rays or uv radiation. There are several scenarios, (1) to preionize the gas, and then trigger the discharge by the sudden application of an electric field, (2) to apply an overvoltage over the discharge and trigger the discharge by external ionization, or (3) to have a continuous rate of external ionization and let the E field rise, with a comparatively long time constant τ, across the breakdown value (E/n) 0 . The authors here study the last of these scenarios, which gives a very efficient use of the preionization source because the avalanche startpoint can accumulate during the pre-avalanche phase. The authors have found that the required avalanche startpoint density N st.p , defined as the density of individual single, or clusters of, electrons at the time when the electric field crosses the breakdown value, scales with pressure and rise time as N st.p ∝ p 21/4 τ -3/4 . This pressure scaling disagrees with the p 3/2 scaling found by Levatter and Lin (J. Appl. Phys. 51(1), 210), while the rise time scaling agrees satisfactorily with their results. For an E field which rises slowly across the breakdown value, the pre-avalanche accumulation of electrons must be taken into account, as well as the fact that the density n e of free electrons becomes larger than the density N st.p of independent avalanche heads: when electron impact ionization closely balances attachment, individual electrons are replaced by clusters of electrons which are too close to form individual avalanche heads

  17. Securing a robust electrical discharge drilling process by means of flow rate control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risto, Matthias; Munz, Markus; Haas, Ruediger; Abdolahi, Ali

    2017-10-01

    This paper deals with the increase of the process robustness while drilling cemented carbide using electrical discharge machining (EDM). A demand for high efficiency in the resulting diameter is equivalent with a high robustness of the EDM drilling process. Analysis were done to investigate the process robustness (standard deviation of the borehole diameter) when drilling cemented carbide. The investigation has shown that the dielectric flow rate changes over the drilling process. In this case the flow rate decreased with a shorter tool electrode due to an uneven wear of the tool electrode's cross section. Using a controlled flow rate during the drilling process has led to a reduced standard deviation of the borehole diameter, thus to a higher process robustness when drilling cemented carbide.

  18. Plutonium Discharge Rates and Spent Nuclear Fuel Inventory Estimates for Nuclear Reactors Worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian K. Castle; Shauna A. Hoiland; Richard A. Rankin; James W. Sterbentz

    2012-09-01

    This report presents a preliminary survey and analysis of the five primary types of commercial nuclear power reactors currently in use around the world. Plutonium mass discharge rates from the reactors’ spent fuel at reload are estimated based on a simple methodology that is able to use limited reactor burnup and operational characteristics collected from a variety of public domain sources. Selected commercial reactor operating and nuclear core characteristics are also given for each reactor type. In addition to the worldwide commercial reactors survey, a materials test reactor survey was conducted to identify reactors of this type with a significant core power rating. Over 100 material or research reactors with a core power rating >1 MW fall into this category. Fuel characteristics and spent fuel inventories for these material test reactors are also provided herein.

  19. Coordinated Secondary Control for Balanced Discharge Rate of Energy Storage System in Islanded AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Yajuan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    A coordinated secondary control approach based on an autonomous current-sharing control strategy for balancing the discharge rates of energy storage systems (ESSs) in islanded AC microgrids is proposed in this paper. The coordinated secondary controller can regulate the power outputs of distributed...... incidents and unintentional outages in DG units, but also aims to provide a fast transient response and an accurate output-current-sharing performance. A complete root locus analysis is given in order to achieve system stability and parameter sensitivity. Experimental results are presented to show...... the performance of the whole system and to verify the effectiveness of the proposed controller....

  20. Age-related decreases in motor unit discharge rate and force control during isometric plantar flexion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallio, J; Søgaard, Karen; Avela, J

    2012-01-01

    Aging is related to multiple changes in muscle physiology and function. Previous findings concerning the effects of aging on motor unit discharge rate (DR) and fluctuations in DR and force are somewhat contradictory. Eight YOUNG and nine OLD physically active males performed isometric ramp (RECR......) and isotonic (ISO) plantar flexions at 10 and 20% of surface EMG at MVC. Motor unit (MU) action potentials were recorded with intramuscular fine-wire electrodes and decomposed with custom build software "Daisy". DR was lower in OLD in RECR-10% (17.9%, p...

  1. Quality assurance of Vari-source high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy- remote after loader and cost effectiveness of Vari-source HDR- brachytherapy: NORI, Islamabad experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.; Mahmood, H.; Jafri, S.R.A.

    2004-01-01

    A quality control of Vari-Source high dose rate (HDR) remote after loading brachytherapy machine was carried out and the cost effectiveness of HDR brachytherapy machine was also evaluated considering the cost of ten Iridium-192 wire sources at Nuclear Medicine, Oncology and Radiotherapy Institute (NORI), Islamabad, Pakistan. A total number of 253 intracavitary insertions were done in 98 patients from October 1996 to May 2001. The results of the quality control tests performed during 1996 to 2001 were within the acceptable limits. The cost effectiveness of Vari-Source HDR brachytherapy machine was also evaluated. The average cost per patient was calculated as US$ 491. Small number of patients was treated as the machine was used for gynecologic malignancies only. The objective was to assess the quality control status of HDR brachytherapy machine on patient treatment day, source exchange day and periodic day (monthly basis). It was found that the cost per patient can be minimized if other type of cancer patients are also treated on Vari-Source HDR machine. (author)

  2. The effect of the pulse repetition rate on the fast ionization wave discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bang-Dou; Carbone, Emile; Takashima, Keisuke; Zhu, Xi-Ming; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Pu, Yi-Kang

    2018-06-01

    The effect of the pulse repetition rate (PRR) on the generation of high energy electrons in a fast ionization wave (FIW) discharge is investigated by both experiment and modelling. The FIW discharge is driven by nanosecond high voltage pulses and is generated in helium with a pressure of 30 mbar. The axial electric field (E z ), as the driven force of high energy electron generation, is strongly influenced by PRR. Both the measurement and the model show that, during the breakdown, the peak value of E z decreases with the PRR, while after the breakdown, the value of E z increases with the PRR. The electron energy distribution function (EEDF) is calculated with a model similar to Boeuf and Pitchford (1995 Phys. Rev. E 51 1376). It is found that, with a low value of PRR, the EEDF during the breakdown is strongly non-Maxwellian with an elevated high energy tail, while the EEDF after the breakdown is also non-Maxwellian but with a much depleted population of high energy electrons. However, with a high value of PRR, the EEDF is Maxwellian-like without much temporal variation both during and after the breakdown. With the calculated EEDF, the temporal evolution of the population of helium excited species given by the model is in good agreement with the measured optical emission, which also depends critically on the shape of the EEDF.

  3. The impact of monetary policy and exchange rate shocks in Poland: evidence from a time-varying VAR

    OpenAIRE

    Arratibel, Olga; Michaelis, Henrike

    2014-01-01

    This paper follows the Bayesian time-varying VAR approach with stochastic volatility developed by Primiceri (2005), to analyse whether the reaction of output and prices to interest rate and exchange rate shocks has changed across time (1996-2012) in the Polish economy. The empirical findings show that: (1) output appears more responsive to an interest rate shock at the beginning of our sample. Since 2000, absorbing this shock has become less costly in terms of output, notwithstanding some rev...

  4. Discharge Processes and 30-Day Readmission Rates of Patients Hospitalized for Heart Failure on General Medicine and Cardiology Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salata, Brian M; Sterling, Madeline R; Beecy, Ashley N; Ullal, Ajayram V; Jones, Erica C; Horn, Evelyn M; Goyal, Parag

    2018-05-01

    Given high rates of heart failure (HF) hospitalizations and widespread adoption of the hospitalist model, patients with HF are often cared for on General Medicine (GM) services. Differences in discharge processes and 30-day readmission rates between patients on GM and those on Cardiology during the contemporary hospitalist era are unknown. The present study compared discharge processes and 30-day readmission rates of patients with HF admitted on GM services and those on Cardiology services. We retrospectively studied 926 patients discharged home after HF hospitalization. The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause readmission after discharge from index hospitalization. Although 60% of patients with HF were admitted to Cardiology services, 40% were admitted to GM services. Prevalence of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular co-morbidities were similar between patients admitted to GM services and Cardiology services. Discharge summaries for patients on GM services were less likely to have reassessments of ejection fraction, new study results, weights, discharge vital signs, discharge physical examinations, and scheduled follow-up cardiologist appointments. In a multivariable regression analysis, patients on GM services were more likely to experience 30-day readmissions compared with those on Cardiology services (odds ratio 1.43 95% confidence interval [1.05 to 1.96], p = 0.02). In conclusion, outcomes are better among those admitted to Cardiology services, signaling the need for studies and interventions focusing on noncardiology hospital providers that care for patients with HF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Analytical approximation of the erosion rate and electrode wear in micro electrical discharge machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnia, W; Tan, P C; Yeo, S H; Wong, M

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical models have been used to predict process performance measures in electrical discharge machining (EDM), namely the material removal rate (MRR), tool wear ratio (TWR) and surface roughness (SR). However, these contributions are mainly applicable to conventional EDM due to limits on the range of energy and pulse-on-time adopted by the models. This paper proposes an analytical approximation of micro-EDM performance measures, based on the crater prediction using a developed theoretical model. The results show that the analytical approximation of the MRR and TWR is able to provide a close approximation with the experimental data. The approximation results for the MRR and TWR are found to have a variation of up to 30% and 24%, respectively, from their associated experimental values. Since the voltage and current input used in the computation are captured in real time, the method can be applied as a reliable online monitoring system for the micro-EDM process

  6. Coordinated Secondary Control for Balanced Discharge Rate of Energy Storage System in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Yajuan; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    current and unintentional outage of DGs. Thus, the stability and reliability of islanded MG can be improved. The eigenvalues and root locus with the proposed controller are presented to design the parameters as well as analyzing the system stability. Simulation results based on Matlab......A coordinated secondary control based on a novel autonomous currents sharing control strategy for balanced discharge rate of energy storage systems in islanded microgrid (MG) is proposed in this paper. The coordinated secondary controller is able to regulate the output power of distributed...... generating (DG) systems according to their state-of-charge by adjusting the virtual resistances of their voltage controlled inverters. This controller can not only provide the faster response and accurate output current sharing control, but also avoid the potential operation failure resulting from the over...

  7. Electron energy distributions and excitation rates in high-frequency argon discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, C.M.; Loureiro, J.

    1983-06-01

    The electron energy distribution functions and rate coefficients for excitation and ionisation in argon under the action of an uniform high-frequency electric field were calculated by numerically solving the homogeneous Boltzmann equation. Analytic calculations in the limiting cases ω>>νsub(c) and ω<<νsub(c), where ω is the wave angular frequency and νsub(c) is the electron-neutral collision frequency for momentum transfer, are also presented and shown to be in very good agreement with the numerical computations. The results reported here are relevant for the modelling of high-frequency discharges in argon and, in particular, for improving recent theoretical descriptions of a plasma column sustained by surface microwaves. The properties of surface wave produced plasmas make them interesting as possible substitutes for other more conventional plasma sources for such important applications as plasma chemistry laser excitation, plasma etching spectroscopic sources etc...

  8. Controlling corrosion rate of Magnesium alloy using powder mixed electrical discharge machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, M. A.; Rani, A. M. A.; Saad, N. M.; Littlefair, G.; Aliyu, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Biomedical implant can be divided into permanent and temporary employment. The duration of a temporary implant applied to children and adult is different due to different bone healing rate among the children and adult. Magnesium and its alloys are compatible for the biodegradable implanting application. Nevertheless, it is difficult to control the degradation rate of magnesium alloy to suit the application on both the children and adult. Powder mixed electrical discharge machining (PM-EDM) method, a modified EDM process, has high capability to improve the EDM process efficiency and machined surface quality. The objective of this paper is to establish a formula to control the degradation rate of magnesium alloy using the PM-EDM method. The different corrosion rate of machined surface is hypothesized to be obtained by having different combinations of PM-EDM operation inputs. PM-EDM experiments are conducted using an opened-loop PM-EDM system and the in-vitro corrosion tests are carried out on the machined surface of each specimen. There are four operation inputs investigated in this study which are zinc powder concentration, peak current, pulse on-time and pulse off-time. The results indicate that zinc powder concentration is significantly affecting the response with 2 g/l of zinc powder concentration obtaining the lowest corrosion rate. The high localized temperature at the cutting zone in spark erosion process causes some of the zinc particles get deposited on the machined surface, hence improving the surface characteristics. The suspended zinc particles in the dielectric fluid have also improve the sparking efficiency and the uniformity of sparks distribution. From the statistical analysis, a formula was developed to control the corrosion rate of magnesium alloy within the range from 0.000183 mm/year to 0.001528 mm/year.

  9. Controllable deterioration rate for time-dependent demand and time-varying holding cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Vinod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop an inventory model for non-instantaneous deteriorating items under the consideration of the facts: deterioration rate can be controlled by using the preservation technology (PT during deteriorating period, and holding cost and demand rate both are linear function of time, which was treated as constant in most of the deteriorating inventory models. So in this paper, we developed a deterministic inventory model for non-instantaneous deteriorating items in which both demand rate and holding cost are a linear function of time, deterioration rate is constant, backlogging rate is variable and depend on the length of the next replenishment, shortages are allowed and partially backlogged. The model is solved analytically by minimizing the total cost of the inventory system. The model can be applied to optimizing the total inventory cost of non-instantaneous deteriorating items inventory for the business enterprises, where the preservation technology is used to control the deterioration rate, and demand & holding cost both are a linear function of time.

  10. Impact Of Particle Agglomeration On Accumulation Rates In The Glass Discharge Riser Of HLW Melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A. A.; Rodriguez, C. A.; Matyas, J.; Owen, A. T.; Jansik, D. P.; Lang, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    The major factor limiting waste loading in continuous high-level radioactive waste (HLW) melters is an accumulation of particles in the glass discharge riser during a frequent and periodic idling of more than 20 days. An excessive accumulation can produce robust layers a few centimeters thick, which may clog the riser, preventing molten glass from being poured into canisters. Since the accumulation rate is driven by the size of particles we investigated with x-ray microtomography, scanning electron microscopy, and image analysis the impact of spinel forming components, noble metals, and alumina on the size, concentration, and spatial distribution of particles, and on the accumulation rate. Increased concentrations of Fe and Ni in the baseline glass resulted in the formation of large agglomerates that grew over the time to an average size of ∼185+-155 μm, and produced >3 mm thick layer after 120 h at 850 deg C. The noble metals decreased the particle size, and therefore significantly slowed down the accumulation rate. Addition of alumina resulted in the formation of a network of spinel dendrites which prevented accumulation of particles into compact layers

  11. Optimal harvesting of fish stocks under a time-varying discount rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Stephen; Hepburn, Cameron; Papachristodoulou, Antonis

    2011-01-21

    Optimal control theory has been extensively used to determine the optimal harvesting policy for renewable resources such as fish stocks. In such optimisations, it is common to maximise the discounted utility of harvesting over time, employing a constant time discount rate. However, evidence from human and animal behaviour suggests that we have evolved to employ discount rates which fall over time, often referred to as "hyperbolic discounting". This increases the weight on benefits in the distant future, which may appear to provide greater protection of resources for future generations, but also creates challenges of time-inconsistent plans. This paper examines harvesting plans when the discount rate declines over time. With a declining discount rate, the planner reduces stock levels in the early stages (when the discount rate is high) and intends to compensate by allowing the stock level to recover later (when the discount rate will be lower). Such a plan may be feasible and optimal, provided that the planner remains committed throughout. However, in practice there is a danger that such plans will be re-optimized and adjusted in the future. It is shown that repeatedly restarting the optimization can drive the stock level down to the point where the optimal policy is to harvest the stock to extinction. In short, a key contribution of this paper is to identify the surprising severity of the consequences flowing from incorporating a rather trivial, and widely prevalent, "non-rational" aspect of human behaviour into renewable resource management models. These ideas are related to the collapse of the Peruvian anchovy fishery in the 1970's. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steve

    2011-01-01

    , should show little or no preference when choosing mating partners (e.g. should mate indiscriminately). To determine if the preferences indicated by copulations appear in other contexts as well as how they interact, we examined how male chimpanzees' grooming patterns varied amongst females. We found...... that males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous...... females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility...

  13. Pulse pile-up in nuclear particle detection systems with rapidly varying counting rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datlowe, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    Pulse pile-up in nuclear particle detection systems is the distortion of the measured pulse height distribution which occurs when there is a significant probability that more than one particle will arrive within the detector resolving time. This paper treats the problem in cases where the probability of pile-up varies on a time scale comparable to the rise time of the detector system electronics. These variations introduce structure into the pulse height distributions which cannot occur for a time-independent pile-up probability. Three classes of problems which exemplify these effects are as follows: 1) Pile-up rejection circuits. 2) Cascaded nuclear decays, in which the lifetime for emission of a second X-ray is comparable to the detector rise time. 3) Bursts of particles where the intensity is modulated on a time scale comparable to the detector rise time. These problems are solved computationally by an extension of a numerical technique previously developed. (Auth.)

  14. Analyzing the term structure of interest rates using the dynamic Nelson-Siegel model with time-varying parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, S.J.; Mallee, M.I.P.; van der Wel, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we introduce time-varying parameters in the dynamic Nelson-Siegel yield curve model for the simultaneous analysis and forecasting of interest rates of different maturities. The Nelson-Siegel model has been recently reformulated as a dynamic factor model with vector autoregressive

  15. Morphological Evolution of Gyroid-Forming Block Copolymer Thin Films with Varying Solvent Evaporation Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Hsiu; Lo, Ting-Ya; She, Ming-Shiuan; Ho, Rong-Ming

    2015-08-05

    In this study, we aim to examine the morphological evolution of block copolymer (BCP) nanostructured thin films through solvent evaporation at different rates for solvent swollen polystyrene-block-poly(l-lactide) (PS-PLLA). Interesting phase transitions from disorder to perpendicular cylinder and then gyroid can be found while using a partially selective solvent for PS to swell PS-PLLA thin film followed by solvent evaporation. During the transitions, gyroid-forming BCP thin film with characteristic crystallographic planes of (111)G, (110)G, and (211)G parallel to air surface can be observed, and will gradually transform into coexisting (110)G and (211)G planes, and finally transforms to (211)G plane due to the preferential segregation of constituted block to the surface (i.e., the thermodynamic origin for self-assembly) that affects the relative amount of each component at the air surface. With the decrease on the evaporation rate, the disorder phase will transform to parallel cylinder and then directly to (211)G without transition to perpendicular cylinder phase. Most importantly, the morphological evolution of PS-PLLA thin films is strongly dependent upon the solvent removal rate only in the initial stage of the evaporation process due to the anisotropy of cylinder structure. Once the morphology is transformed back to the isotropic gyroid structure after long evaporation, the morphological evolution will only relate to the variation of the surface composition. Similar phase transitions at the substrate can also be obtained by controlling the ratio of PLLA-OH to PS-OH homopolymers to functionalize the substrate. As a result, the fabrication of well-defined nanostructured thin films with controlled orientation can be achieved by simple swelling and deswelling with controlled evaporation rate.

  16. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2011-10-01

    Copulation preferences in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, suggest that males prefer older females who have had previous offspring. However, this finding is counter to some behavioral models, which predict that chimpanzee males, as promiscuous breeders with minimal costs to mating, should show little or no preference when choosing mating partners (e.g. should mate indiscriminately). To determine if the preferences indicated by copulations appear in other contexts as well as how they interact, we examined how male chimpanzees' grooming patterns varied amongst females. We found that males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility, possibly indicating a two-pronged social investment strategy. Male selectivity seems to have evolved to effectively distribute costly social resources in a pattern which may increase their overall reproductive success. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Effects of Biosolids at Varying Rates on Earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Springtails (Folsomia candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Artuso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Land spreading is a major option internationally for the disposal/use of treated sewage sludge (biosolids, but effects of this practice on soil organisms are largely unknown. This study investigated the effects of biosolids on two soil invertebrate species, earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Collembola (Folsomia candida, in laboratory tests. Five biosolids from different sewage works were assessed at rates equivalent to 0, 2, 5, 10, and 20 t ha−1. Biosolids applied at 2 and 5 t ha−1 did not cause mortality of adult earthworms but did at 10 and 20 t ha−1. At 5, 10 and 20 t ha−1, all biosolids had significantly fewer juvenile worms relative to controls. Increasing the rates from 2 to 10 t ha−1 did not impact on the number of adult Collembola, but at 20 t ha−1 there were significantly fewer adults. There were significantly fewer juvenile Collembola recorded for biosolids applied at the 2 t ha−1 when compared with controls, and also when biosolids were applied at 5, 10, and 20 t ha−1 relative to 2 t ha−1. Some significant difference between biosolids were observed, but generally, negative effects were not related to heavy metal concentrations in biosolids. It is recommended that possible detrimental mechanisms (e.g., ammonia production, lack of oxygen be investigated in future work. It is concluded that biosolids, applied at legal, low rates (about 2 t ha−1 are unlikely to be detrimental to earthworms or adult Collembola but can be detrimental to Collembola reproduction.

  18. Varying Definitions for Periprocedural Myocardial Infarction Alter Event Rates and Prognostic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Hanan; Lo, Sidney; Shugman, Ibrahim M.; Saad, Yousef; Hopkins, Andrew P.; Mussap, Christian; Leung, Dominic; Thomas, Liza; Juergens, Craig P.; French, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) has had several definitions in the last decade, including the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI) definition, that requires marked biomarker elevations congruent with surgical PMI criteria. Methods and Results The aim of this study was to examine the definition‐based frequencies of PMI and whether they influenced the reported association between PMI and increased rates of late death/ myocardial infarction (MI). We studied 742 patients; 492 (66%) had normal troponin T (TnT) levels and 250 (34%) had elevated, but stable or falling, TnT levels. PMI, using the 2007 and the 2012 universal definition, occurred in 172 (23.2%) and in 99 (13.3%) patients, respectively, whereas 19 (2.6%) met the SCAI PMI definition (PPMI using the 2012 definition, occlusion of a side branch ≤1 mm occurred in 48 patients (48.5%) and was the most common angiographic finding for PMI. The rates of death/MI at 2 years in patients with, compared to those without, PMI was 14.7% versus 10.1% (P=0.087) based on the 2007 definition, 16.9% versus 10.3% (P=0.059) based on the 2012 definition, and 29.4% versus 10.7% (P=0.015) based on the SCAI definition. Conclusion In this study, PMI, according to the SCAI definition, was associated with more‐frequent late death/MI, with ≈20% of all patients, who had PMI using the 2007 universal MI definition, not having SCAI‐defined PMI. Categorizing these latter patients as SCAI‐defined no PMI did not alter the rate of death/MI among no‐PMI patients. PMID:25359403

  19. Irradiation embrittlement of some 15Kh2MFA pressure vessel steels under varying neutron fluence rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valo, M; Bars, B [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Ahlstrand, A [Imatran Voima Oy (IVO), Helsinki (Finland)

    1994-12-31

    Irradiation sensitivity of two forging materials was measured with Charpy-V and fracture mechanic tests, and with different fluence, fluence rate and irradiation time values. Irradiation sensitivity of the materials was found to be less or equal to the current Russian standard, and appears to be well described by the fluence parameter only. A slight additional effect on embrittlement from a long term low fluence irradiation is noticed, but it stays within the total scatter band of data. 7 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Essential oil and composition of anise (pimpinella anisum l.) with varying seed rates and row spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, H.

    2014-01-01

    Two year study was carried out to explore the effect of seed rate and row spacing on the fruit yield, essential oil yield and composition of aniseed. The study factors included seed rate (6 g, 12 g, 24 g/10 m2) and row spacing (15 cm, 25 cm, 37.5 cm. A significantly higher fruit yield was produced at narrow row spacing of 15 cm among treatments. Wider row spacing produced markedly higher essential oil than narrow row spacing. Essential oil accumulation decreased as planting densities increased. The major constituent of anise oil was trans-anethole (82.1%) followed by himachalene (7.0%). The quality parameters including estragol, himachalene and trans-anethole were significantly affected by different row spacing. Plant grown at 37.5 cm row spacing accumulated the highest estragol and trans-anethole concentration among the row spacing treatments. It can be concluded that higher plant density and wider row spacing increased the disease infestation and lodging cultivar Enza Zaden in current study exhibited high concentration trans-anethole in essential oil composition therefore is a good quality chemotype. (author)

  1. ESCLOUD: A computer program to calculate the air concentration, deposition rate and external dose rate from a continuous discharge of radioactive material to atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.A.

    1980-03-01

    Radioactive material may be discharged to atmosphere in small quantities during the normal operation of a nuclear installation as part of a considered waste management practice. Estimates of the individual and collective dose equivalent rates resulting from such a discharge are required in a number of contexts: for example, in assessing compliance with dose limits, in estimating the radiological impact of the discharge and as an input into optimisation studies. The suite of programs which has been developed to undertake such calculations is made up of a number of independent modules one of which, ESCLOUD, is described in this report. The ESCLOUD program evaluates, as a function of distance and direction from the release point, the air concentration, deposition rate and external β and γ doses from airborne and deposited activity. The air concentration and deposition rate can be used as input to other modules for calculating inhalation and ingestion doses. (author)

  2. Pharmaceutical removal in tropical subsurface flow constructed wetlands at varying hydraulic loading rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong Qing; Gersberg, Richard M; Hua, Tao; Zhu, Junfei; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Tan, Soon Keat

    2012-04-01

    Determining the fate of emerging organic contaminants in an aquatic ecosystem is important for developing constructed wetlands (CWs) treatment technology. Experiments were carried out in subsurface flow CWs in Singapore to evaluate the fate and transport of eight pharmaceutical compounds. The CW system included three parallel horizontal subsurface flow CWs and three parallel unplanted beds fed continuously with synthetic wastewater at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The findings of the tests at 2-6 d HRTs showed that the pharmaceuticals could be categorized as (i) efficiently removed compounds with removal higher than 85% (ketoprofen and salicylic acid); (ii) moderately removed compounds with removal efficiencies between 50% and 85% (naproxen, ibuprofen and caffeine); and (iii) poorly removed compounds with efficiency rate lower than 50% (carbamazepine, diclofenac, and clofibric acid). Except for carbamazepine and salicylic acid, removal efficiencies of the selected pharmaceuticals showed significant (pcaffeine, ketoprofen and clofibric acid were found to follow first order decay kinetics with decay constants higher in the planted beds than the unplanted beds. Correlations between pharmaceutical removal efficiencies and log K(ow) were not significant (p>0.05), implying that their removal is not well related to the compound's hydrophobicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High rate behavior and discharge limits in micro-pattern detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bressan, A; Pagano, P; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Biagi, S F; Buzulutskov, A F; Gruwé, M; De Lentdecker, G; Mörmann, D; Sharma, A

    1999-01-01

    We present and discuss a set of systematic measurements, carried out with gaseous proportional micro-pattern detectors, in order to assess their maximum gain when irradiated with high-rate soft X-rays and heavily ionizing alpha particles. The inventory of detectors tested includes: micro-strip micromegas, micro-dot, gas electron multiplier, CAT (compteur à trous), trench (or groove), micro-CAT (or WELL) detectors, as well as systems with two elements of gaseous amplification in cascade. We confirm the general trend of all single-stage detectors to follow Raether's criterion, i.e. a spontaneous transition from avalanche to streamer, followed by a discharge, when the avalanche size reaches a value of a few 10 7 ; a noticeable exception is the micro-dot counter holding more than 10 8. In multiple structures, where the gain under irradiation is increased by at least one order of magnitude; we speculate this to be a consequence of a voltage dependence of Raether's limit, larger for low operating potentials. Our c...

  4. High rate behavior and discharge limits in micro-pattern detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressan, A.; Hoch, M.; Pagano, P.; Ropelewski, L.; Sauli, F.; Biagi, S.; Buzulutskov, A.; Gruwe, M.; De Lentdecker, G.; Moermann, D.; Sharma, A.

    1999-01-01

    We present and discuss a set of systematic measurements, carried out with gaseous proportional micro-pattern detectors, in order to assess their maximum gain when irradiated with high-rate soft X-rays and heavily ionizing alpha particles. The inventory of detectors tested includes: micro-strips, micromegas, micro-dot, gas electron multiplier, CAT (compteur a trous), trench (or groove), micro-CAT (or WELL) detectors, as well as systems with two elements of gaseous amplification in cascade. We confirm the general trend of all single-stage detectors to follow Raether's criterion, i.e. a spontaneous transition from avalanche to streamer, followed by a discharge, when the avalanche size reaches a value of a few 10 7 ; a noticeable exception is the micro-dot counter holding more than 10 8 . In multiple structures, where the gain is shared between two devices in cascade, the maximum overall gain under irradiation is increased by at least one order of magnitude; we speculate this to be a consequence of a voltage dependence of Raether's limit, larger for low operating potentials. Our conclusion is that only multiple devices can guarantee a sufficient margin of reliability for operation in harsh LHC running conditions

  5. Angina - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest pain - discharge; Stable angina - discharge; Chronic angina - discharge; Variant angina - discharge; Angina pectoris - discharge; Accelerating angina - discharge; New-onset angina - discharge; Angina-unstable - discharge; ...

  6. What causes EBRI retirement readiness ratings to vary: results from the 2014 Retirement Security Projection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerhei, Jack

    2014-02-01

    RETIREMENT INCOME ADEQUACY IMPROVED SLIGHTLY IN 2013: Due to the increase in financial market and housing values during 2013, the probability that Baby Boomers and Generation Xers would NOT run short of money in retirement increases between 0.5 and 1.6 percentage points, based on the Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) Retirement Readiness Ratings (RRRs). ELIGIBILITY FOR PARTICIPATION IN AN EMPLOYER-SPONSORED DEFINED CONTRIBUTION PLAN REMAINS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTORS FOR RETIREMENT INCOME ADEQUACY: RRR values double for Gen Xers in the lowest-income quartile when comparing those with 20 or more years of future eligibility with those with no years of future eligibility, while those in the middle income quartiles experience increases in RRR values by 27.1-30.3 percentage points. FUTURE SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS MAKE A HUGE DIFFERENCE FOR THE RETIREMENT INCOME ADEQUACY OF SOME HOUSEHOLDS, ESPECIALLY GEN XERS IN THE LOWEST-INCOME QUARTILE: If Social Security benefits are subject to proportionate decreases beginning in 2033 (according to the values in Figure 8), the RRR values for those households will drop by more than 50 percent: from 20.9 percent to 10.3 percent. LONGEVITY RISK AND STOCHASTIC HEALTH CARE RISK ARE ASSOCIATED WITH HUGE VARIATIONS IN RETIREMENT INCOME ADEQUACY: For both of these factors, a comparison between the most "risky" quartile with the least risky quartile shows a spread of approximately 30 percentage points for the lowest income range, approximately 25 to 40 percentage points for the highest income range, and even larger spreads for those in the middle income ranges. A GREAT DEAL OF THE VARIABILITY IN RETIREMENT INCOME ADEQUACY COULD BE MITIGATED BY APPROPRIATE RISK-MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES AT OR NEAR RETIREMENT AGE: For example, the annuitization of a portion of the defined contribution and IRA balances may substantially increase the probability of not running short of money in retirement. Moreover, a well-functioning market in long

  7. Response surface modelling of tool electrode wear rate and material removal rate in micro electrical discharge machining of Inconel 718

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puthumana, Govindan

    2017-01-01

    conductivity and high strength causing it extremely difficult tomachine. Micro-Electrical Discharge Machining (Micro-EDM) is a non-conventional method that has a potential toovercome these restrictions for machining of Inconel 718. Response Surface Method (RSM) was used for modelling thetool Electrode Wear...

  8. Rates of fuel discharge as affected by the design of fuel-injection systems for internal-combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelalles, A G; Marsh, E T

    1933-01-01

    Using the method of weighing fuel collected in a receiver during a definite interval of the injection period, rates of discharge were determined, and the effects noted, when various changes were made in a fuel-injection system. The injection system consisted primarily of a by-pass controlled fuel pump and an automatic injection valve. The variables of the system studied were the pump speed, pump-throttle setting, discharge-orifice diameter, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, and injection-tube length and diameter.

  9. High rates of relapse in adolescents crack users after inpatient clinic discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeri Siqueira Pedroso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The objective of the present study was to evaluate 88 adolescent crack users referred to hospitalization and to follow them up after discharge to investigate relapse and factors associated with treatment. Methods Cohort (30 and 90 days after discharge from a psychiatric hospital and a rehab clinic for treatment for chemical dependency in Porto Alegre between 2011 and 2012. Instruments: Semi-structured interview, conducted to evaluate the sociodemographic profile of the sample and describe the pattern of psychoactive substance use; Crack Use Relapse Scale/CURS; Questionnaire Tracking Users to Crack/QTUC; K-SADS-PL. Results In the first follow-up period (30 days after discharge, 65.9% of participants had relapsed. In the second follow-up period (90 days after discharge, 86.4% of participants had relapsed. Conclusion This is one of the first studies that show the extremely high prevalence of early relapse in adolescent crack users after discharge, questioning the cost/benefit of inpatient treatment for this population. Moreover, these results corroborate studies which suggested, young psychostimulants users might need tailored intensive outpatient treatment with contingency management and other behavioral strategies, in order to increase compliance and reduce drug or crime relapse, but this specific therapeutic modality is still scarce and must be developed in Brazil.

  10. In situ visualization of Li/Ag2VP2O8 batteries revealing rate-dependent discharge mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshenbaum, Kevin; Bock, David C.; Lee, Chia-Ying; Zhong, Zhong; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    2015-01-01

    The functional capacity of a battery is observed to decrease, often quite dramatically, as discharge rate demands increase. These capacity losses have been attributed to limited ion access and low electrical conductivity, resulting in incomplete electrode use. A strategy to improve electronic conductivity is the design of bimetallic materials that generate a silver matrix in situ during cathode reduction. Ex situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with in situ energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction measurements on intact lithium/silver vanadium diphosphate (Li/Ag2VP2O8) electrochemical cells demonstrate that the metal center preferentially reduced and its location in the bimetallic cathode are rate-dependent, affecting cell impedance. This work illustrates that spatial imaging as a function of discharge rate can provide needed insights toward improving realizable capacity of bimetallic cathode systems.

  11. An Ecological Study on the Spatially Varying Relationship between County-Level Suicide Rates and Altitude in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoehun Ha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a serious but preventable public health issue. Several previous studies have revealed a positive association between altitude and suicide rates at the county level in the contiguous United States. We assessed the association between suicide rates and altitude using a cross-county ecological study design. Data on suicide rates were obtained from a Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS, maintained by the U.S. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC. Altitude data were collected from the United States Geological Survey (USGS. We employed an ordinary least square (OLS regression to model the association between altitude and suicide rates in 3064 counties in the contiguous U.S. We conducted a geographically weighted regression (GWR to examine the spatially varying relationship between suicide rates and altitude after controlling for several well-established covariates. A significant positive association between altitude and suicide rates (average county rates between 2008 and 2014 was found in the dataset in the OLS model (R2 = 0.483, p < 0.001. Our GWR model fitted the data better, as indicated by an improved R2 (average: 0.62; range: 0.21–0.64 and a lower Akaike Information Criteria (AIC value (13,593.68 vs. 14,432.14 in the OLS model. The GWR model also significantly reduced the spatial autocorrelation, as indicated by Moran’s I test statistic (Moran’s I = 0.171; z = 33.656; p < 0.001 vs. Moran’s I = 0.323; z = 63.526; p < 0.001 in the OLS model. In addition, a stronger positive relationship was detected in areas of the northern regions, northern plain regions, and southeastern regions in the U.S. Our study confirmed a varying overall positive relationship between altitude and suicide. Future research may consider controlling more predictor variables in regression models, such as firearm ownership, religion, and access to mental health services.

  12. Towards Stable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with a Low Self-Discharge Rate: Ion Diffusion Modulation and Anode Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen-Tao; Peng, Hong-Jie; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhao, Chen-Zi; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-09-07

    The self-discharge of a lithium-sulfur cell decreases the shelf-life of the battery and is one of the bottlenecks that hinders its practical applications. New insights into both the internal chemical reactions in a lithium-sulfur system and effective routes to retard self-discharge for highly stable batteries are crucial for the design of lithium-sulfur cells. Herein, a lithium-sulfur cell with a carbon nanotube/sulfur cathode and lithium-metal anode in lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide/1,3-dioxolane/dimethyl ether electrolyte was selected as the model system to investigate the self-discharge behavior. Both lithium anode passivation and polysulfide anion diffusion suppression strategies are applied to reduce self-discharge of the lithium-sulfur cell. When the lithium-metal anode is protected by a high density passivation layer induced by LiNO3 , a very low shuttle constant of 0.017 h(-1) is achieved. The diffusion of the polysulfides is retarded by an ion-selective separator, and the shuttle constants decreased. The cell with LiNO3 additive maintained a discharge capacity of 97 % (961 mAh g(-1) ) of the initial capacity after 120 days at open circuit, which was around three times higher than the routine cell (32 % of initial capacity, corresponding to 320 mAh g(-1) ). It is expected that lithium-sulfur batteries with ultralow self-discharge rates may be fabricated through a combination of anode passivation and polysulfide shuttle control, as well as optimization of the lithium-sulfur cell configuration. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A Dynamic Consensus Algorithm to Adjust Virtual Impedance Loops for Discharge Rate Balancing of AC Microgrid Energy Storage Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Yajuan; Meng, Lexuan; Li, Chendan

    2018-01-01

    A dynamic consensus algorithm (DCA)-based coordinated secondary control with an autonomous current-sharing control strategy is proposed in this paper for balancing the discharge rate of energy storage systems (ESSs) in an islanded AC microgrid. The DCA is applied for information sharing between......, the proposed approach can provide higher system reliability, expandability, and flexibility due to its distributed control architecture. The proposed controller can effectively prevent operation failure caused by over-current and unintentional outage of DGs by means of balanced discharge rate control. It can...... also provide fast response and accurate current sharing performance. A generalizable linearized state-space model for n-DG network in the z-domain is also derived and proposed in this paper; the model includes electrical, controller, and communication parts. The system stability and parameter...

  14. Improved high-rate charge/discharge performances of LiFePO{sub 4}/C via V-doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, C.S.; Zhou, Z.; Xu, Z.G.; Wang, D.G.; Wei, J.P.; Bian, X.K.; Yan, J. [Institute of New Energy Material Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2009-09-05

    V-doped LiFePO{sub 4}/C cathode materials were prepared through a carbothermal reduction route. The microstructure was characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical Li{sup +} intercalation performances of V-doped LiFePO{sub 4}/C were compared with those of undoped one through galvanostatic intermittent titration technique, cyclic voltamperometry, and electrochemical impedance spectrum. V-doped LiFePO{sub 4}/C showed a high discharge capacity of {proportional_to}70 mAh g{sup -1} at the rate of 20 C (3400 mA g{sup -1}) at room temperature. The significantly improved high-rate charge/discharge capacity is attributed to the increase of Li{sup +} ion ''effective'' diffusion capability. (author)

  15. A rate-equation model for polarized laser-induced fluorescence to measure electric field in glow discharge He plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takiyama, K.; Watanabe, M.; Oda, T.

    1998-01-01

    Possibility of applying polarized laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy for measuring the electric field in a plasma with a large collisional depolarization has been investigated. A rate equation model including the depolarization process was employed to analyze the time evolution of LIF polarization components. The polarized LIF pulse shapes observed in the sheath of a He glow discharge plasma were successfully reproduced, and the electric field distribution was obtained with high accuracy. (author)

  16. Influence of duration and rate of pulse rise of the applied voltage on ozone concentration in the barrier glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnyj, V.V.; Klosovski, A.V.; Knysh, A.S.; Shvets, O.M.; Taran, V.S.; Tereshin, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    The barrier glow discharge between two planar electrodes, covered with dielectric, is studied under high-voltage pulsed power supply. Wide applications of such type of discharges, in particular, for ozone production, stimulated a number of investigations in this direction. In this work we investigated the dependence of ozone concentration on the duration and the rate of pulse rise of the applied voltage. The thyristor converter circuit with the shortening of input pulses on the base of the saturable throttle was used for the realization of this task. The output pulses with amplitude up to 15 kV, repetition frequency of 1 kHz, pulse duration of 0.3 μs (or 7 μs) and the rate of pulse rise of 0.1 μs were generated with this scheme. Measurements of the ozone concentration produced in the air mixture have shown that its value increased by factor two with variation of the rate of pulse rise from 0.5 μs to 0.1 μs (for pulse duration of 7 μs). The dependence of the ozone concentration on the variation of air mixture pressure in the discharge gap of reactor was investigated also. It was shown proportional increase of the output concentration of ozone with increasing the pressure value. Spectroscopic measurements carried out in the ultraviolet spectrum made it possible to analyze changing the concentration of ozone and nitric components. (author)

  17. Probability-based classifications for spatially characterizing the water temperatures and discharge rates of hot springs in the Tatun Volcanic Region, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2015-05-01

    Accurately classifying the spatial features of the water temperatures and discharge rates of hot springs is crucial for environmental resources use and management. This study spatially characterized classifications of the water temperatures and discharge rates of hot springs in the Tatun Volcanic Region of Northern Taiwan by using indicator kriging (IK). The water temperatures and discharge rates of the springs were first assigned to high, moderate, and low categories according to the two thresholds of the proposed spring classification criteria. IK was then used to model the occurrence probabilities of the water temperatures and discharge rates of the springs and probabilistically determine their categories. Finally, nine combinations were acquired from the probability-based classifications for the spatial features of the water temperatures and discharge rates of the springs. Moreover, various combinations of spring water features were examined according to seven subzones of spring use in the study region. The research results reveal that probability-based classifications using IK provide practicable insights related to propagating the uncertainty of classifications according to the spatial features of the water temperatures and discharge rates of the springs. The springs in the Beitou (BT), Xingyi Road (XYR), Zhongshanlou (ZSL), and Lengshuikeng (LSK) subzones are suitable for supplying tourism hotels with a sufficient quantity of spring water because they have high or moderate discharge rates. Furthermore, natural hot springs in riverbeds and valleys should be developed in the Dingbeitou (DBT), ZSL, Xiayoukeng (XYK), and Macao (MC) subzones because of low discharge rates and low or moderate water temperatures.

  18. Benthic Uptake Rate due to Hyporheic Exchange: The Effects of Streambed Morphology for Constant and Sinusoidally Varying Nutrient Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Tonina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyporheic exchange carries reactive solutes, which may include biological oxygen demand (BOD, dissolved oxygen (DO and reactive dissolved inorganic nitrogen (Nr, into the sediment, where biochemical reactions consume DO. Here, we study the impact of streambed morphology, stream-reactive solute loads and their diel oscillations on the DO benthic uptake rate (BUR due to hyporheic processes. Our model solves the hyporheic flow field and the solute transport equations analytically, within a Lagrangian framework, considering advection, longitudinal diffusion and reactions modeled as first order kinetics. The application of the model to DO field measurements over a gravel bar-pool sequence shows a good match with measured DO concentrations with an overall agreement of 58% and a kappa index of 0.46. We apply the model to investigate the effects of daily constant and sinusoidally time varying stream BOD, DO and Nr loads and of the morphodynamic parameters on BUR. Our modeling results show that BUR varies as a function of bedform size and of nutrient loads and that the hyporheic zone may consume up to 0.06% of the stream DO at the pool-riffle bedform scale. Daily oscillations of stream BOD and DO loads have small effects on BUR, but may have an important influence on local hyporheic processes and organisms’ distribution.

  19. Effects of varying the longitudinal dispersion and no drip cask rate failures upon Yucca Mountain site performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterle, Bret

    2001-01-01

    Proposed changes in the regulatory time limits used for viability assessments of the proposed national high-level radioactive waste repository in Yucca Mountain, Nevada from 10,000 years to 100,000 or even 1,000,000 years call into question both the modelling techniques used to represent the repository's long-term performance, and our ability to extrapolate technological, climatological and geological phenomenon. Using a high-powered risk-assessment software program called Goldsim that a simplified total system performance assessment (STSPA) was designed for, the effects of varying the performance parameters of two barrier systems, one natural and one man-made, upon the total system performance were observed. The conclusion reached by varying these two parameters is that for a regulatory guideline of 10,000 years, there is no noticeable effect on the total system performance, but at 300,000 years, it appears that the effect of reducing the longitudinal dispersion rate (a natural barrier) by one order of magnitude produced an astronomically high receptor dose, indicating that as predicted, our abilities to model situations beyond our ability to accurately extrapolate current scientific research is futile. (author)

  20. Effects of varying the longitudinal dispersion and no drip cask rate failures upon Yucca Mountain site performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterle, Bret

    2001-07-01

    Proposed changes in the regulatory time limits used for viability assessments of the proposed national high-level radioactive waste repository in Yucca Mountain, Nevada from 10,000 years to 100,000 or even 1,000,000 years call into question both the modelling techniques used to represent the repository's long-term performance, and our ability to extrapolate technological, climatological and geological phenomenon. Using a high-powered risk-assessment software program called Goldsim that a simplified total system performance assessment (STSPA) was designed for, the effects of varying the performance parameters of two barrier systems, one natural and one man-made, upon the total system performance were observed. The conclusion reached by varying these two parameters is that for a regulatory guideline of 10,000 years, there is no noticeable effect on the total system performance, but at 300,000 years, it appears that the effect of reducing the longitudinal dispersion rate (a natural barrier) by one order of magnitude produced an astronomically high receptor dose, indicating that as predicted, our abilities to model situations beyond our ability to accurately extrapolate current scientific research is futile. (author)

  1. On the use of exchange rates as trading rules in a bilateral system of transferable discharge permits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, F.

    2000-01-01

    The use of a system of transferable discharge permits to control the harmful effects of non-uniformly mixed pollutants requires the application of trading rules in order to prevent permit trading among sources from violating environmental standards. The elements and properties of bilateral trading rules can be analyzed more easily once formulated as exchange rates, which would convert, in a cost-effective way, the emission right potentially given up by the seller into an offsetting emission right acquired by the buyer. In this article, a new expression for such exchange rates is proposed and then analyzed to infer some unexplored properties of the system. 8 refs

  2. Comparison of readmission rates between groups with early versus late discharge after vaginal or cesarean delivery: a retrospective analyzes of 14,460 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanci Ergen, Evrim; Ozkaya, Enis; Eser, Ahmet; Abide Yayla, Cigdem; Kilicci, Cetin; Yenidede, Ilter; Eser, Semra Kayatas; Karateke, Ates

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this retrospective analysis was to show the readmission rate of cases with and without early discharge following vaginal or cesarean delivery. After exclusion of cases with pregnancy, delivery and neonatal complications, a total of 14,460 cases who delivered at Zeynep Kamil Women and Children's Health Training and Research Hospital were retrospectively screened from hospital database. Subjects were divided into two groups as Group 1: early discharge (n = 6802) and Group 2: late discharge (n = 7658). Groups were compared in terms of readmission rates and indications for readmission. There were 6802 cases with early discharge whereas the remaining women were discharged after 24 h for vaginal delivery and 48 h following cesarean delivery on regular bases. Among cases with early discharge, 205 (3%) cases readmitted to emergency service with variable indications, while there were 216 (2.8%) readmitted women who were discharged on regular bases. Most common indication for readmission was wound infection in both groups. Neonatal sex distributions were similar between groups (p > .05), where as there was a higher rate of cesarean deliveries in Group 2 (p discharge (p discharges following vaginal or cesarean delivery without any mortality or permanent morbidity and cost analyses revealed 68 Turkish liras lower cost with early discharge.

  3. Comparison of Technical and Economical Effect of Different Planters using Varied Seed Rates on Canola Yield in Moghan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taghinazhad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the most important agricultural crops is rape seed oil as its special features can play an important role in the agricultural region. Due to the presence of more than 40% oil and 25% protein in the grain can play an important role in the supply of edible oil. After determining of various factors such as uniformity of planting depth, evenness between shrub, plant height and grain yield concluded that Nordsten drill along the seeding density of 75 cm for mechanized planting is acceptable yield. Afzali nia et al. (1999 in one study aimed to assess the performance of common grain drills in Iran in Zarghan area in Fars Province showed that differences between treatments in terms of seed distribution uniformity factor, plant population per unit area and yield product is not significant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and select the most suitable types of canola planter and variable seed rate planting density and aims to increase the canola cultivated area by the highest yield. Materials and Methods Moghan Plain, located in the north areas of Ardebil province, is considered as an important areas of canola planting in Iran. This study was performed in the agricultural research center of Ardabil Province (Moghan (39°39´N; 48°88´E; 78 m a.s.l. in Northwest of Iran. To evaluate different planters with varied seed rates on canola yield. The experimental design was carried out in a randomized complete block design with strip splits (varied seed rates 6, 8 and10 kg per hectare and different drills consist of B1: Barzagar Hamadani drill (conventional method B2: Amazon drill pals teeth harrow, B3: Gaspardo drill pals teeth harrow and B4: Agromaster drill and four replications. To investigatethe different treatments in the experiment, various parameters such as percent germination, seeding uniformity of width and depth intervals, plant establishment, effective field capacity, fuel consumption rate andgrain yield were measured

  4. Analysis of Effects of Cutting Parameters of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining on Material Removal Rate and Surface Integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonday, H. R.; Tigga, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    As wire electrical discharge machining is pioneered as a vigorous, efficient and precise and complex nontraditional machining technique, research is needed in this area for efficient machining. In this paper, the influence of various input factors of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) on output variable has been analyzed by using Taguchi technique and analysis of variance. The design of experiments has been done and by applying L8 orthogonal arrays method and experiments have been conducted and collected required data. The objectives of the research are to maximize the material removal rate and to minimize the surface roughness value (Ra). Surface morphology of machined workpiece has been obtained and examined by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. (paper)

  5. Analysis of Effects of Cutting Parameters of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining on Material Removal Rate and Surface Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonday, H. R.; Tigga, A. M.

    2016-02-01

    As wire electrical discharge machining is pioneered as a vigorous, efficient and precise and complex nontraditional machining technique, research is needed in this area for efficient machining. In this paper, the influence of various input factors of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) on output variable has been analyzed by using Taguchi technique and analysis of variance. The design of experiments has been done and by applying L8 orthogonal arrays method and experiments have been conducted and collected required data. The objectives of the research are to maximize the material removal rate and to minimize the surface roughness value (Ra). Surface morphology of machined workpiece has been obtained and examined by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique.

  6. Effect of Different Silicon Sources on Yield and Silicon Uptake of Rice Grown under Varying Phosphorus Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia B. Agostinho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of pot experiments were conducted to: (1 evaluate the effects of different Si sources (soil- and foliar-applied on grain yield and Si accumulation of rice supplied with varying P rates, and (2 evaluate Si absorption of rice using foliar- and soil-applied Si fertilizers. Three P rates, (0, 112, and 224 kg ha−1 combined with five Si treatments (wollastonite and slag applied at 4.5 ton ha−1 and one foliar Si solution applied at 20, 40 and 80 mg Si L−1 and a check were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The presence of P and Si in the soil created a synergistic effect on soil Al, Mn, and As (P < 0.01, but not on rice growth and P uptake. Wollastonite and slag application were most effective in raising rice Si content than foliar applied Si (P < 0.001. While there was an improvement in biomass (42% and tiller production (25% for rice receiving foliar Si, no supporting evidence was obtained in these experiments to verify leaf surface Si absorption. The application of Si-rich materials to soil still remains the most effective method for enhancing Si uptake by plants.

  7. Effect of Different Silicon Sources on Yield and Silicon Uptake of Rice Grown under Varying Phosphorus Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinho, Flavia B; Tubana, Brenda S; Martins, Murilo S; Datnoff, Lawrence E

    2017-08-29

    A series of pot experiments were conducted to: (1) evaluate the effects of different Si sources (soil- and foliar-applied) on grain yield and Si accumulation of rice supplied with varying P rates, and (2) evaluate Si absorption of rice using foliar- and soil-applied Si fertilizers. Three P rates, (0, 112, and 224 kg ha -1 ) combined with five Si treatments (wollastonite and slag applied at 4.5 ton ha -1 and one foliar Si solution applied at 20, 40 and 80 mg Si L -1 ) and a check were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The presence of P and Si in the soil created a synergistic effect on soil Al, Mn, and As ( P rice growth and P uptake. Wollastonite and slag application were most effective in raising rice Si content than foliar applied Si ( P production (25%) for rice receiving foliar Si, no supporting evidence was obtained in these experiments to verify leaf surface Si absorption. The application of Si-rich materials to soil still remains the most effective method for enhancing Si uptake by plants.

  8. Time-varying surrogate data to assess nonlinearity in nonstationary time series: application to heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faes, Luca; Zhao, He; Chon, Ki H; Nollo, Giandomenico

    2009-03-01

    We propose a method to extend to time-varying (TV) systems the procedure for generating typical surrogate time series, in order to test the presence of nonlinear dynamics in potentially nonstationary signals. The method is based on fitting a TV autoregressive (AR) model to the original series and then regressing the model coefficients with random replacements of the model residuals to generate TV AR surrogate series. The proposed surrogate series were used in combination with a TV sample entropy (SE) discriminating statistic to assess nonlinearity in both simulated and experimental time series, in comparison with traditional time-invariant (TIV) surrogates combined with the TIV SE discriminating statistic. Analysis of simulated time series showed that using TIV surrogates, linear nonstationary time series may be erroneously regarded as nonlinear and weak TV nonlinearities may remain unrevealed, while the use of TV AR surrogates markedly increases the probability of a correct interpretation. Application to short (500 beats) heart rate variability (HRV) time series recorded at rest (R), after head-up tilt (T), and during paced breathing (PB) showed: 1) modifications of the SE statistic that were well interpretable with the known cardiovascular physiology; 2) significant contribution of nonlinear dynamics to HRV in all conditions, with significant increase during PB at 0.2 Hz respiration rate; and 3) a disagreement between TV AR surrogates and TIV surrogates in about a quarter of the series, suggesting that nonstationarity may affect HRV recordings and bias the outcome of the traditional surrogate-based nonlinearity test.

  9. Evaluation of varying ductile fracture criteria for 42CrMo steel by compressions at different temperatures and strain rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Guo-zheng; Luo, Gui-chang; Mao, An; Liang, Jian-ting; Wu, Dong-sen

    2014-01-01

    Fracturing by ductile damage occurs quite naturally in metal forming processes, and ductile fracture of strain-softening alloy, here 42CrMo steel, cannot be evaluated through simple procedures such as tension testing. Under these circumstances, it is very significant and economical to find a way to evaluate the ductile fracture criteria (DFC) and identify the relationships between damage evolution and deformation conditions. Under the guidance of the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criteria, an innovative approach involving hot compression tests, numerical simulations, and mathematic computations provides mutual support to evaluate ductile damage cumulating process and DFC diagram along with deformation conditions, which has not been expounded by Cockcroft and Latham. The results show that the maximum damage value appears in the region of upsetting drum, while the minimal value appears in the middle region. Furthermore, DFC of 42CrMo steel at temperature range of 1123~1348 K and strain rate of 0.01~10 s(-1) are not constant but change in a range of 0.160~0.226; thus, they have been defined as varying ductile fracture criteria (VDFC) and characterized by a function of temperature and strain rate. In bulk forming operations, VDFC help technicians to choose suitable process parameters and avoid the occurrence of fracture.

  10. Evaluation of Varying Ductile Fracture Criteria for 42CrMo Steel by Compressions at Different Temperatures and Strain Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-zheng Quan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fracturing by ductile damage occurs quite naturally in metal forming processes, and ductile fracture of strain-softening alloy, here 42CrMo steel, cannot be evaluated through simple procedures such as tension testing. Under these circumstances, it is very significant and economical to find a way to evaluate the ductile fracture criteria (DFC and identify the relationships between damage evolution and deformation conditions. Under the guidance of the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criteria, an innovative approach involving hot compression tests, numerical simulations, and mathematic computations provides mutual support to evaluate ductile damage cumulating process and DFC diagram along with deformation conditions, which has not been expounded by Cockcroft and Latham. The results show that the maximum damage value appears in the region of upsetting drum, while the minimal value appears in the middle region. Furthermore, DFC of 42CrMo steel at temperature range of 1123~1348 K and strain rate of 0.01~10 s-1 are not constant but change in a range of 0.160~0.226; thus, they have been defined as varying ductile fracture criteria (VDFC and characterized by a function of temperature and strain rate. In bulk forming operations, VDFC help technicians to choose suitable process parameters and avoid the occurrence of fracture.

  11. Sensitivity of CO2 storage performance to varying rates and dynamic injectivity in the Bunter Sandstone, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolster, C.; Mac Dowell, N.; Krevor, S. C.; Agada, S.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is needed for meeting legally binding greenhouse gas emissions targets in the UK (ECCC 2016). Energy systems models have been key to identifying the importance of CCS but they tend to impose few constraints on the availability and use of geologic CO2 storage reservoirs. Our aim is to develop simple models that use dynamic representations of limits on CO2 storage resources. This will allow for a first order representation of the storage reservoir for use in systems models with CCS. We use the ECLIPSE reservoir simulator and a model of the Southern North Sea Bunter Sandstone saline aquifer. We analyse reservoir performance sensitivities to scenarios of varying CO2 injection demand for a future UK low carbon energy market. With 12 injection sites, we compare the impact of injecting at a constant 2MtCO2/year per site and varying this rate by a factor of 1.8 and 0.2 cyclically every 5 and 2.5 years over 50 years of injection. The results show a maximum difference in average reservoir pressure of 3% amongst each case and a similar variation in plume migration extent. This suggests that simplified models can maintain accuracy by using average rates of injection over similar time periods. Meanwhile, by initiating injection at rates limited by pressurization at the wellhead we find that injectivity steadily increases. As a result, dynamic capacity increases. We find that instead of injecting into sites on a need basis, we can strategically inject the CO2 into 6 of the deepest sites increasing injectivity for the first 15 years by 13%. Our results show injectivity as highly dependent on reservoir heterogeneity near the injection site. Injecting 1MTCO2/year into a shallow, low permeability and porosity site instead of into a deep injection site with high permeability and porosity reduces injectivity in the first 5 years by 52%. ECCC. 2016. Future of Carbon Capture and Storage in the UK. UK Parliament House of Commons, Energy and Climate Change

  12. Stress-Induced Impairment of a Working Memory Task: Role of Spiking Rate and Spiking History Predicted Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devilbiss, David M.; Jenison, Rick L.; Berridge, Craig W.

    2012-01-01

    Stress, pervasive in society, contributes to over half of all work place accidents a year and over time can contribute to a variety of psychiatric disorders including depression, schizophrenia, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Stress impairs higher cognitive processes, dependent on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and that involve maintenance and integration of information over extended periods, including working memory and attention. Substantial evidence has demonstrated a relationship between patterns of PFC neuron spiking activity (action-potential discharge) and components of delayed-response tasks used to probe PFC-dependent cognitive function in rats and monkeys. During delay periods of these tasks, persistent spiking activity is posited to be essential for the maintenance of information for working memory and attention. However, the degree to which stress-induced impairment in PFC-dependent cognition involves changes in task-related spiking rates or the ability for PFC neurons to retain information over time remains unknown. In the current study, spiking activity was recorded from the medial PFC of rats performing a delayed-response task of working memory during acute noise stress (93 db). Spike history-predicted discharge (SHPD) for PFC neurons was quantified as a measure of the degree to which ongoing neuronal discharge can be predicted by past spiking activity and reflects the degree to which past information is retained by these neurons over time. We found that PFC neuron discharge is predicted by their past spiking patterns for nearly one second. Acute stress impaired SHPD, selectively during delay intervals of the task, and simultaneously impaired task performance. Despite the reduction in delay-related SHPD, stress increased delay-related spiking rates. These findings suggest that neural codes utilizing SHPD within PFC networks likely reflects an additional important neurophysiological mechanism for maintenance of past information over time. Stress

  13. New pixelized Micromegas detector with low discharge rate for the COMPASS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Neyret, D.; Anfreville, M.; Bedfer, Y.; Burtin, E.; Coquelet, C.; d'Hose, N.; Desforge, D.; Giganon, A.; Jourde, D.; Kunne, F.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Marchand, C.; Paul, B.; Platchkov, S.; Thibaud, F.; Usseglio, M.; Vandenbroucke, M.

    2012-01-01

    New Micromegas (Micro-mesh gaseous detectors) are being developed in view of the future physics projects planned by the COMPASS collaboration at CERN. Several major upgrades compared to present detectors are being studied: detectors standing five times higher luminosity with hadron beams, detection of beam particles (flux up to a few hundred of kHz/mm^{2}, 10 times larger than for the present Micromegas detectors) with pixelized read-out in the central part, light and integrated electronics, and improved robustness. Two solutions of reduction of discharge impact have been studied, with Micromegas detectors using resistive layers and using an additional GEM foil. Performance of such detectors has also been measured. A large size prototypes with nominal active area and pixelized read-out has been produced and installed at COMPASS in 2010. In 2011 prototypes featuring an additional GEM foil, as well as an resistive prototype, are installed at COMPASS and preliminary results from those detectors presented very go...

  14. The magnitude and rate of reduction in strength, dexterity and sensation in the human hand vary with ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Jocelyn L; McNulty, Penelope A

    2013-08-01

    Cutaneous sensation and motor performance of the hand decline with age. It is not known if motor performance declines are influenced by reductions in cutaneous sensation, or if motor performance deteriorates at a consistent rate across motor tasks. Handgrip strength, finger-tapping frequency and grooved-pegboard performance were assessed for both hands of 70 subjects (20-88 years), 10 per decade. Motor declines were compared to reductions in perceptual cutaneous sensation tested at 10 hand sites using calibrated von Frey filaments. Motor performance decreased with age for all motor tasks (psensation also decreased with age, measured as increased von Frey thresholds of 0.04 g [0.02-0.07] to 0.16 g [0.04-0.4] (psensation varied with sex, side-tested and site. Reductions in grip-based tasks were associated with sensory declines in the palm, but elsewhere there was little correlation among motor tasks and cutaneous sensation in the hand. Grooved-pegboard performance was the best predictor of age-related declines in motor performance regardless of sex or side-tested. Our results suggest age-related declines in motor function cannot be inferred from, or provide information about, changes in cutaneous sensation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Frenkel defect absorption on dislocations and dislocation discharge rate. Modeling determination of the absorption zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhlin, Eh.Ya.

    1988-01-01

    A situation connected with the fact that evaluations of dislocation discharge strength which somehow or other are based on the elasticity theory in the dislocation nucleus or near it, do not lead to results complying with experimental data, is discussed. Bases of the alternative approach to this problem consisting in direct investigation into the process of Frenkel defect absorption on dislocation by its computerized simulation at the microscopic level are also presented. Methods of investigation and results are described using α dislocation in iron-alpha as an example. The concept of zones of vacancy and interstitial atom absorption on dislocation is discussed. It is shown that a spontaneous transition, performed by any of these defects near a dislocation is not always identical to absorption and usually appears to be only a part of a multistage process leading to the defect disappearance. Potential relief characteristics for vacancy movement near the dislocation are found. An area wide enough in a transverse direction is found around the dislocation. Vacncies reaching this area can be easily transported to places of their disappearance. Therefore the vacancy entry to this area is equivalent to the absorption. the procedure of simulating the atomic structure of a crystallite containing a dislocation with a step is described. Positions from which these defects perform spontaneous transitions, reaching the disappearance places are found on the dislocation near the step

  16. Analysis of a lithium/thionyl chloride battery under moderate-rate discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Jungst, R.G.; Weidner, J.W.

    1999-11-01

    A one-dimensional mathematical model of a spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery is developed and used for parameter estimation and design studies. The model formulation is based on the fundamental conservation laws using porous electrode theory and concentrated solution theory. The model is used to estimate the transference number, the diffusion coefficient, and the kinetic parameters for the reactions at the anode and the cathode as a function of temperature. These parameters are obtained by fitting the simulated capacity and average cell voltage to experimental data over a wide range of temperatures ({minus}55 to 49 C) and discharge loads (10--250 {Omega}). The experiments were performed on D-sized, cathode-limited, spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride cells. The model is also used to study the effect of cathode thickness on the cell capacity as a function of temperature, and it was found that the optimum thickness for the cathode-limited design is temperature and load dependent.

  17. Study of the ionization rate of the released deuterium in vacuum arc discharges with metal deuteride cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei-Xiang; Long, Ji-Dong; Zheng, Le; Dong, Pan; Li, Chen; Chen, Wei

    2018-02-01

    The ionization rate of the released deuterium from a metal deuteride cathode in vacuum arc discharges is investigated by both experiments and modeling analysis. Experimental results show that the deuterium ionization rate increases from 2% to 30% with the increasing arc current in the range of 2-100 A. Thus the full ionization assumption, as is widely used in arc plasma simulations, is not satisfied for the released deuterium at low discharge current. According to the modeling results, the neutral-to-ion conversion efficiency for the deuterium traveling across the cathodic spot region can be significantly less than one, due to the fast plasma expansion and rarefaction in the vacuum. In addition, the model also reveals that, unlike the metal atoms which are mainly ionized in the sheath region and flow back to the cathode, the deuterium ionization primarily occurs in the quasi-neutral region and moves towards the anode. Consequently, the cathodic sheath layer acts like a filter that increases the deuterium fraction beyond the sheath region.

  18. Pushing the Limits: 3D Layer-by-Layer-Assembled Composites for Cathodes with 160 C Discharge Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Runwei; Tung, Siu On; Lei, Zhengyu; Zhao, Guangyu; Sun, Kening; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2015-05-26

    Deficiencies of cathode materials severely limit cycling performance and discharge rates of Li batteries. The key problem is that cathode materials must combine multiple properties: high lithium ion intercalation capacity, electrical/ionic conductivity, porosity, and mechanical toughness. Some materials revealed promising characteristics in a subset of these properties, but attaining the entire set of often contrarian characteristics requires new methods of materials engineering. In this paper, we report high surface area 3D composite from reduced graphene oxide loaded with LiFePO4 (LFP) nanoparticles made by layer-by-layer assembly (LBL). High electrical conductivity of the LBL composite is combined with high ionic conductivity, toughness, and low impedance. As a result of such materials properties, reversible lithium storage capacity and Coulombic efficiency were as high as 148 mA h g(-1) and 99%, respectively, after 100 cycles at 1 C. Moreover, these composites enabled unusually high reversible charge-discharge rates up to 160 C with a storage capacity of 56 mA h g(-1), exceeding those of known LFP-based cathodes, some of them by several times while retaining high content of active cathode material. The study demonstrates that LBL-assembled composites enable resolution of difficult materials engineering tasks.

  19. Properties and etching rates of negative ions in inductively coupled plasmas and dc discharges produced in Ar/SF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draghici, M.; Stamate, E.

    2010-01-01

    Negative ion production is investigated in a chamber with transversal magnetic filter operated in dc or inductively coupled plasma (ICP) modes in Ar/SF 6 gas mixtures. Plasma parameters are evaluated by mass spectrometry and Langmuir probe for different discharge conditions. The density ratio of negative ion to electron exceeded 300 in dc mode while it was below 100 in the ICP mode. The possibility to apply a large positive bias to an electrode without affecting the plasma potential and the transition from a negative sheath to anodic glow are also investigated. The etching rates by positive and negative ions are evaluated on silicon substrate for different Ar/SF 6 gas ratios. The etching rate by negative ions was with less than 5% smaller than that by positive ions.

  20. Properties and etching rates of negative ions in inductively coupled plasmas and dc discharges produced in Ar/SF6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draghici, Mihai; Stamate, Eugen

    2010-01-01

    of negative ion to electron exceeded 300 in dc mode while it was below 100 in the ICP mode. The possibility to apply a large positive bias to an electrode without affecting the plasma potential and the transition from a negative sheath to anodic glow are also investigated. The etching rates by positive...... and negative ions are evaluated on silicon substrate for different Ar/SF6 gas ratios. The etching rate by negative ions was with less than 5% smaller than that by positive ions.......Negative ion production is investigated in a chamber with transversal magnetic filter operated in dc or inductively coupled plasma (ICP) modes in Ar/SF6 gas mixtures. Plasma parameters are evaluated by mass spectrometry and Langmuir probe for different discharge conditions. The density ratio...

  1. Hydrogen retention studies on lithiated tungsten exposed to glow discharge plasmas under varying lithiation environments using Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, A. de, E-mail: alfonso.decastro@ciemat.es [Fusion National Laboratory-CIEMAT, Av Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Valson, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Wendelsteinstraße 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Tabarés, F.L. [Fusion National Laboratory-CIEMAT, Av Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    For the design of a Fusion Reactor based on a liquid lithium divertor target and a tungsten first wall at high temperature, the interaction of the wall material with plasmas of significant lithium content must be assessed, as issues like fuel retention, tungsten embrittlement and enhanced sputtering may represent a showstopper for the selection of the first wall material compatible with the presence of liquid metal divertor. In this work we address this topic for the first time at the laboratory level, hot W samples (100 °C) have been exposed to Glow Discharges of H{sub 2} or Li-seeded H{sub 2} followed by in situ thermal desorption studies (TDS) of the uptake of H{sub 2} on the samples. Pure and pre-lithiated tungsten was investigated in order to evaluate the differential effect of Li ion implantation on H retention. Global particle balance was also used for the determination of trapped H into the full W wall of the plasma chamber. A factor of 3-4 lower retention was deduced for samples and main W wall exposed to H/Li plasma than that measured on pre-lithiated W.

  2. Performance and emission studies on port injection of hydrogen with varied flow rates with Diesel as an ignition source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravanan, N.; Nagarajan, G.

    2010-01-01

    Automobiles are one of the major sources of air pollution in the environment. In addition CO 2 emission, a product of complete combustion also has become a serious issue due to global warming effect. Hence the search for cleaner alternative fuels has become mandatory. Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future for solving the problems of air pollution and greenhouse gas problems (carbon dioxide), thereby protecting the environment. Hence in the present work, an experimental investigation has been carried out using hydrogen in the dual fuel mode in a Diesel engine system. In the study, a Diesel engine was converted into a dual fuel engine and hydrogen fuel was injected into the intake port while Diesel was injected directly inside the combustion chamber during the compression stroke. Diesel injected inside the combustion chamber will undergo combustion first which in-turn would ignite the hydrogen that will also assist the Diesel combustion. Using electronic control unit (ECU), the injection timings and injection durations were varied for hydrogen injection while for Diesel the injection timing was 23 o crank angle (CA) before injection top dead centre (BITDC). Based on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics, the optimized injection timing was found to be 5 o CA before gas exchange top dead centre (BGTDC) with injection duration of 30 o CA for hydrogen Diesel dual fuel operation. The optimum hydrogen flow rate was found to be 7.5 lpm. Results indicate that the brake thermal efficiency in hydrogen Diesel dual fuel operation increases by 15% compared to Diesel fuel at 75% load. The NO X emissions were higher by 1-2% in dual fuel operation at full load compared to Diesel. Smoke emissions are lower in the entire load spectra due to the absence of carbon in hydrogen fuel. The carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions were lesser in hydrogen Diesel dual fuel operation compared to Diesel. The use of hydrogen

  3. Performance and emission studies on port injection of hydrogen with varied flow rates with Diesel as an ignition source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, N. [ERC Engines, Tata Motors, Pimpri, Pune (India); Nagarajan, G. [Internal Combustion Engineering Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Guindy, Anna University, Chennai (India)

    2010-07-15

    Automobiles are one of the major sources of air pollution in the environment. In addition CO{sub 2} emission, a product of complete combustion also has become a serious issue due to global warming effect. Hence the search for cleaner alternative fuels has become mandatory. Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future for solving the problems of air pollution and greenhouse gas problems (carbon dioxide), thereby protecting the environment. Hence in the present work, an experimental investigation has been carried out using hydrogen in the dual fuel mode in a Diesel engine system. In the study, a Diesel engine was converted into a dual fuel engine and hydrogen fuel was injected into the intake port while Diesel was injected directly inside the combustion chamber during the compression stroke. Diesel injected inside the combustion chamber will undergo combustion first which in-turn would ignite the hydrogen that will also assist the Diesel combustion. Using electronic control unit (ECU), the injection timings and injection durations were varied for hydrogen injection while for Diesel the injection timing was 23 crank angle (CA) before injection top dead centre (BITDC). Based on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics, the optimized injection timing was found to be 5 CA before gas exchange top dead centre (BGTDC) with injection duration of 30 CA for hydrogen Diesel dual fuel operation. The optimum hydrogen flow rate was found to be 7.5 lpm. Results indicate that the brake thermal efficiency in hydrogen Diesel dual fuel operation increases by 15% compared to Diesel fuel at 75% load. The NO{sub X} emissions were higher by 1-2% in dual fuel operation at full load compared to Diesel. Smoke emissions are lower in the entire load spectra due to the absence of carbon in hydrogen fuel. The carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions were lesser in hydrogen Diesel dual fuel operation compared to Diesel. The use of

  4. The effects of varying injection rates in Osage County, Oklahoma, on the 2016 Mw5.8 Pawnee earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Andrew J.; Norbeck, Jack H.; Rubinstein, Justin L.

    2017-01-01

    The 2016 Mw 5.8 Pawnee earthquake occurred in a region with active wastewater injection into a basal formation group. Prior to the earthquake, fluid injection rates at most wells were relatively steady, but newly collected data show significant increases in injection rate in the years leading up to earthquake. For the same time period, the total volumes of injected wastewater were roughly equivalent between variable‐rate and constant‐rate wells. To understand the possible influence of these changes in injection, we simulate the variable‐rate injection history and its constant‐rate equivalent in a layered poroelastic half‐space to explore the interplay between pore‐pressure effects and poroelastic effects on the fault leading up to the mainshock. In both cases, poroelastic stresses contribute a significant proportion of Coulomb failure stresses on the fault compared to pore‐pressure increases alone, but the resulting changes in seismicity rate, calculated using a rate‐and‐state frictional model, are many times larger when poroelastic effects are included, owing to enhanced stressing rates. In particular, the variable‐rate simulation predicts more than an order of magnitude increase in seismicity rate above background rates compared to the constant‐rate simulation with equivalent volume. The observed cumulative density of earthquakes prior to the mainshock within 10 km of the injection source exhibits remarkable agreement with seismicity predicted by the variable‐rate injection case.

  5. Change in muscle fascicle length influences the recruitment and discharge rate of motor units during isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquet, Benjamin; Carpentier, Alain; Duchateau, Jacques

    2005-11-01

    This study examines the effect of fascicle length change on motor-unit recruitment and discharge rate in the human tibialis anterior (TA) during isometric contractions of various intensities. The torque produced during dorsiflexion and the surface and intramuscular electromyograms (EMGs) from the TA were recorded in eight subjects. The behavior of the same motor unit (n = 59) was compared at two ankle joint angles (+10 and -10 degrees around the ankle neutral position). Muscle fascicle length of the TA was measured noninvasively using ultrasonography recordings. When the ankle angle was moved from 10 degrees plantarflexion to 10 degrees dorsiflexion, the torque produced during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was significantly reduced [35.2 +/- 3.3 vs. 44.3 +/- 4.2 (SD) Nm; P Motor units were activated at a lower recruitment threshold for short compared with long muscle fascicle length, either when expressed in absolute values (2.1 +/- 2.5 vs. 3.6 +/- 3.7 Nm; P motor-unit recruitment were observed at a given absolute or relative torque when muscle fascicles were shortened. However, the data indicate that increased rate coding was mainly present at low torque level (recruitment of additional motor units played a dominant role at higher torque level and decreased compliance (10-35% MVC). Taken together, the results suggest that the central command is modulated by the afferent proprioceptive information during submaximal contractions performed at different muscle fascicle lengths.

  6. Prediction of material removal rate and surface roughness for wire electrical discharge machining of nickel using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangam Chinnadurai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on investigating the effects of process parameters, namely, Peak current (Ip, Pulse on time (Ton, Pulse off time (Toff, Water pressure (Wp, Wire feed rate (Wf, Wire tension (Wt, Servo voltage (Sv and Servo feed setting (Sfs, on the Material Removal Rate (MRR and Surface Roughness (SR for Wire electrical discharge machining (Wire-EDM of nickel using Taguchi method. Response Surface Methodology (RSM is adopted to evolve mathematical relationships between the wire cutting process parameters and the output variables of the weld joint to determine the welding input parameters that lead to the desired optimal wire cutting quality. Besides, using response surface plots, the interaction effects of process parameters on the responses are analyzed and discussed. The statistical software Mini-tab is used to establish the design and to obtain the regression equations. The developed mathematical models are tested by analysis-of-variance (ANOVA method to check their appropriateness and suitability. Finally, a comparison is made between measured and calculated results, which are in good agreement. This indicates that the developed models can predict the responses accurately and precisely within the limits of cutting parameter being used.

  7. Prediction of material removal rate and surface roughness for wire electrical discharge machining of nickel using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinnadurai, T.; Vendan, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on investigating the effects of process parameters, namely, Peak current (Ip), Pulse on time (Ton), Pulse off time (Toff), Water pressure (Wp), Wire feed rate (Wf), Wire tension (Wt), Servo voltage (Sv) and Servo feed setting (Sfs), on the Material Removal Rate (MRR) and Surface Roughness (SR) for Wire electrical discharge machining (Wire-EDM) of nickel using Taguchi method. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is adopted to evolve mathematical relationships between the wire cutting process parameters and the output variables of the weld joint to determine the welding input parameters that lead to the desired optimal wire cutting quality. Besides, using response surface plots, the interaction effects of process parameters on the responses are analyzed and discussed. The statistical software Mini-tab is used to establish the design and to obtain the regression equations. The developed mathematical models are tested by analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) method to check their appropriateness and suitability. Finally, a comparison is made between measured and calculated results, which are in good agreement. This indicates that the developed models can predict the responses accurately and precisely within the limits of cutting parameter being used. (Author)

  8. Prediction of material removal rate and surface roughness for wire electrical discharge machining of nickel using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinnadurai, T.; Vendan, S.A.

    2016-07-01

    This study focuses on investigating the effects of process parameters, namely, Peak current (Ip), Pulse on time (Ton), Pulse off time (Toff), Water pressure (Wp), Wire feed rate (Wf), Wire tension (Wt), Servo voltage (Sv) and Servo feed setting (Sfs), on the Material Removal Rate (MRR) and Surface Roughness (SR) for Wire electrical discharge machining (Wire-EDM) of nickel using Taguchi method. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is adopted to evolve mathematical relationships between the wire cutting process parameters and the output variables of the weld joint to determine the welding input parameters that lead to the desired optimal wire cutting quality. Besides, using response surface plots, the interaction effects of process parameters on the responses are analyzed and discussed. The statistical software Mini-tab is used to establish the design and to obtain the regression equations. The developed mathematical models are tested by analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) method to check their appropriateness and suitability. Finally, a comparison is made between measured and calculated results, which are in good agreement. This indicates that the developed models can predict the responses accurately and precisely within the limits of cutting parameter being used. (Author)

  9. Estimated Minimum Discharge Rates of the Deepwater Horizon Spill-Interim Report to the Flow Rate Technical Group from the Mass Balance Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labson, Victor F.; Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, K. Eric; Powers, Michael H.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Meeker, Gregory P.

    2010-01-01

    All of the calculations and results in this report are preliminary and intended for the purpose, and only for the purpose, of aiding the incident team in assessing the extent of the spilled oil for ongoing response efforts. Other applications of this report are not authorized and are not considered valid. Because of time constraints and limitations of data available to the experts, many of their estimates are approximate, are subject to revision, and certainly should not be used as the Federal Government's final values for assessing volume of the spill or its impact to the environment or to coastal communities. Each expert that contributed to this report reserves the right to alter his conclusions based upon further analysis or additional information. An estimated minimum total oil discharge was determined by calculations of oil volumes measured as of May 17, 2010. This included oil on the ocean surface measured with satellite and airborne images and with spectroscopic data (129,000 barrels to 246,000 barrels using less and more aggressive assumptions, respectively), oil skimmed off the surface (23,500 barrels from U.S. Coast Guard [USCG] estimates), oil burned off the surface (11,500 barrels from USCG estimates), dispersed subsea oil (67,000 to 114,000 barrels), and oil evaporated or dissolved (109,000 to 185,000 barrels). Sedimentation (oil captured from Mississippi River silt and deposited on the ocean bottom), biodegradation, and other processes may indicate significant oil volumes beyond our analyses, as will any subsurface volumes such as suspended tar balls or other emulsions that are not included in our estimates. The lower bounds of total measured volumes are estimated to be within the range of 340,000 to 580,000 barrels as of May 17, 2010, for an estimated average minimum discharge rate of 12,500 to 21,500 barrels per day for 27 days from April 20 to May 17, 2010.

  10. Microsatellite frequencies vary with body mass and body temperature in mammals, suggesting correlated variation in mutation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Amos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Substitution rate is often found to correlate with life history traits such as body mass, a predictor of population size and longevity, and body temperature. The underlying mechanism is unclear but most models invoke either natural selection or factors such as generation length that change the number of mutation opportunities per unit time. Here we use published genome sequences from 69 mammals to ask whether life history traits impact another form of genetic mutation, the high rates of predominantly neutral slippage in microsatellites. We find that the length-frequency distributions of three common dinucleotide motifs differ greatly between even closely related species. These frequency differences correlate with body mass and body temperature and can be used to predict the phenotype of an unknown species. Importantly, different length microsatellites show complicated patterns of excess and deficit that cannot be explained by a simple model where species with short generation lengths have experienced more mutations. Instead, the patterns probably require changes in mutation rate that impact alleles of different length to different extents. Body temperature plausibly influences mutation rate by modulating the propensity for slippage. Existing hypotheses struggle to account for a link between body mass and mutation rate. However, body mass correlates inversely with population size, which in turn predicts heterozygosity. We suggest that heterozygote instability, HI, the idea that heterozygous sites show increased mutability, could provide a plausible link between body mass and mutation rate.

  11. Assessment of capacity loss in low-rate lithium/bromine chloride in thionyl chloride cells by microcalorimetry and long-term discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, E. S.; Meyer, S. M.; Holmes, C. F.

    1990-06-01

    Real-time discharge is one of the few reliable methods available for determining capacities of low-rate cells. The utilization of high energy density lithium batteries in low-rate implantable applications has increased the need for more time-efficient methods of predicting cell longevity since cells have been shown to last in excess of eight years. The relationship between heat dissipation and self-discharge of low-rate lithium/BCX (bromine chloride in thionyl chloride) cells was studied and allows prediction of cell life prior to the availability of real-time data. The method was verified by real-time cell discharge data and provided estimates of delivered capacity within 6 percent of the actual values.

  12. Consumption-leisure tradeoffs in pigeons: Effects of changing marginal wage rates by varying amount of reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, L; Kagel, J H; Battalio, R C

    1987-01-01

    Pigeons' rates of responding and food reinforcement under simple random-ratio schedules were compared with those obtained under comparable ratio schedules in which free food deliveries were added, but the duration of each food delivery was halved. These ratio-with-free-food schedules were constructed so that, were the pigeon to maintain the same rate of responding as it had under the simple ratio schedule, total food obtained (earned plus free) would remain unchanged. However, any reduction in responding would reduce total food consumption below that under the simple ratio schedule. These "compensated wage decreases" led to decreases in responding and decreases in food consumption, as predicted by an economic model of labor supply. Moreover, the reductions in responding increased as the ratio value increased (i.e., as wage rates decreased). Pigeons, therefore, substituted leisure for consumption. The relationship between these procedures and negative-income-tax programs is noted.

  13. Fluctuations in isometric muscle force can be described by one linear projection of low-frequency components of motor unit discharge rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Francesco; Holobar, Ales; Farina, Dario

    2009-12-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relation between linear transformations of motor unit discharge rates and muscle force. Intramuscular (wire electrodes) and high-density surface EMG (13 x 5 electrode grid) were recorded from the abductor digiti minimi muscle of eight healthy men during 60 s contractions at 5%, 7.5% and 10% of the maximal force. Spike trains of a total of 222 motor units were identified from the EMG recordings with decomposition algorithms. Principal component analysis of the smoothed motor unit discharge rates indicated that one component (first common component, FCC) described 44.2 +/- 7.5% of the total variability of the smoothed discharge rates when computed over the entire contraction interval and 64.3 +/- 10.2% of the variability when computed over 5 s intervals. When the FCC was computed from four or more motor units per contraction, it correlated with the force produced by the muscle (62.7 +/- 10.1%) by a greater degree (P FCC and the force signal increased up to 71.8 +/- 13.1% when the duration and the shape of the smoothing window for discharge rates were similar to the average motor unit twitch force. Moreover, the coefficients of variation (CoV) for the force and for the FCC signal were correlated in all subjects (R(2) range = 0.14-0.56; P measures on the tibialis anterior muscle of an additional eight subjects during contractions at forces up to 20% of the maximal force (e.g. FCC explained 59.8 +/- 11.0% of variability of the smoothed discharge rates). In conclusion, one signal captures most of the underlying variability of the low-frequency components of motor unit discharge rates and explains large part of the fluctuations in the motor output during isometric contractions.

  14. Mycelial growth rate and toxin production in the seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda: Resource trade-offs and temporally varying selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. E. Meyer; M. Masi; S. Clement; T. L. Davis; J. Beckstead

    2015-01-01

    Pyrenophora semeniperda, an important pathogen in Bromus tectorum seed banks in semi-arid western North America, exhibits >4-fold variation in mycelial growth rate. Host seeds exhibit seasonal changes in dormancy that affect the risk of pathogen-caused mortality. The hypothesis tested is that contrasting seed dormancy phenotypes select for contrasting strategies...

  15. Study on pulsed-discharge devices with high current rising rate for point spot short-wavelength source in dense plasma observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachinami, Fumitaka; Anzai, Nobuyuki; Sasaki, Toru; Kikuchi, Takashi; Harada, Nob.

    2014-01-01

    A pulsed-power generator with high current rise based on a pulse-forming-network was studied toward generating intense point-spot X-ray source. To obtain the high rate of current rise, we have designed the compact discharge device with low circuit inductance. The results indicate that the inductance of the compact discharge device was dominated by a gap switch inductance. To reduce the gap switch inductance and operation voltage, the feasible gap switch inductance in the vacuum chamber has been estimated by the circuit simulation. The gap switch inductance can be reduced by the lower pressure operation. It means that the designed discharge device achieves the rate of current rise of 10 12 A/s

  16. Heart rate at discharge and long-term prognosis following percutaneous coronary intervention in stable and acute coronary syndromes--results from the BASKET PROVE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Kaiser, Christoph; Sandsten, Karl Erik; Alber, Hannes; Wanitschek, Maria; Iversen, Allan; Jensen, Jan Skov; Pedersen, Sune; Soerensen, Rikke; Rickli, Hans; Zurek, Marzena; Fahrni, Gregor; Bertel, Osmund; De Servi, Stefano; Erne, Paul; Pfisterer, Matthias; Galatius, Søren

    2013-10-09

    Elevated heart rate (HR) is associated with mortality in a number of heart diseases. We examined the long-term prognostic significance of HR at discharge in a contemporary population of patients with stable angina (SAP), non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS), and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) revascularized with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients from the BASKET-PROVE trial, an 11-center randomized all-comers trial comparing bare-metal and drug-eluting stenting in large coronary vessels, were included. Discharge HR was determined from a resting ECG. Long-term outcomes (7 days to 2 years) were evaluated for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular death and non-fatal myocardial infarction. A total of 2029 patients with sinus rhythm were included, 722 (35.6%) SAP, 647 (31.9%) NSTE-ACS, and 660 (32.5%) STEMI. Elevated discharge HR was associated significantly with all-cause mortality: when compared to a reference of 90 bpm. For cardiovascular death/myocardial infarction, a discharge HR >90 bpm was associated with a hazard ratio of 6.2 (2.5-15.5, pacute coronary syndromes an elevated discharge HR was independently associated with poor prognosis. Conversely, a HR <60 bpm at discharge was associated with a good long-term prognosis irrespective of indication for PCI. © 2013.

  17. The absorption effect of the Lα-line Supplement to the paper 'On the Correlation Between the Hα-line emission rate and the ablation rate of a hydrogen pellet in tokamak discharges' – Nuclear Fusion 24 (1984) 697

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C. T.; Thomsen, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Several assumptions made in a previous study of the correlation between the Hα-line emission rate and the ablation rate of a hydrogen pellet injected into a tokamak discharge showed that the emission layer of the ablatant as optically thin with respect to all levels of the principal quantum numbe...

  18. Investigation of surface roughness and tool wear length with varying combination of depth of cut and feed rate of Aluminium alloy and P20 steel machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varmma Suparmaniam, Madan; Yusoff, Ahmad Razlan

    2016-01-01

    High-speed milling technique is often used in many industries to boost productivity of the manufacturing of high-technology components. The occurrence of wear highly limits the efficiency and accuracy of high- speed milling operations. In this paper, analysis of high-speed milling process parameters such as material removal rate, cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut carried out by implemented to conventional milling. This experiment investigate the effects of varying combination of depth of cut and feed rate to tool wear rate length using metallurgical microscope and surface roughness using portable surface roughness tester after end milling of Aluminium and P20 steel. Results showed that feed rate significantly influences the surface roughness value while depth of cut does not as the surface roughness value keep increasing with the increase of feed rate and decreasing depth of cut. Whereas, tool wear rate almost remain unchanged indicates that material removal rate strongly contribute the wear rate. It believe that with no significant tool wear rate the results of this experiment are useful by showing that HSM technique is possible to be applied in conventional machine with extra benefits of high productivity, eliminating semi-finishing operation and reducing tool load for finishing. (paper)

  19. Possibility of reconstructing the mechanism and rate constants of elementary processes in the gas-discharge plasma of a rapid-flow laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gontar, V.G.; Pashkin, S.V.; Surguchenko, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The procedure is given for reconstructing the mechanism of elementary processes in the plasma of a gas-discharge laser on the basis of a statistical analysis of the experimental data. The method of writing the initial equations described here permits automation of the procedure for constructing a mathematical model of the discharge. A new iteration procedure for estimating the rate constants of the elementary processes by the method of least squares is proposed which has a wide region of convergence. The proposed methods are analyzed on test problems

  20. Pancreatitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge; Acute pancreatitis - discharge ... You were in the hospital because you have pancreatitis. This is a swelling of the pancreas. You ...

  1. New N2(C 3Πu, v) collision quenching and vibrational relaxation rate constants: 2. PG emission diagnostics of high-pressure discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilecce, G; Ambrico, P F; De Benedictis, S

    2007-01-01

    The present paper deals with the determination of discharge parameters using N 2 (C 3 Π u , v) populations deduced from 2.PG emission spectra, focusing on the influence of N 2 (C 3 Π u , v) collision rate coefficients on these determinations. In particular it is shown that the new set of quenching and vibrational relaxation rate coefficients of N 2 (C 3 Π u , v 0-4) vibronic levels recently measured by optical-optical double resonance laser induced fluorescence (LIF) have a large effect on discharge parameter determination in high-pressure discharges. In the present paper we explore this effect, evidencing the differences with respect to the old data set case, in both simulated and real cases of N 2 (C 3 Π u , v) vibrational distributions measured at high pressure in a dielectric barrier discharge. Finally we point out the improved potentiality of 2.PG spectroscopy as a diagnostic technique: with the new rate coefficients, and measurement of the N 2 (C 3 Π u , v) distribution up to at least v = 3, it is possible to have a quasi-independent evaluation of the electron temperature and of the first level vibrational temperature of the N 2 ground state

  2. Transition rate diagrams — A new approach to the study of selective excitation processes: The spectrum of manganese in a Grimm-type glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Zdeněk; Steers, Edward B.M.; Pickering, Juliet C.; Mushtaq, Sohail

    2014-01-01

    The emission spectra of manganese observed using a Grimm-type glow discharge in pure argon, argon with 0.3% v/v hydrogen and pure neon were studied in order to identify major excitation and ionization processes of manganese in the plasma. A new procedure is proposed, in which each observed emission line is associated with the corresponding transition between different states of the Mn atom or Mn ion, and, by considering all the observed transitions from and into a specific state, a measure of the total rate is determined at which this state is radiatively populated and depopulated. These resulting population/depopulation rates are then plotted as function of level energy. Such plots, called here “transition rate diagrams”, show the role of individual states in the formation of the observed spectrum and can be used to identify possible selective excitation processes. Also, cascade excitation by radiative decay of higher excited states can be conveniently evaluated in this way. A detailed description of the observed Mn I and Mn II spectra is given for Ar, Ar–H 2 and Ne plasmas and relevant excitation/ionization mechanisms are discussed. Matrix effects in analysis of manganese by glow discharge spectroscopy are discussed. A list of important Mn I and Mn II lines excited in the glow discharge plasma is given. - Highlights: • We measured GD-OES spectra of Mn in Ar, Ar(H) and Ne discharges. • We determined transition rate diagrams of Mn I and Mn II in these discharges. • Using those diagrams, we identified major excitation processes involved

  3. LASERS: Parameters of a trigatron-driven low-pulse-repetition-rate TEA CO2 laser preionised by a surface corona discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aram, M.; Behjat, A.; Shabanzadeh, M.; Mansori, F.

    2007-01-01

    The design of a TEA CO2 laser with UV preionisation by a surface corona discharge is described and the dependences of its average output energy on the gas-flow rate, discharge voltage and pulse repetition rate are presented. The scheme of the electric circuit and the geometry of the pre-ionisation system are considered. The electric circuit is designed to produce only impulse voltage difference between the laser electrodes. The triggering system of the trigatron is used to prevent the appearance of the arc. The dependences of the current, voltage and average output energy on the gas-mixture composition and applied voltages at a low pulse repetition rate are presented. The central output wavelength of the laser was measured with an IR spectrometer. Lasing at two adjacent vibrational-rotational transitions of the CO2 molecule was observed, which demonstrates the possibility of simultaneous lasing at several lines.

  4. Parameters of a trigatron-driven low-pulse-repetition-rate TEA CO2 laser preionised by a surface corona discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aram, M; Shabanzadeh, M; Mansori, F; Behjat, A

    2007-01-01

    The design of a TEA CO 2 laser with UV preionisation by a surface corona discharge is described and the dependences of its average output energy on the gas-flow rate, discharge voltage and pulse repetition rate are presented. The scheme of the electric circuit and the geometry of the pre-ionisation system are considered. The electric circuit is designed to produce only impulse voltage difference between the laser electrodes. The triggering system of the trigatron is used to prevent the appearance of the arc. The dependences of the current, voltage and average output energy on the gas-mixture composition and applied voltages at a low pulse repetition rate are presented. The central output wavelength of the laser was measured with an IR spectrometer. Lasing at two adjacent vibrational-rotational transitions of the CO 2 molecule was observed, which demonstrates the possibility of simultaneous lasing at several lines. (lasers)

  5. Heart pacemaker - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiac pacemaker implantation - discharge; Artificial pacemaker - discharge; Permanent pacemaker - discharge; Internal pacemaker - discharge; Cardiac resynchronization therapy - discharge; CRT - discharge; ...

  6. Effect of Non-linear Velocity Loss Changes in Pumping Stage of Hydraulic Ram Pumps on Pumping Discharge Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Fatahialkouhi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The ram pump is a device which pumps a portion of input discharge to the pumping system in a significant height by using renewable energy of water hammer. The complexities of flow hydraulic on one hand and on the other hand the use of simplifying assumptions in ram pumps have caused errors in submitted analytical models for analyzing running cycle of these pumps. In this study it has been tried to modify the governing analytical model on hydraulic performance of these pumps in pumping stage. In this study by creating a logical division, the cycle of the ram pump was divided into three stages of acceleration, pumping and recoil and the governing equations on each stage of cycling are presented by using method of characteristics. Since the closing of impulse valve is nonlinear, velocity loss in pumping stage is considered nonlinearly. Also the governing equations in pumping stage were modified by considering disc elasticity of impulse valve and changing volume of the pump body when the water hammer phenomenon is occurred. In order to evaluate results and determine empirical factors of the proposed analytical model, a physical model of the ram pump is made with internal diameter of 51 mm. Results of this study are divided into several parts. In the first part, loss coefficients of the impulse valve were measured experimentally and empirical equations of drag coefficient and friction coefficient of the impulse valve were submitted by using nonlinear regression. In the second part, results were evaluated by using experimental data taken from this study. Evaluation of statistical error functions showed that the proposed model has good accuracy for predicting experimental observations. In the third part, in order to validate the results in pumping stage, the analytical models of Lansford and Dugan (1941 and Tacke (1988 were used and the error functions resulted from prediction of experimental observations were investigated through analytical models of

  7. Development of a nonlocal convective mixing scheme with varying upward mixing rates for use in air quality and chemical transport models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailović, Dragutin T; Alapaty, Kiran; Sakradzija, Mirjana

    2008-06-01

    Asymmetrical convective non-local scheme (CON) with varying upward mixing rates is developed for simulation of vertical turbulent mixing in the convective boundary layer in air quality and chemical transport models. The upward mixing rate form the surface layer is parameterized using the sensible heat flux and the friction and convective velocities. Upward mixing rates varying with height are scaled with an amount of turbulent kinetic energy in layer, while the downward mixing rates are derived from mass conservation. This scheme provides a less rapid mass transport out of surface layer into other layers than other asymmetrical convective mixing schemes. In this paper, we studied the performance of a nonlocal convective mixing scheme with varying upward mixing in the atmospheric boundary layer and its impact on the concentration of pollutants calculated with chemical and air-quality models. This scheme was additionally compared versus a local eddy-diffusivity scheme (KSC). Simulated concentrations of NO(2) and the nitrate wet deposition by the CON scheme are closer to the observations when compared to those obtained from using the KSC scheme. Concentrations calculated with the CON scheme are in general higher and closer to the observations than those obtained by the KSC scheme (of the order of 15-20%). Nitrate wet deposition calculated with the CON scheme are in general higher and closer to the observations than those obtained by the KSC scheme. To examine the performance of the scheme, simulated and measured concentrations of a pollutant (NO(2)) and nitrate wet deposition was compared for the year 2002. The comparison was made for the whole domain used in simulations performed by the chemical European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme Unified model (version UNI-ACID, rv2.0) where schemes were incorporated.

  8. Recharge Area, Base-Flow and Quick-Flow Discharge Rates and Ages, and General Water Quality of Big Spring in Carter County, Missouri, 2000-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imes, Jeffrey L.; Plummer, Niel; Kleeschulte, Michael J.; Schumacher, John G.

    2007-01-01

    during the period of record (water years 1922 through 2004) was 1,170 cubic feet per second on December 7, 1982. The daily mean water temperature of Big Spring was monitored during water years 2001 through 2004 and showed little variability, ranging from 13 to 15? C (degree Celsius). Water temperatures generally vary less than 1? C throughout the year. The warmest temperatures occur during October and November and decrease until April, indicating Big Spring water temperature does show a slight seasonal variation. The use of the traditional hydrograph separation program HYSEP to determine the base flow and quick flow or runoff components at Big Spring failed to yield base-flow and quick-flow discharge curves that matched observations of spring characteristics. Big Spring discharge data were used in combination with specific conductance data to develop an improved hydrograph separation method for the spring. The estimated annual mean quick flow ranged from 15 to 48 cubic feet per second for the HYSEP analysis and ranged from 26 to 154 cubic feet per second for the discharge and specific conductance method for water years 2001 to 2004. Using the discharge and specific conductance method, the estimated base-flow component rises abruptly as the spring hydrograph rises, attains a peak value on the same day as the discharge peak, and then declines abruptly from its peak value. Several days later, base flow begins to increase again at an approximately linear trend, coinciding with the time at which the percentage of quick flow has reached a maximum after each recharge-induced discharge peak. The interval between the discharge peak and the peak in percentage quick flow ranges from 8 to 11 days for seven hydrograph peaks, consistent with quick-flow traveltime estimates by dye-trace tests from the mature karst Hurricane Creek Basin in the central part of the recharge area. Concentrations of environmental tracers chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs: CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113)

  9. Components of Particle Emissions from Light-Duty Spark-Ignition Vehicles with Varying Aromatic Content and Octane Rating in Gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Daniel Z; Vu, Diep; Durbin, Thomas D; Karavalakis, Georgios; Asa-Awuku, Akua

    2015-09-01

    Typical gasoline consists of varying concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons and octane ratings. However, their impacts on particulate matter (PM) such as black carbon (BC) and water-soluble and insoluble particle compositions are not well-defined. This study tests seven 2012 model year vehicles, which include one port fuel injection (PFI) configured hybrid vehicle, one PFI vehicle, and six gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles. Each vehicle was driven on the Unified transient testing cycle (UC) using four different fuels. Three fuels had a constant octane rating of 87 with varied aromatic concentrations at 15%, 25%, and 35%. A fourth fuel with higher octane rating, 91, contained 35% aromatics. BC, PM mass, surface tension, and water-soluble organic mass (WSOM) fractions were measured. The water-insoluble mass (WIM) fraction of the vehicle emissions was estimated. Increasing fuel aromatic content increases BC emission factors (EFs) of transient cycles. BC concentrations were higher for the GDI vehicles than the PFI and hybrid vehicles, suggesting a potential climate impact for increased GDI vehicle production. Vehicle steady-state testing showed that the hygroscopicity of PM emissions at high speeds (70 mph; κ > 1) are much larger than emissions at low speeds (30 mph; κ < 0.1). Iso-paraffin content in the fuels was correlated to the decrease in WSOM emissions. Both aromatic content and vehicle speed increase the amount of hygroscopic material found in particle emissions.

  10. The effect of bedload transport rates on bedform and planform morphological development in a laboratory meandering stream under varying flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, C.; Good, R. G. R.; Binns, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment transport processes in streams provides valuable insight into the temporal evolution of planform and bedform geometry. The majority of previous experimental research in the literature has focused on bedload transport and corresponding bedform development in rectangular, confined channels, which does not consider planform adjustment processes in streams. In contrast, research conducted with laboratory streams having movable banks can investigate planform development in addition to bedform development, which is more representative of natural streams. The goal of this research is to explore the relationship between bedload transport rates and the morphological adjustments in meandering streams. To accomplish this, a series of experimental runs were conducted in a 5.6 m by 1.9 m river basin flume at the University of Guelph to analyze the bedload impacts on bed formations and planform adjustments in response to varying flow conditions. In total, three experimental runs were conducted: two runs using steady state conditions and one run using unsteady flow conditions in the form of a symmetrical hydrograph implementing quasi steady state flow. The runs were performed in a series of time-steps in order to monitor the evolution of the stream morphology and the bedload transport rates. Structure from motion (SfM) was utilized to capture the channel morphology after each time-step, and Agisoft PhotoScan software was used to produce digital elevation models to analyze the morphological evolution of the channel with time. Bedload transport rates were quantified using a sediment catch at the end of the flume. Although total flow volumes were similar for each run, the morphological evolution and bedload transport rates in each run varied. The observed bedload transport rates from the flume are compared with existing bedload transport formulas to assess their accuracy with respect to sediment transport in unconfined meandering channels. The measured sediment transport

  11. Effectiveness of structured planned post discharge support to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for reducing readmission rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Ersgard, Karen Bagger; Soerensen, Tina Brandt

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease, characterized by airflow limitation. The disease has a significant impact on the lives of patients and is a challenge for the health care due to readmissions to hospitals. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed...... exacerbation. TYPES OF INTERVENTIONS: Studies that evaluated discharge interventions that supported patients managing symptoms of COPD. TYPES OF STUDIES: Randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental or cohort studies. OUTCOMES: Readmission, defined as hospitalization...... to identify, appraise and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of discharge interventions that can reduce readmission of patients with COPD. TYPES OF PARTICIPANTS: Hospitalized patients, aged 18 years or over, who had been diagnosed with COPD and were admitted to hospital due to acute...

  12. Transition rate diagrams - A new approach to the study of selective excitation processes: The spectrum of manganese in a Grimm-type glow discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Zdeněk; Steers, Edward B. M.; Pickering, Juliet C.; Mushtaq, Sohail

    2014-02-01

    The emission spectra of manganese observed using a Grimm-type glow discharge in pure argon, argon with 0.3% v/v hydrogen and pure neon were studied in order to identify major excitation and ionization processes of manganese in the plasma. A new procedure is proposed, in which each observed emission line is associated with the corresponding transition between different states of the Mn atom or Mn ion, and, by considering all the observed transitions from and into a specific state, a measure of the total rate is determined at which this state is radiatively populated and depopulated. These resulting population/depopulation rates are then plotted as function of level energy. Such plots, called here “transition rate diagrams”, show the role of individual states in the formation of the observed spectrum and can be used to identify possible selective excitation processes. Also, cascade excitation by radiative decay of higher excited states can be conveniently evaluated in this way. A detailed description of the observed Mn I and Mn II spectra is given for Ar, Ar-H2 and Ne plasmas and relevant excitation/ionization mechanisms are discussed. Matrix effects in analysis of manganese by glow discharge spectroscopy are discussed. A list of important Mn I and Mn II lines excited in the glow discharge plasma is given.

  13. Behavior of a PCM at Varying Heating Rates: Experimental and Theoretical Study with an Aim at Temperature Moderation in Radionuclide Concrete Encasements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medved', Igor; Trník, Anton

    2018-07-01

    Phase-change materials (PCMs) can store/release thermal energy within a small temperature range. This is of interest in various industrial applications, for example, in civil engineering (heating/cooling of buildings) or cold storage applications. Another application may be the moderation of temperature increases in concrete encasements of radionuclides during their decay. The phase-change behavior of a material is determined by its heat capacity and the peak it exhibits near a phase change. We analyze the behavior of such peaks for a selected PCM at heating rates varying between 0.1°C\\cdot min^{-1} and 1°C\\cdot min^{-1}, corresponding in real situations to different decay rates of radionuclides. We show that experimentally measured peaks can be plausibly described by an equilibrium theory that enables us to calculate the latent heat and phase-change temperature from experimental data.

  14. Theoretical basis and significance of the variance of discharge as a bidimensional variable for the design of lateral lines of micro-irrigation Bases teóricas e importância da variância da vazão como variável bidimensional no dimensionamento de linhas laterais em microirrigação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Roberto Detomini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to support the theoretical basis and contribute to the improvement of educational capability issues relating to irrigation systems design, this point of view presents an alternative deduction of the variance of the discharge as a bidimensional and independent random variable. Then a subsequent brief application of an existing model is applied for statistical design of laterals in micro-irrigation. The better manufacturing precision of emitters allows lengthening a lateral for a given soil slope, although this does not necessarily mean that the statistical uniformity throughout the lateral will be more homogenous.Visando a reforçar as bases teóricas e contribuir com a melhoria da capacitação educacional em assuntos relacionados a dimensionamento de sistemas de irrigação, o presente ponto de vista revela uma dedução alternativa para a variância da vazão dos emissores, variável aleatória independente bidimensional. Posteriormente apresenta breve aplicação do modelo aceito para dimensionamento de linhas laterais em sistemas de microirrigação, de acordo com a abordagem estatística. A melhor precisão na fabricação de emssores permite, para uma dada inclinação de terreno, dimensionar laterais mais longas, o que não significa necessariamente que uniformidade de emissão dessas laterais será projetada como mais homogênea.

  15. Nipple Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any unexpected nipple discharge evaluated by a doctor. Nipple discharge in men under any circumstances could be a problem and needs further evaluation. One or both breasts may produce a nipple discharge, either spontaneously or when you squeeze your ...

  16. Evaluating use of the Siebens Domain Management Model during inpatient rehabilitation to increase functional independence and discharge rate to home in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, David S; Peters, Kenneth M; Johnson-Greene, Doug

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate use of the Siebens Domain Management Model (SDMM) during stroke inpatient rehabilitation (IR) to increase functional independence and rate of discharge to home. Before and after study. IR facility. Before the intervention: 154 patients with ischemic/hemorrhagic strokes who were admitted to an IR facility in 2010; on average, they were admitted 9.1 days after receiving acute care. After the intervention: 151 patients with ischemic/hemorrhagic strokes who were admitted to an IR facility in 2012; on average they were admitted 7.3 days after receiving acute care. The comorbidity tier severity and prestroke living setting and living support appeared to be similar in both the preintervention and postintervention groups. Use of the SDMM involving weekly adjustments of IR care focused on potential barriers to discharge home including medical/surgical issues, cognitive/emotional coping issues, physical function, and living environment/community re-entry needs. Use of Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score change during IR length of stay (LOS; FIM-LOS efficiency) and rates of discharge to community/home, acute care, and long-term care (LTC) to compare 2010/preintervention data with postintervention data from 2012, along with comparison of facility data to national aggregate data from the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation (UDSMR) for both years. Preintervention 2010 FIM-LOS efficiency was 1.44 compared with a 2012 postintervention FIM-LOS efficiency of 2.24, which was significant (t = 4.3; P stroke IR may convey improvement in functional independence and is associated with an increased discharge rate to home/community and a reduction in institutionalization and acute-care transfers. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimation of time-varying pollutant emission rates in a ventilated enclosure: inversion of a reduced model obtained by experimental application of the modal identification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girault, M; Maillet, D; Bonthoux, F; Galland, B; Martin, P; Braconnier, R; Fontaine, J R

    2008-01-01

    A method is proposed for the estimation of time-varying emission rates of pollutant sources in a ventilated enclosure, through the resolution of an inverse forced convection problem. Unsteady transport–diffusion of the pollutant is considered, with the assumption of a stationary velocity field remaining unchanged during emission (passive contaminant). The pollutant transport equation is therefore linear with respect to concentration. The source's location is also supposed to be known. As the first step, a reduced model (RM) linking concentrations at a set of control points to emission rates of sources is identified from experimental data by using the modal identification method (MIM). This parameter estimation problem uses transient contaminant concentration measurements made at control points inside the ventilated enclosure, corresponding to increasing and decreasing steps of emission rates. Such experimental modelling allows us to avoid dealing with a CFD code involving turbulence modelling and to get rid of uncertainties about sensors position. In a second step, the identified RM is used to solve an inverse forced convection problem: from contaminant concentration measured at the same control points, rates of sources emitting simultaneously are estimated with a sequential in time algorithm using future time steps

  18. The Effectiveness of Experimental Diet with Varying Levels of Papain on The Growth Performance, Survival Rate and Feed Utilization of Keureling Fish (Tor tambra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Abidin Muchlisin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to determine the optimum level of papain in the diet of keureling fish (Tor tambra. The complete random design was utilized in this study. Six levels of papain dosage were tested in triplicates, i.e. 0 (control; 17.5 mg kg-1,  20.0 mg kg-1, 22.5 mg kg-1, 25.0 mg kg-1 and 27.5 mg kg-1 of feed. The experimental fish were fed the experimental diet two times a day at 8 AM and 5 PM at feeding level of 5% body weight for 90 days. The Anova test result showed that papain enzyme  gave a significant effect on the weight gain, daily growth rate, specific growth rate, survival rate, feed conversion ratio and feed efficiency (P<0.05. The Duncan multi-rage test result showed that the higher values for all measured parameters were obtained at the dosage of 27.5 mg kg-1. Therefore, it is concluded that the optimum dosage of papain enzyme for keureling fish was 27.5 mg kg-1 of feed.How to CiteMuchlisin, Z. A., Afrido, F., Murda, T., Fadli, N., Muhammadar, A. A., Jalil, Z., & Yulvizar, C. (2016. The Effectiveness of Experimental Diet with Varying Levels of Papain on The Growth Performance, Survival Rate and Feed Utilization of Keureling Fish (Tor tambra. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 172-177.

  19. Temperature dependent electron transport and rate coefficient studies for e-beam-sustained diffuse gas discharge switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, J.G.; Hunter, S.R.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the electron drift velocity, w, attachment coefficient, eta/N/sub a/, and ionization coefficient, α/N, have been made in C 2 F 6 /Ar and C 2 F 6 /CH 4 gas mixtures at gas temperatures, T, of 300 and 500 0 K over the concentration range of 0.1 to 100% of the C 2 F 6 . These measurements are useful for modeling the expected behavior of repetitively operated electron-beam sustained diffuse gas discharge opening switches where gas temperatures within the switch are anticipated to rise several hundred degrees during switch operation

  20. A multi-group path analysis of the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and self-rated stress: how does it vary across racial/ethnic groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Chen, Danhong

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to answer three questions: (1) Is perceived discrimination adversely related to self-rated stress via the social capital and health care system distrust pathways? (2) Does the relationship between perceived discrimination and self-rated stress vary across race/ethnicity groups? and (3) Do the two pathways differ by one's race/ethnicity background? Using the Philadelphia Health Management Corporation's Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Survey, we classified 9831 respondents into 4 race/ethnicity groups: non-Hispanic White (n = 6621), non-Hispanic Black (n = 2359), Hispanic (n = 505), and non-Hispanic other races (n = 346). Structural equation modeling was employed to simultaneously estimate five sets of equations, including the confirmatory factor analysis for both social capital and health care distrust and both direct and indirect effects from perceived discrimination to self-rated stress. The key findings drawn from the analysis include the following: (1) in general, people who experienced racial discrimination have higher distrust and weaker social capital than those without perceived discrimination and both distrust and social capital are ultimately related to self-rated stress. (2) The direct relationship between perceived discrimination and self-rated stress is found for all race/ethnicity groups (except non-Hispanic other races) and it does not vary across groups. (3) The two pathways can be applied to non-Hispanic White and Black, but for Hispanic and non-Hispanic other races, we found little evidence for the social capital pathway. For non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic, perceived discrimination is negatively related to self-rated stress. This finding highlights the importance of reducing interpersonal discriminatory behavior even for non-Hispanic White. The health care system distrust pathway can be used to address the racial health disparity in stress as it holds true for all four race

  1. Factors Associated With the Increasing Rates of Discharges Directly Home From Intensive Care Units-A Direct From ICU Sent Home Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Vincent I; Priestap, Fran A; Lam, Joyce N H; Ball, Ian M

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the relationship between rates of discharge directly to home (DDH) from the intensive care unit (ICU) and bed availability (ward and ICU). Also to identify patient characteristics that make them candidates for safe DDH and describe transfer delay impact on length of stay (LOS). Retrospective cohort study of all adult patients who survived their stay in our medical-surgical-trauma ICU between April 2003 and March 2015. Median age was 49 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 33.5-60.4), and the majority of the patients were males (54.8%). Median number of preexisting comorbidities was 5 (IQR: 2-7) diagnoses. Discharge directly to home increased from 28 (3.1% of all survivors) patients in 2003 to 120 (12.5%) patients in 2014. The mean annual rate of DDH was between 11% and 12% over the last 6 years. Approximately 62% (n = 397) of patients waited longer than 4 hours for a ward bed, with a median delay of 2.0 days (IQR: 0.5-4.7) before being DDH. There was an inverse correlation between ICU occupancy and DDH rates ( r P = -.55, P < .0001, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.36 to -0.69, R 2 = .29). There was no correlation with ward occupancy and DDH rates ( r s = -.055, P = .64, 95% CI = -0.25 to 0.21). The DDH rates have been increasing over time at our institution and were inversely correlated with ICU bed occupancy but were not associated with ward occupancy. The DDH patients are young, have few comorbidities on admission, and few discharge diagnoses, which are usually reversible single system problems with low disease burden. Transfers to the ward are delayed in a majority of cases, leading to increased ICU LOS and likely increased overall hospital LOS as well.

  2. Effect of hole geometry and Electric-Discharge Machining (EDM) on airflow rates through small diameter holes in turbine blade material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippensteele, S. A.; Cochran, R. P.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of two design parameters, electrode diameter and hole angle, and two machine parameters, electrode current and current-on time, on air flow rates through small-diameter (0.257 to 0.462 mm) electric-discharge-machined holes were measured. The holes were machined individually in rows of 14 each through 1.6 mm thick IN-100 strips. The data showed linear increase in air flow rate with increases in electrode cross sectional area and current-on time and little change with changes in hole angle and electrode current. The average flow-rate deviation (from the mean flow rate for a given row) decreased linearly with electrode diameter and increased with hole angle. Burn time and finished hole diameter were also measured.

  3. Tradeoffs between impact loading rate, vertical impulse and effective mass for walkers and heel strike runners wearing footwear of varying stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Brian J; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2015-05-01

    Humans experience repetitive impact forces beneath the heel during walking and heel strike running that cause impact peaks characterized by high rates and magnitudes of loading. Impact peaks are caused by the exchange of momentum between the ground and a portion of the body that comes to a full stop (the effective mass) during the period of the impact peak. A number of factors can influence this exchange of momentum, including footwear stiffness. This study presents and tests an impulse-momentum model of impact mechanics which predicts that effective mass and vertical impulse is greater in walkers and heel strike runners wearing less stiff footwear. The model also predicts a tradeoff between impact loading rate and effective mass, and between impact loading rate and vertical impulse among individuals wearing footwear of varying stiffness. We tested this model using 19 human subjects walking and running in minimal footwear and in two experimental footpads. Subjects walked and ran on an instrumented treadmill and 3D kinematic data were collected. As predicted, both vertical impulse (walking: F(2,54)=52.0, p=2.6E-13; running: F(2,54)=25.2, p=1.8E-8) and effective mass (walking: F(2,54)=12.1, p=4.6E-5; running: F(2,54)=15.5, p=4.7E-6) increase in less stiff footwear. In addition, there is a significant inverse relationship between impact loading rate and vertical impulse (walking: r=-0.88, pfootwear heels influence injury risk during human walking and running. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determining the spill flow discharge of combined sewer overflows using rating curves based on computational fluid dynamics instead of the standard weir equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fach, S; Sitzenfrei, R; Rauch, W

    2009-01-01

    It is state of the art to evaluate and optimise sewer systems with urban drainage models. Since spill flow data is essential in the calibration process of conceptual models it is important to enhance the quality of such data. A wide spread approach is to calculate the spill flow volume by using standard weir equations together with measured water levels. However, these equations are only applicable to combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures, whose weir constructions correspond with the standard weir layout. The objective of this work is to outline an alternative approach to obtain spill flow discharge data based on measurements with a sonic depth finder. The idea is to determine the relation between water level and rate of spill flow by running a detailed 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Two real world CSO structures have been chosen due to their complex structure, especially with respect to the weir construction. In a first step the simulation results were analysed to identify flow conditions for discrete steady states. It will be shown that the flow conditions in the CSO structure change after the spill flow pipe acts as a controlled outflow and therefore the spill flow discharge cannot be described with a standard weir equation. In a second step the CFD results will be used to derive rating curves which can be easily applied in everyday practice. Therefore the rating curves are developed on basis of the standard weir equation and the equation for orifice-type outlets. Because the intersection of both equations is not known, the coefficients of discharge are regressed from CFD simulation results. Furthermore, the regression of the CFD simulation results are compared with the one of the standard weir equation by using historic water levels and hydrographs generated with a hydrodynamic model. The uncertainties resulting of the wide spread use of the standard weir equation are demonstrated.

  5. Investigation of material removal rate and surface roughness during wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM of Inconel 625 super alloy by cryogenic treated tool electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Goyal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation focuses the effect of process parameters on material removal rate (MRR and surface roughness (Ra in wire electric discharge machining of Inconel 625. Machining was done by using a normal zinc coated wire and cryogenic treated zinc coated wire. The experiments were performed by considering different process parameters viz. tool electrode, current intensity, pulse on time, pulse off time, wire feed and wire tension. The thickness of work material and dia. of wire are kept constant. Taguchi L18 (21 * 35 orthogonal array of experimental design is used to perform the experiments. Analysis of variance (ANOVA is employed to optimize the material removal rate and surface roughness. Based on analysis it is found that pulse on time, tool electrode and current intensity are the significant parameters that affect the material removal rate and surface roughness. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM are used to identify the microstructure of the machined work piece.

  6. Value of Serial Heart Rate Variability Measurement for Prediction of Appropriate ICD Discharge in Patients with Heart Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Sande, Judith N.; Damman, Peter; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; de Groot, Joris R.; Knops, Reinoud E.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; van Dessel, Pascal F. H. M.

    2014-01-01

    HRV and Appropriate ICD Shock in Heart Failure Introduction Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with adverse outcomes in patients with heart failure. Our objective was to examine whether decreased HRV predicts appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks. Methods

  7. Shoulder replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Replacement - shoulder - discharge; Arthroplasty - shoulder - discharge

  8. The interval high rate discharge behavior of Li3V2(PO4)3/C cathode based on in situ polymerization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Wen-feng; Yan, Ji; Xie, Hui; Tang, Zhi-yuan; Xu, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    An in situ polymerization assisted fast sol–gel method was introduced to synthesize high performance Li 3 V 2 PO 4 /C (LVP/C) cathode material. The crystal structure, surface morphology and electrochemical performances of the LVP/C samples sintered at different temperatures were investigated. The composite sintered at 750 °C exhibits the highest specific discharge capacity of 119.02 mAh g −1 (440.35 Wh g −1 ) at 10 C rate. The Li + diffusion coefficient ranges from 10 −6 to 10 −8 cm 2 s −1 based on different scanning rates and the electronic conductivity is about 10 −5 S cm −1 . For comparison, an ex situ polymerization method was also employed to obtain the LVP/C composite. A novel charge/discharge testing mode was designed to investigate the electrochemical behavior of the as-prepared LVP/C composite for practical application in electric vehicle cells. The obtained high power density and the special testing mode prove the LVP/C composite would be a promising candidate for the electric vehicle application and deserves further investigation

  9. Net sputtering rate due to hot ions in a Ne-Xe discharge gas bombarding an MgO layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S.; Tamakoshi, T.; Ikeda, M.; Mikami, Y.; Suzuki, K.

    2011-01-01

    An analytical method is developed for determining net sputtering rate for an MgO layer under hot ions with low energy ( h i , above a threshold energy of sputtering, E th,i , multiplied by a yield coefficient. The threshold energy of sputtering is determined from dissociation energy required to remove an atom from MgO surface multiplied by an energy-transfer coefficient. The re-deposition rate of the sputtered atoms is calculated by a diffusion simulation using a hybridized probabilistic and analytical method. These calculation methods are combined to analyze the net sputtering rate. Maximum net sputtering rate due to the hot neon ions increases above the partial pressure of 4% xenon as E h Ne becomes higher and decreases near the partial pressure of 20% xenon as ion flux of neon decreases. The dependence due to the hot neon ions on partial pressure and applied voltage agrees well with experimental results, but the dependence due to the hot xenon ions deviates considerably. This result shows that the net sputtering rate is dominated by the hot neon ions. Maximum E h Ne (E h Ne,max = 5.3 - 10.3 eV) is lower than E th,Ne (19.5 eV) for the MgO layer; therefore, weak sputtering due to the hot neon ions takes place. One hot neon ion sputters each magnesium and each oxygen atom on the surface and distorts around a vacancy. The ratio of the maximum net sputtering rate is approximately determined by number of the ions at E h i,max multiplied by an exponential factor of -E th,i /E h i,max .

  10. The Relationship between Toxics Release Inventory Discharges and Mortality Rates in Rural and Urban Areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Potential environmental exposures from chemical manufacturing or industrial sites have not been well studied for rural populations. The current study examines whether chemical releases from facilities monitored through the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) program are associated with population mortality rates for both rural and urban…

  11. The calculation of individual radiation exposure rates arising from routine discharges of activity into an estuary or sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.

    1982-03-01

    Simple methods are described which enable assessments to be made of exposure rates to individuals arising from the release of activity into an estuary or sea. These methods are based in the main on those employed by the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food together with models developed by the author. The exposure routes considered are the ingestion of seafood and external exposure from β and γ emitters arising from occupancy over contaminated sediments or beaches and the handling of fishing gear. These routes are generally the most important, but for any chosen site it will also be necessary to determine whether any other exposure routes are significant. (author)

  12. The calculation of individual radiation exposure rates arising from routine discharges of activity into an estuary or sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.

    1982-11-01

    Simple methods are described which enable assessments to be made of exposure rates to individuals arising from the release of activity into an estuary or sea. These methods are based in the main on those employed by the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food together with models developed by the author. The exposure routes considered are the ingestion of seafood and external exposure from ν and ν emitters arising from occupancy over contaminated sediments or beaches and the handling of fishing gear. These routes are generally the most important, but for any chosen site it will also be necessary to determine whether any other exposure routes are significant. (author)

  13. Analysis of uncertainties, associated to the calculating hypothesis, in discharge tables for high flows estimating, based on mathematics models for calculating water surface profiles fore steady gradually varied flow; Analisis de las incertidumbres, asociadas a las hipotesis de calculo, en la estimacion de curvas de gasto para crcidas, basada en el empleo de modelo matematico de calculo hidraulico en regimen permanente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldana Valverde, A. L.; Gonzalez Rodriguez, J. C.

    1999-08-01

    In this paper are analyzed some of the most important factors which can influence on the results of calculating water surface profiles for steady gradually varied flow. In this case, the objective of this kind of modeling, has been the estimation of discharges tables for high flows of river station gages connected to the hydrologic automatic information system (SAIH) of the Confederacion Hidrografica del Sur de Espana, system named red Hidrosur. (Author) 3 refs

  14. New approach to exploit optimally the PV array output energy by maximizing the discharge rate of a directly-coupled photovoltaic water pumping system (DC/PVPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutelhig, Azzedine; Hadj Arab, Amar; Hanini, Salah

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mismatches on a designed d-c PV pumping system have been highlighted. • A new approach predicting the maximal discharge has been developed. • The approach has been discussed versus its linearity coefficient. • The approach effectiveness has been investigated and approved. • Theoretical and experimental obtained values have been compared and approved. - Abstract: A directly-coupled photovoltaic water pumping system (DC/PVPS) is generally designed by considering the worst month conditions on lowest daylight-hours, the maximum monthly daily required water volume and tank to store the excess water. In case of absence of hydraulic storage (water tank) or it is not enough dimensioned, the extra amount of pumped water is lost or is not reasonably used, when the system is operated on full daylight-hour. Beside that the extra amount of energy, which might be produced by the PV generator, is not exploited, when the system is operated only during a specified period-time needed to satisfy the demand. Beyond the accurate design that satisfying the end-user, a new approach has been developed as target to exploit maximally the PV array energy production, by maximizing the discharge rate of the system. The methodology consists of approaching maximally the demanded energy to the supplied energy on full operating day. Based on the demand/supply energy condition, the approach has been developed, upon the PV array and the pump performance models. The issued approach predicts the maximum delivery capacity of the system on monthly daily water volumes versus the monthly daily averages of solar irradiation, previously recorded. Its efficacy has been investigated and discussed according to the estimated and experimental values of its linearity coefficient, following the characterization tests of a designed system, carried out at our pumping test facility in Ghardaia (Algeria). The new theoretically and experimentally obtained flow-rates fit well, except

  15. Therapeutic analysis of high-dose-rate {sup 192}Ir vaginal cuff brachytherapy for endometrial cancer using a cylindrical target volume model and varied cancer cell distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hualin, E-mail: hualin.zhang@northwestern.edu; Donnelly, Eric D.; Strauss, Jonathan B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois 60611 (United States); Qi, Yujin [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCBT) in the treatment of endometrial cancer in a cylindrical target volume with either a varied or a constant cancer cell distributions using the linear quadratic (LQ) model. Methods: A Monte Carlo (MC) technique was used to calculate the 3D dose distribution of HDR VCBT over a variety of cylinder diameters and treatment lengths. A treatment planning system (TPS) was used to make plans for the various cylinder diameters, treatment lengths, and prescriptions using the clinical protocol. The dwell times obtained from the TPS were fed into MC. The LQ model was used to evaluate the therapeutic outcome of two brachytherapy regimens prescribed either at 0.5 cm depth (5.5 Gy × 4 fractions) or at the vaginal mucosal surface (8.8 Gy × 4 fractions) for the treatment of endometrial cancer. An experimentally determined endometrial cancer cell distribution, which showed a varied and resembled a half-Gaussian distribution, was used in radiobiology modeling. The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) to cancer cells was calculated for each treatment scenario. The therapeutic ratio (TR) was defined by comparing VCBT with a uniform dose radiotherapy plan in term of normal cell survival at the same level of cancer cell killing. Calculations of clinical impact were run twice assuming two different types of cancer cell density distributions in the cylindrical target volume: (1) a half-Gaussian or (2) a uniform distribution. Results: EUDs were weakly dependent on cylinder size, treatment length, and the prescription depth, but strongly dependent on the cancer cell distribution. TRs were strongly dependent on the cylinder size, treatment length, types of the cancer cell distributions, and the sensitivity of normal tissue. With a half-Gaussian distribution of cancer cells which populated at the vaginal mucosa the most, the EUDs were between 6.9 Gy × 4 and 7.8 Gy × 4, the TRs were in the range from (5.0){sup 4} to (13

  16. Numerical investigation on the implications of spring temperature and discharge rate with respect to the geothermal background in a fault zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenjiao; Xu, Tianfu; Mariethoz, Gregoire

    2018-04-01

    Geothermal springs are some of the most obvious indicators of the existence of high-temperature geothermal resources in the subsurface. However, geothermal springs can also occur in areas of low average subsurface temperatures, which makes it difficult to assess exploitable zones. To address this problem, this study quantitatively analyzes the conditions associated with the formation of geothermal springs in fault zones, and numerically investigates the implications that outflow temperature and discharge rate from geothermal springs have on the geothermal background in the subsurface. It is concluded that the temperature of geothermal springs in fault zones is mainly controlled by the recharge rate from the country rock and the hydraulic conductivity in the fault damage zone. Importantly, the topography of the fault trace on the land surface plays an important role in determining the thermal temperature. In fault zones with a permeability higher than 1 mD and a lateral recharge rate from the country rock higher than 1 m3/day, convection plays a dominant role in the heat transport rather than thermal conduction. The geothermal springs do not necessarily occur in the place having an abnormal geothermal background (with the temperature at certain depth exceeding the temperature inferred by the global average continental geothermal gradient of 30 °C/km). Assuming a constant temperature (90 °C here, to represent a normal geothermal background in the subsurface at a depth of 3,000 m), the conditions required for the occurrence of geothermal springs were quantitatively determined.

  17. Modelling electric discharge chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, J.; Wren, J.C.

    1991-07-01

    The chemistry occurring in a electric discharge was modelled to predict how it would be influenced by discharge conditions. The discharge was characterized by a calculated Boltzmann electron-energy distribution, from which rate constants for electron-molecule processes in air were determined. These rate constants were used in a chemical kinetics calculation that also included reactions between neutral molecules, ions, free radicals and electronically excited species. The model describes how the discharge chemistry was influenced by humidity, electric field, electron number density, and concentrations of key reagents identified in the study. The use of an electric discharge to destroy airborne contaminant molecules was appraised, the targeted contaminants being CF 2 Cl 2 , HCN, and SO 2 . The modelling results indicate that an electric discharge should be able to remove HCN and CF 2 Cl 2 effectively, especially if the discharge conditions have been optimized. Effective destruction is achieved with a moderate electric field (over 1 x 10 -15 V.cm 2 ), a substantial electron number density (over 1 x 10 12 cm -3 ), and the presence of H 2 0 in the process air. The residence time in the discharge was also shown to be important in contaminant destruction. An attempt was made to explain the results of the electric discharge abatement of SO 2 , a component of a simulated flue-gas mixture. Results from the model indicate that the discharge parameters that increase the concentration of hydroxyl radical also increase the rate of decomposition of SO 2 . An objective of the study was to explain the apparent enhancement of SO 2 destruction by the presence of a small amount of NO 2 . It was thought that a likely explanation would be the stabilization of HOSO 2 , an important intermediate in the oxidation of SO 2 by NO 2 . (49 figs., 14 tabs., 75 refs.)

  18. NIPPLE DISCHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Bukharova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data available in the literature, as high as 50% of women have benign breast tumors frequently accompanied by nip- ple discharge. Nipple discharge may be serous, bloody, purulent, and colostric. The most common causes are breast abscess, injury, drugs, prolactinoma, intraductal pappiloma, ductal ectasia, intraductal cancer (not more than 10%.

  19. A current driven capacitively coupled chlorine discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shuo; Gudmundsson, J T

    2014-01-01

    The effect of driving current, driving frequency and secondary electrons on capacitively coupled chlorine discharge is systematically investigated using a hybrid approach consisting of a particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo simulation and a volume-averaged global model. The driving current is varied from 20 to 80 A m −2 , the driving frequency is varied from 13.56 to 60 MHz and the secondary electron emission coefficient is varied from 0.0 to 0.4. Key plasma parameters including electron energy probability function, electron heating rate, ion energy and angular distributions are explored and their variations with control parameters are analyzed and compared with other discharges. Furthermore, we extend our study to dual-frequency (DF) capacitively coupled chlorine discharge by adding a low-frequency current source and explore the effect of the low-frequency source on the discharge. The low-frequency current density is increased from 0 to 4 A m −2 . The flux of Cl 2 + ions to the surface increases only slightly while the average energy of Cl 2 + ions to the surface increases almost linearly with increasing low-frequency current, which shows possible independent control of the flux and energy of Cl 2 + ions by varying the low-frequency current in a DF capacitively coupled chlorine discharge. However, the increase in the flux of Cl + ions with increasing low-frequency current, which is mainly due to the increased dissociation fraction of the background gas caused by extra power supplied by the low-frequency source, is undesirable. (paper)

  20. Discharge lamp technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, James

    1994-01-01

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advances.

  1. Estimating pesticide sampling rates by the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) in the presence of natural organic matter and varying hydrodynamic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlestra, Lucner; Amirbahman, Aria; Courtemanch, David L.; Alvarez, David A.; Patterson, Howard

    2012-01-01

    The polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) was calibrated to monitor pesticides in water under controlled laboratory conditions. The effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on the sampling rates (R s ) was evaluated in microcosms containing −1 of total organic carbon (TOC). The effect of hydrodynamics was studied by comparing R s values measured in stirred (SBE) and quiescent (QBE) batch experiments and a flow-through system (FTS). The level of NOM in the water used in these experiments had no effect on the magnitude of the pesticide sampling rates (p > 0.05). However, flow velocity and turbulence significantly increased the sampling rates of the pesticides in the FTS and SBE compared to the QBE (p < 0.001). The calibration data generated can be used to derive pesticide concentrations in water from POCIS deployed in stagnant and turbulent environmental systems without correction for NOM. - Highlights: ► We assessed the effect of TOC and stirring on pesticide sampling rates by POCIS. ► Total organic carbon (TOC) had no effect on the sampling rates. ► Water flow and stirring significantly increased the magnitude of the sampling rates. ► The sampling rates generated are directly applicable to field conditions. - This study provides POCIS sampling rates data that can be used to estimate freely dissolved concentrations of toxic pesticides in natural waters.

  2. Ileostomy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dried fruits (such as raisins), mushrooms, chunky relishes, coconut, and some Chinese vegetables. Tips for when no ... ask your doctor Living with your ileostomy Low-fiber diet Small bowel resection - discharge Total colectomy or ...

  3. Crackle pitch and rate do not vary significantly during a single automated-auscultation session in patients with pneumonia, congestive heart failure, or interstitial pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyshedskiy, Andrey; Ishikawa, Sadamu; Murphy, Raymond L H

    2011-06-01

    To determine the variability of crackle pitch and crackle rate during a single automated-auscultation session with a computerized 16-channel lung-sound analyzer. Forty-nine patients with pneumonia, 52 with congestive heart failure (CHF), and 18 with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) performed breathing maneuvers in the following sequence: normal breathing, deep breathing, cough several times; deep breathing, vital-capacity maneuver, and deep breathing. From the auscultation recordings we measured the crackle pitch and crackle rate. Crackle pitch variability, expressed as a percentage of the average crackle pitch, was small in all patients and in all maneuvers: pneumonia 11%, CHF 11%, pulmonary fibrosis 7%. Crackle rate variability was also small: pneumonia 31%, CHF 32%, IPF 24%. Compared to the first deep-breathing maneuver (100%), the average crackle pitch did not significantly change following coughing (pneumonia 100%, CHF 103%, IPF 100%), the vital-capacity maneuver (pneumonia 100%, CHF 92%, IPF 104%), or during quiet breathing (pneumonia 97%, CHF 100%, IPF 104%). Similarly, the average crackle rate did not change significantly following coughing (pneumonia 105%, CHF 110%, IPF 90%) or the vital-capacity maneuver (pneumonia 102%, CHF 101%, IPF 99%). However, during normal breathing the crackle rate was significantly lower in the patients with pneumonia (74%, P auscultation session suggests that crackle rate can be used to follow the course of cardiopulmonary illnesses such as pneumonia, IPF, and CHF.

  4. Measurement of fission gas release, internal pressure and cladding creep rate in the fuel pins of PHWR bundle of normal discharge burnup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, U.K. [Post Irradiation Examination Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sah, D.N., E-mail: dnsah@barc.gov.i [Post Irradiation Examination Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Rath, B.N.; Anantharaman, S. [Post Irradiation Examination Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2009-08-01

    Fuel pins of a Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) fuel bundle discharged from Narora Atomic Power Station unit no. 1 after attaining a fuel burnup of 7528 MWd/tU have been subjected to two types of studies, namely (i) puncture test to estimate extent of fission gas release and internal pressure in the fuel pin and (ii) localized heating of the irradiated fuel pin to measure the creep rate of the cladding in temperature range 800 deg. C - 900 deg. C. The fission gas release in the fuel pins from the outer ring of the bundle was found to be about 8%. However, only marginal release was found in fuel pins from the middle ring and the central fuel pin. The internal gas pressure in the outer fuel pin was measured to be 0.55 +- 0.05 MPa at room temperature. In-cell isothermal heating of a small portion of the outer fuel pins was carried out at 800 deg. C, 850 deg. C and 900 deg. C for 10 min and the increase in diameter of the fuel pin was measured after heat treatment. Creep rates of the cladding obtained from the measurement of the diameter change of the cladding due to heating at 800 deg. C, 850 deg. C and 900 deg. C were found respectively to be 2.4 x 10{sup -5} s{sup -1}, 24.6 x 10{sup -5} s{sup -1} and 45.6 x 10{sup -5} s{sup -1}.

  5. Nitrous oxide emissions in Midwest US maize production vary widely with band-injected N fertilizer rates, timing and nitrapyrin presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burzaco, Juan P.; Smith, Doug R.; Vyn, Tony J.

    2013-09-01

    Nitrification inhibitors have the potential to reduce N2O emissions from maize fields, but optimal results may depend on deployment of integrated N fertilizer management systems that increase yields achieved per unit of N2O lost. A new micro-encapsulated formulation of nitrapyrin for liquid N fertilizers became available to US farmers in 2010. Our research objectives were to (i) assess the impacts of urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) management practices (timing, rate and nitrification inhibitor) and environmental variables on growing-season N2O fluxes and (ii) identify UAN treatment combinations that both reduce N2O emissions and optimize maize productivity. Field experiments near West Lafayette, Indiana in 2010 and 2011 examined three N rates (0, 90 and 180 kg N ha-1), two timings (pre-emergence and side-dress) and presence or absence of nitrapyrin. Mean cumulative N2O-N emissions (Q10 corrected) were 0.81, 1.83 and 3.52 kg N2O-N ha-1 for the rates of 0, 90 and 180 kg N ha-1, respectively; 1.80 and 2.31 kg N2O-N ha-1 for pre-emergence and side-dress timings, respectively; and 1.77 versus 2.34 kg N2O-N ha-1 for with and without nitrapyrin, respectively. Yield-scaled N2O-N emissions increased with N rates as anticipated (averaging 167, 204 and 328 g N2O-N Mg grain-1 for the 0, 90 and 180 kg N ha-1 rates), but were 22% greater with the side-dress timing than the pre-emergence timing (when averaged across N rates and inhibitor treatments) because of environmental conditions following later applications. Overall yield-scaled N2O-N emissions were 22% lower with nitrapyrin than without the inhibitor, but these did not interact with N rate or timing.

  6. Model-supported estimation of mortality rates in Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L. larvae: the varying impact of 'critical periods'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinrichsen Hans-Harald

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in the survival-rate during the larval phase may strongly influence the recruitment level in marine fish species. During the larval phase different 'critical periods' are discussed, e.g. the hatching period and the first-feeding period. No such information was available for the Baltic cod stock, a commercially important stock showing reproduction failure during the last years. We calculated field-based mortality rates for larval Baltic cod during these phases using basin-wide abundance estimates from two consecutive surveys. Survey information was corrected by three dimensional hydrodynamic model runs. Results The corrections applied for transport were of variable impact, depending on the prevailing circulation patterns. Especially at high wind forcing scenarios, abundance estimates have the potential to be biased without accounting for transport processes. In May 1988 mortality between hatch and first feeding amounted to approximately 20% per day. Mortality rates during the onset of feeding were considerably lower with only 7% per day. In August 1991 the situation was vice versa: Extremely low mortality rates of 0.08% per day were calculated between hatch and first feeding, while the period between the onset of feeding to the state of an established feeder was more critical with mortality rates of 22% per day. Conclusions Mortality rates during the different proposed 'critical periods' were found to be highly variable. Survival rates of Baltic cod are not only influenced by a single 'critical period', but can be limited at different points during the larval phase, depending on several biotic and abiotic factors.

  7. Effects of pre-incubation of eggs in fresh water and varying sperm concentration on fertilization rate in sterlet sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Butts, Ian; Psěnička, Martin

    2015-01-01

    , while it was significant at the 4300:1 and 430:1 ratios. The use of adequate experimental suboptimal sperm to egg ratio revealed a positive effect of pre-incubation time, such that at the 430:1 ratio, 0.5. min pre-incubation increased the fertilization rate than 10. min. At 0. min pre......-incubation the proportion of fertilized eggs increased at the 430,000:1 ratio, while at 1. min fertilization increased at the 4300:1 ratio. At the 10. min pre-incubation time, fertilization increased at the 43,000:1 ratio. Moreover, at the 0.5. min pre-incubation time, the 43,000:1 ratio increased the fertilization rate...... than the 430:1 ratio. Generally, for 430:1 ratio, the fertilization rate is lower than in control. Transmission electron microscopy showed that pre-incubation of eggs in water for

  8. Estimating pesticide sampling rates by the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) in the presence of natural organic matter and varying hydrodynamic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlestra, Lucner; Amirbahman, Aria; Courtemanch, David L.; Alvarez, David A.; Patterson, Howard

    2012-01-01

    The polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) was calibrated to monitor pesticides in water under controlled laboratory conditions. The effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on the sampling rates (Rs) was evaluated in microcosms containing -1 of total organic carbon (TOC). The effect of hydrodynamics was studied by comparing Rs values measured in stirred (SBE) and quiescent (QBE) batch experiments and a flow-through system (FTS). The level of NOM in the water used in these experiments had no effect on the magnitude of the pesticide sampling rates (p > 0.05). However, flow velocity and turbulence significantly increased the sampling rates of the pesticides in the FTS and SBE compared to the QBE (p < 0.001). The calibration data generated can be used to derive pesticide concentrations in water from POCIS deployed in stagnant and turbulent environmental systems without correction for NOM.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of a potential future Helicobacter pylori vaccine in the Netherlands: the impact of varying the discount rate for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Robin; Klok, Rogier M; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; Postma, Maarten J

    2009-02-05

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a potential Helicobacter pylori (HP) vaccine for the Dutch situation, we developed a Markov model. Several HP prevalence scenarios were assessed. Additionally, we assessed the impact of the discount rate for health on the outcomes, as this influence can be profound for vaccines. When applying the current discount rate of 1.5% for health, the expected cost-effectiveness of HP vaccination is estimated below the informal Dutch threshold of euro 20,000/LYG when the HP prevalence is assumed > or =20% in the Dutch population. In conclusion, we showed that HP vaccination could possibly be a cost-effective intervention. However, this depends to a large extend on the prevalence of HP in the population. Furthermore, we showed the large impact of the discount rate for health on the cost-effectiveness of a HP vaccination program, illustrative for other vaccination programs.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of a potential future Helicobacter pylori vaccine in the Netherlands : The impact of varying the discount rate for health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Robin; Klok, Rogier M.; Brouwers, Jacobus R. B. J.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2009-01-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a potential Helicobacter pylori (HP) vaccine for the Dutch situation, we developed a Markov model. Several HP prevalence scenarios were assessed. Additionally, we assessed the impact of the discount rate for health on the outcomes, as this influence can be

  11. Standardized laryngeal videostroboscopic rating : Differences between untrained and trained male and female subjects, and effects of varying sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Schutte, HK; Miller, DG

    To determine the influence of the factors gender, vocal training, sound intensity, pitch, and aging on vocal function, videolaryngostroboscopic images of 214 subjects, subdivided according to gender and status of vocal training, were evaluated by three judges with standardized rating scales,

  12. Nitrous oxide emissions in Midwest US maize production vary widely with band-injected N fertilizer rates, timing and nitrapyrin presence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burzaco, Juan P; Vyn, Tony J; Smith, Doug R

    2013-01-01

    Nitrification inhibitors have the potential to reduce N 2 O emissions from maize fields, but optimal results may depend on deployment of integrated N fertilizer management systems that increase yields achieved per unit of N 2 O lost. A new micro-encapsulated formulation of nitrapyrin for liquid N fertilizers became available to US farmers in 2010. Our research objectives were to (i) assess the impacts of urea–ammonium nitrate (UAN) management practices (timing, rate and nitrification inhibitor) and environmental variables on growing-season N 2 O fluxes and (ii) identify UAN treatment combinations that both reduce N 2 O emissions and optimize maize productivity. Field experiments near West Lafayette, Indiana in 2010 and 2011 examined three N rates (0, 90 and 180 kg N ha −1 ), two timings (pre-emergence and side-dress) and presence or absence of nitrapyrin. Mean cumulative N 2 O–N emissions (Q 10 corrected) were 0.81, 1.83 and 3.52 kg N 2 O–N ha −1 for the rates of 0, 90 and 180 kg N ha −1 , respectively; 1.80 and 2.31 kg N 2 O–N ha −1 for pre-emergence and side-dress timings, respectively; and 1.77 versus 2.34 kg N 2 O–N ha −1 for with and without nitrapyrin, respectively. Yield-scaled N 2 O–N emissions increased with N rates as anticipated (averaging 167, 204 and 328 g N 2 O–N Mg grain −1 for the 0, 90 and 180 kg N ha −1 rates), but were 22% greater with the side-dress timing than the pre-emergence timing (when averaged across N rates and inhibitor treatments) because of environmental conditions following later applications. Overall yield-scaled N 2 O–N emissions were 22% lower with nitrapyrin than without the inhibitor, but these did not interact with N rate or timing. (letter)

  13. Varied Rates of Implementation of Patient-Centered Medical Home Features and Residents' Perceptions of Their Importance Based on Practice Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiff, M Patrice; Green, Larry A; Jones, Geoff; Devlaeminck, Alex Verdieck; Waller, Elaine; Dexter, Eve; Marino, Miguel; Carney, Patricia A

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about how the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is being implemented in residency practices. We describe both the trends in implementation of PCMH features and the influence that working with PCMH features has on resident attitudes toward their importance in 14 family medicine residencies associated with the P4 Project. We assessed 24 residency continuity clinics annually between 2007-2011 on presence or absence of PCMH features. Annual resident surveys (n=690) assessed perceptions of importance of PCMH features using a 4-point scale (not at all important to very important). We used generalized estimating equations logistic regression to assess trends and ordinal-response proportional odds regression models to determine if resident ratings of importance were associated with working with those features during training. Implementation of electronic health record (EHR) features increased significantly from 2007-2011, such as email communication with patients (33% to 67%), preventive services registries (23% to 64%), chronic disease registries (63% to 82%), and population-based quality assurance (46% to 79%). Team-based care was the only process of care feature to change significantly (54% to 93%). Residents with any exposure to EHR-based features had higher odds of rating the features more important compared to those with no exposure. We observed consistently lower odds of the resident rating process of care features as more important with any exposure compared to no exposure. Residencies engaged in educational transformation were more successful in implementing EHR-based PCMH features, and exposure during training appears to positively influence resident ratings of importance, while exposure to process of care features are slower to implement with less influence on importance ratings.

  14. Impact toughness and microstructure relationship in niobium- and vanadium-microalloyed steels processed with varied cooling rates to similar yield strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, S. [Center for Structural and Functional Materials and Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, LA 70504-4130 (United States); Misra, R.D.K. [Center for Structural and Functional Materials and Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, LA 70504-4130 (United States)]. E-mail: dmisra@louisiana.edu; Mannering, T. [Nucor-Yamato Steel, P.O. Box 1228, 5929 East State Highway 18, Blytheville, AR 72316 (United States); Panda, D. [Nucor-Yamato Steel, P.O. Box 1228, 5929 East State Highway 18, Blytheville, AR 72316 (United States); Jansto, S.G. [Reference Metals, 1000 Old Pond Road, Bridgeville, PA 15017 (United States)

    2006-11-15

    We describe here the relationship between microstructure and impact toughness behavior as a function of cooling rate for industrially processed Nb- and V-microalloyed steels of almost similar yield strength ({approx}60 ksi). Both Nb- and V-microalloyed steels exhibited increase in toughness with increase in cooling rates during processing. However, Nb-microalloyed steels were characterized by relatively higher toughness than the V-microalloyed steels under identical processing conditions. The microstructure of Nb- and V-microalloyed steels processed at conventional cooling rate, primarily consisted of polygonal ferrite-pearlite microconstituents, while Nb-microalloyed steels besides polygonal ferrite and pearlite contained significant fraction of degenerated pearlite. The microstructure of Nb- and V-microalloyed steels processed at relatively higher cooling rate contained degenerated pearlite and lath-type (acicular) ferrite in addition to the primary ferrite-pearlite constituents. The fraction of degenerated pearlite was higher in Nb-microalloyed steels than in the V-microalloyed steels. In both Nb- and V-microalloyed steels the precipitation characteristics were similar with precipitation occurring at grain boundaries, dislocations, and in the ferrite matrix. Fine-scale ({approx}5-10 nm) precipitation was observed in the ferrite matrix of both the steels. The selected area diffraction (SAD) pattern analysis revealed that these fine precipitates were MC type of niobium and vanadium carbides in the respective steels and followed Baker-Nutting orientation relationship with the ferrite matrix. The microstructural studies suggest that the increase in toughness of Nb-microalloyed steels is attributed to higher fraction of degenerated pearlite in the steel.

  15. Impact toughness and microstructure relationship in niobium- and vanadium-microalloyed steels processed with varied cooling rates to similar yield strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugam, S.; Misra, R.D.K.; Mannering, T.; Panda, D.; Jansto, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    We describe here the relationship between microstructure and impact toughness behavior as a function of cooling rate for industrially processed Nb- and V-microalloyed steels of almost similar yield strength (∼60 ksi). Both Nb- and V-microalloyed steels exhibited increase in toughness with increase in cooling rates during processing. However, Nb-microalloyed steels were characterized by relatively higher toughness than the V-microalloyed steels under identical processing conditions. The microstructure of Nb- and V-microalloyed steels processed at conventional cooling rate, primarily consisted of polygonal ferrite-pearlite microconstituents, while Nb-microalloyed steels besides polygonal ferrite and pearlite contained significant fraction of degenerated pearlite. The microstructure of Nb- and V-microalloyed steels processed at relatively higher cooling rate contained degenerated pearlite and lath-type (acicular) ferrite in addition to the primary ferrite-pearlite constituents. The fraction of degenerated pearlite was higher in Nb-microalloyed steels than in the V-microalloyed steels. In both Nb- and V-microalloyed steels the precipitation characteristics were similar with precipitation occurring at grain boundaries, dislocations, and in the ferrite matrix. Fine-scale (∼5-10 nm) precipitation was observed in the ferrite matrix of both the steels. The selected area diffraction (SAD) pattern analysis revealed that these fine precipitates were MC type of niobium and vanadium carbides in the respective steels and followed Baker-Nutting orientation relationship with the ferrite matrix. The microstructural studies suggest that the increase in toughness of Nb-microalloyed steels is attributed to higher fraction of degenerated pearlite in the steel

  16. Discharge Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    2012-01-01

    For several years, efforts have been made to strengthen collaboration between health professionals with different specializations and to improve patient transition from hospital to home (care). In the Danish health care system, these efforts have concentrated on cancer and heart diseases, whereas...... coordinator, employed at the hospital, is supposed to anticipate discharge and serve as mediator between the hospital and the municipal home care system. Drawing on methods from discourse and interaction analysis, the paper studies the practice of the discharge coordinator in two encounters between patients...... how the home context provides different resources for identification of patient needs and mutual decision making....

  17. Optimization of Ligninolytic Enzyme Activity and Production Rate with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora for Application in Bioremediation by Varying Submerged Media Composition and Growth Immobilization Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janja Babič

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (central composite design of experiments was employed to simultaneously optimize enzyme production and productivities of two ligninolytic enzymes produced by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Concentrations of glucose, ammonium tartrate and Polysorbate 80 were varied to establish the optimal composition of liquid media (OLM, where the highest experimentally obtained activities and productivities were 41 U L−1 and 16 U L−1 day−1 for laccase (Lac, and 193 U L−1 and 80 U L−1 day−1 for manganese peroxidase (MnP. Considering culture growth in OLM on various types of immobilization support, the best results were obtained with 1 cm beech wood cubes (BWCM. Enzyme activities in culture filtrate were 152 U L−1 for Lac and 58 U L−1 for MnP, since the chemical composition of this immobilization material induced higher Lac activity. Lower enzyme activities were obtained with polyurethane foam. Culture filtrates of OLM and BWCM were applied for dye decolorization. Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR was decolorized faster and more efficiently than Copper(IIphthalocyanine (CuP with BWCM (80% and 60%, since Lac played a crucial role. Decolorization of CuP was initially faster than that of RBBR, due to higher MnP activities in OLM. The extent of decolorization after 14 h was 60% for both dyes.

  18. Real time equilibrium reconstruction for tokamak discharge control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferron, J.R.; Walker, M.L.; Lao, L.L.; St John, H.E.; Humphreys, D.A.; Leuer, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    A practical method for performing a tokamak equilibrium reconstruction in real time for arbitrary time varying discharge shapes and current profiles is described. An approximate solution to the Grad-Shafranov equilibrium relation is found which best fits the diagnostic measurements. Thus, a solution for the spatial distribution of poloidal flux and toroidal current density is available in real time that is consistent with plasma force balance, allowing accurate evaluation of parameters such as discharge shape and safety factor profile. The equilibrium solutions are produced at a rate sufficient for discharge control. This equilibrium reconstruction algorithm has been implemented on the digital plasma control system for the DIII-D tokamak. The first application of real time equilibrium reconstruction to discharge shape control is described. (author)

  19. Discharge lamp technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, J. [GE Lighting, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advance. A general overview of discharge lighting technology can be found in the book of Waymouth (1971). A recent review of low pressure lighting discharge science is found in Dakin (1991). The pioneering paper of Reiling (1964) provides a good introduction to metal halide discharges. Particularly relevant to lighting for plant growth, a recent and thorough treatment of high pressure Na lamps is found in the book by deGroot and vanVliet (1986). Broad practical aspects of lighting application are thoroughly covered in the IES Lighting Handbook edited by Kaufman (1984).

  20. Effects of pulse-to-pulse residual species on discharges in repetitively pulsed discharges through packed bed reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruszelnicki, Juliusz; Engeling, Kenneth W.; Foster, John E.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) sustained in packed bed reactors (PBRs) are being investigated for conversion of toxic and waste gases, and CO2 removal. These discharges are repetitively pulsed having varying flow rates and internal geometries, which results in species from the prior pulse still being in the discharge zone at the time the following discharge pulse occurs. A non-negligible residual plasma density remains, which effectively acts as preionization. This residual charge changes the discharge properties of subsequent pulses, and may impact important PBR properties such as chemical selectivity. Similarly, the residual neutral reactive species produced during earlier pulses will impact the reaction rates on subsequent pulses. We report on results of a computational investigation of a 2D PBR using the plasma hydrodynamics simulator nonPDPSIM. Results will be discussed for air flowing though an array of dielectric rods at atmospheric pressure. The effects of inter-pulse residual species on PBR discharges will be quantified. Means of controlling the presence of residual species in the reactor through gas flow rate, pulse repetition, pulse width and geometry will be described. Comparisons will be made to experiments. Work supported by US DOE Office of Fusion Energy Science and the National Science Foundation.

  1. Angioplasty and stent - heart - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug-eluting stents - discharge; PCI - discharge; Percutaneous coronary intervention - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - discharge; Coronary angioplasty - discharge; Coronary artery angioplasty - discharge; Cardiac ...

  2. Phosphorus extracted by ion exchange resins and mehlich-1 from oxisols (latosols treated with different phosphorus rates and sources for varied soil-source contact periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irio Fernando de Freitas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the large number of studies addressing the quantification of phosphorus (P availability by different extraction methods, many questions remain unanswered. The aim of this paper was to compare the effectiveness of the extractors Mehlich-1, Anionic Resin (AR and Mixed Resin (MR, to determine the availability of P under different experimental conditions. The laboratory study was arranged in randomized blocks in a [(3 x 3 x 2 + 3] x 4 factorial design, with four replications, testing the response of three soils with different texture: a very clayey Red Latosol (LV, a sandy clay loam Red Yellow Latosol (LVA, and a sandy loam Yellow Latosol (LA, to three sources (triple superphosphate, reactive phosphate rock from Gafsa-Tunisia; and natural phosphate from Araxá-Minas Gerais at two P rates (75 and 150 mg dm-3, plus three control treatments (each soil without P application after four contact periods (15, 30, 60, and 120 days of the P sources with soil. The soil acidity of LV and LVA was adjusted by raising base saturation to 60 % with the application of CaCO3 and MgCO3 at a 4:1 molar ratio (LA required no correction. These samples were maintained at field moisture capacity for 30 days. After the contact periods, the samples were collected to quantify the available P concentrations by the three extractants. In general, all three indicated that the available P-content in soils was reduced after longer contact periods with the P sources. Of the three sources, this reduction was most pronounced for triple superphosphate, intermediate for reactive phosphate, while Araxá phosphate was least sensitive to the effect of time. It was observed that AR extracted lower P levels from all three soils when the sources were phosphate rocks, while MR extracted values close to Mehlich-1 in LV (clay and LVA (medium texture for reactive phosphate. For Araxá phosphate, much higher P values were determined by Mehlich-1 than by the resins, because of the acidity of

  3. Radiological discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodliffe, J.

    1990-01-01

    Current practice of North Sea States on the discharge and disposal of liquid radioactive wastes to the North Sea are based on the declaration issued at the Second International Conference on the Protection of the North Sea, known as the London Declaration. This has three main points the first of which emphasises the application of the Best Available Technology to protect the North Sea, the second provides a framework on which future controls on radioactive discharges should be based. The third identifies two parts of the framework; to take into account the recommendations of international organizations and that any repositories of radioactive waste which are built should not pollute the North Sea. This chapter looks at how the concensus based on the London Declaration is working, gauges the progress made in the implementation of the policy goal, identifies existing and future areas for concern and proposes ways of strengthening the control of radioactive discharges. The emphasis is on the United Kingdom practice and regulations for liquid wastes, most of which comes from the Sellafield Reprocessing Plant. (author)

  4. The effect of a miniature argon flow rate on the spectral characteristics of a direct current atmospheric pressure glow micro-discharge between an argon microjet and a small sized flowing liquid cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamroz, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.jamroz@pwr.wroc.pl; Zyrnicki, Wieslaw; Pohl, Pawel

    2012-07-15

    A stable direct current atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge (dc-{mu}APGD) was generated between a miniature Ar flow microjet and a small sized flowing liquid cathode. The microdischarge was operated in the open to air atmosphere. High energy species, including OH, NH, NO, N{sub 2}, H, O and Ar were identified in the emission spectra of this microdischarge. Additionally, atomic lines of metals dissolved in water solutions were easily excited. The near cathode and the near anode zones of the microdischarge were investigated as a function of an Ar flow rate up to 300 sccm. The spectroscopic parameters, i.e., the excitation, the vibrational and the rotational temperatures as well as the electron number density, were determined in the near cathode and the near anode regions of the microdischarge. In the near cathode region, the rotational temperatures obtained for OH (2000-2600 K) and N{sub 2} bands (1600-1950 K) were significantly lower than the excitation temperatures of Ar (7400 K-7800 K) and H (11 000-15 500 K) atoms. Vibrational temperatures of N{sub 2}, OH and NO varied from 3400 to 4000 K, from 2900 to 3400 K and from 2700 to 3000 K, respectively. In the near anode region, rotational temperatures of OH (350-1750 K) and N{sub 2} (400-1350 K) and excitation temperatures of Ar (5200-5500 K) and H (3600-12 600 K) atoms were lower than those measured in the near cathode region. The effect of the introduction of a liquid sample on the microdischarge radiation and spectroscopic parameters was also investigated in the near cathode zone. The electron number density was calculated from the Stark broadening of the H{sub {beta}} line and equals to (0.25-1.1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} and (0.68-1.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} in the near cathode and the near anode zones, respectively. The intensity of the Na I emission line and the signal to background ratio (SBR) of this line were investigated in both zones to evaluate the excitation

  5. The effect of a miniature argon flow rate on the spectral characteristics of a direct current atmospheric pressure glow micro-discharge between an argon microjet and a small sized flowing liquid cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamróz, Piotr; Żyrnicki, Wiesław; Pohl, Paweł

    2012-01-01

    A stable direct current atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge (dc-μAPGD) was generated between a miniature Ar flow microjet and a small sized flowing liquid cathode. The microdischarge was operated in the open to air atmosphere. High energy species, including OH, NH, NO, N 2 , H, O and Ar were identified in the emission spectra of this microdischarge. Additionally, atomic lines of metals dissolved in water solutions were easily excited. The near cathode and the near anode zones of the microdischarge were investigated as a function of an Ar flow rate up to 300 sccm. The spectroscopic parameters, i.e., the excitation, the vibrational and the rotational temperatures as well as the electron number density, were determined in the near cathode and the near anode regions of the microdischarge. In the near cathode region, the rotational temperatures obtained for OH (2000–2600 K) and N 2 bands (1600–1950 K) were significantly lower than the excitation temperatures of Ar (7400 K–7800 K) and H (11 000–15 500 K) atoms. Vibrational temperatures of N 2 , OH and NO varied from 3400 to 4000 K, from 2900 to 3400 K and from 2700 to 3000 K, respectively. In the near anode region, rotational temperatures of OH (350–1750 K) and N 2 (400–1350 K) and excitation temperatures of Ar (5200–5500 K) and H (3600–12 600 K) atoms were lower than those measured in the near cathode region. The effect of the introduction of a liquid sample on the microdischarge radiation and spectroscopic parameters was also investigated in the near cathode zone. The electron number density was calculated from the Stark broadening of the H β line and equals to (0.25–1.1) × 10 15 cm −3 and (0.68–1.2) × 10 15 cm −3 in the near cathode and the near anode zones, respectively. The intensity of the Na I emission line and the signal to background ratio (SBR) of this line were investigated in both zones to evaluate the excitation properties of the developed excitation microsource. The limit of

  6. Analysis of radiofrequency discharges in plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D.; McGlynn, S.P.

    1992-08-04

    Separation of laser optogalvanic signals in plasma into two components: (1) an ionization rate change component, and (2) a photoacoustic mediated component. This separation of components may be performed even when the two components overlap in time, by measuring time-resolved laser optogalvanic signals in an rf discharge plasma as the rf frequency is varied near the electrical resonance peak of the plasma and associated driving/detecting circuits. A novel spectrometer may be constructed to make these measurements. Such a spectrometer would be useful in better understanding and controlling such processes as plasma etching and plasma deposition. 15 figs.

  7. Properties Influencing Plasma Discharges in Packed Bed Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruszelnicki, Juliusz; Engeling, Kenneth W.; Foster, John E.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) sustained in packed bed reactors (PBRs) are being investigated for CO2 removal and conversion of waste gases into higher value compounds. We report on results of a computational investigation of PBR-DBD properties using the plasma hydrodynamics simulator nonPDPSIM with a comparison to experiments. Dielectric beads (rods in 2D) were inserted between two coplanar electrodes, 1 cm apart filled by humid air. A step-pulse of -30 kV was applied to the top electrode. Material properties of the beads (dielectric constant, secondary emission coefficient) and gas properties (photoionization and photo-absorption cross-sections, temperature) were varied. We found that photoionization plays a critical role in the propagation of the discharge through the PBR, as it serves to seed charges in regions of high electric field. Increasing rates of photo-ionization enable increases in the discharge propagation velocity, ionization rates and production of radicals. A transition between DBD-like and arc-like discharges occurs as the radiation mean free path decreases. Increasing the dielectric constant of the beads increased electric fields in the gas, which translated to increased discharge propagation velocity and charge density until ɛ/ɛ0 100. Secondary electron emission coefficient and gas temperature have minimal impacts on the discharge propagation though the latter did affect the production of reactive species. Work supported by US DOE Office of Fusion Energy Science and the National Science Foundation.

  8. Diffusion of condenser water discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwakiri, Toshio

    1977-01-01

    Thermal and nuclear power stations in Japan are mostly located in coastal area, and the cooling water is discharged into sea as warm water. Recently, large interest is taken in this matter, and it is desirable to predict the diffusion of warm discharge accurately and to take effective measures for lowering the temperature. As for the methods of predicting the diffusion of warm discharge, simplified estimation, mathematical analysis and hydrographical model experiment are used corresponding to objects and conditions. As for the measures to lower temperature, the method of discharging warm water into deep sea bottom was confirmed to be very effective. In this paper, the phenomena of diffusion of warm discharge in sea, the methods of predicting the diffusion of warm discharge, and the deep sea discharge as the measure for lowering temperature are outlined. The factors concerning the diffusion of warm discharge in sea are the conditions of discharge, topography and sea state, and the diffusion is roughly divided into mixing diffusion in the vicinity of warm water outlet and eddy diffusion in distant region. It is difficult to change artificially the conditions of diffusion in distant region, and the measures of raising the rate of dilution in near region are effective, therefore the deep sea discharge is adopted. (Kako, I.)

  9. Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge ... you were in the hospital, you had a vaginal hysterectomy. Your surgeon made a cut in your ...

  10. Effect of tree thinning and litter removal on the radiocesium (Cs-134, 137) discharge rates in the Kawauchi forest plantation (Fukushima Prefecture, northern Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Onda, Yuichi; Takahashi, Junko; Kato, Hiroaki; Hisadome, Keigo

    2016-04-01

    On 11 March 2011 a 9.0 earthquake and the resulting tsunami occurred in central-eastern Japan triggering, one day after, the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (DNPP) accident. Despite the bulk of radionuclides (ca. 80%) were transported offshore and out over the Pacific Ocean, significant wet and dry deposits of those radionuclides occurred mainly in the Fukushima Prefecture and in a minor way in the Miyagi, Tochigi, Gunma and Ibaraki Prefectures. As a consequence and among other radionuclides, a total of 511,000 TBq of I-131, 13,500 TBq of Cs-134 and 13,600 TBq of Cs-137 were released into the atmosphere and the ocean, contaminating cultivated soils, rivers, settlements and forested areas. This accident caused severe environmental and economic damages. Several decontamination practices have done, including tree thinning and litter removal within the forests and tree plantations. In this study we analysed the effect of eight different management practices on the radiocesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) discharge rates during 20 months (May'2013 - Dec'2014) in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation (stand age of 57 years), located in a hillslope near the Kawauchi village, Fukushima Prefecture, northern Japan. This study area (37⁰ 20' 04" N, 140⁰ 53' 13.5" E) is located 16 km southwestern from the DNPP and within the evacuation area. The soils are Andosols. Ten runoff plots (5 x 2 meters) were installed and measurements started on May 2013. Two plots remained without any treatment as control plots and the other eight plots represented the following management practices: Mng1) Litter removal + clear-cutting (no sheet); Mng2) Litter removal + clear-cutting (no sheet); Mng3) Litter removal + clear-cutting (no sheet); Mng4) Litter removal; Mng5) Thinning (logged area); Mng6) Thinning (under remnant trees); Mng7) Litter removal + thinning (logged area); Mng8) Litter removal + thinning (under remnant trees). Each plot had a gauging station and sediment samples

  11. Development and analytical characterization of a Grimm-type glow discharge ion source operated with high gas flow rates and coupled to a mass spectrometer with high mass resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, Claus; Feldmann, Ingo; Gilmour, Dave; Hoffmann, Volker; Jakubowski, Norbert

    2002-01-01

    A Grimm-type glow discharge ion source has been developed and was coupled to a commercial inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) with high mass resolution (Axiom, ThermoElemental, Winsford, UK) by exchanging the front plate of the ICP-MS interface system only. In addition to high discharge powers of up to 70 W, which are typical for a Grimm-type design, this source could be operated with relative high gas flow rates of up to 240 ml min -1 . In combination with a high discharge voltage the signal intensities are reaching a constant level within the first 20 s after the discharge has started. An analytical characterization of this source is given utilizing a calibration using the steel standard reference material NIST 1261A-1265A. The sensitivity for the investigated elements measured with a resolution of 4000 is in the range of 500-6000 cps μg -1 g -1 , and a relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the measured isotope relative to Fe of less than 8% for the major and minor components of the sample has been achieved. Limits of detection at ng g -1 levels could be obtained

  12. Lung surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - discharge ... milk) for 2 weeks after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and 6 to 8 weeks after open surgery. ...

  13. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Heart valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 434. ...

  14. Analytical–numerical global model of atmospheric-pressure radio-frequency capacitive discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzaroni, C; Chabert, P; Lieberman, M A; Lichtenberg, A J; Leblanc, A

    2012-01-01

    A one-dimensional hybrid analytical–numerical global model of atmospheric-pressure, radio-frequency (rf) driven capacitive discharges is developed. The feed gas is assumed to be helium with small admixtures of oxygen or nitrogen. The electrical characteristics are modeled analytically as a current-driven homogeneous discharge. The electron power balance is solved analytically to determine a time-varying Maxwellian electron temperature, which oscillates on the rf timescale. Averaging over the rf period yields effective rate coefficients for gas phase activated processes. The particle balance relations for all species are then integrated numerically to determine the equilibrium discharge parameters. The coupling of analytical solutions of the time-varying discharge and electron temperature dynamics, and numerical solutions of the discharge chemistry, allows for a fast solution of the discharge equilibrium. Variations of discharge parameters with discharge composition and rf power are determined. Comparisons are made to more accurate but numerically costly fluid models, with space and time variations, but with the range of parameters limited by computational time. (paper)

  15. Risk-adjustment models for heart failure patients' 30-day mortality and readmission rates: the incremental value of clinical data abstracted from medical charts beyond hospital discharge record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Jacopo; Avaldi, Vera Maria; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Descovich, Carlo; Castaldini, Ilaria; Urbinati, Stefano; Di Pasquale, Giuseppe; Rucci, Paola; Fantini, Maria Pia

    2016-09-06

    Hospital discharge records (HDRs) are routinely used to assess outcomes of care and to compare hospital performance for heart failure. The advantages of using clinical data from medical charts to improve risk-adjustment models remain controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the additional contribution of clinical variables to HDR-based 30-day mortality and readmission models in patients with heart failure. This retrospective observational study included all patients residing in the Local Healthcare Authority of Bologna (about 1 million inhabitants) who were discharged in 2012 from one of three hospitals in the area with a diagnosis of heart failure. For each study outcome, we compared the discrimination of the two risk-adjustment models (i.e., HDR-only model and HDR-clinical model) through the area under the ROC curve (AUC). A total of 1145 and 1025 patients were included in the mortality and readmission analyses, respectively. Adding clinical data significantly improved the discrimination of the mortality model (AUC = 0.84 vs. 0.73, p < 0.001), but not the discrimination of the readmission model (AUC = 0.65 vs. 0.63, p = 0.08). We identified clinical variables that significantly improved the discrimination of the HDR-only model for 30-day mortality following heart failure. By contrast, clinical variables made little contribution to the discrimination of the HDR-only model for 30-day readmission.

  16. Quantifying Construction Site Sediment Discharge Risk and Treatment Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, L.; Beighley, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    Dealing with soil erosion and sediment transport can be a significant challenge during the construction process due to the potentially large spatial and temporal extent and conditions of bare soils. Best Management Practices (BMP) are commonly used to eliminate or reduce offsite discharge of sediment. However, few efforts have investigated the time varying risk of sediment discharge from construction sites, which often have dynamic soil conditions and the potential for less than optimal BMP installations. The goal of this research is to improve the design, implementation and effectiveness of sediment and erosion control at construction sites using site specific, temporal distributions of sediment discharge risk. Sediment risk is determined from individual factors leading to sediment expert, such as rainfall frequency, the adequacy of BMP installations, and the extent and duration of bare soil conditions. This research specifically focuses on quantifying: (a) the effectiveness of temporary sediment and control erosion control BMPs in preventing, containing, and/or treating construction site sediment discharge at varying levels of "proper" installation, and (b) sediment discharge potential from construction sites during different phases of construction, (ex., disturbed earth operations). BMPs are evaluated at selected construction sites in southern California and at the Soil Erosion Research Laboratory (SERL) in the Civil and Environmental Engineering department at San Diego State University. SERL experiments are performed on a 3-m by 10-m tilting soil bed with soil depths up to 1 meter, slopes ranging from 0 to 50 percent, and rainfall rates up to 150 mm/hr (6 in/hr). BMP performance is assessed based on experiments where BMPs are installed per manufacture specifications, potential less than optimal installations, and no treatment conditions. Soil conditions are also varied to represent site conditions during different phases of construction (i.e., loose lifts

  17. Discharge cleaning for a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Shigeyuki

    1983-01-01

    Various methods of discharge cleaning for tokamaks are described. The material of the first walls of tokamaks is usually stainless steel, inconel, titanium and so on. Hydrogen is exclusively used as the discharge gas. Glow discharge cleaning (GDC), Taylor discharge cleaning (TDC), and electron cyclotron resonance discharge cleaning (ECR-DC) are discussed in this paper. The cleaning by GDC is made by moving a movable anode to the center of a tokamak vassel. Taylor found the good cleaning effect of induced discharge by high pressure and low power discharge. This is called TDC. When the frequency of high frequency discharge in a magnetic field is equal to that of the electron cyclotron resonance, the break down potential is lowered if the pressure is sufficiently low. The ECR-CD is made by using this effect. In TDC and ECR-DC, the electron temperature, which has a close relation to the production rate of H 0 , can be controlled by the pressure. In GDC, the operating pressure was improved by the radio frequency glow (RG) method. However, there is still the danger of arcing. In case of GDC and ECR-DC, the position of plasma can be controlled, but not in case of TDC. The TDC is accepted by most of takamak devices in the world. (Kato, T.)

  18. Radioactive discharges from Sellafield (UK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentreath, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    This study of low-level liquid radioactive discharges from the British Nuclear Fuels Ltd Sellafield site into the eastern basin of the Irish Sea, prepared on the basis of existing publications and documents, reviews chemical forms and rate of discharges, physical oceanography, sediment distribution and fisheries of the Irish Sea, behaviour of radionuclides in seawater, association with sedimentary materials, accumulation of radionuclides by biological materials, environmental monitoring, surveillance and assessment of radiation exposure of the public and impact on the environment

  19. Conversion of carbon dioxide to value-added chemicals in atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulussen, Sabine; Verheyde, Bert; Tu Xin; Sels, Bert; De Bie, Christophe; Martens, Tom; Petrovic, Dragana; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work consists of the evaluation of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges for the conversion of greenhouse gases into useful compounds. Therefore, pure CO 2 feed flows are administered to the discharge zone at varying discharge frequency, power input, gas temperature and feed flow rates, aiming at the formation of CO and O 2 . The discharge obtained in CO 2 is characterized as a filamentary mode with a microdischarge zone in each half cycle of the applied voltage. It is shown that the most important parameter affecting the CO 2 -conversion levels is the gas flow rate. At low flow rates, both the conversion and the CO-yield are significantly higher. In addition, also an increase in the gas temperature and the power input give rise to higher conversion levels, although the effect on the CO-yield is limited. The optimum discharge frequency depends on the power input level and it cannot be unambiguously stated that higher frequencies give rise to increased conversion levels. A maximum CO 2 conversion of 30% is achieved at a flow rate of 0.05 L min -1 , a power density of 14.75 W cm -3 and a frequency of 60 kHz. The most energy efficient conversions are achieved at a flow rate of 0.2 L min -1 , a power density of 11 W cm -3 and a discharge frequency of 30 kHz.

  20. Short-term reconsultation, hospitalisation, and death rates after discharge from the emergency department in patients with acute heart failure and analysis of the associated factors. The ALTUR-ICA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, Òscar; Gil, Víctor; Martín-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Herrero, Pablo; Jacob, Javier; Sánchez, Carolina; Xipell, Carolina; Aguiló, Sira; Llorens, Pere

    2018-03-09

    The aim of this study was to define the following in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) discharged directly from accident and emergency (A&E): rates of reconsultation to A&E and hospitalisation for AHF, and all-cause death at 30 days, rate of combined event at 7 days and the factors associated with these rates. The study included patients consecutively diagnosed with AHF during 2 months in 27 Spanish A&E departments who were discharged from A&E without hospitalisation. We collected 43 independent variables, monitored patients for 30 days and evaluated predictive factors for adverse events using Cox regression analysis. We evaluated 785 patients (78±9) years, 54.7% women). The rates of reconsultation, hospitalisation, and death at 30 days and the combined event at 7 days were: 26.1, 15.7, 1.7 and 10.6%, respectively. The independent factors associated with reconsultation were no endovenous diuretics administered in A&E (HR 2.86; 95% CI 2.01-4.04), glomerular filtration rate (GFR)<60ml/min/m 2 (1.94; 1.37-2.76) and previous AHF episodes (1.48; 1.02-2.13); for hospitalisation these factors were no endovenous diuretics in A&E (2.97; 1.96-4.48), having heart valve disease (1.61; 1.04-2.48), blood oxygen saturation at arrival to A&E<95% (1.60; 1.06-2.42); and for the combined event no endovenous diuretics in A&E (3.65; 2.19-6.10), GFR<60ml/min/m 2 (2.22; 1.31-3.25), previous AHF episodes (1.95; 1.04-3.25), and use of endovenous nitrates (0.13; 0.02-0.99). This is the first study in Spain to describe the rates of adverse events in patients with AHF discharged directly from A&E and define the associated factors. These data should help establish the most adequate approaches to managing these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... long as you are told. This helps ensure tennis elbow will not return. You may be prescribed a ...

  2. Ankle replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total - discharge; Total ankle arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement - discharge; Osteoarthritis - ankle ... You had an ankle replacement. Your surgeon removed and reshaped ... an artificial ankle joint. You received pain medicine and were ...

  3. Hip fracture - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - discharge ... in the hospital for surgery to repair a hip fracture, a break in the upper part of ...

  4. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  5. Prostate brachytherapy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer - discharge; Radioactive seed placement - discharge ... You had a procedure called brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer. Your treatment lasted 30 minutes or more, ...

  6. Singlet oxygen generation in a high pressure non-self-sustained electric discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, Adam; Norberg, Seth; Shawcross, Paul; Lempert, Walter R; Rich, J William; Adamovich, Igor V

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results of singlet oxygen generation experiments in a high-pressure, non-self-sustained crossed discharge. The discharge consists of a high-voltage, short pulse duration, high repetition rate pulsed discharge, which produces ionization in the flow, and a low-voltage dc discharge which sustains current in a decaying plasma between the pulses. The sustainer voltage can be independently varied to maximize the energy input into electron impact excitation of singlet delta oxygen (SDO). The results demonstrate operation of a stable and diffuse crossed discharge in O 2 -He mixtures at static pressures of at least up to P 0 = 380 Torr and sustainer discharge powers of at least up to 1200 W, achieved at P 0 = 120 Torr. The reduced electric field in the positive column of the sustainer discharge varies from E/N = 0.3 x 10 -16 to 0.65 X 10 -16 V cm 2 , which is significantly lower than E/N in self-sustained discharges and close to the theoretically predicted optimum value for O 2 (a 1 Δ) excitation. Measurements of visible emission spectra O 2 (b 1 Σ → X 3 Σ) in the discharge afterglow show the O 2 (b 1 Σ) concentration to increase with the sustainer discharge power and to decrease as the O 2 fraction in the flow is increased. Rotational temperatures inferred from these spectra in 10% O 2 -90% He flows at P 0 = 120 Torr and mass flow rates of m-dot = 2.2 are 365-465 K. SDO yield at these conditions, 1.7% to 4.4%, was inferred from the integrated intensity of the (0, 0) band of the O 2 (a 1 Δ → X 3 Σ) infrared emission spectra calibrated using a blackbody source. The yield remains nearly constant in the discharge afterglow, up to at least 15 cm distance from the discharge. Kinetic modelling calculations using a quasi-one-dimensional nonequilibrium pulser-sustainer discharge model coupled with the Boltzmann equation for plasma electrons predict gas temperature rise in the discharge in satisfactory agreement with the experimental measurements

  7. Numerical investigation on the combined effects of varying piston bowl geometries and ramp injection rate-shapes on the combustion characteristics of a kerosene-diesel fueled direct injection compression ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, Kun Lin; Yang, Wenming; Zhao, Feiyang; Yu, Wenbin; Mohan, Balaji

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of injection rate-shaping on heat-release is significant with less turbulence. • Two peak heat-releases are seen for the shallow-depth re-entrant piston. • Significant combustion phasing occurs with kerosene usage and high turbulence. - Abstract: In this work, the combustion characteristics of a direct injection compression ignition (DICI) engine fueled with kerosene-diesel blends, using different piston bowl geometries together with varying injection rate-shapes were investigated. A total of three combustion bowl geometries, namely the omega combustion chamber (OCC), the shallow-depth combustion chamber (SCC) and the shallow-depth re-entrant combustion chamber (SRCC), were used together with six different ramp injection rate-shapes and pure diesel, kerosene-diesel and pure kerosene fuels. It is seen that the SRCC geometry, which has the shortest throat length, gives the highest turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and this resulted in two peak heat-releases, with a primary peak heat-release during the premixed combustion phase and a secondary peak heat-release during the mixing-controlled combustion phase. In addition, the SCC geometry gives rather distinct premixed combustion and mixing-controlled combustion phases due to the fact that combustion is predominantly controlled by the injected fuel spray itself because of less turbulence. Also, when kerosene is used in place of diesel, the heat-release during the premixed combustion phase increases and diminishes during the mixing-controlled and late combustion phases. It is interesting to note that the effect of injection rate-shaping on the heat-release rate is more obvious for bowl geometries that generate less TKE. Moreover, bowl geometries that generate higher TKEs as well as fuels with lower viscosities generally give lower carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and higher nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions. More importantly, it is possible to achieve low NO and CO emissions simultaneously by using the

  8. Measuring the absolute disintegration rate of a radioactive gas with a moveable endplate discharge counter (MEP) and theoretical calculation of wall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffey, A.H.; Gray, J.; Bentley, W.C.; Lerner, J.L.

    1987-09-01

    A precision built moveable endplate Geiger-Mueller counter was used to measure the absolute disintegration rate of a beta-emitting radioactive gas. A Geiger-Mueller counter used for measuring gaseous radioactivity has 85 Kr (beta energy, 0.67 MeV). The wall effect calculation is readily extendable to other beta energies

  9. Pre-assessment of dose rates of 134Cs, 137Cs, and 60Co for marine biota from discharge of Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jingjing; Liu, Senlin; Zhang, Yongxing; Chen, Ling; Yan, Yuan; Cheng, Weiya; Lou, Hailin; Zhang, Yongbao

    2015-01-01

    Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant to be built in China was selected as a case for the dose pre-assessment for marine biota in this study. The concentrations of Cs and Co in organisms (turbot, yellow croaker, swimming crab, abalone, sea cucumber, and sea lettuce), seawater, and bottom sediment sampled on-site were measured by neutron activation analysis, and the site-specific transfer parameters (concentration ratios and distribution coefficients) of Cs and Co were calculated. 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 60 Co activity concentrations in the organisms and the sediment at the site were calculated with the site-specific transfer parameters and the anticipated activity concentrations in the liquid effluent of the nuclear power plant. The ERICA tool was used to estimate the dose rates of 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 60 Co to the selected organisms based on the biological models developed. The total dose rates of 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 60 Co to the six organisms were all <0.001 μGy h −1 . - Highlights: • Pre-assessment for biota dose rates from Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant was made. • The site-specific transfer parameters were obtained by neutron activation analysis. • The dose rates of 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 60 Co to the organisms were <0.001 μGy h −1

  10. Discharge Oscillations in a Permanent Magnet Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Sooby, E. S.; Raitses, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of the discharge current in a cylindrical Hall thruster are presented to quantify plasma oscillations and instabilities without introducing an intrusive probe into the plasma. The time-varying component of the discharge current is measured using a current monitor that possesses a wide frequency bandwidth and the signal is Fourier transformed to yield the frequency spectra present, allowing for the identification of plasma oscillations. The data show that the discharge current oscillations become generally greater in amplitude and complexity as the voltage is increased, and are reduced in severity with increasing flow rate. The breathing mode ionization instability is identified, with frequency as a function of discharge voltage not increasing with discharge voltage as has been observed in some traditional Hall thruster geometries, but instead following a scaling similar to a large-amplitude, nonlinear oscillation mode recently predicted in for annular Hall thrusters. A transition from lower amplitude oscillations to large relative fluctuations in the oscillating discharge current is observed at low flow rates and is suppressed as the mass flow rate is increased. A second set of peaks in the frequency spectra are observed at the highest propellant flow rate tested. Possible mechanisms that might give rise to these peaks include ionization instabilities and interactions between various oscillatory modes.

  11. Computing discharge using the index velocity method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Victor A.; Oberg, Kevin A.

    2012-01-01

    Application of the index velocity method for computing continuous records of discharge has become increasingly common, especially since the introduction of low-cost acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) in 1997. Presently (2011), the index velocity method is being used to compute discharge records for approximately 470 gaging stations operated and maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey. The purpose of this report is to document and describe techniques for computing discharge records using the index velocity method. Computing discharge using the index velocity method differs from the traditional stage-discharge method by separating velocity and area into two ratings—the index velocity rating and the stage-area rating. The outputs from each of these ratings, mean channel velocity (V) and cross-sectional area (A), are then multiplied together to compute a discharge. For the index velocity method, V is a function of such parameters as streamwise velocity, stage, cross-stream velocity, and velocity head, and A is a function of stage and cross-section shape. The index velocity method can be used at locations where stage-discharge methods are used, but it is especially appropriate when more than one specific discharge can be measured for a specific stage. After the ADVM is selected, installed, and configured, the stage-area rating and the index velocity rating must be developed. A standard cross section is identified and surveyed in order to develop the stage-area rating. The standard cross section should be surveyed every year for the first 3 years of operation and thereafter at a lesser frequency, depending on the susceptibility of the cross section to change. Periodic measurements of discharge are used to calibrate and validate the index rating for the range of conditions experienced at the gaging station. Data from discharge measurements, ADVMs, and stage sensors are compiled for index-rating analysis. Index ratings are developed by means of regression

  12. Systematic investigation of the barrier discharge operation in helium, nitrogen, and mixtures: discharge development, formation and decay of surface charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschiersch, R.; Bogaczyk, M.; Wagner, H.-E.

    2014-09-01

    As a logical extension to previous investigations of the barrier discharge (BD) in helium and nitrogen, the present work reports on the operation in any mixtures of both pure gases. Using a well-established plane-parallel discharge cell configuration allows to study the influence of the He/N2 mixing ratio on the formation of different discharge modes. Their characterization was made by measuring the discharge emission development together with the formation and decay of surface charges on a bismuth silicon oxide (Bi12SiO20, BSO) crystal. This was realized by the simultaneous application of the spatio-temporally resolved optical emission spectroscopy, and the electro-optic Pockels effect in combination with a CCD high speed camera. The existence diagram for diffuse and filamentary BDs was determined by varying the amplitude and shape of the applied voltage. Over the entire range of the He/N2 ratio, the diffuse mode can be operated at moderate voltage amplitudes whereas filamentation occurs at significant overvoltage and is favoured by a high voltage slew rate. Irrespective of the discharge mode, the overall charge transfer during a discharge breakdown is found to be in excellent agreement with the amount of accumulated surface charges. An exponential decay of the surface charge deposited on the BSO crystal is induced by LED illumination beyond a typical discharge cycle. During the decay process, a broadening of the radial profiles of positive as well as negative surface charge spots originating from previous microdischarges is observed. The investigations contribute to a better understanding of the charge accumulation at a dielectric.

  13. Pre-assessment of dose rates of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co for marine biota from discharge of Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Liu, Senlin; Zhang, Yongxing; Chen, Ling; Yan, Yuan; Cheng, Weiya; Lou, Hailin; Zhang, Yongbao

    2015-09-01

    Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant to be built in China was selected as a case for the dose pre-assessment for marine biota in this study. The concentrations of Cs and Co in organisms (turbot, yellow croaker, swimming crab, abalone, sea cucumber, and sea lettuce), seawater, and bottom sediment sampled on-site were measured by neutron activation analysis, and the site-specific transfer parameters (concentration ratios and distribution coefficients) of Cs and Co were calculated. (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co activity concentrations in the organisms and the sediment at the site were calculated with the site-specific transfer parameters and the anticipated activity concentrations in the liquid effluent of the nuclear power plant. The ERICA tool was used to estimate the dose rates of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co to the selected organisms based on the biological models developed. The total dose rates of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (60)Co to the six organisms were all <0.001 μGy h(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of oxygen gas flow rates and Ga contents on structural properties of Ga-doped ZnO films prepared by ion-plating with a DC arc discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasako, Tomoaki; Nomoto, Junichi; Makino, Hisao; Yamamoto, Naoki; Shirakata, Sho; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Structural properties of highly c-axis oriented polycrystalline Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films prepared by ion-plating with a DC arc discharge were studied in terms of the oxygen gas flow rate (F O2 ) introduced into the chamber during the deposition process and the Ga 2 O 3 content in the GZO sintered pellet. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements revealed that the GZO films have the residual compressive stress along the a-axis direction (in-plane) and the tensile stress along the c-axis direction (out-of-plane). The increase in F O2 or the increase in Ga 2 O 3 content was effective for relaxing the in-plane compressive stress induced by the so-called atomic peening effect. The positive correlation between the carrier concentration (n) and the primitive cell volume (V) would be due to the incorporation of Ga atoms substituting Zn sites (Ga Zn s) together with the generation of n-type intrinsic defects or complex defects. - Highlights: • Films of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films were deposited by ion-plating with a DC arc discharge. • Structural properties of GZO films were examined by X-ray diffraction measurements. • GZO films had the residual compressive stress along the a-axis direction. • There was the correlation between the carrier concentration and the cell volume.

  15. Effects of oxygen gas flow rates and Ga contents on structural properties of Ga-doped ZnO films prepared by ion-plating with a DC arc discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terasako, Tomoaki, E-mail: terasako.tomoaki.mz@ehime-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama-shi, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Nomoto, Junichi; Makino, Hisao; Yamamoto, Naoki [Research Institute, Kochi University of Technology, 185 Miyanokuchi, Tosayamada-cho, Kami-shi, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan); Shirakata, Sho [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama-shi, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Yamamoto, Tetsuya [Research Institute, Kochi University of Technology, 185 Miyanokuchi, Tosayamada-cho, Kami-shi, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan)

    2015-12-01

    Structural properties of highly c-axis oriented polycrystalline Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films prepared by ion-plating with a DC arc discharge were studied in terms of the oxygen gas flow rate (F{sub O2}) introduced into the chamber during the deposition process and the Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} content in the GZO sintered pellet. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements revealed that the GZO films have the residual compressive stress along the a-axis direction (in-plane) and the tensile stress along the c-axis direction (out-of-plane). The increase in F{sub O2} or the increase in Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} content was effective for relaxing the in-plane compressive stress induced by the so-called atomic peening effect. The positive correlation between the carrier concentration (n) and the primitive cell volume (V) would be due to the incorporation of Ga atoms substituting Zn sites (Ga{sub Zn}s) together with the generation of n-type intrinsic defects or complex defects. - Highlights: • Films of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films were deposited by ion-plating with a DC arc discharge. • Structural properties of GZO films were examined by X-ray diffraction measurements. • GZO films had the residual compressive stress along the a-axis direction. • There was the correlation between the carrier concentration and the cell volume.

  16. Characterizing the Effects of Micro Electrical Discharge Machining Parameters on Material Removal Rate during Micro EDM Drilling of Tungsten Carbide (WC-Co)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourmand, Mehdi; Sarhan, Ahmed A. D.; Sayuti, Mohd

    2017-10-01

    Micro-dies, molds and miniaturized products can be manufactured using micro EDM process. In this research, EDM machine and on-machine fabricated CuW micro-electrode were utilized to produce the micro holes in WC-16%Co. The effects of voltage, current, pulse ON time, pulse OFF time, capacitor and rotating speed on Material removal rate (MRR) during micro EDM drilling of WC-16% Co was analyzed using fractional factorial design method. ANOVA analysis shows that increasing current, rotating speed, capacitor and decreasing voltage and pulse ON time lead to the amplify in MRR. It was found that out of all the factors, current and capacitor had the most significant effect on MRR, while the effect of capacitor was more than current. Eventually, it can be concluded that micro holes can be produced using EDM machine.

  17. Calculation of the inventory and near-field release rates of radioactivity from neutron-activated metal parts discharged from the high flux isotope reactor and emplaced in solid waste storage area 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelmers, A.D.; Hightower, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    Emplacement of contaminated reactor components involves disposal in lined and unlined auger holes in soil above the water table. The radionuclide inventory of disposed components was calculated. Information on the composition and weight of the components, as well as reasonable assumptions for the neutron flux fueling use, the time of neutron exposure, and radioactive decay after discharge, were employed in the inventory calculation. Near-field release rates of /sup 152/Eu, /sup 154/Eu, and /sup 155/Eu from control plates and cylinders were calculated for 50 years after emplacement. Release rates of the europium isotopes were uncertain. Two release-rate-limiting models were considered and a range of reasonable values were assumed for the time-to-failure of the auger-hole linear and aluminum cladding and europium solubility in SWSA-6 groundwater. The bounding europium radionuclide near-field release rates peaked at about 1.3 Ci/year total for /sup 152,154,155/Eu in 1987 for the lower bound, and at about 420 Ci/year in 1992 for the upper bound. The near-field release rates of /sup 55/Fe, /sup 59/Ni, /sup 60/Co, and /sup 63/Ni from stainless steel and cobalt alloy components, as well as of /sup 10/Be, /sup 41/Ca, and /sup 55/Fe from beryllium reflectors, were calculated for the next 100 years, assuming bulk waste corrosion was the release-rate-limiting step. Under the most conservative assumptions for the reflectors, the current (1986) total radionuclide release rate was calculated to be about 1.2 x 10/sup -4/ Ci/year, decreasing by 1992 to a steady release of about 1.5 x 10/sup -5/ Ci/year due primarily to /sup 41/Ca. 50 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. The effect of high charging rates activation on the specific discharge capacity and efficiency of a negative electrode based on a LaMgAlMnCoNi alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.A.; Zarpelon, L.M.C.; Casini, J.C.S.; Takiishi, H.; Faria, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    A nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) rechargeable battery has been prepared using a La 0.7 Mg 0.3 Al 0.3 Mn 0.4 Co 0.5 Ni 3.8 alloy as the negative electrode. The maximum discharge capacity of the La 0.7 Mg 0.3 Al 0.3 Mn 0.4 Co 0.5 Ni 3.8 alloy has been determined (350 mAh/g). Using a high starting charging rate (2857 mAg -1 ) an efficiency of 49% has been achieved in the 4 th cycle. The alloy and powders have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). (author)

  19. Chemical and microbiological water quality of subsurface agricultural drains during a field trial of liquid dairy manure effluent application rate and varying tillage practices, Upper Tiffin Watershed, southeastern Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan Kidd; Duris, Joseph W.

    2008-01-01

    -water-quality single-sample criterion of 235 colony forming units per 100 milliliters in only 3 of 56 samples. Of these three samples, two were collected within 1 day post-LDME application from the treatment receiving 8,000 gal/acre LDME with no tillage (NT8000). The third sample was from the rolling-tine aerator treatment with 4,000 gal/acre LDME application rate after the first significant rainfall. Two wastewater chemicals and two bacterial genes (eaeA and stx1) detected in the LDME, but absent in field blank or pre-application samples, were detected in the 4-hour or 1-day postapplication NT8000 samples. No LDME-associated chemicals were detected in later samples from the NT8000 treatment, and none were detected in samples from other treatments after the first significant rainfall. Results of this field trial were somewhat equivocal with respect to the influence of LDME concentration and tillage practices on subsurface-drain water quality, both immediately after LDME application and in the longer term, after significant rainfall. Interpretation of study findings is limited by the fact that treatments were not replicated, and flow rate or discharge from the subsurface drains was not measured. Nevertheless, study results provide useful information about nutrient and bacteria concentrations in subsurface drains during the non-growing season. In addition, study results demonstrate some potential for the use of chemical and microbiological indicators of LDME transport to subsurface drains.

  20. Stage-discharge relationship in tidal channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, W. S.; Mariotti, G.; Deegan, L.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term records of the flow of water through tidal channels are essential to constrain the budgets of sediments and biogeochemical compounds in salt marshes. Statistical models which relate discharge to water level allow the estimation of such records from more easily obtained records of water stage in the channel. While there is clearly structure in the stage-discharge relationship, nonlinearity and nonstationarity of the relationship complicates the construction of statistical stage-discharge models with adequate performance for discharge estimation and uncertainty quantification. Here we compare four different types of stage-discharge models, each of which is designed to capture different characteristics of the stage-discharge relationship. We estimate and validate each of these models on a two-month long time series of stage and discharge obtained with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler in a salt marsh channel. We find that the best performance is obtained by models which account for the nonlinear and time-varying nature of the stage-discharge relationship. Good performance can also be obtained from a simplified version of these models which approximates the fully nonlinear and time-varying models with a piecewise linear formulation.

  1. The impact of glaucoma referral refinement criteria on referral to, and first-visit discharge rates from, the hospital eye service: the Health Innovation & Education Cluster (HIEC) Glaucoma Pathways project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnarajan, Gokulan; Newsom, Wendy; French, Karen; Kean, Jane; Chang, Lydia; Parker, Mike; Garway-Heath, David F; Bourne, Rupert R A

    2013-03-01

    To assess the impact of referral refinement criteria on the number of patients referred to, and first-visit discharges from, the Hospital Eye Service (HES) in relation to the National Institute for Health & Clinical Excellence (NICE) Glaucoma Guidelines, Joint College Group Guidance (JCG) and the NICE commissioning guidance. All low-risk (one risk factor: suspicious optic disc, abnormal visual field (VF), raised intra-ocular pressure (IOP) (22-28 mmHg) or IOP asymmetry (>5 mmHg) and high-risk (more than one risk factor, shallow anterior chamber or IOP >28 mmHg) referrals to the HES from 2006 to 2011 were analysed. Low-risk referrals were seen by Optometrists with a specialist interest in glaucoma and high-risk referrals were referred directly to the HES. Two thousand nine hundred and twelve patient records were analysed. The highest Consultant first-visit discharge rates were for referrals based on IOP alone (45% for IOP 22-28 mmHg) and IOP asymmetry (53%), VF defect alone (46%) and for abnormal IOP and VF (54%). The lowest first-visit discharge rates were for referrals for suspicious optic disc (19%) and IOP >28 mmHg (22%). 73% of patients aged 65-80 and 60% of patients aged >80 who were referred by the OSI due to an IOP between 22-28 mmHg would have satisfied the JCG criteria for non-referral. For patients referred with an IOP >28 mmHg and an otherwise normal examination, adherence to the NICE commissioning guidance would have resulted in 6% fewer referrals. In 2010 this scheme reduced the number of patients attending the HES by 15%, which resulted in a saving of £16 258 (13%). The results support that referrals for a raised IOP alone or in combination with an abnormal VF be classified as low-risk and undergo referral refinement. Adherence to the JCG and the NICE commissioning guidance as onward referral criteria for specialist optometrists in this referral refinement scheme would result in fewer referrals. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College

  2. Time-averaged discharge rate of subaerial lava at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, measured from TanDEM-X interferometry: Implications for magma supply and storage during 2011-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Differencing digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from TerraSAR add-on for Digital Elevation Measurements (TanDEM-X) synthetic aperture radar imagery provides a measurement of elevation change over time. On the East Rift Zone (EZR) of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, the effusion of lava causes changes in topography. When these elevation changes are summed over the area of an active lava flow, it is possible to quantify the volume of lava emplaced at the surface during the time spanned by the TanDEM-X data—a parameter that can be difficult to measure across the entirety of an ~100 km2 lava flow field using ground-based techniques or optical remote sensing data. Based on the differences between multiple TanDEM-X-derived DEMs collected days to weeks apart, the mean dense-rock equivalent time-averaged discharge rate of lava at Kīlauea between mid-2011 and mid-2013 was approximately 2 m3/s, which is about half the long-term average rate over the course of Kīlauea's 1983–present ERZ eruption. This result implies that there was an increase in the proportion of lava stored versus erupted, a decrease in the rate of magma supply to the volcano, or some combination of both during this time period. In addition to constraining the time-averaged discharge rate of lava and the rates of magma supply and storage, topographic change maps derived from space-based TanDEM-X data provide insights into the four-dimensional evolution of Kīlauea's ERZ lava flow field. TanDEM-X data are a valuable complement to other space-, air-, and ground-based observations of eruptive activity at Kīlauea and offer great promise at locations around the world for aiding with monitoring not just volcanic eruptions but any hazardous activity that results in surface change, including landslides, floods, earthquakes, and other natural and anthropogenic processes.

  3. Vessel Sewage Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessel sewage discharges are regulated under Section 312 of the Clean Water Act, which is jointly implemented by the EPA and Coast Guard. This homepage links to information on marine sanitation devices and no discharge zones.

  4. Time-varying BRDFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Sunkavalli, Kalyan; Ramamoorthi, Ravi; Belhumeur, Peter N; Nayar, Shree K

    2007-01-01

    The properties of virtually all real-world materials change with time, causing their bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) to be time varying. However, none of the existing BRDF models and databases take time variation into consideration; they represent the appearance of a material at a single time instance. In this paper, we address the acquisition, analysis, modeling, and rendering of a wide range of time-varying BRDFs (TVBRDFs). We have developed an acquisition system that is capable of sampling a material's BRDF at multiple time instances, with each time sample acquired within 36 sec. We have used this acquisition system to measure the BRDFs of a wide range of time-varying phenomena, which include the drying of various types of paints (watercolor, spray, and oil), the drying of wet rough surfaces (cement, plaster, and fabrics), the accumulation of dusts (household and joint compound) on surfaces, and the melting of materials (chocolate). Analytic BRDF functions are fit to these measurements and the model parameters' variations with time are analyzed. Each category exhibits interesting and sometimes nonintuitive parameter trends. These parameter trends are then used to develop analytic TVBRDF models. The analytic TVBRDF models enable us to apply effects such as paint drying and dust accumulation to arbitrary surfaces and novel materials.

  5. Testing Ionizers for Nitrogen Discharge of Interferometer Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, Timothy; Ugolini, Dennis

    2010-10-01

    Interferometric gravitational-wave observatories consist of suspended optics in a vacuum chamber. Charge can build up on and then discontinuously jump across an optic, creating a changing electric field, causing the optic to sway, creating a false signal. We studied possible ways to discharge an optic without damaging their reflective coatings. We tried two types of electron guns. The first was built at the University of Washington and uses an ultraviolet LED to free electrons from a magnesium target. We found the current to be three orders of magnitude less than necessary for discharge in a reasonable time. The second gun used was a Bayard-Alpert gauge. To eliminate sputtering caused by the gauge above 10-4 torr, we employed a differential pumping system. We were able to flow nitrogen gas through the main chamber at pressures between 10-2 and 10-3 torr while the gauge chamber was kept two orders of magnitude lower. We successfully discharged the optic. The discharge rate varied exponentially with charge level and operating current and nearly linearly with acceleration voltage, and peaked when the pressure was 8 x 10-3 torr in the main chamber.

  6. Supersonic CO electric-discharge lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hason, R. K.; Mitchner, M.; Stanton, A.

    1975-01-01

    Laser modeling activity is described which involved addition of an option allowing N2 as a second diatomic gas. This option is now operational and a few test cases involving N2/CO mixtures were run. Results from these initial test cases are summarized. In the laboratory, a CW double-discharge test facility was constructed and tested. Features include: water-cooled removable electrodes, O-ring construction to facilitate cleaning and design modifications, increased discharge length, and addition of a post-discharge observation section. Preliminary tests with this facility using N2 yielded higher power loadings than obtained in the first-generation facility. Another test-section modification, recently made and as yet untested, will permit injection of secondary gases into the cathode boundary layer. The objective will be to vary and enhance the UV emission spectrum from the auxiliary discharge, thereby influencing the level of photoionization in the main discharge region.

  7. Early discharge following birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid M. S.; Kronborg, Hanne; Knight, Christopher H.

    2017-01-01

    .26–0.48) and primiparous compared to multiparous had an OR of 0.22 (CI 0.17–0.29) for early discharge. Other predictors for early discharge were: no induction of labour, no epidural painkiller, bleeding less than 500 ml during delivery, higher gestational age, early expected discharge and positive breastfeeding experience...

  8. Heart attack - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and lifestyle Cholesterol - drug treatment Controlling your high blood pressure Deep vein thrombosis - discharge Dietary fats explained Fast food tips Heart attack - discharge Heart attack - what to ask your doctor Heart bypass ... pacemaker - discharge High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor How to read ...

  9. Therapeutic analysis of high-dose-rate "1"9"2Ir vaginal cuff brachytherapy for endometrial cancer using a cylindrical target volume model and varied cancer cell distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hualin; Donnelly, Eric D.; Strauss, Jonathan B.; Qi, Yujin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCBT) in the treatment of endometrial cancer in a cylindrical target volume with either a varied or a constant cancer cell distributions using the linear quadratic (LQ) model. Methods: A Monte Carlo (MC) technique was used to calculate the 3D dose distribution of HDR VCBT over a variety of cylinder diameters and treatment lengths. A treatment planning system (TPS) was used to make plans for the various cylinder diameters, treatment lengths, and prescriptions using the clinical protocol. The dwell times obtained from the TPS were fed into MC. The LQ model was used to evaluate the therapeutic outcome of two brachytherapy regimens prescribed either at 0.5 cm depth (5.5 Gy × 4 fractions) or at the vaginal mucosal surface (8.8 Gy × 4 fractions) for the treatment of endometrial cancer. An experimentally determined endometrial cancer cell distribution, which showed a varied and resembled a half-Gaussian distribution, was used in radiobiology modeling. The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) to cancer cells was calculated for each treatment scenario. The therapeutic ratio (TR) was defined by comparing VCBT with a uniform dose radiotherapy plan in term of normal cell survival at the same level of cancer cell killing. Calculations of clinical impact were run twice assuming two different types of cancer cell density distributions in the cylindrical target volume: (1) a half-Gaussian or (2) a uniform distribution. Results: EUDs were weakly dependent on cylinder size, treatment length, and the prescription depth, but strongly dependent on the cancer cell distribution. TRs were strongly dependent on the cylinder size, treatment length, types of the cancer cell distributions, and the sensitivity of normal tissue. With a half-Gaussian distribution of cancer cells which populated at the vaginal mucosa the most, the EUDs were between 6.9 Gy × 4 and 7.8 Gy × 4, the TRs were in the range from (5.0)"4 to (13.4)"4 for

  10. Effects of pulse frequency of input power on the physical and chemical properties of pulsed streamer discharge plasmas in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruma; Lukes, P.; Aoki, N.; Spetlikova, E.; Hosseini, S. H. R.; Sakugawa, T.; Akiyama, H.

    2013-03-01

    A repetitive pulsed-power modulator, which employs a magnetic pulse compression circuit with a high-speed thyristor switch, was used to study the effects of the pulse repetition rate of input power on the physical and chemical properties of pulsed discharges in water. Positive high-voltage pulses of 20 kV with repetition rates of up to 1 kHz were used to generate a discharge in water using the point-to-plane electrode geometry. By varying the pulse repetition rate, two distinct modes of the discharge plasma were formed in water. The first mode was characterized by the formation of a corona-like discharge propagating through water in the form of streamer channels. The second mode was formed typically above 500 Hz, when the formation of streamer channels in water was suppressed and all plasmas occurred inside a spheroidal aggregate of very fine gas bubbles surrounding the tip of the high-voltage electrode. The production of hydrogen peroxide, degradation of organic dye Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and inactivation of bacteria Escherichia coli by the discharge in water were studied under different discharge plasma modes in dependence on the pulse repetition rate of input power. The efficiency of both chemical and biocidal processes induced by the plasma in water decreased significantly with pulse repetition rates above 500 Hz.

  11. Effects of pulse frequency of input power on the physical and chemical properties of pulsed streamer discharge plasmas in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruma; Aoki, N; Hosseini, S H R; Sakugawa, T; Akiyama, H; Lukes, P; Spetlikova, E

    2013-01-01

    A repetitive pulsed-power modulator, which employs a magnetic pulse compression circuit with a high-speed thyristor switch, was used to study the effects of the pulse repetition rate of input power on the physical and chemical properties of pulsed discharges in water. Positive high-voltage pulses of 20 kV with repetition rates of up to 1 kHz were used to generate a discharge in water using the point-to-plane electrode geometry. By varying the pulse repetition rate, two distinct modes of the discharge plasma were formed in water. The first mode was characterized by the formation of a corona-like discharge propagating through water in the form of streamer channels. The second mode was formed typically above 500 Hz, when the formation of streamer channels in water was suppressed and all plasmas occurred inside a spheroidal aggregate of very fine gas bubbles surrounding the tip of the high-voltage electrode. The production of hydrogen peroxide, degradation of organic dye Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and inactivation of bacteria Escherichia coli by the discharge in water were studied under different discharge plasma modes in dependence on the pulse repetition rate of input power. The efficiency of both chemical and biocidal processes induced by the plasma in water decreased significantly with pulse repetition rates above 500 Hz. (paper)

  12. High-discharge-rate lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-04-22

    The present invention provides for a lithium ion battery and process for creating such, comprising higher binder to carbon conductor ratios than presently used in the industry. The battery is characterized by much lower interfacial resistances at the anode and cathode as a result of initially mixing a carbon conductor with a binder, then with the active material. Further improvements in cycleability can also be realized by first mixing the carbon conductor with the active material first and then adding the binder.

  13. Numerical simulation of transitions between back discharge regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansky, Jaroslav; Lemont, Florent; Bessieres, Delphine; Paillol, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations of transitions between back discharge regimes. Back discharge refers to any discharge initiated at or near a dielectric layer covering a passive electrode. In this work, a pinhole in a dielectric layer on a plane anode serves as a model for back discharge activity. We have studied transitions between back discharge regimes by varying the surface charge density on the dielectric layer and the electric field in front of the pinhole. From the variation of these two independent parameters, the back discharge regimes have been depicted as a mode diagram inspired by the experimental study of Masuda and Mizuno. The resulting diagram includes the different discharge regimes that are commonly observed in experiments. The propagation of a positive ionizing wave inside the pinhole toward its edge, and the resulting formation of a plasma zone at its exit constitute the onset stage of back discharge. From this stage, the transitions to volume discharge or surface discharge can occur. The volume discharge regime consists of the propagation of a discharge in space toward the cathode which can be superimposed with the propagation of a discharge above the dielectric layer surface. The diagram reveals the conditions for transitions between back discharge regimes. (authors)

  14. The predicted impacts to the groundwater and Columbia River from ammoniated water discharges to the 216-A-36B crib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.; Conbere, W.; Freshley, M.D.; Hicks, R.J.; Kuhn, W.L.; Lamar, D.A.; Serne, R.J.; Smoot, J.L.

    1988-03-01

    Impact from past and potential future discharges of ammoniated water to the 216-A-36B crib have on groundwater and river concentrations of hazardous chemical constitutents are studied. Until August 1987, the 216-A-36B crib, located in the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site, accepted ammoniated water discharges. Although this study addresses known hazardous chemical constituents associated with such discharges, the primary concern is the discharge of NH 4 OH because of its microbiological conversion to NO 2 /sup /minus// and NO 3 /sup /minus//. As a result of fuel decladding operations, material balance calculations indicate that NH 4 OH has been discharged to the 216-A-36B crib in amounts that exceed reportable quantities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980. Although flow to the crib is relatively constant, the estimated NH 4 OH discharge varies from negligible to a maximum of 10,000 g-molesh. Because these discharges are intermittent, the concentration delivered to the groundwater is a function of soil sorption, microbiological conversion rates of NH 4 + to NO 2 /sup /minus// and NO 3 /sup /minus//, and groundwater dispersion. This report provides results based on the assumptions of maximum, nominal, and discountinued NH 4 OH discharges to the crib. Consequently, the results show maximum and realistic estimates of NH 4 + , NO 2 /sup /minus// and NO 3 /sup /minus// concentrations in the groundwater

  15. Bidimensional characterization of the emission spectra in a direct current atmospheric pressure glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orejas, Jaime; Pisonero, Jorge; Bordel, Nerea; Nelis, Thomas; Guillot, Philippe; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    An in-house atmospheric pressure glow discharge source, designed to be used as ionization/desorption source for ambient mass spectrometry, has been electrically characterized, and its optical emission spectra evaluated in detail. Electrical characterization showed that the plasma regime can vary from glow discharge to arc discharge depending on operating conditions (i.e. He flow rate and inter electrode distance). Furthermore, bidimensional images of the optical emission of some plasma species using filters as wavelength selectors, were registered from inside and outside the discharge chamber (inner region and afterglow region respectively), showing the spatial distribution of excited species (i.e. He*, N 2 + and O*). These distribution patterns are useful to study the chemistry of the discharge plasma, since different production pathways and different excitation energies affect the presence of these species in the plasma regions. - Highlights: ► An in-house APGD is characterized through electrical and OES measurements. ► Interelectrode distance had more effect on electric regime than He flow rate. ► Internal plume images showed differences on the production pathways for each species. ► Higher interelectrode distances and He flow rates showed better afterglow conditions.

  16. Bidimensional characterization of the emission spectra in a direct current atmospheric pressure glow discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orejas, Jaime [University of Oviedo, Department of Physics, C/ Gonzazlez Quiros S/N, Mieres (Spain); Pisonero, Jorge, E-mail: pisonerojorge@uniovi.es [University of Oviedo, Department of Physics, C/ Gonzazlez Quiros S/N, Mieres (Spain); Bordel, Nerea [University of Oviedo, Department of Physics, C/ Gonzazlez Quiros S/N, Mieres (Spain); Nelis, Thomas [Bern University of Applied Sciences, Quellgasse 21, 2501 Bienne (Switzerland); Guillot, Philippe [DPHE, CUFR J. F. Champollion, Universite de Toulouse, Place de Verdun, Albi (France); Sanz-Medel, Alfredo, E-mail: asm@uniovi.es [University of Oviedo, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, C/ Julian Claveria 8, Oviedo (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    An in-house atmospheric pressure glow discharge source, designed to be used as ionization/desorption source for ambient mass spectrometry, has been electrically characterized, and its optical emission spectra evaluated in detail. Electrical characterization showed that the plasma regime can vary from glow discharge to arc discharge depending on operating conditions (i.e. He flow rate and inter electrode distance). Furthermore, bidimensional images of the optical emission of some plasma species using filters as wavelength selectors, were registered from inside and outside the discharge chamber (inner region and afterglow region respectively), showing the spatial distribution of excited species (i.e. He*, N{sub 2}{sup +} and O*). These distribution patterns are useful to study the chemistry of the discharge plasma, since different production pathways and different excitation energies affect the presence of these species in the plasma regions. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An in-house APGD is characterized through electrical and OES measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interelectrode distance had more effect on electric regime than He flow rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Internal plume images showed differences on the production pathways for each species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher interelectrode distances and He flow rates showed better afterglow conditions.

  17. Estimating sediment discharge: Appendix D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Simões, Francisco J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Sediment-discharge measurements usually are available on a discrete or periodic basis. However, estimates of sediment transport often are needed for unmeasured periods, such as when daily or annual sediment-discharge values are sought, or when estimates of transport rates for unmeasured or hypothetical flows are required. Selected methods for estimating suspended-sediment, bed-load, bed- material-load, and total-load discharges have been presented in some detail elsewhere in this volume. The purposes of this contribution are to present some limitations and potential pitfalls associated with obtaining and using the requisite data and equations to estimate sediment discharges and to provide guidance for selecting appropriate estimating equations. Records of sediment discharge are derived from data collected with sufficient frequency to obtain reliable estimates for the computational interval and period. Most sediment- discharge records are computed at daily or annual intervals based on periodically collected data, although some partial records represent discrete or seasonal intervals such as those for flood periods. The method used to calculate sediment- discharge records is dependent on the types and frequency of available data. Records for suspended-sediment discharge computed by methods described by Porterfield (1972) are most prevalent, in part because measurement protocols and computational techniques are well established and because suspended sediment composes the bulk of sediment dis- charges for many rivers. Discharge records for bed load, total load, or in some cases bed-material load plus wash load are less common. Reliable estimation of sediment discharges presupposes that the data on which the estimates are based are comparable and reliable. Unfortunately, data describing a selected characteristic of sediment were not necessarily derived—collected, processed, analyzed, or interpreted—in a consistent manner. For example, bed-load data collected with

  18. Excitation of RF oscillations in a discharge with negative differential conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, A.N.; Kovpik, O.F.; Kornilov, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    The excitation of oscillations in a discharge with negative differential conductivity is studied experimentally. The possibility is demonstrated of amplifying oscillations in the cathode dark space at frequencies close to the electron plasma frequency of the positive-column plasma. The phase velocities of waves at these frequencies are determined. When the waves pass from the cathode dark space to the discharge positive column, their phase velocities decrease; the closer the frequency is to the electron plasma frequency, the more pronounced the decrease in the phase velocity. As the intensity of oscillations increases, the discharge becomes non-steady-state. This is confirmed by the time evolution of the current-voltage characteristic. The shape of the current-voltage characteristic, its splitting, and the rate at which it varies depend on the input RF power. The decrease in the cathode dark space indicates that the ionization processes in the discharge are strongly influenced by electron plasma oscillations excited due to the collective interaction of the electron beam formed at the cathode with the discharge plasma. It is these processes that determine the maximum values of both the frequency of the excited oscillations and the power that can be withdrawn from the discharge

  19. Efficiency of ozone production by pulsed positive corona discharge in synthetic air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simek, Milan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Department of Pulsed Plasma Systems, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: simek@ipp.cas.cz; Clupek, Martin [Institute of Plasma Physics, Department of Pulsed Plasma Systems, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2002-06-07

    We have studied the efficiency of ozone production by pulsed positive corona discharge in coaxial wire-cylinder geometry at atmospheric pressure. A corona discharge was generated by short ({approx}150 ns) high voltage pulses applied between a silver coated copper wire anode and stainless steel cylinder cathode in synthetic air. A pyrex probe and Teflon tube was used for collecting discharge products and an ozone concentration was monitored outside of the discharge chamber by a non-dispersive UV absorption technique. The production of ozone was investigated as a function of energy density (10{sup -4}-3x10{sup -1} Wh l{sup -1}) delivered to the discharge volume by combining the discharge frequency (0.1-10 Hz) and airflow rate (1-32 l min{sup -1}). From ozone concentration measurements we have evaluated the ozone production, yield and production energy cost. The ozone production yield and cost vary in the range of 15-55 g kWh{sup -1} and 35-110 eV/molecule. (author)

  20. varying elastic parameters distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Moussawi, Ali

    2014-12-01

    The experimental identication of mechanical properties is crucial in mechanics for understanding material behavior and for the development of numerical models. Classical identi cation procedures employ standard shaped specimens, assume that the mechanical elds in the object are homogeneous, and recover global properties. Thus, multiple tests are required for full characterization of a heterogeneous object, leading to a time consuming and costly process. The development of non-contact, full- eld measurement techniques from which complex kinematic elds can be recorded has opened the door to a new way of thinking. From the identi cation point of view, suitable methods can be used to process these complex kinematic elds in order to recover multiple spatially varying parameters through one test or a few tests. The requirement is the development of identi cation techniques that can process these complex experimental data. This thesis introduces a novel identi cation technique called the constitutive compatibility method. The key idea is to de ne stresses as compatible with the observed kinematic eld through the chosen class of constitutive equation, making possible the uncoupling of the identi cation of stress from the identi cation of the material parameters. This uncoupling leads to parametrized solutions in cases where 5 the solution is non-unique (due to unknown traction boundary conditions) as demonstrated on 2D numerical examples. First the theory is outlined and the method is demonstrated in 2D applications. Second, the method is implemented within a domain decomposition framework in order to reduce the cost for processing very large problems. Finally, it is extended to 3D numerical examples. Promising results are shown for 2D and 3D problems.

  1. Air corona discharge chemical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, L.E.; Kanter, I.E.

    1984-01-01

    We have theoretically studied the initial chemical processing steps which occur in pulseless, negative, dc corona discharges in flowing air. A rate equation model is used because these discharges consist of a very small ionization zone near the pin with most of the pin-plane gap filled by a drift zone where both the electric field and the electron density are relatively uniform. The primary activated species are N 2 (A),O and O 2 (a 1 Δ). The predicted activated species density due to one discharge is 100 ppm per ms . mA cm 2 assuming E/n=60 Td. In pure, dry air the final product due to these activated species is primarily O 3 . The NO /sub x/ production is about 0.5 ppm per mA. In moist air there is an additional production of about 1.5 ppm per mA of HO /sub x/ species. The predicted ozone formation reactions will be ''intercepted'' when impurities are present in the air. Impurities present at densities below about 0.1% will react primarily with the activated species rather than with electrons. Hence the predicted activated species density provides an estimate of the potential chemical processing performance of the discharge

  2. Glow discharging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, Katsuki; Kawasaki, Kozo; Hiratsuka, Hajime; Kawashima, Shuichi.

    1989-01-01

    In a thermonuclear device, etc. impurities adsorbed to inner walls of a vacuum vessel by glow discharge are released to clean the vacuum vessel for preventing intrusion of the impurities into plasmas. The object of the present invention is to minimize the capacity of a power source equipment for the glow discharge device to the least extent. That is, a stabilization resistance is connected in series between each of a plurality of anodes which are inserted and arranged at the inside of a vacuum vessel as a cathode and a power source respectively. The resistance value R is selected so as to satisfy the relation: R < (Vi - Vm)/Ii, in which Vi: glow discharge starting voltage, Vm: glow discharge keeping voltage, Ii: glow discharge starting current. Accordingly, if a voltage is applied from a power source to a plurality of anodes, scattering of electric discharge between the anodes can be suppressed and the effect of voltage drop during discharge by the stabilization resistance can be eliminated. As a result, it is possible to provide an economically advantageous glow discharge device with the capacity for the power source facility being to the least extent. (K.M.)

  3. CO-AXIAL DISCHARGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, J.S.; Smith, L.P.

    1960-11-22

    A method and apparatus are given for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons will diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions will diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantage that ions which return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. Those discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges, and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering ihe plasma area because of the arc barrier set up bv the cylindrical outer arc.

  4. Discharge current characteristics as an 'electrical method' for glow discharge plasma diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, M.; Paraschivescu, Alina; Morminches, Anisoara

    2001-01-01

    In its simplest form, the glow discharge can be established by passing an electric current through gas between two electrodes. The gas and the electrodes are contained in an insulating envelope. In many technological applications, and not only, the plasma devices are often treated like a black box. There is a series of external parameters or control variables which can be adjusted to obtain a desired effect, namely, the operating voltage, gas pressure, gas nature, gas flow rate, magnetic field strength and magnetic field configuration, electric field geometry, interelectrode distance, and cathode characteristics. The discharge current can be controlled by each of the above control variables. The core idea of this work is the following: a lot of information about the phenomena from the discharge volume, at electrodes or at the discharge bounding wall surface, can be obtained knowing how the change of one of the control parameters influences the discharge current. The following regimes were analyzed: dark discharges (background ionization, saturation regime, Townsend regime, corona regime), glow discharge (the normal and abnormal discharge) and arc discharge (glow to arc transition, non-thermal arcs, thermal arcs). It was concluded that the nonlinearity in the shape of the discharge current characteristics as a function of an external control parameter, can be correlated with the elementary processes and the dynamics of different space charge structures generated in plasma devices. (authors)

  5. Do loss to follow-up and death rates from ART care vary across primary health care facilities and hospitals in south Ethiopia? A retrospective follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teshome W

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Wondu Teshome,1 Mehretu Belayneh,1 Mathewos Moges,1 Emebet Mekonnen,2 Misganu Endrias,2 Sinafiksh Ayele,2 Tebeje Misganaw,2 Mekonnen Shiferaw,2 Tigist Tesema2 1School of Public and Environmental Health, Hawassa University, 2Health Research and Technology Transfer Support Process, Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples' Regional Health Bureau, Hawassa, Ethiopia Background: Decentralization and task shifting has significantly improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART. Many studies conducted to determine the attrition rate in Ethiopia have not compared attrition rates between hospitals and health centers in a relatively recent cohort of patients. This study compared death and loss to follow-up (LTFU rates among ART patients in hospitals and health centers in south Ethiopia. Methods: Data routinely collected from patients aged older than 15 years who started ART between July 2011 and August 2012 in 20 selected health facilities (12 being hospitals were analyzed. The outcomes of interest were LTFU and death. The data were entered, cleaned, and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0 and Stata version 12.0. Competing-risk regression models were used. Results: The service years of the facilities were similar (median 8 and 7.5 for hospitals and health centers, respectively. The mean patient age was 33.7±9.6 years. The median baseline CD4 count was 179 (interquartile range 93–263 cells/mm3. A total of 2,356 person-years of observation were made with a median follow-up duration of 28 (interquartile range 22–31 months; 24.6% were either dead or LTFU, resulting in a retention rate of 75.4%. The death rates were 3.0 and 1.5 and the LTFU rate were 9.0 and 10.9 per 100 person-years of observation in health centers and hospitals, respectively. The competing-risk regression model showed that the gap between testing and initiation of ART, body mass index, World Health Organization clinical stage, isoniazid prophylaxis

  6. Do loss to follow-up and death rates from ART care vary across primary health care facilities and hospitals in south Ethiopia? A retrospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Wondu; Belayneh, Mehretu; Moges, Mathewos; Mekonnen, Emebet; Endrias, Misganu; Ayele, Sinafiksh; Misganaw, Tebeje; Shiferaw, Mekonnen; Tesema, Tigist

    2015-01-01

    Decentralization and task shifting has significantly improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Many studies conducted to determine the attrition rate in Ethiopia have not compared attrition rates between hospitals and health centers in a relatively recent cohort of patients. This study compared death and loss to follow-up (LTFU) rates among ART patients in hospitals and health centers in south Ethiopia. Data routinely collected from patients aged older than 15 years who started ART between July 2011 and August 2012 in 20 selected health facilities (12 being hospitals) were analyzed. The outcomes of interest were LTFU and death. The data were entered, cleaned, and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0 and Stata version 12.0. Competing-risk regression models were used. The service years of the facilities were similar (median 8 and 7.5 for hospitals and health centers, respectively). The mean patient age was 33.7±9.6 years. The median baseline CD4 count was 179 (interquartile range 93-263) cells/mm(3). A total of 2,356 person-years of observation were made with a median follow-up duration of 28 (interquartile range 22-31) months; 24.6% were either dead or LTFU, resulting in a retention rate of 75.4%. The death rates were 3.0 and 1.5 and the LTFU rate were 9.0 and 10.9 per 100 person-years of observation in health centers and hospitals, respectively. The competing-risk regression model showed that the gap between testing and initiation of ART, body mass index, World Health Organization clinical stage, isoniazid prophylaxis, age, facility type, and educational status were independently associated with LTFU. Moreover, baseline tuberculous disease, poor functional status, and follow-up at a health center were associated with an elevated probability of death. We observed a higher death rate and a lower LTFU rate in health centers than in hospitals. Most of the associated variables were also previously documented. Higher LTFU was

  7. Runaway electrons in toroidal discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoepfel, H.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of runaway electrons in toroidal devices are reviewed here, with particular reference to tokamaks. The complex phenomenology of runaway effects, which have been the subject of research for the past twenty years, is organized within the framework of a number of physical models. The mechanisms and rates for runaway production are discussed first, followed by sections on runaway-driven kinetic relaxation processes and runaway orbit confinement. Next, the equilibrium and stability of runaway-dominated discharges are reviewed. Models for runaway production at early times in the discharge and the scaling of runaway phenomena to larger devices are also discussed. Finally, detection techniques and possible applications of runaways are mentioned. (author)

  8. Capacitor discharge engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1976-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume III: Capacitor Discharge Engineering covers the production and practical application of capacitor dischargers for the generation and utilization of high speed pulsed of energy in different forms. This nine-chapter volume discusses the principles of electric current, voltage, X-rays, gamma rays, heat, beams of electrons, neutrons and ions, magnetic fields, sound, and shock waves in gases and liquids. Considerable chapters consider the applications of capacitor discharges, such as impulse hardening of steel, ultrapulse welding of precision parts, X-ray flash t

  9. Predicting tile drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Petersen, Rasmus Jes

    used in the analysis. For the dynamic modelling, a simple linear reservoir model was used where different outlets in the model represented tile drain as well as groundwater discharge outputs. This modelling was based on daily measured tile drain discharge values. The statistical predictive model...... was based on a polynomial regression predicting yearly tile drain discharge values using site specific parameters such as soil type, catchment topography, etc. as predictors. Values of calibrated model parameters from the dynamic modelling were compared to the same site specific parameter as used...

  10. The effect of varying air injection rates on tall oil soap skimming efficiency for low fatty acid/resin acid ratio soaps produced by pulping mountain pine beetle-infected wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uloth, V.; Guy, E. [FPInnovations, Prince George, BC (Canada). PAPRICAN Div.

    2009-07-01

    This study was conducted to assess the impact of higher air injection rates on the skimmer performance of an evaporator soap skimmer at a mill in British Columbia (BC). Tests previously indicated that only 13 to 38 percent of the total soap in the feed liquor was skimmed for low acid number and low fatty acid and resin acid ratio soaps. A 2-day trial demonstrated that there were extended periods when soap skimming stopped completely and soap levels in the liquor equalled or exceeded levels observed in the feed liquor. Higher air injection rates had little impact on soap-skimming efficiency. The higher air injection rates decreased soap density by approximately 8 percent, and increased black liquor entrainment in the skimmed soap by approximately 35 percent. The use of higher air injection rates was not recommended, as high percentages of black liquor are known to cause high H{sub 2}S emissions during soap acidulation. 16 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  11. A comparative study on the activity of TiO2 in pulsed plasma under different discharge conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijuan, DUAN; Nan, JIANG; Na, LU; Kefeng, SHANG; Jie, LI; Yan, WU

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, a combination of pulsed discharge plasma and TiO2 (plasma/TiO2) has been developed in order to study the activity of TiO2 by varying the discharge conditions of pulsed voltage, discharge mode, air flow rate and solution conductivity. Phenol was used as the chemical probe to characterize the activity of TiO2 in a pulsed discharge system. The experimental results showed that the phenol removal efficiency could be improved by about 10% by increasing the applied voltage. The phenol removal efficiency for three discharge modes in the plasma-discharge-alone system was found to be highest in the spark mode, followed by the spark–streamer mode and finally the streamer mode. In the plasma/TiO2 system, the highest catalytic effect of TiO2 was observed in the spark–streamer discharge mode, which may be attributed to the favorable chemical and physical effects from the spark–streamer discharge mode, such as ultraviolet light, O3, H2O2, pyrolysis, shockwaves and high-energy electrons. Meanwhile, the optimal flow rate and conductivity were 0.05 m3 l‑1 and 10 μS cm‑1, respectively. The main phenolic intermediates were hydroquinone, catechol, and p-benzoquinone during the discharge treatment process. A different phenol degradation pathway was observed in the plasma/TiO2 system as compared to plasma alone. Analysis of the reaction intermediates demonstrated that p-benzoquinone reduction was selectively catalyzed on the TiO2 surface. The effective decomposition of phenol constant (D e) increased from 74.11% to 79.16% when TiO2 was added, indicating that higher phenol mineralization was achieved in the plasma/TiO2 system.

  12. Current Trends in Discharge Disposition and Post-discharge Care After Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarity, T David; Swall, Marion M

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to review published literature over the last 5 years to assess recent trends and influencing factors regarding discharge disposition and post-discharge care following total joint arthroplasty. We evaluated instruments proposed to predict a patient's discharge disposition and summarize reports investigating the safety in sending more patients home by reviewing complications and readmission rates. Current literature supports decreased length of hospital stay and increased discharge to home with cost savings and stable readmission rates. Surgeons with defined clinical pathways and those who shape patient expectations may more effectively control costs than those without defined pathways. Further research is needed analyzing best practices in care coordination, managing patient expectations, and cost-effective analysis of home discharge while at the same time ensuring patient outcomes are optimized following total joint arthroplasty.

  13. Electric discharge during electrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashurin, Alexey; Scott, David; Zhuang, Taisen; Canady, Jerome; Beilis, Isak I; Keidar, Michael

    2015-04-16

    Electric discharge utilized for electrosurgery is studied by means of a recently developed method for the diagnostics of small-size atmospheric plasma objects based on Rayleigh scattering of microwaves on the plasma volume. Evolution of the plasma parameters in the near-electrode sheaths and in the positive column is measured and analyzed. It is found that the electrosurgical system produces a glow discharge of alternating current with strongly contracted positive column with current densities reaching 10(3) A/cm(2). The plasma electron density and electrical conductivities in the channel were found be 10(16) cm(-3) and (1-2) Ohm(-1) cm(-1), respectively. The discharge interrupts every instance when the discharge-driving AC voltage crosses zero and re-ignites again every next half-wave at the moment when the instant voltage exceeds the breakdown threshold.

  14. Vaginal delivery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - discharge after vaginal delivery ... You may have bleeding from your vagina for up to 6 weeks. Early on, you may pass some small clots when you first get up. Bleeding will slowly become ...

  15. Prostate radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000399.htm Prostate radiation - discharge To use the sharing features on ... keeping or getting an erection may occur after prostate radiation therapy. You may not notice this problem ...

  16. Brain injury - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000163.htm Brain injury - discharge To use the sharing features on ... know was in the hospital for a serious brain injury. At home, it will take time for ...

  17. Brain aneurysm repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000123.htm Brain aneurysm repair - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a brain aneurysm . An aneurysm is a weak area in ...

  18. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer - brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  19. Atrial fibrillation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000237.htm Atrial fibrillation - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... have been in the hospital because you have atrial fibrillation . This condition occurs when your heart beats faster ...

  20. Pneumonia - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000017.htm Pneumonia in adults - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have pneumonia, which is an infection in your lungs. In ...

  1. Knee arthroscopy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000199.htm Knee arthroscopy - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... surgery to treat problems in your knee (knee arthroscopy). You may have been checked for: Torn meniscus. ...

  2. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000273.htm Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had cosmetic breast surgery to change the size or shape ...

  3. Shoulder surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000179.htm Shoulder surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had shoulder surgery to repair the tissues inside or around your ...

  4. Catalytic and Noncatalytic Conversion of Methane to Olefins and Synthesis Gas in an AC Parallel Plate Discharge Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Khodagholi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct conversion of methane to ethylene, acetylene, and synthesis gas at ambient pressure and temperature in a parallel plate discharge reactor was investigated. The experiments were carried out using a quartz reactor of outer diameter of 9 millimeter and a driving force of ac current of 50 Hz. The input power to the reactor to establish a stable gas discharge varied from 9.6 to maximum 15.3 watts (w. The effects of ZSM5, Fe–ZSM5, and Ni–ZSM5 catalysts combined with corona discharge for conversion of methane to more valued products have been addressed. It was found that in presence or absence of a catalyst in gas discharge reactor, the rate of methane and oxygen conversion increased upon higher input power supplied to the reactor. The effect of Fe–ZSM5 catalyst combined with gas discharge plasma yields C2 hydrocarbons up to 21.9%, which is the highest productions of C2 hydrocarbons in this work. The effect of combined Ni–ZSM5 and gas discharge plasma was mainly production of synthesis gas. The advantage of introducing ZSM5 to the plasma zone was increase in synthesis gas and acetylene production. The highest energy efficiency was 0.22 mmol/kJ, which belongs to lower rate of energy injection to the reactor.

  5. The role of effective discharge in the ocean delivery of particulate organic carbon by small, mountainous river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatcroft, R.A.; Goni, M.A.; Hatten, J.A.; Pasternack, G.B.; Warrick, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has shown that small, mountainous river systems (SMRS) account for a significant fraction of the global flux of sediment and particulate organic carbon (POC) to the ocean. The enormous number of SMRS precludes intensive studies of the sort conducted on large systems, necessitating development of a conceptual framework that permits cross-system comparison and scaling up. Herein, we introduce the geomorphic concept of effective discharge to the problem of source-to-sink POC transport. This idea recognizes that transport effectiveness is the product of discharge frequency and magnitude, wherein the latter is quantified as a power-law relationship between discharge and load (the 'rating curve'). An analytical solution for effective discharge (Qe) identifies two key variables: the standard deviation of the natural logarithm of discharge (??q), and the rating exponent of constituent i (bi Data from selected SMRS are used to show that for a given river Qe-POC transport in SMRS should exploit the conceptual framework provided herein and seek to identify how constituent-specific effective discharges vary between rivers and respond to perturbations. ?? 2010, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  6. Storage and discharge of a granular fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Martinez, Hector; van Gerner, Henk Jan; Ruiz-Suárez, J C

    2008-02-01

    Experiments and computational simulations are carried out to study the behavior of a granular column in a silo whose walls are able to vibrate horizontally. The column is brought to a steady fluidized state and it behaves similar to a hydrostatic system. We study the dynamics of the granular discharge through openings at the bottom of the silo in order to search for a Torricelli-like behavior. We show that the flow rate scales with the wall induced shear rate, and at high rates, the granular bed indeed discharges similar to a viscous fluid.

  7. Discharges for lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffels, W W; Nimalasuriya, T; Flikweert, A J; Mulders, H C J

    2007-01-01

    The most common man-made discharge is a lamp. Even though lamps are often considered a mature technology, the discharge physics is often poorly understood. Two recent initiatives discussed here show that plasma research can help to make significant improvements. First we discuss color separation in metal halide lamps, which is a problem that prevents these highly efficient lamps from being used in more applications. Secondly a novel lamp concept is presented that may replace the current mercury based fluorescent lamps

  8. Test procedure for variable rate fertilizer on coffee = Método para avaliação de aplicação de fertilizantes em taxa variável em café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Di Chiacchio Faulin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to develop and test a procedure for applying variable rates of fertilizers and evaluate yield response in coffee (Coffea arabica L. with regard to the application of phosphorus and potassium. The work was conducted during the 2004 season in a 6.4 ha field located in central São Paulo state. Two treatments were applied with alternating strips of fixed and variable rates during the whole season: one following the fertilizing procedures recommended locally, and the other based on a grid soil sampling. A prototype pneumatic fertilizer applicator was used, carrying two conveyor belts, one foreach row. Harvesting was done with a commercial harvester equipped with a customized volumetric yield monitor, separating the two treatments. Data were analyzed based on geostatistics, correlations and regressions. The procedure showed to be feasible and effective. The area that received fertilizer applications at a variable rate showed a 34% yield increase compared to the area that received a fixed rate. The variable rate fertilizer resulted in a savings of 23% in phosphate fertilizer and a 13% increase in potassium fertilizer, when compared to fixed rate fertilizer. Yield in 2005, the year after the variable rate treatments, still presented residual effect from treatments carried out during the previous cycle.O objetivo foi desenvolver um procedimento para avaliar a resposta daprodutividade de café (Coffea arabica L., a partir da aplicação de fósforo e potássio. O trabalho foi conduzido durante o ciclo produtivo do ano de 2004 em um talhão de 6,4 ha localizado na região central do Estado de São Paulo. Foram aplicados dois tratamentos emlinhas alternadas de plantas com doses fixas e variadas, um seguindo procedimentos e recomendações locais e o outro com base na amostragem de solo em grade. Para a aplicação dos fertilizantes, foi utilizado o protótipo de uma adubadora com duas esteiras independentes, uma para cada linha de plantas

  9. Statistical time lags in ac discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobota, A; Kanters, J H M; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Haverlag, M; Manders, F

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents statistical time lags measured for breakdown events in near-atmospheric pressure argon and xenon. Ac voltage at 100, 400 and 800 kHz was used to drive the breakdown processes, and the voltage amplitude slope was varied between 10 and 1280 V ms -1 . The values obtained for the statistical time lags are roughly between 1 and 150 ms. It is shown that the statistical time lags in ac-driven discharges follow the same general trends as the discharges driven by voltage of monotonic slope. In addition, the validity of the Cobine-Easton expression is tested at an alternating voltage form.

  10. Statistical time lags in ac discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobota, A; Kanters, J H M; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Haverlag, M [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Postbus 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Manders, F, E-mail: a.sobota@tue.nl [Philips Lighting, LightLabs, Mathildelaan 1, 5600JM Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-04-06

    The paper presents statistical time lags measured for breakdown events in near-atmospheric pressure argon and xenon. Ac voltage at 100, 400 and 800 kHz was used to drive the breakdown processes, and the voltage amplitude slope was varied between 10 and 1280 V ms{sup -1}. The values obtained for the statistical time lags are roughly between 1 and 150 ms. It is shown that the statistical time lags in ac-driven discharges follow the same general trends as the discharges driven by voltage of monotonic slope. In addition, the validity of the Cobine-Easton expression is tested at an alternating voltage form.

  11. Chaos in gas discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piel, A.

    1993-01-01

    Many gas discharges exhibit natural oscillations which undergo a transition from regular to chaotic behavior by changing an experimental parameter or by applying external modulation. Besides several isolated investigations, two classes of discharge phenomena have been studied in more detail: ionization waves in medium pressure discharges and potential relaxation oscillations in filament cathode discharges at very low pressure. The latter phenomenon will be discussed by comparing experimental results from different discharge arrangements with particle-in-cell simulations and with a model based on the van-der-Pol equation. The filament cathode discharge has two stable modes of operation: the low current anode-glow-mode and the high current temperature-limited-mode, which form the hysteresis curve in the I(U) characteristics. Close to the hysteresis point of the AGM periodic relaxation oscillations occur. The authors demonstrate that the AGM can be understood by ion production in the anode layer, stopping of ions by charge exchange, and trapping in the virtual cathode around the filament. The relaxation oscillations consist of a slow filling phase and a rapid phase that invokes formation of an unstable double-layer, current-spiking, and ion depletion from the cathodic plasma. The relaxation oscillations can be mode-locked by external modulation. Inside a mode-locked state, a period doubling cascade is observed at high modulation degree

  12. Thermal modeling of cylindrical lithium ion battery during discharge cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Dong Hyup; Baek, Seung Man

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Transient and thermo-electric finite element analysis (FEA) of cylindrical lithium ion (Li-ion) battery was presented. → This model provides the thermal behavior of Li-ion battery during discharge cycle. → A LiCoO 2 /C battery at various discharge rates was investigated. → The contribution of heat source due to joule heating was significant at a high discharge rate. → The contribution of heat source due to entropy change was dominant at a low discharge rate. - Abstract: Transient and thermo-electric finite element analysis (FEA) of cylindrical lithium ion (Li-ion) battery was presented. The simplified model by adopting a cylindrical coordinate was employed. This model provides the thermal behavior of Li-ion battery during discharge cycle. The mathematical model solves conservation of energy considering heat generations due to both joule heating and entropy change. A LiCoO 2 /C battery at various discharge rates was investigated. The temperature profile from simulation had similar tendency with experiment. The temperature profile was decomposed with contributions of each heat sources and was presented at several discharge rates. It was found that the contribution of heat source due to joule heating was significant at a high discharge rate, whereas that due to entropy change was dominant at a low discharge rate. Also the effect of cooling condition and the LiNiCoMnO 2 /C battery were analyzed for the purpose of temperature reduction.

  13. Computing under-ice discharge: A proof-of-concept using hydroacoustics and the Probability Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, John W.; Henneberg, Mark F.; Mills, Taylor J.; Kohn, Michael S.; Epstein, Brian; Hittle, Elizabeth A.; Damschen, William C.; Laveau, Christopher D.; Lambrecht, Jason M.; Farmer, William H.

    2018-01-01

    Under-ice discharge is estimated using open-water reference hydrographs; however, the ratings for ice-affected sites are generally qualified as poor. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, conducted a proof-of-concept to develop an alternative method for computing under-ice discharge using hydroacoustics and the Probability Concept.The study site was located south of Minturn, Colorado (CO), USA, and was selected because of (1) its proximity to the existing USGS streamgage 09064600 Eagle River near Minturn, CO, and (2) its ease-of-access to verify discharge using a variety of conventional methods. From late September 2014 to early March 2015, hydraulic conditions varied from open water to under ice. These temporal changes led to variations in water depth and velocity. Hydroacoustics (tethered and uplooking acoustic Doppler current profilers and acoustic Doppler velocimeters) were deployed to measure the vertical-velocity profile at a singularly important vertical of the channel-cross section. Because the velocity profile was non-standard and cannot be characterized using a Power Law or Log Law, velocity data were analyzed using the Probability Concept, which is a probabilistic formulation of the velocity distribution. The Probability Concept-derived discharge was compared to conventional methods including stage-discharge and index-velocity ratings and concurrent field measurements; each is complicated by the dynamics of ice formation, pressure influences on stage measurements, and variations in cross-sectional area due to ice formation.No particular discharge method was assigned as truth. Rather one statistical metric (Kolmogorov-Smirnov; KS), agreement plots, and concurrent measurements provided a measure of comparability between various methods. Regardless of the method employed, comparisons between each method revealed encouraging results depending on the flow conditions and the absence or presence of ice

  14. Sputtering in a glow discharge ion source - pressure dependence: theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.S.; Pichilingi, Melanie

    1994-01-01

    A simplified theoretical expression has been developed for a glow discharge to show how the average cathode erosion rate (expressed as the number of atoms per ion of the total bombarding flux) varies with primary sputter yield, pressure, 'diffusion length' and sputtered atom 'stopping' cross section. An inverse pressure dependence is predicted which correlates well with experiment in the 2 and He, tend to converge. It is suggested that this could be due to a change in the mechanism to self-sputtering. Under constant conditions, the erosion rates of different cathode materials still correlate quite well with the differences in their primary sputter yields. (author)

  15. Modeling and optimization of the multichannel spark discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhi-Bo; Wu Yun; Jia Min; Song Hui-Min; Li Ying-Hong; Sun Zheng-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a novel analytic model of this multichannel spark discharge, considering the delay time in the breakdown process, the electric transforming of the discharge channel from a capacitor to a resistor induced by the air breakdown, and the varying plasma resistance in the discharge process. The good agreement between the experimental and the simulated results validated the accuracy of this model. Based on this model, the influence of the circuit parameters on the maximum discharge channel number (MDCN) is investigated. Both the input voltage amplitude and the breakdown voltage threshold of each discharge channel play a critical role. With the increase of the input voltage and the decrease of the breakdown voltage, the MCDN increases almost linearly. With the increase of the discharge capacitance, the MDCN first rises and then remains almost constant. With the increase of the circuit inductance, the MDCN increases slowly but decreases quickly when the inductance increases over a certain value. There is an optimal value of the capacitor connected to the discharge channel corresponding to the MDCN. Finally, based on these results, to shorten the discharge time, a modified multichannel discharge circuit is developed and validated by the experiment. With only 6-kV input voltage, 31-channels discharge is achieved. The breakdown voltage of each electrode gap is larger than 3 kV. The modified discharge circuit is certain to be widely used in the PSJA flow control field. (paper)

  16. Surgical discharge summaries: improving the record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D C; Bristol, J B; Poskitt, K R

    1993-03-01

    The problem area of communication between hospital and general practitioners may potentially be improved by the advent of new information technology. The introduction of a regional computer database for general surgery allows the rapid automated production of discharge summaries and has provided us with the opportunity for auditing the quality of old and new styles of discharge communication. A total of 118 general practitioners were sent a postal questionnaire to establish their views on the relative importance of various aspects of patient information and management after discharge. A high response rate (97%) indicated the interest of general practitioners in this topic. The majority (73%) believed that summaries should be delayed no more than 3 days. The structured and shortened new format was preferred to the older style of discharge summary. The older format rarely arrived within an appropriate time and its content was often felt to be either inadequate (35%) or excessive (7%) compared with the new format (8% and 1%, respectively). The diagnosis, information given to the patient, clinic date, list of medications and investigations were considered the more important details in the summary. Improvements in the discharge information were suggested and have subsequently been incorporated in our discharge policy. The use of new information technology, intended to facilitate clinical audit, has improved our ability to generate prompt, well-structured discharge summaries which are accepted by the general practitioners.

  17. Stable large-scale CO2 storage in defiance of an energy system based on renewable energy - Modelling the impact of varying CO2 injection rates on reservoir behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannach, Andreas; Hauer, Rene; Martin, Streibel; Stienstra, Gerard; Kühn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The IPCC Report 2014 strengthens the need for CO2 storage as part of CCS or BECCS to reach ambitious climate goals despite growing energy demand in the future. The further expansion of renewable energy sources is a second major pillar. As it is today in Germany the weather becomes the controlling factor for electricity production by fossil fuelled power plants which lead to significant fluctuations of CO2-emissions which can be traced in injection rates if the CO2 were captured and stored. To analyse the impact of such changing injection rates on a CO2 storage reservoir. two reservoir simulation models are applied: a. An (smaller) reservoir model approved by gas storage activities for decades, to investigate the dynamic effects in the early stage of storage filling (initial aquifer displacement). b. An anticline structure big enough to accommodate a total amount of ≥ 100 Mega tons CO2 to investigate the dynamic effects for the entire operational life time of the storage under particular consideration of very high filling levels (highest aquifer compression). Therefore a reservoir model was generated. The defined yearly injection rate schedule is based on a study performed on behalf of IZ Klima (DNV GL, 2014). According to this study the exclusive consideration of a pool of coal-fired power plants causes the most intensive dynamically changing CO2 emissions and hence accounts for variations of a system which includes industry driven CO2 production. Besides short-term changes (daily & weekly cycles) seasonal influences are also taken into account. Simulation runs cover a variation of injection points (well locations at the top vs. locations at the flank of the structure) and some other largely unknown reservoir parameters as aquifer size and aquifer mobility. Simulation of a 20 year storage operation is followed by a post-operational shut-in phase which covers approximately 500 years to assess possible effects of changing injection rates on the long-term reservoir

  18. Methods for identifying surgical wound infection after discharge from hospital: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Peter J

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wound infections are a common complication of surgery that add significantly to the morbidity of patients and costs of treatment. The global trend towards reducing length of hospital stay post-surgery and the increase in day case surgery means that surgical site infections (SSI will increasingly occur after hospital discharge. Surveillance of SSIs is important because rates of SSI are viewed as a measure of hospital performance, however accurate detection of SSIs post-hospital discharge is not straightforward. Methods We conducted a systematic review of methods of post discharge surveillance for surgical wound infection and undertook a national audit of methods of post-discharge surveillance for surgical site infection currently used within United Kingdom NHS Trusts. Results Seven reports of six comparative studies which examined the validity of post-discharge surveillance methods were located; these involved different comparisons and some had methodological limitations, making it difficult to identify an optimal method. Several studies evaluated automated screening of electronic records and found this to be a useful strategy for the identification of SSIs that occurred post discharge. The audit identified a wide range of relevant post-discharge surveillance programmes in England, Scotland and Wales and Northern Ireland; however, these programmes used varying approaches for which there is little supporting evidence of validity and/or reliability. Conclusion In order to establish robust methods of surveillance for those surgical site infections that occur post discharge, there is a need to develop a method of case ascertainment that is valid and reliable post discharge. Existing research has not identified a valid and reliable method. A standardised definition of wound infection (e.g. that of the Centres for Disease Control should be used as a basis for developing a feasible, valid and reliable approach to defining post

  19. Effective Discharge and Annual Sediment Yield on Brazos River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhnia, M.; Salehi, M.; Keyvani, A.; Ma, F.; Strom, K. B.; Raphelt, N.

    2012-12-01

    Geometry of an alluvial river alters dynamically over the time due to the sediment mobilization on the banks and bottom of the river channel in various flow rates. Many researchers tried to define a single representative discharge for these morphological processes such as "bank-full discharge", "effective discharge" and "channel forming discharge". Effective discharge is the flow rate in which, the most sediment load is being carried by water, in a long term period. This project is aimed to develop effective discharge estimates for six gaging stations along the Brazos River from Waco, TX to Rosharon, TX. The project was performed with cooperation of the In-stream Flow Team of the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB). Project objectives are listed as: 1) developing "Flow Duration Curves" for six stations based on mean-daily discharge by downloading the required, additional data from U.S Geological Survey website, 2) developing "Rating Curves" for six gaging stations after sampling and field measurements in three different flow conditions, 3) developing a smooth shaped "Sediment Yield Histogram" with a well distinguished peak as effective discharge. The effective discharge was calculated using two methods of manually and automatic bin selection. The automatic method is based on kernel density approximation. Cross-sectional geometry measurements, particle size distributions and water field samples were processed in the laboratory to obtain the suspended sediment concentration associated with flow rate. Rating curves showed acceptable trends, as the greater flow rate we experienced, the more sediment were carried by water.

  20. Motivators and barriers for paediatricians discharging patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbitt, Erin; Kunin, Marina; Gafforini, Sarah; Freed, Gary L

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify motivators and barriers that paediatricians face when discharging patients from outpatient specialty care. A questionnaire was administered to outpatient care paediatricians in Victoria working in one of five speciality public hospital clinics. Questions focused on how important various motivators and barriers were in respondents' decision to discharge a patient from their clinic. Nearly all (91%, n=74) paediatricians invited to participate provided responses. The factor influencing the greatest proportion of paediatricians in their decision to discharge patients back to primary care was the potential that patients may not receive the required care from a GP. The next most highly rated barrier was that it is too complicated to arrange discharge; rated as a very important influence by one-third of paediatricians (33%, n=24). Improvements to the discharge process may encourage more paediatricians to discharge patients back to their GP, therefore freeing up appointment slots. This in turn could reduce waiting times for paediatric outpatient clinics in Victoria. The concern from paediatricians that patients may not receive the required care from a GP warrants attention and should be further investigated.

  1. dc glow-discharge cleaning for accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.S.; Hseuh, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    Average pressure of 1 x 10 -11 torr and vacuum stability are necessary for the successful operation of the proton storage rings such as ISABELLE. Vacuum degassing at high temperature and in situ bake-out will reduce the thermoout-gassing rate of the beam tubes to approx. 10 -13 Tl/cm 2 sec, therefore achieving the required static pressure. The vacuum instability caused by beam-induced ion desorption can be solved by dc glow discharge cleaning. With evidence from this study, the present understanding of glow discharge in a cylindrically symmetric geometry is reviewed. Argon and argon/oxygen mixture serve as plasmas in the glow. The role of oxygen in cleaning the beam tubes during the glow discharge is demonstrated experimentally. Glow discharge cleaning with and without bake-out is also studied

  2. Tolerable Time-Varying Overflow on Grass-Covered Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Hughes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Engineers require estimates of tolerable overtopping limits for grass-covered levees, dikes, and embankments that might experience steady overflow. Realistic tolerance estimates can be used for both resilient design and risk assessment. A simple framework is developed for estimating tolerable overtopping on grass-covered slopes caused by slowly-varying (in time overtopping discharge (e.g., events like storm surges or river flood waves. The framework adapts the well-known Hewlett curves of tolerable limiting velocity as a function of overflow duration. It has been hypothesized that the form of the Hewlett curves suggests that the grass erosion process is governed by the flow work on the slope above a critical threshold velocity (referred to as excess work, and the tolerable erosional limit is reached when the cumulative excess work exceeds a given value determined from the time-dependent Hewlett curves. The cumulative excess work is expressed in terms of overflow discharge above a critical discharge that slowly varies in time, similar to a discharge hydrograph. The methodology is easily applied using forecast storm surge hydrographs at specific locations where wave action is minimal. For preliminary planning purposes, when storm surge hydrographs are unavailable, hypothetical equations for the water level and overflow discharge hydrographs are proposed in terms of the values at maximum overflow and the total duration of overflow. An example application is given to illustrate use of the methodology.

  3. Discharge measurements of the River Rufiji (Tanzania) using artificial tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, T.; Florkowski, T.; Salamba, S.

    1984-01-01

    The use of chemical or radioactive tracers for measuring stream flow is now the established method for discharges up to about 200 m 3 /s. For larger flows and higher suspended load the chemical tracers and also gamma-emitting radioactive tracers become cumbersome if not impossible to use when good accuracy is required. Tritiated water proved to be a good and safe tracer, provided care is taken in handling (no contamination of samples) and the experiments are adequately planned (good estimation of mixing lengths, water velocity and sampling duration). The paper describes discharge measurements performed in 1982 and 1983 in the river Rufiji (Tanzania). Flow rates up to 2000 m 3 /s have been measured, with estimated errors varying between 2 and 4%. Because of high river turbulence in the measurement section, good mixing has been observed over a distance of 7 km (this is much shorter than the distance recommended by various formulae for calculating the mixing length). The problem of selecting the mixing length is discussed and recommendations are given for planning future experiments. Sample contamination as experienced during the first phase of measurements in the river Rufiji is also treated. It is concluded that, technically and economically, the tritium tracer method is feasible for calibrating rating curves (water stage/flow relationship) in turbulent large rivers, also in remote areas. (author)

  4. Optimum size in grid soil sampling for variable rate application in site-specific management Tamanho ideal em grades de amostragem de solos para aplicação em taxa variável em manejo localizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rafael Nanni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of understanding spatial variability of soils is connected to crop management planning. This understanding makes it possible to treat soil not as a uniform, but a variable entity, and it enables site-specific management to increase production efficiency, which is the target of precision agriculture. Questions remain as the optimum soil sampling interval needed to make site-specific fertilizer recommendations in Brazil. The objectives of this study were: i to evaluate the spatial variability of the main attributes that influence fertilization recommendations, using georeferenced soil samples arranged in grid patterns of different resolutions; ii to compare the spatial maps generated with those obtained with the standard sampling of 1 sample ha-1, in order to verify the appropriateness of the spatial resolution. The attributes evaluated were phosphorus (P, potassium (K, organic matter (OM, base saturation (V% and clay. Soil samples were collected in a 100 × 100 m georeferenced grid. Thinning was performed in order to create a grid with one sample every 2.07, 2.88, 3.75 and 7.20 ha. Geostatistical techniques, such as semivariogram and interpolation using kriging, were used to analyze the attributes at the different grid resolutions. This analysis was performed with the Vesper software package. The maps created by this method were compared using the kappa statistics. Additionally, correlation graphs were drawn by plotting the observed values against the estimated values using cross-validation. P, K and V%, a finer sampling resolution than the one using 1 sample ha-1 is required, while for OM and clay coarser resolutions of one sample every two and three hectares, respectively, may be acceptable.A importância de compreender a variabilidade espacial do solo está conectada ao planejamento do manejo das culturas. Este entendimento faz com que seja possível tratar o solo não como uma entidade uniforme, mas variável, e permite o

  5. Multipactor discharge apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The invention deals with a multipactor discharge apparatus which can be used for tuning microwave organs such as magnetron oscillators and other cavity resonators. This apparatus is suitable for delivering an improved tuning effect in a resonation organ wherefrom the working frequency must be set. This apparatus is equipped with two multipactor discharge electrodes set in a configuration such to that a net current flows from one electrode to another. These electrodes are parallel and flat. The apparatus can be used in magnetron devices as well for continuous waves as for impulses

  6. Red herring vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Hee; Pringle, Kirsty; Rajimwale, Ashok

    2013-09-18

    Labial hair tourniquet syndrome is a rare condition that can be easily misdiagnosed and ultimately lead to irreversible damage. An 11-year-old premenarche girl presented with a 5-day history of pain and swelling in the labia with associated vaginal discharge. The general practitioner treated her with clotrimazole without improvement. On examination, there was an oedematous swelling of the right labia with a proximal hair tourniquet. Local anaesthetic was applied and the hair removed with forceps. There was instant relief of pain and the discharge stopped within 24 h. The patient was sent home with a course of antibiotics.

  7. Integrity Monitoring of Mercury Discharge Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoelker, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury discharge lamps are critical in many trapped ion frequency standard applications. An integrity monitoring system can be implemented using end-of-life signatures observed in operational mercury discharge lamps, making it possible to forecast imminent failure and to take action to mitigate the consequences (such as switching to a redundant system). Mercury lamps are used as a source of 194-nm ultraviolet radiation for optical pumping and state selection of mercury trapped ion frequency standards. Lamps are typically fabricated using 202Hg distilled into high-purity quartz, or other 194-nm transmitting material (e.g., sapphire). A buffer gas is also placed into the bulb, typically a noble gas such as argon, neon, or krypton. The bulbs are driven by strong RF fields oscillating at .200 MHz. The lamp output may age over time by two internal mechanisms: (1) the darkening of the bulb that attenuates light transmission and (2) the loss of mercury due to migration or chemical interactions with the bulb surface. During fabrication, excess mercury is placed into a bulb, so that the loss rate is compensated with new mercury emanating from a cool tip or adjacent reservoir. The light output is nearly constant or varies slightly at a constant rate for many months/years until the mercury source is depleted. At this point, the vapor pressure abruptly falls and the total light output and atomic clock SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) decrease. After several days to weeks, the light levels decrease to a point where the atomic clock SNR is no longer sufficient to stay in lock, or the lamp self-extinguishes. This signature has been observed in four separate end-of-life lamp failures while operating in the Deep Space Network (DSN). A simple integrator circuit can observe and document steady-state lamp behavior. When the light levels drop over a predetermined time interval by a specified amount (e.g., 20 percent), an alarm is set. For critical operational applications, such as the DSN

  8. Travelling-wave-sustained discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, Hans; Shivarova, Antonia

    2007-01-01

    This review is on discharges maintained by travelling waves: new plasma sources, discovered in 1974 and considered as a prototype of the gas discharges according to their definition as nonlinear systems which unify in a self-consistent manner plasmas and fields. In the presentation here of the fluid-plasma models of the diffusion-controlled regime of the travelling-wave-sustained discharges (TWSDs), the basic features of the discharge maintenance-the discharge self-consistency and the electron heating in the high-frequency field-are stressed. Operation of stationary and pulsed discharges, discharge maintenance without and in external magnetic fields as well as discharge production in different gases (argon, helium, helium-argon gas mixtures and hydrogen) are covered. Modulation instability of diffusion-controlled discharges and discharge filamentation at higher gas pressures are also included in the review. Experimental findings which motivate aspects of the reported modelling are pointed out

  9. Radon as an indicator of submarine groundwater discharge in coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Noble; Shivanna, K.; Suresh Babu, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the various available methodologies to estimate submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and demonstrates the utility of radon with a case study. An attempt has been made to identify the existence of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and semi-quantitatively estimate its rate in the coastal area of Vizhinjam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. Natural 222 Rn (half-life = 3.8 days) was used as a tracer of SGD because of its conservative nature, short half-life, easiness in measurement and high abundance in groundwater. As in situ radon ( 222 Rn) monitoring study conducted in this region indicated comparatively higher 222 Rn activities (average 14.1±1.7 Bq/m 3 ) in the coastal waters revealing significant submarine groundwater discharge. The SGD may be a combination of fresh groundwater and recirculated seawater that is controlled by the hydraulic gradient in the adjacent aquifer and varying tidal conditions in the coastal waters. Using a transient 222 Rn mass balance model for the coastal waters, SGD rates were computed and the average value was found to be 10.9±6.1 cm/day. These estimates are comparable with those reported in the literature. In general, identification and estimation of submarine groundwater discharge is important in the Indian context because of the possibility of large amounts of groundwater loss through its long coastline, that can be judiciously exploited to cater to the present water requirements for drinking and irrigation purposes. (author)

  10. Measures of Rehospitalization, Emergency Room Visit, and Community Discharge

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Measures of the Rate of Rehospitalization, Emergency Room Visit, and Community Discharge for Medicare Beneficiaries. These rates are based on Medicare claims data.

  11. Discharges from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report contains details of the technologies used at many nuclear power stations to treat and control radioactive discharges and gives, where information was available, details of discharges and authorised discharge limits. (author)

  12. Vulvovaginitis and vaginal discharge in general practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, W.

    1975-01-01

    Ninety-four patients with vulvovaginitis and vaginal discharge were assessed clinically and had vaginal swabs taken in an effort to establish a definite diagnosis. A high incidence of fungous infection was found while there was a surprisingly low incidence of Trichomonal vaginitis. These findings vary markedly from recent surveys in other countries (Delaha et al. (1964); Gray and Barnes, 1965; Desai et al., 1966). PMID:1223281

  13. Magnetic-field control of low-pressure diffuse discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Application of a magnetic field in a direction transverse to the electric field in a diffuse discharge can have a strong effect on the transport parameters in the discharge medium and on the external characteristics of the discharge as a whole. Deviations in these transport parameters were investigated in this work by means of Monte Carlo calculations, and the electrical characteristics of the total discharge were observed experimentally. Results of the theoretical investigation show that, in attaching gas mixtures, both the ionization and attachment-rate coefficients in the positive column of the discharge are changed such that the combined effect results in an increase in resistivity. Experimentally, it is seen that application of a crossed magnetic field to an abnormal glow discharge in attaching gases in a certain parameter range causes the discharge voltage to increase significantly. The effect seems to be most strongly influenced by processes in the cathode-fall region

  14. Application of Radio-Frequency Plasma Glow Discharge to Removal of Uranium Dioxide from Metal Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Saber, Hamed H.

    2000-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that radio-frequency (rf) plasma glow discharge using NF 3 gas is an effective technique for the removal of uranium oxide from metal surfaces. The results of these experiments are analyzed to explain the measured dependence of the UO 2 removal or etch rate on the NF 3 gas pressure and the absorbed power in the plasma. The NF 3 gas pressure in the experiments was varied from 10.8 to 40 Pa, and the deposited power in the plasma was varied from 25 to 210 W. The UO 2 etch rate was strongly dependent on the absorbed power and, to a lesser extent, on the NF 3 pressure and decreased exponentially with immersion time. At 210 W and 17 Pa, all detectable UO 2 in the samples (∼10.6 mg each) was removed at the endpoint, whereas the initial etch rate was ∼3.11 μm/min. When the absorbed power was ≤50 W, however, the etch rate was initially ∼0.5 μg/min and almost zero at the endpoint, with UO 2 only partially etched. This self-limiting etching of UO 2 at low power is attributed to the formation of nonvolatile intermediates UF 2 , UF 3 , UF 4 , UF 5 , UO 2 F, and UO 2 F 2 on the surface. Analysis indicated that the accumulation of UF 6 and, to a lesser extent, O 2 near the surface partially contributed to the exponential decrease in the UO 2 etch rate with immersion time. Unlike fluorination with F 2 gas, etching of UO 2 using rf glow discharge is possible below 663 K. The average etch rates of the amorphous UO 2 in the NF 3 experiments are comparable to the peak values reported in other studies for crystalline UO 2 using CF 4 /O 2 glow discharge performed at ∼150 to 250 K higher sample temperatures

  15. Evaluating a Proof-of-Concept Approach of the German Health Telematics Infrastructure in the Context of Discharge Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Ursula; Schulte, Georg; Sellemann, Björn; Quade, Matthias; Rottmann, Thorsten; Fenske, Matthias; Egbert, Nicole; Kuhlisch, Raik; Rienhoff, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Although national eHealth strategies have existed now for more than a decade in many countries, they have been implemented with varying success. In Germany, the eHealth strategy so far has resulted in a roll out of electronic health cards for all citizens in the statutory health insurance, but in no clinically meaningful IT-applications. The aim of this study was to test the technical and organisation feasibility, usability, and utility of an eDischarge application embedded into a laboratory Health Telematics Infrastructure (TI). The tests embraced the exchange of eDischarge summaries based on the multiprofessional HL7 eNursing Summary standard between a municipal hospital and a nursing home. All in all, 36 transmissions of electronic discharge documents took place. They demonstrated the technical-organisation feasibility and resulted in moderate usability ratings. A comparison between eDischarge and paper-based summaries hinted at higher ratings of utility and information completeness for eDischarges. Despite problems with handling the electronic health card, the proof-of-concept for the first clinically meaningful IT-application in the German Health TI could be regarded as successful.

  16. Variability in the measurement of hospital-wide mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahian, David M; Wolf, Robert E; Iezzoni, Lisa I; Kirle, Leslie; Normand, Sharon-Lise T

    2010-12-23

    Several countries use hospital-wide mortality rates to evaluate the quality of hospital care, although the usefulness of this metric has been questioned. Massachusetts policymakers recently requested an assessment of methods to calculate this aggregate mortality metric for use as a measure of hospital quality. The Massachusetts Division of Health Care Finance and Policy provided four vendors with identical information on 2,528,624 discharges from Massachusetts acute care hospitals from October 1, 2004, through September 30, 2007. Vendors applied their risk-adjustment algorithms and provided predicted probabilities of in-hospital death for each discharge and for hospital-level observed and expected mortality rates. We compared the numbers and characteristics of discharges and hospitals included by each of the four methods. We also compared hospitals' standardized mortality ratios and classification of hospitals with mortality rates that were higher or lower than expected, according to each method. The proportions of discharges that were included by each method ranged from 28% to 95%, and the severity of patients' diagnoses varied widely. Because of their discharge-selection criteria, two methods calculated in-hospital mortality rates (4.0% and 5.9%) that were twice the state average (2.1%). Pairwise associations (Pearson correlation coefficients) of discharge-level predicted mortality probabilities ranged from 0.46 to 0.70. Hospital-performance categorizations varied substantially and were sometimes completely discordant. In 2006, a total of 12 of 28 hospitals that had higher-than-expected hospital-wide mortality when classified by one method had lower-than-expected mortality when classified by one or more of the other methods. Four common methods for calculating hospital-wide mortality produced substantially different results. This may have resulted from a lack of standardized national eligibility and exclusion criteria, different statistical methods, or

  17. Early discharge hospital at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Bradley, Daniela C; Iliffe, Steve; Doll, Helen A; Broad, Joanna; Gladman, John; Langhorne, Peter; Richards, Suzanne H; Shepperd, Sasha

    2017-06-26

    -certainty evidence).Studies recruiting people undergoing elective surgeryThree studies did not report higher rates of mortality with hospital at home compared with inpatient care (data not pooled, N = 856, low-certainty evidence; mainly orthopaedic surgery). Hospital at home may lead to little or no difference in readmission to hospital for people who were mainly recovering from orthopaedic surgery (N = 1229, low-certainty evidence). We could not establish the effects of hospital at home on the risk of living in institutional care, due to a lack of data. The intervention might slightly improve patient satisfaction (N = 1229, low-certainty evidence). People recovering from orthopaedic surgery allocated to early discharge hospital at home were discharged from the intervention on average four days earlier than people allocated to usual inpatient care (4.44 days earlier, 95% CI 6.37 to 2.51 days earlier, , N = 411, 4 trials, moderate-certainty evidence). It is uncertain whether hospital at home has an effect on cost (very low-certainty evidence). Despite increasing interest in the potential of early discharge hospital at home services as a less expensive alternative to inpatient care, this review provides insufficient evidence of economic benefit (through a reduction in hospital length of stay) or improved health outcomes.

  18. Vessel Sewage Discharges: No-Discharge Zones (NDZs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    States may petition the EPA to establish areas, called no discharge zones (NDZs), where vessel sewage discharges are prohibited. This page describes how NDZs are designated, the types of designations, who enforces them, and how to comply.

  19. Gas temperature of capacitance spark discharge in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Ryo; Nifuku, Masaharu; Fujiwara, Shuzo; Horiguchi, Sadashige; Oda, Tetsuji

    2005-01-01

    Capacitance spark discharge has been widely used for studying the ignition of flammable gas caused by electrostatic discharge. In the present study, the gas temperature of capacitance spark discharge is measured. The gas temperature is an important factor in understanding the electrostatic ignition process because it influences the reaction rate of ignition. Spark discharge is generated in air with a pulse duration shorter than 100 ns. The discharge energy is set to 0.03-1 mJ. The rotational and vibrational temperatures of the N 2 molecule are measured using the emission spectrum of the N 2 second positive system. The rotational and vibrational temperatures are estimated to be 500 and 5000 K, respectively, which are independent of the discharge energy. This result indicates that most of the electron energy is consumed in the excitation of vibrational levels of molecules rather than the heating of the gas. The gas temperature after discharge is also measured by laser-induced fluorescence of OH radicals. It is shown that the gas temperature increases after discharge and reaches approximately 1000 K at 3 μs after discharge. Then the temperature decreases at a rate in the range of 8-35 K/μs depending on the discharge energy

  20. Does appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy modify intensive care unit-acquired Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia mortality and discharge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouwels, K B; Van Kleef, E; Vansteelandt, S; Batra, R; Edgeworth, J D; Smieszek, T; Robotham, J V

    2017-05-01

    Conflicting results have been found regarding outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia and the potentially modifying effect of appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy. To evaluate these associations while adjusting for potential time-varying confounding using methods from the causal inference literature. Patients who stayed more than two days in two general ICUs in England between 2002 and 2006 were included in this cohort study. Marginal structural models with inverse probability weighting were used to estimate the mortality and discharge associated with Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia and the impact of appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy on these outcomes. Among 3411 ICU admissions, 195 (5.7%) ICU-acquired Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia cases occurred. Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia was associated with an increased daily risk of ICU death [cause-specific hazard ratio (HR): 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.99] and a reduced daily risk of ICU discharge (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.54-0.80). Appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy did not significantly modify ICU mortality (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.59-1.97) or discharge (HR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.63-1.32). ICU-acquired Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia was associated with an increased daily risk of ICU mortality. Furthermore, the daily discharge rate was also lower after acquiring infection, even when adjusting for time-varying confounding using appropriate methodology. No evidence was found for a beneficial modifying effect of appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy on ICU mortality and discharge. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Parameters of the plasma of a dc pulsating discharge in a supersonic air flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibkov, V. M., E-mail: shibkov@phys.msu.ru; Shibkova, L. V.; Logunov, A. A. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    A dc discharge in a cold (T = 200 K) supersonic air flow at a static pressure of 200–400 Torr was studied experimentally. The excited unsteady pulsating discharge has the form of a thin plasma channel with a diameter of ≤1 mm, stretched downstream the flow. Depending on the discharge current, the pulsation frequency varies from 800 to 1600 Hz and the electron temperature varies from 8000 to 15000 K.

  2. Monitoring of lightning discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a brief description of a lightning discharge recording system developed at the NPO 'Monitoring Techniques' under the direction of V.M. Moskolenko (Moscow). The system provides information about dangerous environmental occurrences such as tornados and hurricanes, making the forecast of extreme situations possible, especially in the areas of dangerous industries and objects. The created automatic system can be useful in solving the tasks relating to nuclear test monitoring. (author)

  3. Underwater Ship Husbandry Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    which entered into force in September of 2008, prohibits the use of harmful organotins such as tributyltin ( TBT ) in AFCs used on international...States. The use of TBT AFCs is explicitly prohibited under the VGP, and vessels must remove such coatings or paint over them to prevent toxic ...to hull husbandry include (1) the discharge of toxic chemicals used as biocides in AFCs and (2) biofouling as a vector for aquatic nuisance species

  4. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources.

  5. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources

  6. Simulation of pulsed dielectric barrier discharge xenon excimer lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, E A; Kudryavtsev, A A; Arslanbekov, R R; Kolobov, V I

    2004-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the efficiency of excimer lamps can be drastically increased in a pulsed regime. A one-dimensional simulation of pulsed excimer lamps has been performed by Carman and Mildren (2003 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36 19) (C and M). However, some computational results of the work of C and M are questionable and need to be revisited. In this paper, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in xenon has been simulated for operating conditions similar to those of C and M to better understand plasma dynamics in a pulsed regime. Our simulation results differ considerably from the computational results of C and M. Although these differences do not affect profoundly the plasma macro parameters measured in the C and M experiments, they offer a better understanding of plasma dynamics in pulsed DBDs and form a solid foundation for computational optimization of excimer lamps. It was found that the dynamics of breakdown and the current pulse depend significantly on the initial densities of species after a previous pulse, and so it is important to accurately simulate the plasma evolution in both the afterglow and active stages. It seems possible to modify the power deposition in the plasma by varying external discharge parameters such as the amplitude and the rise time of the applied voltage, and to modify the plasma composition by changing the pulse repetition rate and plasma decay in the afterglow stage

  7. Sound spectrum of a pulsating optical discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grachev, G N; Smirnov, A L; Tishchenko, V N [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Dmitriev, A K; Miroshnichenko, I B [Novosibirsk State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-28

    A spectrum of sound of an optical discharge generated by a repetitively pulsed (RP) laser radiation has been investigated. The parameters of laser radiation are determined at which the spectrum of sound may contains either many lines, or the main line at the pulse repetition rate and several weaker overtones, or a single line. The spectrum of sound produced by trains of RP radiation comprises the line (and overtones) at the repetition rate of train sequences and the line at the repetition rate of pulses in trains. A CO{sub 2} laser with the pulse repetition rate of f ≈ 3 – 180 kHz and the average power of up to 2 W was used in the experiments. (optical discharges)

  8. Same-day discharge after laparoscopic hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron-Burdick, Misa; Yamamoto, Miya; Zaritsky, Eve

    2011-05-01

    To estimate readmission rates and emergency care use by patients discharged home the same day after laparoscopic hysterectomy. This was a retrospective case series of patients discharged home the same-day after total or supracervical laparoscopic hysterectomy in a managed care setting. Chart reviews were performed for outcomes of interest which included readmission rates, emergency visits, and surgical and demographic characteristics. The two hysterectomy groups were compared using χ² tests for categorical variables and t tests or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for continuously measured variables. One-thousand fifteen laparoscopic hysterectomies were performed during the 3-year study period. Fifty-two percent (n=527) of the patients were discharged home the same-day; of those, 46% (n=240) had total laparoscopic hysterectomies and 54% (n=287) had supracervical. Cumulative readmission rates were 0.6%, 3.6%, and 4.0% at 48 hours, 3 months, and 12 months, respectively. The most common readmission diagnoses included abdominal incision infection, cuff dehiscence, and vaginal bleeding. Less than 4% of patients presented for emergency care within 48 or 72 hours, most commonly for nausea or vomiting, pain, and urinary retention. Median uterine weight was 155 g, median blood loss was 70 mL, and median surgical time was 150 minutes. There was no difference in readmission rates or emergency visits for the total compared with the supracervical laparoscopic hysterectomy group. Same-day discharge after laparoscopic hysterectomy is associated with low readmission rates and minimal emergency visits in the immediate postoperative period. Same-day discharge may be a safe option for healthy patients undergoing uncomplicated laparoscopic hysterectomy.

  9. Evaluating future detriment from radioactive discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleishman, A.B.; Clark, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    A quantitative framework for expressing judgements on the relative valuation of both future protection costs and radiation detriment from radioactive discharges is discussed. The framework can be applied to a series of notional effluent control options, illustrating the sensitivity of optimum protection levels to variations in discount rates. Using data on the radiological significance and management of radioactive discharges arising from the nuclear fuel cycle, it was shown that this quantitative optimization method of evaluating future detriment has important implications for the management of radioactive effluents, particularly those containing long-lived nuclides. (U.K.)

  10. Measurement of power loss during electric vehicle charging and discharging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolaki-Iosifidou, Elpiniki; Codani, Paul; Kempton, Willett

    2017-01-01

    When charging or discharging electric vehicles, power losses occur in the vehicle and the building systems supplying the vehicle. A new use case for electric vehicles, grid services, has recently begun commercial operation. Vehicles capable of such application, called Grid-Integrated Vehicles, may have use cases with charging and discharging summing up to much more energy transfer than the charging only use case, so measuring and reducing electrical losses is even more important. In this study, the authors experimentally measure and analyze the power losses of a Grid-Integrated Vehicle system, via detailed measurement of the building circuits, power feed components, and of sample electric vehicle components. Under the conditions studied, measured total one-way losses vary from 12% to 36%, so understanding loss factors is important to efficient design and use. Predominant losses occur in the power electronics used for AC-DC conversion. The electronics efficiency is lowest at low power transfer and low state-of-charge, and is lower during discharging than charging. Based on these findings, two engineering design approaches are proposed. First, optimal sizing of charging stations is analyzed. Second, a dispatch algorithm for grid services operating at highest efficiency is developed, showing 7.0% to 9.7% less losses than the simple equal dispatch algorithm. - Highlights: • Grid-to-battery-to-grid comprehensive power loss measurement and analysis. • No previous experimental measurements of Grid-Integrated Vehicle system power loss. • Electric vehicle loss analyzed as a factor of state of charge and charging rate. • Power loss in the building components less than 3%. • Largest losses found in Power Electronics (typical round-trip loss 20%).

  11. Sheath heating in low-pressure capacitive radio frequency discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, B.P.

    1991-01-01

    Capacitively coupled, parallel plate, r.f. discharges are commonly used for materials processing. The electrons in such a discharge gain and lose energy by reflection from the oscillating sheaths which form at the electrodes. Previous models of the electron heating by this mechanism have assumed that the sheath motion is slow compared to the electron thermal velocity, so that the electron energy change from each reflection is small. Here, the heating rate, density, and sheath width relations are derived analytically in the limit of very fast sheath motion. Numerical results are presented spanning the slow and fast limits. Results from particle-in-cell simulations show that in the large-energy-change regime, an electron beam is produced on each sheath expansion. At low pressure, this beam can traverse the plasma and interact with the sheath at the opposite electrode, producing a beam energy and density dependence on the length of the discharge. The beam produces a time and space varying warm tail on the electron energy distribution. Two revised heating models are derived, assuming power-law and two-temperature electron energy distributions, with temporal variation in electron temperature. These revised models yield new predictions for the variation of the power, density, and sheath thickness with applied r.f. voltage. These predictions are compared with simulation results and laboratory experiment. The electron sheath motion is investigated experimentally by observing the signal on a floating probe in the sheath region. This is compared to the signal product by a non-linear circuit model which accounts for the perturbation of the sheath potential by the probe and includes various forms of sheath motion. The experimental observations are consistent with the analytical predictions. Experimental observations of plasma-sheath resonance oscillations are presented which agree with analytical predictions

  12. A determination of discharge head of the Cherepnov water lifter with siphon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwan Soo; Rhee, Kyoung Hoon [Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Chun [Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Byoung Kyen [Sunchon Technical Junior College, Sunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-29

    This paper presents an experimental study on the discharge head of Cherepnov water lifter that was continuously operated with the aid of the siphon. The energy used by the Cherepnov water lifter is derived from the potential energy of the water itself. The lifter consists of three interconnected tanks and five pipes, one of which is open and two others are hermetically sealed. The effects of varying operating parameters such as the tank and pipe size, the ratio between head of discharge and drop height were analyzed. As a result, factors that can maximize the efficiency and increase the average delivery rate were identified. When the ratio between head of discharge and drop height is about 0.5, the efficiency of Cherepnov water lifter is maximized. In order to design the efficient Cherepnov water lifter, the discharge head of the Cherepnov water lifter should be assigned to be twice as much as the drop height. The effect of tank size on the efficiency is less than 5%, while the effect of the pipe size is not negligible. The larger the pipe size is, the more the efficiency increases. (author). 13 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  13. Arc-discharge and magnetron sputtering combined equipment for nanocomposite coating deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval, N.N.; Borisov, D.P.; Savostikov, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    It is known that characteristics of nanocomposite coatings produced by reactive magnetron sputtering undergo an essential influence on the following parameters such as original component composition of targets being sputtered, as well as abundance ratio of such components in the coatings deposited, relative content of inert and reactionary gases in a gas mixture used and a value of operating pressure in a chamber, substrate temperature, and a value of substrate bias potential, determining energy of ionized atoms, ionized atoms flow density, i.e. ion current density on a substrate. The multifactor character of production process of nanocomposite coatings with certain physical and mechanical properties demands a purposeful and complex control on all above-mentioned parameters. To solve such a problem, an arc-discharge and magnetron sputtering combined equipment including a vacuum chamber of approximately ∼ 0.5 m 3 with a built-in low-pressure plasma generator made on the basis of non-self-sustained discharge with a thermal cathode and a planar magnetron combined with two sputtered targets has been created. Construction of such a complex set-up provides both an autonomous mode of operation and simultaneous operation of an arc plasma generator and magnetron sputtering system. Magnetron sputtering of either one or two targets simultaneously is provided as well. An arc plasma generator enables ions current density control on a substrate in a wide range due to discharge current varying from 1 to 100 A. Energy of ions is also being controlled in a wide range by a negative bias potential from 0 to 1000 V applied to a substrate. The wide control range of gas plasma density of a arc discharge of approximately 10 9 -10 11 cm -3 and high uniformity of its distribution over the total volume of an operating chamber (about 15% error with regard to the mean value) provides a purposeful and simultaneous control either of magnetron discharge characteristics (operating pressure of

  14. DISCHARGE VALVE FOR GRANULAR MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, L.D.; Robinson, S.T.

    1962-05-15

    A gravity-red dispenser or valve is designed for discharging the fueled spherical elements used in a pebble bed reactor. The dispenser consists of an axially movable tube terminating under a hood having side walls with openings. When the tube is moved so that its top edge is above the tops of the side openings the elements will not flow. As the tube is moved downwardly, the elements flow into the hood through the side openings and over the top edge into the tube at an increasing rate as the tube is lowered further. The tube is spaced at all times from the hood and side walls a distance greater than the diameter of the largest element to prevent damaging of the elements when the dispenser is closed to flow. (AEC)

  15. Plasma Discharge Process in a Pulsed Diaphragm Discharge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jianjin; Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chao; Wen, Yuanbin; Meng, Yuedong; Zhang, Chengxu

    2014-12-01

    As one of the most important steps in wastewater treatment, limited study on plasma discharge process is a key challenge in the development of plasma applications. In this study, we focus on the plasma discharge process of a pulsed diaphragm discharge system. According to the analysis, the pulsed diaphragm discharge proceeds in seven stages: (1) Joule heating and heat exchange stage; (2) nucleated site formation; (3) plasma generation (initiation of the breakdown stage); (4) avalanche growth and plasma expansion; (5) plasma contraction; (6) termination of the plasma discharge; and (7) heat exchange stage. From this analysis, a critical voltage criterion for breakdown is obtained. We anticipate this finding will provide guidance for a better application of plasma discharges, especially diaphragm plasma discharges.

  16. Investigations of low qa discharges in the SINP tokamak

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Low edge safety factor discharges including very low (1 < < 2) and ultra low (0 < < 1) have been obtained in the SINP tokamak. It has been observed that accessibility of these discharges depends crucially on the fast rate of plasma current rise. Several interesting results in terms of different time scales like ...

  17. Tesla coil discharges guided by femtosecond laser filaments in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelet, Yohann; Houard, Aurélien; Arantchouk, Leonid; Forestier, Benjamin; Liu, Yi; Prade, Bernard; Carbonnel, Jérôme; André, Yves-Bernard; Mysyrowicz, André

    2012-04-01

    A Tesla coil generator was designed to produce high voltage pulses oscillating at 100 kHz synchronisable with a nanosecond temporal jitter. Using this compact high voltage generator, we demonstrate reproducible meter long discharges in air at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. Triggering and guiding of the discharges are performed in air by femtosecond laser filaments.

  18. Plasma Beam Interaction with Negative glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tayeb, H.A.; El-Gamal, H.A.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature coaxial gun has been used to study the effect of the energy spectrum of the ejected plasma on the interaction with negative glow region in a normal glow discharge. The peak discharge current flow between the coaxial electrodes was 5.25 K A as a single pulse with pulse duration of 60 MUs. Investigations are carried out with argon gas at pressure 0.4 Torr. The sheath thickness of the ejected plasma from the coaxial discharge was 6 cm with different densities and energies. The spectrum of electron energy varies between 6 eV and 1 eV, while the electron density varies between 5 x 10 12 cm -3 and 4x10 13 cm -3 . The peak velocity of the ejected plasma was 0. 8 x 10 5 cm sec -1 in the neutral argon atoms. Argon negative glow region used as base plasma has an electron temperature of 2.2 eV and electron density of 6.2 x10 7 cm -3 . It had been found that the velocity of the ejected plasma decreased when it moves in the negative glow region and its mean electron temperature decreased. The results are compared with the theory of beam interaction with cold plasma

  19. Compact Intracloud Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    In November of 1993, mysterious signals recorded by a satellite-borne broadband VHF radio science experiment called Blackboard led to a completely unexpected discovery. Prior to launch of the ALEXIS satellite, it was thought that its secondary payload, Blackboard, would most often detect the radio emissions from lightning when its receiver was not overwhelmed by noise from narrowband communication carriers. Instead, the vast majority of events that triggered the instrument were isolated pairs of pulses that were one hundred times more energetic than normal thunderstorm electrical emissions. The events, which came to be known as TIPPs (for transionospheric pulse pairs), presented a true mystery to the geophysics community. At the time, it was not even known whether the events had natural or anthropogenic origins. After two and one half years of research into the unique signals, two ground-based receiver arrays in New Mexico first began to detect and record thunderstorm radio emissions that were consistent with the Blackboard observations. On two occasions, the ground-based systems and Blackboard even recorded emissions that were produced by the same exact events. From the ground based observations, it has been determined that TIPP events areproduced by brief, singular, isolated, intracloud electrical discharges that occur in intense regions of thunderstorms. These discharges have been dubbed CIDS, an acronym for compact intracloud discharges. During the summer of 1996, ground-based receiver arrays were used to record the electric field change signals and broadband HF emissions from hundreds of CIDS. Event timing that was accurate to within a few microseconds made possible the determination of source locations using methods of differential time of arrival. Ionospheric reflections of signals were recorded in addition to groundwave/line-of-sight signals and were used to determine accurate altitudes for the discharges. Twenty-four CIDS were recorded from three

  20. Developing a Simple Unique Head-Discharge Equation for Pivot Weirs with Different Side Contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    neda Sheikh Rezazadeh Nikou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pivot weirs (sharp crested inclined weirs, Fig. 1-a is frequently used for discharge measurement, controlling water surface and flow diversion. Some typical features of pivot weirs are: (a overshot design for better water level control, (b Their application as head gates, turnout or check structure which requiring low head loss and high accuracy, (c ease of removing sediment deposit behind the weir, and (d ability to manage and monitor on-site or operating remotely when connected to a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA network. Kindsvater and Carter (8 derived a weir discharge equation based on energy and continuity equations. Hulsing (4 determined head-discharge relationship of inclined suppressed sharp crested weir with the slope of 3:3, 2:3 and 1:3 toward downstream and compared them with the equivalent normal sharp crested weir. In the USBR report on pivot weirs (regarding The Boulder Canyon Project,1948 the head discharge data of the suppressed pivot weir were presented in a channel with 5.5m length, 2.9m depth and 0.61m width. Some field experiments were also carried out in the IID (Imperial Irrigation District on a trapezoidal cross-section (0.61 m bottom width channel with pivot weir of 1.7m length, and two different widths of 1.63m. The flow rate (350-880 lit/s was held constant and different angles (15-50° calibrated instead of holding the angle constant and varying the flow rate. Some other laboratory tests were performed with Wahlin and Replogle (1994 on two pivot weirs with 1.2 m and 1.14 m width for the 0.61 m and 0.46 m length of blade and contraction factor of 0.925. RUBICON Company established an extensive operation on the application and automation of pivot weirs in irrigation channels in Australia (Www.rubicon.com. All previous studies concentrated on modifying the normal rectangular weir head-discharge equation so that it can be used for the pivot weirs. In this study, it is trying to derive a

  1. Time-varying Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    We estimate a continuous-time model with stochastic volatility and dynamic crash probability for the S&P 500 index and find that market illiquidity dominates other factors in explaining the stock market crash risk. While the crash probability is time-varying, its dynamic depends only weakly on re...

  2. Eestlased Karlovy Varys / J. R.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" osaleb 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" ja Asko Kase lühimängufilm "Zen läbi prügi" on valitud festivali kõrvalprogrammi "Forum of Independents"

  3. Esmaklassiline Karlovy Vary / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" võitis 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivalil kaks auhinda - ametliku kõrvalvõistlusprogrammi "East of the West" eripreemia "Special mention" ja Euroopa väärtfilmikinode keti Europa Cinemas preemia. Ka Asko Kase lühifilmi "Zen läbi prügi linastumisest ning teistest auhinnasaajatest ning osalejatest

  4. Optimistlik Karlovy Vary / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2007-01-01

    42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali auhinnatud filmidest (žürii esimees Peter Bart). Kristallgloobuse sai Islandi-Saksamaa "Katseklaasilinn" (režii Baltasar Kormakur), parimaks režissööriks tunnistati norralane Bard Breien ("Negatiivse mõtlemise kunst"). Austraallase Michael James Rowlandi "Hea õnne teekond" sai žürii eripreemia

  5. Discharge planning for children with ventricular septal defect and pulmonary arterial hypertension in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Wu

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Discharge planning improves the maternal discharge readiness, maternal caring knowledge and maternal caring behaviors. However, this planning did not reduce the readmission rate of children with CHD-PAH.

  6. Continuous pile discharging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.P.

    1976-01-01

    A device for discharging cartridges from tubes under fluid pressure includes a cylindrical housing adapted to be seated in a leak-tight manner on the end of one of the tubes, a chute depending from the cylindrical housing near the end seated on the end of the tube, a rotatable piston having a wrench on the forward end thereof disposed in the cylindrical housing and adapted to manipulate a plug in the end of the tube, and a telescopic hydraulic ram adapted to move the piston toward the plug. In addition the wrench contains a magnet which prevents inadvertent uncoupling of the wrench and the plug. 7 claims, 10 drawing figures

  7. Capacitive discharge exciplex lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosnin, E A; Erofeev, M V; Tarasenko, V F [High Current Electronics Institute, 2/3, Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-07

    Simple-geometry exciplex lamps of a novel type excited by a capacitive discharge (CD-excilamps) have been investigated. An efficient radiation has been obtained on KrBr*, KrCl*, XeBr*, XeCl* molecules and I* atom. The highest values of efficiency of various working molecules are approximately 10-18%. The lifetime of the operating gas mixture in KrCl*, XeCl*, I* and XeBr* exciplex lamps excited by a CD is above 1000 h. Owing to the above-mentioned characteristics, the exciplex lamps excited by a CD are supposed to be very promising for various applications.

  8. Capacitive discharge exciplex lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnin, E A; Erofeev, M V; Tarasenko, V F

    2005-01-01

    Simple-geometry exciplex lamps of a novel type excited by a capacitive discharge (CD-excilamps) have been investigated. An efficient radiation has been obtained on KrBr*, KrCl*, XeBr*, XeCl* molecules and I* atom. The highest values of efficiency of various working molecules are approximately 10-18%. The lifetime of the operating gas mixture in KrCl*, XeCl*, I* and XeBr* exciplex lamps excited by a CD is above 1000 h. Owing to the above-mentioned characteristics, the exciplex lamps excited by a CD are supposed to be very promising for various applications

  9. Continuous pile discharging machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Phillips P.

    1976-05-11

    A device for discharging cartridges from tubes under fluid pressure includes a cylindrical housing adapted to be seated in a leak-tight manner on the end of one of the tubes, a chute depending from the cylindrical housing near the end seated on the end of the tube, a rotatable piston having a wrench on the forward end thereof disposed in the cylindrical housing and adapted to manipulate a plug in the end of the tube, and a telescopic hydraulic ram adapted to move the piston toward the plug. In addition the wrench contains a magnet which prevents inadvertent uncoupling of the wrench and the plug.

  10. Discharge cleaning on TFTR after boronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Dylla, H.F.; LaMarche, P.H.; Bell, M.G.; Blanchard, W.; Bush, C.E.; Gentile, C.; Hawryluk, R.J.; HIll, K.W.; Janos, A.C.; Jobes, F.C; Owens, D.K.; Pearson, G.; Schivell, J.; Ulrickson, M.A.; Vannoy, C.; Wong, K.L.

    1991-05-01

    At the beginning of the 1990 TFTR experimental run, after replacement of POCO-AXF-5Q graphite tiles on the midplane of the bumper limiter by carbon fiber composite (CFC) tiles and prior to any Pulse Discharge Cleaning (PDC), boronization was performed. Boronization is the deposition of a layer of boron and carbon on the vacuum vessel inner surface by a glow discharge in a diborane, methane and helium mixture. The amount of discharge cleaning required after boronization was substantially reduced compared to that which was needed after previous openings when boronization was not done. Previously, after a major shutdown, about 10 5 low current (∼20 kA) Taylor Discharge Cleaning (TDC) pulses were required before high current (∼400 kA) aggressive Pulse Discharge Cleaning (PDC) pulses could be performed successfully. Aggressive PDC is used to heat the limiters from the vessel bakeout temperature of 150 degrees C to 250 degrees C for a period of several hours. Heating the limiters is important to increase the rate at which water is removed from the carbon limiter tiles. After boronization, the number of required TDC pulses was reduced to <5000. The number of aggressive PDC pulses required was approximately unchanged. 14 refs., 1 tab

  11. Coaxial discharge plasma parameters and radiation emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solimen, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    Results are reported for experiments carried out on a Mather type coaxial discharge plasma device. Experimental measurements of the electron temperature and density for the plasma propagated from the coaxial discharge are determined by using a biased double electric probe. The experimental results illustrated that , there are two groups of the plasma in the ejected plasma bulk, at 9 cm from the muzzle axis, the plasma reached the probe at 20 μsec from the start of discharge. The first group has electron temperature and density 27 eV and 3 x 10 14 cm -3 respectively,while The second group has 25 eV and 3 x 10 14 cm -3 respectively. The decay rate of the electron temperature and density of each group is presented. The plasma radiation spectrum is detected by a dielectric filter at 3500 A degree or 6100 A degree . The experimental measurements showed that, without or with dielectric filters, the visible radiation consists from two pulses with different magnitudes within the same half cycle of discharge. The time resolution of the soft x-ray is achieved by means of scintillator detector. The detected x-ray pulse during the first half cycle of discharge had a double peaks with different structures. All the experimental results present in this paper showed that the plasma bulk propagated in the expansion chamber, consists of two-groups. 6 fig

  12. Older veterans and emergency department discharge information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Susan; Stechuchak, Karen; Oddone, Eugene; Weinberger, Morris; Tucker, Dana; Knaack, William; Schmader, Kenneth

    2012-10-01

    Study goals were to assess older veterans' understanding of their emergency department (ED) discharge information and to determine the association between understanding discharge information and patient assessment of overall quality of care. Telephone interviews were conducted with 305 patients aged 65 or older (or their proxies) within 48 h of discharge from a Veterans Affairs Medical Center ED. Patients were asked about their perceived understanding (at the time of ED discharge) of information about their ED diagnosis, expected course of illness, contingency plan (ie, return precautions, who to call if it got worse, potential medication side effects) and follow-up care. Overall quality of ED care was rated on a four-point scale of poor, fair, good or excellent. Patients or their proxies reported not understanding information about their ED diagnosis (21%), expected course of illness (50%), contingency plan (43%), and how soon they needed to follow-up with their primary care provider (25%). In models adjusted for age and race, a positive association was observed between perceived understanding of the cause of the problem (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.3 to 4.0), expected duration of symptoms (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.5) and the contingency plan (OR 2.2; CI 1.3 to 3.4), and rating overall ED care as excellent. Older veterans may not understand key items of information at the time ED discharge, and this may have an impact on how they view the quality of ED care. Strategies are needed to improve communication of ED discharge information to older veterans and their families.

  13. Age and weight at final discharge from an early discharge programme for stable but tube-fed preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnfeldt, A M; Stanchev, H.; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl

    2015-01-01

    the programme (p difference in weight-for-age at discharge (p = 0.15), but infants in the early discharge group were more frequently fully or partly breastfed (88% versus 80%, p ... comparability of the two groups, weight-for-age at discharge was similar, but the programme appeared to allow better breastfeeding success at the expense of a later final discharge......., and during the programme, they received home visits by neonatal nurses. We evaluated the programme, focusing on the infants' well-being, using weight gain, breastfeeding rates and total duration of hospitalisation as outcomes. METHODS: Over an 11-year period, 500 infants participated in the programme...

  14. Time resolved laser induced fluorescence on argon intermediate pressure microwave discharges : measuring the depopulation rates of the 4p and 5p excited levels as induced by electron and atom collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomares Linares, J.M.; Graef, W.A.A.D.; Hubner, S.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The reaction kinetics in the excitation space of Ar is explored by means of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) experiments using the combination of high rep-rate YAG–Dye laser systems with a well defined and easily controllable surfatron induced plasma setup. The high rep-rate favors the photon

  15. Cryogenic high current discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meierovich, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    Z-pinches formed from frozen deuterium fibers by a rapidly rising current have enhanced stability and high neutron yield. The efforts to understand the enhanced stability and neutron yield on the basis of classical picture of Bennett equilibrium of the current channel has not given satisfactory results. The traditional approach does not take into account the essential difference between the frozen deuterium fiber Z-pinches and the usual Z-pinches such as exploding wires or classical gas-puffed Z-pinches. The very low temperature of the fiber atoms (10 K), together with the rapidly rising current, result in the coexistence of a high current channel with unionized fiber atoms for a substantial period of time. This phenomena lasts during the risetime. This approach takes into account the difference of the breakdown in a dielectric deuterium fiber and the breakdown in a metallic wire. This difference is essential to the understanding of specific features of cryogenic high current discharges. Z-pinches in frozen deuterium fibers should be considered as a qualitatively new phenomenon on the boundary of cryogenic and high current physics. It is a start of a new branch in plasma physics: the physics of cryogenic high current discharges

  16. Taser X26 discharges in swine: ventricular rhythm capture is dependent on discharge vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Daniel J; Walter, Robert J; Dennis, Andrew J; Margeta, Bosko; Starr, Frederic; Nagy, Kimberly K; Bokhari, Faran; Wiley, Dorion E; Joseph, Kimberly T; Roberts, Roxanne R

    2008-12-01

    Data from our previous studies indicate that Taser X26 stun devices can acutely alter cardiac function in swine. We hypothesized that most transcardiac discharge vectors would capture ventricular rhythm, but that other vectors, not traversing the heart, would fail to capture the ventricular rhythm. Using an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) approved protocol, four Yorkshire pigs (25-36 kg) were anesthetized, paralyzed with succinylcholine (2 mg/kg), and then exposed to 10 second discharges from a police-issue Taser X26. For most discharges, the barbed darts were pushed manually into the skin to their full depth (12 mm) and were arranged in either transcardiac (such that a straight line connecting the darts would cross the region of the heart) or non-transcardiac vectors. A total of 11 different vectors and 22 discharge conditions were studied. For each vector, by simply rotating the cartridge 180-degrees in the gun, the primary current-emitting dart was changed and the direction of current flow during the discharge was reversed without physically moving the darts. Echocardiography and electrocardiograms (ECGs) were performed before, during, and after all discharges. p values captured immediately in 52.5% (31 of 59) of the discharges on the ventral surface of the animal. In each of these cases, capture of the ventricular rhythm with rapid ventricular contractions consistent with ventricular tachycardia (VT) or flutter was seen throughout the discharge. A total of 27 discharges were administered with transcardiac vectors and ventricular capture occurred in 23 of these discharges (85.2% capture rate). A total of 32 non-transcardiac discharges were administered ventrally and capture was seen in only eight of these (25% capture rate). Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was seen with two vectors, both of which were transcardiac. In the remaining animals, VT occurred postdischarge until sinus rhythm was regained spontaneously. For most transcardiac vectors

  17. Using radon-222 for tracing groundwater discharge into an open-pit lignite mining lake--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Axel; Schubert, Michael

    2007-12-01

    Groundwater discharge into an open pit lignite mining lake was investigated using radon-222 as a naturally occurring environmental tracer. The chosen study site was a meromictic lake, i.e., a water body that is divided horizontally into two separate layers--the upper mixolimnion (with seasonal mixing) and the lower monimolimnion (without seasonal mixing). For the estimation of groundwater discharge rates into the lake, a simple box model including all radon sinks and sources related to each layer was applied. Two field investigations were performed. During the October campaign, the total groundwater discharge into the lake was found to be 18.9 and 0.7 m(3) d(-1) for the mixolimnion and monimolimnion, respectively. During the December campaign, the groundwater discharge into the mixolimnion was 15.0 m(3) d(-1), whereas no discharge at all was observed into the monimolimnion. Based on the given water volumes, the residence time of lake water was 5.3 years for the monimolimnion and varies between 0.9 and 1.1 years for the mixolimnion. The investigation confirmed radon to be a useful environmental tracer for groundwater and surface water interactions in meromictic lake environments.

  18. Genetic polymorphisms in varied environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J R

    1971-12-03

    Thirteen experimenital populationis of Drosophila willistoni were maintained in cages, in some of which the environments were relatively constant and in others varied. After 45 weeks, the populations were assayed by gel electrophoresis for polymorphisms at 22 protein loci. The average heterozygosity per individual and the average unmber of alleles per locus were higher in populations maintained in heterogeneous environments than in populations in more constant enviroments.

  19. Performance optimization of 20 cm xenon ion thruster discharge chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Juanjuan; Zhang Tianping; Jia Yanhui; Li Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the performance of the LIPS-200 ion thruster discharge chamber which was developed by Lanzhou Institute of Physics. Based on the discharge chamber geometric configuration and magnetic field, the completely self-consistent analytical model is utilized to discuss performance optimization of the discharge chamber of the LIPS-200. The thrust is enhanced from 40 mN up to 60 mN at rated impulse and efficiency. The results show that the 188.515 W/A beam ion production cost at a propellant flow rate of 2.167 × 10 17 m -3 requires that the thruster runs at a discharge current of 6.9 A to produce 1.2 A ion beam current. Also, during the process of LIPS-200 ion thruster discharge chamber performance optimization, the sheath potential is always within 3.80 ∼ 6.65 eV. (authors)

  20. Numerical simulation of the sustaining discharge in radio frequency hollow cathode discharge in argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xin-Xian; He, Feng, E-mail: hefeng@bit.edu.cn; Ouyang, Ji-Ting [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Chen, Qiang, E-mail: lppmchenqiang@hotmail.com; Ge, Teng [Laboratory of Plasma Physics and Materials, Beijing Institute of Graphic Communication, Beijing 10081 (China)

    2014-03-15

    In this paper, a two-dimensional fluid model was developed to study the radio frequency (RF) hollow cathode discharge (HCD) in argon at 1 Torr. The evolutions of the particle density distribution and the ionization rate distribution in RF HCD at 13.56 MHz indicate that the discharge mainly occurs inside the hollow cathode. The spatio-temporal distributions of the ionization rate and the power deposition within the hollow cathode imply that sheath oscillation heating is the primary mechanism to sustain the RF HCD, whereas secondary electron emission plays a negligible role. However, as driving frequency decreases, secondary electron heating becomes a dominant mechanism to sustain the discharge in RF hollow cathode.

  1. Time resolved laser induced fluorescence on argon intermediate pressure microwave discharges: Measuring the depopulation rates of the 4p and 5p excited levels as induced by electron and atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomares, J.M., E-mail: j.m.palomares-linares@tue.nl; Graef, W.A.A.D.; Hübner, S.; Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der, E-mail: jjamvandermullen@gmail.com

    2013-10-01

    The reaction kinetics in the excitation space of Ar is explored by means of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) experiments using the combination of high rep-rate YAG–Dye laser systems with a well defined and easily controllable surfatron induced plasma setup. The high rep-rate favors the photon statistics while the low energy per pulse avoids intrusive plasma laser interactions. An analysis shows that, despite the low energy per pulse, saturation can still be achieved even when the geometrical overlap and spectral overlap are optimal. Out of the various studies that can be performed with this setup we confine the current paper to the study of the direct responses to the laser pump action of three 4p and one 5p levels of the Ar system. By changing the plasma in a controlled way one gets for these levels the rates of electron and atom quenching and therewith the total destruction rates of electron and atom collisions. Comparison with literature shows that the classical hard sphere collision rate derived for hydrogen gives a good description for the observed electron quenching (e-quenching) in Ar whereas for heavy particle quenching (a-quenching) this agreement was only found for the 5p level. An important parameter in the study of electron excitation kinetics is the location of the boundary in the atomic system for which the number of electron collisions per radiative life time equals unity. It is observed that for the Ar system this boundary is positioned lower than what is expected on grounds of H-like formulas. - Highlights: • Time resolved laser induced fluorescence at high repetition rate • Decay times as function of pressure, electron density and temperature • Measurement of total electron atom depopulation rates • Reasonable agreement of electron total rates with hard sphere approximations.

  2. Investigation on power discharge in micro-EDM stainless steel drilling using different electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Urso, G.; Maccarini, G.; Quarto, M.; Ravasio, C.

    2015-01-01

    The present work deals with the execution of through micro-holes on stainless steel plates using a micro-EDM (Electrical discharge machining) machine. The investigation focuses on the influence of different electrodes' materials and power discharge on both the process performance and the dimensional characteristics of the holes. The experimental campaign was carried out by varying peak current and voltage in order to achieve both high and low power discharge conditions. Tubular electrodes made of three different materials (tungsten carbide, brass and copper) were used. The indexes taken into account were Material removal rate (MRR), Tool wear ratio (TWR), Diametral overcut (DOC) and Taper rate (TR). Brass and copper electrodes always resulted to be the best solution in terms of drilling speed even though the wear of these electrode types is remarkable higher than the tungsten one. On the opposite, tungsten carbide electrodes resulted to be the best solution when high dimensional and geometrical precision is required. Concerning the finishing of the hole inner surface, the best results were achieved using tungsten carbide electrode.

  3. Investigation on power discharge in micro-EDM stainless steel drilling using different electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Urso, G.; Maccarini, G.; Quarto, M.; Ravasio, C. [University of Bergamo, Bergamo (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    The present work deals with the execution of through micro-holes on stainless steel plates using a micro-EDM (Electrical discharge machining) machine. The investigation focuses on the influence of different electrodes' materials and power discharge on both the process performance and the dimensional characteristics of the holes. The experimental campaign was carried out by varying peak current and voltage in order to achieve both high and low power discharge conditions. Tubular electrodes made of three different materials (tungsten carbide, brass and copper) were used. The indexes taken into account were Material removal rate (MRR), Tool wear ratio (TWR), Diametral overcut (DOC) and Taper rate (TR). Brass and copper electrodes always resulted to be the best solution in terms of drilling speed even though the wear of these electrode types is remarkable higher than the tungsten one. On the opposite, tungsten carbide electrodes resulted to be the best solution when high dimensional and geometrical precision is required. Concerning the finishing of the hole inner surface, the best results were achieved using tungsten carbide electrode.

  4. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... invasive direct coronary artery bypass - discharge; MIDCAB - discharge; Robot assisted coronary artery bypass - discharge; RACAB - discharge; Keyhole ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  5. Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not KidsHealth / For Teens / ... Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not Print What Is Vaginal Discharge? Vaginal discharge is fluid that comes from ...

  6. Analysis of Multipactor Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Y. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Several comprehensive studies of radio frequency (rf) breakdown and rf heating are reported. They are of general interest to magnetic confinement fusion, rf linac, and high power microwave source development. The major results include: (1) a ground-breaking theory of multipactor discharge on dielectric, including a successful proof-of-principle experiment that verified the newly developed scaling laws, (2) an in depth investigation of the failure mechanisms of diamond windows and ceramic windows, and of the roles of graphitization, thin films of coating and contaminants, and (3) a most comprehensive theory, to date, on the heating of particulates by an electromagnetic pulse, and on the roles of rf magnetic field heating and of rf electric field heating, including the construction of new scaling laws that govern them. The above form a valuable knowledge base for the general problem of heating phenomenology

  7. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    According to the Section 24 of the Finnish Radiation Decree (1512/91), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety shall specify the concentration and activity limits and principles for the determination whether a waste can be defined as a radioactive waste or not. The radiation safety requirements and limits for the disposal of radioactive waste are given in the guide. They must be observed when discharging radioactive waste into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste disposal plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilization of nuclear energy of natural resources. (4 refs., 1 tab.)

  8. Self-discharge characteristics of lithium/sulfur batteries using TEGDME liquid electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, H.S.; Ahn, H.J.; Kim, K.W.; Ahn, J.H.; Cho, K.K.; Nam, T.H.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated self-discharge characteristics of Li/S batteries using tetra ethylene glycol dimethylether (TEGDME) electrolyte. The open circuit voltages (OCV) and discharge curves were measured as a function of storage time. The self-discharge of the Li/S battery depended on current collectors. Li/TEGDME/S batteries with stainless steel (SUS) current collector showed the highest self-discharge rate of 59% per month. The self-discharge rate of Li/TEGDME/S battery using Al current collector is 34% during initial 80 days, but only 36% after 360 days storage. The discharge capacity decreases only 2% from 80 to 360 days. The self-discharge of Li/S battery using Al current collector is severe during initial 80 days, but is not an important factor after 80 days. Average self-discharge rate of Li/TEGDME/S battery using Al current collector is 3% per month for 1 year

  9. All solid state pulsed power system for water discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Sakugawa, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Kunihiro; Kiyan, Tsuyoshi; Namihira, Takao; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; サクガワ, タカシ; ヤマグチ, タカヒロ; ヤマモト, クニヒロ; キヤン, ツヨシ; ナミヒラ, タカオ; カツキ, スナオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; 佐久川, 貴志

    2005-01-01

    Pulsed power has been used to produce non-thermal plasmas in gases that generate a high electric field at the tip of streamer discharges, where high energy electrons, free radicals, and ozone are produced. Recently, all solid state pulsed power generators, which are operated with high repetition rate, long lifetime and high reliability, have been developed for industrial applications, such as high repetition rate pulsed gas lasers, high energy density plasma (EUV sources) and water discharges...

  10. Carbonaceous Particles Production in a Sputtering Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominique, Claire; Sant, Marco; Arnas, Cecile

    2005-01-01

    Spherical dust particles have been produced in argon glow discharge by sputtering of a graphite cathode. Their size varies from 40 to 200 nm depending on the distance between the two electrodes and the largest ones have a cauliflower shape. Simulations giving the evolution of the energy distribution of sputtered carbon atoms suggest a mechanism of growth by carbon vapour condensation. The chemical composition and structure of particles have been investigated by infrared spectroscopy and appear to be a complex arrangement of the carbon atoms and hetero-atoms

  11. Impact of Internally Developed Electronic Prescription on Prescribing Errors at Discharge from the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitti, Eveline; Tamim, Hani; Bakhti, Rinad; Zebian, Dina; Mufarrij, Afif

    2017-08-01

    Medication errors are common, with studies reporting at least one error per patient encounter. At hospital discharge, medication errors vary from 15%-38%. However, studies assessing the effect of an internally developed electronic (E)-prescription system at discharge from an emergency department (ED) are comparatively minimal. Additionally, commercially available electronic solutions are cost-prohibitive in many resource-limited settings. We assessed the impact of introducing an internally developed, low-cost E-prescription system, with a list of commonly prescribed medications, on prescription error rates at discharge from the ED, compared to handwritten prescriptions. We conducted a pre- and post-intervention study comparing error rates in a randomly selected sample of discharge prescriptions (handwritten versus electronic) five months pre and four months post the introduction of the E-prescription. The internally developed, E-prescription system included a list of 166 commonly prescribed medications with the generic name, strength, dose, frequency and duration. We included a total of 2,883 prescriptions in this study: 1,475 in the pre-intervention phase were handwritten (HW) and 1,408 in the post-intervention phase were electronic. We calculated rates of 14 different errors and compared them between the pre- and post-intervention period. Overall, E-prescriptions included fewer prescription errors as compared to HW-prescriptions. Specifically, E-prescriptions reduced missing dose (11.3% to 4.3%, p prescriptions, however, were associated with a significant increase in duplication errors, specifically with home medication (1.7% to 3%, p=0.02). A basic, internally developed E-prescription system, featuring commonly used medications, effectively reduced medication errors in a low-resource setting where the costs of sophisticated commercial electronic solutions are prohibitive.

  12. Dicarboxylic acids from electric discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitman, B.; Chang, S.; Lawless, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted concerning the possible synthesis of a suite of dicarboxylic acids similar to that found in the Murchison meteorite. The investigation included the conduction of a chemical evolution experiment which simulated electric discharge through the primitive atmosphere of the earth. The suite of dicarboxylic acids obtained in the electric discharge experiment is similar to that of the Murchison meteorite, except for the fact that 2-chlorosuccinic acid is present in the spark discharge.

  13. Comparison of a hybrid model to a global model of atmospheric pressure radio-frequency capacitive discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzaroni, C; Lieberman, M A; Lichtenberg, A J; Chabert, P

    2012-01-01

    A one-dimensional hybrid analytical-numerical global model of atmospheric pressure radio-frequency (rf) driven capacitive discharges, previously developed, is compared with a basic global model. A helium feed gas with small admixtures of oxygen is studied. For the hybrid model, the electrical characteristics are calculated analytically as a current-driven homogeneous discharge. The electron power balance is solved analytically to determine a time-varying Maxwellian electron temperature, which oscillates on the rf timescale. Averaging over the rf period yields effective rate coefficients for gas phase activated processes. For the basic global model, the electron temperature is constant in time and the sheath physics is neglected. For both models, the particle balance relations for all species are integrated numerically to determine the equilibrium discharge parameters. Variations of discharge parameters with composition and rf power are determined and compared. The rate coefficients for electron-activated processes are strongly temperature dependent, leading to significantly larger neutral and charged particle densities for the hybrid model. For small devices, finite sheath widths limit the operating regimes to low O 2 fractions. This is captured by the hybrid model but cannot be predicted from the basic global model.

  14. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Uzan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  15. Time resolved laser induced fluorescence on argon intermediate pressure microwave discharges: Measuring the depopulation rates of the 4p and 5p excited levels as induced by electron and atom collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, J. M.; Graef, W. A. A. D.; Hübner, S.; van der Mullen, J. J. A. M.

    2013-10-01

    The reaction kinetics in the excitation space of Ar is explored by means of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) experiments using the combination of high rep-rate YAG-Dye laser systems with a well defined and easily controllable surfatron induced plasma setup. The high rep-rate favors the photon statistics while the low energy per pulse avoids intrusive plasma laser interactions. An analysis shows that, despite the low energy per pulse, saturation can still be achieved even when the geometrical overlap and spectral overlap are optimal. Out of the various studies that can be performed with this setup we confine the current paper to the study of the direct responses to the laser pump action of three 4p and one 5p levels of the Ar system. By changing the plasma in a controlled way one gets for these levels the rates of electron and atom quenching and therewith the total destruction rates of electron and atom collisions. Comparison with literature shows that the classical hard sphere collision rate derived for hydrogen gives a good description for the observed electron quenching (e-quenching) in Ar whereas for heavy particle quenching (a-quenching) this agreement was only found for the 5p level. An important parameter in the study of electron excitation kinetics is the location of the boundary in the atomic system for which the number of electron collisions per radiative life time equals unity. It is observed that for the Ar system this boundary is positioned lower than what is expected on grounds of H-like formulas.

  16. River rating complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.

    2016-01-01

    Accuracy of streamflow data depends on the veracity of the rating model used to derive a continuous time series of discharge from the surrogate variables that can readily be collected autonomously at a streamgage. Ratings are typically represented as a simple monotonic increasing function (simple rating), meaning the discharge is a function of stage alone, however this is never truly the case unless the flow is completely uniform at all stages and in transitions from one stage to the next. For example, at some streamflow-monitoring sites the discharge on the rising limb of the hydrograph is discernably larger than the discharge at the same stage on the falling limb of the hydrograph. This is the so-called “loop rating curve” (loop rating). In many cases, these loops are quite small and variation between rising- and falling-limb discharge measurements made at the same stage are well within the accuracy of the measurements. However, certain hydraulic conditions can produce a loop that is large enough to preclude use of a monotonic rating. A detailed data campaign for the Mississippi River at St. Louis, Missouri during a multi-peaked flood over a 56-day period in 2015 demonstrates the rating complexity at this location. The shifting-control method used to deal with complexity at this site matched all measurements within 8%.

  17. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  18. Estrelas variáveis

    OpenAIRE

    Viana, Sérgio Manuel de Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    A observação do céu nocturno é uma prática que vem da Antiguidade. Desde então e durante muito tempo pensou-se que as estrelas mantinham o brilho constante. Assim foi até ao século XVI, quando David Fabricius observou uma estrela cujo brilho variava periodicamente. Dois séculos mais tarde, Jonh Goodricke descobriu uma segunda estrela e com o desenvolvimento de instrumentos de observação este conjunto foi muito alargado e hoje inclui o Sol.A variação do brilho das estrelas variáveis permite d...

  19. Scaling of a fast spherical discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antsiferov, P. S., E-mail: Ants@isan.troitsk.ru; Dorokhin, L. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Spectroscopy (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The influence of the discharge cavity dimensions on the properties of the spherical plasma formed in a fast discharge was studied experimentally. The passage of a current pulse with an amplitude of 30–40 kA and a rise rate of ~10{sup 12} A/s (a fast discharge) through a spherical ceramic (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) cavity with an inner diameter of 11 mm filled with argon at a pressure of 80 Pa results in the formation of a 1- to 2-mm-diameter spherical plasma with an electron temperature of several tens of electronvolts and a density of 10{sup 18}–10{sup 19} cm{sup –3}. It is shown that an increase in the inner diameter of the discharge cavity from 11 to 21 mm leads to the fourfold increase in the formation time of the spherical plasma and a decrease in the average ion charge. A decrease in the cavity diameter to 7 mm makes the spherical plasma unstable.

  20. PWR pressurizer discharge piping system on-site testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglaret, G.; Lasne, M.

    1983-08-01

    Framatome PWR systems includes the installation of safety valves and relief valves wich permit the discharge of steam from the pressurizer to the pressurizer relief tank through discharge piping system. Water seal expulsion pluration then depends on valve stem lift dynamics which can vary according to water-stem interaction. In order to approaches the different phenomenons, it was decided to perform a test on a 900 MWe French plant, test wich objectives are: characterize the mechanical response of the discharge piping to validate a mechanical model; open one, two or several valves among the following: one safety valve and three pilot operated relief valves, at a time or sequentially and measure the discharge piping transient response, the support loads, the

  1. Discharge Characteristics of DC Arc Water Plasma for Environmental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianming; Sooseok, Choi; Takayuki, Watanabe

    2012-12-01

    A water plasma was generated by DC arc discharge with a hafnium embedded rod-type cathode and a nozzle-type anode. The discharge characteristics were examined by changing the operation parameter of the arc current. The dynamic behavior of the arc discharge led to significant fluctuations in the arc voltage and its frequency. Analyses of the high speed image and the arc voltage waveform showed that the arc discharge was in the restrike mode and its frequency varied within several tens of kilohertz according to the operating conditions. The larger thermal plasma volume was generated by the higher flow from the forming steam with a higher restrike frequency in the higher arc current conditions. In addition, the characteristics of the water plasma jet were investigated by means of optical emission spectroscopy to identify the abundant radicals required in an efficient waste treatment process.

  2. Discharge Characteristics of DC Arc Water Plasma for Environmental Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sooseok; Watanabe, Takayuki; Li Tianming

    2012-01-01

    A water plasma was generated by DC arc discharge with a hafnium embedded rod-type cathode and a nozzle-type anode. The discharge characteristics were examined by changing the operation parameter of the arc current. The dynamic behavior of the arc discharge led to significant fluctuations in the arc voltage and its frequency. Analyses of the high speed image and the arc voltage waveform showed that the arc discharge was in the restrike mode and its frequency varied within several tens of kilohertz according to the operating conditions. The larger thermal plasma volume was generated by the higher flow from the forming steam with a higher restrike frequency in the higher arc current conditions. In addition, the characteristics of the water plasma jet were investigated by means of optical emission spectroscopy to identify the abundant radicals required in an efficient waste treatment process. (plasma technology)

  3. Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy levels on the development of individual muscles, rate of lean and fat deposition in pigs reared from 9 to 60kg liveweight in a humid tropical environment.

  4. Midcervical neuronal discharge patterns during and following hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, M. S.; Baekey, D. M.; Maling, N. G.; Sanchez, J. C.; Reier, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical evidence indicates that midcervical interneurons can be synaptically coupled with phrenic motoneurons. Accordingly, we hypothesized that interneurons in the C3–C4 spinal cord can display discharge patterns temporally linked with inspiratory phrenic motor output. Anesthetized adult rats were studied before, during, and after a 4-min bout of moderate hypoxia. Neuronal discharge in C3–C4 lamina I–IX was monitored using a multielectrode array while phrenic nerve activity was extracellularly recorded. For the majority of cells, spike-triggered averaging (STA) of ipsilateral inspiratory phrenic nerve activity based on neuronal discharge provided no evidence of discharge synchrony. However, a distinct STA phrenic peak with a 6.83 ± 1.1 ms lag was present for 5% of neurons, a result that indicates a monosynaptic connection with phrenic motoneurons. The majority (93%) of neurons changed discharge rate during hypoxia, and the diverse responses included both increased and decreased firing. Hypoxia did not change the incidence of STA peaks in the phrenic nerve signal. Following hypoxia, 40% of neurons continued to discharge at rates above prehypoxia values (i.e., short-term potentiation, STP), and cells with initially low discharge rates were more likely to show STP (P phrenic motoneuron pool, and these cells can modulate inspiratory phrenic output. In addition, the C3–C4 propriospinal network shows a robust and complex pattern of activation both during and following an acute bout of hypoxia. PMID:25552641

  5. Transformation of binaural response properties in the ascending auditory pathway: influence of time-varying interaural phase disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, M W; Semple, M N

    1998-12-01

    Transformation of binaural response properties in the ascending auditory pathway: influence of time-varying interaural phase disparity. J. Neurophysiol. 80: 3062-3076, 1998. Previous studies demonstrated that tuning of inferior colliculus (IC) neurons to interaural phase disparity (IPD) is often profoundly influenced by temporal variation of IPD, which simulates the binaural cue produced by a moving sound source. To determine whether sensitivity to simulated motion arises in IC or at an earlier stage of binaural processing we compared responses in IC with those of two major IPD-sensitive neuronal classes in the superior olivary complex (SOC), neurons whose discharges were phase locked (PL) to tonal stimuli and those that were nonphase locked (NPL). Time-varying IPD stimuli consisted of binaural beats, generated by presenting tones of slightly different frequencies to the two ears, and interaural phase modulation (IPM), generated by presenting a pure tone to one ear and a phase modulated tone to the other. IC neurons and NPL-SOC neurons were more sharply tuned to time-varying than to static IPD, whereas PL-SOC neurons were essentially uninfluenced by the mode of stimulus presentation. Preferred IPD was generally similar in responses to static and time-varying IPD for all unit populations. A few IC neurons were highly influenced by the direction and rate of simulated motion, but the major effect for most IC neurons and all SOC neurons was a linear shift of preferred IPD at high rates-attributable to response latency. Most IC and NPL-SOC neurons were strongly influenced by IPM stimuli simulating motion through restricted ranges of azimuth; simulated motion through partially overlapping azimuthal ranges elicited discharge profiles that were highly discontiguous, indicating that the response associated with a particular IPD is dependent on preceding portions of the stimulus. In contrast, PL-SOC responses tracked instantaneous IPD throughout the trajectory of simulated

  6. On the stability of a homogeneous barrier discharge in nitrogen relative to radial perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Golubovskii, Y B; Behnke, J; Behnke, J F

    2003-01-01

    The influence of small radial perturbations of the cathode current on the characteristics of a homogeneous barrier discharge in nitrogen is investigated on the basis of a two-dimensional fluid model. In a Townsend discharge, radial fluctuations are substantially suppressed, which is the evidence of its stability. The oscillative mode of the Townsend discharge is also stable with regard to radial perturbations. As the discharge turns into a form controlled by spatial charge (a streamer is developed), disturbances of all radii grow in time. Such a behaviour testifies the instability of a streamer front and may cause the discharge filamentation. Since only the Townsend discharge is stable, it is possible to use a one-dimensional model to determine the domain of existence for a homogeneous discharge. The study of homogeneity domains by means of the one-dimensional model shows that at relatively large values of the voltage growth rate, discharge gap width, or capacitance of dielectric barriers the discharge tends ...

  7. Relative role of bed roughness change and bed erosion on peak discharge increase in hyperconcentrated floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, W.; Wang, Z.B.; Van Maren, D.S.; De Vriend, H.J.; Wu, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    River floods are usually featured by a downstream flattening discharge peak whereas a downstream increasing discharge peak is observed at a rate exceeding the tributary discharge during highly silt-laden floods (hyperconcentrated floods) in China’s Yellow River. It entails a great challenge in the

  8. Is this an arc or a glow discharge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchkarev, V.F.; Bochkarev, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    A well known criterion for distinguishing an arc discharge from a glow discharge is a low voltage drop (10--30 V) and a high current density that varies from a few tens to 10 6 A/cm 2 depending on arc type. The high current density is an attribute of arcs with cathode spots. The authors report here a study of the mechanism of emission in cathode spot arc where they realized a spotless discharge with a low voltage drop (30--50 V) and a high mean current density (10 4 --10 6 A/cm 2 ). The discharge was initiated between a broad cathode and point anode. The cathode was a smooth tungsten sphere electrode of about 100 μm in diameter. The point anode was made of various materials (Mo, Cu, Cd) with initial radius 1 μm. Before the experiment the cathode was cleaned by heating at 2,000 K at high vacuum (10 -8 Torr). The discharge was initiated by self-breakdown when electrodes under the voltage 200--500 V were brought to close proximity with each other. The cathode-anode spacing d at the moment of breakdown was estimated to be < 1 μm. The discharge current was varied within 1--3 A by changing the applied voltage and impedance of coaxial cable generator. The discharge burned during 100--1,000 ns. After the single discharge the cathode and anode were examined with a scanning electron microscope. The cathode surface exposed to the discharge was smooth, i.e. no erosion pits similar to arc craters were found on the cathode surface. The anode was shortened after discharge by 5--50 μm depending on current, material and cone angle. A high current density and low voltage drop implies that this is an arc discharge, while the cold cathode and the absence f cathode spot trace are pertinent to a dense glow discharge. The mechanism of emission involving secondary electron emission is to be discussed

  9. Pemodelan Markov Switching Dengan Time-varying Transition Probability

    OpenAIRE

    Savitri, Anggita Puri; Warsito, Budi; Rahmawati, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Exchange rate or currency is an economic variable which reflects country's state of economy. It fluctuates over time because of its ability to switch the condition or regime caused by economic and political factors. The changes in the exchange rate are depreciation and appreciation. Therefore, it could be modeled using Markov Switching with Time-Varying Transition Probability which observe the conditional changes and use information variable. From this model, time-varying transition probabili...

  10. High-current discharge channel contraction in high density gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutberg, Ph. G.; Bogomaz, A. A.; Pinchuk, M. E.; Budin, A. V.; Leks, A. G.; Pozubenkov, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    Research results for discharges at current amplitudes of 0.5-1.6 MA and current rise rate of ∼10 10 A/s are presented. The discharge is performed in the hydrogen environment at the initial pressure of 5-35 MPa. Initiation is implemented by a wire explosion. The time length of the first half-period of the discharge current is 70-150 μs. Under such conditions, discharge channel contraction is observed; the contraction is followed by soft x-ray radiation. The phenomena are discussed, which are determined by high density of the gas surrounding the discharge channel. These phenomena are increase of the current critical value, where the channel contraction begins and growth of temperature in the axis region of the channel, where the initial density of the gas increases.

  11. Triggering Excimer Lasers by Photoionization from Corona Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhongmin; Duffey, Thomas; Brown, Daniel; Kushner, Mark

    2009-10-01

    High repetition rate ArF (192 nm) excimer lasers are used for photolithography sources in microelectronics fabrication. In highly attaching gas mixtures, preionization is critical to obtaining stable, reproducible glow discharges. Photoionization from a separate corona discharge is one technique for preionization which triggers the subsequent electron avalanche between the main electrodes. Photoionization triggering of an ArF excimer laser sustained in multi-atmosphere Ne/Ar/F2/Xe gas mixtures has been investigated using a 2-dimensional plasma hydrodynamics model including radiation transport. Continuity equations for charged and neutral species, and Poisson's equation are solved coincident with the electron temperature with transport coefficients obtained from solutions of Boltzmann's equation. Photoionizing radiation is produced by a surface discharge which propagates along a corona-bar located adjacent to the discharge electrodes. The consequences of pulse power waveform, corona bar location, capacitance and gas mixture on uniformity, symmetry and gain of the avalanche discharge will be discussed.

  12. Power supply instrumentation for pulsed dielectric barrier discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroz Velázquez, V E; López Callejas, R; De la Piedad Beneitez, A; Rodríguez Méndez, B G; Peña Eguiluz, R; Muñoz Castro, A E; Barocio, S R; Mercado Cabrera, A; Valencia Alvarado, R

    2012-01-01

    The design and implementation of a pulsed high voltage supply intended to the production and control of pulsed dielectric barrier discharges are reported. The instrumentation includes three independently built DC sources coupled to Flyback-like converters using three 1:50 high voltage transformers. The system is capable of supplying voltages up to 70 kV at a 100-2000 Hz repetition rate, delivering 1-500 μs wide pulses. The system has been applied to the development of pulsed dielectric barrier discharges in a stainless steel coaxial reactor 30 cm long and with a 2.54 cm diameter. The inner nickel electrode diameter is 0.005 cm and is embedded in alumina. The discharges have been carried out in room pressure air. Discharges have been implemented. The discharge is made is a water environment for purposes of bacterial elimination.

  13. The practice of terminal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha Krishna, Lalit Kumar; Murugam, Vengadasalam; Quah, Daniel Song Chiek

    2017-01-01

    'Terminal discharges' are carried out in Singapore for patients who wish to die at home. However, if due diligence is not exercised, parallels may be drawn with euthanasia. We present a theoretical discussion beginning with the definition of terminal discharges and the reasons why they are carried out in Singapore. By considering the intention behind terminal discharges and utilising a multidisciplinary team to deliberate on the clinical, social and ethical intricacies with a patient- and context-specific approach, euthanasia is avoided. It is hoped that this will provide a platform for professionals in palliative medicine to negotiate challenging issues when arranging a terminal discharge, so as to avoid the pitfall of committing euthanasia in a country such as Singapore where euthanasia is illegal. It is hoped that a set of guidelines for terminal discharges may someday be realised to assist professionals in Singapore and around the world.

  14. The ASDEX Upgrade discharge schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, G.; Engelhardt, K.; Raupp, G.; Treutterer, W.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.

    2007-01-01

    ASDEX Upgrade's recently commissioned discharge control system (DCS) marks the transition from a traditional programmed system to a highly flexible 'data driven' one. The allocation of application processes (APs) to controllers, the interconnection of APs through uniquely named signals, and AP control parameter values are all defined as data, and can easily be adapted to the requirements of a particular discharge. The data is laid down in a set of XML documents which APs request via HTTP from a configuration server before a discharge. The use of XML allows for easy parsing, and structural validation through (XSD) schemas. The central input to the configuration process is the discharge schedule (DS), which embodies the dynamic behaviour of a planned discharge as reference trajectories grouped in segments, concatenated through transition conditions. Editing, generation and validation tools, and version control through CVS allow for efficient management of DSs

  15. Post-breakdown secondary discharges at the electrode/dielectric interface of a cylindrical barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Robert; Ward, Barry; Kane, Deborah

    2011-10-01

    The electrical breakdown characteristics of a double-walled cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) lamp with a neon buffer gas under pulsed voltage excitation have been investigated. Following the formation of plasma in the main discharge gap, we have observed secondary breakdown phenomena at the inner and outer mesh electrode/dielectric interfaces under specific operating conditions. Plasma formation at these interfaces is investigated by monitoring the Ozone production rate in controlled flows of ultra high purity oxygen together with the overall electrical voltage-charge characteristics of the lamp. The results show that this secondary breakdown only occurs after the main discharge plasma has been established, and that significant electrical power may be dissipated in generating these spurious secondary plasmas. The results are important with regards to optimising the design and identifying efficient operating regimes of DBD based devices that employ mesh-type or wire/strip electrodes.

  16. Modeling the probability distribution of peak discharge for infiltrating hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiamonte, Giorgio; Singh, Vijay P.

    2017-07-01

    Hillslope response plays a fundamental role in the prediction of peak discharge at the basin outlet. The peak discharge for the critical duration of rainfall and its probability distribution are needed for designing urban infrastructure facilities. This study derives the probability distribution, denoted as GABS model, by coupling three models: (1) the Green-Ampt model for computing infiltration, (2) the kinematic wave model for computing discharge hydrograph from the hillslope, and (3) the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) model for computing design rainfall intensity. The Hortonian mechanism for runoff generation is employed for computing the surface runoff hydrograph. Since the antecedent soil moisture condition (ASMC) significantly affects the rate of infiltration, its effect on the probability distribution of peak discharge is investigated. Application to a watershed in Sicily, Italy, shows that with the increase of probability, the expected effect of ASMC to increase the maximum discharge diminishes. Only for low values of probability, the critical duration of rainfall is influenced by ASMC, whereas its effect on the peak discharge seems to be less for any probability. For a set of parameters, the derived probability distribution of peak discharge seems to be fitted by the gamma distribution well. Finally, an application to a small watershed, with the aim to test the possibility to arrange in advance the rational runoff coefficient tables to be used for the rational method, and a comparison between peak discharges obtained by the GABS model with those measured in an experimental flume for a loamy-sand soil were carried out.

  17. Cross-site comparisons of concentration-discharge relationships reveal climate-driven chemostatic set points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsey, S.; Kirchner, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Streamflow solute concentrations often vary predictably with flows, providing insight into processes controlling solute generation and export. Previous work by the authors showed that log-transformed concentration-discharge relationships of weathering-derived solutes in 59 headwater catchments had relatively low slopes, implying that these watersheds behaved almost like chemostats. That is, their rates of solute production and/or mobilization were nearly proportional to water fluxes, on both event and inter-annual time scales. Here we re-examine these findings using data from roughly 1000 catchments, ranging from ˜10 to >1,000,000 sq. km in drainage area, and spanning a wide range of lithologic and climatic settings.Concentration-discharge relationships among this much larger set of much larger catchments are broadly consistent with the chemostatic behavior described above. However, site-to-site variations in mean concentrations among these catchments are negatively correlated with long-term average precipitation and discharge, suggesting dilution of stream concentrations under long-term leaching of the critical zone. Thus, on event and inter-annual time scales, stream solute concentrations are chemostatically buffered by groundwater storage and fast chemical reactions (such as ion exchange), but on much longer time scales, the catchment's chemostatic "set point" is determined by climatically driven critical zone evolution. We present examples illustrating short-term and long-term controls on water quality consistent with variations in weather and climate, and discuss their implications.

  18. Laser enhanced attachment in diffuse discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesselmann, M.; Pashaie, B.; Kristiansen, M.; Schaefer, G.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the effect of laser enhanced attachment on externally sustained diffuse discharges are reported. Optical control of diffuse discharges is a promising way of upgrading the performance of e-beam controlled opening switches for repetitive operation. Ideal gases should exhibit a negligible attachment cross section for low E/N values (switch closed) in the ground state and strong attaching properties upon optical excitation in an E/N range between the conducting state and self breakdown of the switch. The ratio of resistivity change in these experiments is much higher than in previous investigations. In this investigation the attachment rate of an electronegative gas component, representing approximately 1% of the gas in the discharge volume, was increased by means of vibrational excitation with a pulsed IR-laser beam. Molecules exhibiting a strongly increased attachment rate upon IR-excitation are vinyl-chloride, vinyl flouride and trifluoroethylene, which has been verified in preliminary experiments. All experiments reported were performed with vinyl chloride and trifluoroethylene

  19. Discharge estimation in a backwater affected meandering river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hidayat

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Variable effects of backwaters complicate the development of rating curves at hydrometric measurement stations. In areas influenced by backwater, single-parameter rating curve techniques are often inapplicable. To overcome this, several authors have advocated the use of an additional downstream level gauge to estimate the longitudinal surface level gradient, but this is cumbersome in a lowland meandering river with considerable transverse surface level gradients. Recent developments allow river flow to be continuously monitored through velocity measurements with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (H-ADCP, deployed horizontally at a river bank. This approach was adopted to obtain continuous discharge estimates at a cross-section in the River Mahakam at a station located about 300 km upstream of the river mouth in the Mahakam delta. The discharge station represents an area influenced by variable backwater effects from lakes, tributaries and floodplain ponds, and by tides. We applied both the standard index velocity method and a recently developed methodology to obtain a continuous time-series of discharge from the H-ADCP data. Measurements with a boat-mounted ADCP were used for calibration and validation of the model to translate H-ADCP velocity to discharge. As a comparison with conventional discharge estimation techniques, a stage-discharge relation using Jones formula was developed. The discharge rate at the station exceeded 3250 m3 s−1. Discharge series from a traditional stage-discharge relation did not capture the overall discharge dynamics, as inferred from H-ADCP data. For a specific river stage, the discharge range could be as high as 2000 m3 s−1, which is far beyond what could be explained from kinematic wave dynamics. Backwater effects from lakes were shown to be significant, whereas interaction of the river flow with tides may impact discharge variation in the fortnightly frequency band

  20. Discharge Planning in Chronic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMartin, K

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronically ill people experience frequent changes in health status accompanied by multiple transitions between care settings and care providers. Discharge planning provides support services, follow-up activities, and other interventions that span pre-hospital discharge to post-hospital settings. Objective To determine if discharge planning is effective at reducing health resource utilization and improving patient outcomes compared with standard care alone. Data Sources A standard systematic literature search was conducted for studies published from January 1, 2004, until December 13, 2011. Review Methods Reports, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses with 1 month or more of follow-up and limited to specified chronic conditions were examined. Outcomes included mortality/survival, readmissions and emergency department (ED) visits, hospital length of stay (LOS), health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and patient satisfaction. Results One meta-analysis compared individualized discharge planning to usual care and found a significant reduction in readmissions favouring individualized discharge planning. A second meta-analysis compared comprehensive discharge planning with postdischarge support to usual care. There was a significant reduction in readmissions favouring discharge planning with postdischarge support. However, there was significant statistical heterogeneity. For both meta-analyses there was a nonsignificant reduction in mortality between the study arms. Limitations There was difficulty in distinguishing the relative contribution of each element within the terms “discharge planning” and “postdischarge support.” For most studies, “usual care” was not explicitly described. Conclusions Compared with usual care, there was moderate quality evidence that individualized discharge planning is more effective at reducing readmissions or hospital LOS but not mortality, and very low quality evidence that it is more

  1. Recurrent vaginal discharge in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreal, Sharon; Wood, Paul

    2013-08-01

    Childhood vaginal discharge remains a frequent reason for referral from primary to secondary care. The Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (PAG) service at Kettering General Hospital was established in 1993 and provides a specialized service that meets the needs of children with gynaecological conditions. To investigate recurrent vaginal discharge noting symptomatology, defining pathogens, common and rarer causes, exploring management regimes, and any changes in practice over time. Retrospective review spanning 15 years identifying prepubertal children attending the outpatient PAG clinic with recurrent vaginal discharge. We reviewed the medical notes individually. 110 patients were identified; 85% were referred from primary care. The age distribution was bimodal at four and eight years. Thirty-five percent of our patients were discharged after the initial consultation. The commonest cause of discharge was vulvovaginitis (82%). Other important causes included suspected sexual abuse (5%), foreign body (3%), labial adhesions (3%), vaginal agenesis (2%). 35% of patients were admitted for vaginoscopy. Vaginal discharge is the most common gynecological symptom in prepubertal girls and can cause repeated clinical episodes. Vulvovaginitis is the most common cause and often responds to simple hygiene measures. Awareness of the less common causes of vaginal discharge is essential. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance Modeling of a Vanadium Redox Flow Battery during Discharging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.W.; He, Y.L.; Li, Y.S.

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional quasi-steady-state model is presented to simulate coupled mass-species-charge transfer and electrochemical reactions in all vanadium redox flow battery. Emphasis is located on examining the influences of applied current density, initial vanadium concentration, initial acid concentration and electrolyte flow rate on overpotentials in both electrodes, ohmic loss in electrolyte phase as well as battery discharging voltage. It is indicated that overpotential in negative electrode is the dominant factor causing the loss of battery discharging voltage at relatively lower or higher state of charge, while ohmic loss in electrolyte phase is dominant when discharging at moderate state of charge. Increasing initial vanadium concentration, the battery discharging voltage is significantly increased due to the reduced overpotentials in both electrodes. With the increase in initial acid concentration, the battery discharging voltage is also obviously increased because of increased open circuit voltage and decreased ohmic loss in electrolyte phase. As the electrolyte flow rate increases, the total discharging time is extended due to the retarded concentration polarization and the battery discharging voltage is obviously increased at lower state of charge

  3. Development of a powerful discharge in deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komelkov, V S; Skvortsov, U V; Tserevitinov, S S [Institute of Atomic Energy, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow (USSR)

    1958-07-01

    The investigations carried out at the Institute of Atomic Energy of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR resulted in the discovery of both neutron and hard X-ray radiation occurring under certain conditions in a powerful pulse discharge in deuterium. In the present work, the investigations in this field were continued with a view to studying these processes at greater currents and higher rates of increase of the current, by minimizing the circuit inductance and the size of the discharge chambers. Studies were made of the current distribution in the chamber, neutron radiation, electrode-metal vapour movement, and the effect of pre-ionization on the initial stages of the process.

  4. Neural control of phrenic motoneuron discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun-Ze; Fuller, David D.

    2011-01-01

    Phrenic motoneurons (PMNs) provide a synaptic relay between bulbospinal respiratory pathways and the diaphragm muscle. PMNs also receive propriospinal inputs, although the functional role of these interneuronal projections has not been established. Here we review the literature regarding PMN discharge patterns during breathing and the potential mechanisms that underlie PMN recruitment. Anatomical and neurophysiological studies indicate that PMNs form a heterogeneous pool, with respiratory-related PMN discharge and recruitment patterns likely determined by a balance between intrinsic MN properties and extrinsic synaptic inputs. We also review the limited literature regarding PMN bursting during respiratory plasticity. Differential recruitment or rate modulation of PMN subtypes may underlie phrenic motor plasticity following neural injury and/or respiratory stimulation; however this possibility remains relatively unexplored. PMID:21376841

  5. Detailed analysis of the self-discharge of supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowal, Julia; Avaroglu, Esin; Chamekh, Fahmi; Senfelds, Armands; Thien, Tjark; Wijaya, Dhanny; Sauer, Dirk Uwe [Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group, Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA), RWTH Aachen University, Jaegerstr. 17-19, 52066 Aachen (Germany)

    2011-01-01

    Self-discharge is an important performance factor when using supercapacitors. Voltage losses in the range of 5-60% occur over two weeks. Experiments show a dependency of the self-discharge rate on various parameters such as temperature, charge duration and short-term history. In this paper, self-discharge of three commercially available supercapacitors was measured under various conditions. Based on different measurements, the impact of the influence factors is identified. A simple model to explain parts of the voltage decay is presented. (author)

  6. Legal aspects of thermal discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.J.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of those legal areas which directly affect technical and planning decisions is presented in the form of 2 legal approaches which constrain the indiscriminate release of thermal discharges to receiving waters. One takes the form of private remedies which have traditionally been available to aggrieved parties who are in some way damaged by the harmful discharge. The 2nd approach utilizes the various statutory constraints leading to direct governmental action. It appears that statutory law is playing the prominent role in restricting the temperature to which receiving waters may be raised as a result of such discharges by using effluent limitations and water quality standards. (Water Resour. Abstr.)

  7. An introduction to gas discharges

    CERN Document Server

    Howatson, A M

    2013-01-01

    An Introduction to Gas Discharges: Second Edition aims to provide a compact introduction to the subject of gas discharges, which continues to make both scientific and industrial progress. In this second edition, the author has made minor corrections, rewritten and expanded some sections, used SI units and modernized notions, in hopes of making the book more up to date. Included in the book is a short history of the subject, an introduction that enumerates the types of gas discharges, the fundamental processes, and then moves on to the more specific areas such as the breakdown, the self-sustai

  8. CQI project improves discharge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    At Gibson Rehab Center in Williamsport, PA, a continuous quality improvement project to bolster the institution's discharge planning process has resulted in increased satisfaction and an award for quality. The 15-month project was spearheaded by a multidisciplinary team charged with identifying areas that had a significant impact on customer service and suggesting better ways of delivering that service. Among the changes the group suggested were establishing a weekly discharge planning group for new neuro patients, assigning a discharge coordinator for each treatment team, and creating an interdisciplinary communication sheet for the home health therapy staff.

  9. Optimum discharge current waveforms for pumping Ne-like Ar soft X-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongpeng; Jiang Shan; Xie Yao; Teng Shupeng; Wang Qi

    2011-01-01

    In order to enhance intensity of Ne-like Ar 46.9 nm soft X-ray laser pumped by capillary discharge, influences of main current waveform on Z-pinch process,time of lasing onset and laser intensity were studied. Rise-time of main current waveform was changed by varying conducting inductance of main switch. Experimental results with different rise-times show that amplitude of laser spike decreases with increasing rise-time,and time of lasing onset increases with increasing rise-time. In addition, influences of average current changing rate on laser intensity were studied. When inner diameter of capillary is 3 mm and initial pressure is 30 Pa, optimum average current changing rate is about 7.0 x 10 11 A/s. (authors)

  10. Effect of silane dilution on intrinsic stress in glow discharge hydrogenated amorphous silicon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbison, J. P.; Williams, A. J.; Lang, D. V.

    1984-02-01

    Measurements of the intrinsic stress in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si : H) films grown by rf glow discharge decomposition of silane diluted to varying degrees in argon are presented. Films are found to grow under exceedingly high compressive stress. Low values of macroscopic film density and low stress values are found to correlate with high growth rate. An abrupt drop in stress occurs between 2 and 3% silane at precisely the point where columnar growth morphology appears. No corresponding abrupt change is noted in density, growth rate, or plasma species concentrations as determined by optical emissioin spectroscopy. Finally a model of diffusive incorporation of hydrogen or some gaseous impurity during growth into the bulk of the film behind the growing interface is proposed to explain the results.

  11. Radiation-MHD simulations for the development of a spark discharge channel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niederhaus, John Henry; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Warne, Larry K.; Chen, Kenneth C.

    2017-04-01

    The growth of a cylindrical s park discharge channel in water and Lexan is studied using a series of one - dimensional simulations with the finite - element radiation - magnetohydrodynamics code ALEGRA. Computed solutions are analyzed in order to characterize the rate of growth and dynamics of the spark c hannels during the rising - current phase of the drive pulse. The current ramp rate is varied between 0.2 and 3.0 kA/ns, and values of the mechanical coupling coefficient K p are extracted for each case. The simulations predict spark channel expansion veloc ities primarily in the range of 2000 to 3500 m/s, channel pressures primarily in the range 10 - 40 GPa, and K p values primarily between 1.1 and 1.4. When Lexan is preheated, slightly larger expansion velocities and smaller K p values are predicted , but the o verall behavior is unchanged.

  12. Influence of expander components on the processes at the negative plates of lead-acid cells on high-rate partial-state-of-charge cycling. Part II. Effect of carbon additives on the processes of charge and discharge of negative plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, D.; Nikolov, P.; Rogachev, T. [Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev Street, bl. 10, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2010-07-15

    Lead-acid batteries operated in the high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) duty rapidly lose capacity on cycling, because of sulfation of the negative plates. As the battery operates from a partially discharged state, the small PbSO{sub 4} crystals dissolve and precipitate onto the bigger crystals. The latter have low solubility and hence PbSO{sub 4} accumulates progressively in the negative plates causing capacity loss. In order to suppress this process, the rate of the charge process should be increased. In a previous publication of ours we have established that reduction of Pb{sup 2+} ions to Pb may proceed on the surface of both Pb and carbon black particles. Hence, the reversibility of the charge-discharge processes improves, which leads to improved cycle life performance of the batteries in the HRPSoC mode. However, not all carbon forms accelerate the charge processes. The present paper discusses the electrochemical properties of two groups of carbon blacks: Printex and active carbons. The influence of Vaniseprse A and BaSO{sub 4} (the other two components of the expander added to the negative plates) on the reversibility of the charge-discharge processes on the negative plates is also considered. It has been established that lignosulfonates are adsorbed onto the lead surface and retard charging of the battery. BaSO{sub 4} has the opposite effect, which improves the reversibility of the processes on cycling and hence prolongs battery life in the HRPSoC duty. It has been established that the cycle life of lead-acid cells depends on the type of carbon black or active carbon added to the negative plates. When the carbon particles are of nano-sizes (<180 nm), the HRPSoC cycle life is between 10,000 and 20,000 cycles. Lignosulfonates suppress this beneficial effect of carbon black and activated carbon additives to about 10,000 cycles. Cells with active carbons have the longest cycle life when they contain also BaSO{sub 4} but no lignosulfonate. A summary of

  13. Exercise after Stroke: Patient Adherence and Beliefs after Discharge from Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kristine K; Porter, Rebecca E; DeBaun-Sprague, Erin; Van Puymbroeck, Marieke; Schmid, Arlene A

    2017-03-01

    Most people complete post-stroke rehabilitation within the first 6 months after stroke even though benefits from exercise are believed to persist well beyond 6 months. Physical and Occupational therapists provide home exercise programs (HEP) to instruct patients on exercises to continue after discharge from rehabilitation. Unfortunately, there is little known about HEP adherence rates in adults with stroke. The objectives of this project were to (1) determine the adherence rate with post-rehabilitation HEP and reasons for non-adherence, (2) assess for interactions between HEP adherence and self-report of depression and fatigue, and (3) determine patient beliefs about the benefit of exercise during stroke recovery. This was a cross-sectional, survey study. A survey was developed and distributed during stroke support group meetings to determine adherence rates with post rehabilitation HEP, reasons for non-adherence, and patient beliefs about the benefit of exercise. Eighty-nine percent of participants reported receiving a HEP and 65.3% of those reported being adherent with at least part of the HEP. Several reasons for non-adherence were identified, including 'doing different exercises than the ones given by the physical therapist', as the most frequently given reason. Study participants identified positive roles of exercise in their recovery from stroke. Patient adherence with HEP after discharge from rehabilitation is less than ideal. Reasons for non-adherence are varied. Rehabilitation therapists need to be able to identify and help patients manage barriers to HEP adherence to promote management of residual deficits.

  14. Progress on MEVVA source VARIS at GSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adonin, A.; Hollinger, R.

    2018-05-01

    For the last few years, the development of the VARIS (vacuum arc ion source) was concentrated on several aspects. One of them was the production of high current ion beams of heavy metals such as Au, Pb, and Bi. The requested ion charge state for these ion species is 4+. This is quite challenging to produce in vacuum arc driven sources for reasonable beam pulse length (>120 µs) due to the physical properties of these elements. However, the situation can be dramatically improved by using the composite materials or alloys with enhanced physical properties of the cathodes. Another aspect is an increase of the beam brilliance for intense U4+ beams by the optimization of the geometry of the extraction system. A new 7-hole triode extraction system allows an increase of the extraction voltage from 30 kV to 40 kV and also reduces the outer aperture of the extracted ion beam. Thus, a record beam brilliance for the U4+ beam in front of the RFQ (Radio-Frequency Quadrupole) has been achieved, exceeding the RFQ space charge limit for an ion current of 15 mA. Several new projectiles in the middle-heavy region have been successfully developed from VARIS to fulfill the requirements of the future FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) programs. An influence of an auxiliary gas on the production performance of certain ion charge states as well as on operation stability has been investigated. The optimization of the ion source parameters for a maximum production efficiency and highest particle current in front of the RFQ has been performed. The next important aspect of the development will be the increase of the operation repetition rate of VARIS for all elements especially for uranium to 2.7 Hz in order to provide the maximum availability of high current ion beams for future FAIR experiments.

  15. Modelling tourists arrival using time varying parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciptawati, P.; Sukarsa, K. G.; Kencana, Eka N.

    2017-06-01

    The importance of tourism and its related sectors to support economic development and poverty reduction in many countries increase researchers’ attentions to study and model tourists’ arrival. This work is aimed to demonstrate time varying parameter (TVP) technique to model the arrival of Korean’s tourists to Bali. The number of Korean tourists whom visiting Bali for period January 2010 to December 2015 were used to model the number of Korean’s tourists to Bali (KOR) as dependent variable. The predictors are the exchange rate of Won to IDR (WON), the inflation rate in Korea (INFKR), and the inflation rate in Indonesia (INFID). Observing tourists visit to Bali tend to fluctuate by their nationality, then the model was built by applying TVP and its parameters were approximated using Kalman Filter algorithm. The results showed all of predictor variables (WON, INFKR, INFID) significantly affect KOR. For in-sample and out-of-sample forecast with ARIMA’s forecasted values for the predictors, TVP model gave mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) as much as 11.24 percent and 12.86 percent, respectively.

  16. Effects of solution volume on hydrogen production by pulsed spark discharge in ethanol solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Y. B.; Sun, B., E-mail: sunb88@dlmu.edu.cn; Zhu, X. M.; Yan, Z. Y.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y. J. [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Hydrogen production from ethanol solution (ethanol/water) by pulsed spark discharge was optimized by varying the volume of ethanol solution (liquid volume). Hydrogen yield was initially increased and then decreased with the increase in solution volume, which achieved 1.5 l/min with a solution volume of 500 ml. The characteristics of pulsed spark discharge were studied in this work; the results showed that the intensity of peak current, the rate of current rise, and energy efficiency of hydrogen production can be changed by varying the volume of ethanol solution. Meanwhile, the mechanism analysis of hydrogen production was accomplished by monitoring the process of hydrogen production and the state of free radicals. The analysis showed that decreasing the retention time of gas production and properly increasing the volume of ethanol solution can enhance the hydrogen yield. Through this research, a high-yield and large-scale method of hydrogen production can be achieved, which is more suitable for industrial application.

  17. Vaginal itching and discharge - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruritus vulvae; Itching - vaginal area; Vulvar itching; Yeast infection - child ... Common causes of vaginal itching and discharge in young girls include: Chemicals such as perfumes and dyes in detergents, fabric softeners, creams, ointments, ...

  18. Microwave discharges in capillary tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervisevic, Emil

    1984-01-01

    This research thesis aims at being a contribution to the study of microwave discharge by a surface wave, and more precisely focusses on the discharge in capillary tubes filled with argon. The author first present theoretical models which describe, on the one hand, the propagation of the surface wave along the plasma column, and, on the other hand, longitudinal and radial profiles of the main discharge characteristics. The second part addresses the study of the influence of parameters (gas pressure and tube radius) on discharge operation and characteristics. Laws of similitude as well as empirical relationships between argon I and argon II emission line intensities, electron density, and electric field in the plasma have been established [fr

  19. Ion source of discharge type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enchevich, I.B. [TRIUMF, Cyclotron Div., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Korenev, S.A. [JINR, Hihg Energy Physics Lab., Dubna, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1992-07-01

    A new scheme of ion source based on a dielectric surface sliding discharge is described. The conditions to form this type of discharge are analyzed and experimental results are shown. The main parameters of this ion source are: accelerating voltage U = 1/20kV; continuous extracted ion beam; current density j = 0.01/0.5 A/cm{sup 2}; ions of Cl, F, C, H; residual gas pressure P = 10{sup -6} Torr. A magnetic system is used to separate the different types of ions. The dielectric material in the discharge circuit (anode plasma emitter) defines the type of ions. The emission characteristics of plasma emitter and the discharge parameters are presented. The ion current yield satisfies the Child-Langmuir law. (author)

  20. Ion source of discharge type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enchevich, I.B.; Korenev, S.A.

    1992-07-01

    A new scheme of ion source based on a dielectric surface sliding discharge is described. The conditions to form this type of discharge are analyzed and experimental results are shown. The main parameters of this ion source are: accelerating voltage U = 1/20kV; continuous extracted ion beam; current density j = 0.01/0.5 A/cm 2 ; ions of Cl, F, C, H; residual gas pressure P = 10 -6 Torr. A magnetic system is used to separate the different types of ions. The dielectric material in the discharge circuit (anode plasma emitter) defines the type of ions. The emission characteristics of plasma emitter and the discharge parameters are presented. The ion current yield satisfies the Child-Langmuir law. (author)

  1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coughing up dark mucus Your fingertips or the skin around your fingernails are blue Alternative Names COPD - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; ...

  2. High pressure discharges in cavities formed by microfabrication techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, B.A.; Cammack, D.A.; Pinker, R.D.; Racz, J.

    1997-01-01

    High pressure discharges are the basis of small high intensity light sources. In this work, we demonstrate the formation of high pressure discharges, in cavities formed by applying micromachining and integrated circuit techniques to quartz substrates. Cavities containing varying amounts of mercury and argon were fabricated to obtain high pressure discharges. A high pressure mercury discharge was formed in the electrodeless cavities by exciting them with a microwave source, operating at 2.45 GHz and in the electroded cavities by applying a dc voltage. The contraction of the discharge into a high pressure arc was observed. A broad emission spectrum due to self-absorption and collisions between excited atoms and normal atoms, typical of high pressure mercury discharges, was measured. The light output and efficacy increased with increasing pressure. The measured voltage was used to estimate the pressure within the electroded cavities, which is as high as 127 atm for one of the two cavities discussed in this work. Efficacies over 40 lumens per watt were obtained for the electrodeless cavities and over 50 scr(l)m/W for the electroded cavities. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. Deriving Global Discharge Records from SWOT Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, M.; Fisher, C. K.; Wood, E. F.

    2017-12-01

    River flows are poorly monitored in many regions of the world, hindering our ability to accurately estimate water global water usage, and thus estimate global water and energy budgets or the variability in the global water cycle. Recent developments in satellite remote sensing, such as water surface elevations from radar altimetry or surface water extents from visible/infrared imagery, aim to fill this void; however, the streamflow estimates derived from these are inherently intermittent in both space and time. There is then a need for new methods that are able to derive spatially and temporally continuous records of discharge from the many available data sources. One particular application of this will be the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, which is designed to provide global observations of water surface elevation and slope from which river discharge can be estimated. Within the 21-day repeat cycle, a river reach will be observed 2-4 times on average. Due to the relationship between the basin orientation and the orbit, these observations are not evenly distributed in time or space. In this study, we investigate how SWOT will observe global river basins and how the temporal and spatial sampling impacts our ability to reconstruct discharge records.River flows can be estimated throughout a basin by assimilating SWOT observations using the Inverse Streamflow Routing (ISR) model of Pan and Wood [2013]. This method is applied to 32 global basins with different geometries and crossing patterns for the future orbit, assimilating theoretical SWOT-retrieved "gauges". Results show that the model is able to reconstruct basin-wide discharge from SWOT observations alone; however, the performance varies significantly across basins and is driven by the orientation, flow distance, and travel time in each, as well as the sensitivity of the reconstruction method to errors in the satellite retrieval. These properties are combined to estimate the "observability" of

  4. Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fout, Nathaniel [UC DAVIS; Ma, Kwan - Liu [UC DAVIS

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the

  5. Ballooning stability of JET discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huysmans, G.T.A.; Goedbloed, J.P.; Galvao, R.M.O.; Lazzaro, E.; Smeulders, P.

    1989-01-01

    Conditions under which ballooning modes are expected to be excited have recently been obtained in two different types of discharges in JET. In the first type, extremely large pressure gradients have been produced in the plasma core through pellet injections in the current rise phase followed by strong additional heating. In the second type, the total pressure of the discharge is approaching the Troyon limit. The stability of these discharges with respect to the ideal MHD ballooning modes has been studied with the stability code HBT. The equilibria are reconstructed with the IDENTC code using the external magnetic measurements and the experimental pressure profile. The results show that the evaluated high beta discharge is unstable in the central region of the plasma. This instability is related to the low shear and not to a large pressure gradient, as expected at the Troyon limit. In the pellet discharges the regions with the large pressure gradients are unstable to ballooning modes at the time of the beta decay, which ends the period of enhanced performance. The maximum pressure gradient in these discharges is limited by the boundary of the first region of stability. The observed phenomena at the beta decay are similar to those observed at the beta limit in DIII-D and TFTR. (author)

  6. Filamentary and diffuse barrier discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogelschatz, U.

    2001-01-01

    Barrier discharges, sometimes also referred to as dielectric-barrier discharges or silent discharges, are characterized by the presence of at least one insulating layer in contact with the discharge between two planar or cylindrical electrodes connected to an ac power supply. The main advantage of this type of electrical discharge is, that non-equilibrium plasma conditions in atmospheric-pressure gases can be established in an economic and reliable way. This has led to a number of important applications including industrial ozone generation, surface modification of polymers, plasma chemical vapor deposition, excitation of CO 2 lasers, excimer lamps and, most recently, large-area flat plasma display panels. Depending on the application, the width of the discharge gap can range from less than 0.1 mm to about 100 mm and the applied frequency from below line frequency to several gigahertz. Typical materials used for the insulating layer (dielectric barrier) are glass, quartz, ceramics but also thin enamel or polymer layers

  7. Partitioning Hydrologic and Biological Drivers of Discharge Loss in Arctic Headwater Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J. C.; Carey, M.; O'Donnell, J. A.; Records, M. K.; Sjoberg, Y.; Zimmerman, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic-Boreal transition (ABT) zone of Alaska is experiencing unprecedented warming, leading to permafrost thaw and vegetation change. Both of these processes are likely to affect streams and stream ecosystems, but there is little direct empirical evidence regarding the magnitude of these effects and their relative importance. To understand how permafrost thaw and vegetation are affecting streams at the ABT, we monitored 8 first-order streams that drain catchments varying in elevation, aspect, and vegetation cover. Data were obtained from meteorological stations, continuous stream discharge, seepage runs, and stream tracer experiments. Hydrograph analysis indicated that runoff ratios in south-facing catchments were lower than north-facing catchments and decreased over the season. Seepage runs indicated that south-facing catchments lost a large portion of water (up to 50% per km stream reach) in the late summer, while north-facing catchments were gaining water. All streams displayed diel variability in discharge, but with different daily and seasonal trends related to aspect and elevation. South-facing, forested catchment streams showed diel discharge timing consistent with cycles in evapotranspiration rates, while the signal in north-facing catchments and those dominated by tundra was more consistent with thermal controls on water viscosity and groundwater discharge to streams. Together, these signals indicate that the warmer, south-facing catchments are losing a large portion of water to a combination of infiltration and evapotranspiration. The seasonal trends are consistent with higher infiltration rates beneath south-facing streams as the ground thaws over the summer. The magnitude and seasonal dynamics of the diel signatures help separate biological (i.e. evapotranspiration) vs. physical controls (i.e. frozen ground hydrology) on stream-catchment interactions, which vary depending on aspect, elevation, and vegetation cover. Warming, and subsequent increases

  8. Chronic consequences of acute injuries: worse survival after discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Shahid; Renfro, Lindsay A; Barnes, Sunni; Rayan, Nadine; Gentilello, Larry M; Fleming, Neil; Ballard, David

    2012-09-01

    The Trauma Quality Improvement Program uses inhospital mortality to measure quality of care, which assumes patients who survive injury are not likely to suffer higher mortality after discharge. We hypothesized that survival rates in trauma patients who survive to discharge remain stable afterward. Patients treated at an urban Level I trauma center (2006-2008) were linked with the Social Security Administration Death Master File. Survival rates were measured at 30, 90, and 180 days and 1 and 2 years from injury among two groups of trauma patients who survived to discharge: major trauma (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥ 3 injuries, n = 2,238) and minor trauma (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≤ 2 injuries, n = 1,171). Control groups matched to each trauma group by age and sex were simulated from the US general population using annual survival probabilities from census data. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analyses conditional upon survival to each time point were used to determine changes in risk of mortality after discharge. Cox proportional hazards models with left truncation at the time of discharge were used to determine independent predictors of mortality after discharge. The survival rate in trauma patients with major injuries was 92% at 30 days posttrauma and declined to 84% by 3 years (p > 0.05 compared with general population). Minor trauma patients experienced a survival rate similar to the general population. Age and injury severity were the only independent predictors of long-term mortality given survival to discharge. Log-rank tests conditional on survival to each time point showed that mortality risk in patients with major injuries remained significantly higher than the general population for up to 6 months after injury. The survival rate of trauma patients with major injuries remains significantly lower than survival for minor trauma patients and the general population for several months postdischarge. Surveillance for early identification and treatment of

  9. Classification of electrical discharges in DC Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Srutarshi, E-mail: sruban.stephens@gmail.com [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Deb, A.K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Rajan, Rehim N. [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kishore, N.K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2016-08-11

    Controlled electrical discharge aids in conditioning of the system while uncontrolled discharges damage its electronic components. DC Accelerator being a high voltage system is no exception. It is useful to classify electrical discharges according to the severity. Experimental prototypes of the accelerator discharges are developed. Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) are used to detect the signals from these discharges. Time and Frequency domain characteristics of the detected discharges are used to extract features. Machine Learning approaches like Fuzzy Logic, Neural Network and Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) are employed to classify the discharges. This aids in detecting the severity of the discharges.

  10. Investigations of electropositive and electronegative RF discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    Electronegative RF discharges are extensively used in the semi-conductor industry for material processing. Despite this the subject of electronegative RF discharges has been largely neglected. The aim of this thesis is to investigate a RF oxygen discharge by mass/energy spectrometry, a retarding field analyser and an actively compensated Langmuir probe. Measurements are also obtained in argon for comparison. In this thesis pure oxygen will be used as this has relatively simple discharge chemistry with most of the rate constants well known. Ion energy analysis (Chapter 3) show the discharge to contract into the centre of the chamber at low pressures in both gases. The expected thinner peak of the oxygen ion energy distribution was not observed, this is shown to be due to RF modulation of the positive ions with collisions playing a role. The dominant positive ion in the discharge bulk and colliding in the sheath in oxygen was found to be O 2 + with less than 10% O + over the range of pressure investigated (Chapter 4). Various minor ions such as O 3 + and O 4 + were also observed. By actively compensating a Langmuir probe for the first three plasma harmonics it is shown that it is unnecessary to compensate when the amplitude of a given harmonic is comparable to the electron temperature (Chapter 5). A study of Langmuir probe measurements in argon (Chapter 7) has shown that the use of the collisionless Alien, Boyd and Reynolds theory leads to discrepancies in the measured electron densities. The correct density can be obtained by using the perturbation method of Shih and Levi, this corrects for ion-neutral collisions in electropositive plasmas only. This theory is extended to electronegative plasmas (Chapter 6) so that measurements of the negative ion density obtained from the collisionless theory of Arnemiya, Annaratone and Alien can be corrected. Langmuir probe measurements in oxygen indicate a peak in the negative ion density at around 3Pa and are found to be in good

  11. Hospitalist and Internal Medicine Leaders' Perspectives of Early Discharge Challenges at Academic Medical Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hemali; Fang, Margaret C; Mourad, Michelle; Green, Adrienne; Wachter, Robert M; Murphy, Ryan D; Harrison, James D

    2018-06-01

    Improving early discharges may improve patient flow and increase hospital capacity. We conducted a national survey of academic medical centers addressing the prevalence, importance, and effectiveness of early-discharge initiatives. We assembled a list of hospitalist and general internal medicine leaders at 115 US-based academic medical centers. We emailed each institutional representative a 30-item online survey regarding early-discharge initiatives. The survey included questions on discharge prioritization, the prevalence and effectiveness of early-discharge initiatives, and barriers to implementation. We received 61 responses from 115 institutions (53% response rate). Forty-seven (77%) "strongly agreed" or "agreed" that early discharge was a priority. "Discharge by noon" was the most cited goal (n = 23; 38%) followed by "no set time but overall goal for improvement" (n = 13; 21%). The majority of respondents reported early discharge as more important than obtaining translators for non-English-speaking patients and equally important as reducing 30-day readmissions and improving patient satisfaction. The most commonly reported factors delaying discharge were availability of postacute care beds (n = 48; 79%) and patient-related transport complications (n = 44; 72%). The most effective early discharge initiatives reported involved changes to the rounding process, such as preemptive identification and early preparation of discharge paperwork (n = 34; 56%) and communication with patients about anticipated discharge (n = 29; 48%). There is a strong interest in increasing early discharges in an effort to improve hospital throughput and patient flow. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  12. Hydrogen production by methane reforming based on micro-gap discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, N N; Wang, M X; Liu, K Y; Bai, M D

    2013-01-01

    Based on micro-gap strong ionization discharge, this paper presents a study of hydrogen production by methane reforming at room temperature and atmospheric pressure without catalyst. Influence rules of conversion of methane and production of hydrogen were studied by changing discharge power and feed gas flow rate. Results show that when the discharge power was about 341 W, the discharge gap was 0.47 mm and the flow rate of feed gas was 100 mL min −1 , the conversion of methane and yield of hydrogen reached optimization. The conversion rate of methane and the highest yield of hydrogen were 68.14 % and 51.34 %, respectively.

  13. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability under electrical pulse discharge in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononov, A.V.; Porytskyy, P.V.; Starchyk, P.D.; Voitenko, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is studied on the interface between both the plasma channel and liquid medium under an electrical pulse discharge in water.It is shown that,growth of the irregularities of the contact interface leads to the increasing of heat flux from the discharge channel due to the growth of an interfacial area and the incoming of water matter into a discharge channel.As a result of these processes the characteristics of the discharge may be strongly varied

  14. The use of discharge perturbations to understand in situ vegetation resistance in wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, A. M. Wasantha; Moustafa, M. Zaki; Wilcox, Walter M.

    2015-04-01

    The ability to better quantify resistance to water flow exerted by vegetation is receiving increased attention due to ongoing worldwide efforts to restore natural vegetation communities in the wetlands and use of vegetation for environmental benefits in streams and wetlands. In south Florida, vegetation resistance affects discharge through shallow wetlands of the Everglades and projects under way in the system to restore remaining natural systems. A more detailed knowledge of the flow dynamics in these wetlands is required to improve modeling of these systems that supports restoration and management efforts. The goal of this investigation is to understand the flow dynamics and the vegetation resistance within a 3 km by 7 km area in the Everglades referred to as STA-3/4 Cell 3A. Methods are developed to demonstrate the use of analytical solutions of partial differential equations (PDEs) and inverse methods to obtain bulk and spatially varying resistance parameters. To achieve this goal, a field test was conducted using sinusoidal discharge disturbances capable of creating water waves in the storm water treatment area (STAs). The discharges, wave speeds, and the wave attenuation rates from the test are used to develop graphical and empirical functions expressing discharge in terms of water depth and energy slope. The empirical functions developed are power law type, and different functions are developed for different depths. The results show that the Manning's equation is not applicable for wetlands with thick emergent vegetation, as well as the difficulty of applying a single power law-type expression for vegetation resistance over a wide range of depths and energy slopes without errors. This is partly due to the existence of multiple flow regimes and different power exponents over depth and energy slopes in these regimes. Results show that the flow regime at low depths is similar to porous media flow, and the flow regime at higher depths is more turbulent.

  15. An experimental study on the heat transfer characteristics of a heat pipe heat exchanger with latent heat storage. Part II: Simultaneous charging/discharging modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhongliang; Wang Zengyi; Ma Chongfang

    2006-01-01

    In this part of the paper, the performance of the simultaneous charging/discharging operation modes of the heat pipe heat exchanger with latent heat storage is experimentally studied. The experimental results show that the device may operate under either the fluid to fluid heat transfer with charging heat to the phase change material (PCM) or the fluid to fluid heat transfer with discharging heat from the PCM modes according to the initial temperature of the PCM. The melting/solidification curves, the performances of the heat pipes and the device, the influences of the inlet temperature and the mass flow rate of the cold water on the operation performance are investigated by extensive experiments. The experimental results also disclose that under the simultaneous charging/discharging operation mode, although the heat transfer from the hot water directly to the cold water may vary, it always takes up a major part of the total heat recovered by the cold water due to the very small thermal resistance compared with the thermal resistance of the PCM side. The melting/solidification processes taking place in the simultaneous charging/discharging operation are compared with those in the charging only and discharging only processes. By applying a simplified thermal resistance analysis, a criterion for predicting the exact operation modes was derived and used to explain the observed experimental phenomena

  16. Discharge Estimation in a Lined Canal Using Information Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chang Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study applies a new method and technology to measure the discharge in a lined canal in Taiwan. An Acoustic Digital Current Meter mounted on a measurement platform is used to measure the velocities over the full cross-section for establishing the measurement method. The proposed method primarily employs Chiu’s Equation which is based on entropy to establish a constant ratio the relation between the maximum and mean velocities in an irrigation canal, and compute the maximum velocity by the observed velocity profile. In consequence, the mean velocity of the lined canal can be rapidly determined by the maximum velocity and the constant ratio. The cross-sectional area of the artificial irrigation canal can be calculated for the water stage. Finally, the discharge in the lined canal can be efficiently determined by the estimated mean velocity and the cross-sectional area. Using the data of discharges and stages collected in the Wan-Dan Canal, the correlation of stage and discharge is also developed for remote real-time monitoring and estimating discharge from the pumping station. Overall, Chiu’s Equation is demonstrated to reliably and accurately measure discharge in a lined canal, and can serve as reference for future calibration for a stage-discharge rating curve.

  17. Chemistry of groundwater discharge inferred from longitudinal river sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlle-Aguilar, J.; Harrington, G. A.; Leblanc, M.; Welch, C.; Cook, P. G.

    2014-02-01

    We present an approach for identifying groundwater discharge chemistry and quantifying spatially distributed groundwater discharge into rivers based on longitudinal synoptic sampling and flow gauging of a river. The method is demonstrated using a 450 km reach of a tropical river in Australia. Results obtained from sampling for environmental tracers, major ions, and selected trace element chemistry were used to calibrate a steady state one-dimensional advective transport model of tracer distribution along the river. The model closely reproduced river discharge and environmental tracer and chemistry composition along the study length. It provided a detailed longitudinal profile of groundwater inflow chemistry and discharge rates, revealing that regional fractured mudstones in the central part of the catchment contributed up to 40% of all groundwater discharge. Detailed analysis of model calibration errors and modeled/measured groundwater ion ratios elucidated that groundwater discharging in the top of the catchment is a mixture of local groundwater and bank storage return flow, making the method potentially useful to differentiate between local and regional sourced groundwater discharge. As the error in tracer concentration induced by a flow event applies equally to any conservative tracer, we show that major ion ratios can still be resolved with minimal error when river samples are collected during transient flow conditions. The ability of the method to infer groundwater inflow chemistry from longitudinal river sampling is particularly attractive in remote areas where access to groundwater is limited or not possible, and for identification of actual fluxes of salts and/or specific contaminant sources.

  18. Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorpening, Benjamin T [Morgantown, WV; Thornton, Jimmy D [Morgantown, WV; Huckaby, E David [Morgantown, WV; Fincham, William [Fairmont, WV

    2011-04-19

    A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.

  19. Quality management for discharge measurements in Bavaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Carmen [Hydrology of surface Waters, Bavarian Environment Agency, Hof (Germany)], E-mail: Carmen.Roth@lfu.bayern.de

    2008-11-01

    The hydrology of surface waters is based on the knowledge of the two main hydrological parameters, water level and discharge. These data are not only needed for almost every hydrological planning, but are very important for the management of high and low water. Our long term goal is a complete registration of every natural runoff - covering everything from low to high water - at our 600 measuring stations using limited resources but at the same time achieving high reliability and quality. To this point we are currently enforcing the use of modern data acquisition technology for water level and discharge measurements. The new techniques enable a continuous registration of water levels, actual velocity and consequently the discharge. Currently we are using gauging methods like the well known bubble gauge and radar, while the ultrasonic systems become more and more frequent. The moving boat techniques using the ultrasonic-Doppler-systems (e.g. ADCP, Q-Liner) are gradually substituting traditional methods for discharge measurement. In addition to that hydraulic methods (e. g. SIMK (registered) ) are being incorporated in the measuring systems as well. Since 2000 almost all gauges have been equipped with data loggers and automatic data transmission systems. One of the outcomes of these investments is the online availability of hydrological data on our website (www.hnd.bayern.de) where high quality data can be easily accessed. A new project has been initiated to improve the present rating curve. By means of hydraulic calculation the curve will be verified and if necessary adjusted to minimise deviations in the near future, which is of high importance especially for flooding forecasts.

  20. Quality management for discharge measurements in Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    The hydrology of surface waters is based on the knowledge of the two main hydrological parameters, water level and discharge. These data are not only needed for almost every hydrological planning, but are very important for the management of high and low water. Our long term goal is a complete registration of every natural runoff - covering everything from low to high water - at our 600 measuring stations using limited resources but at the same time achieving high reliability and quality. To this point we are currently enforcing the use of modern data acquisition technology for water level and discharge measurements. The new techniques enable a continuous registration of water levels, actual velocity and consequently the discharge. Currently we are using gauging methods like the well known bubble gauge and radar, while the ultrasonic systems become more and more frequent. The moving boat techniques using the ultrasonic-Doppler-systems (e.g. ADCP, Q-Liner) are gradually substituting traditional methods for discharge measurement. In addition to that hydraulic methods (e. g. SIMK (registered) ) are being incorporated in the measuring systems as well. Since 2000 almost all gauges have been equipped with data loggers and automatic data transmission systems. One of the outcomes of these investments is the online availability of hydrological data on our website (www.hnd.bayern.de) where high quality data can be easily accessed. A new project has been initiated to improve the present rating curve. By means of hydraulic calculation the curve will be verified and if necessary adjusted to minimise deviations in the near future, which is of high importance especially for flooding forecasts.

  1. Pulsed electrical discharge in gas bubbles in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Sophia

    A phenomenological picture of pulsed electrical discharge in gas bubbles in water is produced by combining electrical, spectroscopic, and imaging methods. The discharge is generated by applying one microsecond long 5 to 20 kilovolt pulses between the needle and disk electrodes submerged in water. A gas bubble is generated at the tip of the needle electrode. The study includes detailed experimental investigation of the discharge in argon bubbles and a brief look at the discharge in oxygen bubbles. Imaging, electrical characteristics, and time-resolved optical emission data point to a fast streamer propagation mechanism and formation of a plasma channel in the bubble. Spectroscopic methods based on line intensity ratios and Boltzmann plots of line intensities of argon, atomic hydrogen, and argon ions and the examination of molecular emission bands from molecular nitrogen and hydroxyl radicals provide evidence of both fast beam-like electrons and slow thermalized ones with temperatures of 0.6 -- 0.8 electron-volts. The collisional nature of plasma at atmospheric pressure affects the decay rates of optical emission. Spectroscopic study of rotational-vibrational bands of hydroxyl radical and molecular nitrogen gives vibrational and rotational excitation temperatures of the discharge of about 0.9 and 0.1 electron-volt, respectively. Imaging and electrical evidence show that discharge charge is deposited on the bubble wall and water serves as a dielectric barrier for the field strength and time scales of this experiment. Comparing the electrical and imaging information for consecutive pulses applied at a frequency of 1 Hz indicates that each discharge proceeds as an entirely new process with no memory of the previous discharge aside from long-lived chemical species, such as ozone and oxygen. Intermediate values for the discharge gap and pulse duration, low repetition rate, and unidirectional character of the applied voltage pulses make the discharge process here unique

  2. The simultaneous discharge of liquid and grains from a silo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Álvarez, A. M.; Hidalgo-Caballero, S.; Pacheco-Vázquez, F.

    2018-04-01

    The flow rate of water through an orifice at the bottom of a container depends on the hydrostatic pressure whereas for a dry granular material it is nearly constant. But what happens during the simultaneous discharge of grains and liquid from a silo? By measuring the flow rate as a function of time, we found that (i) different regimes appear, going from the constant flow rate to a hydrostatic-like discharge depending on the aperture size and grain diameter, (ii) the mixed material is always discharged faster than dry grains but slower than liquid, (iii) for the mixture, the liquid level drops faster than the grain level, but they are always linearly proportional to one another, and (iv) a sudden growth in the flow rate happens during the transition from a biphasic discharge to a single phase discharge. These results are associated to the competition between the decrease in hydrostatic pressure above the granular bed and the hydrodynamic resistance. A model combining Darcy's law with Bernoulli and mass conservation equations is proposed, and the numerical results are in good agreement with experiments.

  3. Early home-supported discharge after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhorne, P.; Jepsen, Birgitte G.; Larsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    benefit most are likely to have moderate stroke severity and may be able to cooperate with rehabilitation in the home setting. Staffing requirements will vary according to several factors. These will include (a) the severity and complexity of stroke impairments, (b) the current level of community support......This report is a brief practical problem-based guide to support clinical management in the implementation of early home-supported discharge as an integrated part of stroke care. However, it is clear that skilled members of a multidisciplinary team are needed and they need to work in a coordinated......, (c) the duration of rehabilitation input, and (d) the rehabilitation targets planned. (C) 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins....

  4. Managing outpatient consultations: from referral to discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rachael; Jacob, Hannah; Morrissey, Benita; Macaulay, Chloe; Gomez, Kumudini; Fertleman, Caroline

    2017-08-01

    Although a great deal of paediatric consultations are not urgent, doctors in training spend so much time providing service for acute conditions that they spend little time focusing on outpatient work before they become a consultant. Engaging clinicians in the managerial aspects of providing clinical care is a key to improving outcomes, and this article addresses these aspects of the outpatient consultation from referral to discharge. We aim to provide doctors in training with a tool to use during their training and their first few years as a consultant, to think about how outpatient work is organised and how it can be improved to maximise patient experience. The non-urgent consultation varies across the world; this article is aimed to be relevant to an international audience. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. The free recovery of a short duration, high current discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piejak, R.

    1984-01-01

    The hold-off voltage between stainless steel electrodes has been measured as a function of time after an initial discharge. The hold-off voltage is the highest voltage that the gap will withstand without appreciable current flow. A high current (600-1200 amp), short duration (170 nsec) discharge was initiated between Rogowski profile electrodes. After a pre-determined time delay, a second pulse was applied to the discharge gap. The hold-off voltage as a function to time was determined up to the Paschen breakdown voltage. Background gas pressure between 30 and 100 torr and electrode separation of 2mm and 4mm were employed. UV preionization was introduced in some tests to create various discharge modes (glow/arc). The findings indicate significantly higher recovery rates in air than in N 2 , presumably due to attachment processes. In addition, the presence of pre-breakdown UV was found to influence the discharge mode, thus affecting the recovery rate of the gap. Hold-off voltage curves for the previously mentioned gases, background pressures and electrode spacing will be presented along with open shutter photographs of the various discharge modes

  6. Glow discharge in singlet oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, N.P.; Ionin, A.A.; Klimachev, Yu.M.; Sinitsyn, D.V.; Yuryshev, N.N.; Kochetov, I.V.; Napartovich, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    Currently, there is no experimental data on the plasma balance in gas mixtures with a high content of singlet delta oxygen O 2 ( 1 Δ g ). These data can be obtained by studying the parameters of an electric discharge in singlet oxygen produced by a chemical generator. The O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) molecules significantly change the kinetics of electrons and negative ions in plasma. Hence, the discharge conditions at low and high O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) concentrations are very different. Here, the parameters of the positive column of a glow discharge in a gas flow from a chemical singlet-oxygen generator are studied. It is experimentally shown that, at an O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) concentration of 50% and at pressures of 1.5 and 2 torr, the electric field required to sustain the discharge is considerably lower than in the case when all of the oxygen molecules are in the ground state. A theoretical model of the glow discharge is proposed whose predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data

  7. Variáveis fisiológicas em cães submetidos à infusão contínua de diferentes doses de propofol Physiologic parameters in dogs anesthetized with different rates of continuous infusion of propofol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Cristina Ferro

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A fim de determinar possíveis alterações nos principais parâmetros fisiológicos determinados pela infusão contínua de propofol, em diferentes doses, foram utilizados 24 cães adultos distribuídos aleatoriamente em 3 grupos (P2, P4 e P8. Os animais foram induzidos à anestesia pela administração intravenosa de propofol (10mg/kg e, ato contínuo, os cães receberam o anestésico, em infusão contínua nas doses de 0,2mg/kg/min (P2, 0,4mg/kg/min (P4 e 0,8mg/kg/min (P8. As mensurações dos valores das variáveis cardiorrespiratórias [freqüência cardíaca (FC; pressões arteriais sistólica, diastólica e média (PAS, PAD e PAM, respectivamente; eletrocardiografia e freqüência respiratória (f] e temperatura retal (T foram realizadas antes da aplicação do fármaco (M0 e após 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 minutos do início da infusão contínua. Os dados numéricos das variáveis estudadas foram submetidos à Análise de Variância (ANOVA seguida pelo Teste F (PThe aim of this article was to establish the correlation between different rates of continuous infusion of propofol and the alterations that might occur with the physiologic parameters most commonly measured by the anesthesiologists. Twenty four adult dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups (P2, P4, P8. All the animals were induced with propofol (10mg/kg, followed immediately by the continuous infusion of the agent: 0.2mg/kg/min (P2, 0.4mg/kg/min (P4 and 0.8mg/kg/min (P8. The heart rate (HR, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures (SAP, DAP and MAP, electrocardiography (ECG, respiratory rate (RR, and body temperature (T were measured before any drug administration (M0 and 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 minutes after the start of the continuous infusion of propofol. The numerical data were submitted to Profile of Variance followed by F Test (P<0.05. The HR showed differences among groups at M20 (P2: 91 ± 14,92; P4: 113 ± 17,18; P8: 120 ± 14,84, M30 (P2: 89 ± 13,79; P4: 110 ± 14

  8. Characterization of the large area plane-symmetric low-pressure DC glow discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtaeva, S.; Gorokhovsky, V.; Myers, S.; Robertson, S.; Shunko, E.; Zembower, Z.

    2016-10-01

    Electron density and temperature as well as nitrogen dissociation degree in the low-pressure (10-50 mTorr) large area plane-symmetric DC glow discharge in Ar-N2 mixtures are studied by probes and spectral methods. Electron density measured by a hairpin probe is in good agreement with that derived from the intensity ratio of the N2 2nd positive system bands IC, 1 - 3/IC, 0 - 2 and from the intensity ratio of argon ions and atom lines IArII/IArI, while Langmuir probe data provides slightly higher values of electron density. Electron density in the low-pressure DC glow discharge varies with the discharge conditions in the limits of 108-1010 cm- 3. The concept of electron temperature can be used in low-pressure glow discharges with reservations. The intensity ratio of (0-0) vibrational bands of N2 1st negative and 2nd positive systems I391.4/I337.1 exhibits the electron temperature of 1.5-2.5 eV when argon fraction in the mixture is higher than nitrogen fraction and this ratio quickly increases with nitrogen fraction up to 10 eV in pure nitrogen. The electron temperature calculated from Langmuir probe I-V characteristics assuming a Maxwellian EEDF, gives Te 0.3-0.4 eV. In-depth analysis of the EEDF using the second derivative of Langmuir probe I-V characteristics shows that in a low-pressure glow discharge the EEDF is non-Maxwellian. The EEDF has two populations of electrons: the main background non-Maxwellian population of ;cold; electrons with the mean electron energy of 0.3-0.4 eV and the small Maxwellian population of ;hot; electrons with the mean electron energy of 1.0-2.5 eV. Estimations show that with electron temperature lower than 1 eV the rate of the direct electron impact ionization of N2 is low and the main mechanism of N2 ionization becomes most likely Penning and associative ionization. In this case, assumptions of the intensity ratio IN2+, 391/IN2, 337 method are violated. In the glow discharge, N2 dissociation degree reaches about 7% with the argon

  9. Instationary discharge rates and shear factors in pipe ruptures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pana, P.

    1976-01-01

    The loads observed in ruptures of steam- or water-conducting pipes may occur as reactive forces on the pipes themselves or as jet forces on the structural components adjacent to the point of rupture. The present paper deals with the instationary acceleration phase directly after rupture. The general laws of conservation (mass, energy, momentum) may be used, but in their instationary form. This results in a system of partial differential equations which does not provide a comprehensive mathematical solution. However, since efficient electronic computer systems are available, difference methods are increasingly often used. Such calculations were carried out for water-steam as an ideal gas and under simplifying assumptions. (orig./AK) [de

  10. Surface modification of steels by electrical discharge treatment in electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krastev, D.; Paunov, V.; Yordanov, B.; Lazarova, V.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: In this work are discussed some experimental data about the influence of applied electrical discharge treatment in electrolyte on the surface structure of steels. The electrical discharge treatment of steel surface in electrolyte gives a modified structure with specific combination of characteristics in result of nonequilibrium transformations. The modification goes by a high energy thermal process in a very small volume on the metallic surface involving melting, vaporisation, activation and alloying in electrical discharges, and after that cooling of this surface with high rate in the electrolyte. The surface layers obtain a different structure in comparison with the metal matrix and are with higher hardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. key words: surface modification, electrical discharge treatment in electrolyte, steels

  11. Statistical dynamics of transient processes in a gas discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, G.I.; Telegin, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    The properties of a gas discharge plasma to a great extent depend on random processes whose study has recently become particularly important. The present work is concerned with analyzing the statistical phenomena that occur during the prebreakdown stage in a gas discharge. Unlike other studies of breakdown in the discharge gap, in which secondary electron effects and photon processes at the electrodes must be considered, here the authors treat the case of an electrodeless rf discharge or a laser photoresonant plasma. The analysis is based on the balance between the rates of electron generation and recombination in the plasma. The fluctuation kinetics for ionization of atoms in the hot plasma may also play an important role when the electron temperature changes abruptly, as occurs during adiabatic pinching of the plasma or during electron cyclotron heating

  12. Decomposition of naphthalene by dc gliding arc gas discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang; Li, Xiaodong; Tu, Xin; Wang, Yu; Lu, Shengyong; Yan, Jianhua

    2010-01-14

    Gliding arc discharge has been proved to be effective in treatment of gas and liquid contaminants. In this study, physical characteristics of dc gliding arc discharge and its application to naphthalene destruction are investigated with different external resistances and carrier gases. The decomposition rate increases with increasing of oxygen concentration and decreases with external resistance. This value can be achieved up to 92.3% at the external resistance of 50 kOmega in the oxygen discharge, while the highest destruction energy efficiency reaches 3.6 g (kW h)(-1) with the external resistance of 93 kOmega. Possible reaction pathways and degradation mechanisms in the plasma with different gases are proposed by qualitative analysis of postdestructed products. In the air and oxygen gliding arc discharges, the naphthalene degradation is mainly governed by reactions with oxygen-derived radicals.

  13. A New Approach to Gas Discharge Theory with Sheath Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Francis F.; Curreli, Davide

    Classical theories of gas discharges have concentrated on the microscopic properties of collisions and diffusion coefficients, but few have considered the macroscopic observables such as the density and temperature profiles. Since practical devices cannot be approximated by infinite cylinders, we consider finite cylinders with endplates. There, the short-circuit effect permits electrons to be Maxwellian even in the presence of a DC magnetic field. For uniform electron temperature Te and pressure p, the radial density profile is found to have a "universal" shape independent of p. A code EQM is developed to solve for radial profiles when all quantities vary with r and includes ionization balance and neutral depletion. The profile Te(r) depends on the type of discharge and is found for helicon discharges by iterating with the code HELIC. Resulting n(r) profiles are flat or peaked on axis, as found in experiment, even when ionization is localized to the edge.

  14. Flame Structure and Chemiluminescence Emissions of Inverse Diffusion Flames under Sinusoidally Driven Plasma Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia De Giorgi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of nitric oxides (NOx in aircraft engines and in gas turbines by lean combustion is of great interest in the design of novel combustion systems. However, the stabilization of the flame under lean conditions is a main issue. In this context, the present work investigates the effects of sinusoidal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD on a lean inverse diffusive methane/air flame in a Bunsen-type burner under different actuation conditions. The flame appearance was investigated with fixed methane loading (mass flux, but with varying inner airflow rate. High-speed flame imaging was done by using an intensified (charge-coupled device CCD camera equipped with different optical filters in order to selectively record signals from the chemiluminescent species OH*, CH*, or CO2* to evaluate the flame behavior in presence of plasma actuation. The electrical power consumption was less than 33 W. It was evident that the plasma flame enhancement was significantly influenced by the plasma discharges, particularly at high inner airflow rates. The flame structure changes drastically when the dissipated plasma power increases. The flame area decreases due to the enhancement of mixing and chemical reactions that lead to a more anchored flame on the quartz exit with a reduction of the flame length.

  15. Communication at the interface between hospitals and primary care - a general practice audit of hospital discharge summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleli, Esther; Naccarella, Lucio; Pirotta, Marie

    2013-12-01

    Timeliness and quality of hospital discharge summaries are crucial for patient safety and efficient health service provision after discharge. We audited receipt rates, timeliness and the quality of discharge summaries for 49 admissions among 38 patients in an urban general practice. For missing discharge summaries, a hospital medical record search was performed. Discharge summaries were received for 92% of identified admissions; 73% were received within three days and 55% before the first post-discharge visit to the general practitioner (GP). Administrative information and clinical content, including diagnosis, treatment and follow-up plans, were well reported. However, information regarding tests, referrals and discharge medication was often missing; 57% of summaries were entirely typed and 13% had legibility issues. Completion rates were good but utility was compromised by delays, content omissions and formatting. Digital searching enables extraction of information from rich existing datasets contained in GP records for accurate measurement of discharge summary receipt rate and timing.

  16. Free surface profiles in river flows: Can standard energy-based gradually-varied flow computations be pursued?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantero, Francisco; Castro-Orgaz, Oscar; Garcia-Marín, Amanda; Ayuso, José Luis; Dey, Subhasish

    2015-10-01

    Is the energy equation for gradually-varied flow the best approximation for the free surface profile computations in river flows? Determination of flood inundation in rivers and natural waterways is based on the hydraulic computation of flow profiles. This is usually done using energy-based gradually-varied flow models, like HEC-RAS, that adopts a vertical division method for discharge prediction in compound channel sections. However, this discharge prediction method is not so accurate in the context of advancements over the last three decades. This paper firstly presents a study of the impact of discharge prediction on the gradually-varied flow computations by comparing thirteen different methods for compound channels, where both energy and momentum equations are applied. The discharge, velocity distribution coefficients, specific energy, momentum and flow profiles are determined. After the study of gradually-varied flow predictions, a new theory is developed to produce higher-order energy and momentum equations for rapidly-varied flow in compound channels. These generalized equations enable to describe the flow profiles with more generality than the gradually-varied flow computations. As an outcome, results of gradually-varied flow provide realistic conclusions for computations of flow in compound channels, showing that momentum-based models are in general more accurate; whereas the new theory developed for rapidly-varied flow opens a new research direction, so far not investigated in flows through compound channels.

  17. Discharge documentation of patients discharged to subacute facilities: a three-year quality improvement process across an integrated health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, Esteban; Ungar, Jonathan; Lee, Jason; Chan-Macrae, Myrna; O'Malley, Terrence; Schnipper, Jeffrey L

    2010-06-01

    Effective communication among physicians during hospital discharge is critical to patient care. Partners Healthcare (Boston) has been engaged in a multi-year process to measure and improve the quality of documentation of all patients discharged from its five acute care hospitals to subacute facilities. Partners first engaged stakeholders to develop a consensus set of 12 required data elements for all discharges to subacute facilities. A measurement process was established and later refined. Quality improvement interventions were then initiated to address measured deficiencies and included education of physicians and nurses, improvements in information technology, creation of or improvements in discharge documentation templates, training of hospitalists to serve as role models, feedback to physicians and their service chiefs regarding reviewed cases, and case manager review of documentation before discharge. To measure improvement in quality as a result of these efforts, rates of simultaneous inclusion of all 12 applicable data elements ("defect-free rate") were analyzed over time. Some 3,101 discharge documentation packets of patients discharged to subacute facilities from January 1, 2006, through September 2008 were retrospectively studied. During the 11 monitored quarters, the defect-free rate increased from 65% to 96% (p improvements were seen in documentation of preadmission medication lists, allergies, follow-up, and warfarin information. Institution of rigorous measurement, feedback, and multidisciplinary, multimodal quality improvement processes improved the inclusion of data elements in discharge documentation required for safe hospital discharge across a large integrated health care system.

  18. Electron runaway in rf discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.F.

    1992-10-01

    The critical electric field is computed as a function of pressure and starting energy for electrons to run away to high energies in moderate pressure discharges. The runaway conditions depend critically on the shape of the elastic cross section vs. energy curve. Computations are made for H, H 2 , and He gases, and it is shown that runaway occurs much more readily in atomic hydrogen than in the other gases. The values of the runaway fields are larger than would normally occur in dc discharges, where large voltages would lead to arc formation. However, in rf discharges such electric fields can be sustained over times long compared to electron transit times but short compared to ion transit times. (author)

  19. Discharge quenching circuit for counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasik, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    A circuit for quenching discharges in gas-discharge detectors with working voltage of 3-5 kV based on transistors operating in the avalanche mode is described. The quenching circuit consists of a coordinating emitter follower, amplifier-shaper for avalanche key cascade control which changes potential on the counter electrodes and a shaper of discharge quenching duration. The emitter follower is assembled according to a widely used flowsheet with two transistors. The circuit permits to obtain a rectangular quenching pulse with front of 100 ns and an amplitude of up to 3.2 kV at duration of 500 μm-8 ms. Application of the quenching circuit described permits to obtain countering characteristics with the slope less than or equal to 0.02%/V and plateau extent greater than or equal to 300 V [ru

  20. A varying-α brane world cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youm, Donam

    2001-08-01

    We study the brane world cosmology in the RS2 model where the electric charge varies with time in the manner described by the varying fine-structure constant theory of Bekenstein. We map such varying electric charge cosmology to the dual variable-speed-of-light cosmology by changing system of units. We comment on cosmological implications for such cosmological models. (author)