WorldWideScience

Sample records for variation default resistance

  1. Risk factors and mortality associated with default from multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Molly F; Appleton, Sasha C; Bayona, Jaime; Arteaga, Fernando; Palacios, Eda; Llaro, Karim; Shin, Sonya S; Becerra, Mercedes C; Murray, Megan B; Mitnick, Carole D

    2008-06-15

    Completing treatment for multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) may be more challenging than completing first-line TB therapy, especially in resource-poor settings. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify risk factors for default from MDR TB therapy (defined as prolonged treatment interruption), (2) quantify mortality among patients who default from treatment, and (3) identify risk factors for death after default from treatment. We performed a retrospective chart review to identify risk factors for default from MDR TB therapy and conducted home visits to assess mortality among patients who defaulted from such therapy. Sixty-seven (10.0%) of 671 patients defaulted from MDR TB therapy. The median time to treatment default was 438 days (interquartile range, 152-710 days), and 27 (40.3%) of the 67 patients who defaulted from treatment had culture-positive sputum at the time of default. Substance use (hazard ratio, 2.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.56-5.62; P = .001), substandard housing conditions (hazard ratio, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-3.11; P = .03), later year of enrollment (hazard ratio, 1.62, 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.41; P = .02), and health district (P = .02) predicted default from therapy in a multivariable analysis. Severe adverse events did not predict default from therapy. Forty-seven (70.1%) of 67 patients who defaulted from therapy were successfully traced; of these, 25 (53.2%) had died. Poor bacteriologic response, default, low education level, and diagnosis with a psychiatric disorder significantly predicted death after default in a multivariable analysis. The proportion of patients who defaulted from MDR TB treatment was relatively low. The large proportion of patients who had culture-positive sputum at the time of treatment default underscores the public health importance of minimizing treatment default. Prognosis for patients who defaulted from therapy was poor. Interventions aimed at preventing treatment default may

  2. Risk factors and timing of default from treatment for non-multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, H E; Ciobanu, A; Plesca, V; Crudu, V; Galusca, I; Soltan, V; Cohen, T

    2013-03-01

    The Republic of Moldova, in Eastern Europe, has among the highest reported nationwide proportions of tuberculosis (TB) patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) worldwide. Default has been associated with increased mortality and amplification of drug resistance, and may contribute to the high MDR-TB rates in Moldova. To assess risk factors and timing of default from treatment for non-MDR-TB from 2007 to 2010. A retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data on all non-MDR-TB patients reported. A total of 14.7% of non-MDR-TB patients defaulted from treatment during the study period. Independent risk factors for default included sociodemographic factors, such as homelessness, living alone, less formal education and spending substantial time outside Moldova in the year prior to diagnosis; and health-related factors such as human immunodeficiency virus co-infection, greater lung pathology and increasing TB drug resistance. Anti-tuberculosis treatment is usually initiated within an institutional setting in Moldova, and the default risk was highest in the month following the phase of hospitalized treatment (among civilians) and after leaving prison (among those diagnosed while incarcerated). Targeted interventions to increase treatment adherence for patients at highest risk of default, and improving the continuity of care for patients transitioning from institutional to community care may substantially reduce risk of default.

  3. A study on Prevalence of Drug Resistance in Drug Default ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ), and particularly multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), has become a significant public health problem in a number of countries and an obstacle to effective global TB control. Method: This is a prospective randomized cross sectional study to ...

  4. Risk factors associated with default from multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis treatment, Uzbekistan: a retrospective cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Maeve K; Greig, Jane; Allamuratova, Sholpan; Althomsons, Sandy; Tigay, Zinaida; Khaemraev, Atadjan; Braker, Kai; Telnov, Oleksander; du Cros, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    The Médecins Sans Frontières project of Uzbekistan has provided multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment in the Karakalpakstan region since 2003. Rates of default from treatment have been high, despite psychosocial support, increasing particularly since programme scale-up in 2007. We aimed to determine factors associated with default in multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis patients who started treatment between 2003 and 2008 and thus had finished approximately 2 years of treatment by the end of 2010. A retrospective cohort analysis of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis patients enrolled in treatment between 2003 and 2008 compared baseline demographic characteristics and possible risk factors for default. Default was defined as missing ≥60 consecutive days of treatment (all drugs). Data were routinely collected during treatment and entered in a database. Potential risk factors for default were assessed in univariate analysis using chi-square test and in multivariate analysis with logistic regression. 20% (142/710) of patients defaulted after a median of 6 months treatment (IQR 2.6-9.9). Factors associated with default included severity of resistance patterns (pre-extensively drug-resistant/extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis adjusted odds ratio 0.52, 95%CI: 0.31-0.86), previous default (2.38, 1.09-5.24) and age >45 years (1.77, 1.10-2.87). The default rate was 14% (42/294) for patients enrolled 2003-2006 and 24% (100/416) for 2007-2008 enrolments (p = 0.001). Default from treatment was high and increased with programme scale-up. It is essential to ensure scale-up of treatment is accompanied with scale-up of staff and patient support. A successful first course of tuberculosis treatment is important; patients who had previously defaulted were at increased risk of default and death. The protective effect of severe resistance profiles suggests that understanding disease severity or fear may motivate against default. Targeted

  5. Default probabilities and default correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Erlenmaier, Ulrich; Gersbach, Hans

    2001-01-01

    Starting from the Merton framework for firm defaults, we provide the analytics and robustness of the relationship between default correlations. We show that loans with higher default probabilities will not only have higher variances but also higher correlations between loans. As a consequence, portfolio standard deviation can increase substantially when loan default probabilities rise. This result has two important implications. First, relative prices of loans with different default probabili...

  6. Genetic variation in dieback resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobo, Albin; Hansen, Jon Kehlet; McKinney, Lea Vig

    2014-01-01

    -eastern Zealand, Denmark, and confirmed the presence of substantial genetic variation in ash dieback susceptibility. The average crown damage increased in the trial from 61% in 2009 to 66% in 2012 and 72% in 2014, while the estimated heritability was 0.42 in both 2009 and 2012 but increased to 0.53 in 2014....... Genetic correlation between assessments was 0.88 between 2009 and 2012 and 0.91 between 2009 and 2014, suggesting fairly good possibilities for early selection of superior genotypes in the presence of high infection levels in the trial. The level of crown damage had strong negative effect on growth...

  7. Alcohol, hospital discharge, and socioeconomic risk factors for default from multidrug resistant tuberculosis treatment in rural South Africa: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Emily A; Theron, Danie; Franke, Molly F; van Helden, Paul; Victor, Thomas C; Murray, Megan B; Warren, Robin M; Jacobson, Karen R

    2013-01-01

    Default from multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment remains a major barrier to cure and epidemic control. We sought to identify patient risk factors for default from MDR-TB treatment and high-risk time periods for default in relation to hospitalization and transition to outpatient care. We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 225 patients who initiated MDR-TB treatment between 2007 through 2010 at a rural TB hospital in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Fifty percent of patients were cured or completed treatment, 27% defaulted, 14% died, 4% failed treatment, and 5% transferred out. Recent alcohol use was common (63% of patients). In multivariable proportional hazards regression, older age (hazard ratio [HR]= 0.97 [95% confidence interval 0.94-0.99] per year of greater age), formal housing (HR=0.38 [0.19-0.78]), and steady employment (HR=0.41 [0.19-0.90]) were associated with decreased risk of default, while recent alcohol use (HR=2.1 [1.1-4.0]), recent drug use (HR=2.0 [1.0-3.6]), and Coloured (mixed ancestry) ethnicity (HR=2.3 [1.1-5.0]) were associated with increased risk of default (PDefaults occurred throughout the first 18 months of the two-year treatment course but were especially frequent among alcohol users after discharge from the initial four-to-five-month in-hospital phase of treatment, with the highest default rates occurring among alcohol users within two months of discharge. Default rates during the first two months after discharge were also elevated for patients who received care from mobile clinics. Among patients who were not cured or did not complete MDR-TB treatment, the majority defaulted from treatment. Younger, economically-unstable patients and alcohol and drug users were particularly at risk. For alcohol users as well as mobile-clinic patients, the early outpatient treatment phase is a high-risk period for default that could be targeted in efforts to increase treatment completion rates.

  8. Default values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    In making calculations for the purposes of radiation protection, numerical values for parameters used in the calculations are selected. In some cases, data directly applicable to the set of conditions for which the calculations are to be made are unavailable. Therefore, the selection of the values for these parameters may be based on more general data available from the literature or other sources. These values may be referred to as 'default values', that is, values used in default of those based on directly applicable data. The following policy will be applied by Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) staff in reviewing the radiation protection aspects of submissions associated with licensing, in participating with other organizations in the development of codes and standards, and in any other work which relies to some extent on using default values

  9. Variation of microchannel plate resistance with temperature and applied voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, J.F.; Fraser, G.W.; Whiteley, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    The resistance of microchannel plate electron multiplier is well known to be a function of both applied voltage and detector temperature. We show that the apparent variation of resistance with bias voltage is simply due to plate temperature increases resulting from resistive heating. (orig.)

  10. DRD2 genotype-based variation of default mode network activity and of its relationship with striatal DAT binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambataro, Fabio; Fazio, Leonardo; Taurisano, Paolo; Gelao, Barbara; Porcelli, Annamaria; Mancini, Marina; Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; Ursini, Gianluca; Masellis, Rita; Caforio, Grazia; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Niccoli-Asabella, Artor; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) comprises a set of brain regions with "increased" activity during rest relative to cognitive processing. Activity in the DMN is associated with functional connections with the striatum and dopamine (DA) levels in this brain region. A functional single-nucleotide polymorphism within the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2, rs1076560 G > T) shifts splicing of the 2 D2 isoforms, D2 short and D2 long, and has been associated with striatal DA signaling as well as with cognitive processing. However, the effects of this polymorphism on DMN have not been explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of rs1076560 on DMN and striatal connectivity and on their relationship with striatal DA signaling. Twenty-eight subjects genotyped for rs1076560 underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a working memory task and 123 55 I-Fluoropropyl-2-beta-carbomethoxy-3-beta(4-iodophenyl) nortropan Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography ([(123)I]-FP-CIT SPECT) imaging (a measure of dopamine transporter [DAT] binding). Spatial group-independent component (IC) analysis was used to identify DMN and striatal ICs. Within the anterior DMN IC, GG subjects had relatively greater connectivity in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), which was directly correlated with striatal DAT binding. Within the posterior DMN IC, GG subjects had reduced connectivity in posterior cingulate relative to T carriers. Additionally, rs1076560 genotype predicted connectivity differences within a striatal network, and these changes were correlated with connectivity in MPFC and posterior cingulate within the DMN. These results suggest that genetically determined D2 receptor signaling is associated with DMN connectivity and that these changes are correlated with striatal function and presynaptic DA signaling.

  11. Genetic variation in resistance to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    We proposed an investigation of genetically-determined individual differences in sensitivity to ionizing radiation. The model organism is Drosophila melanogaster. The gene coding for Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) is the target locus, but the effects of variation in other components of the genome that modulate SOD levels are also taken into account. SOD scavenges oxygen radicals generated during exposure to ionizing radiation. It has been shown to protect against ionizing radiation damage to DNA, viruses, bacteria, mammalian cells, whole mice, and Drosophila. Two alleles, S and F, are commonly found in natural populations of D. melanogaster; in addition we have isolated from a natural population ''null'' (CA1) mutant that yields only 3.5% of normal SOD activity. The S, F, and CA1 alleles provide an ideal model system to investigate SOD-dependent radioresistance, because each allele yields different levels of SOD, so that S > F >> CA1. The roles of SOD level in radioresistance are being investigated in a series of experiments that measure the somatic and germ-line effects of increasing doses of ionizing radiation. In addition, we have pursued an unexpected genetic event-namely the nearly simultaneous transformation of several lines homozygous for the SOD ''null'' allele into predominately S lines. Using specifically designed probes and DNA amplification by means of the Tag polymerase chain reaction (PCR) we have shown that (1) the null allele was still present in the transformed lines, but was being gradually replaced by the S allele as a consequence of natural selection; and (2) that the transformation was due to the spontaneous deletion of a 0.68 Kb truncated P-element, the insertion of which is characteristic of the CA1 null allele

  12. Analytical Pricing of Defaultable Bond with Stochastic Default Intensity

    OpenAIRE

    O, Hyong-Chol; Wan, Ning

    2013-01-01

    We provide analytical pricing formula of corporate defaultable bond with both expected and unexpected default in the case with stochastic default intensity. In the case with constant short rate and exogenous default recovery using PDE method, we gave some pricing formula of the defaultable bond under the conditions that 1)expected default recovery is the same with unexpected default recovery; 2) default intensity follows one of 3 special cases of Willmott model; 3) default intensity is uncorr...

  13. ATHENS SEASONAL VARIATION OF GROUND RESISTANCE PREDICTION USING NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anbazhagan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective in ground resistance is to attain the most minimal ground safety esteem conceivable that bodes well monetarily and physically. An application of artificial neural networks (ANN to presage and relegation has been growing rapidly due to sundry unique characteristics of ANN models. A decent forecast is able to capture the dubiousness associated with those ground resistance. A portion of the key instabilities are soil composition, moisture content, temperature, ground electrodes and spacing of the electrodes. Propelled by this need, this paper endeavors to develop a generalized regression neural network (GRNN to predict the ground resistance. The GRNN has a single design parameter and expeditious learning and efficacious modeling for nonlinear time series. The precision of the forecast is applied to the Athens seasonal variation of ground resistance that shows the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  14. Mortgage Default Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chauvet, Marcelle; Gabriel, Stuart; Lutz, Chandler

    2016-01-01

    We use Google search query data to develop a broad-based and real-time index of mortgage default risk. Unlike established indicators, our Mortgage Default Risk Index (MDRI) directly reflects households’concerns regarding their risk of mortgage default. The MDRI predicts housing returns, mortgage ...... delinquency indicators, and subprime credit default swaps. These results persist both in- and out-of-sample and at multiple data frequencies. Together, research findings suggest internet search queries yield valuable new insights into household mortgage default risk....

  15. Optional Defaultable Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed N. Abdelghani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with defaultable markets, one of the main research areas of mathematical finance. It proposes a new approach to the theory of such markets using techniques from the calculus of optional stochastic processes on unusual probability spaces, which was not presented before. The paper is a foundation paper and contains a number of fundamental results on modeling of defaultable markets, pricing and hedging of defaultable claims and results on the probability of default under such conditions. Moreover, several important examples are presented: a new pricing formula for a defaultable bond and a new pricing formula for credit default swap. Furthermore, some results on the absence of arbitrage for markets on unusual probability spaces and markets with default are also provided.

  16. Natural Variation in Resistance to Virus Infection in Dipteran Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. Palmer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The power and ease of Drosophila genetics and the medical relevance of mosquito-transmitted viruses have made dipterans important model organisms in antiviral immunology. Studies of virus–host interactions at the molecular and population levels have illuminated determinants of resistance to virus infection. Here, we review the sources and nature of variation in antiviral immunity and virus susceptibility in model dipteran insects, specifically the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and vector mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Culex. We first discuss antiviral immune mechanisms and describe the virus-specificity of these responses. In the following sections, we review genetic and microbiota-dependent variation in antiviral immunity. In the final sections, we explore less well-studied sources of variation, including abiotic factors, sexual dimorphism, infection history, and endogenous viral elements. We borrow from work on other pathogen types and non-dipteran species when it parallels or complements studies in dipterans. Understanding natural variation in virus–host interactions may lead to the identification of novel restriction factors and immune mechanisms and shed light on the molecular determinants of vector competence.

  17. Defaults and Donations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Heidhues, Paul

    We study how website defaults affect consumer behavior in the domain of charitable giving. In a field experiment that was conducted on a large platform for making charitable donations over the web, we exogenously vary the default options in two distinct choice dimensions. The first pertains...

  18. Sovereign default risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, H.A.; Altman, E.I.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new approach toward assessing sovereign risk by examining rigorously the health and aggregate default risk of a nation's private corporate sector. Models can be utilised to measure the probability of default of the non-financial sector cumulatively for five years, both as an absolute

  19. Individual variation in intentionality in the mind-wandering state is reflected in the integration of the default-mode, fronto-parietal, and limbic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golchert, Johannes; Smallwood, Jonathan; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Seli, Paul; Huntenburg, Julia M; Liem, Franziskus; Lauckner, Mark E; Oligschläger, Sabine; Bernhardt, Boris C; Villringer, Arno; Margulies, Daniel S

    2017-02-01

    Mind-wandering has a controversial relationship with cognitive control. Existing psychological evidence supports the hypothesis that episodes of mind-wandering reflect a failure to constrain thinking to task-relevant material, as well the apparently alternative view that control can facilitate the expression of self-generated mental content. We assessed whether this apparent contradiction arises because of a failure to consider differences in the types of thoughts that occur during mind-wandering, and in particular, the associated level of intentionality. Using multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis, we examined the cortical organisation that underlies inter-individual differences in descriptions of the spontaneous or deliberate nature of mind-wandering. Cortical thickness, as well as functional connectivity analyses, implicated regions relevant to cognitive control and regions of the default-mode network for individuals who reported high rates of deliberate mind-wandering. In contrast, higher reports of spontaneous mind-wandering were associated with cortical thinning in parietal and posterior temporal regions in the left hemisphere (which are important in the control of cognition and attention) as well as heightened connectivity between the intraparietal sulcus and a region that spanned limbic and default-mode regions in the ventral inferior frontal gyrus. Finally, we observed a dissociation in the thickness of the retrosplenial cortex/lingual gyrus, with higher reports of spontaneous mind-wandering being associated with thickening in the left hemisphere, and higher repots of deliberate mind-wandering with thinning in the right hemisphere. These results suggest that the intentionality of the mind-wandering state depends on integration between the control and default-mode networks, with more deliberation being associated with greater integration between these systems. We conclude that one reason why mind-wandering has a controversial relationship

  20. Creation of variation in Basella for rust resistance through mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makambila, C [Phytopathology Lab., Faculty of Sciences, Brazzaville (Congo)

    1997-07-01

    African spinach, basella is grown as a leafy vegetable in Central Africa. Basella cultivars belong to the species Basella alba and B. rubra which are seed propagated and are likely Asiatic in origin. Basella alba seeds were irradiated with doses of 50, 100, 200, 300 and 500 Gy to create variation for rust resistance which is caused by the fungus, Uromyces basellae Sidow. The effects of irradiation were investigated on seed germination, plant mortality and height. Seed germination varied from 97% for those irradiated with 50 Gy to 39% with 500 Gy, and LD{sub 50} for seed germination was between 300 to 400 Gy. Doses between 50 and 150 Gy did not cause any mortality of plants obtained from irradiated seeds; however, doses between 200 to 500 Gy caused high mortality among such plants. Irradiation with 150 Gy inhibited plant growth by 48% in relation to the growth of control plants. Based on the results, radiation doses above 150 and up to 400 Gy were used for the production of desired variation. (author). 11 refs, 9 figs.

  1. Creation of variation in Basella for rust resistance through mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makambila, C.

    1997-01-01

    African spinach, basella is grown as a leafy vegetable in Central Africa. Basella cultivars belong to the species Basella alba and B. rubra which are seed propagated and are likely Asiatic in origin. Basella alba seeds were irradiated with doses of 50, 100, 200, 300 and 500 Gy to create variation for rust resistance which is caused by the fungus, Uromyces basellae Sidow. The effects of irradiation were investigated on seed germination, plant mortality and height. Seed germination varied from 97% for those irradiated with 50 Gy to 39% with 500 Gy, and LD 50 for seed germination was between 300 to 400 Gy. Doses between 50 and 150 Gy did not cause any mortality of plants obtained from irradiated seeds; however, doses between 200 to 500 Gy caused high mortality among such plants. Irradiation with 150 Gy inhibited plant growth by 48% in relation to the growth of control plants. Based on the results, radiation doses above 150 and up to 400 Gy were used for the production of desired variation. (author). 11 refs, 9 figs

  2. Implementing OWL Defaults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kolovski, Vladimir; Parsia, Bijan; Katz, Yarden

    2006-01-01

    ...) have often requested some form of non-monotonic reasoning. In this paper, we present preliminary optimizations and an implementation of a restricted version of Reiter's default logic as an extension to the description logic fragment of OWL, OWL DL...

  3. Loan Defaults in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Andrianova; Badi H Baltagi; Panicos O Demetriades

    2011-01-01

    African financial deepening is beset by a high rate of loan defaults, which encourages banks to hold liquid assets instead of lending. We put forward a novel theoretical model that captures the salient features of African credit markets which shows that equilibrium with high loan defaults and low lending can arise when contract enforcement institutions are weak, investment opportunities are relatively scarce and information imperfections abound. We provide evidence using a panel of 110 banks ...

  4. Default options in the ICU: widely used but insufficiently understood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joanna; Halpern, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Default options dramatically influence the behavior of decision makers and may serve as effective decision support tools in the ICU. Their use in medicine has increased in an effort to improve efficiency, reduce errors, and harness the potential of healthcare technology. Recent findings Defaults often fall short of their predicted influence when employed in critical care settings as quality improvement interventions. Investigations reporting the use of defaults are often limited by variations in the relative effect across sites. Preimplementation experiments and long-term monitoring studies are lacking. Summary Defaults in the ICU may help or harm patients and clinical efficiency depending on their format and use. When constructing and encountering defaults, providers should be aware of their powerful and complex influences on decision making. Additional evaluations of the appropriate creation of healthcare defaults and their resulting intended and unintended consequences are needed. PMID:25203352

  5. Default from tuberculosis treatment in Tashkent, Uzbekistan; who are these defaulters and why do they default?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasker, Epco; Khodjikhanov, Maksad; Usarova, Shakhnoz; Asamidinov, Umid; Yuldashova, Umida; van der Werf, Marieke J.; Uzakova, Gulnoz; Veen, Jaap

    2008-01-01

    In Tashkent (Uzbekistan), TB treatment is provided in accordance with the DOTS strategy. Of 1087 pulmonary TB patients started on treatment in 2005, 228 (21%) defaulted. This study investigates who the defaulters in Tashkent are, when they default and why they default. We reviewed the records of 126

  6. Treatment Default amongst Patients with Tuberculosis in Urban Morocco: Predicting and Explaining Default and Post-Default Sputum Smear and Drug Susceptibility Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, Iraqi; Kizub, Darya; Billioux, Alexander C.; Bennani, Kenza; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine; Benmamoun, Abderrahmane; Lahlou, Ouafae; Aouad, Rajae El; Dooley, Kelly E.

    2014-01-01

    Setting Public tuberculosis (TB) clinics in urban Morocco. Objective Explore risk factors for TB treatment default and develop a prediction tool. Assess consequences of default, specifically risk for transmission or development of drug resistance. Design Case-control study comparing patients who defaulted from TB treatment and patients who completed it using quantitative methods and open-ended questions. Results were interpreted in light of health professionals’ perspectives from a parallel study. A predictive model and simple tool to identify patients at high risk of default were developed. Sputum from cases with pulmonary TB was collected for smear and drug susceptibility testing. Results 91 cases and 186 controls enrolled. Independent risk factors for default included current smoking, retreatment, work interference with adherence, daily directly observed therapy, side effects, quick symptom resolution, and not knowing one’s treatment duration. Age >50 years, never smoking, and having friends who knew one’s diagnosis were protective. A simple scoring tool incorporating these factors was 82.4% sensitive and 87.6% specific for predicting default in this population. Clinicians and patients described additional contributors to default and suggested locally-relevant intervention targets. Among 89 cases with pulmonary TB, 71% had sputum that was smear positive for TB. Drug resistance was rare. Conclusion The causes of default from TB treatment were explored through synthesis of qualitative and quantitative data from patients and health professionals. A scoring tool with high sensitivity and specificity to predict default was developed. Prospective evaluation of this tool coupled with targeted interventions based on our findings is warranted. Of note, the risk of TB transmission from patients who default treatment to others is likely to be high. The commonly-feared risk of drug resistance, though, may be low; a larger study is required to confirm these findings

  7. Treatment default amongst patients with tuberculosis in urban Morocco: predicting and explaining default and post-default sputum smear and drug susceptibility results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkaoui, Imad; Sabouni, Radia; Ghali, Iraqi; Kizub, Darya; Billioux, Alexander C; Bennani, Kenza; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine; Benmamoun, Abderrahmane; Lahlou, Ouafae; Aouad, Rajae El; Dooley, Kelly E

    2014-01-01

    Public tuberculosis (TB) clinics in urban Morocco. Explore risk factors for TB treatment default and develop a prediction tool. Assess consequences of default, specifically risk for transmission or development of drug resistance. Case-control study comparing patients who defaulted from TB treatment and patients who completed it using quantitative methods and open-ended questions. Results were interpreted in light of health professionals' perspectives from a parallel study. A predictive model and simple tool to identify patients at high risk of default were developed. Sputum from cases with pulmonary TB was collected for smear and drug susceptibility testing. 91 cases and 186 controls enrolled. Independent risk factors for default included current smoking, retreatment, work interference with adherence, daily directly observed therapy, side effects, quick symptom resolution, and not knowing one's treatment duration. Age >50 years, never smoking, and having friends who knew one's diagnosis were protective. A simple scoring tool incorporating these factors was 82.4% sensitive and 87.6% specific for predicting default in this population. Clinicians and patients described additional contributors to default and suggested locally-relevant intervention targets. Among 89 cases with pulmonary TB, 71% had sputum that was smear positive for TB. Drug resistance was rare. The causes of default from TB treatment were explored through synthesis of qualitative and quantitative data from patients and health professionals. A scoring tool with high sensitivity and specificity to predict default was developed. Prospective evaluation of this tool coupled with targeted interventions based on our findings is warranted. Of note, the risk of TB transmission from patients who default treatment to others is likely to be high. The commonly-feared risk of drug resistance, though, may be low; a larger study is required to confirm these findings.

  8. Treatment default amongst patients with tuberculosis in urban Morocco: predicting and explaining default and post-default sputum smear and drug susceptibility results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Cherkaoui

    Full Text Available Public tuberculosis (TB clinics in urban Morocco.Explore risk factors for TB treatment default and develop a prediction tool. Assess consequences of default, specifically risk for transmission or development of drug resistance.Case-control study comparing patients who defaulted from TB treatment and patients who completed it using quantitative methods and open-ended questions. Results were interpreted in light of health professionals' perspectives from a parallel study. A predictive model and simple tool to identify patients at high risk of default were developed. Sputum from cases with pulmonary TB was collected for smear and drug susceptibility testing.91 cases and 186 controls enrolled. Independent risk factors for default included current smoking, retreatment, work interference with adherence, daily directly observed therapy, side effects, quick symptom resolution, and not knowing one's treatment duration. Age >50 years, never smoking, and having friends who knew one's diagnosis were protective. A simple scoring tool incorporating these factors was 82.4% sensitive and 87.6% specific for predicting default in this population. Clinicians and patients described additional contributors to default and suggested locally-relevant intervention targets. Among 89 cases with pulmonary TB, 71% had sputum that was smear positive for TB. Drug resistance was rare.The causes of default from TB treatment were explored through synthesis of qualitative and quantitative data from patients and health professionals. A scoring tool with high sensitivity and specificity to predict default was developed. Prospective evaluation of this tool coupled with targeted interventions based on our findings is warranted. Of note, the risk of TB transmission from patients who default treatment to others is likely to be high. The commonly-feared risk of drug resistance, though, may be low; a larger study is required to confirm these findings.

  9. Fluctuations of Attentional Networks and Default Mode Network during the Resting State Reflect Variations in Cognitive States: Evidence from a Novel Resting-state Experience Sampling Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Calster, Laurens; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Salmon, Eric; Peters, Frédéric; Majerus, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have revealed the recruitment of a range of neural networks during the resting state, which might reflect a variety of cognitive experiences and processes occurring in an individual's mind. In this study, we focused on the default mode network (DMN) and attentional networks and investigated their association with distinct mental states when participants are not performing an explicit task. To investigate the range of possible cognitive experiences more directly, this study proposes a novel method of resting-state fMRI experience sampling, informed by a phenomenological investigation of the fluctuation of mental states during the resting state. We hypothesized that DMN activity would increase as a function of internal mentation and that the activity of dorsal and ventral networks would indicate states of top-down versus bottom-up attention at rest. Results showed that dorsal attention network activity fluctuated as a function of subjective reports of attentional control, providing evidence that activity of this network reflects the perceived recruitment of controlled attentional processes during spontaneous cognition. Activity of the DMN increased when participants reported to be in a subjective state of internal mentation, but not when they reported to be in a state of perception. This study provides direct evidence for a link between fluctuations of resting-state neural activity and fluctuations in specific cognitive processes.

  10. Default from tuberculosis treatment in Tashkent, Uzbekistan; who are these defaulters and why do they default?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasker, Epco; Khodjikhanov, Maksad; Usarova, Shakhnoz; Asamidinov, Umid; Yuldashova, Umida; van der Werf, Marieke J; Uzakova, Gulnoz; Veen, Jaap

    2008-07-22

    In Tashkent (Uzbekistan), TB treatment is provided in accordance with the DOTS strategy. Of 1087 pulmonary TB patients started on treatment in 2005, 228 (21%) defaulted. This study investigates who the defaulters in Tashkent are, when they default and why they default. We reviewed the records of 126 defaulters (cases) and 132 controls and collected information on time of default, demographic factors, social factors, potential risk factors for default, characteristics of treatment and recorded reasons for default. Unemployment, being a pensioner, alcoholism and homelessness were associated with default. Patients defaulted mostly during the intensive phase, while they were hospitalized (61%), or just before they were to start the continuation phase (26%). Reasons for default listed in the records were various, 'Refusal of further treatment' (27%) and 'Violation of hospital rules' (18%) were most frequently recorded. One third of the recorded defaulters did not really default but continued treatment under 'non-DOTS' conditions. Whereas patient factors such as unemployment, being a pensioner, alcoholism and homelessness play a role, there are also system factors that need to be addressed to reduce default. Such system factors include the obligatory admission in TB hospitals and the inadequately organized transition from hospitalized to ambulatory treatment.

  11. Default from tuberculosis treatment in Tashkent, Uzbekistan; Who are these defaulters and why do they default?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuldashova Umida

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tashkent (Uzbekistan, TB treatment is provided in accordance with the DOTS strategy. Of 1087 pulmonary TB patients started on treatment in 2005, 228 (21% defaulted. This study investigates who the defaulters in Tashkent are, when they default and why they default. Methods We reviewed the records of 126 defaulters (cases and 132 controls and collected information on time of default, demographic factors, social factors, potential risk factors for default, characteristics of treatment and recorded reasons for default. Results Unemployment, being a pensioner, alcoholism and homelessness were associated with default. Patients defaulted mostly during the intensive phase, while they were hospitalized (61%, or just before they were to start the continuation phase (26%. Reasons for default listed in the records were various, 'Refusal of further treatment' (27% and 'Violation of hospital rules' (18% were most frequently recorded. One third of the recorded defaulters did not really default but continued treatment under 'non-DOTS' conditions. Conclusion Whereas patient factors such as unemployment, being a pensioner, alcoholism and homelessness play a role, there are also system factors that need to be addressed to reduce default. Such system factors include the obligatory admission in TB hospitals and the inadequately organized transition from hospitalized to ambulatory treatment.

  12. DETERMINANTS OF BUSINESS LOAN DEFAULT IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akwaa-Sekyi, Ellis Kofi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The initiation, funding, servicing and monitoring of loans by financial intermediaries has been done without regard to some critical factors which could have averted the likelihood of default. The study aimed at measuring the extent that owner-specific, borrower-specific, loan and lender-specific characteristics could determine the probability of loan default. The study used logistic regression for 224 business customers of a bank in Ghana from its nation-wide branches. The study found that owner’s extra income (ownership characteristics, multiple borrowing, diversion of loan purpose (borrower characteristics, loan price, loan purpose, loan age, repayment plan (loan characteristics and underfunding (lender characteristics significantly determined the probability of business loan default. The overall model predicted up to 78.5% of variations in the likelihood of default. The hierarchy of strong determinants given by their odd ratios were loan purpose (47.9 times, underfunding (19.2 times, diversion of loan purpose (11.7 times multiple borrowing (9.4 times and owner’s extra income (8.2 times. The study can conclude that financial intermediaries should be wary of the credit granting process taking cognisance of ownership, borrower, loan and lender characteristics especially the significant predictors. Combining quantitative and qualitative variables as determinants of default could be considered in future.

  13. Greener by Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia A.

    . The underlying reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, climate-friendly defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. In deciding whether to establish...

  14. Temporalized Epistemic Default Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoek, W.; Meyer, J.J.; Treur, J.; Gabbay, D.

    2001-01-01

    The nonmonotonic logic Epistemic Default Logic (EDL) [Meyer and van der Hoek, 1993] is based on the metaphore of a meta-level architecture. It has already been established [Meyer and van der Hoek, 1993] how upward reflection can be formalized by a nonmonotonic entailment based on epistemic states,

  15. Temporalizing Epistemic Default Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoek, Wiebe; Meyer, John Jules; Treur, Jan

    1998-01-01

    We present an epistemic default logic, based on the metaphore of a meta-level architecture. Upward reflection is formalized by a nonmonotonic entailment relation, based on the objective facts that are either known or unknown at the object level. Then, the meta (monotonic) reasoning process generates

  16. Default risk in project finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klompjan, R.; Wouters, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Understanding default risk in project finance is relevant to investors. This article investigates which factors are most strongly associated with the occurrence of project finance default, using data from 210 projects, of which 37 were in default. The authors found that the use of proven technology,

  17. 24 CFR 320.15 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default. 320.15 Section 320.15... SECURITIES Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.15 Default. (a) Issuer default. Any failure or inability of the... default of the issuer. (b) Action upon default. Upon any default by the issuer, the Association may: (1...

  18. Bond Pricing with Default Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Saa-Requejo, Jesus; Santa-Clara, Pedro

    1997-01-01

    We offer a new model for pricing bonds subject to default risk. The event of default is remodeled as the first time that a state variable that captures the solvency of the issue goes below a certain level. The payoff to the bond in case of default is a constant fraction of the value of a security with the same promised payoffs but without the risk of default. We show that our model is very tractable under different models of interest rate risk and of the interaction between default risk and i...

  19. Genotypic variation for maize weevil resistance in eastern and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences by National Agricultural Research Organisation ... damage, median development period, Dobie's index of susceptibility, and ... resistance and grain yield, suggesting that breeding for maize weevil ...

  20. Default, non-default, markedness and complexity in the L2 English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Principles and Parameters approach, parameters capture variation: languages do not differ randomly but along well-defined lines. Parameters typically take the form of a binary choice, such as yes/no or a similar option. In acquisition, a parameter is assumed to have a default setting as a starting point, which is ...

  1. Fracking and mortgage default

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Christopher R.; Gerardi, Kristopher; Shen, Yannan

    2017-01-01

    This paper finds that increased hydraulic fracturing, or "fracking", along the Marcellus Formation in Pennsylvania had a significant, negative effect on mortgage credit risk. Controlling for potential endogeneity bias by utilizing the underlying geologic properties of the land as instrumental variables for fracking activity, we find that mortgages originated before the 2007 boom in shale gas, were, post-boom, significantly less likely to default in areas with greater drilling activity. The we...

  2. Natural Variation in Resistance to Virus Infection in Dipteran Insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmer, W.H.; Varghese, F.S.; Rij, R.P. van

    2018-01-01

    The power and ease of Drosophila genetics and the medical relevance of mosquito-transmitted viruses have made dipterans important model organisms in antiviral immunology. Studies of virus-host interactions at the molecular and population levels have illuminated determinants of resistance to virus

  3. Antigenic variation and resistance to neutralization in poliovirus type 1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Diamond; B.A. Jameson; J. Bonin; M. Kohara; S. Abe; H. Itoh; T. Komatsu; M. Arita; S. Kuge; A. Nomoto; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R. Crainic; E. Wimmer

    1985-01-01

    textabstractMutations have been identified in variants of poliovirus, type 1 (Mahoney) on the basis of their resistance to neutralization by individual monoclonal antibodies. The phenotypes of these variants were defined in terms of antibody binding; the pattern of epitopes expressed or able to be

  4. Genetic variation for drought resistance in small red seeded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) productivity is low in major growing regions of Ethiopia mainly due to drought, caused by low and erratic rainfall. A field experiment was carried out at Gofa in Southern Ethiopia, to assess genetic variability for drought resistance in forty-nine small red seeded common bean genotypes ...

  5. Natural variation of rice blast resistance gene Pi-d2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studying natural variation of rice resistance (R) genes in cultivated and wild rice relatives can predict resistance stability to rice blast fungus. In the present study, the protein coding regions of rice R gene Pi-d2 in 35 rice accessions of subgroups, aus (AUS), indica (IND), temperate japonica (...

  6. Field performance of Populus expressing somaclonal variation in resistance to Septoria musiva

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. E. Ostry; K. T. Ward

    2003-01-01

    Over 1500 trees from two hybrid poplar clones regenerated from tissue culture and expressing somatic variation in leaf disease resistance in a laboratory leaf disk bioassay were field-tested for 5-11 years to examine their resistance to Septoria leaf spot and canker and to assess their growth characteristics compared with the source clones....

  7. Credit Default Swap Valuation with Counterparty Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Seng Yuen; Kwok, Yue Kuen

    2005-01-01

    Using the reduced form framework with inter-dependent default correlation, we perform valuation of credit default swap with counterparty risk. The inter-dependent default risk structure between the protection buyer, protection seller and the reference entity in a credit default swap are characterized by their correlated default intensities, where the default intensity of one party increases when the default of another party occurs. We explore how settlement risk and replacement cost affect th...

  8. Androgen receptor variation affects prostate cancer progression and drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Edel; Sissung, Tristan M; Price, Douglas K; Chau, Cindy H; Figg, William D

    2016-12-01

    Significant therapeutic progress has been made in treating prostate cancer in recent years. Drugs such as enzalutamide, abiraterone, and cabazitaxel have expanded the treatment armamentarium, although it is not completely clear which of these drugs are the most-effective option for individual patients. Moreover, such advances have been tempered by the development of therapeutic resistance. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current literature pertaining to the biochemical effects of AR variants and their consequences on prostate cancer therapies at both the molecular level and in clinical treatment. We address how these AR splice variants and mutations affect tumor progression and therapeutic resistance and discuss potential novel therapeutic strategies under development. It is hoped that these therapies can be administered with increasing precision as tumor genotyping methods become more sophisticated, thereby lending clinicians a better understanding of the underlying biology of prostate tumors in individual patients. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Simulation of variation of apparent resistivity in resistivity surveys using finite difference modelling with Monte Carlo analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, E. E.; Karchewski, B.

    2017-12-01

    DC resistivity surveying is a geophysical method that quantifies the electrical properties of the subsurface of the earth by applying a source current between two electrodes and measuring potential differences between electrodes at known distances from the source. Analytical solutions for a homogeneous half-space and simple subsurface models are well known, as the former is used to define the concept of apparent resistivity. However, in situ properties are heterogeneous meaning that simple analytical models are only an approximation, and ignoring such heterogeneity can lead to misinterpretation of survey results costing time and money. The present study examines the extent to which random variations in electrical properties (i.e. electrical conductivity) affect potential difference readings and therefore apparent resistivities, relative to an assumed homogeneous subsurface model. We simulate the DC resistivity survey using a Finite Difference (FD) approximation of an appropriate simplification of Maxwell's equations implemented in Matlab. Electrical resistivity values at each node in the simulation were defined as random variables with a given mean and variance, and are assumed to follow a log-normal distribution. The Monte Carlo analysis for a given variance of electrical resistivity was performed until the mean and variance in potential difference measured at the surface converged. Finally, we used the simulation results to examine the relationship between variance in resistivity and variation in surface potential difference (or apparent resistivity) relative to a homogeneous half-space model. For relatively low values of standard deviation in the material properties (<10% of mean), we observed a linear correlation between variance of resistivity and variance in apparent resistivity.

  10. 45 CFR 672.10 - Default order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Default order. 672.10 Section 672.10 Public... HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.10 Default order. (a) Default. The Presiding Officer may find a party in default.... No finding of default on the basis of a failure to appear at a hearing shall be made against the...

  11. 40 CFR 22.17 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default. 22.17 Section 22.17 Protection... Procedures § 22.17 Default. (a) Default. A party may be found to be in default: after motion, upon failure to... hearing. Default by respondent constitutes, for purposes of the pending proceeding only, an admission of...

  12. 40 CFR 305.24 - Default order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default order. 305.24 Section 305.24... Default order. (a) Default. A party may be found to be in default: after motion, upon failure of the... default on the basis of failure to appear at a hearing shall be made against the Claims Official unless...

  13. Sato Processes in Default Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas; Nicolato, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    In reduced form default models, the instantaneous default intensity is the classical modeling object. Survival probabilities are then given by the Laplace transform of the cumulative hazard defined as the integrated intensity process. Instead, recent literature tends to specify the cumulative haz...

  14. Default options and training participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghans, L.; Golsteyn, B.H.H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether defaults affect the choice for courses followed at work. In addition, we analyze whether the size of the default effect varies with employees’ personality and skill-deficiencies. We perform an experiment in which workers are hypothetically offered three courses which they

  15. Default options and training participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghans, L.; Golsteyn, B.H.H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether defaults affect the choice for courses followed at work. In addition, we analyze whether the size of the default effect varies with employees' personality and skill- deficiencies. We perform an experiment in which workers are hypothetically offered three courses which

  16. Sato Processes in Default Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas; Nicolato, Elisa

    In reduced form default models, the instantaneous default intensity is classically the modeling object. Survival probabilities are then given by the Laplace transform of the cumulative hazard defined as the integrated intensity process. Instead, recent literature has shown a tendency towards...

  17. Cohort Default Rates in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Shannon M.

    2011-01-01

    Burgeoning student loan debt indicates problems not only for the country's borrowers but also for the postsecondary system. The rise in student loan defaults signifies a rise in institutional cohort default rates (CDRs)--a measure of accountability that informs the government and the general public how well an institution prepares its students for…

  18. Aluminum resistance transcription factor 1 (ART1) contributes to natural variation in rice aluminum resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcription factors (TFs) mediate stress resistance indirectly via physiological mechanisms driven by the array of genes they regulate. Therefore, when studying TF-mediated stress resistance, it is important to understand how TFs interact with different genetic backgrounds. Here, we fine-mapped th...

  19. Individual variation in resisting temptation: implications for addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Benjamin T.; Robinson, Terry E.

    2013-01-01

    When exposed to the sights, sounds, smells and/or places that have been associated with rewards, such as food or drugs, some individuals have difficulty resisting the temptation to seek out and consume them. Others have less difficulty restraining themselves. Thus, Pavlovian reward cues may motivate maladaptive patterns of behavior to a greater extent in some individuals than in others. We are just beginning to understand the factors underlying individual differences in the extent to which reward cues acquire powerful motivational properties, and therefore, the ability to act as incentive stimuli. Here we review converging evidence from studies in both human and non-human animals suggesting that a subset of individuals are more “cue reactive”, in that certain reward cues are more likely to attract these individuals to them and motivate actions to get them. We suggest that those individuals for whom Pavlovian reward cues become especially powerful incentives may be more vulnerable to impulse control disorders, such as binge eating and addiction. PMID:23438893

  20. Individual variation in resisting temptation: implications for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Benjamin T; Robinson, Terry E

    2013-11-01

    When exposed to the sights, sounds, smells and/or places that have been associated with rewards, such as food or drugs, some individuals have difficulty resisting the temptation to seek out and consume them. Others have less difficulty restraining themselves. Thus, Pavlovian reward cues may motivate maladaptive patterns of behavior to a greater extent in some individuals than in others. We are just beginning to understand the factors underlying individual differences in the extent to which reward cues acquire powerful motivational properties, and therefore, the ability to act as incentive stimuli. Here we review converging evidence from studies in both human and non-human animals suggesting that a subset of individuals are more "cue reactive", in that certain reward cues are more likely to attract these individuals to them and motivate actions to get them. We suggest that those individuals for whom Pavlovian reward cues become especially powerful incentives may be more vulnerable to impulse control disorders, such as binge eating and addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Predictors of Default from Treatment for Tuberculosis: a Single Center Case-Control Study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol-Kyu; Shin, Hong-Joon; Kim, Yu-Il; Lim, Sung-Chul; Yoon, Jeong-Sun; Kim, Young-Su; Kim, Jung-Chul; Kwon, Yong-Soo

    2016-02-01

    Default from tuberculosis (TB) treatment could exacerbate the disease and result in the emergence of drug resistance. This study identified the risk factors for default from TB treatment in Korea. This single-center case-control study analyzed 46 default cases and 100 controls. Default was defined as interrupting treatment for 2 or more consecutive months. The reasons for default were mainly incorrect perception or information about TB (41.3%) and experience of adverse events due to TB drugs (41.3%). In univariate analysis, low income (defaulter (15.2% vs. 2.0%, P = 0.005), and combined extrapulmonary TB (54.3% vs. 34.0%, P = 0.020) were significant risk factors for default. In multivariate analysis, the absence of TB stigma (adjusted odd ratio [aOR]: 46.299, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.078-265.365, P defaulters (aOR: 33.226, 95% CI: 2.658-415.309, P = 0.007), and low income (aOR: 5.246, 95% CI: 1.249-22.029, P = 0.024) were independent predictors of default from TB treatment. In conclusion, patients with absence of disease stigma, treated by a non-pulmonologist, who were former defaulters, and with low income should be carefully monitored during TB treatment in Korea to avoid treatment default.

  2. Predictors of Default from Treatment for Tuberculosis: a Single Center Case–Control Study in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Default from tuberculosis (TB) treatment could exacerbate the disease and result in the emergence of drug resistance. This study identified the risk factors for default from TB treatment in Korea. This single-center case–control study analyzed 46 default cases and 100 controls. Default was defined as interrupting treatment for 2 or more consecutive months. The reasons for default were mainly incorrect perception or information about TB (41.3%) and experience of adverse events due to TB drugs (41.3%). In univariate analysis, low income (defaulter (15.2% vs. 2.0%, P = 0.005), and combined extrapulmonary TB (54.3% vs. 34.0%, P = 0.020) were significant risk factors for default. In multivariate analysis, the absence of TB stigma (adjusted odd ratio [aOR]: 46.299, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.078–265.365, P defaulters (aOR: 33.226, 95% CI: 2.658–415.309, P = 0.007), and low income (aOR: 5.246, 95% CI: 1.249–22.029, P = 0.024) were independent predictors of default from TB treatment. In conclusion, patients with absence of disease stigma, treated by a non-pulmonologist, who were former defaulters, and with low income should be carefully monitored during TB treatment in Korea to avoid treatment default. PMID:26839480

  3. The wild tomato species Solanum chilense shows variation in pathogen resistance between geographically distinct populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Remco; Scheikl, Daniela; Tellier, Aurélien

    2017-01-01

    Wild tomatoes are a valuable source of disease resistance germplasm for tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) breeders. Many species are known to possess a certain degree of resistance against certain pathogens; however, evolution of resistance traits is yet poorly understood. For some species, like Solanum chilense , both differences in habitat and within species genetic diversity are very large. Here we aim to investigate the occurrence of spatially heterogeneous coevolutionary pressures between populations of S. chilense . We investigate the phenotypic differences in disease resistance within S. chilense against three common tomato pathogens ( Alternaria solani , Phytophthora infestans and a Fusarium sp .) and confirm high degrees of variability in resistance properties between selected populations. Using generalised linear mixed models, we show that disease resistance does not follow the known demographic patterns of the species. Models with up to five available climatic and geographic variables are required to best describe resistance differences, confirming the complexity of factors involved in local resistance variation. We confirm that within S. chilense , resistance properties against various pathogens show a mosaic pattern and do not follow environmental patterns, indicating the strength of local pathogen pressures. Our study can form the basis for further investigations of the genetic traits involved.

  4. The wild tomato species Solanum chilense shows variation in pathogen resistance between geographically distinct populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco Stam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild tomatoes are a valuable source of disease resistance germplasm for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum breeders. Many species are known to possess a certain degree of resistance against certain pathogens; however, evolution of resistance traits is yet poorly understood. For some species, like Solanum chilense, both differences in habitat and within species genetic diversity are very large. Here we aim to investigate the occurrence of spatially heterogeneous coevolutionary pressures between populations of S. chilense. We investigate the phenotypic differences in disease resistance within S. chilense against three common tomato pathogens (Alternaria solani, Phytophthora infestans and a Fusarium sp. and confirm high degrees of variability in resistance properties between selected populations. Using generalised linear mixed models, we show that disease resistance does not follow the known demographic patterns of the species. Models with up to five available climatic and geographic variables are required to best describe resistance differences, confirming the complexity of factors involved in local resistance variation. We confirm that within S. chilense, resistance properties against various pathogens show a mosaic pattern and do not follow environmental patterns, indicating the strength of local pathogen pressures. Our study can form the basis for further investigations of the genetic traits involved.

  5. The wild tomato species Solanum chilense shows variation in pathogen resistance between geographically distinct populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheikl, Daniela; Tellier, Aurélien

    2017-01-01

    Wild tomatoes are a valuable source of disease resistance germplasm for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) breeders. Many species are known to possess a certain degree of resistance against certain pathogens; however, evolution of resistance traits is yet poorly understood. For some species, like Solanum chilense, both differences in habitat and within species genetic diversity are very large. Here we aim to investigate the occurrence of spatially heterogeneous coevolutionary pressures between populations of S. chilense. We investigate the phenotypic differences in disease resistance within S. chilense against three common tomato pathogens (Alternaria solani, Phytophthora infestans and a Fusarium sp.) and confirm high degrees of variability in resistance properties between selected populations. Using generalised linear mixed models, we show that disease resistance does not follow the known demographic patterns of the species. Models with up to five available climatic and geographic variables are required to best describe resistance differences, confirming the complexity of factors involved in local resistance variation. We confirm that within S. chilense, resistance properties against various pathogens show a mosaic pattern and do not follow environmental patterns, indicating the strength of local pathogen pressures. Our study can form the basis for further investigations of the genetic traits involved. PMID:28133579

  6. Multidrug Resistance Among New Tuberculosis Cases Detecting Local Variation Through Lot Quality-assurance Sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hedt, Bethany Lynn; van Leth, Frank; Zignol, Matteo; Cobelens, Frank; van Gemert, Wayne; Nhung, Nguyen Viet; Lyepshina, Svitlana; Egwaga, Saidi; Cohen, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Background: Current methodology for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) surveys endorsed by the World Health Organization provides estimates of MDR TB prevalence among new cases at the national level. On the aggregate, local variation in the burden of MDR TB may be masked. This paper

  7. 48 CFR 252.217-7009 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Default. 252.217-7009... Clauses 252.217-7009 Default. As prescribed in 217.7104(a), use the following clause: Default (DEC 1991... of default to the Contractor, terminate the whole or any part of a job order if the Contractor fails...

  8. 24 CFR 241.1235 - Cross default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cross default. 241.1235 Section 241... Rights and Obligations § 241.1235 Cross default. In the event the borrower commits a default under a prior recorded insured mortgage and the holder thereof initiates a foreclosure proceeding, said default...

  9. 40 CFR 209.24 - Default order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default order. 209.24 Section 209.24... Orders Issued Under Section 11(d) of the Noise Control Act § 209.24 Default order. (a) Default. Respondent may be found to be in default upon failure to comply with a prehearing or hearing ruling of the...

  10. 13 CFR 120.938 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default. 120.938 Section 120.938... Program (504) 504 Loans and Debentures § 120.938 Default. (a) Upon occurrence of an event of default... occurrence of an event of default which does not require automatic acceleration, SBA may forbear acceleration...

  11. Selection of wheat lines with resistance to Fusarium graminearum by somaclonal variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Guangzu

    1997-10-01

    The screening wheat new lines which have the resistance to Fusarium graminearum were completed by in vitro induced mutation and cell screening. Four new lines with resistance to Fusarium graminearum were obtained. The field inoculating determination in 1990∼1996 showed that their resistance was 1∼2 degree higher than that of parents, and there were variations in main agronomic traits between the new lines and their parents. Changes of the defensive enzymes (SOD, POD), sugar-protein on cell surface, and ultrastructure were investigated by using new lines and their parents under the action of toxin of Fusarium graminearum. The new lines under the action of toxin of Fusarium graminearum have the ability to increase the defensive enzyme activity and thickness of sugarprotein on cell surface and to reduce the damage of cell membrane system that would result in resistance increasing. (8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.)

  12. THE DETERMINANTS OF HOUSEHOLD DEBT DEFAULT

    OpenAIRE

    ALFARO, RODRIGO; GALLARDO, NATALIA

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study household debt default behavior in Chile using survey data. Previous research in this area suggests financial and personal variables help estimate individual and group probabilities of default. We study mortgage and consumer default separately, as the default decisions and overall borrower behavior are different for each type of debt. Our study finds that income and income-related variables are the only significant and robust variables that explain default for both typ...

  13. Phylogeographic variation in recombination rates within a global clone of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo-Ramirez, Santiago; Corander, Jukka; Marttinen, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    by employing a recently developed Bayesian approach, BRATNextGen, for detecting recombination on an expanded NGS dataset of the globally disseminated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone ST239. RESULTS: The data confirm strong geographical clustering at continental, national and city scales...... that the rapid global dissemination of a single pathogenic bacterial clone results in local variation in measured recombination rates. Possible explanatory variables include the size and time since emergence of each defined sub-population (as determined by the sampling frame), variation in transmission dynamics...

  14. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-07-09

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one's mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage.

  15. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one’s mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage. PMID:23798401

  16. Robustness of Distance-to-Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Cathrine; Lando, David

    2013-01-01

    Distance-to-default is a remarkably robust measure for ranking firms according to their risk of default. The ranking seems to work despite the fact that the Merton model from which the measure is derived produces default probabilities that are far too small when applied to real data. We use...... simulations to investigate the robustness of the distance-to-default measure to different model specifications. Overall we find distance-to-default to be robust to a number of deviations from the simple Merton model that involve different asset value dynamics and different default triggering mechanisms....... A notable exception is a model with stochastic volatility of assets. In this case both the ranking of firms and the estimated default probabilities using distance-to-default perform significantly worse. We therefore propose a volatility adjustment of the distance-to-default measure, that significantly...

  17. The genetic basis for variation in resistance to infection in the Drosophila melanogaster genetic reference panel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Individuals vary extensively in the way they respond to disease but the genetic basis of this variation is not fully understood. We found substantial individual variation in resistance and tolerance to the fungal pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae Ma549 using the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP. In addition, we found that host defense to Ma549 was correlated with defense to the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pa14, and several previously published DGRP phenotypes including oxidative stress sensitivity, starvation stress resistance, hemolymph glucose levels, and sleep indices. We identified polymorphisms associated with differences between lines in both their mean survival times and microenvironmental plasticity, suggesting that lines differ in their ability to adapt to variable pathogen exposures. The majority of polymorphisms increasing resistance to Ma549 were sex biased, located in non-coding regions, had moderately large effect and were rare, suggesting that there is a general cost to defense. Nevertheless, host defense was not negatively correlated with overall longevity and fecundity. In contrast to Ma549, minor alleles were concentrated in the most Pa14-susceptible as well as the most Pa14-resistant lines. A pathway based analysis revealed a network of Pa14 and Ma549-resistance genes that are functionally connected through processes that encompass phagocytosis and engulfment, cell mobility, intermediary metabolism, protein phosphorylation, axon guidance, response to DNA damage, and drug metabolism. Functional testing with insertional mutagenesis lines indicates that 12/13 candidate genes tested influence susceptibility to Ma549. Many candidate genes have homologs identified in studies of human disease, suggesting that genes affecting variation in susceptibility are conserved across species.

  18. Subsequence Automata with Default Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye

    2016-01-01

    of states and transitions) of the subsequence automaton is O(nσ) and that this bound is asymptotically optimal. In this paper, we consider subsequence automata with default transitions, that is, special transitions to be taken only if none of the regular transitions match the current character, and which do...... not consume the current character. We show that with default transitions, much smaller subsequence automata are possible, and provide a full trade-off between the size of the automaton and the delay, i.e., the maximum number of consecutive default transitions followed before consuming a character......(nσ) and delay O(1), thus matching the bound for the standard subsequence automaton construction. The key component of our result is a novel hierarchical automata construction of independent interest....

  19. Subsequence automata with default transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye

    2017-01-01

    of states and transitions) of the subsequence automaton is O(nσ) and that this bound is asymptotically optimal. In this paper, we consider subsequence automata with default transitions, that is, special transitions to be taken only if none of the regular transitions match the current character, and which do...... not consume the current character. We show that with default transitions, much smaller subsequence automata are possible, and provide a full trade-off between the size of the automaton and the delay, i.e., the maximum number of consecutive default transitions followed before consuming a character......(1), thus matching the bound for the standard subsequence automaton construction. Finally, we generalize the result to multiple strings. The key component of our result is a novel hierarchical automata construction of independent interest....

  20. A common variation of the PTEN gene is associated with peripheral insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinder-Hansen, L; Ribel-Madsen, R; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    . RESULTS: The minor G allele of PTEN rs11202614 was associated with elevated fasting plasma insulin levels and a decreased peripheral glucose disposal rate, but not with the hepatic insulin resistance index or insulin secretion measured as the first-phase insulin response and disposition index. The single...... nucleotide polymorphism was not associated with either PI3K or Akt activities. CONCLUSION: A common PTEN variation is associated with peripheral insulin resistance and subsequent risk of developing T2D. However, the association with insulin resistance is not explained by decreased proximal insulin signalling......AIM: Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) reduces insulin sensitivity by inhibiting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homologue (Akt) pathway. This study investigated how a common single nucleotide polymorphism near PTEN, previously associated...

  1. Variation of Optical Quenching of Photoconductivity with Resistivity in Unintentional Doped GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi-Feng, Hou; Xiao-Liang, Wang; Hong-Ling, Xiao; Cui-Mei, Wang; Cui-Bai, Yang; Jin-Min, Li

    2010-01-01

    The optical quenching of photoconductivity under dual illumination in GaN samples with different resistivity is investigated to reveal the variation of deep levels. The samples are grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition without intentional doping. Quenching bands centered at 1.35eV, 1.55eV, 1.98eV, and 2.60eV are observed. It is found that the 1.98eV quenching band is dominated in all the samples and the 2.60eV band is observed only in the high-resistivity samples. The possible defect levels responsible for the quenching bands and the origin of different quenching behaviour at 2.60eV are discussed. It is suggested that the defect level responsible for quenching at 2.60eV plays an important role for the enhancement of resistivity

  2. Shear Resistance Variations in Experimentally Sheared Mudstone Granules: A Possible Shear-Thinning and Thixotropic Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Gonghui; Scaringi, Gianvito; Mcsaveney, Mauri; Hicher, Pierre-Yves

    2017-11-01

    We present results of ring shear frictional resistance for mudstone granules of different size obtained from a landslide shear zone. Little rate dependency of shear resistance was observed in sand-sized granules in any wet or dry test, while saturated gravel-sized granules exhibited significant and abrupt reversible rate-weakening (from μ = 0.6 to 0.05) at about 2 mm/s. Repeating resistance variations occurred also under constant shear displacement rate. Mudstone granules generate mud as they are crushed and softened. Shear-thinning and thixotropic behavior of the mud can explain the observed behavior: with the viscosity decreasing, the mud can flow through the coarser soil pores and migrate out from the shear zone. This brings new granules into contact which produces new mud. Thus, the process can start over. Similarities between experimental shear zones and those of some landslides in mudstone suggest that the observed behavior may play a role in some landslide kinematics.

  3. Variation of minority charge carrier lifetime in high-resistance p-type silicon under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basheleishvili, Z.V.; Garnyk, V.S.; Gorin, S.N.; Pagava, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    The minority carrier lifetime (tau) variation was studied in the process of p-type silicon bombardment with fast 8 MeV electrons. The irradiation and all measurements were carried out at room temperature. The tau quantity was measured by the photoconductivity attenuation method at a low injection level 20% measurement error; the resistivity was measured by the four-probe method (10% error). The resistivity and minority charge carrier lifetime tau are shown to increase with the exposure dose. It is supposed that as radiation dose increases, the rearrangement of the centres responsible for reducing the lifetime occurs and results in a tau increase in the material being irradiated, however the tau value observed in the original samples is not attained. The restoration of the minority carrier lifetime in p-type high-resistance silicon with a growing exposure dose might proceed due to reduction in the free carrier concentration

  4. Allelic variation of bile salt hydrolase genes in Lactobacillus salivarius does not determine bile resistance levels.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fang, Fang

    2009-09-01

    Commensal lactobacilli frequently produce bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) enzymes whose roles in intestinal survival are unclear. Twenty-six Lactobacillus salivarius strains from different sources all harbored a bsh1 allele on their respective megaplasmids. This allele was related to the plasmid-borne bsh1 gene of the probiotic strain UCC118. A second locus (bsh2) was found in the chromosomes of two strains that had higher bile resistance levels. Four Bsh1-encoding allele groups were identified, defined by truncations or deletions involving a conserved residue. In vitro analyses showed that this allelic variation was correlated with widely varying bile deconjugation phenotypes. Despite very low activity of the UCC118 Bsh1 enzyme, a mutant lacking this protein had significantly lower bile resistance, both in vitro and during intestinal transit in mice. However, the overall bile resistance phenotype of this and other strains was independent of the bsh1 allele type. Analysis of the L. salivarius transcriptome upon exposure to bile and cholate identified a multiplicity of stress response proteins and putative efflux proteins that appear to broadly compensate for, or mask, the effects of allelic variation of bsh genes. Bsh enzymes with different bile-degrading kinetics, though apparently not the primary determinants of bile resistance in L. salivarius, may have additional biological importance because of varying effects upon bile as a signaling molecule in the host.

  5. Why do Investors Buy Sovereign Default Insurance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustin, Patrick; Sokolovski, Valeri; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.

    local and regional channels that may explain the trading in sovereign CDS: (a) country-specific credit risk shocks, including changes in a country's credit rating and related outlook changes, (b) the announcement and issuance of domestic and international debt, (c) macroeconomic sentiment derived from......We provide a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of trading in the sovereign credit default swaps (CDS) market, using weekly data for single-name sovereign CDS from October 2008 to September 2015. We describe the anatomy of the sovereign CDS market, derive a law of motion for gross positions...... of the variation in sovereign CDS net notional amounts outstanding. Moreover, unlike for CDS spreads, common global factors explain very little of the variation in sovereign CDS trading and net notional amounts outstanding, suggesting that it is driven primarily by idiosyncratic country risk. We analyze several...

  6. Dynamics of epidemic spreading model with drug-resistant variation on scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chen; Li, Tao; Zhang, Wu; Dong, Jing

    2018-03-01

    Considering the influence of the virus' drug-resistant variation, a novel SIVRS (susceptible-infected-variant-recovered-susceptible) epidemic spreading model with variation characteristic on scale-free networks is proposed in this paper. By using the mean-field theory, the spreading dynamics of the model is analyzed in detail. Then, the basic reproductive number R0 and equilibriums are derived. Studies show that the existence of disease-free equilibrium is determined by the basic reproductive number R0. The relationships between the basic reproductive number R0, the variation characteristic and the topology of the underlying networks are studied in detail. Furthermore, our studies prove the global stability of the disease-free equilibrium, the permanence of epidemic and the global attractivity of endemic equilibrium. Numerical simulations are performed to confirm the analytical results.

  7. Genetic variation associated with increased insecticide resistance in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles coluzzii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Bradley J; Everitt, Amanda; Cornel, Anthony J; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Lanzaro, Gregory C

    2018-04-04

    Malaria mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa have declined significantly in recent years as a result of increased insecticide-treated bed net (ITN) usage. A major challenge to further progress is the emergence and spread of insecticide resistance alleles in the Anopheles mosquito vectors, like An. coluzzii. A non-synonymous mutation in the para voltage-gated sodium channel gene reduces pyrethroid-binding affinity, resulting in knockdown resistance (kdr). Metabolic mechanisms of insecticide resistance involving detoxification genes like cytochrome P450 genes, carboxylesterases, and glutathione S-transferases are also important. As some gene activity is tissue-specific and/or environmentally induced, gene regulatory variation may be overlooked when comparing expression from whole mosquito bodies under standard rearing conditions. We detected complex insecticide resistance in a 2014 An. coluzzii colony from southern Mali using bottle bioassays. Additional bioassays involving recombinant genotypes from a cross with a relatively susceptible 1995 An. coluzzii colony from Mali confirmed the importance of kdr and associated increased permethrin resistance to the CYP9K1 locus on the X chromosome. Significant differential expression of CYP9K1 was not observed among these colonies in Malpighian tubules. However, the P450 gene CYP6Z1 was overexpressed in resistant individuals following sublethal permethrin exposure and the carboxylesterase gene COEAE5G was constitutively overexpressed. The significant P450-related insecticide resistance observed in the 2014 An. coluzzii colony indicates that ITNs treated with the P450 inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO) would be more effective in this region. The known insecticide resistance gene CYP6Z1 was differentially expressed exclusively in the context of sublethal permethrin exposure, highlighting the importance of tissue-specificity and environmental conditions in gene expression studies. The increased activity of the carboxylesterase

  8. ORIGIN CREDIT-DEFAULT SWAPS, AND IDIOSYNCRATIC THEIR FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марсель Альбертович Шарипов

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Credit-default swaps as well as all derivatives have appeared as a result of policy of a decontrol the American government of bank sector of economy.In article attempt to open motives of unfair use swaps is lead by some states, and modern anti-recessionary decisions concerning derivatives are considered. The objective of research consist it is revealing history and the reasons by occurrence the credit-default swaps, also the history of development the institutional infrastructures for stable and not causing suspicions functioning of the market of credit-default swaps by national regulators.  The research of the given problem in modern aspect of its progress has outstanding of novelty character. The reaction of regulators for the crisis are remarkable which events caused by shadow use of derivative financial tools including and credit-default swaps. In research the authors come to following conclusions. First, credit-default swaps are compatible to qualitative variations in corporate economy and answers to modern calls of more globalized financial system. The second, the functioning of the market of derivatives is really idiosyncratic that predetermines a final adage of that sort that arising problems with derivatives occurs not in their essence, but in purposefulness of their use.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-40

  9. Default neglect in attempts at social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatev, Julian J; Daniels, David P; Kim, Hajin; Neale, Margaret A

    2017-12-26

    Current theories suggest that people understand how to exploit common biases to influence others. However, these predictions have received little empirical attention. We consider a widely studied bias with special policy relevance: the default effect, which is the tendency to choose whichever option is the status quo. We asked participants (including managers, law/business/medical students, and US adults) to nudge others toward selecting a target option by choosing whether to present that target option as the default. In contrast to theoretical predictions, we find that people often fail to understand and/or use defaults to influence others, i.e., they show "default neglect." First, in one-shot default-setting games, we find that only 50.8% of participants set the target option as the default across 11 samples ( n = 2,844), consistent with people not systematically using defaults at all. Second, when participants have multiple opportunities for experience and feedback, they still do not systematically use defaults. Third, we investigate beliefs related to the default effect. People seem to anticipate some mechanisms that drive default effects, yet most people do not believe in the default effect on average, even in cases where they do use defaults. We discuss implications of default neglect for decision making, social influence, and evidence-based policy.

  10. Geographic variation in resistance to nectar robbing and consequences for pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Lynn S; Leege, Lissa M; Irwin, Rebecca E

    2016-10-01

    Floral evolution is frequently ascribed to selection by pollinators, but may also be shaped by antagonists. However, remarkably few studies have examined geographic mosaics in resistance to floral antagonists or the consequences for other floral interactions. Gelsemium sempervirens experiences frequent nectar robbing in northern Georgia, but rarely in southern Georgia. We conducted common-garden experiments in both locations using genotypes from each region and measured robbing, pollinator attraction, floral attractive and defensive traits, and plant reproduction. Nectar robbing was more than four times higher in the north vs. south, and pollinator visits did not differ between gardens. Across both gardens, northern genotypes were half as likely to be nectar-robbed but received half as many pollinator visits as southern genotypes, suggesting evolution of resistance to robbing at a cost of reduced pollinator attraction. Plant-level traits, such as height and number of flowers, were more closely associated with resistance to robbing than floral size, shape, or chemistry. Northern genotypes had lower female and estimated male reproduction compared to southern genotypes at both locations, which could be due to costs of resistance to nectar robbing, or costs of adaptations to other biotic or abiotic differences between regions. Our study indicates that geographic variation can play a strong role structuring interactions with floral antagonists and mutualists and provides evidence consistent with the hypothesis that local resistance to nectar robbing imposes costs in terms of decreased pollinator attraction and reproduction. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  11. Variation in adult stress resistance does not explain vulnerability to climate change in copper butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockmann, Michael; Wallmeyer, Leonard; Fischer, Klaus

    2017-03-15

    Ongoing climate change is a major threat to biodiversity. However, although many species clearly suffer from ongoing climate change, others benefit from it, for example, by showing range expansions. However, which specific features determine a species' vulnerability to climate change? Phenotypic plasticity, which has been described as the first line of defence against environmental change, may be of utmost importance here. Against this background, we here compare plasticity in stress tolerance in 3 copper butterfly species, which differ arguably in their vulnerability to climate change. Specifically, we investigated heat, cold and desiccation resistance after acclimatization to different temperatures in the adult stage. We demonstrate that acclimation at a higher temperature increased heat but decreased cold tolerance and desiccation resistance. Contrary to our predictions, species did not show pronounced variation in stress resistance, though plastic capacities in temperature stress resistance did vary across species. Overall, our results seemed to reflect population-rather than species-specific patterns. We conclude that the geographical origin of the populations used should be considered even in comparative studies. However, our results suggest that, in the 3 species studied here, vulnerability to climate change is not in the first place determined by stress resistance in the adult stage. As entomological studies focus all too often on adults only, we argue that more research effort should be dedicated to other developmental stages when trying to understand insect responses to environmental change. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Multidrug resistance among new tuberculosis cases: detecting local variation through lot quality-assurance sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedt, Bethany Lynn; van Leth, Frank; Zignol, Matteo; Cobelens, Frank; van Gemert, Wayne; Nhung, Nguyen Viet; Lyepshina, Svitlana; Egwaga, Saidi; Cohen, Ted

    2012-03-01

    Current methodology for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) surveys endorsed by the World Health Organization provides estimates of MDR TB prevalence among new cases at the national level. On the aggregate, local variation in the burden of MDR TB may be masked. This paper investigates the utility of applying lot quality-assurance sampling to identify geographic heterogeneity in the proportion of new cases with multidrug resistance. We simulated the performance of lot quality-assurance sampling by applying these classification-based approaches to data collected in the most recent TB drug-resistance surveys in Ukraine, Vietnam, and Tanzania. We explored 3 classification systems- two-way static, three-way static, and three-way truncated sequential sampling-at 2 sets of thresholds: low MDR TB = 2%, high MDR TB = 10%, and low MDR TB = 5%, high MDR TB = 20%. The lot quality-assurance sampling systems identified local variability in the prevalence of multidrug resistance in both high-resistance (Ukraine) and low-resistance settings (Vietnam). In Tanzania, prevalence was uniformly low, and the lot quality-assurance sampling approach did not reveal variability. The three-way classification systems provide additional information, but sample sizes may not be obtainable in some settings. New rapid drug-sensitivity testing methods may allow truncated sequential sampling designs and early stopping within static designs, producing even greater efficiency gains. Lot quality-assurance sampling study designs may offer an efficient approach for collecting critical information on local variability in the burden of multidrug-resistant TB. Before this methodology is adopted, programs must determine appropriate classification thresholds, the most useful classification system, and appropriate weighting if unbiased national estimates are also desired.

  13. Overlapping defaults. The case of intertemporal choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawicki Przemysław

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available People make different choices depending on which decision is the default option. In intertemporal choices, the default option is typically imposed externally. For example, people expect more for delaying the gain (default in the present than are willing to pay for accelerating the future gain over the same period (default in the future. We claim that apart from the external default, people’s choices are also influenced by the internal (natural default such as the time perspective resulting in the reference point in the present. By manipulating the congruency between the internal and external defaults, we show that incongruence between defaults decreases the strength of discounting of gains, but not of losses.

  14. Firm default and aggregate fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobson, Tor; Linde, Jesper; Roszbach, Kasper

    This paper studies the relationship between macroeconomic fluctuations and corporate defaults while conditioning on industry affiliation and an extensive set of firm-specific factors. By using a panel data set for virtually all incorporated Swedish businesses over 1990-2009, a period which includes

  15. Climate-friendly Default Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia A.

    . The underlying reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, climate-friendly defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. In deciding whether to establish...

  16. 17 CFR 201.155 - Default; motion to set aside default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default; motion to set aside default. 201.155 Section 201.155 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.155 Default; motion to set aside default. (a) A...

  17. 49 CFR 1112.3 - Default for failure to comply with schedule; effect of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Default for failure to comply with schedule; effect of default. 1112.3 Section 1112.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... § 1112.3 Default for failure to comply with schedule; effect of default. If a party fails to comply with...

  18. 39 CFR 965.7 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default. 965.7 Section 965.7 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO MAIL DISPUTES § 965.7 Default. A party who fails to file the submittal required by § 965.5 may be held in default and the...

  19. 15 CFR 280.208 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default. 280.208 Section 280.208... Enforcement § 280.208 Default. (a) General. Failure of the respondent to file an answer within the time...) Petition to set aside default—(1) Procedure. Upon petition filed by a respondent against whom a default...

  20. 31 CFR 10.64 - Answer; default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Answer; default. 10.64 Section 10.64... SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.64 Answer; default. (a) Filing. The respondent's... need be adduced at a hearing. (d) Default. Failure to file an answer within the time prescribed (or...

  1. 22 CFR 128.4 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default. 128.4 Section 128.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 128.4 Default. (a... default. The case shall then be referred to the Administrative Law Judge for consideration in a manner as...

  2. What should your DC default be?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, J.

    2009-01-01

    As reported, most DC pension scheme participants simply follow proposed defaults, even though they have the freedom to choose. Consequently, default designs have dramatic impacts on individuals’retirement saving outcomes. Given the fact that the default design matters, this paper evaluates

  3. 39 CFR 952.11 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default. 952.11 Section 952.11 Postal Service... AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.11 Default. (a) If the Respondent fails to file an answer within the time specified in the notice of answer and hearing, he shall be deemed in default, and to have waived hearing and...

  4. 10 CFR 820.33 - Default order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default order. 820.33 Section 820.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES Enforcement Process § 820.33 Default order. (a) Default. The Presiding Officer, upon motion by a party or the filing of a Notice of Intent to issue a...

  5. 24 CFR 320.31 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default. 320.31 Section 320.31 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) GOVERNMENT... SECURITIES Bond-Type Securities § 320.31 Default. Upon default of the issuer, the Association has the right...

  6. 24 CFR 886.314 - Financial default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial default. 886.314 Section... Program for the Disposition of HUD-Owned Projects § 886.314 Financial default. In the event of a financial default under the project mortgage, HUD shall have the right to make subsequent housing assistance...

  7. 10 CFR 110.110 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default. 110.110 Section 110.110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Hearings § 110.110 Default. When a participant fails to act within a specified time, the presiding officer may consider him in default, issue an...

  8. 24 CFR 201.16 - Default provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default provision. 201.16 Section... PROPERTY IMPROVEMENT AND MANUFACTURED HOME LOANS Loan and Note Provisions § 201.16 Default provision. The... default by the borrower. ...

  9. 39 CFR 953.7 - Default; Appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default; Appearances. 953.7 Section 953.7 Postal... § 953.7 Default; Appearances. If a timely reply to the appeal is not filed, the presiding officer shall... Inspector or his or her designee is in default. Whenever the General Counsel or the Chief Postal Inspector...

  10. 15 CFR 766.7 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default. 766.7 Section 766.7 Commerce... PROCEEDINGS § 766.7 Default. (a) General. Failure of the respondent to file an answer within the time provided... aside default—(1) Procedure. Upon petition filed by a respondent against whom a default order has been...

  11. 24 CFR 902.79 - Substantial default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial default. 902.79 Section... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Incentives and Remedies § 902.79 Substantial default. (a) Events or conditions that constitute substantial default. The following events or conditions shall constitute...

  12. 29 CFR 4043.67 - Loan default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loan default. 4043.67 Section 4043.67 Labor Regulations... CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Advance Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.67 Loan default. (a) Reportable event and information required. Advance notice is required for a loan default, as described in...

  13. 27 CFR 41.116 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default. 41.116 Section 41... Deferred Payment of Tax in Puerto Rico on Tobacco Products § 41.116 Default. Where a check or money order... the full amount of tax due thereunder, or where a bonded manufacturer is otherwise in default in...

  14. Reasoning by cases in Default Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, N.; Roos, Nico

    1998-01-01

    Reiter's Default Logic is one of the most popular formalisms for describing default reasoning. One important defect of Default Logic is, however, the inability to reason by cases. Over the years, several solutions for this problem have been proposed. All these proposals deal with deriving new

  15. 10 CFR 800.304 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default. 800.304 Section 800.304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... ASSISTANCE Loan Administration § 800.304 Default. (a) In the event that the borrower fails to perform the terms and conditions of the loan, the borrower shall be in default and the Secretary shall have the...

  16. 39 CFR 963.11 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default. 963.11 Section 963.11 Postal Service... PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.11 Default. If a petitioner, without notice or cause... thereupon may find the petitioner to be in default and refer the matter to the Judicial Officer for...

  17. 39 CFR 959.10 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default. 959.10 Section 959.10 Postal Service... STATUTES § 959.10 Default. (a) If the respondent fails to file an answer within the time specified in the notice of hearing, the respondent shall be deemed in default and to have waived hearing and further...

  18. 24 CFR 26.41 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default. 26.41 Section 26.41... PROCEDURES Hearings Pursuant to the Administrative Procedure Act Prehearing Procedures § 26.41 Default. (a) General. The respondent may be found in default, upon motion, for failure to file a timely response to the...

  19. 29 CFR 4043.34 - Loan default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loan default. 4043.34 Section 4043.34 Labor Regulations... CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.34 Loan default. (a) Reportable event. A reportable event occurs for a plan whenever there is a default by a member of the plan's...

  20. 7 CFR 1951.891 - Liquidation; default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Liquidation; default. 1951.891 Section 1951.891... Liquidation; default. (a) In the event that FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 takes over... Public Law 103-354 in connection with any default or breach of conditions under any loan made hereunder...

  1. Robustness of Distance-to-Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Cathrine; Lando, David

    2015-01-01

    Distance-to-default (DD) is a measure of default risk derived from observed stock prices and book leverage using the structural credit risk model of Merton (1974). Despite the simplifying assumptions that underlie its derivation, DD has proven empirically to be a strong predictor of default. We use...

  2. 19 CFR 210.16 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default. 210.16 Section 210.16 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Motions § 210.16 Default. (a) Definition of default. (1) A party shall be found in...

  3. Robustness of Distance-to-Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Cathrine; Lando, David

    2013-01-01

    . A notable exception is a model with stochastic volatility of assets. In this case both the ranking of firms and the estimated default probabilities using distance-to-default perform significantly worse. We therefore propose a volatility adjustment of the distance-to-default measure, that significantly...

  4. Seasonal Variations in Resistivity at a Police Forensic Site and the Effectiveness of Unconventional Array Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S.; Bank, C. G.

    2016-12-01

    Geophysical studies involving the detection of buried organic material can be affected by the passage of time and environmental changes such as temperature and, in more importantly, water content in the ground. These effects can be of particular concern for police forensic investigations. This study involved conducting multiple resistivity surveys across 4 months to determine how time and environmental variations affected the detection of porcine carcasses buried four years previous at a provincial police training and research site. Our research also explored survey results of non-conventional grid and square arrays versus traditional linear arrays. The study site is located in Bolton, Ontario, and measures 16 m by 30 m. It contains 18 graves plus other buried objects. Studies were conducted approximately every other week. The resistivity lines used Wenner arrays of 24 m (0.5 m electrode spacing) and 48 m (1 m spacing) in length. Environmental data was obtained from Environment Canada and through simple observations. Preliminary findings indicated that time and environmental changes affected the detection of the porcine bodies by either being too dry and having too high a resistivity to survey effectively, or too wet and having the site flushed with water making the surrounding ground similar in resistivity to the bodies. Future research is needed to further explore how best to minimize environmental changes from resistivity results to enable reliable detection of buried organic material such as human remains In regard to array configurations, the square array in particular shows promise in that it can be set up and executed in less time than running several linear arrays over the same area. The application of such unconventional arrays to police forensic work may prove valuable if the area of interest is off-limits for resistivity surveys due to physical obstructions.

  5. Genetic variation underlying resistance to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in a steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieuc, Marine S. O.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Palmer, Alexander D.; Naish, Kerry A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of host resistance to pathogens will allow insights into the response of wild populations to the emergence of new pathogens. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is endemic to the Pacific Northwest and infectious to Pacific salmon and trout (Oncorhynchus spp.). Emergence of the M genogroup of IHNV in steelhead trout O. mykiss in the coastal streams of Washington State, between 2007 and 2011, was geographically heterogeneous. Differences in host resistance due to genetic change were hypothesized to be a factor influencing the IHNV emergence patterns. For example, juvenile steelhead trout losses at the Quinault National Fish Hatchery (QNFH) were much lower than those at a nearby facility that cultures a stock originally derived from the same source population. Using a classical quantitative genetic approach, we determined the potential for the QNFH steelhead trout population to respond to selection caused by the pathogen, by estimating the heritability for 2 traits indicative of IHNV resistance, mortality (h2 = 0.377 (0.226 - 0.550)) and days to death (h2 = 0.093 (0.018 - 0.203)). These results confirm that there is a genetic basis for resistance and that this population has the potential to adapt to IHNV. Additionally, genetic correlation between days to death and fish length suggests a correlated response in these traits to selection. Reduction of genetic variation, as well as the presence or absence of resistant alleles, could affect the ability of populations to adapt to the pathogen. Identification of the genetic basis for IHNV resistance could allow the assessment of the susceptibility of other steelhead populations.

  6. Inequality and Sovereign Default under Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YONG KYUN KIM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Do differences in the inequality of income affect the likelihood that democratic governments decide not to honor their foreign debt contracts? I argue that sovereign default involves an intertemporal tradeoff between an immediate consumption boost and a future tax increase. Since a poorer voter internalizes less of the future cost of default, as the median is poorer, the majority’s demand for default increases. Therefore, greater income inequality implies a higher default risk. I then present a signaling game that models strategic selection that a sovereign must go through to get to the default decision node. I show that sovereign default is most likely to actually occur when the level of income inequality is intermediate. The intuition is that sovereign default occurs when risky sovereigns successfully induce creditors to provide a loan, but the most risky ones are among those least able to do so. Empirical findings support the claim.

  7. Allelic Variation of Cytochrome P450s Drives Resistance to Bednet Insecticides in a Major Malaria Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sulaiman S; Riveron, Jacob M; Bibby, Jaclyn; Irving, Helen; Yunta, Cristina; Paine, Mark J I; Wondji, Charles S

    2015-10-01

    Scale up of Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) has massively contributed to reduce malaria mortality across Africa. However, resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in malaria vectors threatens its continued effectiveness. Deciphering the detailed molecular basis of such resistance and designing diagnostic tools is critical to implement suitable resistance management strategies. Here, we demonstrated that allelic variation in two cytochrome P450 genes is the most important driver of pyrethroid resistance in the major African malaria vector Anopheles funestus and detected key mutations controlling this resistance. An Africa-wide polymorphism analysis of the duplicated genes CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b revealed that both genes are directionally selected with alleles segregating according to resistance phenotypes. Modelling and docking simulations predicted that resistant alleles were better metabolizers of pyrethroids than susceptible alleles. Metabolism assays performed with recombinant enzymes of various alleles confirmed that alleles from resistant mosquitoes had significantly higher activities toward pyrethroids. Additionally, transgenic expression in Drosophila showed that flies expressing resistant alleles of both genes were significantly more resistant to pyrethroids compared with those expressing the susceptible alleles, indicating that allelic variation is the key resistance mechanism. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis and functional analyses demonstrated that three amino acid changes (Val109Ile, Asp335Glu and Asn384Ser) from the resistant allele of CYP6P9b were key pyrethroid resistance mutations inducing high metabolic efficiency. The detection of these first DNA markers of metabolic resistance to pyrethroids allows the design of DNA-based diagnostic tools to detect and track resistance associated with bednets scale up, which will improve the design of evidence-based resistance management strategies.

  8. Sato Processes in Default Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas; Nicolato, Elisa

    -change of a homogeneous Levy process. While the processes in these two classes share the same average behavior over time, the associated intensities exhibit very different properties. Concrete specifications are calibrated to data on the single names included in the iTraxx Europe index. The performances are compared......In reduced form default models, the instantaneous default intensity is classically the modeling object. Survival probabilities are then given by the Laplace transform of the cumulative hazard defined as the integrated intensity process. Instead, recent literature has shown a tendency towards...... specifying the cumulative hazard process directly. Within this framework we present a new model class where cumulative hazards are described by self-similar additive processes, also known as Sato processes. Furthermore we also analyze specifications obtained via a simple deterministic time...

  9. Correlated Default and Financial Intermediation

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Phelan

    2015-01-01

    Financial intermediation naturally arises when knowledge about the aggregate state is valuable for managing investments and lenders cannot easily observe the aggregate state. I show this using a costly enforcement model in which lenders need ex-post incentives to enforce payments from defaulted loans and borrowers' payoffs are correlated. When projects have correlated outcomes, learning the state of one project (via enforcement) provides information about the states of other projects. A large...

  10. In vitro induction of variation through radiation for late blight resistance and heat tolerance in potato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minocha, J L; Das, A; Gopal, J; Gosal, S S [Biotechnology Centre, Punjab Agricultural Univ., Ludhiana, Punjab (India)

    1997-07-01

    In vitro plants were obtained from nodal sections of sprouts of cvs. `Kufri Jyoti` and `Kufri Chandramukhi` of potato cultured on MS medium with 3% sucrose. Callus from leaves of in vitro cultured plantlets was induced on modified Linsmaier and Skoog medium supplemented with 5 mg/1 NAA. The obtained shoots and calli were irradiated with 20 and 40 Gy gamma rays. Irradiatied shoots were transferred to MS medium with 8% sucrose for multiplication, and then to MS medium with 8% sucrose and 10 mg/1 BAP to induce microtuber formation, which gave on average 1.3 microtubers per plant. The microtubers were planted in pots and variation was observed in plant morphology and tuber characters. To study variation for late blight resistance, irradiated calli were kept on Gamborg B-5 medium with culture filtrate of Phytophthora infestans. To induce variation for heat tolerance, in vitro shoots from irradiated material were mass-propagated and allowed to produce microtubers at high temperature. (author). 3 refs, 3 tabs.

  11. In vitro induction of variation through radiation for late blight resistance and heat tolerance in potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minocha, J.L.; Das, A.; Gopal, J.; Gosal, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    In vitro plants were obtained from nodal sections of sprouts of cvs. 'Kufri Jyoti' and 'Kufri Chandramukhi' of potato cultured on MS medium with 3% sucrose. Callus from leaves of in vitro cultured plantlets was induced on modified Linsmaier and Skoog medium supplemented with 5 mg/1 NAA. The obtained shoots and calli were irradiated with 20 and 40 Gy gamma rays. Irradiatied shoots were transferred to MS medium with 8% sucrose for multiplication, and then to MS medium with 8% sucrose and 10 mg/1 BAP to induce microtuber formation, which gave on average 1.3 microtubers per plant. The microtubers were planted in pots and variation was observed in plant morphology and tuber characters. To study variation for late blight resistance, irradiated calli were kept on Gamborg B-5 medium with culture filtrate of Phytophthora infestans. To induce variation for heat tolerance, in vitro shoots from irradiated material were mass-propagated and allowed to produce microtubers at high temperature. (author). 3 refs, 3 tabs

  12. Genetic Variation between Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails Susceptible and Resistant to Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M. F. El-Nassery

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Much effort has been made to control schistosomiasis infection in Egypt. However, enduring effects from such strategies have not yet been achieved. In this study, we sought to determine the genetic variability related to the interaction between Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and Schistosoma mansoni. Using RAPD-PCR with eight (10 mers random primers, we were able to determine the polymorphic markers that differed between snails susceptible and resistant to Schistosoma mansoni infection using five primers out of the eight. Our results suggest that the RAPD-PCR technique is an efficient means by which to compare genomes and to detect genetic variations between schistosomiasis intermediate hosts. The RAPD technique with the above-noted primers can identify genomic markers that are specifically related to the Biomphalaria alexandrina/Schistosoma mansoni relationship in the absence of specific nucleotide sequence information. This approach could be used in epidemiologic surveys to investigate genetic diversity among Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. The ability to determine resistant markers in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails could potentially lead to further studies that use refractory snails as agents to control the spread of schistosomiasis.

  13. Additive genetic variation in resistance traits of an exotic pine species: little evidence for constraints on evolution of resistance against native herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, X; Zas, R; Sampedro, L

    2013-05-01

    The apparent failure of invasions by alien pines in Europe has been explained by the co-occurrence of native pine congeners supporting herbivores that might easily recognize the new plants as hosts. Previous studies have reported that exotic pines show reduced tolerance and capacity to induce resistance to those native herbivores. We hypothesize that limited genetic variation in resistance to native herbivores and the existence of evolutionary trade-offs between growth and resistance could represent additional potential constraints on the evolution of invasiveness of exotic pines outside their natural range. In this paper, we examined genetic variation for constitutive and induced chemical defences (measured as non-volatile resin in the stem and total phenolics in the needles) and resistance to two major native generalist herbivores of pines in cafeteria bioassays (the phloem-feeder Hylobius abietis and the defoliator Thaumetopoea pityocampa) using half-sib families drawn from a sample of the population of Pinus radiata introduced to Spain in the mid-19th century. We found (i) significant genetic variation, with moderate-to-high narrow-sense heritabilities for both the production of constitutive non-volatile resin and induced total phenolics, and for constitutive resistance against T. pityocampa in bioassays, (ii) no evolutionary trade-offs between plant resistance and growth traits or between the production of different quantitative chemical defences and (iii) a positive genetic correlation between constitutive resistance to the two studied herbivores. Overall, results of our study indicate that the exotic pine P. radiata has limited genetic constraints on the evolution of resistance against herbivores in its introduced range, suggesting that, at least in terms of interactions with these enemies, this pine species has potential to become invasive in the future.

  14. 7 CFR 2201.33 - Defaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Defaults. 2201.33 Section 2201.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS Loan Guarantees § 2201.33 Defaults. (a) In determining...

  15. 31 CFR 501.716 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrative Law Judge (or the Secretary's designee) pursuant to § 501.729(b). (b) In deciding whether to determine the proceedings against a party deemed to be in default, the Administrative Law Judge shall... default and the Administrative Law Judge (or the Secretary's designee during review proceedings) may...

  16. 39 CFR 964.6 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default. 964.6 Section 964.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING DISPOSITION OF MAIL WITHHELD FROM DELIVERY PURSUANT TO 39 U.S.C. 3003, 3004 § 964.6 Default. If a Petitioner fails to appear at the hearing without...

  17. 14 CFR 302.409 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default. 302.409 Section 302.409 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS Rules Applicable to Enforcement Proceedings § 302.409 Default...

  18. 10 CFR 2.320 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default. 2.320 Section 2.320 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Rules of General... § 2.320 Default. If a party fails to file an answer or pleading within the time prescribed in this...

  19. A proof theory for constructive default logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y-H. Tan (Yao-Hua)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractWe present what we call Constructive Default Logic (CDL) - a default logic in which the fixed-point definition of extensions is replaced by a constructive definition which yield so-called constructive extensions. Selection functions are used to represent explicitly the control of the

  20. 39 CFR 954.9 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default. 954.9 Section 954.9 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.9 Default. If a publisher fails to appear at the hearing, the...

  1. 48 CFR 245.7309-7 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Default. 245.7309-7 Section 245.7309-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Default. If the successful Bidder fails to make full payment, remove property by the specified date, or...

  2. Error probabilities in default Bayesian hypothesis testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Xin; Hoijtink, Herbert; Mulder, J,

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the classical type I and type II error probabilities of default Bayes factors for a Bayesian t test. Default Bayes factors quantify the relative evidence between the null hypothesis and the unrestricted alternative hypothesis without needing to specify prior distributions for

  3. 12 CFR 622.81 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default. 622.81 Section 622.81 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules and Procedures... Default. If the subject individual fails to file a petition for a hearing, or fails to appear at a hearing...

  4. On the importance of default breach remedies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, R.; Oosterbeek, H.; Sonnemans, J.

    2007-01-01

    Theory predicts that default breach remedies are immaterial whenever contracting costs are negligible. Some experimental studies, however, suggest that in practice default rules do matter, as they may affect parties' preferences over contract terms. This paper presents results from an experiment

  5. 12 CFR 508.8 - Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default. 508.8 Section 508.8 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.8 Default. If the subject individual fails to file a petition for a...

  6. Strategic default and equity risk across countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Favara, G.; Schroth, E.; Valta, P.

    2010-01-01

    We test whether the firm’s systematic equity risk reflects the shareholders’ incentives to default strategically on the firm’s debt. We use a real options model to relate the shareholders’ strategic default behavior to frictions in the debt renegotiation procedure. We test the model’s predictions

  7. Exchange rate policy under sovereign default risk

    OpenAIRE

    Schabert, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We examine monetary policy options for a small open economy where sovereign default might occur due to intertemporal insolvency. Under interest rate policy and floating exchange rates the equilibrium is indetermined. Under a fixed exchange rate the equilibrium is uniquely determined and independent of sovereign default.

  8. Credit default swaps and risk-shifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campello, M.; Matta, R.

    2012-01-01

    Credit default swaps (CDSs) are thought to ease borrowing by protecting lenders against default. This paper develops a model of the demand for CDS when borrowers choose the riskiness of investment and verification is imperfect. The model shows that CDSs may lead to risk-shifting, increasing the

  9. Quadratic Hedging Methods for Defaultable Claims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagini, Francesca; Cretarola, Alessandra

    2007-01-01

    We apply the local risk-minimization approach to defaultable claims and we compare it with intensity-based evaluation formulas and the mean-variance hedging. We solve analytically the problem of finding respectively the hedging strategy and the associated portfolio for the three methods in the case of a default put option with random recovery at maturity

  10. Default options and neonatal resuscitation decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haward, Marlyse Frieda; Murphy, Ryan O; Lorenz, John M

    2012-12-01

    To determine whether presenting delivery room management options as defaults influences decisions to resuscitate extremely premature infants. Adult volunteers recruited from the world wide web were randomised to receive either resuscitation or comfort care as the delivery room management default option for a hypothetical delivery of a 23-week gestation infant. Participants were required to check a box to opt out of the default. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of respondents electing resuscitation. Data were analysed using χ(2) tests and multivariate logistic regression. Participants who were told the delivery room management default option was resuscitation were more likely to opt for resuscitation (OR 6.54 95% CI 3.85 to 11.11, pmanipulation. Further, this effect may operate in ways that a decision maker is not aware of and this raises questions of patient autonomy. Presenting delivery room options for extremely premature infants as defaults may compromise autonomous decision-making.

  11. Electrical Resistance Tomography for Visualization of Moving Objects Using a Spatiotemporal Total Variation Regularization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrical resistance tomography (ERT has been considered as a data collection and image reconstruction method in many multi-phase flow application areas due to its advantages of high speed, low cost and being non-invasive. In order to improve the quality of the reconstructed images, the Total Variation algorithm attracts abundant attention due to its ability to solve large piecewise and discontinuous conductivity distributions. In industrial processing tomography (IPT, techniques such as ERT have been used to extract important flow measurement information. For a moving object inside a pipe, a velocity profile can be calculated from the cross correlation between signals generated from ERT sensors. Many previous studies have used two sets of 2D ERT measurements based on pixel-pixel cross correlation, which requires two ERT systems. In this paper, a method for carrying out flow velocity measurement using a single ERT system is proposed. A novel spatiotemporal total variation regularization approach is utilised to exploit sparsity both in space and time in 4D, and a voxel-voxel cross correlation method is adopted for measurement of flow profile. Result shows that the velocity profile can be calculated with a single ERT system and that the volume fraction and movement can be monitored using the proposed method. Both semi-dynamic experimental and static simulation studies verify the suitability of the proposed method. For in plane velocity profile, a 3D image based on temporal 2D images produces velocity profile with accuracy of less than 1% error and a 4D image for 3D velocity profiling shows an error of 4%.

  12. Genetic variation for growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, and disease resistance exists within a farmed population of rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henryon, Mark; Jokumsen, Alfred; Berg, Peer

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test that additive genetic (co)variation for survival, growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, and resistance to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) exists within a farmed population of rainbow trout. Thirty sires and 30 dams were mated by a partly factorial...... the predicted breeding values for VHS resistance and the predicted breeding values for the body weights, body length, and feed conversion efficiencies. These results demonstrate that additive genetic (co)variation for growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, and VHS resistance does exist within the farmed...... mating design. Each sire was mated to two dams, and each dam was mated to two sires, producing 50 viable full-sib families (29 sires, 25 dams). The fish from these families were reared for a 215-day growout period, and were assessed for survival between days 52 and 215, growth rate (i.e., body weight...

  13. Variation of over strength factor for mid-rise R.C. moment resisting frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasnimi, A. A.; Mahmoodi Sahebi, M.

    2001-01-01

    The over strength of a multi-storey structure (as a multi-degree of freedom system) is one of the parameters playing the evaluation of the behaviour factor. This is an important property when the structure exhibits inelastic behaviour and is described by over strength factor. The over strength factor and strength reduction factor due to ductility are considered in most seismic design codes of practice to reduce the elastic strength demand of the structure. In spite the importance of the over strength, its influence has not yet been quantified. This paper is a part of an investigation from which the first part was published in Amirkabir Journal No.36/Winter 1998, entitled as E stimation of over strength of low-ri sed flexural R.C. frames using nonlinear analysis . This paper investigates the variation of over strength factor for reinforced concrete moment resisting frames, having several stories (5 to 15) with various spans (3 to 5) and located in high seismicity regions using non-linear inelastic analysis. The results indicate that the over strength factor of these systems efforts 25 to 40 percent reduction in the elastic strength demand of such frames

  14. Asymmetric default bias in dishonesty – how defaults work but only when in one’s favor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt

    Based on a dice rolling task where participants can cheat on the outcome, this paper asks if default answers change dishonesty? The paper finds that various default answers have asymmetric effects. Compared to not having a default answer at all, providing a low default answer, or adding the expec......Based on a dice rolling task where participants can cheat on the outcome, this paper asks if default answers change dishonesty? The paper finds that various default answers have asymmetric effects. Compared to not having a default answer at all, providing a low default answer, or adding...

  15. Geographic Variation in Phosphine Resistance Among North American Populations of the Red Flour Beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cato, A J; Elliott, Brent; Nayak, Manoj K; Phillips, Thomas W

    2017-06-01

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), is a common stored-product pest found worldwide. Phosphine, hydrogen phosphide (PH3), is the most commonly used fumigant for stored grains, for which genetically based resistance has been recorded for several pest species. This study assessed phosphine resistance in 25 T. castaneum populations from across the United States and Canada using a discriminating dose bioassay. Dose-mortality assays were conducted with adults from seven of these populations to categorize weak and strong resistance phenotypes. Phosphine resistance was detected in 12 out of the 25 populations, and the frequency of resistance within populations varied from 2% in Victoria, TX, to 100% in Red Level, AL. Two resistant populations from Kansas that had been sampled three years earlier were found to have similar resistance frequencies in the current study. None of the four Canadian populations had any detectable resistance among the insects tested. Resistance ratio calculations from LC50 value in resistant populations relative to the LC50 for the laboratory susceptible strain allowed resistance phenotypes to be assigned as either weak resistance, at 5- to 26-fold resistance relative to susceptible, or strong resistance at 95- to 127-fold relative to susceptible. This study suggests that proper resistance assessment techniques can help to determine occurrence of phosphine resistance in populations of T. castaneum and can further characterize the strength of resistance present. These data can be used to support resistance management programs that consider either cessation or modification of phosphine fumigation to control T. castaneum. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Differences in Muscle Activity During Cable Resistance Training Are Influenced by Variations in Handle Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendos, Nicole K; Heredia Vargas, Héctor M; Alipio, Taislaine C; Regis, Rebeca C; Romero, Matthew A; Signorile, Joseph F

    2016-07-01

    Rendos, NK, Heredia Vargas, HM, Alipio, TC, Regis, RC, Romero, MA, and Signorile, JF. Differences in muscle activity during cable resistance training are influenced by variations in handle types. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2001-2009, 2016-There has been a recent resurgence in the use of cable machines for resistance training allowing movements that more effectively simulate daily activities and sports-specific movements. By necessity, these devices require a machine/human interface through some type of handle. Considerable data from material handling, industrial engineering, and exercise training studies indicate that handle qualities, especially size and shape, can significantly influence force production and muscular activity, particularly of the forearm muscles, which affect the critical link in activities that require object manipulation. The purpose for this study was to examine the influence of three different handle conditions: standard handle (StandH), ball handle with the cable between the index and middle fingers (BallIM), and ball handle with the cable between the middle and ring fingers (BallMR), on activity levels (rmsEMG) of the triceps brachii lateral and long heads (TriHLat, TriHLong), brachioradialis (BR), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), extensor carpi ulnaris, and extensor digitorum (ED) during eight repetitions of standing triceps pushdown performed from 90° to 0° elbow flexion at 1.5 s per contractile stage. Handle order was randomized. No significant differences were seen for triceps or BR rmsEMG across handle conditions; however, relative patterns of activation did vary for the forearm muscles by handle condition, with more coordinated activation levels for the FCR and ED during the ball handle conditions. In addition, the rmsEMG for the ED was significantly higher during the BallIM than any other condition and during the BallMR than the StandH. These results indicate that the use of ball handles with the cable passing between different fingers

  17. Geographic variation for climatic stress resistance traits in the sprintail Orchesella cincta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Holmstrup, Martin; Petersen, H.

    2006-01-01

    Multiple traits of stress resistance were investigated in the epedaphic springtail Orchesella cincta. Second generation adults from five laboratory populations were compared with respect to resistance to extreme temperatures and desiccation, and traits relevant to climatic adaptation. Populations...... were collected along a 2000-km latitudinal gradient ranging from Denmark to southern Italy and reared under the same standard laboratory conditions. Traits investigated were resistance to high and low temperature, desiccation resistance, body size and water loss rate (WLR). Results showed genetically...... based differences in resistance to high and low temperature, desiccation, WLR, water pool and body size between populations. Individuals from the most northern population had the highest desiccation-and cold shock resistance, and the lowest heat shock resistance. Females were significantly more...

  18. 17 CFR 12.23 - Setting aside of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Setting aside of default. 12... aside of default. (a) Default order not final. In order to prevent injustice or for good cause shown, and on such conditions as may be appropriate, a non-final default order (including any award therein...

  19. 46 CFR 298.41 - Remedies after default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedies after default. 298.41 Section 298.41 Shipping... Defaults and Remedies, Reporting Requirements, Applicability of Regulations § 298.41 Remedies after default... governing remedies after a default, which relate to our rights and duties, the rights and duties of the...

  20. 24 CFR 241.840 - Date of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Date of default. 241.840 Section... § 241.840 Date of default. In computing loan insurance benefits, the date of default shall be considered... of the lender's acceleration of the debt because of the borrower's default under the first...

  1. 24 CFR 232.850 - Notice of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of default. 232.850 Section....850 Notice of default. (a) If the default is not cured within the 30 day grace period, as defined in... default. (b) The lender shall give notice in writing to the Commissioner of the failure of the borrower to...

  2. 24 CFR 241.850 - Notice of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of default. 241.850 Section... § 241.850 Notice of default. (a) If the default is not cured within the 30 day grace period, as defined... such default. (b) The lender shall give notice in writing to the Commissioner of the failure of the...

  3. 48 CFR 1349.402-3 - Procedure for default

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedure for default 1349... MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Termination for Default 1349.402-3 Procedure for default No action relating to a default termination, including issuance of a show cause letter, cure notice, or notice of...

  4. Natural variation in partial resistance to Pseudomonas syringae is controlled by two major QTLs in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Perchepied

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low-level, partial resistance is pre-eminent in natural populations, however, the mechanisms underlying this form of resistance are still poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we used the model pathosystem Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst - Arabidopsis thaliana to study the genetic basis of this form of resistance. Phenotypic analysis of a set of Arabidopsis accessions, based on evaluation of in planta pathogen growth revealed extensive quantitative variation for partial resistance to Pst. It allowed choosing a recombinant inbred line (RIL population derived from a cross between the accessions Bayreuth and Shahdara for quantitative genetic analysis. Experiments performed under two different environmental conditions led to the detection of two major and two minor quantitative trait loci (QTLs governing partial resistance to Pst and called PRP-Ps1 to PRP-Ps4. The two major QTLs, PRP-Ps1 and PRP-Ps2, were confirmed in near isogenic lines (NILs, following the heterogeneous inbred families (HIFs strategy. Analysis of marker gene expression using these HIFs indicated a negative correlation between the induced amount of transcripts of SA-dependent genes PR1, ICS and PR5, and the in planta bacterial growth in the HIF segregating at PRP-Ps2 locus, suggesting an implication of PRP-Ps2 in the activation of SA dependent responses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that variation in partial resistance to Pst in Arabidopsis is governed by relatively few loci, and the validation of two major loci opens the way for their fine mapping and their cloning, which will improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying partial resistance.

  5. Risk factors for tuberculosis treatment failure, default, or relapse and outcomes of retreatment in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Kelly E; Lahlou, Ouafae; Ghali, Iraqi; Knudsen, Janine; Elmessaoudi, My Driss; Cherkaoui, Imad; El Aouad, Rajae

    2011-02-28

    Patients with tuberculosis require retreatment if they fail or default from initial treatment or if they relapse following initial treatment success. Outcomes among patients receiving a standard World Health Organization Category II retreatment regimen are suboptimal, resulting in increased risk of morbidity, drug resistance, and transmission.. In this study, we evaluated the risk factors for initial treatment failure, default, or early relapse leading to the need for tuberculosis retreatment in Morocco. We also assessed retreatment outcomes and drug susceptibility testing use for retreatment patients in urban centers in Morocco, where tuberculosis incidence is stubbornly high. Patients with smear- or culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis presenting for retreatment were identified using clinic registries in nine urban public clinics in Morocco. Demographic and outcomes data were collected from clinical charts and reference laboratories. To identify factors that had put these individuals at risk for failure, default, or early relapse in the first place, initial treatment records were also abstracted (if retreatment began within two years of initial treatment), and patient characteristics were compared with controls who successfully completed initial treatment without early relapse. 291 patients presenting for retreatment were included; 93% received a standard Category II regimen. Retreatment was successful in 74% of relapse patients, 48% of failure patients, and 41% of default patients. 25% of retreatment patients defaulted, higher than previous estimates. Retreatment failure was most common among patients who had failed initial treatment (24%), and default from retreatment was most frequent among patients with initial treatment default (57%). Drug susceptibility testing was performed in only 10% of retreatment patients. Independent risk factors for failure, default, or early relapse after initial treatment included male gender (aOR = 2.29, 95% CI 1

  6. The Welfare Cost of Sovereign Default and Liquidity Injections

    OpenAIRE

    Guangling Liu

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic general equilibrium model with endogenous default on entrepreneur loans and funds borrowed from the central bank (liquidity injections) and investigates the welfare cost of sovereign default. The results show that sovereign default affects production through households' investment decisions and the bank's asset portfolio adjustment. The effect of sovereign default on entrepreneurs tends to be in favor of production. Sovereign default reduces the variability of th...

  7. Variation of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater treatment plant with A(2)O-MBR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jing; Geng, Jinju; Ren, Hongqiang; Ding, Lili; Xu, Ke; Zhang, Yan

    2015-03-01

    The variation of five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs)-tetG, tetW, tetX, sul1, and intI1-in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant with A(2)O-MBR system was studied. The concentrations of five resistance genes both in influent and in membrane bioreactor (MBR) effluent decreased as sul1 > intI1 > tetX > tetG > tetW, and an abundance of sul1 was statistically higher than three other tetracycline resistance genes (tetG, tetW, and tetX) (p MBR effluent. The reduction of tetW, intI1, and sul1 was all significantly positively correlated with the reduction of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in the wastewater treatment process (p MBR was observed for all ARGs.

  8. Allelic Variation of Bile Salt Hydrolase Genes in Lactobacillus salivarius Does Not Determine Bile Resistance Levels▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Li, Yin; Bumann, Mario; Raftis, Emma J.; Casey, Pat G.; Cooney, Jakki C.; Walsh, Martin A.; O'Toole, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Commensal lactobacilli frequently produce bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) enzymes whose roles in intestinal survival are unclear. Twenty-six Lactobacillus salivarius strains from different sources all harbored a bsh1 allele on their respective megaplasmids. This allele was related to the plasmid-borne bsh1 gene of the probiotic strain UCC118. A second locus (bsh2) was found in the chromosomes of two strains that had higher bile resistance levels. Four Bsh1-encoding allele groups were identified, defined by truncations or deletions involving a conserved residue. In vitro analyses showed that this allelic variation was correlated with widely varying bile deconjugation phenotypes. Despite very low activity of the UCC118 Bsh1 enzyme, a mutant lacking this protein had significantly lower bile resistance, both in vitro and during intestinal transit in mice. However, the overall bile resistance phenotype of this and other strains was independent of the bsh1 allele type. Analysis of the L. salivarius transcriptome upon exposure to bile and cholate identified a multiplicity of stress response proteins and putative efflux proteins that appear to broadly compensate for, or mask, the effects of allelic variation of bsh genes. Bsh enzymes with different bile-degrading kinetics, though apparently not the primary determinants of bile resistance in L. salivarius, may have additional biological importance because of varying effects upon bile as a signaling molecule in the host. PMID:19592587

  9. Variation in the resistance of some faba bean genotypes to orobanche crenata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbes, Z.; Sellami, F.; Amri, M.; Kharrat, M.

    2011-01-01

    Four faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes were tested for their reaction to Orobanche crenata Forsk., infestation. Evaluation was carried out for two cropping seasons at the Ariana research station, Tunisia in a field naturally infested with O. crenata and in pot experiments. At maturity, the genotypes Baraca, Giza 429 and the breeding line Bader carried 2-6 times less of number of emerged parasites and 3-7 less of dry weight of emerged parasites than the susceptible cv. Bader. The average yield observed for the three resistant genotypes was two to four-fold higher than the one observed for the susceptible genotype. These resistant genotypes seemed to flower earlier and to show late orobanche establishment which gave them an advantage over the parasite. The genotype Bader, which was selected for its resistance to O. foetida, was resistant to O. crenata, showing that selecting for O. foetida resistance can protect against O. crenata infection. Besides, the two genotypes Baraca and Giza 429 selected for their resistance to O. crenata in Spain and Egypt respectively, do not present tubercle necrosis on their roots, showing that they do not respond similarly to the Tunisian population of O. crenata. These partially resistant genotypes may provide breeders with additional sources of resistance to O. crenata, and can form appropriate material for an integrated control package. (author)

  10. Determinants of Default from Tuberculosis Treatment among Patients with Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis in Karachi, Pakistan: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chida, Natasha; Ansari, Zara; Hussain, Hamidah; Jaswal, Maria; Symes, Stephen; Khan, Aamir J; Mohammed, Shama

    2015-01-01

    Non-adherence to tuberculosis therapy can lead to drug resistance, prolonged infectiousness, and death; therefore, understanding what causes treatment default is important. Pakistan has one of the highest burdens of tuberculosis in the world, yet there have been no qualitative studies in Pakistan that have specifically examined why default occurs. We conducted a mixed methods study at a tuberculosis clinic in Karachi to understand why patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis default from treatment, and to identify factors associated with default. Patients attending this clinic pick up medications weekly and undergo family-supported directly observed therapy. In-depth interviews were administered to 21 patients who had defaulted. We also compared patients who defaulted with those who were cured, had completed, or had failed treatment in 2013. Qualitative analyses showed the most common reasons for default were the financial burden of treatment, and medication side effects and beliefs. The influence of finances on other causes of default was also prominent, as was concern about the effect of treatment on family members. In quantitative analysis, of 2120 patients, 301 (14.2%) defaulted. Univariate analysis found that male gender (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.04-1.71), being 35-59 years of age (OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.14-2.08), or being 60 years of age or older (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17-2.88) were associated with default. After adjusting for gender, disease site, and patient category, being 35-59 years of age (aOR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.10-2.03) or 60 years of age or older (aOR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.12-2.77) were associated with default. In multivariate analysis age was the only variable associated with default. This lack of identifiable risk factors and our qualitative findings imply that default is complex and often due to extrinsic and medication-related factors. More tolerable medications, improved side effect management, and innovative cost-reduction measures are needed to reduce

  11. Determinants of Default from Tuberculosis Treatment among Patients with Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis in Karachi, Pakistan: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Chida

    Full Text Available Non-adherence to tuberculosis therapy can lead to drug resistance, prolonged infectiousness, and death; therefore, understanding what causes treatment default is important. Pakistan has one of the highest burdens of tuberculosis in the world, yet there have been no qualitative studies in Pakistan that have specifically examined why default occurs. We conducted a mixed methods study at a tuberculosis clinic in Karachi to understand why patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis default from treatment, and to identify factors associated with default. Patients attending this clinic pick up medications weekly and undergo family-supported directly observed therapy.In-depth interviews were administered to 21 patients who had defaulted. We also compared patients who defaulted with those who were cured, had completed, or had failed treatment in 2013.Qualitative analyses showed the most common reasons for default were the financial burden of treatment, and medication side effects and beliefs. The influence of finances on other causes of default was also prominent, as was concern about the effect of treatment on family members. In quantitative analysis, of 2120 patients, 301 (14.2% defaulted. Univariate analysis found that male gender (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.04-1.71, being 35-59 years of age (OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.14-2.08, or being 60 years of age or older (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17-2.88 were associated with default. After adjusting for gender, disease site, and patient category, being 35-59 years of age (aOR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.10-2.03 or 60 years of age or older (aOR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.12-2.77 were associated with default.In multivariate analysis age was the only variable associated with default. This lack of identifiable risk factors and our qualitative findings imply that default is complex and often due to extrinsic and medication-related factors. More tolerable medications, improved side effect management, and innovative cost-reduction measures are needed to

  12. Potential of electrical resistivity tomography and muon density imaging to study spatio-temporal variations in the sub-surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesparre, Nolwenn; Cabrera, Justo; Courbet, Christelle

    2015-04-01

    We explore the capacity of electrical resistivity tomography and muon density imaging to detect spatio-temporal variations of the medium surrounding a regional fault crossing the underground platform of Tournemire (Aveyron, France). The studied Cernon fault is sub-vertical and intersects perpendicularly the tunnel of Tournemire and extends to surface. The fault separates clay and limestones layers of the Dogger from limestones layers of the Lias. The Cernon fault presents a thickness of a ten of meters and drives water from an aquifer circulating at the top of the Dogger clay layer to the tunnel. An experiment combining electrical resistivity imaging and muon density imaging was setup taking advantage of the tunnel presence. A specific array of electrodes were set up, adapted for the characterization of the fault. Electrodes were placed along the tunnel as well as at the surface above the tunnel on both sides of the fault in order to acquire data in transmission across the massif to better cover the sounded medium. Electrical resistivity is particularly sensitive to water presence in the medium and thus carry information on the main water flow paths and on the pore space saturation. At the same time a muon sensor was placed in the tunnel under the fault region to detect muons coming from the sky after their crossing of the rock medium. Since the muon flux is attenuated as function of the quantity of matter crossed, muons flux measurements supply information on the medium average density along muons paths. The sensor presents 961 angles of view so measurements performed from one station allows a comparison of the muon flux temporal variations along the fault as well as in the medium surrounding the fault. As the water saturation of the porous medium fluctuates through time the medium density might indeed present sensible variations as shown by gravimetric studies. During the experiment important rainfalls occurred leading variations of the medium properties

  13. Default Mode Network Connectivity in Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuladhar, Anil Man; Snaphaan, Liselore; Shumskaya, Elena; Rijpkema, Mark; Fernandez, Guillén; Norris, David G; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology of episodic memory dysfunction after infarction is not completely understood. It has been suggested that infarctions located anywhere in the brain can induce widespread effects causing disruption of functional networks of the cortical regions. The default mode network, which includes the medial temporal lobe, is a functional network that is associated with episodic memory processing. We investigated whether the default mode network activity is reduced in stroke patients compared to healthy control subjects in the resting state condition. We assessed the whole brain network properties during resting state functional MRI in 21 control subjects and 20 'first-ever' stroke patients. Patients were scanned 9-12 weeks after stroke onset. Stroke lesions were located in various parts of the brain. Independent component analyses were conducted to identify the default mode network and to compare the group differences of the default mode network. Furthermore, region-of-interest based analysis was performed to explore the functional connectivity between the regions of the default mode network. Stroke patients performed significantly worse than control subjects on the delayed recall score on California verbal learning test. We found decreased functional connectivity in the left medial temporal lobe, posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortical areas within the default mode network and reduced functional connectivity between these regions in stroke patients compared with controls. There were no significant volumetric differences between the groups. These results demonstrate that connectivity within the default mode network is reduced in 'first-ever' stroke patients compared to control subjects. This phenomenon might explain the occurrence of post-stroke cognitive dysfunction in stroke patients.

  14. Molecular modelling studies of kdr mutations in voltage gated sodium channel revealed significant conformational variations contributing to insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellapu, Nanda Kumar; Gopal, Jeyakodi; Kasinathan, Gunasekaran; Purushothaman, Jambulingam

    2018-06-01

    Voltage gated sodium channels (VGSC) of mosquito vectors are the primary targets of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and other synthetic pyrethroids used in public health programmes. The knockdown resistant (kdr) mutations in VGSC are associated with the insecticide resistance especially in Anophelines. The present study is aimed to emphasize and demarcate the impact of three kdr-mutations such as L1014S, L1014F and L1014H on insecticide resistance. The membrane model of sodium transport domain of VGSC (STD-VGSC) was constructed using de novo approach based on domain and trans-membrane predictions. The comparative molecular modelling studies of wild type and mutant models of STD-VGSC revealed that L1014F mutant was observed to be near native to the wild type model in all the respects, but, L1014S and L1014H mutations showed drastic variations in the energy levels, root mean square fluctuations (RMSF) that resulted in conformational variations. The predicted binding sites also showed variable cavity volumes and RMSF in L1014S and L1014H mutants. Further, DDT also found be bound in near native manner to wild type in L1014F mutant and with variable orientation and affinities in L1014S and L1014H mutants. The variations and fluctuations observed in mutant structures explained that each mutation has its specific impact on the conformation of VGSC and its binding with DDT. The study provides new insights into the structure-function-correlations of mutant STD-VGSC structures and demonstrates the role and effects of kdr mutations on insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors.

  15. Variation in resistance of natural isolates of Staphylococcus aureus to heat, pulsed electric field and ultrasound under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Calleja, J M; Cebrián, G; Condón, S; Mañas, P

    2006-05-01

    To study and compare the resistance of 15 Staphylococcus aureus isolates to heat, pulsed electric field (PEF) and ultrasound (UW) under pressure (manosonication, MS). Survival curves to heat (58 degrees C), to PEF (22 kV cm(-1), 2 micros square wave pulses) and to UW under pressure (117 microm, 20 kHz, 200 kPa) were obtained and inactivation parameters (decimal reduction times for heat and UW under pressure, and b-values for PEF) were calculated. A wide resistance variation to heat treatment, but not to PEF and MS, was observed amongst the 15 strains. There was no relationship between the resistances to the three physical agents studied. Staphylococcus aureus was relatively resistant to MS but sensitive to PEF. Heat resistance varied with strain and was positively correlated to carotenoid pigment content. Results would help in defining safe food preservation processes. Care should be taken to choose the most adequate strain of S. aureus to model food preservation processing.

  16. Induced genetic variation for resistance to M-virus in potato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellheim, E; Kleinhempel, R; Oertel, H; Springmann, B [Institute for Potato Research, Gross-Luesewitz (German Democratic Republic)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Seeds of the cross 'Mariella' x 'Xenia N' were treated with DMS, NEH or NMH at the Institute of Chemical Physics, USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow. The parent varieties are moderately resistant to potato virus M, the resistance is probably under polygenic control. The mutagen treated progenies were subjected to artificial infection and subsequently tested for two years serologically. This screening was performed three times. It was found that the mutagen treatments increased resistance as well as susceptibility to the M-virus. (author)

  17. Variations in resistance of viruses from different groups to chemico-physical decontamination methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahnel, H

    1979-01-01

    The resistance of a total of 13 different viruses to some important chemico-physical influences was studied under uniform experimental conditions. Stability in tape water, thermostability and sensitivity to anodic oxidation, gamma radiation, some virucidal substances and several commercial disinfectants were tested. In evaluating the results, an attempt is made to rank the viruses investigated according to their sensitivity. On average a bovine parvovirus, and also a reovirus and three enteroviruses, proved most stable. These were followed by infectious canine hepatitis (adenoviruses). Newcastle disease (paramyxoviruses) and vaccinia (poxviruses) demonstrating less resistance. In all the tests an orthomyxovirus (influenza A), a rhabdovirus (pseudorabies) and a togavirus (sindbis) proved to have relatively low resistance.

  18. Default mode network connectivity during task execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, D; Menon, D K; Manktelow, A E; Sahakian, B J; Stamatakis, E A

    2015-11-15

    Initially described as task-induced deactivations during goal-directed paradigms of high attentional load, the unresolved functionality of default mode regions has long been assumed to interfere with task performance. However, recent evidence suggests a potential default mode network involvement in fulfilling cognitive demands. We tested this hypothesis in a finger opposition paradigm with task and fixation periods which we compared with an independent resting state scan using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a comprehensive analysis pipeline including activation, functional connectivity, behavioural and graph theoretical assessments. The results indicate task specific changes in the default mode network topography. Behaviourally, we show that increased connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex with the left superior frontal gyrus predicts faster reaction times. Moreover, interactive and dynamic reconfiguration of the default mode network regions' functional connections illustrates their involvement with the task at hand with higher-level global parallel processing power, yet preserved small-world architecture in comparison with rest. These findings demonstrate that the default mode network does not disengage during this paradigm, but instead may be involved in task relevant processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Default mode contributions to automated information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Deniz; Menon, David K; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A

    2017-11-28

    Concurrent with mental processes that require rigorous computation and control, a series of automated decisions and actions govern our daily lives, providing efficient and adaptive responses to environmental demands. Using a cognitive flexibility task, we show that a set of brain regions collectively known as the default mode network plays a crucial role in such "autopilot" behavior, i.e., when rapidly selecting appropriate responses under predictable behavioral contexts. While applying learned rules, the default mode network shows both greater activity and connectivity. Furthermore, functional interactions between this network and hippocampal and parahippocampal areas as well as primary visual cortex correlate with the speed of accurate responses. These findings indicate a memory-based "autopilot role" for the default mode network, which may have important implications for our current understanding of healthy and adaptive brain processing.

  20. Intraspecific variation in aphid resistance and constitutive phenolics exhibited by the wild blueberry Vaccinium darrowi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, C M; Singh, A P; Johnson-Cicalese, J; Polavarapu, S; Vorsa, N

    2007-04-01

    Illinoia pepperi (MacGillivray) infests cultivated highbush blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L., in the Northeastern United States. Allopatric resistance to I. pepperi was examined in Vaccinium darrowi Camp, which evolved in the absence of I. pepperi in the Southeastern U.S. V. corymbosum cv. "Elliott", was used as a susceptible control. Between population variability in I. pepperi resistance was assessed by measuring length of the prereproductive period, fecundity, and survivorship on 14 V. darrowi accessions representing 11 discrete wild populations. Length of I. pepperi's prereproductive period and survivorship were not significantly affected. However, differences were detected in fecundity and the intrinsic rate of increase (r ( m )). Within population variability in resistance was measured by confining first instars to 24 accessions from a single wild population of V. darrowi (NJ88-06). Significant differences in the mean total number of aphids occurring after 20 d were only detected between 2 of the 24 V. darrowi accessions. A greater degree of diversity in I. pepperi resistance exists between populations of V. darrowi compared to within a population. Constitutive leaf and stem polyphenolics were identified by HPLC-MS and quantified from 14 of the V. darrowi accessions. The accessions varied in concentrations of five phenolic acids and seven flavonol glycosides, but a correlation was not found between individual or total phenolics and aphid performance. Overall, screening within and between populations of V. darrowi identified promising sources of aphid resistance, but phenolic acid and flavonol glycoside profiles did not predict resistance levels. The mechanism of resistance remains to be identified.

  1. Systematic and Idiosyncratic Default Risk in Synthetic Credit Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldhütter, Peter; Nielsen, Mads Stenbo

    2012-01-01

    We present a new estimation approach that allows us to extract from spreads in synthetic credit markets the contribution of systematic and idiosyncratic default risk to total default risk. Using an extensive dataset of 90,600 credit default swap and collateralized debt obligation (CDO) tranche...... spreads on the North American Investment Grade CDX index, we conduct an empirical analysis of an intensity-based model for correlated defaults. Our results show that systematic default risk is an explosive process with low volatility, while idiosyncratic default risk is more volatile but less explosive...

  2. Transgenerational variations in DNA methylation induced by drought stress in two rice varieties with distinguished difference to drought resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguo Zheng

    Full Text Available Adverse environmental conditions have large impacts on plant growth and crop production. One of the crucial mechanisms that plants use in variable and stressful natural environments is gene expression modulation through epigenetic modification. In this study, two rice varieties with different drought resistance levels were cultivated under drought stress from tilling stage to seed filling stage for six successive generations. The variations in DNA methylation of the original generation (G0 and the sixth generation (G6 of these two varieties in normal condition (CK and under drought stress (DT at seedling stage were assessed by using Methylation Sensitive Amplification Polymorphism (MSAP method. The results revealed that drought stress had a cumulative effect on the DNA methylation pattern of both varieties, but these two varieties had different responses to drought stress in DNA methylation. The DNA methylation levels of II-32B (sensitive and Huhan-3 (resistant were around 39% and 32%, respectively. Genome-wide DNA methylation variations among generations or treatments accounted for around 13.1% of total MSAP loci in II-32B, but was only approximately 1.3% in Huhan-3. In II-32B, 27.6% of total differentially methylated loci (DML were directly induced by drought stress and 3.2% of total DML stably transmitted their changed DNA methylation status to the next generation. In Huhan-3, the numbers were 48.8% and 29.8%, respectively. Therefore, entrainment had greater effect on Huhan-3 than on II-32B. Sequence analysis revealed that the DML were widely distributed on all 12 rice chromosomes and that it mainly occurred on the gene's promoter and exon region. Some genes with DML respond to environmental stresses. The inheritance of epigenetic variations induced by drought stress may provide a new way to develop drought resistant rice varieties.

  3. Variation of microstructures and mechanical properties of hot heading process of super heat resisting alloy Inconel 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hong Seok; Ko, Dae Chul; Kim, Byung Min

    2007-01-01

    Metal forming is the process changing shapes and mechanical properties of the workpiece without initial material reduction through plastic deformation. Above all, because of hot working carried out above recrystallization temperature can be generated large deformation with one blow, it can produce with forging complicated parts or heat resisting super alloy such as Inconel 718 has the worst forgeability. In this paper, we established optimal variation of hot heading process of the Inconel 718 used in heat resisting component and evaluated mechanical properties hot worked product. Die material is SKD61 and initial temperature is 300 .deg. C. Initial billet temperature and punch velocity changed, relatively. Friction coefficient is 0.3 as lubricated condition of hot working. CAE is carried out using DEFORM software before marking the tryout part, and it is manufactured 150 ton screw press with optimal condition. It is know that forming load was decreased according to decreasing punch velocity

  4. Natural Variation in Elicitation of Defense-Signaling Associates to Field Resistance Against the Spot Blotch Disease in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Sharma; Ranabir Sahu; Sudhir Navathe; Vinod K. Mishra; Ramesh Chand; Pawan K. Singh; Arun K. Joshi; Shree P. Pandey

    2018-01-01

    Spot blotch, caused by the hemibiotropic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana, is amongst the most damaging diseases of wheat. Still, natural variation in expression of biochemical traits that determine field resistance to spot blotch in wheat remain unaddressed. To understand how genotypic variations relate to metabolite profiles of the components of defense-signaling and the plant performance, as well as to discover novel sources of resistance against spot blotch, we have conducted field studies us...

  5. Allelic variation at the rpv1 locus controls partial resistance to Plum pox virus infection in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poque, S; Pagny, G; Ouibrahim, L; Chague, A; Eyquard, J-P; Caballero, M; Candresse, T; Caranta, C; Mariette, S; Decroocq, V

    2015-06-25

    Sharka is caused by Plum pox virus (PPV) in stone fruit trees. In orchards, the virus is transmitted by aphids and by grafting. In Arabidopsis, PPV is transferred by mechanical inoculation, by biolistics and by agroinoculation with infectious cDNA clones. Partial resistance to PPV has been observed in the Cvi-1 and Col-0 Arabidopsis accessions and is characterized by a tendency to escape systemic infection. Indeed, only one third of the plants are infected following inoculation, in comparison with the susceptible Ler accession. Genetic analysis showed this partial resistance to be monogenic or digenic depending on the allelic configuration and recessive. It is detected when inoculating mechanically but is overcome when using biolistic or agroinoculation. A genome-wide association analysis was performed using multiparental lines and 147 Arabidopsis accessions. It identified a major genomic region, rpv1. Fine mapping led to the positioning of rpv1 to a 200 kb interval on the long arm of chromosome 1. A candidate gene approach identified the chloroplast phosphoglycerate kinase (cPGK2) as a potential gene underlying the resistance. A virus-induced gene silencing strategy was used to knock-down cPGK2 expression, resulting in drastically reduced PPV accumulation. These results indicate that rpv1 resistance to PPV carried by the Cvi-1 and Col-0 accessions is linked to allelic variations at the Arabidopsis cPGK2 locus, leading to incomplete, compatible interaction with the virus.

  6. Variations of insulin resistance and associated hormone levels in elderly and middle-aged male persons and their clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo Liankun; Yan Daochun; Chen Xiumei; Liu Peng; Zhang Aihua

    2005-01-01

    To study the relationship between age and insulin resistance and the variation of associated hormones in elderly and middle-aged males, blood levels of LH, FSH, T, SHBG, TSH, INS were determined by RIA, FBG by GPO, IR by HOMA in 268 healthy male persons aged 41 to 60 years and in 80 normal control male persions of 35 to 40 years old. The results showed that levels of IR, LH, FSH, SHBG were increasing and T, TSH were decreasing along with the increase of age except for TSH. Therefore, analyzing these changes could evaluate the conditions of elderly and middle-aged males. (authors)

  7. Somaclonal variation in hybrid poplars for resistance to Septoria leaf spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.E. Ostry; D. D. Skilling

    1987-01-01

    Tissue culture techniques have been used to obtain hybrid poplars with putative resistance to leaf spot caused by Septoria musiva from clones previously susceptible to the disease. Stem internode explants were used to obtain proliferating callus cultures. Adventitious bud formation and shoot proliferation were then induced. Elongated shoots were excised and rooted in a...

  8. Shoulder Muscle Activation of Novice and Resistance Trained Women during Variations of Dumbbell Press Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Joshua; Bosak, Andy; Riemann, Bryan L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has compared the effects of trunk inclination angle on muscle activation using barbells and Smith machines in men. Whether similar effects occur with the use of dumbbells or in women remains unknown. The purpose was to compare upper extremity surface electromyographical (EMG) activity between dumbbell bench, incline, and shoulder presses. Dominate arm EMG data were recorded for collegiate-aged female resistance trained individuals (n = 12) and novice female resistance trained exercisers (n = 12) from which average EMG amplitude for each repetition phase (concentric, eccentric) was computed. No significant differences were found between experienced and novice resistance trained individuals. For the upper trapezius and anterior deltoid muscles, shoulder press activation was significantly greater than incline press which in turn was significantly greater than bench press across both phases. The bench and incline presses promoted significantly greater pectoralis major sternal activation compared to the shoulder press (both phases). While pectoralis major clavicular activation during the incline press eccentric phase was significantly greater than both the bench and shoulder presses, activation during the bench press concentric phase promoted significantly greater activation than the incline press which in turn was significantly greater than the shoulder press. These results provide evidence for selecting exercises in resistance and rehabilitation programs. PMID:26464884

  9. Shoulder Muscle Activation of Novice and Resistance Trained Women during Variations of Dumbbell Press Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Luczak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has compared the effects of trunk inclination angle on muscle activation using barbells and Smith machines in men. Whether similar effects occur with the use of dumbbells or in women remains unknown. The purpose was to compare upper extremity surface electromyographical (EMG activity between dumbbell bench, incline, and shoulder presses. Dominate arm EMG data were recorded for collegiate-aged female resistance trained individuals ( and novice female resistance trained exercisers ( from which average EMG amplitude for each repetition phase (concentric, eccentric was computed. No significant differences were found between experienced and novice resistance trained individuals. For the upper trapezius and anterior deltoid muscles, shoulder press activation was significantly greater than incline press which in turn was significantly greater than bench press across both phases. The bench and incline presses promoted significantly greater pectoralis major sternal activation compared to the shoulder press (both phases. While pectoralis major clavicular activation during the incline press eccentric phase was significantly greater than both the bench and shoulder presses, activation during the bench press concentric phase promoted significantly greater activation than the incline press which in turn was significantly greater than the shoulder press. These results provide evidence for selecting exercises in resistance and rehabilitation programs.

  10. Contribution of current carrier mobility variation to piezo-resistive effect in SmS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, L.N.; Kaminskij, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    The value of the contribution from the change in the current carriers mobility and pressure to the piezo-resistive effect value in the materials on the basis of the samarium, monosulfide is studied. The conclusion, that the value of the piezoresistance of comprehensive compression should not exceed 7x10 -3 MPa -1 at T=300 K, experimental data [ru

  11. Microcredit Loan Repayment Default among Small Scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The model is applied to primary data from a survey of 200 small scale entrepreneurs in the Upper West Region of Ghana. Results show that enterprise size, interest rate, loan duration, level of profit and loan amount are the simultaneous determinants of probability and rate of default. The study recommends that the National ...

  12. Student Loan Default and Repayment in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    As college costs continue to rise, student loan default and repayment are issues of increasing concern to students and families, colleges and universities, and state and federal governments. Helping students borrow responsibly and manage their debt are vitally important to maintaining college access and affordability and increasing the education…

  13. Student Loan Default Rates in Minnesota, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Tricia

    2010-01-01

    While Minnesota undergraduates are more likely to take out student loans, they are substantially less likely than their peers nationally to default on federal student loans. Fifty-four percent of Minnesota undergraduates took out student loans in 2007-2008, compared to 39 percent of undergraduates across the U.S. Minnesota undergraduates were also…

  14. Default from neoadjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventeen (38.6%) patients dropped out of treatment, before, during or after completing NAC. Ten of these defaulted due to inadequate funds to procure chemotherapy, three patients because they insisted on immediate mastectomy, and four of these patients refused surgery when they achieved complete clinical response, ...

  15. Updating default depths in the ISC bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Maiclaire K.; Storchak, Dmitry A.; Harris, James

    2006-09-01

    The International Seismological Centre (ISC) publishes the definitive global bulletin of earthquake locations. In the ISC bulletin, we aim to obtain a free depth, but often this is not possible. Subsequently, the first option is to obtain a depth derived from depth phases. If depth phases are not available, we then use the reported depth from a reputable local agency. Finally, as a last resort, we set a default depth. In the past, common depths of 10, 33, or multiples of 50 km have been assigned. Assigning a more meaningful default depth, specific to a seismic region will increase the consistency of earthquake locations within the ISC bulletin and allow the ISC to publish better positions and magnitude estimates. It will also improve the association of reported secondary arrivals to corresponding seismic events. We aim to produce a global set of default depths, based on a typical depth for each area, from well-constrained events in the ISC bulletin or where depth could be constrained using a consistent set of depth phase arrivals provided by a number of different reporters. In certain areas, we must resort to using other assumptions. For these cases, we use a global crustal model (Crust2.0) to set default depths to half the thickness of the crust.

  16. Collective strategic defaults: Bailouts and repayment incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlahu, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows that under a global games approach banks may be subject to risk of failure even when fundamentals are strong due to a coordination problem among debtors. As a result of collective strategic default a financially sound firm may claim inability to repay if it expects a sufficient

  17. Fine Physical Bin Mapping of the Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene Pm21 Based on Chromosomal Structural Variations in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanying Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pm21, derived from wheat wild relative Dasypyrum villosum, is one of the most effective powdery mildew resistance genes and has been widely applied in wheat breeding in China. Mapping and cloning Pm21 are of importance for understanding its resistance mechanism. In the present study, physical mapping was performed using different genetic stocks involving in structural variations of chromosome 6VS carrying Pm21. The data showed that 6VS could be divided into eight distinguishable chromosomal bins, and Pm21 was mapped to the bin FLb4–b5/b6 closely flanked by the markers 6VS-08.6 and 6VS-10.2. Comparative genomic mapping indicated that the orthologous regions of FLb4–b5/b6 carrying Pm21 were narrowed to a 117.7 kb genomic region harboring 19 genes in Brachypodium and a 37.7 kb region harboring 5 genes in rice, respectively. The result was consistent with that given by recent genetic mapping in diploid D. villosum. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that physical mapping based on chromosomal structural variations is an efficient method for locating alien genes in wheat background.

  18. Clonal variation in growth plasticity within a Bosmina longirostris population: the potential for resistance to toxic cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Jiang

    Full Text Available Many aquatic organisms respond phenotypically, through morphological, behavioral, and physiological plasticity, to environmental changes. The small-size cladoceran Bosminalongirostris, a dominant zooplankter in eutrophic waters, displayed reduced growth rates in response to the presence of a toxic cyanobacterium, Microcystisaeruginosa, in their diets. The magnitude of growth reduction differed among 15 clones recently isolated from a single population. A significant interaction between clone and food type indicated a genetic basis for the difference in growth plasticity. The variation in phenotypic plasticity was visualized by plotting reaction norms with two diets. The resistance of each clone to dietary cyanobacteria was measured as the relative change in growth rates on the "poor" diet compared with the "good" diet. The enhanced resistance to M. aeruginosa in B. longirostris was derived from both the reduced slope of reaction norms and the increased mean growth rates with two diets. The large clonal variation within a B. longirostris population may contribute to local adaptation to toxic cyanobacteria and influence ecosystem function via clonal succession.

  19. Microcontroller based Stator Winding Resistance Determination of Induction Motor Drive on Temperature Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Siraj Ahmed T; Sukhdeo Sao; K.S.R Anjaneyulu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an experiment has been conducted to determine the online stator winding resistance of an induction motor, in industries as well as domestic purpose induction motors is largely utilized, as it has both applications of variable and constant torque operation nature. The major requirement of an electric drive system is its independent control of torque and speed; this is achieved in DC motor Drive but has more disadvantages. With the help of fast acting switching devices it is possi...

  20. Interspecific variation in resistance of two host tree species to spruce budworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentealba, Alvaro; Bauce, Éric

    2016-01-01

    Woody plants regularly sustain biomass losses to herbivorous insects. Consequently, they have developed various resistance mechanisms to cope with insect attack. However, these mechanisms of defense and how they are affected by resource availability are not well understood. The present study aimed at evaluating and comparing the natural resistance (antibiosis and tolerance) of balsam fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) and white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench) Voss] to spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.), and how drainage site quality as a component of resource availability affects the expression of resistance over time (6 years). Our results showed that there are differences in natural resistance between the two tree species to spruce budworm, but it was not significantly affected by drainage quality. Balsam fir exhibited higher foliar toxic secondary compounds concentrations than white spruce in all drainage classes, resulting in lower male pupal mass, survival and longer male developmental time. This, however, did not prevent spruce budworm from consuming more foliage in balsam fir than in white spruce. This response suggests that either natural levels of measured secondary compounds do not provide sufficient toxicity to reduce defoliation, or spruce budworm has developed compensatory mechanisms, which allow it to utilize food resources more efficiently or minimize the toxic effects that are produced by its host's defensive compounds. Larvae exhibited lower pupal mass and higher mortality in rapidly drained and subhygric sites. Drainage class also affected the amount of foliage destroyed but its impact varied over the years and was probably influenced by climatic variables. These results demonstrate the complexity of predicting the effect of resource availability on tree defenses, especially when other confounding environmental factors can affect tree resource allocation and utilization.

  1. Electrical resistivity variations associated with earthquakes on the san andreas fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzella, A; Morrison, H F

    1974-09-06

    A 24 percent precursory change in apparent electrical resistivity was observed before a magnitude 3.9 earthquake of strike-slip nature on the San Andreas fault in central California. The experimental configuration and numerical calculations suggest that the change is associated with a volume at depth rather than some near-surface phenomenon. The character and duration of the precursor period agree well with those of other earthquake studies and support a dilatant earthquake mechanism model.

  2. [Association of the genetic variations of bone morphogenetic protein 7 gene with diabetes and insulin resistance in Xinjiang Uygur population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi-tao; Li, Nan-fang; Guo, Yan-ying; Yao, Xiao-guang; Wang, Hong-mei; Hu, Jun-li

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the association between the genetic variations of the functional region in bone morphogenetic protein gene (BMP7) with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese Uygur individuals. A case-control study was conducted based on epidemiological investigation. A total of 717 Uygur subjects (276 males and 441 females) were selected and divided into two groups: diabetes mellitus group (n = 502, 191 males and 311 females) and control group (n = 215, 85 males and 130 females). All exons, flanking introns and the promoter regions of (BMP7) gene were sequenced in 48 Uygur diabetics. Representative variations were selected according to the minor allele frequency (MAF) and linkage disequilibrium and genotyped using the TaqMan polymerase chain reaction method in 717 Uygur individuals, a relatively isolated general population in a relatively homogeneous environment and a case-control study was conducted to test the association between the genetic variations of (BMP7) gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Five novel and 8 known variations in the (BMP7) gene were identified. All genotype distributions were tested for deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P> 0.05). There was significant difference of genotype distribution of rs6025422 between type 2 diabetes mellitus and control groups in the male population (P 0.05), but there was no difference in total and female population (P> 0.05). And the means of fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin and HOMA-index significantly decreased in individuals with AA, AG and GG genotypes of rs6025422 in male population (Ppopulation (P> 0.05). The logistic regression analysis showed that GG genotype of rs6025422 variation might be a protective factor for diabetes in male (OR= 0.637, 95% confidence interval 0.439-0.923, P< 0.05). The present study suggests that the rs6025422 polymorphism in (BMP7) gene may be associated with diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance in Uygur men.

  3. Of religion and redemption : Evidence from default on Islamic loans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baele, L.T.M.; Farooq, Moazzam; Ongena, S.R.G.

    We compare default rates on conventional and Islamic loans using a comprehensive monthly dataset from Pakistan that follows more than 150,000 loans over the period 2006:04 to 2008:12. We find robust evidence that the default rate on Islamic loans is less than half the default rate on conventional

  4. 17 CFR 10.94 - Setting aside of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Setting aside of default. 10... PRACTICE Disposition Without Full Hearing § 10.94 Setting aside of default. In order to prevent injustice and on such conditions as may be appropriate, (a) the Commission may at any time set aside a default...

  5. 24 CFR 232.840 - Date of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Date of default. 232.840 Section 232.840 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued....840 Date of default. In computing loan insurance benefits, the date of default shall be considered as...

  6. 48 CFR 252.237-7007 - Termination for default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination for default... of Provisions And Clauses 252.237-7007 Termination for default. As prescribed in 237.7003(b), use the following clause: Termination for Default (DEC 1991) (a) This clause supplements and is in addition to the...

  7. 75 FR 60258 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Termination for Default Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ..., Sequence 1] RIN 9000-AL45 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Termination for Default Reporting AGENCIES... terminations for cause or default and defective cost or pricing data, into the Past Performance Information... defective cost or pricing data and terminations for cause or default into the FAPIIS module of the PPIRS...

  8. 24 CFR 220.811 - Date of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Date of default. 220.811 Section... and Obligations-Projects Insured Project Improvement Loans § 220.811 Date of default. For the purposes of §§ 220.800 et seq., the date of default shall be considered as: (a) The date of the first...

  9. Default options and social welfare : Opt in versus opt out

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.; Degryse, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    We offer a social-welfare comparison of the two most prominent default options – opt in and opt out – using a two-period model of localized competition. We demonstrate that when consumers stick to the default option, the prevailing default policy shapes firms' ability to collect and use customer

  10. 24 CFR 232.830 - Definition of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of default. 232.830... Insurance § 232.830 Definition of default. (a) If the borrower fails to make any payments due under or... default for the purposes of this subpart. (b) The failure to perform any other covenant under the note or...

  11. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL NATIONAL HEALTH... default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make full...

  12. 17 CFR 10.93 - Obtaining default order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obtaining default order. 10.93... Disposition Without Full Hearing § 10.93 Obtaining default order. When a respondent has failed to (a) file an... enter findings and conclusions and a default order against that respondent based upon the matters set...

  13. 27 CFR 25.173 - Brewer in default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brewer in default. 25.173... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.173 Brewer in default. (a) When a... the brewer is otherwise in default in payment of tax under § 25.164, beer may not be removed for...

  14. 48 CFR 449.402-3 - Procedure for default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedure for default. 449.402-3 Section 449.402-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Termination for Default 449.402-3 Procedure for default. In addition to...

  15. 12 CFR 615.5280 - Retirement in event of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retirement in event of default. 615.5280... Dividends § 615.5280 Retirement in event of default. (a) When the debt of a holder of eligible borrower... association or agricultural credit association is in default, such institution may, but shall not be required...

  16. 48 CFR 22.1023 - Termination for default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination for default... Amended 22.1023 Termination for default. As provided by the Act, any contractor failure to comply with the requirements of the contract clauses related to the Act may be grounds for termination for default (see...

  17. 24 CFR 220.810 - Definition of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of default. 220.810... Contract Rights and Obligations-Projects Insured Project Improvement Loans § 220.810 Definition of default... note or security instrument and such default continues for a period of 30 days, the note or security...

  18. 29 CFR 2570.5 - Consequences of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consequences of default. 2570.5 Section 2570.5 Labor... ERISA Section 502(i) § 2570.5 Consequences of default. For prohibited transaction penalty proceedings... administrative law judge may set aside a default entered under this provision where there is proof of defective...

  19. 48 CFR 1449.402-3 - Procedure for default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedure for default. 1449.402-3 Section 1449.402-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Termination for Default 1449.402-3 Procedure for default. In...

  20. 27 CFR 40.166 - Default, prepayment of tax required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default, prepayment of tax... Payment of Taxes on Tobacco Products § 40.166 Default, prepayment of tax required. Where a check or money... tax due thereunder, or where a manufacturer is otherwise in default in payment of tax on tobacco...

  1. 24 CFR 220.812 - Notice of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of default. 220.812 Section... and Obligations-Projects Insured Project Improvement Loans § 220.812 Notice of default. (a) If the default as defined in § 220.810 is not cured within the 30 day grace period, the lender shall, within 30...

  2. Factors associated with default from treatment among tuberculosis patients in nairobi province, Kenya: A case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Successful treatment of tuberculosis (TB) involves taking anti-tuberculosis drugs for at least six months. Poor adherence to treatment means patients remain infectious for longer, are more likely to relapse or succumb to tuberculosis and could result in treatment failure as well as foster emergence of drug resistant tuberculosis. Kenya is among countries with high tuberculosis burden globally. The purpose of this study was to determine the duration tuberculosis patients stay in treatment before defaulting and factors associated with default in Nairobi. Methods A Case-Control study; Cases were those who defaulted from treatment and Controls those who completed treatment course between January 2006 and March 2008. All (945) defaulters and 1033 randomly selected controls from among 5659 patients who completed treatment course in 30 high volume sites were enrolled. Secondary data was collected using a facility questionnaire. From among the enrolled, 120 cases and 154 controls were randomly selected and interviewed to obtain primary data not routinely collected. Data was analyzed using SPSS and Epi Info statistical software. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine association and Kaplan-Meier method to determine probability of staying in treatment over time were applied. Results Of 945 defaulters, 22.7% (215) and 20.4% (193) abandoned treatment within first and second months (intensive phase) of treatment respectively. Among 120 defaulters interviewed, 16.7% (20) attributed their default to ignorance, 12.5% (15) to traveling away from treatment site, 11.7% (14) to feeling better and 10.8% (13) to side-effects. On multivariate analysis, inadequate knowledge on tuberculosis (OR 8.67; 95% CI 1.47-51.3), herbal medication use (OR 5.7; 95% CI 1.37-23.7), low income (OR 5.57, CI 1.07-30.0), alcohol abuse (OR 4.97; 95% CI 1.56-15.9), previous default (OR 2.33; 95% CI 1.16-4.68), co-infection with Human immune-deficient Virus (HIV) (OR 1

  3. Change and status quo in decisions with defaults: The effect of incidental emotions depends on the type of default

    OpenAIRE

    Shevchenko, Yury; von Helversen, Bettina; Scheibehenne, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Affective states can change how people react to measures aimed at influencing their decisions such as providing a default option. Previous research has shown that when defaults maintain the status quo positive mood increases reliance on the default and negative mood decreases it. Similarly, it has been demonstrated that positive mood enhances the preference for inaction. We extend this research by investigating how mood states influence reliance on the default if the defa...

  4. Study of genetic variation in the STAT3 on obesity and insulin resistance in male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, Tomas F; Sookoian, Silvia; Gemma, Carolina; Burgueño, Adriana L; González, Claudio D; Pirola, Carlos J

    2008-07-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays an important role in hepatic glucose homeostasis and carbohydrate metabolism and has been implicated in the leptin-mediated energy homeostasis. We explored whether STAT3 gene variants are associated with obesity and insulin resistance in a well-characterized sample of 984 adult men (aged 34.4+/-8.6 years) of self-reported European ancestry from a population-based study. We analyzed three tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs), two intronic (rs2293152 and rs6503695) and one located in a noncoding region near the gene promoter (rs9891119). These variants were not associated with either obesity (in which 488 lean individuals were compared to 496 overweight/obese subjects) (P values: 0.68, 0.49, and 0.9 for rs2293152, rs6503695, and rs9891119, respectively) or BMI as a continuous trait (P values: 0.85, 0.73, and 0.58 for rs2293152, rs6503695, and rs9891119, respectively). We found no significant association between the three tagSNPs and fasting plasma glucose and insulin. Likewise, no association was observed between the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index and any of the tagSNPs. A significant association was observed with total cholesterol and rs6503695 (nominal P value 0.019), but after correcting for multiple testing by Bonferroni correction, the significance becomes marginal (P=0.057). In conclusion, although STAT3 is an excellent candidate gene for assessing obesity and insulin resistance susceptibility alleles, our results do not support a major role for STAT3 variants in BMI and insulin resistance in our male population.

  5. VARIATION OF SUBSTRUCTURES OF PEARLITIC HEAT RESISTANT STEEL AFTER HIGH TEMPERATURE AGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.C.Yang; K.Chen; H.X.Feng; H.Wang

    2004-01-01

    The observations of dislocations, substructures and other microstructural details were conducted mainly by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for 12Cr1Mo V pearlitic heat-resistant steel. It is shown that during the high temperature long-term aging, the disordered and jumbled phasetransformed dislocations caused by normalized cooling are recovered and rearranged into cell substructures, and then the dislocation density is reduced gradually. Finally a low density linear dislocation configuration and a stabler dislocation network are formed and ferritic grains grow considerably.

  6. Regional, Seasonal, and Temporal Variations in the Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from Pigs at Slaughter in Denmark (1997-2005)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abatih, E. N.; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and discuss regional, seasonal, and temporal trends in the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from pigs at slaughter in Denmark between 1997 and 2005. Data on antimicrobial-resistant E. coli were obtained from the Danish Integrated...... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme database. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to detect the presence and evaluate the significance of regional, seasonal, and annual trends in the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli for four drugs. Associations between resistance...... of resistant E. coli as compared to the other seasons of the year. Our study provides evidence of statistically significant regional, seasonal, and temporal variations for ampicillin- and streptomycin-resistant E. coli isolated from pigs at slaughter in Denmark between 1997 and 2005....

  7. Seasonal variations in antibiotic resistance gene transport in the Almendares River, Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W Knapp

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have quantified antibiotic resistance genes (ARG in rivers and streams around the world, and significant relationships have been shown that relate different pollutant outputs and increased local ARG levels. However, most studies have not considered ambient flow conditions, which can vary dramatically especially in tropical countries. Here, ARG were quantified in water-column and sediment samples during the dry-and wet-seasons to assess how seasonal and other factors influence ARG transport down the Almendares River (Havana, Cuba. Eight locations were sampled and stream flow estimated during both seasons; qPCR was used to quantify four tetracycline, two erythromycin, and three beta-lactam resistance genes. ARG concentrations were higher in wet-season versus dry-season samples, which combined with higher flows, indicated greater ARG transport downstream during the wet season. Water-column ARG levels were more spatially variable in the dry-season than the wet-season, with the proximity of waste outfalls strongly influencing local ARG levels. Results confirm that dry-season sampling provides a useful picture of the impact of individual waste inputs on local stream ARG levels, whereas, the majority of ARGs in this tropical river were transported downstream during the wet season, possibly due to re-entrainment of ARG from sediments.

  8. Connectivity trajectory across lifespan differentiates the precuneus from the default network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Chang, Catie; Xu, Ting; Jiang, Lili; Handwerker, Daniel A; Castellanos, F Xavier; Milham, Michael P; Bandettini, Peter A; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2014-04-01

    The default network of the human brain has drawn much attention due to its relevance to various brain disorders, cognition, and behavior. However, its functional components and boundaries have not been precisely defined. There is no consensus as to whether the precuneus, a hub in the functional connectome, acts as part of the default network. This discrepancy is more critical for brain development and aging studies: it is not clear whether age has a stronger impact on the default network or precuneus, or both. We used Generalized Ranking and Averaging Independent Component Analysis by Reproducibility (gRAICAR) to investigate the lifespan trajectories of intrinsic functional networks. By estimating individual-specific spatial components and aligning them across subjects, gRAICAR measures the spatial variation of component maps across a population without constraining the same components to appear in every subject. In a cross-lifespan fMRI dataset (N=126, 7-85years old), we observed stronger age dependence in the spatial pattern of a precuneus-dorsal posterior cingulate cortex network compared to the default network, despite the fact that the two networks exhibit considerable spatial overlap and temporal correlation. These results remained even when analyses were restricted to a subpopulation with very similar head motion across age. Our analyses further showed that the two networks tend to merge with increasing age. Post-hoc analyses of functional connectivity confirmed the distinguishable cross-lifespan trajectories between the two networks. Based on these observations, we proposed a dynamic model of cross-lifespan functional segregation and integration between the two networks, suggesting that the precuneus network may have a different functional role than the default network, which declines with age. These findings have implications for understanding the functional roles of the default network, gaining insight into its dynamics throughout life, and guiding

  9. Genomic Heterogeneity of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Variation in Severity of Illness among Children with Acute Hematogenous Osteomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gaviria-Agudelo

    Full Text Available The association between severity of illness of children with osteomyelitis caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and genomic variation of the causative organism has not been previously investigated. The purpose of this study is to assess genomic heterogeneity among MRSA isolates from children with osteomyelitis who have diverse severity of illness.Children with osteomyelitis were prospectively studied between 2010 and 2011. Severity of illness of the affected children was determined from clinical and laboratory parameters. MRSA isolates were analyzed with next generation sequencing (NGS and optical mapping. Sequence data was used for multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood (PAML, and identification of virulence genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP relative to reference strains.The twelve children studied demonstrated severity of illness scores ranging from 0 (mild to 9 (severe. All isolates were USA300, ST 8, SCC mec IVa MRSA by MLST. The isolates differed from reference strains by 2 insertions (40 Kb each and 2 deletions (10 and 25 Kb but had no rearrangements or copy number variations. There was a higher occurrence of virulence genes among study isolates when compared to the reference strains (p = 0.0124. There were an average of 11 nonsynonymous SNPs per strain. PAML demonstrated heterogeneity of study isolates from each other and from the reference strains.Genomic heterogeneity exists among MRSA isolates causing osteomyelitis among children in a single community. These variations may play a role in the pathogenesis of variation in clinical severity among these children.

  10. Cognitive and emotional modulation of brain default operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Brattico, Elvira; Bailey, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    cognitive load and emotional stimulus connotation on task-related decreases in the default network by employing an auditory working memory (WM) task with musical sounds. The performance of the WM task, compared to passive listening, lowered the activity in medial and lateral, prefrontal, parietal, temporal......, and limbic regions. In a subset of these regions, the magnitude of decrease depended on the memory load; the greater the cognitive load, the larger the magnitude of the observed decrease. Furthermore, in the right amygdala and the left precuneus, areas previously associated with processing of unpleasant...... of processes that are ongoing when the mind is in a restful state. Previously, the nature of these processes was probed by varying cognitive task parameters, but the presence of emotional processes, while often assumed, was little investigated. With fMRI, we studied the effect of systematic variations of both...

  11. A Study of the Impact of Default Management Practices and Other Factors on Student Loan Default Rates in Public Two-Year Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Randell W.

    2013-01-01

    Default management practices and their relationship to the student loan default rate in public two-year community colleges was the focus of this investigation. Five research questions regarding written default management plans, default management practices, process management, accountability, and other factors impacting default guided the study.…

  12. MHC-DQB1 Variation and Its Association with Resistance or Susceptibility to Cystic Echinococcosis in Chinese Merino Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiao Hui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE, one of the world’s most geographically widespread diseases, still represents a considerable economic and public health significance, although a variety of methods has been used to control the disease. It has been demonstrated that genetic factors, especially variations in MHC loci, can influence the outcome of CE infection in the human population. The study described here was designed to determine whether variation in MHC-DQB1 was associated with susceptibility or resistance to CE in sheep. If so, it would lay a theoretical foundation for breeding disease resistance sheep in future. This study was carried out on 204 Chinese Merino sheep, including 101 CE sheep and 103 healthy controls. The polymorphism of MHC-DQB1 exon 2 was detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method, and x2 test was used to compare genotype frequencies between CE sheep and healthy controls. A total of 22 alleles and 42 genotypes were identified in DQB1 exon 2 in Chinese Merino sheep. In addition, x2 test showed that frequencies of DQB1-TaqIaa and DQB1-HaeIIInn genotypes were significantly higher in the healthy group (82.5% and 57.3%, respectively than that in the CE group (57.4% and 28.9%, respectively (both p values = 0, OR = 0.286, 0.303, respectively, suggesting that these genotypes appeared to be associated with resistance to CE. Whereas, frequencies of DQB1-TaqIab and DQB1-HaeIIImn genotypes were significantly higher in the CE group (36.9% and 32.0%, respectively, as compared with the healthy group (16.5% and 11.15%, respectively (p = 0.001, 0.001 and OR = 2.963, 3.629, respectively, indicating that these genotypes might be associated with susceptibility to CE. It is concluded that the genetic polymorphism within MHC-DQB1 might influence immune responses to pathogens, thus leading to the development of CE or protection against CE in Chinese Merino sheep, which would pave the way for breeding

  13. Resistivity variations related to the large March 9, 1998 eruption at La Fournaise volcano inferred by continuous MT monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyniak, Pierre; Zlotnicki, Jacques; Sailhac, Pascal; Marquis, Guy

    2017-11-01

    The 2645 m-high La Fournaise volcano, located in the Southwest of Réunion Island (Indian Ocean), is a shield basaltic volcano where effusive eruptions generally occur along long fissures starting from the summit, alongside major fractures that characterize the eruptions' dynamism and effusivity. Between 1992 and 1998, the volcano underwent a quiet period during which few earthquakes were recorded. Minor seismic activity returned after 1997 and picked up in March 1998 during the 35 h preceding the March 9 eruption. From 1996, two autonomous stations (CSV and BAV) were installed on the volcano. CSV was located inside the Enclos Fouqué caldera while BAV was positioned 8.2 km NW of the volcano summit. Horizontal components of the electric and magnetic fields were sampled every 20 s. Continuous time-series were available from 1996 to 1999 at CSV, and from 1997 to March 1998 at BAV. Data have been processed using both single-station and remote-reference processing. Both results show apparent resistivity variations synchronous to the eruption. Time-lapse impedance estimates are computed on overlapping time windows of about two days at both stations. The only major decrease of the observed impedance coincides with the March 1998 eruption. At CSV, the resistivity started to drop about five days before the eruption, reached several local minima until April, and then slowly increased as the volcanic crisis reduced in activity. After the end of the crisis in September 1998, the apparent resistivity recovered its pre-crisis value. The time-lapse results also show variability in directionality: sharp and elongated phase tensor ellipse residuals appear during the eruption with a N105° orientation, suggesting the emergence of an almost NS-striking dyke. A 1D background model built from MT soundings performed during the quiet period (1996 to February 1998) on which a 3D NS-striking dyke was added shows a good agreement with phase tensor residuals and spatial distribution of the

  14. Nudge for (the Public) Good: How Defaults Can Affect Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosgaard, Toke R; Piovesan, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we test the effect of non-binding defaults on the level of contribution to a public good. We manipulate the default numbers appearing on the decision screen to nudge subjects toward a free-rider strategy or a perfect conditional cooperator strategy. Our results show that the vast majority of our subjects did not adopt the default numbers, but their stated strategy was affected by the default. Moreover, we find that our manipulation spilled over to a subsequent repeated public goods game where default was not manipulated. Here we found that subjects who previously saw the free rider default were significantly less cooperative than those who saw the perfect conditional cooperator default.

  15. Nudge for (the Public Good: How Defaults Can Affect Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toke R Fosgaard

    Full Text Available In this paper we test the effect of non-binding defaults on the level of contribution to a public good. We manipulate the default numbers appearing on the decision screen to nudge subjects toward a free-rider strategy or a perfect conditional cooperator strategy. Our results show that the vast majority of our subjects did not adopt the default numbers, but their stated strategy was affected by the default. Moreover, we find that our manipulation spilled over to a subsequent repeated public goods game where default was not manipulated. Here we found that subjects who previously saw the free rider default were significantly less cooperative than those who saw the perfect conditional cooperator default.

  16. Resistance evaluation expanded perlite the leaching acid: variation of parameters concentration, time and leaching agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, J.M.F. de; Damasceno Junior, E.; Oliveira, E.S.; Fernandes, N.S.

    2016-01-01

    The expanded perlite is an amorphous aluminosilicate which presents in its composition about 75.0% silicon oxide (SiO2), also having other species in the composition as oxides of some metals. Silicas and silicates have been used in the environmental field, in relevant anti-corrosive activity. In this context, materials that exposes too many highly acidic media, require preservation against this type of wear, as this type of damage causes a great financial loss, thereby requiring low-cost, abundant materials, non-toxic and easy to purchase as some silica coating. The study evaluated the perlite expanded resistance against an acid leaching process. With undeniability the use of strong acids and different working conditions were not able to remove the oxides present on the expanded perlite sample, thus demonstrating the high strength of the expanded perlite against acid attacks. (author)

  17. Clot friction variation with fibrin content; implications for resistance to thrombectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Gillian M; McArdle, Kevin; Mirza, Mahmood; Duffy, Sharon; Gilvarry, Michael; Brouwer, Patrick A

    2018-01-01

    Despite significant advancements in the procedural efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy in patients with ischemic stroke in recent years, there still remains a portion of the population that does not achieve good recanalization. The reasons for this may be varied. We hypothesized that static friction between the clot and the vessel, or catheter wall might contribute to the difficulty in removing the clot. To determine if there is a relationship between clot composition and the resistance to sliding (friction) which might contribute to resistance to clot removal. As clot composition can vary significantly, we investigated five different types of clot in order to measure their respective frictional properties. To do this, a custom-made testing apparatus was created, consisting of various replaceable low-friction surfaces on which the clots could be placed. The surface was then gradually tilted until the clots began to slide; the angle at which this occurred is related to the coefficient of friction of the clots. The experiment was repeated on a bovine aortic surface in order to confirm the results. We found that fibrin-rich clots (friction than clots with a red blood cell content >20%. This result was confirmed by repeating the experiment on a bovine aortic surface as a representation of the interaction between clots and the arterial wall. The friction properties of clots were found to be related to the content ratio of fibrin to red blood cells. Future imaging techniques that could show fibrin and red blood cell content might help us to predict the 'stickiness' of a clot. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. On strategic default and liquidity risk

    OpenAIRE

    Tambakis, Demosthenes N

    2002-01-01

    How does the uncertain provision of external finance affect investment projects' default probability and liquidity risk? In this paper, I study the strategic interaction between many creditors and a single borrower in the context of a two-period investment project requiring external credit. Loans mature in one period but the project requires two periods to complete. The key working assumptions are that creditors are risk-averse and that any uncertainty is common knowledge: information about ...

  19. Credit Default Swaps networks and systemic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puliga, Michelangelo; Caldarelli, Guido; Battiston, Stefano

    2014-11-01

    Credit Default Swaps (CDS) spreads should reflect default risk of the underlying corporate debt. Actually, it has been recognized that CDS spread time series did not anticipate but only followed the increasing risk of default before the financial crisis. In principle, the network of correlations among CDS spread time series could at least display some form of structural change to be used as an early warning of systemic risk. Here we study a set of 176 CDS time series of financial institutions from 2002 to 2011. Networks are constructed in various ways, some of which display structural change at the onset of the credit crisis of 2008, but never before. By taking these networks as a proxy of interdependencies among financial institutions, we run stress-test based on Group DebtRank. Systemic risk before 2008 increases only when incorporating a macroeconomic indicator reflecting the potential losses of financial assets associated with house prices in the US. This approach indicates a promising way to detect systemic instabilities.

  20. Credit Default Swaps networks and systemic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puliga, Michelangelo; Caldarelli, Guido; Battiston, Stefano

    2014-11-04

    Credit Default Swaps (CDS) spreads should reflect default risk of the underlying corporate debt. Actually, it has been recognized that CDS spread time series did not anticipate but only followed the increasing risk of default before the financial crisis. In principle, the network of correlations among CDS spread time series could at least display some form of structural change to be used as an early warning of systemic risk. Here we study a set of 176 CDS time series of financial institutions from 2002 to 2011. Networks are constructed in various ways, some of which display structural change at the onset of the credit crisis of 2008, but never before. By taking these networks as a proxy of interdependencies among financial institutions, we run stress-test based on Group DebtRank. Systemic risk before 2008 increases only when incorporating a macroeconomic indicator reflecting the potential losses of financial assets associated with house prices in the US. This approach indicates a promising way to detect systemic instabilities.

  1. Understanding Emerging Market Sovereign Bond Yield Spread: Role of Default and Non-Default Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelia Surya Pratiwi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is motivated by the fact that emerging market assets size has been expanding and trying to use sovereign debt market as part of capital market as main research focus. It is highlighting the distinction between default and non-default determinants and examining their significance in explaining emerging market sovereign bond yield spread. Using Cross-Sectional Fixed-Effect Panel Estimator, we found that both default (as proxied by Credit Rating and Outlook Index and non-default (as proxied by 3-month Fed Funds Futures determinants has significant explanatory power to sovereign bond yield spread. Extensively, we also found the significance to add volatility of 3-month Fed Funds Futures and Fed Target Rate basis and volatility of advanced stock markets as variables to stand for non-default determinants in the model. The significance of the latter model is strengthened by higher forecasting as well as indicates the significant role of US market to emerging market sovereign bond market.

  2. Somaclonal variation of sugar beet resistant to pathogenic root rot Fusarium oxysporum var. orthoceras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urazaliev Kairat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. - one of the most important crop in the world. In Kazakhstan, it is a traditional and major source of domestic sugar. The industry of cultivation and production of sugar beet is one of the priority areas of agricultural development of the country. In this paper, we studied the regeneration ability of different genotypes of sugar beet explants on selective media with the culture filtrate of the pathogen fungus F. oxysporum var. orthoceras. From the roots and shoots of sugar beet the pathogen Fusarium root rot was isolated. Was obtained pure cultures of the isolated pathogen. As a result, of morphological and cultural descriptions, as well as microbiological analysis it was revealed that the isolated pathogen is Fusarium Oxysporum. The results showed the pathogenicity of the fungus. For regeneration in vitro of the sugar beet genotypes resistant to the pathogen the culture media was optimized to the culture filtrate of the fungus F. oxysporum var. orthoceras. The frequency of shoot regeneration, depending on the genotype, was 1,0-12,5 %. On these explants the multiple shoot formations were observed.

  3. ON THE INFLUENCE OF COLD WORK ON RESISTIVITY VARIATIONS WITH THERMAL EXPOSURE IN IN-718 NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhi, Elhoucine; Nagy, Peter B.

    2010-01-01

    In nickel-base superalloys, irreversible electrical conductivity changes occur above a transition temperature where thermally-activated microstructural evolution initiates. The electrical conductivity first decreases above about 450 deg. C then increases above 600 deg. C. However, the presence of plastic deformation results in accelerated microstructure evolution at an earlier transition temperature. It was recently suggested that this well-known phenomenon might explain the notable conductivity difference between the peened near-surface part and the intact part at sufficiently large depth in surface-treated specimens. The influence of cold work on the electrical conductivity change with thermal exposure offers a probable answer to one of the main remaining questions in eddy current residual stress assessment, namely unusually fast and occasionally even non-monotonic decay of the apparent eddy current conductivity (AECC) change that was observed at temperatures as low as 400 deg. C. To validate this explanation, the present study investigates the influence of cold work on low-frequency Alternating Current Potential Drop (ACPD) resistivity variations with thermal exposure. In-situ resistivity monitoring was conducted throughout various heating cycles using the ACPD technique. IN-718 nickel-base superalloy specimens with different levels of cold work were exposed to gradually increasing peak temperatures from 400 deg. C to 800 deg. C. The results indicate that the initial irreversible rise in resistivity is approximately one order of magnitude higher and occurs at about 50 deg. C lower temperature in cold-worked samples of 30% plastic strain than in the intact material.

  4. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-07-01

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure.

  5. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-07-22

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure.

  6. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-01-01

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure. PMID:27444518

  7. Variation in PPARG is associated with longitudinal change in insulin resistance in Mexican Americans at risk for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Mary Helen; Wu, Jun; Takayanagi, Miwa; Wang, Nan; Taylor, Kent D; Haritunians, Talin; Trigo, Enrique; Lawrence, Jean M; Watanabe, Richard M; Buchanan, Thomas A; Xiang, Anny H

    2015-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) is a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although cross-sectional associations have been reported, primarily for Pro12Ala, few longitudinal studies in nondiabetic populations have been conducted. This study aimed to examine whether and to what extent variation in PPARG is associated with longitudinal changes in anthropometric and metabolic traits in Mexican Americans at risk for T2DM. Subjects were participants of BetaGene, a family-based study of obesity, insulin resistance, and β-cell function, who completed a baseline and follow-up study visit (n = 378; mean followup, 4.6 ± 1.5 y). Phenotypes included body fat assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; insulin sensitivity (SI), acute insulin response, and β-cell function (disposition index; DI) were estimated from iv glucose tolerance tests with Minimal Model analysis. Eighteen tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) capturing variation in a 156-kb region surrounding PPARG were tested for association with changes in longitudinal traits. P-values were Bonferroni-corrected for multiple testing. Six SNPs (rs2972164, rs11128598, rs17793951, rs1151996, rs1175541, rs3856806) were significantly associated with rate of change in SI after adjustment for age, sex, and body fat percentage, but not with changes in adiposity. rs17793951 also had a significant effect on change in DI over time. Association between rs1175541 and change in SI varied by changes in adiposity such that only carriers of the minor allele who reduced body fat over followup improved SI. rs1306470 (captured Pro12Ala, r(2) = 0.9) was not associated with rates of change in any traits and its effects were not modified by changes in adiposity. Variation in PPARG, but not Pro12Ala, contributes to declining SI and concomitant deterioration in β-cell function in Mexican Americans at risk for T2DM.

  8. Aberrant functional connectivity of default-mode network in type 2 diabetes patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Ying; Jiao, Yun; Chen, Hua-Jun; Ding, Jie; Luo, Bing; Peng, Cheng-Yu; Ju, Sheng-Hong; Teng, Gao-Jun [Medical School of Southeast University, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-11-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risk for dementia. Patients with impaired cognition often show default-mode network disruption. We aimed to investigate the integrity of a default-mode network in diabetic patients by using independent component analysis, and to explore the relationship between network abnormalities, neurocognitive performance and diabetic variables. Forty-two patients with type 2 diabetes and 42 well-matched healthy controls were included and underwent resting-state functional MRI in a 3 Tesla unit. Independent component analysis was adopted to extract the default-mode network, including its anterior and posterior components. Z-maps of both sub-networks were compared between the two groups and correlated with each clinical variable. Patients showed increased connectivity around the medial prefrontal cortex in the anterior sub-network, but decreased connectivity around the posterior cingulate cortex in the posterior sub-network. The decreased connectivity in the posterior part was significantly correlated with the score on Complex Figure Test-delay recall test (r = 0.359, p = 0.020), the time spent on Trail-Making Test-part B (r = -0.346, p = 0.025) and the insulin resistance level (r = -0.404, p = 0.024). Dissociation pattern in the default-mode network was found in diabetic patients, which might provide powerful new insights into the neural mechanisms that underlie the diabetes-related cognitive decline. (orig.)

  9. Aberrant functional connectivity of default-mode network in type 2 diabetes patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Ying; Jiao, Yun; Chen, Hua-Jun; Ding, Jie; Luo, Bing; Peng, Cheng-Yu; Ju, Sheng-Hong; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risk for dementia. Patients with impaired cognition often show default-mode network disruption. We aimed to investigate the integrity of a default-mode network in diabetic patients by using independent component analysis, and to explore the relationship between network abnormalities, neurocognitive performance and diabetic variables. Forty-two patients with type 2 diabetes and 42 well-matched healthy controls were included and underwent resting-state functional MRI in a 3 Tesla unit. Independent component analysis was adopted to extract the default-mode network, including its anterior and posterior components. Z-maps of both sub-networks were compared between the two groups and correlated with each clinical variable. Patients showed increased connectivity around the medial prefrontal cortex in the anterior sub-network, but decreased connectivity around the posterior cingulate cortex in the posterior sub-network. The decreased connectivity in the posterior part was significantly correlated with the score on Complex Figure Test-delay recall test (r = 0.359, p = 0.020), the time spent on Trail-Making Test-part B (r = -0.346, p = 0.025) and the insulin resistance level (r = -0.404, p = 0.024). Dissociation pattern in the default-mode network was found in diabetic patients, which might provide powerful new insights into the neural mechanisms that underlie the diabetes-related cognitive decline. (orig.)

  10. Conceptual and Statistical Issues Regarding the Probability of Default and Modeling Default Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia TITAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In today’s rapidly evolving financial markets, risk management offers different techniques in order to implement an efficient system against market risk. Probability of default (PD is an essential part of business intelligence and customer relation management systems in the financial institutions. Recent studies indicates that underestimating this important component, and also the loss given default (LGD, might threaten the stability and smooth running of the financial markets. From the perspective of risk management, the result of predictive accuracy of the estimated probability of default is more valuable than the standard binary classification: credible or non credible clients. The Basle II Accord recognizes the methods of reducing credit risk and also PD and LGD as important components of advanced Internal Rating Based (IRB approach.

  11. Variations the diameter tip of electrode on the resistance spot welding using electrode Cu on worksheet Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskoro, A. S.; Sugeng, S.; Sifa, Agus; Badruzzaman; Endramawan, Tito

    2018-04-01

    Resistance Spot Weld (RSW) is a welding technology which plays an important role that is often used in industry in large manufacturing industries, especially in the automotive sector, some of the parameters are affecting the welding process that give impact in the weld quality, diameter tip important impact on the resistance spot welding, This study can be categorized as experimental study by using Electrode material such as Cu and Fe Worksheet Materials, with a material thickness of 1 mm,0,8 mm, and 0,6 mm on each worksheet, and the large diameter of tip electrode (5√t) depend on the thickness of worksheet. Testing the material in the electrode and the worksheet by testing the composition and tensile test, and the hardness of the material used are to know the material used certainly. The result of the welding process was done by using the parameters voltage of 8KV, with a duty cycle of 50% using a variation of the time 8s-10s, and variations the electrode tip diameter that are affected by the thickness of the worksheet 5\\sqrt{t}, plate thickness used 1 mm, 0,8 mm and 0,6 mm, so that the electrodes was used to a thickness of 1 mm diameter tip electrode 5 mm, thickness 0,8 mm with an electrode tip diameter 4,5 mm and a thickness 0,6 mm with an electrode diameter of 4 mm, with current welding parameter 8kVA, and variations in holding time 10s, 9s and 8s 50% duty cycle, then testing welds with the standard shear test refers ASTM A370-2012 with more results to a thickness of 0,6 has the ability to withstand greater load on the holding time 8s and 9s, 10s, to a thickness 0,8 mm and 1 mm shear test results demonstrate the ability to withstand loads on the holding time of 10s and 9s have a greater ability than 8s on worksheet that has thickness 1 mm at a holding time of 10s, and then Maximum shear test averaging of 36,41 N at a worksheet with a thickness of 0,8 mm (diameter tip 4,5 mm) at a holding time of 8s and a mean minimum shear stress of 23,73 N at worksheet that

  12. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Natural Variations Contributing to Drought Resistance in Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Crops are often cultivated in regions where they will face environmental adversities; resulting in substantial yield loss which can ultimately lead to food and societal problems. Thus, significant efforts have been made to breed stress tolerant cultivars in an attempt to minimize these problems and to produce more stability with respect to crop yields across broad geographies. Since stress tolerance is a complex and multi-genic trait, advancements with classical breeding approaches have been challenging. On the other hand, molecular breeding, which is based on transgenics, marker-assisted selection and genome editing technologies; holds great promise to enable farmers to better cope with these challenges. However, identification of the key genetic components underlying the trait is critical and will serve as the foundation for future crop genetic improvement. Recently, genome-wide association studies have made significant contributions to facilitate the discovery of natural variation contributing to stress tolerance in crops. From these studies, the identified loci can serve as targets for genomic selection or editing to enable the molecular design of new cultivars. Here, we summarize research progress on this issue and focus on the genetic basis of drought tolerance as revealed by genome-wide association studies and quantitative trait loci mapping. Although many favorable loci have been identified, elucidation of their molecular mechanisms contributing to increased stress tolerance still remains a challenge. Thus, continuous efforts are still required to functionally dissect this complex trait through comprehensive approaches, such as system biological studies. It is expected that proper application of the acquired knowledge will enable the development of stress tolerant cultivars; allowing agricultural production to become more sustainable under dynamic environmental conditions.

  13. Credit Default and Business Cycles: An Empirical Investigation of Brazilian Retail Loans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnildo da Silva Correa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We use microdata from the Credit Information System (SCR of the Central Bank of Brazil to study the relationship between credit default and business cycles. In particular, we study the first part of the argument underlying the discussion about procyclicality related to the Basel II Accord: that recessions might increase credit defaults and have adverse impacts on the losses in portfolios of lender institutions. We explore both time series and cross-sectional variation in the data. Our data on the individual level are composed of retail loan transactions in two modalities-Consumer Credit and Vehicle Financing-from 2003 to 2008. Our results support the idea of a negative relationship between business cycles and credit default, but less strong than suggested in previous studies that use corporate data. We also find low and dispersed default correlations, and smaller losses in Value at Risk (VaR experiments than those found in the literature. These results may be possibly explained by the fact that, in the retail sector, loans are given to a large number of individuals, which may help to diversify risks.

  14. Liquidity crisis detection: An application of log-periodic power law structures to default prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnitza, Jan Henrik; Denz, Cornelia

    2013-09-01

    We employ the log-periodic power law (LPPL) to analyze the late-2000 financial crisis from the perspective of critical phenomena. The main purpose of this study is to examine whether LPPL structures in the development of credit default swap (CDS) spreads can be used for default classification. Based on the different triggers of Bear Stearns’ near bankruptcy during the late-2000 financial crisis and Ford’s insolvency in 2009, this study provides a quantitative description of the mechanism behind bank runs. We apply the Johansen-Ledoit-Sornette (JLS) positive feedback model to explain the rise of financial institutions’ CDS spreads during the global financial crisis 2007-2009. This investigation is based on CDS spreads of 40 major banks over the period from June 2007 to April 2009 which includes a significant CDS spread increase. The qualitative data analysis indicates that the CDS spread variations have followed LPPL patterns during the global financial crisis. Furthermore, the univariate classification performances of seven LPPL parameters as default indicators are measured by Mann-Whitney U tests. The present study supports the hypothesis that discrete scale-invariance governs the dynamics of financial markets and suggests the application of new and fast updateable default indicators to capture the buildup of long-range correlations between creditors.

  15. Population variation in drought resistance and its relationship with adaptive and physiological seedling traits in Turkish red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.)

    OpenAIRE

    KANDEMİR, GAYE; ÖNDE, SERTAÇ; TEMEL, FATİH; KAYA, ZEKİ

    2017-01-01

    Variation in drought resistance and its relationship with adaptive and physiological traits in forest trees are important in choosing suitable seed sources for reforestation and afforestation programs. A common garden experiment using 240 half-sib families originating from coastal and inland populations of Turkish red pine (Pinus brutia) in Turkey was set up with three replicates. The aims were to determine variation of drought damage, height growth, and phenology among populations and to ...

  16. Variation in Resistance of Natural Isolates of Escherichia coli O157 to High Hydrostatic Pressure, Mild Heat, and Other Stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Benito, Amparo; Ventoura, Georgia; Casadei, Maria; Robinson, Tobin; Mackey, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    Strains of Escherichia coli O157 isolated from patients with clinical cases of food-borne illness and other sources exhibited wide differences in resistance to high hydrostatic pressure. The most pressure-resistant strains were also more resistant to mild heat than other strains. Strain C9490, a representative pressure-resistant strain, was also more resistant to acid, oxidative, and osmotic stresses than the pressure-sensitive strain NCTC 12079. Most of these differences in resistance were o...

  17. Default Mode Dynamics for Global Functional Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Deniz; Menon, David K; Manktelow, Anne E; Sahakian, Barbara J; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A

    2015-11-18

    The default mode network (DMN) has been traditionally assumed to hinder behavioral performance in externally focused, goal-directed paradigms and to provide no active contribution to human cognition. However, recent evidence suggests greater DMN activity in an array of tasks, especially those that involve self-referential and memory-based processing. Although data that robustly demonstrate a comprehensive functional role for DMN remains relatively scarce, the global workspace framework, which implicates the DMN in global information integration for conscious processing, can potentially provide an explanation for the broad range of higher-order paradigms that report DMN involvement. We used graph theoretical measures to assess the contribution of the DMN to global functional connectivity dynamics in 22 healthy volunteers during an fMRI-based n-back working-memory paradigm with parametric increases in difficulty. Our predominant finding is that brain modularity decreases with greater task demands, thus adapting a more global workspace configuration, in direct relation to increases in reaction times to correct responses. Flexible default mode regions dynamically switch community memberships and display significant changes in their nodal participation coefficient and strength, which may reflect the observed whole-brain changes in functional connectivity architecture. These findings have important implications for our understanding of healthy brain function, as they suggest a central role for the DMN in higher cognitive processing. The default mode network (DMN) has been shown to increase its activity during the absence of external stimulation, and hence was historically assumed to disengage during goal-directed tasks. Recent evidence, however, implicates the DMN in self-referential and memory-based processing. We provide robust evidence for this network's active contribution to working memory by revealing dynamic reconfiguration in its interactions with other networks

  18. Signals analysis of fluxgate array for wire rope defaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Wei; Chu Jianxin

    2005-01-01

    In order to detecting the magnetic leakage fields of the wire rope defaults, a transducer made up of the fluxgate array is designed, and a series of the characteristic values of wire rope defaults signals are defined. By processing the characteristic signals, the LF or LMA of wire rope are distinguished, and the default extent is estimated. The experiment results of the new method for detecting the wire rope faults are introduced

  19. The Role of Demand Response in Default Service Pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Neenan, Bernie

    2006-01-01

    In designing default service for competitive retail markets, demand response has been an afterthought at best. But that may be changing, as states that initiated customer choice in the past five to seven years reach an important juncture in retail market design and consider an RTP-type default service for large commercial and industrial customers. The authors describe the experience to date with RTP as a default service, focusing on its role as an instrument for cultivating price-responsive demand. (author)

  20. Time of default in tuberculosis patients on directly observed treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardeshi, Geeta S

    2010-09-01

    Default remains an important challenge for the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme, which has achieved improved cure rates. This study describes the pattern of time of default in patients on DOTS. Tuberculosis Unit in District Tuberculosis Centre, Yavatmal, India; Retrospective cohort study. This analysis was done among the cohort of patients of registered at the Tuberculosis Unit during the year 2004. The time of default was assessed from the tuberculosis register. The sputum smear conversion and treatment outcome were also assessed. Kaplan-Meier plots and log rank tests. Overall, the default rate amongst the 716 patients registered at the Tuberculosis Unit was 10.33%. There was a significant difference in the default rate over time between the three DOTS categories (log rank statistic= 15.49, P=0.0004). Amongst the 331 smear-positive patients, the cumulative default rates at the end of intensive phase were 4% and 16%; while by end of treatment period, the default rates were 6% and 31% in category I and category II, respectively. A majority of the smear-positive patients in category II belonged to the group 'treatment after default' (56/95), and 30% of them defaulted during re-treatment. The sputum smear conversion rate at the end of intensive phase was 84%. Amongst 36 patients without smear conversion at the end of intensive phase, 55% had treatment failure. Patients defaulting in intensive phase of treatment and without smear conversion at the end of intensive phase should be retrieved on a priority basis. Default constitutes not only a major reason for patients needing re-treatment but also a risk for repeated default.

  1. Natural Variation in Elicitation of Defense-Signaling Associates to Field Resistance Against the Spot Blotch Disease in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sandeep; Sahu, Ranabir; Navathe, Sudhir; Mishra, Vinod K; Chand, Ramesh; Singh, Pawan K; Joshi, Arun K; Pandey, Shree P

    2018-01-01

    Spot blotch, caused by the hemibiotropic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana , is amongst the most damaging diseases of wheat. Still, natural variation in expression of biochemical traits that determine field resistance to spot blotch in wheat remain unaddressed. To understand how genotypic variations relate to metabolite profiles of the components of defense-signaling and the plant performance, as well as to discover novel sources of resistance against spot blotch, we have conducted field studies using 968 wheat genotypes at 5 geographical locations in South-Asia in 2 years. 46 genotypes were identified as resistant. Further, in independent confirmatory trials in subsequent 3 years, over 5 geographical locations, we re-characterized 55 genotypes for their resistance (above 46 along with Yangmai#6, a well characterized resistant genotype, and eight susceptible genotypes). We next determined time-dependent spot blotch-induced metabolite profiles of components of defense-signaling as well as levels of enzymatic components of defense pathway (such as salicylic acid (SA), phenolic acids, and redox components), and derived co-variation patterns with respect to resistance in these 55 genotypes. Spot blotch-induced SA accumulation was negatively correlated to disease progression. Amongst phenolic acids, syringic acid was most strongly inversely correlated to disease progression, indicating a defensive function, which was independently confirmed. Thus, exploring natural variation proved extremely useful in determining traits influencing phenotypic plasticity and adaptation to complex environments. Further, by overcoming environmental heterogeneity, our study identifies germplasm and biochemical traits that are deployable for spot blotch resistance in wheat along South-Asia.

  2. Default Bayesian Estimation of the Fundamental Frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2013-01-01

    Joint fundamental frequency and model order esti- mation is an important problem in several applications. In this paper, a default estimation algorithm based on a minimum of prior information is presented. The algorithm is developed in a Bayesian framework, and it can be applied to both real....... Moreover, several approximations of the posterior distributions on the fundamental frequency and the model order are derived, and one of the state-of-the-art joint fundamental frequency and model order estimators is demonstrated to be a special case of one of these approximations. The performance...

  3. Default contagion risks in Russian interbank market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonidov, A. V.; Rumyantsev, E. L.

    2016-06-01

    Systemic risks of default contagion in the Russian interbank market are investigated. The analysis is based on considering the bow-tie structure of the weighted oriented graph describing the structure of the interbank loans. A probabilistic model of interbank contagion explicitly taking into account the empirical bow-tie structure reflecting functionality of the corresponding nodes (borrowers, lenders, borrowers and lenders simultaneously), degree distributions and disassortativity of the interbank network under consideration based on empirical data is developed. The characteristics of contagion-related systemic risk calculated with this model are shown to be in agreement with those of explicit stress tests.

  4. Shopping Center Financing: Pricing Loan Default Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Chinloy; James Musumeci

    1994-01-01

    The financing structure of a shopping center is decomposed into an income security and two put options. These put options are respectively held by the borrower against the lender for default, and by the lender against an insurer or reinsurer. The prices of the put option depend on the loan-to-value ration of the loan and on the risk of the investment. The interest rate charged on the loan is the sum of four components: a riskless rate, lender production costs, and the net price of the put opt...

  5. Assigning Robust Default Values in Building Performance Simulation Software for Improved Decision-Making in the Initial Stages of Building Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyosuke Hiyama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Applying data mining techniques on a database of BIM models could provide valuable insights in key design patterns implicitly present in these BIM models. The architectural designer would then be able to use previous data from existing building projects as default values in building performance simulation software for the early phases of building design. The author has proposed the method to minimize the magnitude of the variation in these default values in subsequent design stages. This approach maintains the accuracy of the simulation results in the initial stages of building design. In this study, a more convincing argument is presented to demonstrate the significance of the new method. The variation in the ideal default values for different building design conditions is assessed first. Next, the influence of each condition on these variations is investigated. The space depth is found to have a large impact on the ideal default value of the window to wall ratio. In addition, the presence or absence of lighting control and natural ventilation has a significant influence on the ideal default value. These effects can be used to identify the types of building conditions that should be considered to determine the ideal default values.

  6. Assigning Robust Default Values in Building Performance Simulation Software for Improved Decision-Making in the Initial Stages of Building Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, Kyosuke

    2015-01-01

    Applying data mining techniques on a database of BIM models could provide valuable insights in key design patterns implicitly present in these BIM models. The architectural designer would then be able to use previous data from existing building projects as default values in building performance simulation software for the early phases of building design. The author has proposed the method to minimize the magnitude of the variation in these default values in subsequent design stages. This approach maintains the accuracy of the simulation results in the initial stages of building design. In this study, a more convincing argument is presented to demonstrate the significance of the new method. The variation in the ideal default values for different building design conditions is assessed first. Next, the influence of each condition on these variations is investigated. The space depth is found to have a large impact on the ideal default value of the window to wall ratio. In addition, the presence or absence of lighting control and natural ventilation has a significant influence on the ideal default value. These effects can be used to identify the types of building conditions that should be considered to determine the ideal default values.

  7. Default Drug Doses in Anesthesia Information Management Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Luis I; Smaka, Todd J; Mahla, Michael; Epstein, Richard H

    2017-07-01

    In the United States, anesthesia information management systems (AIMS) are well established, especially within academic practices. Many hospitals are replacing their stand-alone AIMS during migration to an enterprise-wide electronic health record. This presents an opportunity to review choices made during the original implementation, based on actual usage. One area amenable to this informatics approach is the configuration in the AIMS of quick buttons for typical drug doses. The use of such short cuts, as opposed to manual typing of doses, simplifies and may improve the accuracy of drug documentation within the AIMS. We analyzed administration data from 3 different institutions, 2 of which had empirically configured default doses, and one in which defaults had not been set up. Our first hypothesis was that most (ie, >50%) of drugs would need at least one change to the existing defaults. Our second hypothesis was that for most (>50%) drugs, the 4 most common doses at the site lacking defaults would be included among the most common doses at the 2 sites with defaults. If true, this would suggest that having default doses did not affect the typical administration behavior of providers. The frequency distribution of doses for all drugs was determined, and the 4 most common doses representing at least 5% of total administrations for each drug were identified. The appropriateness of the current defaults was determined by the number of changes (0-4) required to match actual usage at the 2 hospitals with defaults. At the institution without defaults, the most frequent doses for the 20 most commonly administered drugs were compared with the default doses at the other institutions. At the 2 institutions with defaults, 84.7% and 77.5% of drugs required at least 1 change in the default drug doses (P default drug doses, 100% of the 20 most commonly administered doses (representing ≥5% of use for that drug) were included in the most commonly administered doses at the other 2

  8. Default network connectivity in medial temporal lobe amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Scott M; Salat, David H; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2012-10-17

    There is substantial overlap between the brain regions supporting episodic memory and the default network. However, in humans, the impact of bilateral medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage on a large-scale neural network such as the default mode network is unknown. To examine this issue, resting fMRI was performed with amnesic patients and control participants. Seed-based functional connectivity analyses revealed robust default network connectivity in amnesia in cortical default network regions such as medial prefrontal cortex, posterior medial cortex, and lateral parietal cortex, as well as evidence of connectivity to residual MTL tissue. Relative to control participants, decreased posterior cingulate cortex connectivity to MTL and increased connectivity to cortical default network regions including lateral parietal and medial prefrontal cortex were observed in amnesic patients. In contrast, somatomotor network connectivity was intact in amnesic patients, indicating that bilateral MTL lesions may selectively impact the default network. Changes in default network connectivity in amnesia were largely restricted to the MTL subsystem, providing preliminary support from MTL amnesic patients that the default network can be fractionated into functionally and structurally distinct components. To our knowledge, this is the first examination of the default network in amnesia.

  9. Characterization of the Spatial and Temporal Variations of Submarine Groundwater Discharge Using Electrical Resistivity and Seepage Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Josephine Miryam Kalyanie

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) encompasses all fluids crossing the sediment/ocean interface, regardless of their origin, composition or driving forces. SGD provides a pathway for terrestrial contaminants that can significantly impact coastal ecosystems. Overexploitation of groundwater resources can decrease SGD which favors seawater intrusion at depth. Understanding SGD is therefore crucial for water quality and resource management. Quantifying SGD is challenging due to its diffuse and heterogeneous nature, in addition to significant spatio-temporal variations at multiple scales. In this thesis, an integrated approach combining electrical resistivity (ER) surveys, conductivity and temperature point measurements, seepage rates using manual and ultrasonic seepage meters, and pore fluid salinities was used to characterize SGD spatio-temporal variations and their implications for contaminant transport at several locations on Long Island, NY. The influence of surficial sediments on SGD distribution was investigated in Stony Brook Harbor. A low-permeability mud layer, actively depositing in the harbor, limits SGD at the shoreline, prevents mixing with seawater and channels a significant volume of freshwater offshore. SGD measured at locations without mud is high and indicates significant mixing between porewater and seawater. A 2D steady-state density-difference numerical model of the harbor was developed using SEAWAT and was validated by our field observations. Temporal variations of SGD due to semi-diurnal tidal forcing were studied in West Neck Bay, Shelter Island, using a 12-hr time-lapse ER survey together with continuous salinity and seepage measurements in the intertidal zone. The observed dynamic patterns of groundwater flux and salinity distribution disagree with published standard transient state numerical models, suggesting the need for developing more specific models of non-homogeneous anisotropic aquifers. SGD distribution and composition were

  10. A default Bayesian hypothesis test for mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuijten, Michèle B; Wetzels, Ruud; Matzke, Dora; Dolan, Conor V; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2015-03-01

    In order to quantify the relationship between multiple variables, researchers often carry out a mediation analysis. In such an analysis, a mediator (e.g., knowledge of a healthy diet) transmits the effect from an independent variable (e.g., classroom instruction on a healthy diet) to a dependent variable (e.g., consumption of fruits and vegetables). Almost all mediation analyses in psychology use frequentist estimation and hypothesis-testing techniques. A recent exception is Yuan and MacKinnon (Psychological Methods, 14, 301-322, 2009), who outlined a Bayesian parameter estimation procedure for mediation analysis. Here we complete the Bayesian alternative to frequentist mediation analysis by specifying a default Bayesian hypothesis test based on the Jeffreys-Zellner-Siow approach. We further extend this default Bayesian test by allowing a comparison to directional or one-sided alternatives, using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques implemented in JAGS. All Bayesian tests are implemented in the R package BayesMed (Nuijten, Wetzels, Matzke, Dolan, & Wagenmakers, 2014).

  11. Default supply issues divides consumer advocates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    In Toronto, various agencies, all claiming to represent the best interests of consumers, have taken very different positions on the limits that should be placed on suppliers of standard electricity service, due to an unexpected effect of Ontario's market design. The debate has polarized into either support for the Market Design Committee's recommendations restricting local companies' distribution of electricity to one of passing on the spot market price to their standard customers or the view that municipal utilities should be permitted to enter into contracts for power in order to supply the needs of their standard service customers. The Independent Power Producers' Society of Ontario (IPPSO) takes the position that its member companies should have direct access to the default supply market and not to be forced to deal solely with the spot market to reach this market sector. This default market is expected to be the largest potential end use market in Ontario for the power produced and/or sold by IPPSO members. It is expected to be 70% of the total Ontario wholesale electricity market for many years to come

  12. Pricing constant maturity credit default swaps under jumo dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jönsson, H.; Schoutens, W.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the pricing of Constant Maturity Credit Default Swaps (CMCDS) under single sided jump models. The CMCDS offers default protection in exchange for a floating premium which is periodically reset and indexed to the market spread on a CDS with constant maturity tenor written on

  13. Cyclicality and Firm Size in Private Firm Defaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thais Lærkholm; Lando, David; Medhat, Mamdouh

    2017-01-01

    The Basel II/III and CRD IV Accords reduce capital charges on bank loans to smaller firms by assuming that the default probabilities of smaller firms are less sensitive to macroeconomic cycles. We test this assumption in a default intensity framework using a large sample of bank loans to private...

  14. 29 CFR 2570.114 - Consequences of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consequences of default. 2570.114 Section 2570.114 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... ERISA Section 502(c)(6) § 2570.114 Consequences of default. For 502(c)(6) civil penalty proceedings...

  15. 25 CFR 101.15 - Penalties on default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penalties on default. 101.15 Section 101.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LOANS TO INDIANS FROM THE REVOLVING LOAN FUND § 101.15 Penalties on default. Unless otherwise provided in the loan agreement between...

  16. 29 CFR 2570.94 - Consequences of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consequences of default. 2570.94 Section 2570.94 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... ERISA Section 502(c)(5) § 2570.94 Consequences of default. For 502(c)(5) civil penalty proceedings, this...

  17. 29 CFR 2570.64 - Consequences of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consequences of default. 2570.64 Section 2570.64 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... ERISA Section 502(c)(2) § 2570.64 Consequences of default. For 502(c)(2) civil penalty proceedings, this...

  18. 49 CFR 31.10 - Default upon failure to answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Default upon failure to answer. 31.10 Section 31.10 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 31.10 Default upon failure to answer. (a) If the defendant does not answer within the time prescribed in § 31.9...

  19. Are Student Loan Default Rates Linked to Institutional Capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitani, Terry T.; McKitrick, Sean A.

    2016-01-01

    As more undergraduates have taken out loans to attend college, the number of borrowers who fail to repay their student loans has increased. While previous research has focused on students' likelihood to default, this study employed institutional cohort default rates (CDRs) as an outcome variable. Using Integrated Postsecondary Education Data…

  20. Partitioning Default Effects: Why People Choose Not to Choose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinner, Isaac; Johnson, Eric J.; Goldstein, Daniel G.; Liu, Kaiya

    2011-01-01

    Default options exert an influence in areas as varied as retirement program design, organ donation policy, and consumer choice. Past research has offered potential reasons why no-action defaults matter: (a) effort, (b) implied endorsement, and (c) reference dependence. The first two of these explanations have been experimentally demonstrated, but…

  1. Cohort Default Rates: Predicting the Probability of Federal Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the institutional factors associated with student loan default. When a college has more than 30% of its students default on their loans, then the institution faces federal sanctions that could make them ineligible from participating in the federal student loan program. Using Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System…

  2. Re-Setting Music Education's "Default Settings"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regelski, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the effects and problems of one highly influential default setting of the "normal style template" of music education and proposes some alternatives. These do not require abandoning all traditional templates for school music. But re-setting the default settings does depend on reconsidering the promised function of…

  3. 29 CFR 2570.134 - Consequences of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consequences of default. 2570.134 Section 2570.134 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... ERISA Section 502(c)(7) § 2570.134 Consequences of default. For 502(c)(7) civil penalty proceedings...

  4. College on Credit: A Multilevel Analysis of Student Loan Default

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.

    2014-01-01

    This study updates and expands the literature on student loan default. By applying multilevel regression to the Beginning Postsecondary Students survey, four key findings emerge. First, attending proprietary institutions is strongly associated with default, even after accounting for students' socioeconomic and academic backgrounds. Second,…

  5. In Good Standing: "Helping Colleges Manage Student Default Rates"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education estimates that 20 percent of community college students default on their student loan obligations (compared with 14.7 percent of all student loan borrowers), and that number is rising. What can community college financial officers do to keep their default numbers low? In this article, Heather Boerner describes the…

  6. 29 CFR 2570.164 - Consequences of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consequences of default. 2570.164 Section 2570.164 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... ERISA Section 502(c)(8) § 2570.164 Consequences of default. For 502(c)(8) civil penalty proceedings...

  7. Protecting Colleges and Students: Community College Strategies to Prevent Default

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Bryce; La Rocque, Matthew; Cochrane, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    Student loan default, defined as federal loan borrowers' failure to make any payments for at least 270 days, is an issue of increasing importance to community colleges and their students. This report takes a unique look at student loan default at nine community colleges across the nation, and how those colleges are working to help students avoid…

  8. The effect of default values in regulation matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Seung-cheol; Jung, Won-dea; Ha, Jae-joo; Jin, Young-ho

    1998-01-01

    Both performing and validating a detailed risk analysis of a complex system are costly and time-consuming undertakings. With the increased use of probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) in regulatory decision making, both PRA practitioners (usually, licensees) and regulators have generally favored the use of defaults because they can greatly facilitate the process of performing a PRA in the first place as well as the process of reviewing and verifying the PRA. The use of defaults can also ensure more uniform standards of PRA quality. However, different regulatory agencies differ in their approaches to the use of default values, and the implications of these differences are not yet widely understood. Moreover, large heterogeneity among licensees makes it difficult to set suitable defaults. This paper will focus on the effect of default values on estimates of risk. In particular, the following questions will be explored: ''How should defaults be set?''; and ''What are the implications of choosing different default values?'' Some insights on the effects of different levels of conservatism in setting defaults will be provided. This can help decision makers evaluate the levels of safety likely to result from regulatory decisions

  9. An Empirical Comparison of Default Swap Pricing Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Houweling (Patrick); A.C.F. Vorst (Ton)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In this paper we compare market prices of credit default swaps with model prices. We show that a simple reduced form model with a constant recovery rate outperforms the market practice of directly comparing bonds' credit spreads to default swap premiums. We find that the

  10. Analysis of Default Risk of Agricultural Loan by Some Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to reduce default rate and loan diversions since members can serve as watch dog to each other. Banks should also prevent unnecessary delay in loan disbursement to allow for timely use of the loan. Banks should also explore the Agricultural credit guarantee scheme (ACGS) to offset part of the risk in case of default.

  11. 6 CFR 13.10 - Default upon failure to answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default upon failure to answer. 13.10 Section 13.10 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.10 Default upon failure to answer. (a) If the Defendant does not answer within the time...

  12. 24 CFR 241.830 - Definition of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY FINANCING FOR INSURED PROJECT MORTGAGES Contract Rights and Obligations-Multifamily Projects... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of default. 241.830... § 241.830 Definition of default. (a) If the borrower fails to make any payments due under or provided to...

  13. Incorporating Employee Heterogeneity into Default Rules for Retirement Plan Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Gopi Shah; Manchester, Colleen Flaherty

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of incorporating heterogeneity into default rules by examining the choice between retirement plans at a firm that transitioned from a defined benefit (DB) to a defined contribution (DC) plan. The default plan for existing employees varied discontinuously depending on their age. Employing regression discontinuity techniques,…

  14. Student Borrowing in America: Metrics, Demographics, Default Aversion Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesterman, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The use of Cohort Default Rate (CDR) as the primary measure of student loan defaults among undergraduates was investigated. The study used data extracted from the National Student Loan Data System (NSLDS), quantitative analysis of Likert-scale survey responses from 153 student financial aid professionals on proposed changes to present metrics and…

  15. Parametric modeling of probability of bank loan default in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This makes the study on probability of a customer defaulting very useful while analyzing the credit risk policies. In this paper, we use a raw data set that contains demographic information about the borrowers. The data sets have been used to identify which risk factors associated with the borrowers contribute towards default.

  16. Consumer default risk assessment in a banking institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa e Silva, Eliana; Lopes, Isabel Cristina; Correia, Aldina; Faria, Susana

    2016-12-01

    Credit scoring is an application of financial risk forecasting to consumer lending. In this study, statistical analysis is applied to credit scoring data from a financial institution to evaluate the default risk of consumer loans. The default risk was found to be influenced by the spread, the age of the consumer, the number of credit cards owned by the consumer. A lower spread, a higher number of credit cards and a younger age of the borrower are factors that decrease the risk of default. Clients receiving the salary in the same banking institution of the loan have less chances of default than clients receiving their salary in another institution. We also found that clients in the lowest income tax echelon have more propensity to default.

  17. Spatial and temporal variations of thaw layer thickness and its controlling factors identified using time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography and hydro-thermal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Anh Phuong; Dafflon, Baptiste; Bisht, Gautam; Hubbard, Susan S.

    2018-06-01

    Quantitative understanding of controls on thaw layer thickness (TLT) dynamics in the Arctic peninsula is essential for predictive understanding of permafrost degradation feedbacks to global warming and hydrobiochemical processes. This study jointly interprets electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) measurements and hydro-thermal numerical simulation results to assess spatiotemporal variations of TLT and to determine its controlling factors in Barrow, Alaska. Time-lapse ERT measurements along a 35-m transect were autonomously collected from 2013 to 2015 and inverted to obtain soil electrical resistivity. Based on several probe-based TLT measurements and co-located soil electrical resistivity, we estimated the electrical resistivity thresholds associated with the boundary between the thaw layer and permafrost using a grid search optimization algorithm. Then, we used the obtained thresholds to derive the TLT from all soil electrical resistivity images. The spatiotemporal analysis of the ERT-derived TLT shows that the TLT at high-centered polygons (HCPs) is smaller than that at low-centered polygons (LCPs), and that both thawing and freezing occur earlier at the HCPs compared to the LCPs. In order to provide a physical explanation for dynamics in the thaw layer, we performed 1-D hydro-thermal simulations using the community land model (CLM). Simulation results showed that air temperature and precipitation jointly govern the temporal variations of TLT, while the topsoil organic content (SOC) and polygon morphology are responsible for its spatial variations. When the topsoil SOC and its thickness increase, TLT decreases. Meanwhile, at LCPs, a thicker snow layer and saturated soil contribute to a thicker TLT and extend the time needed for TLT to freeze and thaw. This research highlights the importance of combination of measurements and numerical modeling to improve our understanding spatiotemporal variations and key controls of TLT in cold regions.

  18. Variation and risk factors of drug resistant tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukoye, Deus; Ssengooba, Willy; Musisi, Kenneth; Kasule, George W.; Cobelens, Frank G. J.; Joloba, Moses; Gomez, Gabriela B.

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), defined as in vitro resistance to both rifampicin and isoniazid with or without resistance to other TB drugs, in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is reportedly low compared to other regions. These estimates are based on data reported to the World

  19. Sovereign Default Analysis through Extreme Events Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile George MARICA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates contagion in international credit markets through the use of a novel jump detection technique proposed by Chan and Maheuin (2002. This econometrical methodology is preferred because it is non-linear by definition and not a subject to volatility bias. Also, the identified jumps in CDS premiums are considered as outliers positioned beyond any stochastic movement that can and is already modelled through well-known linear analysis. Though contagion is hard to define, we show that extreme discrete movements in default probabilities inferred from CDS premiums can lead to sound economic conclusions about the risk profile of sovereign nations in international bond markets. We find evidence of investor sentiment clustering for countries with unstable political regimes or that are engaged in armed conflict. Countries that have in their recent history faced currency or financial crises are less vulnerable to external unexpected shocks. First we present a brief history of sovereign defaults with an emphasis on their increased frequency and geographical reach, as financial markets become more and more integrated. We then pass to a literature review of the most important definitions for contagion, and discuss what quantitative methods are available to detect the presence of contagion. The paper continues with the details for the methodology of jump detection through non-linear modelling and its use in the field of contagion identification. In the last sections we present the estimation results for simultaneous jumps between emerging markets CDS and draw conclusions on the difference of behavior in times of extreme movement versus tranquil periods.

  20. Default Mode of Brain Function in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantini, Dante; Gerits, Annelis; Nelissen, Koen; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Joly, Olivier; Simone, Luciano; Sawamura, Hiromasa; Wardak, Claire; Orban, Guy A.; Buckner, Randy L.; Vanduffel, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Human neuroimaging has revealed a specific network of brain regions—the default-mode network (DMN)—that reduces its activity during goal-directed behavior. So far, evidence for a similar network in monkeys is mainly indirect, since, except for one positron emission tomography study, it is all based on functional connectivity analysis rather than activity increases during passive task states. Here, we tested whether a consistent DMN exists in monkeys using its defining property. We performed a meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected in 10 awake monkeys to reveal areas in which activity consistently decreases when task demands shift from passive tasks to externally oriented processing. We observed task-related spatially specific deactivations across 15 experiments, implying in the monkey a functional equivalent of the human DMN. We revealed by resting-state connectivity that prefrontal and medial parietal regions, including areas 9/46d and 31, respectively, constitute the DMN core, being functionally connected to all other DMN areas. We also detected two distinct subsystems composed of DMN areas with stronger functional connections between each other. These clusters included areas 24/32, 8b, and TPOC and areas 23, v23, and PGm, respectively. Such a pattern of functional connectivity largely fits, but is not completely consistent with anatomical tract tracing data in monkeys. Also, analysis of afferent and efferent connections between DMN areas suggests a multisynaptic network structure. Like humans, monkeys increase activity during passive epochs in heteromodal and limbic association regions, suggesting that they also default to internal modes of processing when not actively interacting with the environment. PMID:21900574

  1. Candidate gene approach for parasite resistance in sheep--variation in immune pathway genes and association with fecal egg count.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathiravan Periasamy

    Full Text Available Sheep chromosome 3 (Oar3 has the largest number of QTLs reported to be significantly associated with resistance to gastro-intestinal nematodes. This study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within candidate genes located in sheep chromosome 3 as well as genes involved in major immune pathways. A total of 41 SNPs were identified across 38 candidate genes in a panel of unrelated sheep and genotyped in 713 animals belonging to 22 breeds across Asia, Europe and South America. The variations and evolution of immune pathway genes were assessed in sheep populations across these macro-environmental regions that significantly differ in the diversity and load of pathogens. The mean minor allele frequency (MAF did not vary between Asian and European sheep reflecting the absence of ascertainment bias. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two major clusters with most of South Asian, South East Asian and South West Asian breeds clustering together while European and South American sheep breeds clustered together distinctly. Analysis of molecular variance revealed strong phylogeographic structure at loci located in immune pathway genes, unlike microsatellite and genome wide SNP markers. To understand the influence of natural selection processes, SNP loci located in chromosome 3 were utilized to reconstruct haplotypes, the diversity of which showed significant deviations from selective neutrality. Reduced Median network of reconstructed haplotypes showed balancing selection in force at these loci. Preliminary association of SNP genotypes with phenotypes recorded 42 days post challenge revealed significant differences (P<0.05 in fecal egg count, body weight change and packed cell volume at two, four and six SNP loci respectively. In conclusion, the present study reports strong phylogeographic structure and balancing selection operating at SNP loci located within immune pathway genes. Further, SNP loci identified in the study were found to have

  2. Risk factors associated with default among new smear positive TB patients treated under DOTS in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Sophia; Kumar, Prahlad; Chauhan, Lakbir Singh; Vollepore, Balasangameshwara Hanumanthappa; Kizhakkethil, Unnikrishnan Pallikkara; Rao, Sumathi Govinda

    2010-04-06

    Poor treatment adherence leading to risk of drug resistance, treatment failure, relapse, death and persistent infectiousness remains an impediment to the tuberculosis control programmes. The objective of the study was to identify predictors of default among new smear positive TB patients registered for treatment to suggest possible interventions to set right the problems to sustain and enhance the programme performance. Twenty districts selected from six states were assigned to six strata formed, considering the geographic, socio-cultural and demographic setup of the area. New smear positive patients registered for treatment in two consecutive quarters during III quarter 2004 to III quarter 2005 formed the retrospective study cohort. Case control analysis was done including defaulted patients as "cases" and equal number of age and sex matched patients completing treatment as "controls". The presence and degree of association between default and determinant factors was computed through univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Data collection was through patient interviews using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire and review of treatment related records. Information on a wide range of socio demographic and patient related factors was obtained. Among the 687 defaulted and equal numbers of patients in completed group, 389 and 540 patients respectively were satisfactorily interviewed. In the logistic regression analysis, factors independently associated with default were alcoholism [AOR-1.72 (1.23-2.44)], illiteracy [AOR-1.40 (1.03-1.92)], having other commitments during treatment [AOR-3.22 (1.1-9.09)], inadequate knowledge of TB [AOR-1.88(1.35-2.63)], poor patient provider interaction [AOR-1.72(1.23-2.44)], lack of support from health staff [AOR-1.93(1.41-2.64)], having instances of missed doses [AOR-2.56(1.82-3.57)], side effects to anti TB drugs [AOR-2.55 (1.87-3.47)] and dissatisfaction with services provided [AOR-1.73 (1.14-2.6)]. Majority of

  3. Risk factors associated with default among new smear positive TB patients treated under DOTS in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Vijay

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Poor treatment adherence leading to risk of drug resistance, treatment failure, relapse, death and persistent infectiousness remains an impediment to the tuberculosis control programmes. The objective of the study was to identify predictors of default among new smear positive TB patients registered for treatment to suggest possible interventions to set right the problems to sustain and enhance the programme performance.Twenty districts selected from six states were assigned to six strata formed, considering the geographic, socio-cultural and demographic setup of the area. New smear positive patients registered for treatment in two consecutive quarters during III quarter 2004 to III quarter 2005 formed the retrospective study cohort. Case control analysis was done including defaulted patients as "cases" and equal number of age and sex matched patients completing treatment as "controls". The presence and degree of association between default and determinant factors was computed through univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Data collection was through patient interviews using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire and review of treatment related records. Information on a wide range of socio demographic and patient related factors was obtained. Among the 687 defaulted and equal numbers of patients in completed group, 389 and 540 patients respectively were satisfactorily interviewed. In the logistic regression analysis, factors independently associated with default were alcoholism [AOR-1.72 (1.23-2.44], illiteracy [AOR-1.40 (1.03-1.92], having other commitments during treatment [AOR-3.22 (1.1-9.09], inadequate knowledge of TB [AOR-1.88(1.35-2.63], poor patient provider interaction [AOR-1.72(1.23-2.44], lack of support from health staff [AOR-1.93(1.41-2.64], having instances of missed doses [AOR-2.56(1.82-3.57], side effects to anti TB drugs [AOR-2.55 (1.87-3.47] and dissatisfaction with services provided [AOR-1.73 (1

  4. Variation in Resistance of Natural Isolates of Escherichia coli O157 to High Hydrostatic Pressure, Mild Heat, and Other Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Amparo; Ventoura, Georgia; Casadei, Maria; Robinson, Tobin; Mackey, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    Strains of Escherichia coli O157 isolated from patients with clinical cases of food-borne illness and other sources exhibited wide differences in resistance to high hydrostatic pressure. The most pressure-resistant strains were also more resistant to mild heat than other strains. Strain C9490, a representative pressure-resistant strain, was also more resistant to acid, oxidative, and osmotic stresses than the pressure-sensitive strain NCTC 12079. Most of these differences in resistance were observed only in stationary-phase cells, the only exception being acid resistance, where differences were also apparent in the exponential phase. Membrane damage in pressure-treated cells was revealed by increased uptake of the fluorescent dyes ethidium bromide and propidium iodide. When strains were exposed to the same pressure for different lengths of time, the pressure-sensitive strains took up stain sooner than the more resistant strain, which suggested that the differences in resistance may be related to susceptibility to membrane damage. Our results emphasize the importance of including stress-resistant strains of E. coli O157 when the efficacy of a novel or mild food preservation treatment is tested. PMID:10103251

  5. Geographical Variation of Deltamethrin Susceptibility of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Argentina With Emphasis on a Resistant Focus in the Gran Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronza, G; Toloza, A C; Picollo, M I; Spillmann, C; Mougabure-Cueto, G A

    2016-07-01

    Chagas disease is one of the most important parasitic infections in Latin America. The main vector of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi in America is Triatoma infestans, a blood-sucking triatomine bug who is widely distributed in the Gran Chaco ecoregion. Control programs in endemic countries are focused in the elimination of triatomine vectors with pyrethroid insecticides. However, chemical control has failed in the Gran Chaco over the last two decades because of several factors. Previous studies have reported the evolution of different levels of resistance to deltamethrin in Tri. infestans Recently, very high resistance has been found in the central area of the Argentine Gran Chaco. However, the origin and the extension of this remarkably resistant focus remain unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the geographical variation of deltamethrin susceptibility of Tri. infestans in different endemic provinces of Argentina, with emphasis in the center of the Argentine Gran Chaco ecoregion where this main vector has not been reduced. Populations of Mendoza, San Juan, Santiago del Estero, and Tucumán provinces were all susceptible. Resistant populations were only detected in the province of Chaco, where a mosaic resistant focus was described at the Güemes Department. It was characterized into three pyrethroid resistance categories: susceptible, low, and highly resistant populations. We found the populations with the highest resistance levels to deltamethrin, with resistant ratios over 1000. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Default risk modeling with position-dependent killing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Yuri A.

    2013-04-01

    Diffusion in a linear potential in the presence of position-dependent killing is used to mimic a default process. Different assumptions regarding transport coefficients, initial conditions, and elasticity of the killing measure lead to diverse models of bankruptcy. One “stylized fact” is fundamental for our consideration: empirically default is a rather rare event, especially in the investment grade categories of credit ratings. Hence, the action of killing may be considered as a small parameter. In a number of special cases we derive closed-form expressions for the entire term structure of the cumulative probability of default, its hazard rate, and intensity. Comparison with historical data on aggregate global corporate defaults confirms the validity of the perturbation method for estimations of long-term probability of default for companies with high credit quality. On a single company level, we implement the derived formulas to estimate the one-year likelihood of default of Enron on a daily basis from August 2000 to August 2001, three months before its default, and compare the obtained results with forecasts of traditional structural models.

  7. Variation in physiological and chemical characteristics at developmental stage in different disease-resistant varieties of camellia oleifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Z.; Dong, C.; Zhang, X.

    2014-01-01

    Camellia oleifera Abel. is an important edible oil tree species from Southern China. Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.), is responsible for more than 50% of C. oleifera production loss, and C. oleifera varieties differ in their resistance to anthracnose. The aim of this study was to assess resistance mechanisms by monitoring physiological and biochemical parameters of differentially resistant cultivars during the development of C. oleifera. C. oleifera fruit coats were analyzed between May and September for tannins, anthocyanins, soluble sugar content, pH, buffer capacity, activity of three enzyme (Phenylalanine ammonia lyase; polyphenol oxidase; peroxidase) and free radical scavenging capacity. Anthocyanins, soluble contents and free radical scavenging capacity were related to anthracnose resistance, with anthocyanins and soluble sugar contents of the resistant varieties nearly twofold higher than those of susceptible varieties. The results of free radical scavenging capacity showed that extracts from highly resistant varieties of C. oleifera fruit coats performed more efficiently in the scavenging of free radicals than those from susceptible varieties. The three enzyme activities of highly resistant varieties rose rapidly and continuously, while those of medium resistant and highly susceptible varieties increased initially and then decreased. Tannins, pH and buffer capacity showed no significant differences between different cultivars. This study broadens the understanding of disease resistance mechanisms in C. oleifera. (author)

  8. Optimization problem and mean variance hedging on defaultable claims

    OpenAIRE

    Goutte, Stephane; Ngoupeyou, Armand

    2012-01-01

    We study the pricing and the hedging of claim {\\psi} which depends on the default times of two firms A and B. In fact, we assume that, in the market, we can not buy or sell any defaultable bond of the firm B but we can only trade defaultable bond of the firm A. Our aim is then to find the best price and hedging of {\\psi} using only bond of the firm A. Hence, we solve this problem in two cases: firstly in a Markov framework using indifference price and solving a system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellm...

  9. First insight into the heritable variation of the resistance to infection with the bacteria causing the withering syndrome disease in Haliotis rufescens abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokordt, Katherina; González, Roxana; Farías, William; Winkler, Federico E; Lohrmann, Karin B

    2017-11-01

    Withering syndrome disease has experienced worldwide spread in the last decade. This fatal disease for abalone is produced by a rickettsia-like organism (WS-RLO), the bacterium "Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis". To evaluate the potential of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) to improve its resistance to infection by WS-RLO, the additive genetic component in the variation of this trait was estimated. For this, the variation in infection intensity with WS-RLOs and WS-RLOv (phage-infected RLOs) was analyzed in 56 families of full-sibs maintained for three years in a host-parasite cohabitation aquaculture system. A WS-RLO prevalence of 65% was observed in the analysed population; and from the total WS-RLO inclusions 60% were hyperparasited with the phage (WS-RLOv). The decrease in the food ingestion rate was the sole negative effect associated with increasing WS-RLO intensity of infection, suggesting that the high level of WS-RLOv load may have diminished the symptoms of WS disease in the analyzed abalones. The estimated heritabilities were moderate to mid, but significant, varying from 0.21 to 0.23 and 0.36 for WS-RLO and WS-RLOv infections, respectively. This suggests that variation in resistance to infection with WS-RLO may respond to selection in the evaluated red abalone population. Estimated response to selection (G) for the level of infection by WS-RLO indicated that if the 10% of red abalone with the lowest infection level is selected as broodstock, a 90% reduction in the intensity of infection in the progeny can be expected, even with the lowest estimation of heritability (h 2 =0.21). This strong response would be also due to the large phenotypic variance of this trait. Strong positive correlations, both phenotypic and genotypic, were observed between infection intensities with WS-RLO and WS-RLOv, indicating that selection to increase resistance to one of the types of RLOs will affect resistance in the other in the same direction. This is the first

  10. Emotional faces and the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, S; Boehm, S G; Linden, D E J

    2012-01-11

    The default-mode network (DMN) of the human brain has become a central topic of cognitive neuroscience research. Although alterations in its resting state activity and in its recruitment during tasks have been reported for several mental and neurodegenerative disorders, its role in emotion processing has received relatively little attention. We investigated brain responses to different categories of emotional faces with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and found deactivation in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), posterior cingulate gyrus (PC) and cuneus. This deactivation was modulated by emotional category and was less prominent for happy than for sad faces. These deactivated areas along the midline conformed to areas of the DMN. We also observed emotion-dependent deactivation of the left middle frontal gyrus, which is not a classical component of the DMN. Conversely, several areas in a fronto-parietal network commonly linked with attention were differentially activated by emotion categories. Functional connectivity patterns, as obtained by correlation of activation levels, also varied between emotions. VMPFC, PC or cuneus served as hubs between the DMN-type areas and the fronto-parietal network. These data support recent suggestions that the DMN is not a unitary system but differentiates according to task and even type of stimulus. The emotion-specific differential pattern of DMN deactivation may be explored further in patients with mood disorder, where the quest for biological markers of emotional biases is still ongoing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pattern of attendance and predictors of default among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... has implicated a host of factors as predictive of psychiatric clinic default, findings have ... support and care of persons with mental illness is of utmost importance.9 Recently, a ..... Mental Health & Religion & Culture 2007; 1 – 2. 13. Overall JE ...

  12. Contract Award Decisions Resulting in Contract Termination for Default

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... Specifically, the audit focused on contracts terminated either for default or convenience and determined whether the contract terminations could have been averted based on information available before contract award...

  13. A new estimation technique of sovereign default risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Soytaş

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the fixed-point theorem, sovereign default models are solved by numerical value function iteration and calibration methods, which due to their computational constraints, greatly limits the models' quantitative performance and foregoes its country-specific quantitative projection ability. By applying the Hotz-Miller estimation technique (Hotz and Miller, 1993- often used in applied microeconometrics literature- to dynamic general equilibrium models of sovereign default, one can estimate the ex-ante default probability of economies, given the structural parameter values obtained from country-specific business-cycle statistics and relevant literature. Thus, with this technique we offer an alternative solution method to dynamic general equilibrium models of sovereign default to improve upon their quantitative inference ability.

  14. Local Risk-Minimization for Defaultable Claims with Recovery Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagini, Francesca; Cretarola, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    We study the local risk-minimization approach for defaultable claims with random recovery at default time, seen as payment streams on the random interval [0,τ∧T], where T denotes the fixed time-horizon. We find the pseudo-locally risk-minimizing strategy in the case when the agent information takes into account the possibility of a default event (local risk-minimization with G-strategies) and we provide an application in the case of a corporate bond. We also discuss the problem of finding a pseudo-locally risk-minimizing strategy if we suppose the agent obtains her information only by observing the non-defaultable assets.

  15. Morality constrains the default representation of what is possible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Cushman, Fiery

    2017-05-02

    The capacity for representing and reasoning over sets of possibilities, or modal cognition, supports diverse kinds of high-level judgments: causal reasoning, moral judgment, language comprehension, and more. Prior research on modal cognition asks how humans explicitly and deliberatively reason about what is possible but has not investigated whether or how people have a default, implicit representation of which events are possible. We present three studies that characterize the role of implicit representations of possibility in cognition. Collectively, these studies differentiate explicit reasoning about possibilities from default implicit representations, demonstrate that human adults often default to treating immoral and irrational events as impossible, and provide a case study of high-level cognitive judgments relying on default implicit representations of possibility rather than explicit deliberation.

  16. Interbank lending, network structure and default risk contagion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minghui; He, Jianmin; Li, Shouwei

    2018-03-01

    This paper studies the default risk contagion in banking systems based on a dynamic network model with two different kinds of lenders' selecting mechanisms, namely, endogenous selecting (ES) and random selecting (RS). From sensitivity analysis, we find that higher risk premium, lower initial proportion of net assets, higher liquid assets threshold, larger size of liquidity shocks, higher proportion of the initial investments and higher Central Bank interest rates all lead to severer default risk contagion. Moreover, the autocorrelation of deposits and lenders' selecting probability have non-monotonic effects on the default risk contagion, and the effects differ under two mechanisms. Generally, the default risk contagion is much severer under RS mechanism than that of ES, because the multi-money-center structure generated by ES mechanism enables borrowers to borrow from more liquid banks with lower interest rates.

  17. Correlation Structures of Correlated Binomial Models and Implied Default Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mori; K. Kitsukawa; M. Hisakado

    2006-01-01

    We show how to analyze and interpret the correlation structures, the conditional expectation values and correlation coefficients of exchangeable Bernoulli random variables. We study implied default distributions for the iTraxx-CJ tranches and some popular probabilistic models, including the Gaussian copula model, Beta binomial distribution model and long-range Ising model. We interpret the differences in their profiles in terms of the correlation structures. The implied default distribution h...

  18. Loss given default models incorporating macroeconomic variables for credit cards

    OpenAIRE

    Crook, J.; Bellotti, T.

    2012-01-01

    Based on UK data for major retail credit cards, we build several models of Loss Given Default based on account level data, including Tobit, a decision tree model, a Beta and fractional logit transformation. We find that Ordinary Least Squares models with macroeconomic variables perform best for forecasting Loss Given Default at the account and portfolio levels on independent hold-out data sets. The inclusion of macroeconomic conditions in the model is important, since it provides a means to m...

  19. Banks, Government Bonds, and Default: What do the Data Say?

    OpenAIRE

    Gennaioli, Nicola; Martin, Alberto; Rossi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We analyze holdings of public bonds by over 20,000 banks in 191 countries, and the role of these bonds in 20 sovereign defaults over 1998-2012. Banks hold many public bonds (on average 9% of their assets), particularly in less financially-developed countries. During sovereign defaults, banks increase their exposure to public bonds, especially large banks and when expected bond returns are high. At the bank level, bondholdings correlate negatively with subsequent lending during sovereign defau...

  20. Default network connectivity during a working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluhm, Robyn L; Clark, C Richard; McFarlane, Alexander C; Moores, Kathryn A; Shaw, Marnie E; Lanius, Ruth A

    2011-07-01

    The default network exhibits correlated activity at rest and has shown decreased activation during performance of cognitive tasks. There has been little investigation of changes in connectivity of this network during task performance. In this study, we examined task-related modulation of connectivity between two seed regions from the default network posterior cingulated cortex (PCC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the rest of the brain in 12 healthy adults. The purpose was to determine (1) whether connectivity within the default network differs between a resting state and performance of a cognitive (working memory) task and (2) whether connectivity differs between these nodes of the default network and other brain regions, particularly those implicated in cognitive tasks. There was little change in connectivity with the other main areas of the default network for either seed region, but moderate task-related changes in connectivity occurred between seed regions and regions outside the default network. For example, connectivity of the mPFC with the right insula and the right superior frontal gyrus decreased during task performance. Increased connectivity during the working memory task occurred between the PCC and bilateral inferior frontal gyri, and between the mPFC and the left inferior frontal gyrus, cuneus, superior parietal lobule, middle temporal gyrus and cerebellum. Overall, the areas showing greater correlation with the default network seed regions during task than at rest have been previously implicated in working memory tasks. These changes may reflect a decrease in the negative correlations occurring between the default and task-positive networks at rest. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Default, Cognitive, and Affective Brain Networks in Human Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0491 TITLE: Default, Cognitive, and Affective Brain Networks in Human Tinnitus PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jennifer R...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Default, Cognitive and Affective Brain Networks in Human Tinnitus 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Tinnitus is a major health problem among those currently and formerly in military

  2. Refining a major QTL controlling spotted wilt disease resistance in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)and evaluating its contribution to the resistance variations in peanut germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted wilt, caused by tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), has been one of major diseases in cultivated peanut grown in the southeastern United States (US) since 1990. Previously a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling spotted wilt disease resistance was mapped to an interval of 2.55 cent...

  3. Investigation on the variation of channel resistance and contact resistance of SiZnSnO semiconductor depending on Si contents using transmission line method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeong Hyeon; Han, Sangmin; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2018-01-01

    Amorphous silicon-zinc-tin-oxide (a-SZTO) thin film transistors (TFTs) have been fabricated depending on the silicon ratio in channel layers. The a-SZTO TFT exhibited high electrical properties, such as high mobility of 23 cm2 V-1 s-1, subthreshold swing of 0.74 V/decade and ION/OFF of 2.8 × 108, despite of the addition of Si suppressor. The physical mechanism on the change of the sheet resistance and the contact resistance in a-SZTO TFT has been investigated and proposed closely related with the Si ratio. Both resistances were increased as increasing Si ratio, which clearly indicated that the role of Si is a carrier suppressor directly leading to the increase of channel and contact resistances. To explain the role of Si as a carrier suppressor, the conduction band offset mechanism has been also proposed depending on the change of carrier concentration in channel layer and at the interface between electrode and channel layer. 2007.01-2011.12 Senior Researcher at korea institute of science and technology (KOREA). 2008.01-2011.12 Professor at University of Science and Technology (KOREA). 1995.01-2007.12 Professor at Yonsei University (KOREA). 2002.01-2003.12 Inviting Researcher at Los Alamos National Lab (USA). 1993.01-1995.12 Senior Researcher at Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (KOREA). 1992.01-1993.01 Research Associate at State University of New York at Buffalo (USA).

  4. Study on default setting for risk-informed regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, S.C.; Ha, J.J.; Jung, W.D.; Jeong, K.S.; Han, S.H.

    1998-12-01

    Both performing and validating a detailed risk analysis of a complex system are costly and time-consuming undertakings. With the increased use of probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) in regulatory decision making, both regulated parties and regulators have generally favored the use of defaults, because they can greatly facilitate the process of performing a PSA in the first place as well as the process of reviewing and verifying the PSA. The use of defaults may also ensure more uniform standards of PSA quality. However, regulatory agencies differ in their approaches to the use of default values, and the implications of these differences are not yet well understood. Moreover, large heterogeneity among licensees makes it difficult to set suitable defaults. This study focus on the development of model for setting defaults in order to achieve more applicability of risk-informed regulation. In particular, explored are the effects of different levels of conservatism in setting defaults, and their implications for the crafting of regularity incentives. (author). 17 refs., 1 tab

  5. Goal-congruent default network activity facilitates cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreng, R Nathan; DuPre, Elizabeth; Selarka, Dhawal; Garcia, Juliana; Gojkovic, Stefan; Mildner, Judith; Luh, Wen-Ming; Turner, Gary R

    2014-10-15

    Substantial neuroimaging evidence suggests that spontaneous engagement of the default network impairs performance on tasks requiring executive control. We investigated whether this impairment depends on the congruence between executive control demands and internal mentation. We hypothesized that activation of the default network might enhance performance on an executive control task if control processes engage long-term memory representations that are supported by the default network. Using fMRI, we scanned 36 healthy young adult humans on a novel two-back task requiring working memory for famous and anonymous faces. In this task, participants (1) matched anonymous faces interleaved with anonymous face, (2) matched anonymous faces interleaved with a famous face, or (3) matched a famous faces interleaved with an anonymous face. As predicted, we observed a facilitation effect when matching famous faces, compared with anonymous faces. We also observed greater activation of the default network during these famous face-matching trials. The results suggest that activation of the default network can contribute to task performance during an externally directed executive control task. Our findings provide evidence that successful activation of the default network in a contextually relevant manner facilitates goal-directed cognition. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3414108-07$15.00/0.

  6. Adipose tissue CIDEA is associated, independently of weight variation, to change in insulin resistance during a longitudinal weight control dietary program in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montastier, Emilie; Déjean, Sébastien; Le Gall, Caroline; Saris, Wim H M; Langin, Dominique; Viguerie, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Weight loss reduces risk factors associated with obesity. However, long-term metabolic improvement remains a challenge. We investigated quantitative gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals and its relationship with low calorie diet and long term weight maintenance induced changes in insulin resistance. Three hundred eleven overweight and obese individuals followed a dietary protocol consisting of an 8-week low calorie diet followed by a 6-month ad libitum weight-maintenance diet. Individuals were clustered according to insulin resistance trajectories assessed using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Adipose tissue mRNA levels of 267 genes selected for regulation according to obesity, metabolic status and response to dieting was assessed using high throughput RT-qPCR. A combination of discriminant analyses was used to identify genes with regulation according to insulin resistance trajectories. Partial correlation was used to control for change in body mass index. Three different HOMA-IR profile groups were determined. HOMA-IR improved during low calorie diet in the 3 groups. At the end of the 6-month follow-up, groups A and B had reduced HOMA-IR by 50%. In group C, HOMA-IR had returned to baseline values. Genes were differentially expressed in the adipose tissue of individuals according to groups but a single gene, CIDEA, was common to all phases of the dietary intervention. Changes in adipose tissue CIDEA mRNA levels paralleled variations in insulin sensitivity independently of change in body mass index. Overall, CIDEA was up-regulated in adipose tissue of individuals with successful long term insulin resistance relapse and not in adipose tissue of unsuccessful individuals. The concomitant change in adipose tissue CIDEA mRNA levels and insulin sensitivity suggests a beneficial role of adipose tissue CIDEA in long term glucose homeostasis, independently of weight variation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  7. Modulation of steady state functional connectivity in the default mode and working memory networks by cognitive load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Allen T; Morgan, Victoria L; Rogers, Baxter P; Gore, John C

    2011-10-01

    Interregional correlations between blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals in the resting state have been interpreted as measures of connectivity across the brain. Here we investigate whether such connectivity in the working memory and default mode networks is modulated by changes in cognitive load. Functional connectivity was measured in a steady-state verbal identity N-back task for three different conditions (N = 1, 2, and 3) as well as in the resting state. We found that as cognitive load increases, the functional connectivity within both the working memory the default mode network increases. To test whether functional connectivity between the working memory and the default mode networks changed, we constructed maps of functional connectivity to the working memory network as a whole and found that increasingly negative correlations emerged in a dorsal region of the posterior cingulate cortex. These results provide further evidence that low frequency fluctuations in BOLD signals reflect variations in neural activity and suggests interaction between the default mode network and other cognitive networks. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Geographical Variation in Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Stool, Cow-Dung and Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Sahoo, Soumyakanta; Sahu, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan; Klintz, Senia Rosales; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2012-01-01

    Little information is available on relationships between the biophysical environment and antibiotic resistance. This study was conducted to investigate the antibiotic resistance pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from child stool samples, cow-dung and drinking water from the non-coastal (230 households) and coastal (187 households) regions of Odisha, India. Susceptibility testing of E. coli isolates (n = 696) to the following antibiotics: tetracycline, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefixime, cotrimoxazole, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and nalidixic acid was performed by the disk diffusion method. Ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates (n = 83). Resistance to at least one antibiotic was detected in 90% or more of the E. coli isolates. Ciprofloxacin MIC values ranged from 8 to 32 µg/mL. The odds ratio (OR) of resistance in E. coli isolates from children’s stool (OR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.18–8.01), cow-dung (OR = 3.6, 95% CI 1.59–8.03, P = 0.002) and drinking water (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.00–14.44, P = 0.049) were higher in non-coastal compared to coastal region. Similarly, the co-resistance in cow-dung (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.39–4.37, P = 0.002) and drinking water (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.36–7.41, P = 0.008) as well as the multi-resistance in cow-dung (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.12–4.34, P = 0.022) and drinking water (OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.06–7.07, P = 0.036) were also higher in the non-coastal compared to the coastal region. PMID:22690160

  9. Interruption and defaulting of multidrug therapy against leprosy: population-based study in Brazil's Savannah Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg Heukelbach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low adherence to multidrug therapy against leprosy (MDT is still an important obstacle of disease control, and may lead to remaining sources of infection, incomplete cure, irreversible complications, and multidrug resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We performed a population-based study in 78 municipalities in Tocantins State, central Brazil, and applied structured questionnaires on leprosy-affected individuals. We used two outcomes for assessment of risk factors: defaulting (not presenting to health care center for supervised treatment for >12 months; and interruption of MDT. In total, 28/936 (3.0% patients defaulted, and 147/806 (18.2% interrupted MDT. Defaulting was significantly associated with: low number of rooms per household (OR = 3.43; 0.98-9.69; p = 0.03; moving to another residence after diagnosis (OR = 2.90; 0.95-5.28; p = 0.04; and low family income (OR = 2.42; 1.02-5.63: p = 0.04. Interruption of treatment was associated with: low number of rooms per household (OR = 1.95; 0.98-3.70; p = 0.04; difficulty in swallowing MDT drugs (OR = 1.66; 1.03-2.63; p = 0.02; temporal non-availability of MDT at the health center (OR = 1.67; 1.11-2.46; p = 0.01; and moving to another residence (OR = 1.58; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-2.40; p = 0.03. Logistic regression identified temporal non-availability of MDT as an independent risk factor for treatment interruption (adjusted OR = 1.56; 1.05-2.33; p = 0.03, and residence size as a protective factor (adjusted OR = 0.89 per additional number of rooms; 0.80-0.99; p = 0.03. Residence size was also independently associated with defaulting (adjusted OR = 0.67; 0.52-0.88; p = 0.003. CONCLUSIONS: Defaulting and interruption of MDT are associated with some poverty-related variables such as family income, household size, and migration. Intermittent problems of drug supply need to be resolved, mainly on the municipality level. MDT producers should consider oral drug formulations that may

  10. Reentrant Information Flow in Electrophysiological Rat Default Mode Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Wei; Guo, Daqing; Zhang, Yunxiang; Guo, Fengru; Valdés-Sosa, Pedro A; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) studies have demonstrated that the rodent brain shows a default mode network (DMN) activity similar to that in humans, offering a potential preclinical model both for physiological and pathophysiological studies. However, the neuronal mechanism underlying rodent DMN remains poorly understood. Here, we used electrophysiological data to analyze the power spectrum and estimate the directed phase transfer entropy (dPTE) within rat DMN across three vigilance states: wakeful rest (WR), slow-wave sleep (SWS), and rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS). We observed decreased gamma powers during SWS compared with WR in most of the DMN regions. Increased gamma powers were found in prelimbic cortex, cingulate cortex, and hippocampus during REMS compared with WR, whereas retrosplenial cortex showed a reverse trend. These changed gamma powers are in line with the local metabolic variation of homologous brain regions in humans. In the analysis of directional interactions, we observed well-organized anterior-to-posterior patterns of information flow in the delta band, while opposite patterns of posterior-to-anterior flow were found in the theta band. These frequency-specific opposite patterns were only observed in WR and REMS. Additionally, most of the information senders in the delta band were also the receivers in the theta band, and vice versa. Our results provide electrophysiological evidence that rat DMN is similar to its human counterpart, and there is a frequency-dependent reentry loop of anterior-posterior information flow within rat DMN, which may offer a mechanism for functional integration, supporting conscious awareness.

  11. Variation in host and pathogen in the Neonectria/Malus interaction; towards an understanding of the genetic basis of resistance to European canker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gomez-Cortecero

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Apple canker caused by the phytopathogenic fungus Neonectria ditissima is an economically important disease, which has spread in recent years to almost all pome-producing regions of the world. N. ditissima is able to cross-infect a wide range of apple varieties and causes branch and trunk lesions, known as cankers. Most modern apple varieties are susceptible and in extreme cases suffer from high mortality (up to 50% in the early phase of orchard establishment. There is no known race structure of the pathogen and the global level of genetic diversity of the pathogen population is unknown. Resistance breeding is underway in many global breeding programmes, but nevertheless, a total resistance to canker has not yet been demonstrated. Here we present preliminary data from a survey of the phylogenetic relationships between global isolates of N. ditissima which reveals only slight evidence for population structure. In addition we report the results of four rapid screening tests to assess the response to N. ditissima in different apple scion and rootstock varieties, which reveals abundant variation in resistance responses in both cultivar and rootstock material. Further seedling tests show that the segregation patterns of resistance and susceptibility vary widely between crosses. We discuss inconsistencies in test performance with field observations and discuss future research opportunities in this area.

  12. Between-breed variations in resistance/resilience to gastrointestinal nematodes among indigenous goat breeds in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzima, R.B.; Mukiibi, Robert; Ampaire, A.; Benda-Beckmann, von K.; Kanis, E.

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs), Haemonchus contortus, are a major health problem in goat production. Resistance to H. contortus, the most prevalent GIN in Uganda, was studied among three indigenous goat breeds to assess their differences. Twelve male goats of each breed approximately 7 months old

  13. Resistant Starch: Variation among High Amylose Rice Varieties and Its Relationship with Apparent Amylose Content, Pasting Properties and Cooking Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistant starch (RS), which is not hydrolyzed in the small intestines, has proposed health benefits. We evaluated a set of 40 high amylose rice varieties for RS levels in cooked rice and approximately a 1.9-fold difference was found. The highest ones had more than two-fold greater RS concentration ...

  14. Variations in Endosymbiont Infection Between Buprofezin-Resistant and Susceptible Strains of Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongteng; Liu, Xiangdong; Guo, Huifang

    2018-06-01

    The endosymbionts Wolbachia and Rickettsia have been shown to be correlated with the insecticide resistance of mosquito and whitefly. The small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus, harbours many species of endosymbionts, and has developed a high resistance to buprofezin in China. In this study, we examined the species and the infection incidences of endosymbionts in a buprofezin-resistant (BR) strain, a buprofezin-susceptible (BS) strain, and the BR strain after exposure to buprofezin, and we also investigated the change in buprofezin susceptibility after removal of Wolbachia from the BR strain. The results showed that Wolbachia infection incidences were 100% in both the BR and BS strains, but the Wolbachia density in the BR strain was significantly higher than that in the BS strain. There were no significant differences in Arsenophonus infection incidence between the two strains. However, the infection incidence of Serratia and double infection incidence of Serratia + Wolbachia in the BR strain were significantly higher than that in the BS strain. After the BR strain was exposed to 1200 mg/L buprofezin, the infection incidence of Arsenophonus in the surviving individuals increased, and the infection rate of Serratia did not differ, but the double infection incidence of Serratia + Wolbachia decreased. And when a Wolbachia-infected line originating from the BR strain was cleared of Wolbachia, its susceptibility to buprofezin increased. The results suggest that Serratia and Wolbachia infection might improve the buprofezin resistance of SBPH.

  15. Candidate genes revealed by a genome scan for mosquito resistance to a bacterial insecticide: sequence and gene expression variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jean-Philippe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome scans are becoming an increasingly popular approach to study the genetic basis of adaptation and speciation, but on their own, they are often helpless at identifying the specific gene(s or mutation(s targeted by selection. This shortcoming is hopefully bound to disappear in the near future, thanks to the wealth of new genomic resources that are currently being developed for many species. In this article, we provide a foretaste of this exciting new era by conducting a genome scan in the mosquito Aedes aegypti with the aim to look for candidate genes involved in resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti insecticidal toxins. Results The genome of a Bti-resistant and a Bti-susceptible strains was surveyed using about 500 MITE-based molecular markers, and the loci showing the highest inter-strain genetic differentiation were sequenced and mapped on the Aedes aegypti genome sequence. Several good candidate genes for Bti-resistance were identified in the vicinity of these highly differentiated markers. Two of them, coding for a cadherin and a leucine aminopeptidase, were further examined at the sequence and gene expression levels. In the resistant strain, the cadherin gene displayed patterns of nucleotide polymorphisms consistent with the action of positive selection (e.g. an excess of high compared to intermediate frequency mutations, as well as a significant under-expression compared to the susceptible strain. Conclusion Both sequence and gene expression analyses agree to suggest a role for positive selection in the evolution of this cadherin gene in the resistant strain. However, it is unlikely that resistance to Bti is conferred by this gene alone, and further investigation will be needed to characterize other genes significantly associated with Bti resistance in Ae. aegypti. Beyond these results, this article illustrates how genome scans can build on the body of new genomic information (here, full

  16. Variations in biofilm formation, desiccation resistance and Benzalkonium chloride susceptibility among Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercey, Marta J; Ells, Timothy C; Macintosh, Andrew J; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth

    2017-09-18

    Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogenic foodborne microorganism noted for its ability to survive in the environment and food processing facilities. Survival may be related to the phenotype of individual strains including the ability to form biofilms and resist desiccation and/or sanitizer exposure. The objectives of this research were to compare 14 L. monocytogenes strains isolated from blood (3), food (6) and water (5) with respect to their benzalkonium chloride (BAC) sensitivity, desiccation resistance, and ability to form biofilm. Correlations were tested between those responses, and the presence of the SSI-1 (Stress Survival Islet) and LGI1/CC8 (Listeria Genomic Island 1 in a clonal complex 8 background) genetic markers. Genetic sequences from four strains representing different phenotypes were also probed for predicted amino acid differences in biofilm, desiccation, and membrane related genes. The water isolates were among the most desiccation susceptible strains, while strains exhibiting desiccation resistance harboured SSI-1 or both the SSI-1 and LGI1/CC8 markers. BAC resistance was greatest in planktonic LGI1/CC8 cells (relative to non-LGI1/CC8 cells), and higher BAC concentrations were also needed to inhibit the formation of biofilm by LGI1/CC8 strains during incubation for 48h and 6days compared to other strains. Formation of biofilm on stainless steel was not significantly (p>0.05) different among the strains. Analysis of genetic sequence data from desiccation and BAC sensitive (CP4 5-1, CP5 2-3, both from water), intermediate (Lm568, food) and desiccation and BAC resistant (08 5578, blood, human outbreak) strains led to the finding of amino acid differences in predicted functional protein domains in several biofilm, desiccation and peptidoglycan related genes (e.g., lmo0263, lmo0433, lmo0434, lmo0771, lmo0973, lmo1080, lmo1224, lmo1370, lmo1744, and lmo2558). Notably, the LGI1/CC8 strain 08-5578 had a frameshift mutation in lmo1370, a gene previously

  17. The Two Defaults Scenario for Stressing Credit Portfolio Loss Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Tasche

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a stress scenario of default events on the loss distribution of a credit portfolio can be assessed by determining the loss distribution conditional on these events. While it is conceptually easy to estimate loss distributions conditional on default events by means of Monte Carlo simulation, it becomes impractical for two or more simultaneous defaults as then the conditioning event is extremely rare. We provide an analytical approach to the calculation of the conditional loss distribution for the CreditRisk + portfolio model with independent random loss given default distributions. The analytical solution for this case can be used to check the accuracy of an approximation to the conditional loss distribution whereby the unconditional model is run with stressed input probabilities of default (PDs. It turns out that this approximation is unbiased. Numerical examples, however, suggest that the approximation may be seriously inaccurate but that the inaccuracy leads to overestimation of tail losses and, hence, the approach errs on the conservative side.

  18. Prior Sensitivity Analysis in Default Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erp, Sara; Mulder, Joris; Oberski, Daniel L

    2017-11-27

    Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM) has recently gained popularity because it enables researchers to fit complex models and solve some of the issues often encountered in classical maximum likelihood estimation, such as nonconvergence and inadmissible solutions. An important component of any Bayesian analysis is the prior distribution of the unknown model parameters. Often, researchers rely on default priors, which are constructed in an automatic fashion without requiring substantive prior information. However, the prior can have a serious influence on the estimation of the model parameters, which affects the mean squared error, bias, coverage rates, and quantiles of the estimates. In this article, we investigate the performance of three different default priors: noninformative improper priors, vague proper priors, and empirical Bayes priors-with the latter being novel in the BSEM literature. Based on a simulation study, we find that these three default BSEM methods may perform very differently, especially with small samples. A careful prior sensitivity analysis is therefore needed when performing a default BSEM analysis. For this purpose, we provide a practical step-by-step guide for practitioners to conducting a prior sensitivity analysis in default BSEM. Our recommendations are illustrated using a well-known case study from the structural equation modeling literature, and all code for conducting the prior sensitivity analysis is available in the online supplemental materials. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The brain's default network: anatomy, function, and relevance to disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Randy L; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R; Schacter, Daniel L

    2008-03-01

    Thirty years of brain imaging research has converged to define the brain's default network-a novel and only recently appreciated brain system that participates in internal modes of cognition. Here we synthesize past observations to provide strong evidence that the default network is a specific, anatomically defined brain system preferentially active when individuals are not focused on the external environment. Analysis of connectional anatomy in the monkey supports the presence of an interconnected brain system. Providing insight into function, the default network is active when individuals are engaged in internally focused tasks including autobiographical memory retrieval, envisioning the future, and conceiving the perspectives of others. Probing the functional anatomy of the network in detail reveals that it is best understood as multiple interacting subsystems. The medial temporal lobe subsystem provides information from prior experiences in the form of memories and associations that are the building blocks of mental simulation. The medial prefrontal subsystem facilitates the flexible use of this information during the construction of self-relevant mental simulations. These two subsystems converge on important nodes of integration including the posterior cingulate cortex. The implications of these functional and anatomical observations are discussed in relation to possible adaptive roles of the default network for using past experiences to plan for the future, navigate social interactions, and maximize the utility of moments when we are not otherwise engaged by the external world. We conclude by discussing the relevance of the default network for understanding mental disorders including autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease.

  20. No benefit in diversity? The effect of genetic variation on survival and disease resistance in a polygynous social insect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anna Mosegaard; Linksvayer, Timothy Arnold; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2011-01-01

    within-worker variation).3. We found significant differences in worker survival among the three inbred lineages, with exposure to conidiospores of the fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana causing significant mortality to the workers independently of their diversity type. Increased diversity did not improve...

  1. Patient- and provider-level risk factors associated with default from tuberculosis treatment, South Africa, 2002: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Alyssa; Lancaster, Joey; Holtz, Timothy H; Weyer, Karin; Miranda, Abe; van der Walt, Martie

    2012-01-20

    Persons who default from tuberculosis treatment are at risk for clinical deterioration and complications including worsening drug resistance and death. Our objective was to identify risk factors associated with tuberculosis (TB) treatment default in South Africa. We conducted a national retrospective case control study to identify factors associated with treatment default using program data from 2002 and a standardized patient questionnaire. We defined default as interrupting TB treatment for two or more consecutive months during treatment. Cases were a sample of registered TB patients receiving treatment under DOTS that defaulted from treatment. Controls were those who began therapy and were cured, completed or failed treatment. Two respective multivariable models were constructed, stratified by history of TB treatment (new and re-treatment patients), to identify independent risk factors associated with default. The sample included 3165 TB patients from 8 provinces; 1164 were traceable and interviewed (232 cases and 932 controls). Significant risk factors associated with default among both groups included poor health care worker attitude (new: AOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.4; re-treatment: AOR 12, 95% CI 2.2-66.0) and changing residence during TB treatment (new: AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.7; re-treatment: AOR 3.4, 95% CI 1.1-9.9). Among new patients, cases were more likely than controls to report having no formal education (AOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.2), feeling ashamed to have TB (AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.0), not receiving adequate counseling about their treatment (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-2.8), drinking any alcohol during TB treatment (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.0), and seeing a traditional healer during TB treatment (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.4). Among re-treatment patients, risk factors included stopping TB treatment because they felt better (AOR 21, 95% CI 5.2-84), having a previous history of TB treatment default (AOR 6.4, 95% CI 2.9-14), and feeling that food provisions might have helped

  2. Comparative study on the resistance performance of an icebreaking cargo vessel according to the variation of waterline angles in pack ice conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon-Chan Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The resistance performance of an icebreaking cargo vessel according to the variation of waterline angles is investigated numerically and experimentally. A recently developed Finite Element (FE model is used in our analysis. A resistance test with synthetic ice is performed in the towing tank at Pusan National University (PNU to compare and validate the computed results. We demonstrate good agreement between the experimental and numerical results. Ship-ice interaction loads are numerically calculated based on the Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI method in the commercial FE package LS-DYNA. Test results from model testing with synthetic ice at the PNU towing tank are used to compare and validate the numerical simulations. For each waterline angle, numerical and experimental comparisons were made for three concentrations (90%, 80%, and 60% of pack ice. Ice was modeled as a rigid body, but the ice density was the same as that used in the experiments. A comparative study according to the variation of stem angles is expected to be conducted in the near future.

  3. Variations in biofilm formation, desiccation resistance and Benzalkonium chloride susceptibility among Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated in Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piercey, Marta J.; C. Ells, Timothy; Macintosh, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    needed to inhibit the formation of biofilm by LGI1/CC8 strains during incubation for 48 h and 6 days compared to other strains. Formation of biofilm on stainless steel was not significantly (p > 0.05) different among the strains. Analysis of genetic sequence data from desiccation and BAC sensitive (CP4 5......Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogenic foodborne microorganism noted for its ability to survive in the environment and food processing facilities. Survival may be related to the phenotype of individual strains including the ability to form biofilms and resist desiccation and/or sanitizer exposure....... The objectives of this research were to compare 14 L. monocytogenes strains isolated from blood (3), food (6) and water (5) with respect to their benzalkonium chloride (BAC) sensitivity, desiccation resistance, and ability to form biofilm. Correlations were tested between those responses, and the presence...

  4. Spatial and temporal variation in the community prevalence of antibiotic resistance in Bangladesh: an integrated surveillance study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousham, Emily; Unicomb, Leanne; Wood, Paul; Smith, Michael; Asaduzzaman, Muhammad; Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    2018-04-28

    Increasing antibiotic resistance (ABR) in low-income and middle-income countries such as Bangladesh presents a major health threat. However, assessing the scale of the health risk is problematic in the absence of reliable data on the community prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. We describe the protocol for a small-scale integrated surveillance programme that aims to quantify the prevalence of colonisation with antibiotic-resistant bacteria and concentrations of antibiotic-resistant genes from a 'One Health' perspective. The holistic assessment of ABR in humans, animals and within the environment in urban and rural Bangladesh will generate comprehensive data to inform human health risk. The study design focuses on three exposure-relevant sites where there is enhanced potential for transmission of ABR between humans, animals and the environment: (1) rural poultry-owning households, (2) commercial poultry farms and (3) urban live-bird markets. The comparison of ABR prevalence in human groups with high and low exposure to farming and poultry will enable us to test the hypothesis that ABR bacteria and genes from the environment and food-producing animals are potential sources of transmission to humans. Escherichia coli is used as an ABR indicator organism due to its widespread environmental presence and colonisation in both the human and animal gastrointestinal tract. The study has been approved by the Institutional Review Board of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, and Loughborough University Ethics Committee. Data for the project will be stored on the open access repository of the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Natural Environment Research Council. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  5. Fracture resistance and failure modes of polymer infiltrated ceramic endocrown restorations with variations in margin design and occlusal thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Doaa; Spintzyk, Sebastian; Schille, Christine; Sabet, Ahmed; Wahsh, Marwa; Salah, Tarek; Geis-Gerstorfer, Jürgen

    2017-12-11

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the effect of varying the margin designs and the occlusal thicknesses on the fracture resistance and mode of failures of endodontically treated teeth restored with polymer infiltrated ceramic endocrown restorations. Root canal treated mandibular molars were divided into four groups (n=8) and were prepared to receive Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) fabricated polymer infiltrated ceramic endocrowns (ENAMIC blocks). Group B2 represents teeth prepared with a butt joint design receiving endocrowns with 2mm occlusal thickness and the same for group B3.5 but with 3.5mm occlusal thickness. Group S2 represents teeth prepared with 1mm shoulder finish line receiving endocrowns with 2mm occlusal thickness and the same for group S3.5 but with 3.5mm occlusal thickness. After cementation and thermal aging, fracture resistance test was performed and failure modes were observed. Group S3.5 showed the highest mean fracture load value (1.27±0.31kN). Endocrowns with shoulder finish line had significantly higher mean fracture resistance values than endocrowns with butt margin (p<0.05). However, the results were not statistically significant regarding the restoration thickness. Evaluation of the fracture modes revealed no statistically significant difference between the modes of failure of tested groups. For the restoration of endodontically treated teeth, adding a short axial wall and shoulder finish line can increase the fracture resistance. However, further investigations, especially the fatigue behavior, are needed to ensure this effect applies with small increases of restoration thickness. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interspecific variation in resistance of Asian, European, and North American birches (Betula spp.) to bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, David G; Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A

    2011-06-01

    Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) is the key pest of birches (Betula spp.) in North America, several of which have been recommended for ornamental landscapes based on anecdotal reports of borer resistance that had not been confirmed experimentally. In a 20-yr common garden experiment initiated in 1979 in Ohio, North American birch species, including paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall), 'Whitespire' gray birch (Betula populifolia Marshall), and river birch (Betula nigra L.), were much more resistant to bronze birch borer than species indigenous to Europe and Asia, including European white birch (Betula pendula Roth), downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), monarch birch (Betula maximowicziana Regel), and Szechuan white birch (Betula szechuanica Jansson). Within 8 yr of planting, every European white, downy, and Szechuan birch had been colonized and killed, although 100% of monarch birch had been colonized and 88% of these plants were killed after nine years. Conversely, 97% of river birch, 76% of paper birch, and 73% Whitespire gray birch were alive 20 yr after planting, and river birch showed no evidence of colonization. This pattern is consistent with biogeographic theory of plant defense: North American birch species that share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer were much more resistant than naïve hosts endemic to Europe and Asia, possibly by virtue of evolution of targeted defenses. This information suggests that if bronze birch borer were introduced to Europe or Asia, it could threaten its hosts there on a continental scale. This study also exposed limitations of anecdotal observation as evidence of host plant resistance.

  7. A Technical Note on Australian Default Superannuation Investment Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Iskra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Superannuation has become more complex over time. Individual investors are inclined to seek the ‘path of least resistance’ and invest in default investment funds which are typically concentrated in high risk assets. Understanding how these funds will meet the individual needs of members relative to their changing circumstances can provide peace of mind and confidence in the market. Given the value of superannuation as an investment in terms of the economy, it is paramount than an appropriate mechanism be in place for default fund investors. This paper will clarify the existing position relative to default fund investment options and outline future research which will provide the impetus for change in terms ofgovernment policy, the financial planning profession and for industry superannuation funds.

  8. On the spillover of exchange rate risk into default risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božović Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the exchange-rate risk, banks in emerging markets are typically denominating their loans in foreign currencies. However, in the event of a substantial depreciation of the local currency, the payment ability of a foreign-currency borrower may be reduced significantly, exposing the lender to additional default risk. This paper analyses how the exchange-rate risk of foreign currency loans spills over into default risk. We show that in an economy where foreign currency loans are a dominant source of financing economic activity, depreciation of the local currency establishes a negative feedback mechanism that leads to higher default probabilities, reduced credit supply, and reduced growth. This finding has some important implications that may be of special interest for regulators and market participants in emerging economies.

  9. Variations of electric resistance and H2 and Rn emissions of concrete blocks under increasing uniaxial compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, C.-Y.; Luo, G.

    1990-01-01

    Electric resistance and emissions of hydrogen and radon isotopes of concrete (which is somewhat similar to fault-zone materials) under increasing uniaxial compression were continuously monitored to check whether they show any pre- and post-failure changes that may correspond to similar changes reported for earthquakes. The results show that all these parameters generally begin to increase when the applied stresses reach 20% to 90% of the corresponding failure stresses, probably due to the occurrence and growth of dilatant microcracks in the specimens. The prefailure changes have different patterns for different specimens, probably because of differences in spatial and temporal distributions of the microcracks. The resistance shows large co-failure increases, and the gas emissions show large post-failure increases. The post-failure increase of radon persists longer and stays at a higher level than that of hydrogen, suggesting a difference in the emission mechanisms for these two kinds of gases. The H2 increase may be mainly due to chemical reaction at the crack surfaces while they are fresh, whereas the Rn increases may be mainly the result of the increased emanation area of such surfaces. The results suggest that monitoring of resistivity and gas emissions may be useful for predicting earthquakes and failures of concrete structures. ?? 1990 Birkha??user Verlag.

  10. Performance of denitrifying microbial fuel cell subjected to variation in pH, COD concentration and external resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Tao; Zhang, Shao-Hui; Hua, Yu-Mei

    2013-01-01

    The effects of pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration and external resistance on denitrifying microbial fuel cell were evaluated in terms of electricity generation characteristics and pollutant removal performance. The results showed that anodic influent with weakly alkaline or neutral pH and cathodic influent with weakly acidic pH favored pollutant removal and electricity generation. The suitable influent pH of the anode and cathode were found to be 7.5-8.0 and 6.0-6.5, respectively. In the presence of sufficient nitrate in the cathode, higher influent COD concentration led to more electricity generation and greater pollutant removal rates. With an anodic influent pH of 8.0 and a cathodic influent pH of 6.0, an influent COD concentration of 400 mg/L was deemed to be appropriate. Low external resistance favored nitrate and COD removal. The results suggest that operation of denitrifying microbial fuel cell at a lower external resistance would be desirable for pollutant removal but not electricity generation.

  11.     Developmental acclimation affects clinal variation in stress resistance traits in Drosophila buzzatii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarup, Pernille Merete; Loeschcke, Volker

    2010-01-01

      Patterns of clinal genetic variation in Drosophila are often characterized after rearing at constant temperatures. However, clinal patterns might change after acclimation if populations differ in their plastic response to fluctuating environments. We studied longevity, starvation and heat knock...... temperatures, especially in heat knock-down, for which clinal patterns disappeared when flies were reared at constant temperatures. This result emphasises the importance of determining whether populations originating from different environments differ in their plastic responses to stress....

  12. Correlation Structures of Correlated Binomial Models and Implied Default Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shintaro; Kitsukawa, Kenji; Hisakado, Masato

    2008-11-01

    We show how to analyze and interpret the correlation structures, the conditional expectation values and correlation coefficients of exchangeable Bernoulli random variables. We study implied default distributions for the iTraxx-CJ tranches and some popular probabilistic models, including the Gaussian copula model, Beta binomial distribution model and long-range Ising model. We interpret the differences in their profiles in terms of the correlation structures. The implied default distribution has singular correlation structures, reflecting the credit market implications. We point out two possible origins of the singular behavior.

  13. Effect of variation in oxytetracycline treatment of Lawsonia intracellularis diahrea in nursery pigs on treatment-efficacy and resistance development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, I.; Mellerup, Anders; Zachariasen, C.

    2015-01-01

    A Danish research project, MINIRESIST, investigated the consequences of varying doses and treatment strategies for oxytetracycline treatment of Lawsonia intracellularis diarrhea in nursery pigs. Batches of nursery pigs in five herds were randomly allocated to one of five treatment protocols (batch...... scores, which have low sensitivity for diarrhea. Simulation studies suggested that resistance development was mostly dependent on the duration of the treatment and the total amount of oxytetracycline used per pig. Ongoing field testing has been initiated to confirm this conclusion, since no field...

  14. Influence of Heat Treatment and Composition Variations on Microstructure, Hardness, and Wear Resistance of C 18000 Copper Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio-Galicia, Ramon; Gomez-Garcia, Carlos; Alcantara, Miguel Angel; Herrera-Vazquez, Andres

    2012-01-01

    The hardness and wear behavior properties of two C 18000 copper alloys with variations in Ni, Si, and Cr concentrations, both within the range of C18000 chemical analysis standard, were studied after the alloy samples had been prepared by melting and casting in sand molds and then heat-treated in solution using two-stage aging for different heating time periods. The results obtained from sample sets of the aforementioned two alloys, C 0 and C 1 , show that the alloy C 1 , with slightly higher...

  15. Plasticity of the Leishmania genome leading to gene copy number variations and drug resistance [version 1; referees: 5 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude N. Laffitte

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania has a plastic genome, and drug pressure can select for gene copy number variation (CNV. CNVs can apply either to whole chromosomes, leading to aneuploidy, or to specific genomic regions. For the latter, the amplification of chromosomal regions occurs at the level of homologous direct or inverted repeated sequences leading to extrachromosomal circular or linear amplified DNAs. This ability of Leishmania to respond to drug pressure by CNVs has led to the development of genomic screens such as Cos-Seq, which has the potential of expediting the discovery of drug targets for novel promising drug candidates.

  16. The Variations of Thermal Contact Resistance and Heat Transfer Rate of the AlN Film Compositing with PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huann-Ming Chou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical industries have been fast developing over the past decades. Moreover, the trend of microelements and packed division multiplex is obviously for the electrical industry. Hence, the high heat dissipative and the electrical insulating device have been popular and necessary. The thermal conduct coefficient of aluminum nitride (i.e., AlN is many times larger than the other materials. Moreover, the green technology of composite with phase change materials (i.e., PCMs is worked as a constant temperature cooler. Therefore, PCMs have been used frequently for saving energy and the green environment. Based on the above statements, it does show great potential in heat dissipative for the AlN film compositing with PCM. Therefore, this paper is focused on the research of thermal contact resistance and heat transfer between the AlN/PCM pairs. According to the experimental results, the heat transfer decreases and the thermal contact resistance increases under the melting process of PCM. However, the suitable parameters such as contact pressures can be used to improve the above defects.

  17. A Variation in the Cerebroside Sulfotransferase Gene Is Linked to Exercise-Modified Insulin Resistance and to Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Roeske-Nielsen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The glycosphingolipid β-galactosylceramide-3-O-sulfate (sulfatide is present in the secretory granules of the insulin producing β-cells and may act as a molecular chaperone of insulin. The final step in sulfatide synthesis is performed by cerebroside sulfotransferase (CST (EC 2.8.2.11. The aim of this study was to investigate whether two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, rs2267161 located in an exon or rs42929 located in an intron, in the gene encoding CST are linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D. Methods. As a population survey, 265 male and female patients suffering from T2D and 291 gender matched controls were examined. Results. A higher proportion of T2D patients were heterozygous at SNP rs2267161 with both T (methionine and C (valine alleles present (49.8% versus 41.3%, P=.04. The calculated odd risk for T2D was 1.47 (1.01–2.15, P=.047. Among female controls, the homozygous CC individuals displayed lower insulin resistance measured by HOMA-IR (P=.05 than the C/T or TT persons; this was particularly prevalent in individuals who exercise (P=.03. Conclusion. Heterozygosity at SNP rs2267161 in the gene encoding the CST enzyme confers increased risk of T2D. Females with the CC allele showed lower insulin resistance.

  18. Transition of torque pattern in undulatory locomotion due to wave number variation in resistive force dominated media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yang; Ming, Tingyu

    2016-11-01

    In undulatory locomotion, torque (bending moment) is required along the body to overcome the external forces from environments and bend the body. Previous observations on animals using less than two wavelengths on the body showed such torque has a single traveling wave pattern. Using resistive force theory model and considering the torque generated by external force in a resistive force dominated media, we found that as the wave number (number of wavelengths on the locomotor's body) increases from 0.5 to 1.8, the speed of the traveling wave of torque decreases. When the wave number increases to 2 and greater, the torque pattern transits from a single traveling wave to a two traveling waves and then a complex pattern that consists two wave-like patterns. By analyzing the force distribution and its contribution to the torque, we explain the speed decrease of the torque wave and the pattern transition. This research is partially supported by the Recruitment Program of Global Young Experts (China).

  19. 29 CFR 4219.32 - Interest on overdue, defaulted and overpaid withdrawal liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., as reported by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in Statistical Release H.15... default, the date of the missed payment that gave rise to the delinquency or the default. (e) Date paid...

  20. Sovereign default and the stability of inflation targeting regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schabert, A.; van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the impact of interactions between monetary and fiscal policy on macroeconomic stability. We find that in the presence of sovereign default beliefs a monetary policy, which aims to stabilize inflation through an active interest rate policy, will destabilize the economy if the feedback

  1. A default Bayesian hypothesis test for correlations and partial correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzels, R.; Wagenmakers, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a default Bayesian hypothesis test for the presence of a correlation or a partial correlation. The test is a direct application of Bayesian techniques for variable selection in regression models. The test is easy to apply and yields practical advantages that the standard frequentist tests

  2. Nonmonotonic Skeptical Consequence Relation in Constrained Default Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaiela Lupea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the nonmonotonic consequence relation which models the skeptical reasoning formalised by constrained default logic. The nonmonotonic skeptical consequence relation is defined using the sequent calculus axiomatic system. We study the formal properties desirable for a good nonmonotonic relation: supraclassicality, cut, cautious monotony, cumulativity, absorption, distribution. 

  3. Default from Anti-Retroviral Treatment Programme in Sagamu, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For those who were not met at home proxy interviewees such as a neighbour or a family member were asked if they were available. Of the 100 patients who had enrolled in the ART treatment programme during the study period, 36% of the study population defaulted treatment, 18% had died while 46% were alive and well.

  4. Default Sarcastic Interpretations: On the Priority of Nonsalient Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giora, Rachel; Drucker, Ari; Fein, Ofer; Mendelson, Itamar

    2015-01-01

    Findings from five experiments support the view that negation generates sarcastic utterance-interpretations by default. When presented in isolation, novel negative constructions ("Punctuality is not his forte," "Thoroughness is not her most distinctive feature"), free of semantic anomaly or internal incongruity, were…

  5. Government interventions and default risk: Does one size fit all?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the effectiveness of the financial sector rescue packages provided by the national governments during the 2008 financial crisis. This study questions the implicit assumption that government interventions have an uniform effect on the default risk of individual banks. After testing the

  6. Improving default risk prediction using Bayesian model uncertainty techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Reza; Mosleh, Ali

    2012-11-01

    Credit risk is the potential exposure of a creditor to an obligor's failure or refusal to repay the debt in principal or interest. The potential of exposure is measured in terms of probability of default. Many models have been developed to estimate credit risk, with rating agencies dating back to the 19th century. They provide their assessment of probability of default and transition probabilities of various firms in their annual reports. Regulatory capital requirements for credit risk outlined by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision have made it essential for banks and financial institutions to develop sophisticated models in an attempt to measure credit risk with higher accuracy. The Bayesian framework proposed in this article uses the techniques developed in physical sciences and engineering for dealing with model uncertainty and expert accuracy to obtain improved estimates of credit risk and associated uncertainties. The approach uses estimates from one or more rating agencies and incorporates their historical accuracy (past performance data) in estimating future default risk and transition probabilities. Several examples demonstrate that the proposed methodology can assess default probability with accuracy exceeding the estimations of all the individual models. Moreover, the methodology accounts for potentially significant departures from "nominal predictions" due to "upsetting events" such as the 2008 global banking crisis. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Strategic loan defaults and coordination : An experimental analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, S.T.; Vlahu, R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper experimentally studies the impact of bank and borrower fundamentals on loan repayment. We find that solvent borrowers are more likely to default strategically when the bank’s expected strength is low, although loan repayment is a Pareto dominant Nash equilibrium. Borrowers are also less

  8. Distribution, incidence, prevalence and default of patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. The study showed that the majority (38.7%) of patients with diabetes on the public sector register were from the district of eThekwini. Positive correlations were found between the prevalence of diabetes, the mortality rate and the number of defaulters (patients with diabetes who did not return for regular treatment).

  9. Credit Default Risk and its Determinants of Microfinance Industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    limitations prevailed in the selected 6 MFIs in Ethiopia schemed by determining the ... the probit model show that education, income, loan supervision, suitability of repayment ..... of Ethiopia as Large, Medium, and Small MFIs. ..... /sigma. 0.5177089. 0.0467682. *significant at 1%. ***significant at 10% .... businesses default.

  10. Additive Intensity Regression Models in Corporate Default Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, David; Medhat, Mamdouh; Nielsen, Mads Stenbo

    2013-01-01

    We consider additive intensity (Aalen) models as an alternative to the multiplicative intensity (Cox) models for analyzing the default risk of a sample of rated, nonfinancial U.S. firms. The setting allows for estimating and testing the significance of time-varying effects. We use a variety of mo...

  11. 47 CFR 25.217 - Default service rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Default service rules. 25.217 Section 25.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS... licenses to operate a satellite system in a frequency band granted after a domestic frequency allocation...

  12. 7 CFR 1717.653 - Borrowers in default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., to be in the financial interest of the government with respect to loan security and/or repayment. If... AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO INSURED AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Investments, Loans, and Guarantees by Electric Borrowers § 1717.653 Borrowers in default. Any borrower not in...

  13. Determinants of Default in P2P Lending.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Serrano-Cinca

    Full Text Available This paper studies P2P lending and the factors explaining loan default. This is an important issue because in P2P lending individual investors bear the credit risk, instead of financial institutions, which are experts in dealing with this risk. P2P lenders suffer a severe problem of information asymmetry, because they are at a disadvantage facing the borrower. For this reason, P2P lending sites provide potential lenders with information about borrowers and their loan purpose. They also assign a grade to each loan. The empirical study is based on loans' data collected from Lending Club (N = 24,449 from 2008 to 2014 that are first analyzed by using univariate means tests and survival analysis. Factors explaining default are loan purpose, annual income, current housing situation, credit history and indebtedness. Secondly, a logistic regression model is developed to predict defaults. The grade assigned by the P2P lending site is the most predictive factor of default, but the accuracy of the model is improved by adding other information, especially the borrower's debt level.

  14. Determinants of Default in P2P Lending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Cinca, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Nieto, Begoña; López-Palacios, Luz

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies P2P lending and the factors explaining loan default. This is an important issue because in P2P lending individual investors bear the credit risk, instead of financial institutions, which are experts in dealing with this risk. P2P lenders suffer a severe problem of information asymmetry, because they are at a disadvantage facing the borrower. For this reason, P2P lending sites provide potential lenders with information about borrowers and their loan purpose. They also assign a grade to each loan. The empirical study is based on loans' data collected from Lending Club (N = 24,449) from 2008 to 2014 that are first analyzed by using univariate means tests and survival analysis. Factors explaining default are loan purpose, annual income, current housing situation, credit history and indebtedness. Secondly, a logistic regression model is developed to predict defaults. The grade assigned by the P2P lending site is the most predictive factor of default, but the accuracy of the model is improved by adding other information, especially the borrower's debt level.

  15. 47 CFR 64.1703 - Dispute resolution default process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dispute resolution default process. 64.1703 Section 64.1703 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... recommendation(s) must be included in the final industry-wide standard or industry-wide generic requirement...

  16. Of Religion and Redemption : Evidence from Default on Islamic Loans (Replaces EBC DP 2010-032)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baele, L.; Farooq, M.; Ongena, S.

    2012-01-01

    We compare default rates on conventional and Islamic loans using a comprehensive monthly dataset from Pakistan that follows more than 150,000 loans over the period 2006:04 to 2008:12. We find robust evidence that the default rate on Islamic loans is less than half the default rate on conventional

  17. 34 CFR 668.207 - Preventing evasion of the consequences of cohort default rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preventing evasion of the consequences of cohort default rates. 668.207 Section 668.207 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... Cohort Default Rates § 668.207 Preventing evasion of the consequences of cohort default rates. (a...

  18. 34 CFR 668.188 - Preventing evasion of the consequences of cohort default rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preventing evasion of the consequences of cohort default rates. 668.188 Section 668.188 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... Two Year Cohort Default Rates § 668.188 Preventing evasion of the consequences of cohort default rates...

  19. Student Loan Default: Do Characteristics of Four-Year Institutions Contribute to the Puzzle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Karen L.; Rogers, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    College student debt and loan default are growing concerns in the United States. For each U.S. institution, the federal government is now reporting a cohort default rate, which is the percent of students who defaulted on their loan, averaged over a three-year period. Previous studies have amply shown that student characteristics are strongly…

  20. Social by default : the default-mode network and social cognition in healthy volunteers and siblings of schizophrenia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Buuren, M.

    2012-01-01

    During rest, a set of brain areas shows increased activity compared to when people are performing complex tasks. This network is commonly referred to as the default-mode network (DMN) and includes the ventral and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and lateral posterior

  1. Lack of Association between Hepatitis C Virus core Gene Variation 70/91aa and Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalioni, Letícia de Paula; da Silva, Allan Peres; Miguel, Juliana Custódio; Espírito Santo, Márcia Paschoal do; Marques, Vanessa Alves; Brandão-Mello, Carlos Eduardo; Villela-Nogueira, Cristiane Alves; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Lampe, Elisabeth; Villar, Livia Melo

    2017-07-21

    The role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in insulin resistance (IR) is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of amino acid (aa) substitutions in the core region of HCV according to IR and to identify clinical and laboratory associations. Ninety-two treatment-naive HCV patients were recruited to determine laboratory data and blood cell count. IR was determined using Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index where IR was defined as HOMA ≥2. HCV RNA load and genotype were determined by Abbott Real time HCV. HCV core region was determined by direct nucleotide sequencing. Bivariate analysis was conducted using HOMA IR ≥2 as a dependent factor. IR prevalence was 43.5% ( n = 40), vitamin D sufficiency was found in 76.1% ( n = 70) and 72.8% ( n = 67) had advanced liver fibrosis. In the bivariate analyses, elevated values of γGT ( p = 0.024) and fibrosis staging ( p = 0.004) were associated with IR, but IR was not related to core mutations. The presence of glutamine in position 70 was associated with low vitamin D concentration ( p = 0.005). In the multivariate analysis, no variable was independently associated with HOMA-IR. In conclusion, lack of association between IR and HCV core mutations in positions 70 and 91 suggests that genetic variability of this region has little impact on IR.

  2. HOMA, BMI, and Serum Leptin Levels Variations during Antiviral Treatment Suggest Virus-Related Insulin Resistance in Noncirrhotic, Nonobese, and Nondiabetic Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 1 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Grasso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between insulin resistance and viral load decay in nondiabetic and noncirrhotic genotype 1 chronic HCV patients during peginterferon and ribavirin treatment and the possible influence of BMI and leptin as metabolic confounders. Methods. 75 consecutive noncirrhotic, nonobese, and nondiabetic patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C treated with peginterferon alpha 2a plus ribavirin were evaluated. HOMA-IR, serum leptin, and BMI were measured in all patients at baseline and at weeks 12 and 48, whereas viral load was measured at the same time points and then 24 weeks after the end of treatment. Results. HOMA-IR was significantly associated with both BMI and leptin at baseline. During peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment, there was a significant reduction of HOMA-IR at weeks 12 and 48 from baseline (P=0.033 and 0.048, resp. in patients who achieved an early viral load decay (EVR, a trend not observed in patients who not achieved EVR. No variations during treatment were observed regarding BMI and leptin irrespective of EVR. Conclusion. The early reduction of HOMA-IR but not of BMI and leptin during antiviral treatment in noncirrhotic, chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 patients who achieved EVR suggests a viral genesis of insulin resistance in patients with nonmetabolic phenotype.

  3. HOMA, BMI, and Serum Leptin Levels Variations during Antiviral Treatment Suggest Virus-Related Insulin Resistance in Noncirrhotic, Nonobese, and Nondiabetic Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 1 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Alessandro; Malfatti, Federica; Andraghetti, Gabriella; Marenco, Simona; Mazzucchelli, Chiara; Labanca, Sara; Cordera, Renzo; Testa, Roberto; Picciotto, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the relationship between insulin resistance and viral load decay in nondiabetic and noncirrhotic genotype 1 chronic HCV patients during peginterferon and ribavirin treatment and the possible influence of BMI and leptin as metabolic confounders. Methods. 75 consecutive noncirrhotic, nonobese, and nondiabetic patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C treated with peginterferon alpha 2a plus ribavirin were evaluated. HOMA-IR, serum leptin, and BMI were measured in all patients at baseline and at weeks 12 and 48, whereas viral load was measured at the same time points and then 24 weeks after the end of treatment. Results. HOMA-IR was significantly associated with both BMI and leptin at baseline. During peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment, there was a significant reduction of HOMA-IR at weeks 12 and 48 from baseline (P = 0.033 and 0.048, resp.) in patients who achieved an early viral load decay (EVR), a trend not observed in patients who not achieved EVR. No variations during treatment were observed regarding BMI and leptin irrespective of EVR. Conclusion. The early reduction of HOMA-IR but not of BMI and leptin during antiviral treatment in noncirrhotic, chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 patients who achieved EVR suggests a viral genesis of insulin resistance in patients with nonmetabolic phenotype.

  4. Production and corrosion resistance of NdFeBZr magnets with an improved response to thermal variations during sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.Q.; Zhong, X.L.; Zhang, Y.P.; Yan, Y.G.; Zhen, Y.H.; Zakotnik, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes an attempt to produce NdFeB magnets that are insensitive to the sintering temperature. It was found that addition of Zr to NdFeB magnets significantly augmented the thermal stability of this magnetic material during sintering at high temperature even at industrial scale. The best sintered magnets were produced by jet-milling the powder (to achieve an average 3.4 μm particle size), and then aligned, pressed and sintered under argon at 1100 o C for 3 h followed by appropriate heat treatment. The magnetic properties of the resulting magnets were: (BH) m =403.8 kJ m -3 (±4.7 kJ m -3 ), B r =1430 mT (±9 mT) and i H c =907 kA m -1 (±12 kA m -1 ). Large grain growth, in excess of 100 μm in the Zr-free magnets, was observed during sintering at 1100 o C. This did not occur in the presence of Zr. These observations imply that the sensitivity of this class of magnets to high sintering temperatures is greatly reduced by Zr addition. Corrosion resistance of NdFeB was therefore significantly improved by the addition of small amounts of Zr. - Research highlights: →This study describes an attempt to produce NdFeB magnets that are insensitive to the sintering temperature. → It was found that addition of Zr to NdFeB magnets significantly augmented the thermal stability of this magnetic material during sintering at high temperature; even at industrial scale. → The magnetic properties of the resulting magnets were: (BH) m =403.8 kJ m -3 (±4.7 kJ m -3 ), B r =1430 mT (±9 mT) and i H c =907 kA m -1 (±12 kA m -1 ).

  5. Comprehensive Profiling of the Androgen Receptor in Liquid Biopsies from Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer Reveals Novel Intra-AR Structural Variation and Splice Variant Expression Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laere, Bram; van Dam, Pieter-Jan; Whitington, Tom; Mayrhofer, Markus; Diaz, Emanuela Henao; Van den Eynden, Gert; Vandebroek, Jean; Del-Favero, Jurgen; Van Laere, Steven; Dirix, Luc; Grönberg, Henrik; Lindberg, Johan

    2017-08-01

    Expression of the androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) is associated with poor response to second-line endocrine therapy in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, a large fraction of nonresponding patients are AR-V7-negative. To investigate if a comprehensive liquid biopsy-based AR profile may improve patient stratification in the context of second-line endocrine therapy. Peripheral blood was collected from patients with CRPC (n=30) before initiation of a new line of systemic therapy. We performed profiling of circulating tumour DNA via low-pass whole-genome sequencing and targeted sequencing of the entire AR gene, including introns. Targeted RNA sequencing was performed on enriched circulating tumour cell fractions to assess the expression levels of seven AR splice variants (ARVs). Somatic AR variations, including copy-number alterations, structural variations, and point mutations, were combined with ARV expression patterns and correlated to clinicopathologic parameters. Collectively, any AR perturbation, including ARV, was detected in 25/30 patients. Surprisingly, intra-AR structural variation was present in 15/30 patients, of whom 14 expressed ARVs. The majority of ARV-positive patients expressed multiple ARVs, with AR-V3 the most abundantly expressed. The presence of any ARV was associated with progression-free survival after second-line endocrine treatment (hazard ratio 4.53, 95% confidence interval 1.424-14.41; p=0.0105). Six out of 17 poor responders were AR-V7-negative, but four carried other AR perturbations. Comprehensive AR profiling, which is feasible using liquid biopsies, is necessary to increase our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning resistance to endocrine treatment. Alterations in the androgen receptor are associated with endocrine treatment outcomes. This study demonstrates that it is possible to identify different types of alterations via simple blood draws. Follow-up studies are needed to determine the effect of

  6. Default activity patterns at the neocortical microcircuit level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur eLuczak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Even in absence of sensory stimuli cortical networks exhibit complex, self-organized activity patterns. While the function of those spontaneous patterns of activation remains poorly understood, recent studies both in vivo and in vitro have demonstrated that neocortical neurons activate in a surprisingly similar sequential order both spontaneously and following input into cortex. For example, neurons that tend to fire earlier within spontaneous bursts of activity also fire earlier than other neurons in response to sensory stimuli. These 'default patterns' can last hundreds of milliseconds and are strongly conserved under a variety of conditions. In this paper we will review recent evidence for these default patterns at the local cortical level. We speculate that cortical architecture imposes common constraints on spontaneous and evoked activity flow, which result in the similarity of the patterns.

  7. Ensemble Learning or Deep Learning? Application to Default Risk Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeyuki Hamori

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Proper credit-risk management is essential for lending institutions, as substantial losses can be incurred when borrowers default. Consequently, statistical methods that can measure and analyze credit risk objectively are becoming increasingly important. This study analyzes default payment data and compares the prediction accuracy and classification ability of three ensemble-learning methods—specifically, bagging, random forest, and boosting—with those of various neural-network methods, each of which has a different activation function. The results obtained indicate that the classification ability of boosting is superior to other machine-learning methods including neural networks. It is also found that the performance of neural-network models depends on the choice of activation function, the number of middle layers, and the inclusion of dropout.

  8. Identifying a "default" visual search mode with operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Jun-ichiro

    2010-09-01

    The presence of a singleton in a task-irrelevant domain can impair visual search. This impairment, known as the attentional capture depends on the set of participants. When narrowly searching for a specific feature (the feature search mode), only matching stimuli capture attention. When searching broadly (the singleton detection mode), any oddball captures attention. The present study examined which strategy represents the "default" mode using an operant conditioning approach in which participants were trained, in the absence of explicit instructions, to search for a target in an ambiguous context in which one of two modes was available. The results revealed that participants behaviorally adopted the singleton detection as the default mode but reported using the feature search mode. Conscious strategies did not eliminate capture. These results challenge the view that a conscious set always modulates capture, suggesting that the visual system tends to rely on stimulus salience to deploy attention.

  9. Defaultable Game Options in a Hazard Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz R. Bielecki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The valuation and hedging of defaultable game options is studied in a hazard process model of credit risk. A convenient pricing formula with respect to a reference filteration is derived. A connection of arbitrage prices with a suitable notion of hedging is obtained. The main result shows that the arbitrage prices are the minimal superhedging prices with sigma martingale cost under a risk neutral measure.

  10. Exploring default mode and information flow on the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Mizuki; Ikegami, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Social networking services (e.g., Twitter, Facebook) are now major sources of World Wide Web (called "Web") dynamics, together with Web search services (e.g., Google). These two types of Web services mutually influence each other but generate different dynamics. In this paper, we distinguish two modes of Web dynamics: the reactive mode and the default mode. It is assumed that Twitter messages (called "tweets") and Google search queries react to significant social movements and events, but they also demonstrate signs of becoming self-activated, thereby forming a baseline Web activity. We define the former as the reactive mode and the latter as the default mode of the Web. In this paper, we investigate these reactive and default modes of the Web's dynamics using transfer entropy (TE). The amount of information transferred between a time series of 1,000 frequent keywords in Twitter and the same keywords in Google queries is investigated across an 11-month time period. Study of the information flow on Google and Twitter revealed that information is generally transferred from Twitter to Google, indicating that Twitter time series have some preceding information about Google time series. We also studied the information flow among different Twitter keywords time series by taking keywords as nodes and flow directions as edges of a network. An analysis of this network revealed that frequent keywords tend to become an information source and infrequent keywords tend to become sink for other keywords. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that frequent keywords form the Web's default mode, which becomes an information source for infrequent keywords that generally form the Web's reactive mode. We also found that the Web consists of different time resolutions with respect to TE among Twitter keywords, which will be another focal point of this paper.

  11. WHO Multidrug Therapy for Leprosy: Epidemiology of Default in Treatment in Agra District, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Girdhar, Anita; Chakma, Joy Kumar; Girdhar, Bhuwneswar Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To study the magnitude of default, time of default, its causes, and final clinical outcome. Methods. Data collected in active surveys in Agra is analyzed. Patients were given treatment after medical confirmation and were followed up. The treatment default and other clinical outcomes were recorded. Results. Patients who defaulted have comparable demographic characteristics. However, among defaulters more women (62.7% in PB, 42.6% in MB) were seen than those in treatment completers (PB 52.7% and MB 35.9%). Nerve involvement was high in treatment completers: 45.7% in PB and 91.3% in MB leprosy. Overall default rate was lower (14.8%) in ROM than (28.8%) in standard MDT for PB leprosy (χ 1 2 = 11.6, P = 0.001) and also for MB leprosy: 9.1% in ROM compared to 34.5% in MDT (χ 1 2 = 6.0, P = 0.015). Default rate was not different (28.8% versus 34.5%, P > 0.05) in both types of leprosy given MDT. Most patients defaulted at early stage of treatment and mainly due to manageable side effects. Conclusion. The default in standard MDT both for PB and MB leprosy was observed to be significantly higher than in ROM treatment. Most defaults occurred at early stage of treatment and major contribution of default is due to side effects like drowsiness, weakness, vomiting, diarrhea, and so forth, related to poor general health. Although about half of the defaulters were observed to be cured 2.2% in PB-MDT and 10.9% of MB-MDT developed disability. This is an issue due to default. Attempts are needed to increase treatment compliance. The use of specially designed disease related health education along with easily administered drug regimens may help to reduce default. PMID:25705679

  12. Identification of Indicators’ Applicability to Settle Borrowers’ Probability of Default

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurevičienė Daiva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Borrowers default risk is one of the most relevant types of risk in commercial banking and its assessment is important to secure business profitability and avoid huge losses during economic turbulences. This leads to necessity to investigate topics related to assessment of borrowers’ default probability and applicability of factors, which would enable to capture the newest trends of borrowers’ markets. Leading economic indicators (in addition to financial and other economic indicators are often suggested as forward-looking in scientific literature. However, there is still a discussion going on applicability of financial ratios and economic indicators. As the problem is relevant in theoretical view as well as for practitioners, this article aims to identify applicability of leading economic indicators for the estimation of default probability. Further, the qualitative criteria for factor selection were identified and used when using detailing, grouping and SWOT analysis methods. Based on current scientific literature analysis, this paper concludes that although leading economic indicators are able to capture forward-looking signals, they should be used with careful analysis of its drawbacks and in combination with financial factors in order to avoid overshooting effects. The limitation of the article is the analysis of factors based on rather theoretical analysis than estimation of quantitative criteria. This suggests that every time using leading economic indicators requires using empirical study of particular indicators’ set.

  13. Abnormal Default System Functioning in Depression: Implications for Emotion Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Irene; Bianco, Francesca; Cusinato, Maria; Calvo, Vincenzo; Sambin, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Depression is widely seen as the result of difficulties in regulating emotions. Based on neuroimaging studies on voluntary emotion regulation, neurobiological models have focused on the concept of cognitive control, considering emotion regulation as a shift toward involving controlled processes associated with activation of the prefrontal and parietal executive areas, instead of responding automatically to emotional stimuli. According to such models, the weaker executive area activation observed in depressed patients is attributable to a lack of cognitive control over negative emotions. Going beyond the concept of cognitive control, psychodynamic models describe the development of individuals' capacity to regulate their emotional states in mother-infant interactions during childhood, through the construction of the representation of the self, others, and relationships. In this mini-review, we link these psychodynamic models with recent findings regarding the abnormal functioning of the default system in depression. Consistently with psychodynamic models, psychological functions associated with the default system include self-related processing, semantic processes, and implicit forms of emotion regulation. The abnormal activation of the default system observed in depression may explain the dysfunctional aspects of emotion regulation typical of the condition, such as an exaggerated negative self-focus and rumination on self-esteem issues. We also discuss the clinical implications of these findings with reference to the therapeutic relationship as a key tool for revisiting impaired or distorted representations of the self and relational objects.

  14. Market Microstructure Effects on Firm Default Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Barsotti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Default probability is a fundamental variable determining the credit worthiness of a firm and equity volatility estimation plays a key role in its evaluation. Assuming a structural credit risk modeling approach, we study the impact of choosing different non parametric equity volatility estimators on default probability evaluation, when market microstructure noise is considered. A general stochastic volatility framework with jumps for the underlying asset dynamics is defined inside a Merton-like structural model. To estimate the volatility risk component of a firm we use high-frequency equity data: market microstructure noise is introduced as a direct effect of observing noisy high-frequency equity prices. A Monte Carlo simulation analysis is conducted to (i test the performance of alternative non-parametric equity volatility estimators in their capability of filtering out the microstructure noise and backing out the true unobservable asset volatility; (ii study the effects of different non-parametric estimation techniques on default probability evaluation. The impact of the non-parametric volatility estimators on risk evaluation is not negligible: a sensitivity analysis defined for alternative values of the leverage parameter and average jumps size reveals that the characteristics of the dataset are crucial to determine which is the proper estimator to consider from a credit risk perspective.

  15. In Debt and in the Dark: It's Time for Better Information on Student Loan Defaults. Charts You Can Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Student college loan default rates have nearly doubled in recent years. The three-year default rate exceeds 13 percent nationally. Tracking and reporting default rates is a crucial means of monitoring how well higher education dollars are spent. Yet, the way default data is gathered, measured, and reported by the federal government clouds…

  16. Characterization of genomic variations in SNPs of PE_PGRS genes reveals deletions and insertions in extensively drug resistant (XDR) M. tuberculosis strains from Pakistan

    KAUST Repository

    Kanji, Akbar

    2015-01-21

    Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) PE_PGRS genes belong to the PE multigene family. Although the function of PE_PGRS genes is unknown, it is hypothesized that the PE_PGRS genes may be associated with antigenic variability in MTB. Material and methods Whole genome sequencing analysis was performed on (n = 37) extensively drug-resistant (XDR) MTB strains from Pakistan, which included Lineage 1 (East African Indian, n = 2); Other lineage 1 (n = 3); Lineage 3 (Central Asian, n = 24); Other lineage 3 (n = 4); Lineage 4 (X3, n = 1) and T group (n = 3) MTB strains. Results There were 107 SNPs identified from the analysis of 42 PE_PGRS genes; of these, 13 were non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs). The nsSNPs identified in PE_PGRS genes – 6, 9 and 10 – were common in all EAI, CAS, Other lineages (1 and 3), T1 and X3. Deletions (DELs) in PE_PGRS genes – 3 and 19 – were observed in 17 (80.9%) CAS1 and 6 (85.7%) in Other lineages (1 and 3) XDR MTB strains, while DELs in the PE_PGRS49 were observed in all CAS1, CAS, CAS2 and Other lineages (1 and 3) XDR MTB strains. All CAS, EAI and Other lineages (1 and 3) strains showed insertions (INS) in PE_PGRS6 gene, while INS in the PE_PGRS genes 19 and 33 were observed in 20 (95.2%) CAS1, all CAS, CAS2, EAI and Other lineages (1 and 3) XDR MTB strains. Conclusion Genetic diversity in PE_PGRS genes contributes to antigenic variability and may result in increased immunogenicity of strains. This is the first study identifying variations in nsSNPs and INDELs in the PE_PGRS genes of XDR-TB strains from Pakistan. It highlights common genetic variations which may contribute to persistence.

  17. Characterization of genomic variations in SNPs of PE_PGRS genes reveals deletions and insertions in extensively drug resistant (XDR) M. tuberculosis strains from Pakistan

    KAUST Repository

    Kanji, Akbar

    2015-03-01

    Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) PE_PGRS genes belong to the PE multi-gene family. Although the function of the members of the PE_PGRS multi-gene family is not yet known, it is hypothesized that the PE_PGRS genes may be associated with genetic variability. Material and methods: Whole genome sequencing analysis was performed on (n= 37) extensively drug resistant (XDR) MTB strains from Pakistan which included Central Asian (n= 23), East African Indian (n= 2), X3 (n= 1), T group (n= 3) and Orphan (n= 8) MTB strains. Results: By analyzing 42 PE_PGRS genes, 111 SNPs were identified, of which 13 were non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs). The nsSNPs identified in the PE_PGRS genes were as follows: 6, 9, 10 and 55 present in each of the CAS, EAI, Orphan, T1 and X3 XDR MTB strains studied. Deletions in PE_PGRS genes: 19, 21 and 23 were observed in 7 (35.0%) CAS1 and 3 (37.5%) in Orphan XDR MTB strains, while deletions in the PE_PGRS genes: 49 and 50 were observed in 36 (95.0%) CAS1 and all CAS, CAS2 and Orphan XDR MTB strains. An insertion in PE_PGRS6 gene was observed in all CAS, EAI3 and Orphan, while insertions in the PE_PGRS genes 19 and 33 were observed in 19 (95%) CAS1 and all CAS, CAS2, EAI3 and Orphan XDR MTB strains. Conclusion: Genetic diversity in PE_PGRS genes contributes to antigenic variability and may result in increased immunogenicity of strains. This is the first study identifying variations in nsSNPs, Insertions and Deletions in the PE_PGRS genes of XDR-TB strains from Pakistan. It highlights common genetic variations which may contribute to persistence.

  18. At Home with Sustainability: From Green Default Rules to Sustainable Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Anne Hale

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is often assumed that default rules affect change without awareness, this paper suggests that contrast with the default and transition into conscious adoption of the default design may be the starting point to establish long-term changes in consumer behavior. Despite the rooting of default rules in subconscious decision-making, this research finds that, ultimately, awareness drives the demand necessary for the creation of sustainable consumption. Whereas direct appeal to individuals has a disappointing level of influence on sustainability choices, it is understood that green consumers do come from somewhere. Green default rules offer interesting prospects for sidestepping the drawbacks of direct marketing to individuals. Under green default rules, behavior is guided by a default, such as utilities automatically sending customers renewables-sourced instead of fossil-fuel-based energy. To act otherwise requires additional effort and is less likely. Motivated by a need to understand how defaults might bridge standards and sustainable consumption, I investigate how organizational processes potentially lead from standardized green default rules to individual awareness that can spread and facilitate sustainable consumption. This paper examines the Active House sustainable building demonstrations in Europe in order to understand how (1 communications and market creation and (2 responsible, user-centered experimentation are organized to move from defaults to sustainable consumption.

  19. Testing the effect of defaults on the thermostat settings of OECD employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Zachary; Johnstone, Nick; Haščič, Ivan; Vong, Laura; Barascud, Francis

    2013-01-01

    We describe a randomized controlled experiment in which the default settings on office thermostats in an OECD office building were manipulated during the winter heating season, and employees' chosen thermostat setting observed over a 6-week period. Using difference-in-differences, panel, and censored regression models (to control for maximum allowable thermostat settings), we find that a 1 °C decrease in the default caused a reduction in the chosen setting by 0.38 °C, on average. Sixty-five percent of this effect could be attributed to office occupant behavior (p-value = 0.044). The difference-in-differences models show that small decreases in the default (1°) led to a greater reduction in chosen settings than large decreases (2°). We also find that office occupants who were more apt to adjust their thermostats prior to the intervention were less susceptible to the default. We conclude that this kind of intervention can increase building-level energy efficiency, and discuss potential explanations and broader policy implications of our findings. - Highlights: • We conduct a randomized controlled trial to test if thermostat defaults affect agent behavior. • Two treatments (schedules of default settings) were tested against a control for 6 weeks at OECD. • Small changes in defaults had a greater effect on chosen settings than larger changes in defaults. • Occupants who frequently changed their thermostats in baseline were less affected by defaults. • Thermostat defaults in office environments can be manipulated to increase energy efficiency

  20. Risk factors for treatment default among re-treatment tuberculosis patients in India, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ugra Mohan; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Dewan, Puneet K; Chadha, Sarabjit; Wares, Fraser; Sahu, Suvanand; Gupta, Devesh; Chauhan, L S

    2010-01-25

    Under India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP), >15% of previously-treated patients in the reported 2006 patient cohort defaulted from anti-tuberculosis treatment. To assess the timing, characteristics, and risk factors for default amongst re-treatment TB patients. For this case-control study, in 90 randomly-selected programme units treatment records were abstracted from all 2006 defaulters from the RNTCP re-treatment regimen (cases), with one consecutively-selected non-defaulter per case. Patients who interrupted anti-tuberculosis treatment for >2 months were classified as defaulters. 1,141 defaulters and 1,189 non-defaulters were included. The median duration of treatment prior to default was 81 days (25%-75% interquartile range 44-117 days) and documented retrieval efforts after treatment interruption were inadequate. Defaulters were more likely to have been male (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-1.7), have previously defaulted anti-tuberculosis treatment (aOR 1.3 95%CI 1.1-1.6], have previous treatment from non-RNTCP providers (AOR 1.3, 95%CI 1.0-1.6], or have public health facility-based treatment observation (aOR 1.3, 95%CI 1.1-1.6). Amongst the large number of re-treatment patients in India, default occurs early and often. Improved pre-treatment counseling and community-based treatment provision may reduce default rates. Efforts to retrieve treatment interrupters prior to default require strengthening.

  1. Variation of the residual resistivity ratio of the aluminium stabiliser for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) conductor under dynamic stress at 4.2 K

    CERN Document Server

    Seeber, B; Flükiger, R; Horváth, I L; Neuenschwander, J

    2000-01-01

    Superconducting detector magnets are frequently manufactured with aluminium stabilised NbTi cables. Actually there are two new detectors in fabrication, namely the CMS and the ATLAS detector at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. For the CMS project we have studied the variation of the residual resistivity ratio (RRR) of high purity aluminium (HPA) (99.998%) under dynamic mechanical stress, applied at 4.2 K, and in a transverse magnetic field of up to 6 T. This information is required for the design of the quench protection system. Because of the mechanical weakness of HPA, a high strength aluminium (HSA) alloy reinforces the CMS-conductor. According to the specification for CMS, the conductor at maximum field is strained up to 0.15%. At this strain the HSA is still in the elastic regime, whereas the HPA is already deformed plastically. Applying a full stress cycle (e.g. loading and unloading of the magnet), the HPA is deformed first under tension and then under compression, resulting in a decrease of the RRR. For m...

  2. Default and rational persuasion of the judge Revelia e persuasão racional do juiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival José de Oliveira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available It checks the borders of the presumption of facts contained in the initial petition when lacks seasonable contestation with the observance of legal formalities. Seen as an objective fact, the default will occur when the defendant stays inert at the processual moment offered to him to adduce his reasons to resist the request of the prosecutor, what doesn’t necessary implies in its procedure. However, the default not always unleashes its effects, that are classified as material or processual, consisting in the presumption of the veracity of the facts pleaded by the prosecutor in his initial petition and the lack of need of notification the default for the processual acts that follows. The presumption in default is relative, it means that, its effects circumscribing verisimilar facts and consistent with the other evidences that lie in the lawsuit, what goes to the need of the material direction and not only the formal side by the judge as a way to find the fair composition of the litigation, there so attending the social finalities of the process effectively inserted in the Democratic State of Law. Coming to the conclusion that shall exteriorized in the explaining of the decision the coherence of fatidic bases and juridical ones, containing all the prominent points of the suit, therefore attending the principle of the rational persuasion, resulting in a full jurisdictional tutelage, under the penalty of nullity of the law suit due to the lack of motivation of the sentence.Verifica os limites da presunção dos fatos contidos na petição inicial quando da ausência de contestação tempestiva e com a observância das formalidades legais. Vista como um fato objetivo, a revelia ocorrerá quando o réu queda-se inerte no momento processual em que lhe é facultado aduzir suas razões de resistência à demanda do autor, o que não implica necessariamente na sua procedência. Contudo, a revelia nem sempre desencadeia os seus efeitos, que s

  3. On Partial Defaults in Portfolio Credit Risk : A Poisson Mixture Model Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Weißbach, Rafael; von Lieres und Wilkau, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    Most credit portfolio models exclusively calculate the loss distribution for a portfolio of performing counterparts. Conservative default definitions cause considerable insecurity about the loss for a long time after the default. We present three approaches to account for defaulted counterparts in the calculation of the economic capital. Two of the approaches are based on the Poisson mixture model CreditRisk+ and derive a loss distribution for an integrated portfolio. The third method treats ...

  4. Estimating the Probabilities of Default for Callable Bonds: A Duffie-Singleton Approach

    OpenAIRE

    David Wang

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a model for estimating the default risks implicit in the prices of callable corporate bonds. The model considers three essential ingredients in the pricing of callable corporate bonds: stochastic interest rate, default risk, and call provision. The stochastic interest rate is modeled as a square-root diffusion process. The default risk is modeled as a constant spread, with the magnitude of this spread impacting the probability of a Poisson process governing the arrival of ...

  5. Dependent defaults and losses with factor copula models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackerer Damien

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a class of flexible and tractable static factor models for the term structure of joint default probabilities, the factor copula models. These high-dimensional models remain parsimonious with paircopula constructions, and nest many standard models as special cases. The loss distribution of a portfolio of contingent claims can be exactly and efficiently computed when individual losses are discretely supported on a finite grid. Numerical examples study the key features affecting the loss distribution and multi-name credit derivatives prices. An empirical exercise illustrates the flexibility of our approach by fitting credit index tranche prices.

  6. Default settings of computerized physician order entry system order sets drive ordering habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jordan; Hollenbeak, Christopher; Donaldson, Keri; Abendroth, Thomas; Castellani, William

    2015-01-01

    Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems are quickly becoming ubiquitous, and groups of orders ("order sets") to allow for easy order input are a common feature. This provides a streamlined mechanism to view, modify, and place groups of related orders. This often serves as an electronic equivalent of a specialty requisition. A characteristic, of these order sets is that specific orders can be predetermined to be "preselected" or "defaulted-on" whenever the order set is used while others are "optional" or "defaulted-off" (though there is typically the option is to "deselect" defaulted-on tests in a given situation). While it seems intuitive that the defaults in an order set are often accepted, additional study is required to understand the impact of these "default" settings in an order set on ordering habits. This study set out to quantify the effect of changing the default settings of an order set. For quality improvement purposes, order sets dealing with transfusions were recently reviewed and modified to improve monitoring of outcome. Initially, the order for posttransfusion hematocrits and platelet count had the default setting changed from "optional" to "preselected." The default settings for platelet count was later changed back to "optional," allowing for a natural experiment to study the effect of the default selections of an order set on clinician ordering habits. Posttransfusion hematocrit values were ordered for 8.3% of red cell transfusions when the default order set selection was "off" and for 57.4% of transfusions when the default selection was "preselected" (P default order set selection was "optional," increased to 59.4% when the default was changed to "preselected" (P default selection was returned to "optional." The posttransfusion platelet count rates during the two "optional" periods: 7.0% versus 7.5% - were not statistically different (P = 0.620). Default settings in CPOE order sets can significantly influence physician selection of

  7. Initial default among sputum-positive pulmonary TB patients at a referral hospital in Uttarakhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Darshan; Kaushik, Rajeev M; Kaushik, Reshma; Rawat, Jagdish; Kakkar, Rajesh

    2013-09-01

    Initial default is a serious issue which can enhance the transmission of TB. We determined the magnitude of and the causative factors for initial default among sputum-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) patients. In this prospective study, 2310 patients attending a referral hospital in Uttarakhand state, north India, with presumptive TB were investigated and 555 patients with sputum-positive PTB were followed-up for initiation of anti-TB treatment (ATT) during 2010-2012. The patients not confirmed as having started ATT were considered initial defaulters. Initial default was seen in 120 (21.6%) patients comprising 22 (18.3%) defaulters during diagnosis and 98 (81.6%) defaulters after referral for directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS). The initial default rate was significantly higher among patients from rural areas than urban areas, illiterate patients than literate patients and smokeless tobacco-users than non-users (pdefault among patients referred for DOTS were limited trust in DOTS (n = 44, 44.8%), adverse effects of previous ATT (n = 41, 41.8%), dissatisfaction with health services (n = 38, 38.7%), local deaths while taking DOTS (n = 28, 28.5%), advice by others against DOTS (n = 25, 25.5%), disbelief in the diagnosis (n = 18, 18.3%) and patient death before starting treatment (n = 4, 4.0%). A high initial default rate was seen among patients with PTB. There is an urgent need to promote public awareness to lower the initial default rate.

  8. Developing a java android application of KMV-Merton default rate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Norliza Muhamad; Anuar, Aini Hayati; Isa, Norsyaheeda Natasha; Zulkafli, Sharifah Nursyuhada Syed; Sapini, Muhamad Luqman

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a developed java android application for KMV-Merton model in predicting the defaut rate of a firm. Predicting default rate is essential in the risk management area as default risk can be immediately transmitted from one entity to another entity. This is the reason default risk is known as a global risk. Although there are several efforts, instruments and methods used to manage the risk, it is said to be insufficient. To the best of our knowledge, there has been limited innovation in developing the default risk mathematical model into a mobile application. Therefore, through this study, default risk is predicted quantitatively using the KMV-Merton model. The KMV-Merton model has been integrated in the form of java program using the Android Studio Software. The developed java android application is tested by predicting the levels of default risk of the three different rated companies. It is found that the levels of default risk are equivalent to the ratings of the respective companies. This shows that the default rate predicted by the KMV-Merton model using the developed java android application can be a significant tool to the risk mangement field. The developed java android application grants users an alternative to predict level of default risk within less procedure.

  9. [Tuberculosis in Amazonian municipalities of the Brazil-Colombia-Peru-Venezuela border: epidemiological situation and risk factors associated with treatment default].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, Elsia Nascimento; Orellana, Jesem Douglas Yamall; Levino, Antônio; Basta, Paulo Cesar

    2013-11-01

    To describe the epidemiological situation and the incidence of tuberculosis and to investigate the factors associated with treatment default in the Amazonian municipalities located in the northern Brazilian international border. This retrospective study employed sociodemographic, clinical, and epidemiological tuberculosis data recorded in the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) between 2001 and 2010. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with treatment default. Tuberculosis affected mostly indigenous peoples (51.9%), males (57.9%), and people aged 25-44 years (31.4%). The predominant clinical presentation was pulmonary (89.7%), yet in 24.5% of the cases the patients did not undergo sputum smear microscopy, and only half received supervised treatment. In 70.0% of the cases notified, patients were discharged as cured. Treatment default was recorded in 10.0% of the patients. Of all deaths, 4.1% were by tuberculosis and other causes, and 1.7% by multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The average incidence by race/color was greater among indigenous peoples, ranging from 202.3/100 000 in 2001 to 65.6/100 000 in 2010. Treatment default was associated with failure to perform the follow-up smear at the second, fourth, and sixth months (OR = 11.9, 95%CI: 7.4-19.0); with resuming treatment after default (OR = 3.0, 95%CI: 1.5-5.9); and with living in specific subregions, particularly the Alto Solimões region (OR = 6.7, 95%CI: 4.6-9.8). The present results show a high incidence of tuberculosis in the Amazon portion of the northern Brazilian international border, especially among indigenous peoples. Considering the socio-cultural specificities of these populations and the poor tuberculosis control in this area, the authors of the study conclude that the integration of different national health systems is both necessary and urgent.

  10. Knowledge and perception of tuberculosis and the risk to become treatment default among newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients treated in primary health care, East Nusa Tenggara: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putera, Ikhwanuliman; Pakasi, Trevino A; Karyadi, Elvina

    2015-06-10

    Despite the high efficacy of tuberculosis (TB) drug regiments, one of the barriers in the TB control program is the non-compliance to treatment. Morbidity, mortality, and risk to become resistant to drugs are emerging among defaulters. Thus, the aim of this study is to identify the factors, especially knowledge and perceptions of TB and association with treatment default among patients treated in primary care settings, East Nusa Tenggara. This study was part of a bigger cohort community-based controlled trial study. The subjects were newly diagnosed pulmonary TB patients from four districts in East Nusa Tenggara. Knowledge, perception of TB, and other related factors were assessed prior to the treatment. Patients who interrupted the treatment in two consecutive months were classified as defaulters, as World Health Organization stated. Odds ratio (OR) looking for factors associated with becoming defaulter was analyzed. A total of 300 patients were recruited for this study. At the end of the treatment, 255 patients (85%) completed the treatment without interruption from regular visit. In univariate analysis, none of the socio-demographic factors attributed to treatment default yet lack of knowledge and incorrect perception of TB prior therapy (OR 2.49 1.30-4.79 95% CI, p = 0.006; OR 5.40 2.64-11.04 95% CI, p default (OR 4.75 2.30-9.86 95% CI). Assessing the knowledge and perception of TB prior to the treatment in newly pulmonary TB patients is important as both of them were known as risk factor for treatment default. Education and counseling may be required to improve patients' compliance to treatment.

  11. Prefrontal Engagement and Reduced Default Network Suppression Co-occur and Are Dynamically Coupled in Older Adults: The Default-Executive Coupling Hypothesis of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Gary R; Spreng, R Nathan

    2015-12-01

    Reduced executive control is a hallmark of neurocognitive aging. Poor modulation of lateral pFC activity in the context of increasing task challenge in old adults and a "failure to deactivate" the default network during cognitive control tasks have been observed. Whether these two patterns represent discrete mechanisms of neurocognitive aging or interact into older adulthood remains unknown. We examined whether altered pFC and default network dynamics co-occur during goal-directed planning over increasing levels of difficulty during performance on the Tower of London task. We used fMRI to investigate task- and age-related changes in brain activation and functional connectivity across four levels of task challenge. Frontoparietal executive control regions were activated and default network regions were suppressed during planning relative to counting performance in both groups. Older adults, unlike young, failed to modulate brain activity in executive control and default regions as planning demands increased. Critically, functional connectivity analyses revealed bilateral dorsolateral pFC coupling in young adults and dorsolateral pFC to default coupling in older adults with increased planning complexity. We propose a default-executive coupling hypothesis of aging. First, this hypothesis suggests that failure to modulate control and default network activity in response to increasing task challenge are linked in older adulthood. Second, functional brain changes involve greater coupling of lateral pFC and the default network as cognitive control demands increase in older adults. We speculate that these changes reflect an adaptive shift in cognitive approach as older adults come to rely more upon stored representations to support goal-directed task performance.

  12. 48 CFR 49.503 - Termination for convenience of the Government and default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination for convenience of the Government and default. 49.503 Section 49.503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... 49.503 Termination for convenience of the Government and default. (a) Cost-reimbursement contracts—(1...

  13. 48 CFR 970.4905-1 - Termination for convenience of the government and default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination for convenience of the government and default. 970.4905-1 Section 970.4905-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Termination of Contracts 970.4905-1 Termination for convenience of the government and default. (a) The...

  14. Fuel Supply Defaults for Regional Fuels and Fuel Wizard Tool in MOVES201X

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fuel supply report documents the data and methodology used to derive the default gasoline, diesel and fuel-blend fuel properties, and their respective fuel market share in MOVES. The default market share of the individual fuels varies by calendar year, seasons, and several do...

  15. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart Ggg of... - Default Biorates for Soluble HAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Biorates for Soluble HAP 9 Table 9 to Subpart GGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Subpart GGG of Part 63—Default Biorates for Soluble HAP Compound name Biorate (K1),L/g MLVSS-hr...

  16. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Contents of... Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVV, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups As specified in § 63.5758(a)(6), when detailed organic HAP content data for solvent...

  17. Default network modulation and large-scale network interactivity in healthy young and old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreng, R Nathan; Schacter, Daniel L

    2012-11-01

    We investigated age-related changes in default, attention, and control network activity and their interactions in young and old adults. Brain activity during autobiographical and visuospatial planning was assessed using multivariate analysis and with intrinsic connectivity networks as regions of interest. In both groups, autobiographical planning engaged the default network while visuospatial planning engaged the attention network, consistent with a competition between the domains of internalized and externalized cognition. The control network was engaged for both planning tasks. In young subjects, the control network coupled with the default network during autobiographical planning and with the attention network during visuospatial planning. In old subjects, default-to-control network coupling was observed during both planning tasks, and old adults failed to deactivate the default network during visuospatial planning. This failure is not indicative of default network dysfunction per se, evidenced by default network engagement during autobiographical planning. Rather, a failure to modulate the default network in old adults is indicative of a lower degree of flexible network interactivity and reduced dynamic range of network modulation to changing task demands.

  18. 10 CFR 609.15 - Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation. 609... PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.15 Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation... Guaranteed Obligation. Such assignment shall include all related liens, security, and collateral rights to...

  19. 10 CFR 611.111 - Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation. 611... collateral liquidation. (a) In the event that the Borrower has defaulted in the making of required payments.... Attorney General, may seek to foreclose on the collateral assets and/or take such other legal action as...

  20. I'm still standing : A longitudinal study on the effect of a default nudge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, A.G.; Kroese, F.M.; de Ridder, D.T.D.

    Objective: This study assessed the effect of a default nudge to reduce sedentary behaviour at work over time. Design and main outcome measures: A field study was conducted at a governmental organisation. In the present study, the default setting of sit–stand desks (SSDs) was changed from sitting to

  1. Correlates of default from anti-tuberculosis treatment: a case study using Kenya's electronic data system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitienei, J; Kipruto, H; Mansour, O; Ndisha, M; Hanson, C; Wambu, R; Addona, V

    2015-09-01

    In 2012, the World Health Organization estimated that there were 120,000 new cases and 9500 deaths due to tuberculosis (TB) in Kenya. Almost a quarter of the cases were not detected, and the treatment of 4% of notified cases ended in default. To identify the determinants of anti-tuberculosis treatment default. Data from 2012 and 2013 were retrieved from a national case-based electronic data recording system. A comparison was made between new pulmonary TB patients for whom treatment was interrupted vs. those who successfully completed treatment. A total of 106,824 cases were assessed. Human immunodeficiency virus infection was the single most influential risk factor for default (aOR 2.7). More than 94% of patients received family-based directly observed treatment (DOT) and were more likely to default than patients who received DOT from health care workers (aOR 2.0). Caloric nutritional support was associated with lower default rates (aOR 0.89). Males were more likely to default than females (aOR 1.6). Patients cared for in the private sector were less likely to default than those in the public sector (aOR 0.86). Understanding the factors contributing to default can guide future program improvements and serve as a proxy to understanding the factors that constrain access to care among undetected cases.

  2. 24 CFR 266.626 - Notice of default and filing an insurance claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of default and filing an... AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Contract Rights and Obligations Claim Procedures § 266.626 Notice of default and filing an...

  3. Default network connectivity as a vulnerability marker for obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z W; Xu, T; He, Q H; Shi, C Z; Wei, Z; Miao, G D; Jing, J; Lim, K O; Zuo, X N; Chan, R C K

    2014-05-01

    Aberrant functional connectivity within the default network is generally assumed to be involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD); however, the genetic risk of default network connectivity in OCD remains largely unknown. Here, we systematically investigated default network connectivity in 15 OCD patients, 15 paired unaffected siblings and 28 healthy controls. We sought to examine the profiles of default network connectivity in OCD patients and their siblings, exploring the correlation between abnormal default network connectivity and genetic risk for this population. Compared with healthy controls, OCD patients exhibited reduced strength of default network functional connectivity with the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and increased functional connectivity in the right inferior frontal lobe, insula, superior parietal cortex and superior temporal cortex, while their unaffected first-degree siblings only showed reduced local connectivity in the PCC. These findings suggest that the disruptions of default network functional connectivity might be associated with family history of OCD. The decreased default network connectivity in both OCD patients and their unaffected siblings may serve as a potential marker of OCD.

  4. Student Loan Forbearance and Its Relationship to Default. Synopsis: Higher Education Research Highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Derek V.

    As the number and volume of student loans increase nationally, lenders and policymakers look more closely at the use of loan forbearance. This paper examines whether forbearance really cuts the risk of loan default by reporting on a study of more than 9,800 Stafford loans in forbearance in December 1996. That research shows that the default rate…

  5. 14 CFR 1261.413 - Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies, or defaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies, or defaults. 1261.413 Section 1261.413 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL...) § 1261.413 Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies, or defaults. The...

  6. 40 CFR 13.19 - Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies or defaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies or defaults. 13.19 Section 13.19 Protection of Environment...; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies or defaults. (a) The Administrator may periodically...

  7. 34 CFR Appendix A to Subpart N of... - Sample Default Prevention Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... relevant default prevention statistics, including a statistical analysis of the borrowers who default on...'s delinquency status by obtaining reports from data managers and FFEL Program lenders. 5. Enhance... academic study. III. Statistics for Measuring Progress 1. The number of students enrolled at your...

  8. 48 CFR 52.249-9 - Default (Fixed-Price Research and Development).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Research and Development). 52.249-9 Section 52.249-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.249-9 Default (Fixed-Price Research and Development). As prescribed in 49.504(b), insert the following clause: Default (Fixed-Price Research and Development) (APR 1984) (a)(1) The...

  9. The effect of a default-based nudge on the choice of whole wheat bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van Ellen; Seijdell, Karen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H.; Wijk, de René A.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2018-01-01

    Consumer choices are often influenced by the default option presented. This study examines the effect of whole wheat bread as a default option in a sandwich choice situation. Whole wheat bread consists of 100% whole grain and is healthier than other bread types that are commonly consumed, such as

  10. Assessing Credit with Equity : A CEV Model with Jump to Default

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campi, L.; Polbennikov, S.Y.; Sbuelz, A.

    2005-01-01

    Unlike in structural and reduced-form models, we use equity as a liquid and observable primitive to analytically value corporate bonds and credit default swaps.Restrictive assumptions on the .rm.s capital structure are avoided.Default is parsimoniously represented by equity value hitting the zero

  11. Strength of Default Mode Resting-State Connectivity Relates to White Matter Integrity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Evan M.; Lee, Philip S.; Maisog, Jose M.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer; Billington, Michael E.; VanMeter, John; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2011-01-01

    A default mode network of brain regions is known to demonstrate coordinated activity during the resting state. While the default mode network is well characterized in adults, few investigations have focused upon its development. We scanned 9-13-year-old children with diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.…

  12. Determinants of Banking Credit Default in Indonesia: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imaduddin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the determinants of Islamic banking credit default compared with conventional banking in Indonesia. This study utilized timeseries analysis, by which ordinary least square method is adopted. 40 monthly data observations from January 2003 until April 2006 are used. The study is divided into two models, namely Islamic banking model and conventional banking model. The values of non-performing financing (NPF in Islamic banking and non-performing loan (NPL in conventional banking are treated as the dependent variables. The results showed that two-month lagged of non-performing financing (NPF, total asset (ASSET, the amount of thirdparty-funds (TPF, one-month lagged of total financing (DFIN, and growthof gross-domestic product (GDPG variables have significant impact to the ratio of non-performing financing (NPF in Islamic banking. Meanwhile, the three-month lagged of non-performing loan (DDDNPL, total asset (CASSET, three-month as well as two-month period lagged of total loan (DDDCRED and DDCRED, inter-bank money market (PUAB, and growth of gross-domestic (GDPG are significant to influence the ratio of non-performing loan (NPL in conventional banking. The result also implied that the general election in 2004 had a significant influence to the ratio of non-performing financing (NPF in Islamic banking.Even tough from the outset, it seems Islamic banking has a better performance than conventional banking by having a relatively low NPF, this study, however, has found the opposite. Albeit, Islamic banking showing a good long-runas well as short-run dynamics among all variables in the beginning, after modifying the model into autoregressive in the main analysis, results showed that conventional banking has a better performance than Islamic banking with higher correlation of determination. In this regard, we cannot assume thatIslamic banking is performing poorly in managing credit default problems. This is because the result

  13. The brain's default network: origins and implications for the study of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Randy L

    2013-09-01

    The brain's default network is a set of regions that is spontaneously active during passive moments. The network is also active during directed tasks that require participants to remember past events or imagine upcoming events. One hypothesis is that the network facilitates construction of mental models (simulations) that can be used adaptively in many contexts. Extensive research has considered whether disruption of the default network may contribute to disease. While an intriguing possibility, a specific challenge to this notion is the fact that it is difficult to accurately measure the default network in patients where confounds of head motion and compliance are prominent. Nonetheless, some intriguing recent findings suggest that dysfunctional interactions between front-oparietal control systems and the default network contribute to psychosis. Psychosis may be a network disturbance that manifests as disordered thought partly because it disrupts the fragile balance between the default network and competing brain systems.

  14. Top management turnover and firm default risk: Evidence from the Chinese securities market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ting

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available China has moved rapidly from a socialist planned economy to a market economy. As a result, many enterprises in China are seeking talented top management to increase their performance and decrease their default risk. Studies abound regarding top management turnover and its relationship with firm performance, however, few studies have connected top management turnover with firm default risk. In China, a market with extensive financial fraud, firm default risk is an important factor and thus we explore this relationship in the Chinese securities market. Our results indicate that firms with higher default risk are more likely to change their top management in the next financial reporting period. In addition, following changes in top management, such firms default less than other companies.

  15. Top management turnover and firm default risk:Evidence from the Chinese securities market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei; Ting

    2011-01-01

    China has moved rapidly from a socialist planned economy to a market economy.As a result,many enterprises in China are seeking talented top management to increase their performance and decrease their default risk.Studies abound regarding top management turnover and its relationship with firm performance,however,few studies have connected top management turnover with firm default risk.In China,a market with extensive financial fraud,firm default risk is an important factor and thus we explore this relationship in the Chinese securities market.Our results indicate that firms with higher default risk are more likely to change their top management in the next financial reporting period.In addition,following changes in top management,such firms default less than other companies.

  16. Default cascades in complex networks: topology and systemic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roukny, Tarik; Bersini, Hugues; Pirotte, Hugues; Caldarelli, Guido; Battiston, Stefano

    2013-09-26

    The recent crisis has brought to the fore a crucial question that remains still open: what would be the optimal architecture of financial systems? We investigate the stability of several benchmark topologies in a simple default cascading dynamics in bank networks. We analyze the interplay of several crucial drivers, i.e., network topology, banks' capital ratios, market illiquidity, and random vs targeted shocks. We find that, in general, topology matters only--but substantially--when the market is illiquid. No single topology is always superior to others. In particular, scale-free networks can be both more robust and more fragile than homogeneous architectures. This finding has important policy implications. We also apply our methodology to a comprehensive dataset of an interbank market from 1999 to 2011.

  17. Default-mode-like network activation in awake rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaymin Upadhyay

    Full Text Available During wakefulness and in absence of performing tasks or sensory processing, the default-mode network (DMN, an intrinsic central nervous system (CNS network, is in an active state. Non-human primate and human CNS imaging studies have identified the DMN in these two species. Clinical imaging studies have shown that the pattern of activity within the DMN is often modulated in various disease states (e.g., Alzheimer's, schizophrenia or chronic pain. However, whether the DMN exists in awake rodents has not been characterized. The current data provides evidence that awake rodents also possess 'DMN-like' functional connectivity, but only subsequent to habituation to what is initially a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI environment as well as physical restraint. Specifically, the habituation process spanned across four separate scanning sessions (Day 2, 4, 6 and 8. At Day 8, significant (p<0.05 functional connectivity was observed amongst structures such as the anterior cingulate (seed region, retrosplenial, parietal, and hippocampal cortices. Prior to habituation (Day 2, functional connectivity was only detected (p<0.05 amongst CNS structures known to mediate anxiety (i.e., anterior cingulate (seed region, posterior hypothalamic area, amygdala and parabracial nucleus. In relating functional connectivity between cingulate-default-mode and cingulate-anxiety structures across Days 2-8, a significant inverse relationship (r = -0.65, p = 0.0004 was observed between these two functional interactions such that increased cingulate-DMN connectivity corresponded to decreased cingulate anxiety network connectivity. This investigation demonstrates that the cingulate is an important component of both the rodent DMN-like and anxiety networks.

  18. Characterization of genomic variations in SNPs of PE_PGRS genes reveals deletions and insertions in extensively drug resistant (XDR) M. tuberculosis strains from Pakistan

    KAUST Repository

    Kanji, Akbar; Hasan, Zahra; Ali, Asho; McNerney, Ruth; Mallard, Kim; Coll, Francesc; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Nair, Mridul; Clark, Taane G.; Zaver, Ambreen; Jafri, Sana; Hasan, Rumina

    2015-01-01

    Genetic diversity in PE_PGRS genes contributes to antigenic variability and may result in increased immunogenicity of strains. This is the first study identifying variations in nsSNPs and INDELs in the PE_PGRS genes of XDR-TB strains from Pakistan. It highlights common genetic variations which may contribute to persistence.

  19. Of Religion and Redemption : Evidence from Default on Islamic Loans (Replaces CentER DP 2010-136)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baele, L.; Farooq, M.; Ongena, S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We compare default rates on conventional and Islamic loans using a comprehensive monthly dataset from Pakistan that follows more than 150,000 loans over the period 2006:04 to 2008:12. We find robust evidence that the default rate on Islamic loans is less than half the default rate on

  20. Fasting plasma insulin and the default mode network in women at risk for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, Heather; Hoeft, Fumiko; Kelley, Ryan; Wroolie, Tonita; DeMuth, Bevin; Reiss, Allan; Rasgon, Natalie

    2013-03-01

    Brain imaging studies in Alzheimer's disease research have demonstrated structural and functional perturbations in the hippocampus and default mode network (DMN). Additional evidence suggests risk for pathological brain aging in association with insulin resistance (IR). This study piloted investigation of associations of IR with DMN-hippocampal functional connectivity among postmenopausal women at risk for Alzheimer's disease. Twenty middle-aged women underwent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects were dichotomized relative to fasting plasma insulin levels (i.e., > 8 μIU/mL [n = 10] and < 8 μIU/mL [n = 10]), and functional connectivity analysis contrasted their respective blood oxygen level-dependent signal correlation between DMN and hippocampal regions. Higher-insulin women had significantly reduced positive associations between the medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral parahippocampal regions extending to the right hippocampus, and conversely, between the left and right hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. Neuropsychological data (all within normal ranges) also showed significant differences with respect to executive functioning and global intelligence. The results provide further evidence of deleterious effects of IR on the hippocampus and cognition. Further imaging studies of the IR-related perturbations in DMN-hippocampal functional connectivity are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of drug resistance and immune-driven variations in hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A, NS5A and NS5B regions reveals a new approach toward personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Aqsa; Obaid, Ayesha; Awan, Faryal Mehwish; Hanif, Rumeza; Naz, Anam; Paracha, Rehan Zafar; Ali, Amjad; Janjua, Hussnain Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Cellular immune responses (T cell responses) during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are significant factors for determining the outcome of infection. HCV adapts to host immune responses by inducing mutations in its genome at specific sites that are important for HLA processing/presentation. Moreover, HCV also adapts to resist potential drugs that are used to restrict its replication, such as direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). Although DAAs have significantly reduced disease burden, resistance to these drugs is still a challenge for the treatment of HCV infection. Recently, drug resistance mutations (DRMs) observed in HCV proteins (NS3/4A, NS5A and NS5B) have heightened concern that the emergence of drug resistance may compromise the effectiveness of DAAs. Therefore, the NS3/4A, NS5A and NS5B drug resistance variations were investigated in this study, and their prevalence was examined in a large number of protein sequences from all HCV genotypes. Furthermore, potential CD4 + and CD8 + T cell epitopes were predicted and their overlap with genetic variations was explored. The findings revealed that many reported DRMs within NS3/4A, NS5A and NS5B are not drug-induced; rather, they are already present in HCV strains, as they were also detected in HCV-naïve patients. This study highlights several hot spots in which HLA and drug selective pressure overlap. Interestingly, these overlapping mutations were frequently observed among many HCV genotypes. This study implicates that knowledge of the host HLA type and HCV subtype/genotype can provide important information in defining personalized therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The relationship between operating cash flow per share and portfolio default probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary duties of the depositary banks is to protect themselves against any possibility of bankruptcy. This requires the identification and measurement of risks, including default risk, which is important given the nature of the activities of banks. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between default probability and some financial figures including operating cash flow, liabilities and return of equities. The proposed study of this paper uses historical data of twenty-two firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2008-2012. Default probability as the dependent variable is measured by the method developed by Moody’s KMV Company. The study uses linear regression model to examine the relationship between default probability and some independent variables. The results of the present study suggest that there were some reverse relationship between operating cash flow per share, return on equities and default probability. In addition, there was a direct relationship between log facilities and default probability. However, there was not any relationship between net sales and default probability.

  3. Default risk modeling beyond the first-passage approximation: Extended Black-Cox model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Yuri A.; Shokhirev, Nikolai V.

    2010-07-01

    We develop a generalization of the Black-Cox structural model of default risk. The extended model captures uncertainty related to firm’s ability to avoid default even if company’s liabilities momentarily exceeding its assets. Diffusion in a linear potential with the radiation boundary condition is used to mimic a company’s default process. The exact solution of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation allows for derivation of analytical expressions for the cumulative probability of default and the relevant hazard rate. Obtained closed formulas fit well the historical data on global corporate defaults and demonstrate the split behavior of credit spreads for bonds of companies in different categories of speculative-grade ratings with varying time to maturity. Introduction of the finite rate of default at the boundary improves valuation of credit risk for short time horizons, which is the key advantage of the proposed model. We also consider the influence of uncertainty in the initial distance to the default barrier on the outcome of the model and demonstrate that this additional source of incomplete information may be responsible for nonzero credit spreads for bonds with very short time to maturity.

  4. Meditation leads to reduced default mode network activity beyond an active task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Zeffiro, Thomas A; Scheinost, Dustin; Constable, R Todd; Brewer, Judson A

    2015-09-01

    Meditation has been associated with relatively reduced activity in the default mode network, a brain network implicated in self-related thinking and mind wandering. However, previous imaging studies have typically compared meditation to rest, despite other studies having reported differences in brain activation patterns between meditators and controls at rest. Moreover, rest is associated with a range of brain activation patterns across individuals that has only recently begun to be better characterized. Therefore, in this study we compared meditation to another active cognitive task, both to replicate the findings that meditation is associated with relatively reduced default mode network activity and to extend these findings by testing whether default mode activity was reduced during meditation, beyond the typical reductions observed during effortful tasks. In addition, prior studies had used small groups, whereas in the present study we tested these hypotheses in a larger group. The results indicated that meditation is associated with reduced activations in the default mode network, relative to an active task, for meditators as compared to controls. Regions of the default mode network showing a Group × Task interaction included the posterior cingulate/precuneus and anterior cingulate cortex. These findings replicate and extend prior work indicating that the suppression of default mode processing may represent a central neural process in long-term meditation, and they suggest that meditation leads to relatively reduced default mode processing beyond that observed during another active cognitive task.

  5. EMPIRICAL STUDY OF THE PROBABILITY OF DEFAULT IN CASE OF ROMANIAN COMPANIES LISTED ON STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marton Noemi, Racz Timea Erzsebet

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of estimation of a firm's probability of default increased significantly during the economic and financial crisis for financial institutions, which can be explained by the fact that the share of nonperforming loans increased in this period. The probability of default can be estimated with structural models, which have on base the methodology developed by Merton (1974, methodology used by Moody's Corporation (known as KMV Merton model. The aim of this study is to estimate the probability of default of companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange using this methodology. This approach was widely used in the literature by many researchers (i.e., Kealhofer and Kurbat (2000, Crosbie and Bohn (2002, Duffie and Wang (2004, Bharath and Shumway (2004, 2008. In Romania this methodology was empirically tested by Codirlaşu (2007, who estimated using Merton's methodology the probability of default of companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange, respectively by Bobircă et al. (2008, where the probabilities of default were estimated in case of 42 companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange for 2000-2008 time period. In this paper we used Merton's model, which assumes that a company defaults if the value of its assets is less than the promised dept repayment at time T. The process of estimating the probability of default starts from the following firm specific variables: the market value of the firm's assets, the share prices, the value of the liabilities and the risk-free rate. The analyzed period is 2003-2010, containing the economic and financial crisis period, too. Analyzing the financial statements of the companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange, we determined the input parameters of the model and calculated the quarterly probabilities of default of each analyzed company. According to our results the probabilities of default have a reduced value in the majority of the cases.

  6. Implementing Electronic Health Record Default Settings to Reduce Opioid Overprescribing: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivin, Kara; White, Jessica O; Chao, Sandra; Christensen, Anna L; Horner, Luke; Petersen, Dana M; Hobbs, Morgan R; Capreol, Grace; Halbritter, Kevin A; Jones, Christopher M

    2018-01-09

    To pilot test the effectiveness, feasibility, and acceptability of instituting a 15-pill quantity default in the electronic health record for new Schedule II opioid prescriptions. A mixed-methods pilot study in two health systems, including pre-post analysis of prescribed opioid quantity and focus groups or interviews with prescribers and health system administrators. We implemented a 15-pill electronic health record default for new Schedule II opioids and assessed opioid quantity before and after implementation using electronic health record data on 6,390 opioid prescriptions from 448 prescribers. We then analyzed themes from focus groups and interviews with four staff members and six prescribers. The proportion of opioid prescriptions for 15 pills increased at both sites after adding an electronic health record default, with one reaching statistical significance (from 4.1% to 7.2% at CHC, P = 0.280, and 15.9% to 37.2% at WVU, P default, although ease of implementation varied by electronic health record vendor. Most prescribers were not aware of the default change and stated that they made prescribing decisions based on patient clinical characteristics rather than defaults. This pilot provides initial evidence that changing default settings can increase the number of prescriptions at the default level. This low-cost and relatively simple intervention could have an impact on opioid overprescribing. However, default settings should be selected carefully to avoid unintended consequences. © 2018 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. The effect of a default-based nudge on the choice of whole wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Seijdell, Karen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2018-02-01

    Consumer choices are often influenced by the default option presented. This study examines the effect of whole wheat bread as a default option in a sandwich choice situation. Whole wheat bread consists of 100% whole grain and is healthier than other bread types that are commonly consumed, such as brown or white bread. A pilot survey (N = 291) examined the strength of combinations of toppings and bread type as carrier to select stimuli for the main study. In the main experimental study consisting of a two (bread type) by two (topping type) between-subjects design, participants (N = 226) were given a free sandwich at a university stand with either a relatively unhealthy deep-fried snack (croquette) or a healthy topping. About half of the participants were offered a whole wheat bun unless they asked for white bun, and the other half were offered a white bun unless they asked for a whole wheat bun. Regardless of the topping, the results show that when the whole wheat bun was the default option, 108 out of 115 participants (94%) decided to stick with this default option. When the default of bread offered was white, 89 out of 111 participants (80%) similarly chose to stick with this default. Across conditions, participants felt equally free to make a choice. The attractiveness of and willingness to pay for the sandwich were not affected by default type of bread. This study demonstrated a strong default effect of bread type. This clearly shows the benefit of steering consumers towards a healthier bread choice, by offering healthier default bread at various locations such as restaurants, schools and work place canteens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analyses of natural variation indicates that the absence of RPS4/RRS1 and amino acid change in RPS4 cause loss of their functions and resistance to pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narusaka, Mari; Iuchi, Satoshi; Narusaka, Yoshihiro

    2017-03-04

    A pair of Arabidopsis thaliana resistance proteins, RPS4 and RRS1, recognizes the cognate Avr effector from the bacterial pathogens Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato expressing avrRps4 (Pst-avrRps4), Ralstonia solanacearum, and the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum and leads to defense signaling activation against the pathogens. In the present study, we analyzed 14 A. thaliana accessions for natural variation in Pst-avrRps4 and C. higginsianum susceptibility, and found new compatible and incompatible Arabidopsis-pathogen interactions. We first found that A. thaliana accession Cvi-0 is susceptible to Pst-avrRps4. Interestingly, the genome sequence assembly indicated that Cvi-0 lost both RPS4 and RRS1, but not RPS4B and RRS1B, compared to the reference genome sequence from A. thaliana accession Col-0. On the other hand, the natural variation analysis of RPS4 alleles from various Arabidopsis accessions revealed that one amino-acid change, Y950H, is responsible for the loss of resistance to Pst-avrRps4 and C. higginsianum in RLD-0. Our data indicate that the amino acid change, Y950H, in RPS4 resulted in the loss of both RPS4 and RRS1 functions and resistance to pathogens.

  9. Adequacy of the default values for skin surface area used for risk assessment and French anthropometric data by a probabilistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornic, N; Ficheux, A S; Bernard, A; Roudot, A C

    2017-08-01

    The notes of guidance for the testing of cosmetic ingredients and their safety evaluation by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) is a document dedicated to ensuring the safety of European consumers. This contains useful data for risk assessment such as default values for Skin Surface Area (SSA). A more in-depth study of anthropometric data across Europe reveals considerable variations. The default SSA value was derived from a study on the Dutch population, which is known to be one of the tallest nations in the World. This value could be inadequate for shorter populations of Europe. Data were collected in a survey on cosmetic consumption in France. Probabilistic treatment of these data and analysis of the case of methylisothiazolinone, a sensitizer recently evaluated by a deterministic approach submitted to SCCS, suggest that the default value for SSA used in the quantitative risk assessment might not be relevant for a significant share of the French female population. Others female populations of Southern Europe may also be excluded. This is of importance given that some studies show an increasing risk of developping skin sensitization among women. The disparities in anthropometric data across Europe should be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of historical Y-12 default radiological activity values to legacy waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, G.

    2009-01-01

    In June of 2003, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC tasked Pacific Western Technologies (PWT) to perform a comprehensive audit of the Facility Acceptance Testing/ Container Analysis Tool (FAT-CAT), which is currently administered, by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC... During this audit, a finding was issued on the subject of assigning historic Y-12 default radiological activity values to radiological containers, having no radiological data. Analysis of default radiological values versus known real radiological values showed the default values to be conservative as a place-holder for containers with no known radiological values. (authors)

  11. Markov Chain Model with Catastrophe to Determine Mean Time to Default of Credit Risky Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmaraja, Selvamuthu; Pasricha, Puneet; Tardelli, Paola

    2017-11-01

    This article deals with the problem of probabilistic prediction of the time distance to default for a firm. To model the credit risk, the dynamics of an asset is described as a function of a homogeneous discrete time Markov chain subject to a catastrophe, the default. The behaviour of the Markov chain is investigated and the mean time to the default is expressed in a closed form. The methodology to estimate the parameters is given. Numerical results are provided to illustrate the applicability of the proposed model on real data and their analysis is discussed.

  12. Variations in the occurrence of specific rpoB mutations in rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients of different ethnic groups in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Suhail; Al-Mutairi, Noura M; Mokaddas, Eiman

    2012-05-01

    Frequency of resistance-conferring mutations vary among isoniazid- and ethambutol-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates obtained from patients of various ethnic groups. This study was aimed to determine the occurrence of specific rpoB mutations in rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates from tuberculosis patients of various ethnic groups in Kuwait. Rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates (n=119) from South Asian (n=55), Southeast Asian (n=23), Middle Eastern (n=39) and other (n=2) patients and 107 rifampicin-susceptible isolates were tested. Mutations in rpoB were detected by DNA sequencing. Polymorphisms at katG463 and gyrA95 were detected by PCR-RFLP for genetic group assignment. None of rifampicin-susceptible but 116 of 119 rifampicin-resistant isolates showed rpoB mutation(s). Mutations among isolates from South Asian patients were distributed at rpoB516 (20%), rpoB526 (24%) and rpoB531 (27%) while 78 and 51 per cent of isolates from Southeast Asian and Middle Eastern patients, respectively, contained a mutated rpoB531. All isolates with rpoB N-terminal and cluster II mutations were obtained from Middle Eastern and South Asian patients. Most isolates from South Asian (84%) and Southeast Asian (70%) patients belonged to genetic group I while nearly all remaining isolates belonged to genetic group II. Isolates from Middle Eastern patients were distributed among genetic group I (46%), genetic group II (33%) and genetic group III (21%). The occurrence of specific rpoB mutations varied considerably in rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates obtained from patients of different ethnic groups within the same country. The present data have important implications for designing region-specific rapid methods for detecting majority of rifampicin-resistant strains.

  13. Gamification of learning deactivates the Default Mode Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Alexander Howard-Jones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesised that embedding educational learning in a game would improve learning outcomes, with increased engagement and recruitment of cognitive resources evidenced by increased activation of working memory network (WMN and deactivation of Default Mode Network (DMN regions. In an fMRI study, we compared activity during periods of learning in three conditions that were increasingly game-like: Study-only (when periods of learning were followed by an exemplar question together with its correct answer, Self-quizzing (when periods of learning were followed by a multiple choice question in return for a fixed number of points and Game-based (when, following each period of learning, participants competed with a peer to answer the question for escalating, uncertain rewards. DMN hubs deactivated as conditions became more game-like, alongside greater self-reported engagement and, in the Game-based condition, higher learning scores. These changes did not occur with any detectable increase in WMN activity. Additionally, ventral striatal activation was associated with responding to questions and receiving positive question feedback. Results support the significance of DMN deactivation for educational learning, and are aligned with recent evidence suggesting DMN and WMN activity may not always be anti-correlated.

  14. Reduced Default Mode Connectivity in Adolescents With Conduct Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broulidakis, M John; Fairchild, Graeme; Sully, Kate; Blumensath, Thomas; Darekar, Angela; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2016-09-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is characterized by impulsive, aggressive, and antisocial behaviors that might be related to deficits in empathy and moral reasoning. The brain's default mode network (DMN) has been implicated in self-referential cognitive processes of this kind. This study examined connectivity between key nodes of the DMN in 29 adolescent boys with CD and 29 age- and sex-matched typically developing adolescent boys. The authors ensured that group differences in DMN connectivity were not explained by comorbidity with other disorders by systematically controlling for the effects of substance use disorders (SUDs), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, psychopathic traits, and other common mental health problems. Only after adjusting for co-occurring ADHD symptoms, the group with CD showed hypoconnectivity between core DMN regions compared with typically developing controls. ADHD symptoms were associated with DMN hyperconnectivity. There was no effect of psychopathic traits on DMN connectivity in the group with CD, and the key results were unchanged when controlling for SUDs and other common mental health problems. Future research should directly investigate the possibility that the aberrant DMN connectivity observed in the present study contributes to CD-related deficits in empathy and moral reasoning and examine self-referential cognitive processes in CD more generally. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  15. Gamification of Learning Deactivates the Default Mode Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Jones, Paul A; Jay, Tim; Mason, Alice; Jones, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that embedding educational learning in a game would improve learning outcomes, with increased engagement and recruitment of cognitive resources evidenced by increased activation of working memory network (WMN) and deactivation of default mode network (DMN) regions. In an fMRI study, we compared activity during periods of learning in three conditions that were increasingly game-like: Study-only (when periods of learning were followed by an exemplar question together with its correct answer), Self-quizzing (when periods of learning were followed by a multiple choice question in return for a fixed number of points) and Game-based (when, following each period of learning, participants competed with a peer to answer the question for escalating, uncertain rewards). DMN hubs deactivated as conditions became more game-like, alongside greater self-reported engagement and, in the Game-based condition, higher learning scores. These changes did not occur with any detectable increase in WMN activity. Additionally, ventral striatal activation was associated with responding to questions and receiving positive question feedback. Results support the significance of DMN deactivation for educational learning, and are aligned with recent evidence suggesting DMN and WMN activity may not always be anti-correlated.

  16. LORETA EEG phase reset of the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Robert W; North, Duane M; Biver, Carl J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore phase reset of 3-dimensional current sources in Brodmann areas located in the human default mode network (DMN) using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) of the human electroencephalogram (EEG). The EEG was recorded from 19 scalp locations from 70 healthy normal subjects ranging in age from 13 to 20 years. A time point by time point computation of LORETA current sources were computed for 14 Brodmann areas comprising the DMN in the delta frequency band. The Hilbert transform of the LORETA time series was used to compute the instantaneous phase differences between all pairs of Brodmann areas. Phase shift and lock durations were calculated based on the 1st and 2nd derivatives of the time series of phase differences. Phase shift duration exhibited three discrete modes at approximately: (1) 25 ms, (2) 50 ms, and (3) 65 ms. Phase lock duration present primarily at: (1) 300-350 ms and (2) 350-450 ms. Phase shift and lock durations were inversely related and exhibited an exponential change with distance between Brodmann areas. The results are explained by local neural packing density of network hubs and an exponential decrease in connections with distance from a hub. The results are consistent with a discrete temporal model of brain function where anatomical hubs behave like a "shutter" that opens and closes at specific durations as nodes of a network giving rise to temporarily phase locked clusters of neurons for specific durations.

  17. Estimating Probability of Default on Peer to Peer Market – Survival Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Andrija

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Arguably a cornerstone of credit risk modelling is the probability of default. This article aims is to search for the evidence of relationship between loan characteristics and probability of default on peer-to-peer (P2P market. In line with that, two loan characteristics are analysed: 1 loan term length and 2 loan purpose. The analysis is conducted using survival analysis approach within the vintage framework. Firstly, 12 months probability of default through the cycle is used to compare riskiness of analysed loan characteristics. Secondly, log-rank test is employed in order to compare complete survival period of cohorts. Findings of the paper suggest that there is clear evidence of relationship between analysed loan characteristics and probability of default. Longer term loans are more risky than the shorter term ones and the least risky loans are those used for credit card payoff.

  18. The default network and self-generated thought: component processes, dynamic control, and clinical relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R.; Smallwood, Jonathan; Spreng, R. Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Though only a decade has elapsed since the default network was first emphasized as being a large-scale brain system, recent years have brought great insight into the network’s adaptive functions. A growing theme highlights the default network as playing a key role in internally-directed—or self-generated—thought. Here, we synthesize recent findings from cognitive science, neuroscience, and clinical psychology to focus attention on two emerging topics as current and future directions surrounding the default network. First, we present evidence that self-generated thought is a multi-faceted construct whose component processes are supported by different subsystems within the network. Second, we highlight the dynamic nature of the default network, emphasizing its interaction with executive control systems when regulating aspects of internal thought. We conclude by discussing clinical implications of disruptions to the integrity of the network, and consider disorders when thought content becomes polarized or network interactions become disrupted or imbalanced. PMID:24502540

  19. Prediction of default probability in banking industry using CAMELS index: A case study of Iranian banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between CAMELS index and default probability among 20 Iranian banks. The proposed study gathers the necessary information from their financial statements over the period 2005-2011. The study uses logistic regression along with Pearson correlation analysis to consider the relationship between default probability and six independent variables including capital adequacy, asset quality, management quality, earning quality, liquidity quality and sensitivity of market risk. The results indicate that there were no meaningful relationship between default probability and three independent variables including capital adequacy, asset quality and sensitivity of market risk. However, the results of our statistical tests support such relationship between default probability and three other variables including management quality, earning quality and liquidity quality.

  20. Emergentism as a default: Cancer as a problem of tissue organization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    default state of cell proliferation in metazoa is quiescence; and (iii) cancer is a disease of cell proliferation caused by ..... oncogenes to growth factor receptors and to signal trans- ..... ample, neoplasms of the breast and prostate usually.

  1. How to re-establish Openness as default? Towards a global joint initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2017-01-01

    Stracke, C. M. (2016, 14 April). How to re-establish Openness as default? Towards a global joint initiative. Results from the Action Lab at the Open Education Global Conference 2016, Krakow, Poland. More about the Action Lab:

  2. 75 FR 64710 - Joint Public Roundtable on Issues Related to the Clearing of Credit Default Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... certain issues related to the clearing of Credit Default Swaps in the context of the Agencies rulemaking... comments must be in English or be accompanied by an English translation. All submissions provided to either...

  3. Emission of biocides from hospitals: comparing current survey results with European Union default values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tluczkiewicz, Inga; Bitsch, Annette; Hahn, Stefan; Hahn, Torsten

    2010-04-01

    Under the European Union (EU) Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC, comprehensive evaluations on substances of the Third Priority List were conducted until 31 July 2007. This list includes, among other categories, disinfectants for human hygiene (e.g., skin and surface disinfection). For environmental exposure assessment of biocides, the EU emission scenarios apply. Currently available default values for disinfectants are based on consumption data from not more than 8 hospitals and were originally assembled for other purposes. To revalidate these default values, a survey on annual consumption data was performed in 27 German hospitals. These data were analyzed to provide consumption data per bed and day and per nurse and day for particular categories of active ingredients and were compared with default values from the EU emission scenario documents. Although several deviations were detected, an overall acceptable correspondence between Emission Scenario Documents default values and the current survey data was found. (c) 2009 SETAC

  4. Empirical estimation of default and asset correlation of large corporates and banks in India

    OpenAIRE

    Bandyopadhyay, Arindam; Ganguly, Sonali

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of default and asset correlation is crucial for banks to manage and measure portfolio credit risk. This would require studying the risk profile of the banks’ entire credit portfolio and developing the appropriate methodology for the estimation of default dependence. Measurement and management of correlation risk in the credit portfolio of banks has also become an important area of concern for bank regulators worldwide. The BCBS (2006) has specifically included an asset correlation ...

  5. Analysis Of Default Passwords In Routers Against Brute-Force Attack

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Farik; ABM Shawkat Ali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Password authentication is the main means of access control on network routers and router manufacturers provide a default password for initial login to the router. While there has been many publications regarding the minimum requirements of a good password how widely the manufacturers themselves are adhering to the minimum standards and whether these passwords can withstand brute-force attack are not widely known. The novelty of this research is that this is the first time default...

  6. Directed connectivity of brain default networks in resting state using GCA and motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zhuqing; Wang, Huan; Ma, Kai; Zou, Ling; Xiang, Jianbo

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays, there is a lot of interest in assessing functional interactions between key brain regions. In this paper, Granger causality analysis (GCA) and motif structure are adopted to study directed connectivity of brain default mode networks (DMNs) in resting state. Firstly, the time series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in resting state were extracted, and the causal relationship values of the nodes representing related brain regions are analyzed in time domain to construct a default network. Then, the network structures were searched from the default networks of controls and patients to determine the fixed connection mode in the networks. The important degree of motif structures in directed connectivity of default networks was judged according to p-value and Z-score. Both node degree and average distance were used to analyze the effect degree an information transfer rate of brain regions in motifs and default networks, and efficiency of the network. Finally, activity and functional connectivity strength of the default brain regions are researched according to the change of energy distributions between the normals and the patients' brain regions. Experimental results demonstrate that, both normal subjects and stroke patients have some corresponding fixed connection mode of three nodes, and the efficiency and power spectrum of the patient's default network is somewhat lower than that of the normal person. In particular, the Right Posterior Cingulate Gyrus (PCG.R) has a larger change in functional connectivity and its activity. The research results verify the feasibility of the application of GCA and motif structure to study the functional connectivity of default networks in resting state.

  7. The application of defaults to optimize parents' health-based choices for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Katharine L; Radnitz, Cynthia; Keller, Kathleen; Schwartz, Marlene B; Marcus, Sue; Pierson, Richard N; Shannon, Michael; DeLaurentis, Danielle

    2017-06-01

    Optimal defaults is a compelling model from behavioral economics and the psychology of human decision-making, designed to shape or "nudge" choices in a positive direction without fundamentally restricting options. The current study aimed to test the effectiveness of optimal (less obesogenic) defaults and parent empowerment priming on health-based decisions with parent-child (ages 3-8) dyads in a community-based setting. Two proof-of-concept experiments (one on breakfast food selections and one on activity choice) were conducted comparing the main and interactive effects of optimal versus suboptimal defaults, and parent empowerment priming versus neutral priming, on parents' health-related choices for their children. We hypothesized that in each experiment, making the default option more optimal will lead to more frequent health-oriented choices, and that priming parents to be the ultimate decision-makers on behalf of their child's health will potentiate this effect. Results show that in both studies, default condition, but not priming condition or the interaction between default and priming, significantly predicted choice (healthier vs. less healthy option). There was also a significant main effect for default condition (and no effect for priming condition or the interaction term) on the quantity of healthier food children consumed in the breakfast experiment. These pilot studies demonstrate that optimal defaults can be practicably implemented to improve parents' food and activity choices for young children. Results can inform policies and practices pertaining to obesogenic environmental factors in school, restaurant, and home environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Conditionally Beta Distributed Time-Series Model With Application to Monthly US Corporate Default Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thor Pajhede

    2017-01-01

    We consider an observation driven, conditionally Beta distributed model for variables restricted to the unit interval. The model includes both explanatory variables and autoregressive dependence in the mean and precision parameters using the mean-precision parametrization of the beta distribution...... the monthly default rate. (3) There is evidence for volatility clustering beyond what is accounted for by the inherent mean-precision relationship of the Beta distribution in the default rate data....

  9. Effect of loan value and collateral on value of mortgage default

    OpenAIRE

    Itoo, R. A.; Selvarasu, A.; Filipe, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study explore the factors influencing mortgage loan default by using the data of mortgage default case from Jammu and Kashmir Bank. To achieve the study objectives sixteen variables are taken. The variables are categorized into three dimensions as borrower’s profile, loan value contents and collateral security. The tools used for analysis of data describing mortgage loan defaulter’s are chi-square, regression, ANOVA, and logistic regression through SPSS 18.0. The results indicate that th...

  10. Risk Factors of Loan Default Payment in Ghana: A case study of Akuapem Rural Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Antwi; Ebenezer Fiifi Emire Atta Mills; Gifty Atta Mills; Xicang Zhao

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to determine some risk factors that influence loan default repayment among customers in Akuapem rural bank. Secondary data on some variables which influence customer loan default was obtained from the credit department of Akuapem rural bank. Data was collected for the period 2006 to 2010. A logistic regression model was fitted to the data. It was found that among the variables that were used, Security and Type of Loan were significant to the study whereas Sex, Marital Status,...

  11. Default, Framing and Spillover Effects: The Case of Lifecycle Funds in 401(k) Plans

    OpenAIRE

    Olivia S. Mitchell; Gary R. Mottola; Stephen P. Utkus; Takeshi Yamaguchi

    2009-01-01

    Important behavioral factors such as default and framing effects are increasingly being employed to optimize decision-making in a variety of settings, including individually-directed retirement plans. Yet such approaches may have unintended "spillover" effects, as we show with regard to the introduction of lifecycle funds in U.S. 401(k) plans. As anticipated, lifecycle funds do reshape individual portfolio choices through large default and framing effects. But unexpectedly, they also create a...

  12. VARIATION IN RESISTIVE FORCE SELECTION DURING BRIEF HIGH INTENSITY CYCLE ERGOMETRY: IMPLICATIONS FOR POWER ASSESSMENT AND PRODUCTION IN ELITE KARATE PRACTITIONERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Steven Baker

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure power values generated in elite karate fighters during brief high intensity cycle ergometry when resistive forces were derived from total - body mass (TBM or fat - free mass (FFM. Male international karate practitioners volunteered as participants (n = 11. Body density was calculated using hydrostatic weighing procedures with fat mass ascertained from body density values. Participants were required to pedal maximally on a cycle ergometer (Monark 864 against randomly assigned loads ranging from 70 g·kg-1 - 95 g·kg-1 (using a TBM or FFM protocol for 8 seconds. The resistive force that produced the highest peak power output (PPO for each protocol was considered optimal. Differences (p 0.05 were observed between time to PPO, or heart rate when the TBM and FFM protocols were compared. The findings of this study suggest that when high intensity cycle ergometer resistive forces are derived from FFM, greater peak powers can be obtained consistently in karate athletes. Resistive forces that relate to the active muscle tissue utilised during this type of exercise may need to be explored in preference to protocols that include both lean and fat masses. The findings have implications for both exercise prescription and the evaluation of experimental results concerning karate athletes

  13. Contemporary evolution of resistance at the major insecticide target site gene Ace-1 by mutation and copy number variation in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weetman, David; Mitchell, Sara N; Wilding, Craig S; Birks, Daniel P; Yawson, Alexander E; Essandoh, John; Mawejje, Henry D; Djogbenou, Luc S; Steen, Keith; Rippon, Emily J; Clarkson, Christopher S; Field, Stuart G; Rigden, Daniel J; Donnelly, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Functionally constrained genes are ideal insecticide targets because disruption is often fatal, and resistance mutations are typically costly. Synaptic acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an essential neurotransmission enzyme targeted by insecticides used increasingly in malaria control. In Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes, a glycine–serine substitution at codon 119 of the Ace-1 gene confers both resistance and fitness costs, especially for 119S/S homozygotes. G119S in Anopheles gambiae from Accra (Ghana) is strongly associated with resistance, and, despite expectations of cost, resistant 119S alleles are increasing significantly in frequency. Sequencing of Accra females detected only a single Ace-1 119S haplotype, whereas 119G diversity was high overall but very low at non-synonymous sites, evidence of strong purifying selection driven by functional constraint. Flanking microsatellites showed reduced diversity, elevated linkage disequilibrium and high differentiation of 119S, relative to 119G homozygotes across up to two megabases of the genome. Yet these signals of selection were inconsistent and sometimes weak tens of kilobases from Ace-1. This unexpected finding is attributable to apparently ubiquitous amplification of 119S alleles as part of a large copy number variant (CNV) far exceeding the size of the Ace-1 gene, whereas 119G alleles were unduplicated. Ace-1 CNV was detectable in archived samples collected when the 119S allele was rare in Ghana. Multicopy amplification of resistant alleles has not been observed previously and is likely to underpin the recent increase in 119S frequency. The large CNV compromised localization of the strong selective sweep around Ace-1, emphasizing the need to integrate CNV analysis into genome scans for selection. PMID:25865270

  14. Contemporary evolution of resistance at the major insecticide target site gene Ace-1 by mutation and copy number variation in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weetman, David; Mitchell, Sara N; Wilding, Craig S; Birks, Daniel P; Yawson, Alexander E; Essandoh, John; Mawejje, Henry D; Djogbenou, Luc S; Steen, Keith; Rippon, Emily J; Clarkson, Christopher S; Field, Stuart G; Rigden, Daniel J; Donnelly, Martin J

    2015-06-01

    Functionally constrained genes are ideal insecticide targets because disruption is often fatal, and resistance mutations are typically costly. Synaptic acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an essential neurotransmission enzyme targeted by insecticides used increasingly in malaria control. In Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes, a glycine-serine substitution at codon 119 of the Ace-1 gene confers both resistance and fitness costs, especially for 119S/S homozygotes. G119S in Anopheles gambiae from Accra (Ghana) is strongly associated with resistance, and, despite expectations of cost, resistant 119S alleles are increasing significantly in frequency. Sequencing of Accra females detected only a single Ace-1 119S haplotype, whereas 119G diversity was high overall but very low at non-synonymous sites, evidence of strong purifying selection driven by functional constraint. Flanking microsatellites showed reduced diversity, elevated linkage disequilibrium and high differentiation of 119S, relative to 119G homozygotes across up to two megabases of the genome. Yet these signals of selection were inconsistent and sometimes weak tens of kilobases from Ace-1. This unexpected finding is attributable to apparently ubiquitous amplification of 119S alleles as part of a large copy number variant (CNV) far exceeding the size of the Ace-1 gene, whereas 119G alleles were unduplicated. Ace-1 CNV was detectable in archived samples collected when the 119S allele was rare in Ghana. Multicopy amplification of resistant alleles has not been observed previously and is likely to underpin the recent increase in 119S frequency. The large CNV compromised localization of the strong selective sweep around Ace-1, emphasizing the need to integrate CNV analysis into genome scans for selection. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia Coli in Poultry Chickens and Variation According to Farming Practices in Punjab, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Siddhartha; Hayer, Shivdeep; Sran, Mandeep; Zehra, Asima; Patel, Sunny J.; Kaur, Ravneet; Chatterjee, Leena; Mishra, Savita; Das, B.R.; Singh, Parminder; Singh, Randhir; Gill, J.P.S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Agricultural use of antimicrobials in subtherapeutic concentrations is increasing in response to the rising demand for food animal products worldwide. In India, the use of antimicrobials in food animal production is unregulated. Research suggests that many clinically important antimicrobials are used indiscriminately. This is the largest study to date in India that surveys poultry production to test for antimicrobial resistance and the occurrence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) modulated by farming and managerial practices. Objectives: Our goal was to survey poultry production for resistance to eleven clinically relevant antimicrobials and phenotypic occurrence of ESBLs as modulated by farming and managerial practices. Methods: Eighteen poultry farms from Punjab were surveyed, and 1,556 Escherichia coli isolates from 530 birds were tested for susceptibility to 11 antimicrobials using the disk diffusion method and validated using VITEK 2 (bioMérieux, Marcy-L’Étoile, France). Samples from 510 of these birds were phenotypically tested for ESBL production using the combination disk method and confirmed using VITEK 2. Generalized linear mixed models were used to infer differences in resistance profiles associated with different farming practices and facility types. Results: Resistance profiles were significantly different between broiler and layer farms. Broiler farms were 2.2 [ampicillin (AMP), p=0.017] to 23 [nalidixic acid (NX), pproducing strains (87% compared to 42% in layers), was observed in broiler farms. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that unregulated use of clinically relevant antimicrobials in Indian broiler and layer farms may contribute to the emergence of resistance and support the need to curb the nontherapeutic use of medically important antimicrobials in food animal production. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP292 PMID:28749780

  16. Coding in pigeons: Multiple-coding versus single-code/default strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Carlos; Machado, Armando

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the coding strategies that pigeons may use in a temporal discrimination tasks, pigeons were trained on a matching-to-sample procedure with three sample durations (2s, 6s and 18s) and two comparisons (red and green hues). One comparison was correct following 2-s samples and the other was correct following both 6-s and 18-s samples. Tests were then run to contrast the predictions of two hypotheses concerning the pigeons' coding strategies, the multiple-coding and the single-code/default. According to the multiple-coding hypothesis, three response rules are acquired, one for each sample. According to the single-code/default hypothesis, only two response rules are acquired, one for the 2-s sample and a "default" rule for any other duration. In retention interval tests, pigeons preferred the "default" key, a result predicted by the single-code/default hypothesis. In no-sample tests, pigeons preferred the key associated with the 2-s sample, a result predicted by multiple-coding. Finally, in generalization tests, when the sample duration equaled 3.5s, the geometric mean of 2s and 6s, pigeons preferred the key associated with the 6-s and 18-s samples, a result predicted by the single-code/default hypothesis. The pattern of results suggests the need for models that take into account multiple sources of stimulus control. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  17. Increased risk of default among previously treated tuberculosis cases in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, F M; Dunbar, R; Hesseling, A C; Enarson, D A; Fielding, K; Beyers, N

    2012-08-01

    To investigate, in two urban communities with high tuberculosis (TB) incidence and high rates of TB recurrence, whether a history of previous TB treatment is associated with treatment default. Retrospective cohort study of TB cases with an episode of treatment recorded in the clinic-based treatment registers between 2002 and 2007. Probabilistic record linkage was used to ascertain treatment history of TB cases back to 1996. Based on the outcome of their most recent previous treatment episode, previously treated cases were compared to new cases regarding their risk of treatment default. Previous treatment success (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.79; 95%CI 1.17-2.73), previous default (aOR 6.18, 95%CI 3.68-10.36) and previous failure (aOR 9.72, 95%CI 3.07-30.78) were each independently associated with treatment default (P default were male sex (P = 0.003) and age 19-39 years (P risk of treatment default, even after previous successful treatment. This finding is of particular importance in a setting where recurrent TB is very common. Adherence to treatment should be ensured in new and retreatment cases to increase cure rates and reduce transmission of TB in the community.

  18. Qualitative study of perceived causes of tuberculosis treatment default among health care workers in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizub, D; Ghali, I; Sabouni, R; Bourkadi, J E; Bennani, K; El Aouad, R; Dooley, K E

    2012-09-01

    In Morocco, tuberculosis (TB) treatment default is increasing in some urban areas. To provide a detailed description of factors that contribute to patient default and solutions from the point of view of health care professionals who participate in TB care. In-depth interviews were conducted with 62 physicians and nurses at nine regional public pulmonary clinics and local health clinics. Participants had a median of 24 years of experience in health care. Treatment default was seen as a result of multilevel factors related to the patient (lack of means, being a migrant worker, distance to treatment site, poor understanding of treatment, drug use, mental illness), medical team (high patient load, low motivation, lack of resources for tracking defaulters), treatment organization (poor communication between treatment sites, no systematic strategy for patient education or tracking, incomplete record keeping), and health care system and society. Tailored recommendations for low- and higher-cost interventions are provided. Interventions to enhance TB treatment completion should take into account the local context and multilevel factors that contribute to default. Qualitative studies involving health care workers directly involved in TB care can be powerful tools to identify contributing factors and define strategies to help reduce treatment default.

  19. Internal and external attention and the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibner, Hannah J; Bogler, Carsten; Gleich, Tobias; Haynes, John-Dylan; Bermpohl, Felix

    2017-03-01

    Focused attention meditations have been shown to improve psychological health and wellbeing and are nowadays an integral part of many psychotherapies. While research on the neural correlates of focused attention meditation is increasing, findings vary on whether meditations are associated with high or low activity in the default mode network (DMN). To clarify the relationship between focused attention meditation and the activity in DMN regions, it may be helpful to distinguish internal and external attention as well as different phases within one meditation: During focused attention meditation, the practitioner switches between mindful attention, mind-wandering and refocusing. Here, we employed a thought-probe paradigm to study the neural correlates of these different phases. Twenty healthy, meditation naïve participants were introduced to external (mindfulness of sound) and internal (mindfulness of breathing) attention meditation and then practiced the meditation at home for four consecutive days. They then performed the same focused attention meditations during fMRI scanning, in four runs alternating between internal and external attention. At pseudorandom intervals, participants were asked whether they had just been focused on the task (mindful attention) or had been distracted (mind-wandering). During mindful attention, brain regions typically associated with the DMN, such as the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and left temporoparietal junction showed significantly less neural activation compared to mind-wandering phases. Reduced activity of the DMN was found during both external and internal attention, with stronger deactivation in the posterior cingulate cortex during internal attention compared to external attention. Moreover, refocusing after mind-wandering was associated with activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Our results support the theory that mindful attention is associated with reduced DMN activity compared to mind

  20. EEG PHASE RESET OF THE DEFAULT MODE NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Thatcher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore phase reset of 3-dimensional current sources located in Brodmann areas located in the human default mode network (DMN using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA of the human electroencephalogram (EEG. Methods: The EEG was recorded from 19 scalp locations from 70 healthy normal subjects ranging in age from 13 to 20 years. A time point by time point computation of LORETA current sources were computed for 14 Brodman areas comprising the DMN in the delta frequency band. The Hilbert transform of the LORETA time series was used to compute the instantaneous phase differences between all pairs of Brodmann areas. Phase shift and lock durations were calculated based on the 1st & 2nd derivatives of the time series of phase differences. Results: Phase shift duration exhibited three discrete modes at approximately: 1- 30 msec,, 2- 55 msec and, 3- 65 msec. Phase lock duration present primarily at: 1- 300 to 350 msec and, 2- 350 msec to 450 msec. Phase shift and lock durations were inversely related and exhibited an exponential change with distance between Brodmann areas. Conclusions: The results are explained by local neural packing density of network hubs and an exponential decrease in connections with distance from a hub. The results are consistent with a discrete temporal model of brain function where anatomical hubs behave like a ‘shutter’ that opens and closes at specific durations as nodes of a network giving rise to temporarily phase locked clusters of neurons for specific durations.

  1. Diversity of interferon inducible Mx gene in horses and association of variations with susceptibility vis-à-vis resistance against equine influenza infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuja, Balvinder K; Manuja, Anju; Dahiya, Rajni; Singh, Sandeep; Sharma, R C; Gahlot, S K

    2014-10-01

    Equine influenza (EI) is primarily an infection of the upper respiratory tract and is one of the major infectious respiratory diseases of economic importance in equines. Re-emergence of the disease, species jumping by H3N8 virus in canines and possible threat of human pandemic due to the unpredictable nature of the virus have necessitated research on devising strategies for preventing the disease. The myxovirus resistance protein (Mx) has been reported to confer resistance to Orthomyxo virus infection by modifying cellular functions needed along the viral replication pathway. Polymorphisms and differential antiviral activities of Mx gene have been reported in pigs and chicken. Here we report the diversity of Mx gene, its expression in response to stimulation with interferon (IFN) α/β and their association with EI resistance and susceptibility in Marwari horses. Blood samples were collected from horses declared positive for equine influenza and in contact animals with a history of no clinical signs. Mx gene was amplified by reverse transcription from total RNA isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with IFN α/β using gene specific primers. The amplified gene products from representative samples were cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequences and deduced amino acid sequences were analyzed. Out of a total 24 amino acids substitutions sorting intolerant from tolerant (SIFT) analysis predicted 13 substitutions with functional consequences. Five substitutions (V67A, W123L, E346Y, N347Y, S689N) were observed only in resistant animals. Evolutionary distances based on nucleotide sequences with in equines ranged between 0.3-2.0% and 20-24% with other species. On phylogenetic analysis all equine sequences clustered together while other species formed separate clades. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic variation in exon 17 of INSR is associated with insulin resistance and hyperandrogenemia among lean Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Srabani; Shaikh, Nuzhat; Khavale, Sushma; Shinde, Gayatri; Meherji, Pervin; Shah, Nalini; Maitra, Anurupa

    2009-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a multigenic disorder, and insulin resistance is one of its hallmark features. Polymorphisms in exon 17 of insulin receptor (INSR) gene are reported to be associated with PCOS. We investigated this association in Indian women and its putative relationship with PCOS associated traits, which has not been explored so far. In this case control study, the polymorphisms were investigated by direct sequencing in 180 women with PCOS and 144 age matched controls. Clinical, anthropometric, biochemical, and hormonal parameters were also estimated. The silent C/T polymorphism at His1058 in exon 17 of INSR was found to be present in our study population. The polymorphic genotype (CT+TT) was significantly associated with PCOS in lean women (chi(2)=8.493, df=1, P=0.004). It showed association with higher fasting insulin levels (P=0.02), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P=0.005), free androgen index (P=0.03), and lower quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (P=0.004) in lean PCOS women. No other novel or known polymorphism was identified in exon 17 in this cohort. The study shows significant association of C/T polymorphism at His1058 of INSR with PCOS in the lean rather than obese Indian women. Its association with indices of insulin resistance and hyperandrogenemia is also seen in the same group. The findings strengthen the concept that pathogenesis of PCOS is different in lean and obese women.

  3. Development of geothermal field following the 2000 eruption of Usu volcano as revealed by ground temperature, resistivity and self-potential variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mogi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2000 eruption of Usu volcano, NE Japan, took place on the foot of the somma, and formed a cryptodome of 65 m high accompanying numerous faults. We made repeated measurements of ground temperature, Self-Potential (SP and electrical resistivity, in order to clarify the mechanism of development of the newly formed geothermal field on the fault zone. Prior to the expansion of the geothermal field, we detected a resistive zone at the center of the geothermal zone and it supposed to evidence that the zone involving dry steam phase had been formed beneath the fault zone. A rapid expansion of the geothermal field followed along the fault zone away from the craters. The place of maximum amplitude of the SP field also migrated following the expansion of the high ground temperature zone. The high resistive part has shrunk as a consequence of the progress of condensation to warm the surroundings. Based on the observations, we delineated the process of the hydrothermal circulation. Considering the topographic effect of the SP field observed on the highly permeable zone in the Usu somma, the potential flow along the slope of the soma was expected to play an important role to promote the rapid expansion of the geothermal field and the migration of the most active part.

  4. Paying for Default: Change over Time in the Share of Federal Financial Aid Sent to Institutions with High Student Loan Default Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquette, Ozan; Hillman, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    Both federal spending on financial aid and student loan default rates have increased over the past decade. These trends have intensified policymakers' concerns that some postsecondary institutions-- particularly in the for-profit sector--maximize revenue derived from federal financial aid without helping students to graduate or find employment.…

  5. Default network activation during episodic and semantic memory retrieval: A selective meta-analytic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongkeun

    2016-01-08

    It remains unclear whether and to what extent the default network subregions involved in episodic memory (EM) and semantic memory (SM) processes overlap or are separated from one another. This study addresses this issue through a controlled meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies involving healthy participants. Various EM and SM task paradigms differ widely in the extent of default network involvement. Therefore, the issue at hand cannot be properly addressed without some control for this factor. In this regard, this study employs a two-stage analysis: a preliminary meta-analysis to select EM and SM task paradigms that recruit relatively extensive default network regions and a main analysis to compare the selected task paradigms. Based on a within-EM comparison, the default network contributed more to recollection/familiarity effects than to old/new effects, and based on a within-SM comparison, it contributed more to word/pseudoword effects than to semantic/phonological effects. According to a direct comparison of recollection/familiarity and word/pseudoword effects, each involving a range of default network regions, there were more overlaps than separations in default network subregions involved in these two effects. More specifically, overlaps included the bilateral posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, left inferior parietal lobule, and left anteromedial prefrontal regions, whereas separations included only the hippocampal formation and the parahippocampal cortex region, which was unique to recollection/familiarity effects. These results indicate that EM and SM retrieval processes involving strong memory signals recruit extensive and largely overlapping default network regions and differ mainly in distinct contributions of hippocampus and parahippocampal regions to EM retrieval. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. CREDIT DEFAULT SWAPS IN THE MECHANISM OF REDISTRIBUTION OF CREDIT RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Solodka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the economic nature and the functioning of CDS in terms of efficient redistribution of credit risk. The features of the dynamics of the nominal volume of the world market CDS, the gross market value and net market value of the CDS. Proved that more objective indicators of total credit risk shenerovanoho financial institutions are gross market value of the CDS and the net market value of CDS. We consider the variety and scope of CDS. Studied objectivity CDS valuation depending on the basis for valuation of CDS. In the mechanism of functioning CDS credit event as defined default “subject matter”, the features of conventional and technical default. Noted that a credit event for the use of CDS may also restructuring the company, bankruptcy or downgrade economic entity. In the article the types of CDS, including Basket Default Swap and First-of- Basket-to-Default Swap. We consider the application of CDS, namely hedge the credit risk of the underlying asset, which issued CDS; hedging credit risk of other assets by CDS; speculative trading in CDS. Depending on the particular basis for valuation of CDS, investigated objective valuation based on the value of CDS hedging; valuation CDS, based on the intensity of default; CDS valuation based on credit rating; valuation CDS, based on the value of the company. Proved that hedging through CDS will be effective only for the low correlation between the default of the underlying asset and counterparty default on swaps. It is proved that the accuracy and redutsyrovanyh structural models strongly depends on the “a long history of trading” underlying assets, asset must have a long history of trading, be the subject of in-depth analysis of a wide range of analysts and traders.

  7. Risk factors for treatment default among adult tuberculosis patients in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, M E; Hill, P C; Maharani, W; Sampurno, H; Ruslami, R

    2013-10-01

    Defaulting from anti-tuberculosis treatment hinders tuberculosis (TB) control. To identify potential defaulters. We conducted a cohort study in newly diagnosed Indonesian TB patients. We administered a questionnaire, prospectively identified defaulters (discontinued treatment ≥ 2 weeks) and assessed risk factors using Cox's regression. Of 249 patients, 39 (16%) defaulted, 61% in the first 2 months. Default was associated with liver disease (HR 3.40, 95%CI 1.02-11.78), chest pain (HR 2.25, 95%CI 1.06-4.77), night sweats (HR 1.98, 95%CI 1.03-3.79), characteristics of the head of the household (self-employed, HR 2.47, 95%CI 1.15-5.34; patient's mother, HR 7.72, 95%CI 1.66-35.88), household wealth (HR 4.24, 95%CI 1.12-16.09), walking to clinic (HR 4.53, 95%CI 1.39-14.71), being unaccompanied at diagnosis (HR 30.49, 95%CI 7.55-123.07) or when collecting medication (HR 3.34, 95%CI 1.24-8.98) and low level of satisfaction with the clinic (HR 3.85, 95%CI 1.17-12.62) or doctors (HR 2.45, 95%CI 1.18-5.10). Health insurance (HR 0.24, 95%CI 0.07-0.74) and paying for diagnosis (HR 0.14, 95%CI 0.04-0.48) were protective. Defaulting is common and occurs early. Interventions that improve clinic services, strengthen patient support and increase insurance coverage may reduce default in Indonesia.

  8. Overproduction of active efflux pump and variations of OprD dominate in imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from patients with bloodstream infections in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Cheng-Yen; Chen, Shu-Sheng; Hung, Kuei-Hsiang; Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Yan, Jing-Jou; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    2016-06-13

    The emergence of imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (IRPA) has become a great concern worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate resistance mechanisms associated with bloodstream isolated IRPA strains in Taiwan. A total of 78 non-duplicated IRPA isolates were isolated from patients with bloodstream infection. The average prevalence of imipenem-resistance in those isolates was 5.9 % during a 10-year longitudinal surveillance in Taiwan. PFGE results showed high clonal diversity among the 78 isolates. VIM-2, VIM-3, OXA-10, and OXA-17 β-lactamases were identified in 2 (2.6 %), 3 (3.8 %), 2 (2.6 %), and 1 (1.3 %) isolates, respectively. Active efflux pumps, AmpC β-lactamase overproduction, and extended-spectrum AmpC cephalosporinases (ESACs) were found in 58 (74.4 %), 25 (32.1 %) and 15 (19.2 %) of IRPA isolates, respectively. oprD mutations with amino acid substitution, shortened putative loop L7, premature stop codon caused by point mutation, frameshift by nucleotide insertion or deletion, and interruption by insertion sequence were found in 19 (24.4 %), 18 (23.1 %), 15 (19.2 %), 14 (17.9 %), and 10 (12.8 %) of isolates, respectively. This study suggests that alterations in the OprD protein and having an active efflux pump are the main mechanisms associated with bloodstream isolated IRPA. Overproduction of AmpC, ESACs, and the presence of VIM- and OXA-type β-lactamases play additional roles in reduced susceptibility to imipenem in P. aeruginosa isolates in Taiwan.

  9. Antidepressants normalize the default mode network in patients with dysthymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Jonathan; Hellerstein, David J; Gat, Inbal; Mechling, Anna; Klahr, Kristin; Wang, Zhishun; McGrath, Patrick J; Stewart, Jonathan W; Peterson, Bradley S

    2013-04-01

    The default mode network (DMN) is a collection of brain regions that reliably deactivate during goal-directed behaviors and is more active during a baseline, or so-called resting, condition. Coherence of neural activity, or functional connectivity, within the brain's DMN is increased in major depressive disorder relative to healthy control (HC) subjects; however, whether similar abnormalities are present in persons with dysthymic disorder (DD) is unknown. Moreover, the effect of antidepressant medications on DMN connectivity in patients with DD is also unknown. To use resting-state functional-connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study (1) the functional connectivity of the DMN in subjects with DD vs HC participants and (2) the effects of antidepressant therapy on DMN connectivity. After collecting baseline MRI scans from subjects with DD and HC participants, we enrolled the participants with DD into a 10-week prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of duloxetine and collected MRI scans again at the conclusion of the study. Enrollment occurred between 2007 and 2011. University research institute. Volunteer sample of 41 subjects with DD and 25 HC participants aged 18 to 53 years. Control subjects were group matched to patients with DD by age and sex. We used resting-state functional-connectivity MRI to measure the functional connectivity of the brain's DMN in persons with DD compared with HC subjects, and we examined the effects of treatment with duloxetine vs placebo on DMN connectivity. Of the 41 subjects with DD, 32 completed the clinical trial and MRI scans, along with the 25 HC participants. At baseline, we found that the coherence of neural activity within the brain's DMN was greater in persons with DD compared with HC subjects. Following a 10-week clinical trial, we found that treatment with duloxetine, but not placebo, normalized DMN connectivity. The baseline imaging findings are consistent with those found in patients with major

  10. Effects of phosphorus availability and genetic variation of leaf terpene content and emission rate in Pinus pinaster seedlings susceptible and resistant to the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, J-S; Sampedro, L; Llusià, J; Moreira, X; Zas, R; Peñuelas, J

    2012-03-01

    We studied the effects of phosphorus fertilisation on foliar terpene concentrations and foliar volatile terpene emission rates in six half-sib families of Pinus pinaster Ait. seedlings. Half of the seedlings were resistant to attack of the pine weevil Hylobius abietis L., a generalist phloem feeder, and the remaining seedlings were susceptible to this insect. We hypothesised that P stress could modify the terpene concentration in the needles and thus lead to altered terpene emission patterns relevant to plant-insect signalling. The total concentration and emission rate ranged between 5732 and 13,995 μg·g(-1) DW and between 2 and 22 μg·g(-1) DW·h(-1), respectively. Storage and emission were dominated by the isomers α- and β-pinene (77.2% and 84.2% of the total terpene amount amassed and released, respectively). In both resistant and susceptible families, P stress caused an increase of 31% in foliar terpene concentration with an associated 5-fold decrease in terpene emission rates. A higher terpene content in the leaves implies that the 'excess carbon', available under limiting growth conditions (P scarcity), is allocated to terpene production. Sensitive families showed a greater increase in terpene emission rates with increasing P concentrations, which could explain their susceptibility to H. abietis. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. Drug addiction and alcoholism as predictors for tuberculosis treatment default in Brazil: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M R; Pereira, J C; Costa, R R; Dias, J A; Guimarães, M D C; Leite, I C G

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) treatment default in a priority city for disease control in Brazil. A cohort of TB cases diagnosed from 2008 to 2009 was followed up from patients' entry into three outpatient sites, in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil), until the recording of the outcomes. Drug addiction, alcoholism and treatment site appeared to be independently associated with default. Current users of crack as the hardest drug (odds ratio (OR) 12·25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·04-49·26) were more likely to default than other hard drug users (OR 5·67, 95% CI 1·34-24·03), former users (OR 4·12, 95% CI 1·11-15·20) and those not known to use drugs (reference group). Consumers at high risk of alcoholism (OR 2·94, 95% CI 1·08-7·99) and those treated in an outpatient hospital unit (OR 8·22, 95% CI 2·79-24·21%) also were more likely to default. Our results establish that substance abuse was independently associated with default. National TB programmes might be more likely to achieve their control targets if they include interventions aimed at improving adherence and cure rates, by diagnosing and treating substance abuse concurrently with standard TB therapy.

  12. Default mode network links to visual hallucinations: A comparison between Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciotti, Raffaella; Delli Pizzi, Stefano; Perfetti, Bernardo; Tartaro, Armando; Bonanni, Laura; Thomas, Astrid; Weis, Luca; Biundo, Roberta; Antonini, Angelo; Onofrj, Marco

    2015-08-01

    Studying default mode network activity or connectivity in different parkinsonisms, with or without visual hallucinations, could highlight its roles in clinical phenotypes' expression. Multiple system atrophy is the archetype of parkinsonism without visual hallucinations, variably appearing instead in Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to evaluate default mode network functions in multiple system atrophy in comparison with PD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging evaluated default mode network activity and connectivity in 15 multiple system atrophy patients, 15 healthy controls, 15 early PD patients matched for disease duration, 30 severe PD patients (15 with and 15 without visual hallucinations), matched with multiple system atrophy for disease severity. Cortical thickness and neuropsychological evaluations were also performed. Multiple system atrophy had reduced default mode network activity compared with controls and PD with hallucinations, and no differences with PD (early or severe) without hallucinations. In PD with visual hallucinations, activity and connectivity was preserved compared with controls and higher than in other groups. In early PD, connectivity was lower than in controls but higher than in multiple system atrophy and severe PD without hallucinations. Cortical thickness was reduced in severe PD, with and without hallucinations, and correlated only with disease duration. Higher anxiety scores were found in patients without hallucinations. Default mode network activity and connectivity was higher in PD with visual hallucinations and reduced in multiple system atrophy and PD without visual hallucinations. Cortical thickness comparisons suggest that functional, rather than structural, changes underlie the activity and connectivity differences. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  13. Interactions between default mode and control networks as a function of increasing cognitive reasoning complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearne, Luke; Cocchi, Luca; Zalesky, Andrew; Mattingley, Jason B

    2015-07-01

    Successful performance of challenging cognitive tasks depends on a consistent functional segregation of activity within the default-mode network, on the one hand, and control networks encompassing frontoparietal and cingulo-opercular areas on the other. Recent work, however, has suggested that in some cognitive control contexts nodes within the default-mode and control networks may actually cooperate to achieve optimal task performance. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether the ability to relate variables while solving a cognitive reasoning problem involves transient increases in connectivity between default-mode and control regions. Participants performed a modified version of the classic Wason selection task, in which the number of variables to be related is systematically varied across trials. As expected, areas within the default-mode network showed a parametric deactivation with increases in relational complexity, compared with neural activity in null trials. Critically, some of these areas also showed enhanced connectivity with task-positive control regions. Specifically, task-based connectivity between the striatum and the angular gyri, and between the thalamus and right temporal pole, increased as a function of relational complexity. These findings challenge the notion that functional segregation between regions within default-mode and control networks invariably support cognitive task performance, and reveal previously unknown roles for the striatum and thalamus in managing network dynamics during cognitive reasoning. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Altered Functional Connectivity of the Default Mode Network in Low-Empathy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Jun; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Hyo Eun; Han, Kiwan; Jeong, Bumseok; Kim, Jae Jin; Namkoong, Kee; Kim, Ji Woong

    2017-09-01

    Empathy is the ability to identify with or make a vicariously experience of another person's feelings or thoughts based on memory and/or self-referential mental simulation. The default mode network in particular is related to self-referential empathy. In order to elucidate the possible neural mechanisms underlying empathy, we investigated the functional connectivity of the default mode network in subjects from a general population. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 19 low-empathy subjects and 18 medium-empathy subjects. An independent component analysis was used to identify the default mode network, and differences in functional connectivity strength were compared between the two groups. The low-empathy group showed lower functional connectivity of the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann areas 9 and 32) within the default mode network, compared to the medium-empathy group. The results of the present study suggest that empathy is related to functional connectivity of the medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate cortex within the default mode network. Functional decreases in connectivity among low-empathy subjects may reflect an impairment of self-referential mental simulation. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017.

  15. Domestic violence is a leading risk factor in default from colposcopy services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Rachael; Quinlivan, Julie A

    2014-06-01

    Domestic violence is common in women and is associated with poorer health-care outcomes. However, no causal pathway has been identified to explain this observation. We have followed a cohort of women to determine whether poorer outcomes can be explained by high rates of default and loss to follow-up. A prospective cohort study was performed. Institutional ethics approval was obtained. Participants were consecutive patients attending colposcopy clinics at a major metropolitan hospital in Australia. Following ascertainment of domestic violence status, appointment outcomes for colposcopy services were tracked for a 3-year period. Multivariate analysis was undertaken to determine demographic factors associated with default from care and loss to follow-up. Of 581 women approached, consent was obtained from 574 women (99%). Domestic violence status was obtained from 566 women, of whom 187 (33%) had a recent history of exposure. Women exposed to violence were more likely to default from colposcopy once (26.2% vs 7.4%; P default and loss to follow-up. Domestic violence is a risk factor for default from attendance and loss to follow-up at colposcopy services. This may explain the mechanism behind adverse health-care outcomes seen. Screening and targeted appointment intervention programs may improve clinical compliance. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Analysis of TIR- and non-TIR-NBS-LRR disease resistance gene analogous in pepper: characterization, genetic variation, functional divergence and expression patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Hongjian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is one of the most important vegetable crops worldwide. However, its yield and fruit quality can be severely threatened by several pathogens. The plant nucleotide-binding site (NBS-leucine-rich repeat (LRR gene family is the largest class of known disease resistance genes (R genes effective against such pathogens. Therefore, the isolation and identification of such R gene homologues from pepper will provide a critical foundation for improving disease resistance breeding programs. Results A total of 78 R gene analogues (CaRGAs were identified in pepper by degenerate PCR amplification and database mining. Phylogenetic tree analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences for 51 of these CaRGAs with typically conserved motifs ( P-loop, kinase-2 and GLPL along with some known R genes from Arabidopsis and tomato grouped these CaRGAs into the non-Toll interleukin-1 receptor (TIR-NBS-LRR (CaRGAs I to IV and TIR-NBS-LRR (CaRGAs V to VII subfamilies. The presence of consensus motifs (i.e. P-loop, kinase-2 and hydrophobic domain is typical of the non-TIR- and TIR-NBS-LRR gene subfamilies. This finding further supports the view that both subfamilies are widely distributed in dicot species. Functional divergence analysis provided strong statistical evidence of altered selective constraints during protein evolution between the two subfamilies. Thirteen critical amino acid sites involved in this divergence were also identified using DIVERGE version 2 software. Analyses of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions per site showed that purifying selection can play a critical role in the evolutionary processes of non-TIR- and TIR-NBS-LRR RGAs in pepper. In addition, four specificity-determining positions were predicted to be responsible for functional specificity. qRT-PCR analysis showed that both salicylic and abscisic acids induce the expression of CaRGA genes, suggesting that they may primarily be involved in

  17. Use of cyclic current reversal polarization voltammetry for investigating the relationship between corrosion resistance and heat-treatment induced variations in microstructures of 400 C martensitic stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Software for running a cyclic current reversal polarization voltammagram has been developed for use with a EG&G Princeton Applied Research Model 273 potentiostat/galvanostat system. The program, which controls the magnitude, direction and duration of an impressed galvanostatic current, will produce data in ASCII spreadsheets (Lotus, Quattro) for graphical representation of CCRPV voltammograms. The program was used to determine differences in corrosion resistance of 440 C martenstic stainless steel produced as a result of changes in microstructure effected by tempering. It was determined that tempering at all temperatures above 400 F resulted in increased polarizability of the material, with the increased likelihood that pitting would be initiated upon exposure to marine environments. These results will be used in development of remedial procedures for lowering the susceptibility of these alloys toward the stress corrosion cracking experienced in bearings used in high pressure oxygen turbopumps used in the main engines of space shuttle orbiters.

  18. The gene expression profile of resistant and susceptible Bombyx mori strains reveals cypovirus-associated variations in host gene transcript levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Wang, Simei; Xue, Renyu; Cao, Guangli; Hu, Xiaolong; Huang, Moli; Zhang, Yangqi; Lu, Yahong; Zhu, Liyuan; Chen, Fei; Liang, Zi; Kuang, Sulan; Gong, Chengliang

    2015-06-01

    High-throughput paired-end RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed to investigate the gene expression profile of a susceptible Bombyx mori strain, Lan5, and a resistant B. mori strain, Ou17, which were both orally infected with B. mori cypovirus (BmCPV) in the midgut. There were 330 and 218 up-regulated genes, while there were 147 and 260 down-regulated genes in the Lan5 and Ou17 strains, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were carried out. Moreover, gene interaction network (STRING) analyses were performed to analyze the relationships among the shared DEGs. Some of these genes were related and formed a large network, in which the genes for B. mori cuticular protein RR-2 motif 123 (BmCPR123) and the gene for B. mori DNA replication licensing factor Mcm2-like (BmMCM2) were key genes among the common up-regulated DEGs, whereas the gene for B. mori heat shock protein 20.1 (Bmhsp20.1) was the central gene among the shared down-regulated DEGs between Lan5 vs Lan5-CPV and Ou17 vs Ou17-CPV. These findings established a comprehensive database of genes that are differentially expressed in response to BmCPV infection between silkworm strains that differed in resistance to BmCPV and implied that these DEGs might be involved in B. mori immune responses against BmCPV infection.

  19. Microstructure, thickness and sheet resistivity of Cu/Ni thin film produced by electroplating technique on the variation of electrolyte temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toifur, M.; Yuningsih, Y.; Khusnani, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this research, it has been made Cu/Ni thin film produced with electroplating technique. The deposition process was done in the plating bath using Cu and Ni as cathode and anode respectively. The electrolyte solution was made from the mixture of HBrO3 (7.5g), NiSO4 (100g), NiCl2 (15g), and aquadest (250 ml). Electrolyte temperature was varied from 40°C up to 80°C, to make the Ni ions in the solution easy to move to Cu cathode. The deposition was done during 2 minutes on the potential of 1.5 volt. Many characterizations were done including the thickness of Ni film, microstructure, and sheet resistivity. The results showed that at all samples Ni had attacked on the Cu substrate to form Cu/Ni. The raising of electrolyte temperature affected the increasing of Ni thickness that is the Ni thickness increase with the increasing electrolyte temperature. From the EDS spectrum, it can be informed that samples already contain Ni and Cu elements and NiO and CuO compounds. Addition element and compound are found for sample Cu/Ni resulted from 70° electrolyte temperature of Ni deposition, that are Pt and PtO2. From XRD pattern, there are several phases which have crystal structure i.e. Cu, Ni, and NiO, while CuO and PtO2 have amorphous structure. The sheet resistivity linearly decreases with the increasing electrolyte temperature.

  20. Trust and self-control: The moderating role of the default

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony M. Evans

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available According to recent dual-process theories, interpersonal trust is influenced by both impulsive and deliberative processes. The present research explores the determinants of deliberative trust, investigating how trust decisions are affected by the availability of cognitive resources. We test the interaction of two relevant factors: self-control (the ability to exert mental control over one's behavior and the default response (a preselected option that requires minimal or no effort. Past research has shown that self-control has extensive effects on social behavior and decision making. Here, we report that the effect of self-control on trust depends on the default. Across two studies, we find no direct link between self-control and trust. Instead, self-control affects trust indirectly by influencing the level of effort in decision making. Poor self-control (due to experimental depletion or trait-based differences predicts adherence to the default---the response that requires the least effort.