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Sample records for variables condition syntactic

  1. Syntactic Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Janet L.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the syntactic priming task, a paradigm involving the presentation of a phrasal or clausal context, followed by the presentation of a target item for lexical decision or naming. Notes that response times are faster for targets syntactically congruent with the preceding context than for incongruent targets. Outlines how to administer this…

  2. Plasticity and damage in aluminum syntactic foams deformed under dynamic and quasi-static conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balch, Dorian K. [Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States); O' Dwyer, John G. [Waterford Institute of Technology (Ireland); Davis, Graham R. [Queen Mary, University of London (United Kingdom); Cady, Carl M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gray, George T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dunand, David C. [Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States)]. E-mail: dunand@northwestern.edu

    2005-01-25

    Syntactic foams were fabricated by liquid metal infiltration of commercially pure and 7075 aluminum into preforms of hollow ceramic microspheres. The foams exhibited peak strengths during quasi-static compression ranging from -100 to -230 MPa, while dynamic compression loading showed a 10-30% increase in peak strength magnitude, with strain rate sensitivities similar to those of aluminum-matrix composite materials. X-ray tomographic investigation of the post-compression loaded foam microstructures revealed sharp differences in deformation modes, with the unalloyed-Al foam failing initially by matrix deformation, while the alloy-matrix foams failed more abruptly through the formation of sharp crush bands oriented at about 45 deg. to the compression axis. These foams displayed pronounced energy-absorbing capabilities, suggesting their potential use in packaging applications or for impact protection; proper tailoring of matrix and microsphere strengths would result in optimized syntactic foam properties.

  3. Syntactic autonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, L.M.

    1998-12-01

    The study of adapting and evolving autonomous agents should be based on a complex systems-theoretic framework which requires both self-organizing and symbolic dimensions. An inclusive framework based on the notions of semiotics and situated action is advanced to build models capable of representing, as well as evolving in their environments.Such undertaking is pursued by discussing the ways in which symbol and self-organization are irreducibly intertwined in evolutionary systems. With this semiotic view of self-organization and symbols, the authors re-think the notion of autonomy of evolving systems, and show that evolutionary systems are characterized by a particular type of syntactic autonomy. Recent developments in emergent computation in cellular automata are discussed as examples of the emergence of syntactic autonomy in computational environments. New experiments emphasizing this syntactic autonomy in cellular automata are presented.

  4. The Relation of Morphological Awareness and Syntactic Awareness to Adults' Reading Comprehension: Is Vocabulary Knowledge a Mediating Variable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Roehrig, Alysia D.; Williams, Rihana S.

    2011-01-01

    The authors' goal was to examine the structural relationships among vocabulary knowledge, morphological awareness, syntactic awareness, and reading comprehension in English-speaking adults. Structural equation analysis of data collected from 151 participants revealed that morphological awareness affected reading comprehension directly. Syntactic…

  5. Deber (de + infinitive: a case of free variation in Spanish? Conditional factors in a phenomenon of syntactical alternation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Blas Arroyo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the results of variationist research on the alternation between deber and deber de + infinitive; it is based on samples of oral speech contained in the Macrocorpus sociolingüistico de Castellón y sus comarcas [Sociolinguistic macro-corpus of Castellón and surrounding districts]. The study confirms the findings of other research projects by revealing that an advanced stage has been reached in the replacement of the variant deber de by the periphrasis without a preposition (deber in the Spanish-speaking world, although data from speech communities in the Castellón region show the persistence of the former usage in certain linguistic contexts. Such uses do not reflect the prescriptions of academic norms by revealing a functional opposition between the epistemic and deontic modalities, but they do show the importance of other factors relating to modalization. These include, on the one hand, emphasis and the degree of spontaneity of interactions; and on the other, attenuation and orational modality. These sets of factors condition the use of periphrasis with a preposition in opposing ways. Whereas the first set – especially emphasis – are associated with the presence of such a variant, the second act as a serious stimulus against it. Of the other factors selected by multivariate analysis it is possible to distinguish between a number of groups, in accordance with the differences observed. Among those which show the greatest number of such differences, some are revealed in an apparently anarchical fashion (the number of syllables in the verbal complex or in the opposite manner to what might have been expected (the phono-syntactical context. Others show a high level of interaction or dependence with diverse factors, and cannot therefore be demonstrated to have explicative relevance in themselves (grammatical person, degree of animacy. Other factors display more consistent differences which cannot, however, be

  6. Scalable conditional induction variables (CIV) analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Oancea, Cosmin E.; Rauchwerger, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    challenges to automatic parallelization. Because the complexity of such induction variables is often due to their conditional evaluation across the iteration space of loops we name them Conditional Induction Variables (CIV). This paper presents a flow

  7. A Combined Syntactical and Statistical Approach for R Peak Detection in Real-Time Long-Term Heart Rate Variability Analysis

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    David Pang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term heart rate variability (HRV analysis is useful as a noninvasive technique for autonomic nervous system activity assessment. It provides a method for assessing many physiological and pathological factors that modulate the normal heartbeat. The performance of HRV analysis systems heavily depends on a reliable and accurate detection of the R peak of the QRS complex. Ectopic beats caused by misdetection or arrhythmic events can introduce bias into HRV results, resulting in significant problems in their interpretation. This study presents a novel method for long-term detection of normal R peaks (which represent the normal heartbeat in electrocardiographic signals, intended specifically for HRV analysis. The very low computational complexity of the proposed method, which combines and exploits the advantages of syntactical and statistical approaches, enables real-time applications. The approach was validated using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology–Beth Israel Hospital Normal Sinus Rhythm and the Fantasia database, and has a sensitivity, positive predictivity, detection error rate, and accuracy of 99.998, 99.999, 0.003, and 99.996%, respectively.

  8. Syntactic Idioms and Precedent Phenomena: Intersection Zones

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    Hanna Sytar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: One examined mainly structural and semantic features of syntactic idioms so far. The pragmatic dimension of these original units that are on the verge of syntax and phraseology, has not been highlighted properly in the scientific literature, so it needs theoretical understanding. The combination of syntactic idiom and phraseological phenomenon refers to the communication techniques impacting on message recipient. Purpose: to analyze the intersection zones of syntactic idioms and precedent phenomena. Results: Analysis of the collected factual material allows to distinguish two areas of interpenetration of syntactic idioms and precedent units: 1 construction of expression according to the phraseologized model, within which the position of variable component is filled by the precedent name or precedent expression; 2 the model of sentence itself is precedent, and lexical content does not comply with generally known one that does not affect on understanding of model content by recipient. With a combination of syntactic idiom and precedent phenomena speakers provide drawing of recipients’ attention, carry out a hidden influence on them, express their own attitude to the realities, so that perform phatic, manipulative and expressive-evaluative functions. The modifications and transformations of precedent expressions and names appeared to be regular in such interpenetrations. Discussion: The obtained results reflect the general trend towards transform (transformation, modification, variation, etc. of precedent, as well as phraseological units, and can be used for the analysis of patterns of their formation and modifications. Further research phase implies tracing patterns of syntactic idioms combination with other means of expressive syntax.

  9. Scalable conditional induction variables (CIV) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oancea, Cosmin Eugen; Rauchwerger, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    parallelizing compiler and evaluated its impact on five Fortran benchmarks. We have found that that there are many important loops using CIV subscripts and that our analysis can lead to their scalable parallelization. This in turn has led to the parallelization of the benchmark programs they appear in.......Subscripts using induction variables that cannot be expressed as a formula in terms of the enclosing-loop indices appear in the low-level implementation of common programming abstractions such as filter, or stack operations and pose significant challenges to automatic parallelization. Because...... the complexity of such induction variables is often due to their conditional evaluation across the iteration space of loops we name them Conditional Induction Variables (CIV). This paper presents a flow-sensitive technique that summarizes both such CIV-based and affine subscripts to program level, using the same...

  10. Scalable conditional induction variables (CIV) analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Oancea, Cosmin E.

    2015-02-01

    Subscripts using induction variables that cannot be expressed as a formula in terms of the enclosing-loop indices appear in the low-level implementation of common programming abstractions such as Alter, or stack operations and pose significant challenges to automatic parallelization. Because the complexity of such induction variables is often due to their conditional evaluation across the iteration space of loops we name them Conditional Induction Variables (CIV). This paper presents a flow-sensitive technique that summarizes both such CIV-based and affine subscripts to program level, using the same representation. Our technique requires no modifications of our dependence tests, which is agnostic to the original shape of the subscripts, and is more powerful than previously reported dependence tests that rely on the pairwise disambiguation of read-write references. We have implemented the CIV analysis in our parallelizing compiler and evaluated its impact on five Fortran benchmarks. We have found that that there are many important loops using CIV subscripts and that our analysis can lead to their scalable parallelization. This in turn has led to the parallelization of the benchmark programs they appear in.

  11. Syntactic Formats for Free

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klin, Bartek; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2003-01-01

    A framework of Plotkin and Turi’s, originally aimed at providing an abstract notion of bi-simulation, is modified to cover other operational equivalences and preorders. Combined with bi-algebraic methods, it yields a technique for the derivation of syntactic formats for transition system specific...

  12. Properties of Syntactic Foam for Simulation of Mechanical Insults.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Neal Benson [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Haulenbeek, Kimberly K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spletzer, Matthew A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ortiz, Lyndsy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Syntactic foam encapsulation protects sensitive components. The energy mitigated by the foam is calculated with numerical simulations. The properties of a syntactic foam consisting of a mixture of an epoxy-rubber adduct and glass microballoons are obtained from published literature and test results. The conditions and outcomes of the tests are discussed. The method for converting published properties and test results to input for finite element models is described. Simulations of the test conditions are performed to validate the inputs.

  13. Information Density and Syntactic Repetition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperley, David; Gildea, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In noun phrase (NP) coordinate constructions (e.g., NP and NP), there is a strong tendency for the syntactic structure of the second conjunct to match that of the first; the second conjunct in such constructions is therefore low in syntactic information. The theory of uniform information density predicts that low-information syntactic…

  14. Semantic Versus Syntactic Cutting Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Filmus, Yuval; Hrubeš, Pavel; Lauria, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the strength of the semantic and syntactic version of the cutting planes proof system. First, we show that the lower bound technique of Pudlák applies also to semantic cutting planes: the proof system has feasible interpolation via monotone real circuits, which gives an exponential lower bound on lengths of semantic cutting planes refutations. Second, we show that semantic refutations are stronger than syntactic ones. In particular, we give a formula for whic...

  15. Neural mechanisms of rapid sensitivity to syntactic anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert E. Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent psycholinguistic models hypothesize that anticipatory processing can speed the response to linguistic input during language comprehension by pre-activating representations necessary for word recognition. We investigated the neurocognitive mechanisms of anticipatory processing by recording event-related brain responses (ERPs to syntactically anomalous (The thief was caught by for police and well-formed (e.g., The thief was caught by the police sentences. One group of participants saw anomalies elicited by the same word in every instance (e.g., for; low-variability stimuli, providing high affordances for predictions about the word-form appearing in the critical position. A second group saw anomalies elicited by seven different prepositions (at, of, on, for, from, over, with; high-variability stimuli across the study, creating a more difficult prediction task. Syntactic category anomalies enhanced the occipital-temporal N170 component of the ERP, indicating rapid sensitivity—within 200 ms of word onset—to syntactic anomaly. For low-variability but not the high-variability stimuli, syntactic anomaly also enhanced the earlier occipital-temporal P1 component, around 130 ms after word-onset, indicating that affordances for prediction engendered earlier sensitivity to syntactic anomaly. Independent components analysis revealed three sources within the ERP signal whose functional dynamics were consistent with predictive processing and early responses to syntactic anomaly. Distributed neural source modeling (sLORETA of these early-active sources produced a candidate network for early responses to words during reading in the right posterior-occipital, left occipital-temporal, and medial parietal cortex.

  16. SEMSIN SEMANTIC AND SYNTACTIC PARSER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Boyarsky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the principle of operation for SemSin semantic and syntactic parser creating a dependency tree for the Russian language sentences. The parser consists of 4 blocks: a dictionary, morphological analyzer, production rules and lexical analyzer. An important logical part of the parser is pre-syntactical module, which harmonizes and complements morphological analysis results, separates the text paragraphs into individual sentences, and also carries out predisambiguation. Characteristic feature of the presented parser is an open type of control – it is done by means of a set of production rules. A varied set of commands provides the ability to both morphological and semantic-syntactic analysis of the sentence. The paper presents the sequence of rules usage and examples of their work. Specific feature of the rules is the decision making on establishment of syntactic links with simultaneous removal of the morphological and semantic ambiguity. The lexical analyzer provides the execution of commands and rules, and manages the parser in manual or automatic modes of the text analysis. In the first case, the analysis is performed interactively with the possibility of step-by-step execution of the rules and scanning the resulting parse tree. In the second case, analysis results are filed in an xml-file. Active usage of syntactic and semantic dictionary information gives the possibility to reduce significantly the ambiguity of parsing. In addition to marking the text, the parser is also usable as a tool for information extraction from natural language texts.

  17. Semantic and syntactic reading comprehension strategies used by deaf children with early and late cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Carlos; Martín-Aragoneses, M Teresa; López-Higes, Ramón; Pisón, Guzmán

    2016-01-01

    Deaf students have traditionally exhibited reading comprehension difficulties. In recent years, these comprehension problems have been partially offset through cochlear implantation (CI), and the subsequent improvement in spoken language skills. However, the use of cochlear implants has not managed to fully bridge the gap in language and reading between normally hearing (NH) and deaf children, as its efficacy depends on variables such as the age at implant. This study compared the reading comprehension of sentences in 19 children who received a cochlear implant before 24 months of age (early-CI) and 19 who received it after 24 months (late-CI) with a control group of 19 NH children. The task involved completing sentences in which the last word had been omitted. To complete each sentence children had to choose a word from among several alternatives that included one syntactic and two semantic foils in addition to the target word. The results showed that deaf children with late-CI performed this task significantly worse than NH children, while those with early-CI exhibited no significant differences with NH children, except under more demanding processing conditions (long sentences with infrequent target words). Further, the error analysis revealed a preference of deaf students with early-CI for selecting the syntactic foil over a semantic one, which suggests that they draw upon syntactic cues during sentence processing in the same way as NH children do. In contrast, deaf children with late-CI do not appear to use a syntactic strategy, but neither a semantic strategy based on the use of key words, as the literature suggests. Rather, the numerous errors of both kinds that the late-CI group made seem to indicate an inconsistent and erratic response when faced with a lack of comprehension. These findings are discussed in relation to differences in receptive vocabulary and short-term memory and their implications for sentence reading comprehension. Copyright © 2015

  18. Identifying Dialect Regions from Syntactic Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.; Wieling, Martijn; Kroon, Martin; van Noord, Gertjan; Bouma, Gosse

    2017-01-01

    The Syntactic Atlas of Dutch Dialects (SAND) is a database of syntactic features observed in the language spoken by people from different dialect regions in The Netherlands and Flanders. We would like to know how specific syntactic features are for the different dialects. For this purpose we try to

  19. Evidence for simultaneous syntactic processing of multiple words during reading.

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    Joshua Snell

    Full Text Available A hotly debated issue in reading research concerns the extent to which readers process parafoveal words, and how parafoveal information might influence foveal word recognition. We investigated syntactic word processing both in sentence reading and in reading isolated foveal words when these were flanked by parafoveal words. In Experiment 1 we found a syntactic parafoveal preview benefit in sentence reading, meaning that fixation durations on target words were decreased when there was a syntactically congruent preview word at the target location (n during the fixation on the pre-target (n-1. In Experiment 2 we used a flanker paradigm in which participants had to classify foveal target words as either noun or verb, when those targets were flanked by syntactically congruent or incongruent words (stimulus on-time 170 ms. Lower response times and error rates in the congruent condition suggested that higher-order (syntactic information can be integrated across foveal and parafoveal words. Although higher-order parafoveal-on-foveal effects have been elusive in sentence reading, results from our flanker paradigm show that the reading system can extract higher-order information from multiple words in a single glance. We propose a model of reading to account for the present findings.

  20. The theory of syntactic domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kracht, M.

    In this essay we develop a mathematical theory of syntactic domains with special attention to the theory of government and binding. Starting from an intrinsic characterization of command relations as defined in [Ba 90] we determine the structure of the distributive lattice of command relations.

  1. Three Syntactic Theories for Combinatory Graph Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Zerny, Ian

    2011-01-01

    in a third syntactic theory. The structure of the store-based abstract machine corresponding to this third syntactic theory oincides with that of Turner's original reduction machine. The three syntactic theories presented here The three syntactic heories presented here therefore have the following......We present a purely syntactic theory of graph reduction for the canonical combinators S, K, and I, where graph vertices are represented with evaluation contexts and let expressions. We express this syntactic theory as a reduction semantics, which we refocus into the first storeless abstract machine...... for combinatory graph reduction, which we refunctionalize into the first storeless natural semantics for combinatory graph reduction.We then factor out the introduction of let expressions to denote as many graph vertices as possible upfront instead of on demand, resulting in a second syntactic theory, this one...

  2. Is conversion a syntactic or a lexical process of word formation?

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    Alexandra Soares Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    nowadays’. Apart from the syntactic constraints that converted deverbal nouns must follow (e.g. as real nouns they cannot directly theta-mark, whilst syntactic nominalisations can, these nouns display phonological constraints in their formation and a semantic variability that is not observable in syntactic nominalisations. This semantic variability is not exclusively explainable by the syntactic environment. Moreover, the formation of converted deverbal nouns obeys to structural constraints that do not act upon syntactic nominalisation. All this means that conversion is not syntactic in nature. Yet it is not irregular either. This evidences that the mainstream generative grammar conception on the lexicon should be abandoned

  3. Effects of aging on blood pressure variability in resting conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, D. P.; Imholz, B. P.; Wieling, W.; Karemaker, J. M.; van Montfrans, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aging on beat-to-beat blood pressure and pulse interval variability in resting conditions and to determine the effect of aging on the sympathetic and vagal influence on the cardiovascular system by power spectral analysis of blood pressure

  4. A cement based syntactic foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoqiang; Muthyala, Venkata D.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a cement based syntactic foam core was proposed and experimentally investigated for composite sandwich structures. This was a multi-phase composite material with microballoon dispersed in a rubber latex toughened cement paste matrix. A trace amount of microfiber was also incorporated to increase the number of mechanisms for energy absorption and a small amount of nanoclay was added to improve the crystal structure of the hydrates. Three groups of cement based syntactic foams with varying cement content were investigated. A fourth group of specimens containing pure cement paste were also prepared as control. Each group contained 24 beam specimens. The total number of beam specimens was 96. The dimension of each beam was 30.5 cm x 5.1 cm x 1.5 cm. Twelve foam specimens from each group were wrapped with plain woven 7715 style glass fabric reinforced epoxy to prepare sandwich beams. Twelve cubic foam specimens, three from each group, with a side length of 5.1 cm, were also prepared. Three types of testing, low velocity impact test and four-point bending test on the beam specimens and compression test on the cubic specimens, were conducted to evaluate the impact energy dissipation, stress-strain behavior, and residual strength. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was also used to examine the energy dissipation mechanisms in the micro-length scale. It was found that the cement based syntactic foam has a higher capacity for dissipating impact energy with an insignificant reduction in strength as compared to the control cement paste core. When compared to a polymer based foam core having similar compositions, it was found that the cement based foam has a comparable energy dissipation capacity. The developed cement based syntactic foam would be a viable alternative for core materials in impact-tolerant composite sandwich structures

  5. Dynamic simulation of variable capacity refrigeration systems under abnormal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Nan; Shao Shuangquan; Tian Changqing; Yan Yuying

    2010-01-01

    There are often abnormal working conditions at evaporator outlet of a refrigeration system, such as two-phase state in transient process, and it is essential to investigate such transient behaviours for system design and control strategy. In this paper, a dynamic lumped parameter model is developed to simulate the transient behaviours of refrigeration system with variable capacity in both normal and abnormal working conditions. The appropriate discriminant method is adopted to switch the normal and abnormal conditions smoothly and to eliminate the simulated data oscillation. In order to verify the dynamic model, we built a test system with variable frequency compressor, water-cooling condenser, evaporator and electronic expansion valve. Calculated values from the mathematical model show reasonable agreement with the experimental data. The simulation results show that the transient behaviours of the variable capacity refrigeration system in the abnormal working conditions can be calculated reliably with the dynamic model when the compressor rotary speed or the opening of electronic expansion valve changes abruptly.

  6. Syntactic processing in music and language: Effects of interrupting auditory streams with alternating timbres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiveash, Anna; Thompson, William Forde; Badcock, Nicholas A; McArthur, Genevieve

    2018-07-01

    Music and language both rely on the processing of spectral (pitch, timbre) and temporal (rhythm) information to create structure and meaning from incoming auditory streams. Behavioral results have shown that interrupting a melodic stream with unexpected changes in timbre leads to reduced syntactic processing. Such findings suggest that syntactic processing is conditional on successful streaming of incoming sequential information. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate whether (1) the effect of alternating timbres on syntactic processing is reflected in a reduced brain response to syntactic violations, and (2) the phenomenon is similar for music and language. Participants listened to melodies and sentences with either one timbre (piano or one voice) or three timbres (piano, guitar, and vibraphone, or three different voices). Half the stimuli contained syntactic violations: an out-of-key note in the melodies, and a phrase-structure violation in the sentences. We found smaller ERPs to syntactic violations in music in the three-timbre compared to the one-timbre condition, reflected in a reduced early right anterior negativity (ERAN). A similar but non-significant pattern was observed for language stimuli in both the early left anterior negativity (ELAN) and the left anterior negativity (LAN) ERPs. The results suggest that disruptions to auditory streaming may interfere with syntactic processing, especially for melodic sequences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Removing Unnecessary Variables from Horn Clause Verification Conditions

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    Emanuele De Angelis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Verification conditions (VCs are logical formulas whose satisfiability guarantees program correctness. We consider VCs in the form of constrained Horn clauses (CHC which are automatically generated from the encoding of (an interpreter of the operational semantics of the programming language. VCs are derived through program specialization based on the unfold/fold transformation rules and, as it often happens when specializing interpreters, they contain unnecessary variables, that is, variables which are not required for the correctness proofs of the programs under verification. In this paper we adapt to the CHC setting some of the techniques that were developed for removing unnecessary variables from logic programs, and we show that, in some cases, the application of these techniques increases the effectiveness of Horn clause solvers when proving program correctness.

  8. Creep behavior of Zircaloy cladding under variable conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Various creep tests of Zircaloy cladding tubes under variable conditions were conducted to investigate which hardening rule can be applicable for the creep behavior associated with condition changes. The results show that the strain-hardening rule is applicable in general when either the stress or temperature conditions change, provided that a certain amount of creep strain recovery is observed in case of stress drop. In stress reversal conditions, however, softening of the material was observed. Strain rate after stress reversal is much higher than that predicted by the strain-hardening rule. In this case, the modified strain-hardening model, considering a recoverable creep-hardening range together with the strain recovery, predicts the creep behavior well. The applicability of the model is ascertained through a verification test that includes stress reversal, strain recovery, stress changes, and temperature changes

  9. Statistical conditional sampling for variable-resolution video compression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wong

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate a variable-resolution approach to video compression based on Conditional Random Field and statistical conditional sampling in order to further improve compression rate while maintaining high-quality video. In the proposed approach, representative key-frames within a video shot are identified and stored at full resolution. The remaining frames within the video shot are stored and compressed at a reduced resolution. At the decompression stage, a region-based dictionary is constructed from the key-frames and used to restore the reduced resolution frames to the original resolution via statistical conditional sampling. The sampling approach is based on the conditional probability of the CRF modeling by use of the constructed dictionary. Experimental results show that the proposed variable-resolution approach via statistical conditional sampling has potential for improving compression rates when compared to compressing the video at full resolution, while achieving higher video quality when compared to compressing the video at reduced resolution.

  10. Information structure influences depth of syntactic processing: event-related potential evidence for the Chomsky illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Yang, Yufang; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Information structure facilitates communication between interlocutors by highlighting relevant information. It has previously been shown that information structure modulates the depth of semantic processing. Here we used event-related potentials to investigate whether information structure can modulate the depth of syntactic processing. In question-answer pairs, subtle (number agreement) or salient (phrase structure) syntactic violations were placed either in focus or out of focus through information structure marking. P600 effects to these violations reflect the depth of syntactic processing. For subtle violations, a P600 effect was observed in the focus condition, but not in the non-focus condition. For salient violations, comparable P600 effects were found in both conditions. These results indicate that information structure can modulate the depth of syntactic processing, but that this effect depends on the salience of the information. When subtle violations are not in focus, they are processed less elaborately. We label this phenomenon the Chomsky illusion.

  11. THE SYNTACTICAL ABILITY OF A YOUNG GIRL WITH WILLIAMS SYNDROME

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    Diana ARAPOVIKJ

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out on a young girl with Williams syndrome, whose syntactical ability was tested longitudinally over a period of 22 months, from age 9 years and 3 months to 11 years and 1 month. The assumption was that the girl with Wil­liams syndrome would have poorer syntactical ability than children with regular development, but similar to children with specific language impair­ment (SLI and that in all tasks she would achieve better results in the final testing. Syntax was ana­lyzed on the basis of the fundamental variable of repeating sentences, which consisted of five sub-variables: literal repetition of sentences, sentences repeated with omissions, ungrammatical repetition of sentences, sentences with altered content, sen­tences not repeated. A statistical difference was found between the syntactical ability of the girl with Williams’ syndrome and children with normal development in all tested sub-variables, and her results were the same as in children with specific language impairment. Moreover, in the final test­ing the girl achieved better results than in the ini­tial test.

  12. A Semantic Constraint on Syntactic Parsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Coker, Pamela L.

    This research examines how semantic information influences syntactic parsing decisions during sentence processing. In the first experiment, subjects were presented lexical strings having syntactically identical surface structures but with two possible underlying structures: "The children taught by the Berlitz method," and "The…

  13. Syntactic Atlas of the Dutch Dialects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbiers, Sjef; Bennis, Hans; Vogelaer, De Gunther; Devos, Magda; Ham, van der Margreet

    2005-01-01

    Available in a Dutch and English Edition, the Syntactic Atlas of the Dutch Dialects (SAND) provides a detailed overview of the surprisingly rich syntactic variation found in 267 dialects of Dutch at the beginning of the 21th century. 200 full color maps show the geographic distribution of more than

  14. Automatically Extracting Typical Syntactic Differences from Corpora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Wybo; Nerbonne, John; Lauttamus, Timo

    We develop an aggregate measure of syntactic difference for automatically finding common syntactic differences between collections of text. With the use of this measure, it is possible to mine for differences between, for example, the English of learners and natives, or between related dialects. If

  15. Syntactic Aspects in Text Messages of University of Zimbabwe Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslei Kahari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is a syntactic analysis of text messages in English language used by University of Zimbabwe students. The study specifically focuses on sentences where there are omissions of pronouns, auxiliary verbs and where contractions occur. The study also analyzes the impact of sociolinguistic variables on the sentence structure of English language in text messages. The fifty respondents’ forwarded two messages each from their sent items on their cell phones to the researcher and to understand the factors triggering the syntactic structures the researcher carried out unstructured interviews. The data collected showed that cell phone texting has indeed been affected by the socio-economic factors and these factors trigger omissions of important elements of English language sentence structure such as ,pronouns, auxiliary verbs and contraction of phrases.

  16. Syntactic Enhancement and Second Language Literacy: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngmin; Warschauer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This experimental study examined how the reading and writing development of sixth-grade L2 students was affected by syntactic enhancement. Visual-syntactic text formatting (VSTF) technology, which visualizes syntactic structures, was used to convert a textbook to the one with syntactic enhancement. The sample (n = 282), which was drawn from a…

  17. Syntactic priming in American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew L; Ferreira, Victor S; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2015-01-01

    Psycholinguistic studies of sign language processing provide valuable opportunities to assess whether language phenomena, which are primarily studied in spoken language, are fundamentally shaped by peripheral biology. For example, we know that when given a choice between two syntactically permissible ways to express the same proposition, speakers tend to choose structures that were recently used, a phenomenon known as syntactic priming. Here, we report two experiments testing syntactic priming of a noun phrase construction in American Sign Language (ASL). Experiment 1 shows that second language (L2) signers with normal hearing exhibit syntactic priming in ASL and that priming is stronger when the head noun is repeated between prime and target (the lexical boost effect). Experiment 2 shows that syntactic priming is equally strong among deaf native L1 signers, deaf late L1 learners, and hearing L2 signers. Experiment 2 also tested for, but did not find evidence of, phonological or semantic boosts to syntactic priming in ASL. These results show that despite the profound differences between spoken and signed languages in terms of how they are produced and perceived, the psychological representation of sentence structure (as assessed by syntactic priming) operates similarly in sign and speech.

  18. Syntactic priming in American Sign Language.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Hall

    Full Text Available Psycholinguistic studies of sign language processing provide valuable opportunities to assess whether language phenomena, which are primarily studied in spoken language, are fundamentally shaped by peripheral biology. For example, we know that when given a choice between two syntactically permissible ways to express the same proposition, speakers tend to choose structures that were recently used, a phenomenon known as syntactic priming. Here, we report two experiments testing syntactic priming of a noun phrase construction in American Sign Language (ASL. Experiment 1 shows that second language (L2 signers with normal hearing exhibit syntactic priming in ASL and that priming is stronger when the head noun is repeated between prime and target (the lexical boost effect. Experiment 2 shows that syntactic priming is equally strong among deaf native L1 signers, deaf late L1 learners, and hearing L2 signers. Experiment 2 also tested for, but did not find evidence of, phonological or semantic boosts to syntactic priming in ASL. These results show that despite the profound differences between spoken and signed languages in terms of how they are produced and perceived, the psychological representation of sentence structure (as assessed by syntactic priming operates similarly in sign and speech.

  19. Certain Verbs Are Syntactically Explicit Quantifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szabolcsi

    2010-12-01

    : New York.Groenendijk, J. & Stokhof, M. 1984. The Semantics of Questions and the Pragmatics of Answers. Ph.D. thesis, University of Amsterdam.Heim, I. 1992. ‘Presupposition projection and the semantics of attitude reports’. Journal of Semantics 9: 183–221.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jos/9.3.183Heim, I. 2001. ‘Features of Pronouns in Semantics and Morphology’. Ms., Universität Tübingen.Heim, I. & Kratzer, A. 1998. Semantics in Generative Grammar. Oxford: Blackwell.Herman, H. 1993. Studied Flexibility: Categories and Types in Syntax and Semantics. Ph.D. thesis, University of Amsterdam.Hintikka, J. 1962. Knowledge and Belief. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP.Homer, V. 2009. ‘Epistemic modals: high ma non troppo’. In ‘Proceedings of NELS 40’, .Iatridou, S. 1994. ‘On the contribution of conditional then’. Natural Language Semantics 2: 171–199.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01256742Jacobson, P. 1999. ‘Towards a variable-free semantics’. Linguistics and Philosophy 22: 117-184.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005464228727Karttunen, L. 1977. ‘The syntax and semantics of questions’. Linguistics and Philosophy 1: 1–44.Kusumoto, K. 2005. ‘On the quantification over times in natural language’. Natural Language Semantics 13: 317–357.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11050-005-4537-6Lasnik, H. 1999. ‘Chains of arguments’. In Samuel Epstein & Norbert Hornstein (eds. ‘Working Minimalism’, 189–217. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Lassiter, D. 2011. Measurement and Modality: The Scalar Basis of Modal Semantics. Ph.D. thesis, New York University.Lechner, W. 2006. ‘An interpretive effect of head movement’. In Mara Frascarelli (ed. ‘Phases of Interpretation’, 45–71. Berlin: Mounton de Gruyter.Lechner, W. 2007. ‘Interpretive Effects Of Head Movement’. Ms.,http://ling.auf.net/lingBuzz/000178 (accessed January 15, 2011.Mascarenhas, S. 2010. ‘Causing-to-have vs. Having-for: The Syntax of Double-object Get’. Ms., New York University.May, R. 1985. Logical

  20. Variable Width Riparian Model Enhances Landscape and Watershed Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, S. A.; Spencer, L.

    2017-12-01

    Riparian areas are ecotones that represent about 1% of USFS administered landscape and contribute to numerous valuable ecosystem functions such as wildlife habitat, stream water quality and flows, bank stability and protection against erosion, and values related to diversity, aesthetics and recreation. Riparian zones capture the transitional area between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with specific vegetation and soil characteristics which provide critical values/functions and are very responsive to changes in land management activities and uses. Two staff areas at the US Forest Service have coordinated on a two phase project to support the National Forests in their planning revision efforts and to address rangeland riparian business needs at the Forest Plan and Allotment Management Plan levels. The first part of the project will include a national fine scale (USGS HUC-12 digits watersheds) inventory of riparian areas on National Forest Service lands in western United States with riparian land cover, utilizing GIS capabilities and open source geospatial data. The second part of the project will include the application of riparian land cover change and assessment based on selected indicators to assess and monitor riparian areas on annual/5-year cycle basis.This approach recognizes the dynamic and transitional nature of riparian areas by accounting for hydrologic, geomorphic and vegetation data as inputs into the delineation process. The results suggest that incorporating functional variable width riparian mapping within watershed management planning can improve riparian protection and restoration. The application of Riparian Buffer Delineation Model (RBDM) approach can provide the agency Watershed Condition Framework (WCF) with observed riparian area condition on an annual basis and on multiple scales. The use of this model to map moderate to low gradient systems of sufficient width in conjunction with an understanding of the influence of distinctive landscape

  1. Guaranteeing robustness of structural condition monitoring to environmental variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buren, Kendra; Reilly, Jack; Neal, Kyle; Edwards, Harry; Hemez, François

    2017-01-01

    Advances in sensor deployment and computational modeling have allowed significant strides to be recently made in the field of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). One widely used SHM strategy is to perform a vibration analysis where a model of the structure's pristine (undamaged) condition is compared with vibration response data collected from the physical structure. Discrepancies between model predictions and monitoring data can be interpreted as structural damage. Unfortunately, multiple sources of uncertainty must also be considered in the analysis, including environmental variability, unknown model functional forms, and unknown values of model parameters. Not accounting for these sources of uncertainty can lead to false-positives or false-negatives in the structural condition assessment. To manage the uncertainty, we propose a robust SHM methodology that combines three technologies. A time series algorithm is trained using "baseline" data to predict the vibration response, compare predictions to actual measurements collected on a potentially damaged structure, and calculate a user-defined damage indicator. The second technology handles the uncertainty present in the problem. An analysis of robustness is performed to propagate this uncertainty through the time series algorithm and obtain the corresponding bounds of variation of the damage indicator. The uncertainty description and robustness analysis are both inspired by the theory of info-gap decision-making. Lastly, an appropriate "size" of the uncertainty space is determined through physical experiments performed in laboratory conditions. Our hypothesis is that examining how the uncertainty space changes throughout time might lead to superior diagnostics of structural damage as compared to only monitoring the damage indicator. This methodology is applied to a portal frame structure to assess if the strategy holds promise for robust SHM. (Publication approved for unlimited, public release on October-28

  2. Three Syntactic Theories for Combinatory Graph Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Zerny, Ian

    2013-01-01

    , as a store-based reduction semantics of combinatory term graphs. We then refocus this store-based reduction semantics into a store-based abstract machine. The architecture of this store-based abstract machine coincides with that of Turner's original reduction machine. The three syntactic theories presented......We present a purely syntactic theory of graph reduction for the canonical combinators S, K, and I, where graph vertices are represented with evaluation contexts and let expressions. We express this rst syntactic theory as a storeless reduction semantics of combinatory terms. We then factor out...... the introduction of let expressions to denote as many graph vertices as possible upfront instead of on demand . The factored terms can be interpreted as term graphs in the sense of Barendregt et al. We express this second syntactic theory, which we prove equivalent to the rst, as a storeless reduction semantics...

  3. Highly variable Pliocene sea surface conditions in the Norwegian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Bachem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Pliocene was a time of global warmth with small sporadic glaciations, which transitioned towards the larger-scale Pleistocene glacial–interglacial variability. Here, we present high-resolution records of sea surface temperature (SST and ice-rafted debris (IRD in the Norwegian Sea from 5.32 to 3.14 Ma, providing evidence that the Pliocene surface conditions of the Norwegian Sea underwent a series of transitions in response to orbital forcing and gateway changes. Average SSTs are 2 °C above the regional Holocene mean, with notable variability on millennial to orbital timescales. Both gradual changes and threshold effects are proposed for the progression of regional climate towards the Late Pliocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Cooling from 4.5 to 4.3 Ma may be linked to the onset of poleward flow through the Bering Strait. This cooling was further intensified by a period of cool summers due to weak obliquity forcing. A 7 °C warming of the Norwegian Sea at 4.0 Ma suggests a major increase in northward heat transport from the North Atlantic, leading to an enhanced zonal SST gradient in the Nordic Seas, which may be linked to the expansion of sea ice in the Arctic and Nordic Seas. A warm Norwegian Sea and enhanced zonal temperature gradient between 4.0 and 3.6 Ma may have been a priming factor for increased glaciation around the Nordic Seas due to enhanced evaporation and precipitation at high northern latitudes.

  4. Applications of Polymer Matrix Syntactic Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nikhil; Zeltmann, Steven E.; Shunmugasamy, Vasanth Chakravarthy; Pinisetty, Dinesh

    2013-11-01

    A collection of applications of polymer matrix syntactic foams is presented in this article. Syntactic foams are lightweight porous composites that found their early applications in marine structures due to their naturally buoyant behavior and low moisture absorption. Their light weight has been beneficial in weight sensitive aerospace structures. Syntactic foams have pushed the performance boundaries for composites and have enabled the development of vehicles for traveling to the deepest parts of the ocean and to other planets. The high volume fraction of porosity in syntactic foams also enabled their applications in thermal insulation of pipelines in oil and gas industry. The possibility of tailoring the mechanical and thermal properties of syntactic foams through a combination of material selection, hollow particle volume fraction, and hollow particle wall thickness has helped in rapidly growing these applications. The low coefficient of thermal expansion and dimensional stability at high temperatures are now leading their use in electronic packaging, composite tooling, and thermoforming plug assists. Methods have been developed to tailor the mechanical and thermal properties of syntactic foams independent of each other over a wide range, which is a significant advantage over other traditional particulate and fibrous composites.

  5. Re-examination of Chinese semantic processing and syntactic processing: evidence from conventional ERPs and reconstructed ERPs by residue iteration decomposition (RIDE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    Full Text Available A number of studies have explored the time course of Chinese semantic and syntactic processing. However, whether syntactic processing occurs earlier than semantics during Chinese sentence reading is still under debate. To further explore this issue, an event-related potentials (ERPs experiment was conducted on 21 native Chinese speakers who read individually-presented Chinese simple sentences (NP1+VP+NP2 word-by-word for comprehension and made semantic plausibility judgments. The transitivity of the verbs was manipulated to form three types of stimuli: congruent sentences (CON, sentences with a semantically violated NP2 following a transitive verb (semantic violation, SEM, and sentences with a semantically violated NP2 following an intransitive verb (combined semantic and syntactic violation, SEM+SYN. The ERPs evoked from the target NP2 were analyzed by using the Residue Iteration Decomposition (RIDE method to reconstruct the ERP waveform blurred by trial-to-trial variability, as well as by using the conventional ERP method based on stimulus-locked averaging. The conventional ERP analysis showed that, compared with the critical words in CON, those in SEM and SEM+SYN elicited an N400-P600 biphasic pattern. The N400 effects in both violation conditions were of similar size and distribution, but the P600 in SEM+SYN was bigger than that in SEM. Compared with the conventional ERP analysis, RIDE analysis revealed a larger N400 effect and an earlier P600 effect (in the time window of 500-800 ms instead of 570-810ms. Overall, the combination of conventional ERP analysis and the RIDE method for compensating for trial-to-trial variability confirmed the non-significant difference between SEM and SEM+SYN in the earlier N400 time window. Converging with previous findings on other Chinese structures, the current study provides further precise evidence that syntactic processing in Chinese does not occur earlier than semantic processing.

  6. Memory mechanisms supporting syntactic comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria

    2013-04-01

    Efforts to characterize the memory system that supports sentence comprehension have historically drawn extensively on short-term memory as a source of mechanisms that might apply to sentences. The focus of these efforts has changed significantly in the past decade. As a result of changes in models of short-term working memory (ST-WM) and developments in models of sentence comprehension, the effort to relate entire components of an ST-WM system, such as those in the model developed by Baddeley (Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4: 829-839, 2003) to sentence comprehension has largely been replaced by an effort to relate more specific mechanisms found in modern models of ST-WM to memory processes that support one aspect of sentence comprehension--the assignment of syntactic structure (parsing) and its use in determining sentence meaning (interpretation) during sentence comprehension. In this article, we present the historical background to recent studies of the memory mechanisms that support parsing and interpretation and review recent research into this relation. We argue that the results of this research do not converge on a set of mechanisms derived from ST-WM that apply to parsing and interpretation. We argue that the memory mechanisms supporting parsing and interpretation have features that characterize another memory system that has been postulated to account for skilled performance-long-term working memory. We propose a model of the relation of different aspects of parsing and interpretation to ST-WM and long-term working memory.

  7. Subliminal Emotional Words Impact Syntactic Processing: Evidence from Performance and Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jiménez-Ortega

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrate that syntactic processing can be affected by emotional information and that subliminal emotional information can also affect cognitive processes. In this study, we explore whether unconscious emotional information may also impact syntactic processing. In an Event-Related brain Potential (ERP study, positive, neutral and negative subliminal adjectives were inserted within neutral sentences, just before the presentation of the supraliminal adjective. They could either be correct (50% or contain a morphosyntactic violation (number or gender disagreements. Larger error rates were observed for incorrect sentences than for correct ones, in contrast to most studies using supraliminal information. Strikingly, emotional adjectives affected the conscious syntactic processing of sentences containing morphosyntactic anomalies. The neutral condition elicited left anterior negativity (LAN followed by a P600 component. However, a lack of anterior negativity and an early P600 onset for the negative condition were found, probably as a result of the negative subliminal correct adjective capturing early syntactic resources. Positive masked adjectives in turn prompted an N400 component in response to morphosyntactic violations, probably reflecting the induction of a heuristic processing mode involving access to lexico-semantic information to solve agreement anomalies. Our results add to recent evidence on the impact of emotional information on syntactic processing, while showing that this can occur even when the reader is unaware of the emotional stimuli.

  8. A little more conversation - The influence of communicative context on syntactic priming in brain and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte eSchoot

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on an fMRI syntactic priming experiment in which we measure brain activity for participants who communicate with another participant outside the scanner. We investigated whether syntactic processing during overt language production and comprehension is influenced by having a (shared goal to communicate. Although theory suggests this is true, the nature of this influence remains unclear. Two hypotheses are tested: i. syntactic priming effects (fMRI and RT are stronger for participants in the communicative context than for participants doing the same experiment in a non-communicative context, and ii. syntactic priming magnitude (RT is correlated with the syntactic priming magnitude of the speaker’s communicative partner. Results showed that across conditions, participants were faster to produce sentences with repeated syntax, relative to novel syntax. This behavioral result converged with the fMRI data: we found repetition suppression effects in the left insula extending into left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47/45, left middle temporal gyrus (BA 21, left inferior parietal cortex (BA 40, left precentral gyrus (BA 6, bilateral precuneus (BA 7, bilateral supplementary motor cortex (BA 32/8 and right insula (BA 47. We did not find support for the first hypothesis: having a communicative intention does not increase the magnitude of syntactic priming effects (either in the brain or in behavior per se. We did find support for the second hypothesis: if speaker A is strongly/weakly primed by speaker B, then speaker B is primed by speaker A to a similar extent. We conclude that syntactic processing is influenced by being in a communicative context, and that the nature of this influence is bi-directional: speakers are influenced by each other.

  9. A syntactic component for Vietnamese language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Le-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a syntactic component for the Vietnamese language. We first discuss the construction of a lexicalized tree-adjoining grammar using an automatic extraction approach. We then present the construction and evaluation of a deep syntactic parser based on the extracted grammar. This is a complete system integrating necessary tools to process Vietnamese text, which permits to take as input raw texts and produce syntactic structures. A dependency annotation scheme for Vietnamese and an algorithm for extracting dependency structures from derivation trees are also proposed. At present, this is the first Vietnamese parsing system capable of producing both constituency and dependency analyses with encouraging performances: 69.33% and 73.21% for constituency and dependency analysis accuracy, respectively. The parser also compares favourably to a statistical parser which is trained and tested on the same data sets.

  10. Syntactic Variance and Priming Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangalore, Srinivas; Behrens, Bergljot; Carl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the relationship between syntactic variation and priming in translation. It is based on the claim that languages share a common cognitive network of neural activity. When the source and target languages are solicited in a translation context, this shared network can...... lead to facilitation effects, so-called priming effects. We suggest that priming is a default setting in translation, a special case of language use where source and target languages are constantly co-activated. Such priming effects are not restricted to lexical elements, but do also occur...... on the syntactic level. We tested these hypotheses with translation data from the TPR database, more specifically for three language pairs (English-German, English-Danish, and English-Spanish). Our results show that response times are shorter when syntactic structures are shared. The model explains this through...

  11. Banana Algebra: Compositional syntactic language extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Brabrand, Claus; Christiansen, David Raymond

    2013-01-01

    We propose an algebra of languages and transformations as a means of compositional syntactic language extension. The algebra provides a layer of high-level abstractions built on top of languages (captured by context-free grammars) and transformations (captured by constructive catamorphisms...... algebra as presented in the paper is implemented as the Banana Algebra Tool which may be used to syntactically extend languages in an incremental and modular fashion via algebraic composition of previously defined languages and transformations. We demonstrate and evaluate the tool via several kinds...

  12. The spatial variability in studies of soil physical condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madero M, Edgar; Herrera G Oscar A; Castano C, Alirio

    2000-01-01

    The testing procedure was carried out in 1996-2 at the experimental station of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia in Palmira using vertical tillage (by chiseling) in coherent vertisol (typic Haplustert isohiperthermic fine loamy 1%). eight physical properties in depth of 15-25 cm were studied. the sampling methodology for soil physical properties and corn yield accounted the regionalized variable, and the analysis of results was carried out accounting a map of each variable. the results proved that geostatystics is versatile and give accuracy results. it showed in most of the area that vertical tillage was more favorable than conventional tillage to improve coherence (more soil penetrability without degradation) in seedbed zone. it was not found influence over corn yield. soil organic matter; clay and silt had influence over the soil response to mechanical strengths

  13. Site-specific variability in BTEX biodegradation under denitrifying conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C.M.; Borden, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory microcosm experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, and o-xylene (BTEX) biodegradation under denitrifying conditions. Nine different sources of inocula, including contaminated and uncontaminated soil cores from four different sites and activated sludge, were used to establish microcosms. BTEX was not degraded under denitrifying conditions in microcosms inoculated with aquifer material from Rocky Point and Traverse City. However, rapid depletion of glucose under denitrifying conditions was observed in microcosms containing Rocky Point aquifer material. TEX degradation was observed in microcosms containing Rocky Point aquifer material. TEX degradation was observed in microcosms containing aquifer material from Fort Bragg and Sleeping Bear Dunes and sewage sludge. Benzene was recalcitrant in all microcosms tested. The degradation of o-xylene ceased after toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene were depleted in the Fort Bragg and sludge microcosms, but o-xylene continued to degrade in microcosms with contaminated Sleeping Bear Dunes soil. The most probable number (MPN) of denitrifiers in these nine different inocula were measured using a microtiter technique. There was no correlation between the MPN of denitrifiers and the TEX degradation rate under denitrifying conditions. Experimental results indicate that the degradation sequence and TEX degradation rate under denitrifying conditions may differ among sites. Results also indicate that denitrification alone may not be a suitable bioremediation technology for gasoline-contaminated aquifers because of the inability of denitrifiers to degrade benzene

  14. A syntactic commutativity format for SOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mousavi, M.R.; Reniers, M.A.; Groote, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Considering operators defined using Structural Operational Semantics (SOS), commutativity axioms are intuitive properties that hold for many of them. Proving this intuition is usually a laborious task, requiring several pages of boring and standard proof. To save this effort, we propose a syntactic

  15. Comparing Syntactic and Semantics Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goltz, Ursula; Gorrieri, Roberto; Rensink, Arend

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled configuration structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution, which can be used as another notion of action refinement in a process algebraic setting. The comparison is done by studying a process algebra equipped with

  16. On Syntactic and Semantic Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goltz, Ursula; Gorrieri, Roberto; Rensink, Arend

    1992-01-01

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled event structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution,which can be used as another notion of action refiment in a process algebraic setting. This is done by studying a process algebra equipped with the ACP sequential

  17. On Syntactic and Semantic Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagiya, M.; Goltz, U.; Mitchell, J.C.; Gorrieri, R.; Rensink, Arend

    1994-01-01

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled event structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution, which can be used as another notion of action refinement in a process algebraic setting. This is done by studying a process algebra equipped with the ACP sequential

  18. Measuring Syntactic Complexity in Spontaneous Spoken Swedish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Mikael; Frid, Johan; Horne, Merle

    2007-01-01

    Hesitation disfluencies after phonetically prominent stranded function words are thought to reflect the cognitive coding of complex structures. Speech fragments following the Swedish function word "att" "that" were analyzed syntactically, and divided into two groups: one with "att" in disfluent contexts, and the other with "att" in fluent…

  19. Gesture facilitates the syntactic analysis of speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning eHolle

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that the brain routinely binds together information from gesture and speech. However, most of this research focused on the integration of representational gestures with the semantic content of speech. Much less is known about how other aspects of gesture, such as emphasis, influence the interpretation of the syntactic relations in a spoken message. Here, we investigated whether beat gestures alter which syntactic structure is assigned to ambiguous spoken German sentences. The P600 component of the Event Related Brain Potential indicated that the more complex syntactic structure is easier to process when the speaker emphasizes the subject of a sentence with a beat. Thus, a simple flick of the hand can change our interpretation of who has been doing what to whom in a spoken sentence. We conclude that gestures and speech are an integrated system. Unlike previous studies, which have shown that the brain effortlessly integrates semantic information from gesture and speech, our study is the first to demonstrate that this integration also occurs for syntactic information. Moreover, the effect appears to be gesture-specific and was not found for other stimuli that draw attention to certain parts of speech, including prosodic emphasis, or a moving visual stimulus with the same trajectory as the gesture. This suggests that only visual emphasis produced with a communicative intention in mind (that is, beat gestures influences language comprehension, but not a simple visual movement lacking such an intention.

  20. A method for calorimetric analysis in variable conditions heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthier, G.

    1965-01-01

    By the analysis of the thermal transition conditions given by the quenching of a sample in a furnace maintained at a high temperature, it is possible to study the thermal diffusivity of some materials and those of solid state structure transformation on a qualitative as well as a quantitative standpoint. For instance the transformation energy of α-quartz into β-quartz and the Wigner energy stored within neutron-irradiated beryllium oxide have been measured. (author) [fr

  1. Structural syntactic prediction measured with ELAN: evidence from ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonteneau, Elisabeth

    2013-02-08

    The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate how and when argument structure information is used during the processing of sentences with a filler-gap dependency. We hypothesize that one specific property - animacy (living vs. non-living) - is used by the parser during the building of the syntactic structure. Participants heard sentences that were rated off-line as having an expected noun (Who did the Lion King chase the caravan with?) or an unexpected noun (Who did Lion King chase the animal with?). This prediction is based on the animacy properties relation between the wh-word and the noun in the object position. ERPs from the noun in the unexpected condition (animal) elicited a typical Early Left Anterior Negativity (ELAN)/P600 complex compared to the noun in the expected condition (caravan). Firstly, these results demonstrate that the ELAN reflects not only grammatical category violation but also animacy property expectations in filler-gap dependency. Secondly, our data suggests that the language comprehension system is able to make detailed predictions about aspects of the upcoming words to build up the syntactic structure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Variability of Bed Load Components in Different Hydrological Conditions

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    Hossein Kheirfam

    2017-04-01

    New hydrological insights: We found that the amount of the minimum, the mean and the maximum bed load were 3 × 10−8, 6.15 × 10−4± 7.17 × 10−4 and 4.38 × 10−3 kg s−1, respectively. The minimum, the mean, and the maximum discharge were also 60, 334 ± 215.56 and 780 l s−1, respectively. In low discharge conditions during summer, the fine grain sediments had the largest amount of bed load sediment. Coarse and medium-grained sediment transportation was higher in autumn and the early winter consistent with the occurrence of extreme rainfall and flood flows.

  3. Upgrading of coker distillate under variable hydrotreating operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Elsayed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on hydrotreating coker distillates, produced from a delayed coker unit were done using a commercially available CoMo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst, on which 0.2 wt% P2O5 was added in order to improve its characteristics. The experimental studies were conducted in a fixed-bed continuous-reactor (cata-test unit at temperatures (300–400 °C and total hydrogen pressure (40–65 bar. These conditions have affected the feedstock characteristics and great reduction of sulfur, aromatics and boiling ranges. Other improvements were obtained in diesel index (DI due to hydrogenation reaction of aromatics and desulfurization of its sulfur contents.

  4. Relationships between tuna catch and variable frequency oceanographic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. I. Ormaza-González

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Skipjack (Katsuwunus pelamis, yellow fin (Thunnus albacares and albacore (Thunnus alulunga tunas landed in the Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO countries and Ecuador were correlated to the Indexes Oceanic El Niño (ONI and Multivariate Enso Index (MEI. The temporal series 1983–2012, and 1977–1999 (warm Pacific Decadal Oscillation, PDO, and 2000–2012 (cold PDO were analyzed. Linear correlation showed that at least 11 % of the total landings were associated with the MEI, with a slightly negative gradient from cold to warm conditions. When non-linear regression (n  =  6, the R2 was higher up to 0.304 (MEI, r =  0.551. The correlation shows high spread from −0.5 to +0.5 for both MEI/ONI; the highest landings occurred at 0.34–0.45; both indexes suggested that at extreme values < −1.0 and > 1.1 total landings tend to decrease. Landings were associated up to 21.9 % (MEI in 2000–2012, 1983–1999 rendered lower R2 (< 0.09; i.e., during cold PDO periods there was a higher association between landings and oceanographic conditions. For the non-linear regression (n  =  6 a R2 of 0.374 (MEI and 0.408 (ONI were registered, for the 2000–2012, a higher R2 was observed in 1983–1999, 0.443 and 0.711 for MEI and ONI respectively, suggesting that is better to analyze split series (1983–1999, 2000–2012 than as a whole (1983–2012, due to noise produced by the transition from hot to cold PDOs. The highest landings were in the range −0.2 to 0.5 for MEI/ONI. The linear regression of skipjack landings in Ecuador gave an R2 of 0.140 (MEI and 0.066 (ONI and the non-linear were 0.440 and 0.183 respectively. Total landings in the EPO associated to oceanographic events of high and low frequencies could be used somehow as predictors of the high El Niño o La Niña. There is a clear evidence that tuna fish biomass are at higher levels when the PDO is on cold phase (2000–2030 and vice versa on warm phase (1980–1999. The

  5. Syntactic Complexity and Frequency in the Neurocognitive Language System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Hsuan; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Bozic, Mirjana

    2017-09-01

    Prominent neurobiological models of language follow the widely accepted assumption that language comprehension requires two principal mechanisms: a lexicon storing the sound-to-meaning mapping of words, primarily involving bilateral temporal regions, and a combinatorial processor for syntactically structured items, such as phrases and sentences, localized in a left-lateralized network linking left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior temporal areas. However, recent research showing that the processing of simple phrasal sequences may engage only bilateral temporal areas, together with the claims of distributional approaches to grammar, raise the question of whether frequent phrases are stored alongside individual words in temporal areas. In this fMRI study, we varied the frequency of words and of short and long phrases in English. If frequent phrases are indeed stored, then only less frequent items should generate selective left frontotemporal activation, because memory traces for such items would be weaker or not available in temporal cortex. Complementary univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that, overall, simple words (verbs) and long phrases engaged LIFG and temporal areas, whereas short phrases engaged bilateral temporal areas, suggesting that syntactic complexity is a key factor for LIFG activation. Although we found a robust frequency effect for words in temporal areas, no frequency effects were found for the two phrasal conditions. These findings support the conclusion that long and short phrases are analyzed, respectively, in the left frontal network and in a bilateral temporal network but are not retrieved from memory in the same way as simple words during spoken language comprehension.

  6. Syntactic Structures as Descriptions of Sensorimotor Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Knott

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I propose a hypothesis linking elements of a model of theoretical syntax with neural mechanisms in the domain of sensorimotor processing. The syntactic framework I adopt to express this linking hypothesis is Chomsky’s Minimalism: I propose that the language-independent ’Logical Form’ (LF of a sentence reporting a concrete episode in the world can be interpreted as a detailed description of the sensorimotor processes involved in apprehending that episode. The hypothesis is motivated by a detailed study of one particular episode, in which an agent grasps a target object. There are striking similarities between the LF structure of transitive sentences describing this episode and the structure of the sensorimotor processes through which it is apprehended by an observer. The neural interpretation of Minimalist LF structure allows it to incorporate insights from empiricist accounts of syntax, relating to sentence processing and to the learning of syntactic constructions.

  7. Processing of hierarchical syntactic structure in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Rohrmeier, Martin; Torrecuso, Renzo; Jentschke, Sebastian

    2013-09-17

    Hierarchical structure with nested nonlocal dependencies is a key feature of human language and can be identified theoretically in most pieces of tonal music. However, previous studies have argued against the perception of such structures in music. Here, we show processing of nonlocal dependencies in music. We presented chorales by J. S. Bach and modified versions in which the hierarchical structure was rendered irregular whereas the local structure was kept intact. Brain electric responses differed between regular and irregular hierarchical structures, in both musicians and nonmusicians. This finding indicates that, when listening to music, humans apply cognitive processes that are capable of dealing with long-distance dependencies resulting from hierarchically organized syntactic structures. Our results reveal that a brain mechanism fundamental for syntactic processing is engaged during the perception of music, indicating that processing of hierarchical structure with nested nonlocal dependencies is not just a key component of human language, but a multidomain capacity of human cognition.

  8. Syntactic sequencing in Hebbian cell assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennekers, Thomas; Palm, Günther

    2009-12-01

    Hebbian cell assemblies provide a theoretical framework for the modeling of cognitive processes that grounds them in the underlying physiological neural circuits. Recently we have presented an extension of cell assemblies by operational components which allows to model aspects of language, rules, and complex behaviour. In the present work we study the generation of syntactic sequences using operational cell assemblies timed by unspecific trigger signals. Syntactic patterns are implemented in terms of hetero-associative transition graphs in attractor networks which cause a directed flow of activity through the neural state space. We provide regimes for parameters that enable an unspecific excitatory control signal to switch reliably between attractors in accordance with the implemented syntactic rules. If several target attractors are possible in a given state, noise in the system in conjunction with a winner-takes-all mechanism can randomly choose a target. Disambiguation can also be guided by context signals or specific additional external signals. Given a permanently elevated level of external excitation the model can enter an autonomous mode, where it generates temporal grammatical patterns continuously.

  9. Data characterizing tensile behavior of cenosphere/HDPE syntactic foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B R Bharath; Doddamani, Mrityunjay; Zeltmann, Steven E; Gupta, Nikhil; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2016-03-01

    The data set presented is related to the tensile behavior of cenosphere reinforced high density polyethylene syntactic foam composites "Processing of cenosphere/HDPE syntactic foams using an industrial scale polymer injection molding machine" (Bharath et al., 2016) [1]. The focus of the work is on determining the feasibility of using an industrial scale polymer injection molding (PIM) machine for fabricating syntactic foams. The fabricated syntactic foams are investigated for microstructure and tensile properties. The data presented in this article is related to optimization of the PIM process for syntactic foam manufacture, equations and procedures to develop theoretical estimates for properties of cenospheres, and microstructure of syntactic foams before and after failure. Included dataset contains values obtained from the theoretical model.

  10. ERP Evidence for the Activation of Syntactic Structure During Comprehension of Lexical Idiom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meichao; Lu, Aitao; Song, Pingfang

    2017-10-01

    The present study used event-related potentials to investigate whether the syntactic structure was activated in the comprehension of lexical idioms, and if so, whether it varied as a function of familiarity and semantic transparency. Participants were asked to passively read the "1+2" structural Chinese lexical idioms with each being presented following 3-5 contextual "1+2" (congruent-structure condition) or "2+1" structural Chinese phrases (incongruent-structure condition). The N400 ERP responses showed more positivity in congruent-structure condition relative to incongruent-structure condition in idioms with high familiarity and high semantic transparency, but less positivity in congruent-structure condition in idioms with high familiarity but low semantic transparency, idioms with low familiarity but high semantic transparency, and idioms with low familiarity and low semantic transparency. Our results suggest that syntactic structure, as the unnecessarity of lexical idiomatic words, was nevertheless activated, independent of familiarity and semantic transparency.

  11. Novel syntactic foams made of ceramic hollow micro-spheres and starch: theory, structure and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.M.; Kim, H.S. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Faculty of Engineering & Built Environments

    2007-08-15

    Novel syntactic foams for potential building material applications were developed using starch as binder and ceramic hollow micro-spheres available as waste from coal-fired power stations. Foams of four different micro-sphere size groups were manufactured with either pre- or post-mould gelatinization process. They were of ternary system including voids with a foam density range of approximately 0.33-0.44 g/cc. Compressive failure behaviour and mechanical properties of the manufactured foams were evaluated. Not much difference in failure behaviour or in mechanical properties between the two different processes (pre- and post-mould gels) was found for a given binder content. Compressive failure of all syntactic foams was of shear on plane inclined 45 degrees to compressive loading direction. Failure surfaces of most syntactic foams were characterized by debonded micro-spheres. Compressive strength and modulus of syntactic foams were found to be dependant mainly on binder content but mostly independent of micro-sphere size. Some conditions of relativity arising from properties of constituents leading to the rule of mixtures relationships for compressive strength and to understanding of compressive/transitional failure behaviour were developed. The developed relationships based on the rule of mixtures were partially verified. Some formation of starch webs on failure surfaces was discussed.

  12. 13 CFR 120.214 - What conditions apply for variable interest rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... interest rates? 120.214 Section 120.214 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Policies Specific to 7(a) Loans Maturities; Interest Rates; Loan and Guarantee Amounts § 120.214 What conditions apply for variable interest rates? A Lender may use a variable rate of interest...

  13. Variability in Second Language Learning: The Roles of Individual Differences, Learning Conditions, and Linguistic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagarelli, Kaitlyn M.; Ruiz, Simón; Vega, José Luis Moreno; Rebuschat, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Second language learning outcomes are highly variable, due to a variety of factors, including individual differences, exposure conditions, and linguistic complexity. However, exactly how these factors interact to influence language learning is unknown. This article examines the relationship between these three variables in language learners.…

  14. Online optimal control of variable refrigerant flow and variable air volume combined air conditioning system for energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yonghua; Jin, Xinqiao; Du, Zhimin; Fang, Xing

    2015-01-01

    The variable refrigerant flow (VRF) and variable air volume (VAV) combined air conditioning system can solve the problem of the VRF system in outdoor air ventilation while taking advantage of its high part load energy efficiency. Energy performance of the combined air conditioning system can also be optimized by joint control of both the VRF and the VAV parts. A model-based online optimal control strategy for the combined air conditioning system is presented. Simplified adaptive models of major components of the combined air conditioning system are firstly developed for predicting system performances. And a cost function in terms of energy consumption and thermal comfort is constructed. Genetic algorithm is used to search for the optimal control sets. The optimal control strategy is tested and evaluated through two case studies based on the simulation platform. Results show that the optimal strategy can effectively reduce energy consumption of the combined air conditioning system while maintaining acceptable thermal comfort. - Highlights: • A VRF and VAV combined system is proposed. • A model-based online optimal control strategy is proposed for the combined system. • The strategy can reduce energy consumption without sacrificing thermal comfort. • Novel simplified adaptive models are firstly developed for the VRF system

  15. Literature Review: An Overview of Epoxy Resin Syntactic Foams with Glass Microballoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jennie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-12

    same properties [3,4,9,10]. The glass transition temperature has a proportional relationship to the volume fraction of microballoons used, however, there is limited research that supports correlations between other thermal variables and microballoons specifications. In fact, very little experimental data exists to relate thermal conductivity and volume fraction or wall thickness of microballoons [5]. This review proposes that thermal conductivity should be a topic of interest for future researchers because of how frequently syntactic foams are used in insulating applications. This paper will explore three aspects pertaining to epoxy resin syntactic foams with glass microballoons: the immense range of applications that syntactic foams are used for, the materials and fabrication techniques most commonly used, and lastly the results from characterization of syntactic foams with varying microballoon volume fractions and wall thicknesses. In addition to varying microballoon parameters, it is also possible to change the base, accelerator and curing agent used in the epoxy formulation. For simplicity, this paper will focus on a very common combination of materials produced by the Dow Chemical Company®.

  16. A Linguistic Technique for Marking and Analyzing Syntactic Parallelism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackler, Jessie Brome

    Sentences in rhetoric texts were used in this study to determine a way in which thetorical syntactic parallelism can be analyzed. A tagmemic analysis determined tagmas which were parallel or identical or similar to one another. These were distinguished from tagmas which were identical because of the syntactic constraints of the language…

  17. Aspects of syntactic selections as style in Zaynab Alkali's the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores style at the syntactic level in Zaynab Alkali‟s The Descendants. he systemic grammar is applied as the theoretical framework to analyse aspects of syntactic selections in the text. The basic tenet of systemic grammar is the exploration of the functions of language in the realization of the thematic concerns ...

  18. An Evaluation of Syntactic-Semantic Processing in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Juan E.; Garcia, Eduardo; Estevez, Adelina; Diaz, Alicia; Guzman, Remedios; Hernandez-Valle, Isabel; Rosario, Maria; Rodrigo, Mercedes; Hernandez, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to investigate whether children who have reading disabilities in an alphabetically transparent orthography show a syntactic processing deficit. This research focuses on exploring syntactic processing and the use of morphological markers by subjects with reading disabilities. We analyze these groups'…

  19. (Invariability in the Samoan syntax/prosody interface and consequences for syntactic parsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine M. Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While it has long been clear that prosody should be part of the grammar influencing the action of the syntactic parser, how to bring prosody into computational models of syntactic parsing has remained unclear. The challenge is that prosodic information in the speech signal is the result of the interaction of a multitude of conditioning factors. From this output, how can we factor out the contribution of syntax to conditioning prosodic events? And if we are able to do that factorization and define a production model from the syntactic grammar to a prosodified utterance, how can we then define a comprehension model based on that production model? In this case study of the Samoan morphosyntax-prosody interface, we show how to factor out the influence of syntax on prosody in empirical work and confirm there is invariable morphosyntactic conditioning of high edge tones. Then, we show how this invariability can be precisely characterized and used by a parsing model that factors the various influences of morphosyntax on tonal events. We expect that models of these kinds can be extended to more comprehensive perspectives on Samoan and to languages where the syntax/prosody coupling is more complex.

  20. SCEGRAM: An image database for semantic and syntactic inconsistencies in scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhlschläger, Sabine; Võ, Melissa Le-Hoa

    2017-10-01

    Our visual environment is not random, but follows compositional rules according to what objects are usually found where. Despite the growing interest in how such semantic and syntactic rules - a scene grammar - enable effective attentional guidance and object perception, no common image database containing highly-controlled object-scene modifications has been publically available. Such a database is essential in minimizing the risk that low-level features drive high-level effects of interest, which is being discussed as possible source of controversial study results. To generate the first database of this kind - SCEGRAM - we took photographs of 62 real-world indoor scenes in six consistency conditions that contain semantic and syntactic (both mild and extreme) violations as well as their combinations. Importantly, always two scenes were paired, so that an object was semantically consistent in one scene (e.g., ketchup in kitchen) and inconsistent in the other (e.g., ketchup in bathroom). Low-level salience did not differ between object-scene conditions and was generally moderate. Additionally, SCEGRAM contains consistency ratings for every object-scene condition, as well as object-absent scenes and object-only images. Finally, a cross-validation using eye-movements replicated previous results of longer dwell times for both semantic and syntactic inconsistencies compared to consistent controls. In sum, the SCEGRAM image database is the first to contain well-controlled semantic and syntactic object-scene inconsistencies that can be used in a broad range of cognitive paradigms (e.g., verbal and pictorial priming, change detection, object identification, etc.) including paradigms addressing developmental aspects of scene grammar. SCEGRAM can be retrieved for research purposes from http://www.scenegrammarlab.com/research/scegram-database/ .

  1. Spectral Kurtosis Entropy and Weighted SaE-ELM for Bogie Fault Diagnosis under Variable Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Bogies are crucial for the safe operation of rail transit systems and usually work under uncertain and variable operating conditions. However, the diagnosis of bogie faults under variable conditions has barely been discussed until now. Thus, it is valuable to develop effective methods to deal with variable conditions. Besides, considering that the normal data for training are much more than the faulty data in practice, there is another problem in that only a small amount of data is available that includes faults. Concerning these issues, this paper proposes two new algorithms: (1 A novel feature parameter named spectral kurtosis entropy (SKE is proposed based on the protrugram. The SKE not only avoids the manual post-processing of the protrugram but also has strong robustness to the operating conditions and parameter configurations, which have been validated by a simulation experiment in this paper. In this paper, the SKE, in conjunction with variational mode decomposition (VMD, is employed for feature extraction under variable conditions. (2 A new learning algorithm named weighted self-adaptive evolutionary extreme learning machine (WSaE-ELM is proposed. WSaE-ELM gives each sample an extra sample weight to rebalance the training data and optimizes these weights along with the parameters of hidden neurons by means of the self-adaptive differential evolution algorithm. Finally, the hybrid method based on VMD, SKE, and WSaE-ELM is verified by using the vibration signals gathered from real bogies with speed variations. It is demonstrated that the proposed method of bogie fault diagnosis outperforms the conventional methods by up to 4.42% and 6.22%, respectively, in percentages of accuracy under variable conditions.

  2. Syntactic Parameters and a Coding Theory Perspective on Entropy and Complexity of Language Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Marcolli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple computational approach to assigning a measure of complexity and information/entropy to families of natural languages, based on syntactic parameters and the theory of error correcting codes. We associate to each language a binary string of syntactic parameters and to a language family a binary code, with code words the binary string associated to each language. We then evaluate the code parameters (rate and relative minimum distance and the position of the parameters with respect to the asymptotic bound of error correcting codes and the Gilbert–Varshamov bound. These bounds are, respectively, related to the Kolmogorov complexity and the Shannon entropy of the code and this gives us a computationally simple way to obtain estimates on the complexity and information, not of individual languages but of language families. This notion of complexity is related, from the linguistic point of view to the degree of variability of syntactic parameter across languages belonging to the same (historical family.

  3. A Second-Order Conditionally Linear Mixed Effects Model with Observed and Latent Variable Covariates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harring, Jeffrey R.; Kohli, Nidhi; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Speece, Deborah L.

    2012-01-01

    A conditionally linear mixed effects model is an appropriate framework for investigating nonlinear change in a continuous latent variable that is repeatedly measured over time. The efficacy of the model is that it allows parameters that enter the specified nonlinear time-response function to be stochastic, whereas those parameters that enter in a…

  4. Impaired Behavior Regulation under Conditions of Concurrent Variable Schedules of Reinforcement in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David; Lincoln, Alan J.; Foster, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To bridge theory of response inhibition and learning in children with ADHD. Method: Thirty ADHD and 30 non-ADHD children (ages 9-12) were compared under concurrent variable interval (VI-15 sec., VI-30 sec. and VI- 45 sec.) reinforcement schedules that required the child to switch between the three schedules under conditions of…

  5. The Rate Sensitivity of High Strength Syntactic Foam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doleski, Robert; Plunkett, Stephen; Tucker, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    .... Quasi-static experiments were also conducted in compression, tension, and shear. A comparison of the quasi-static and dynamic properties showed that syntactic foam is mildly dependent on rate in compression...

  6. Land agroecological quality assessment in conditions of high spatial soil cover variability at the Pereslavskoye Opolye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morev, Dmitriy; Vasenev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    The essential spatial variability is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central region of European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of forest soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and human impacts. For demand-driven land-use planning and decision making the quantitative analysis and agroecological interpretation of representative soil cover spatial variability is an important and challenging task that receives increasing attention from private companies, governmental and environmental bodies. Pereslavskoye Opolye is traditionally actively used in agriculture due to dominated high-quality cultivated soddy-podzoluvisols which are relatively reached in organic matter (especially for conditions of the North part at the European territory of Russia). However, the soil cover patterns are often very complicated even within the field that significantly influences on crop yield variability and have to be considered in farming system development and land agroecological quality evaluation. The detailed investigations of soil regimes and mapping of the winter rye yield have been carried in conditions of two representative fields with slopes sharply contrasted both in aspects and degrees. Rye biological productivity and weed infestation have been measured in elementary plots of 0.25 m2 with the following analysis the quality of the yield. In the same plot soil temperature and moisture have been measured by portable devices. Soil sampling was provided from three upper layers by drilling. The results of ray yield detailed mapping shown high differences both in average values and within-field variability on different slopes. In case of low-gradient slope (field 1) there is variability of ray yield from 39.4 to 44.8 dt/ha. In case of expressed slope (field 2) the same species of winter rye grown with the same technology has essentially lower yield and within-field variability from 20 to 29.6 dt/ha. The

  7. Potential electricity savings by variable speed control of compressor for air conditioning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasution, Henry [Bung Hatta University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Engineering, Padang, West Sumatera (Indonesia); Wan Hassan, Mat Nawi [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Skudai, Johor Bahru-Darul Ta' zim (Malaysia)

    2006-05-15

    The potential of a variable-speed compressor running on a controller to provide enhanced load-matching capability, energy saving and thermal comfort for application in air-conditioning system is demonstrated. An air-conditioning system, originally operated on a constant speed mode, is retrofitted with an inverter and a PID controller. The system was installed to a thermal environmental room together with a data acquisition system to monitor energy consumption and temperature of the room. Measurements were taken 2 h daily at a time interval of 5 min for an on/off and an inverter variable-speed conditions. The results indicate that thermal comfort of the room together with energy saving can be obtained through a proper selection of K for the controller. At a temperature setting of 22 C, the energy saving for the system is estimated to reach 25.3% for PID controllers. (orig.)

  8. Real-time Continuous Assessment Method for Mental and Physiological Condition using Heart Rate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Kiyoko; Ishii, Naohiro

    It is necessary to monitor the daily health condition for preventing stress syndrome. In this study, it was proposed the method assessing the mental and physiological condition, such as the work stress or the relaxation, using heart rate variability at real time and continuously. The instantanuous heart rate (HR), and the ratio of the number of extreme points (NEP) and the number of heart beats were calculated for assessing mental and physiological condition. In this method, 20 beats heart rate were used to calculate these indexes. These were calculated in one beat interval. Three conditions, which are sitting rest, performing mental arithmetic and watching relaxation movie, were assessed using our proposed algorithm. The assessment accuracies were 71.9% and 55.8%, when performing mental arithmetic and watching relaxation movie respectively. In this method, the mental and physiological condition was assessed using only 20 regressive heart beats, so this method is considered as the real time assessment method.

  9. Offshore Variability in Critical Weather Conditions in Large-Scale Wind Based Danish Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2013-01-01

    of the variability for the 2020 Danish power system, one can see that in the worst case, up to 1500 MW of power can be lost in 30 minutes. We present results showing how this issue is partially solved by the new High Wind Storm Controller presented by Siemens in the TWENTIES project.......Offshore wind power has a significant development potential, especially in North Europe. The geographical concentration of offshore wind power leads to increased variability and in the case of critical weather conditions it may lead to sudden and considerable loss of production. In this context......, the chances of losing several GW of wind power due to critical weather conditions in a very short time period could potentially jeopardize the whole system’s reliability and stability. Forecasting such events is not trivial and the results so far are not encouraging. When assessing the impact...

  10. Premix fuels study applicable to duct burner conditions for a variable cycle engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, K. S.

    1978-01-01

    Emission levels and performance of a premixing Jet-A/air duct burner were measured at reference conditions representative of take-off and cruise for a variable cycle engine. In a parametric variation sequence of tests, data were obtained at inlet temperatures of 400, 500 and 600K at equivalence ratios varying from 0.9 to the lean stability limit. Ignition was achieved at all the reference conditions although the CO levels were very high. Significant nonuniformity across the combustor was observed for the emissions at the take-off condition. At a reference Mach number of 0.117 and an inlet temperature of 600K, corresponding to a simulated cruise condition, the NOx emission level was approximately 1 gm/kg-fuel.

  11. Fuzzy tree automata and syntactic pattern recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E T

    1982-04-01

    An approach of representing patterns by trees and processing these trees by fuzzy tree automata is described. Fuzzy tree automata are defined and investigated. The results include that the class of fuzzy root-to-frontier recognizable ¿-trees is closed under intersection, union, and complementation. Thus, the class of fuzzy root-to-frontier recognizable ¿-trees forms a Boolean algebra. Fuzzy tree automata are applied to processing fuzzy tree representation of patterns based on syntactic pattern recognition. The grade of acceptance is defined and investigated. Quantitative measures of ``approximate isosceles triangle,'' ``approximate elongated isosceles triangle,'' ``approximate rectangle,'' and ``approximate cross'' are defined and used in the illustrative examples of this approach. By using these quantitative measures, a house, a house with high roof, and a church are also presented as illustrative examples. In addition, three fuzzy tree automata are constructed which have the capability of processing the fuzzy tree representations of ``fuzzy houses,'' ``houses with high roofs,'' and ``fuzzy churches,'' respectively. The results may have useful applications in pattern recognition, image processing, artificial intelligence, pattern database design and processing, image science, and pictorial information systems.

  12. Screening variability and change of soil moisture under wide-ranging climate conditions: Snow dynamics effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrot, Lucile; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Soil moisture influences and is influenced by water, climate, and ecosystem conditions, affecting associated ecosystem services in the landscape. This paper couples snow storage-melting dynamics with an analytical modeling approach to screening basin-scale, long-term soil moisture variability and change in a changing climate. This coupling enables assessment of both spatial differences and temporal changes across a wide range of hydro-climatic conditions. Model application is exemplified for two major Swedish hydrological basins, Norrström and Piteälven. These are located along a steep temperature gradient and have experienced different hydro-climatic changes over the time period of study, 1950-2009. Spatially, average intra-annual variability of soil moisture differs considerably between the basins due to their temperature-related differences in snow dynamics. With regard to temporal change, the long-term average state and intra-annual variability of soil moisture have not changed much, while inter-annual variability has changed considerably in response to hydro-climatic changes experienced so far in each basin.

  13. Photoplethysmography pulse rate variability as a surrogate measurement of heart rate variability during non-stationary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, E; Orini, M; Bailón, R; Laguna, P; Vergara, J M; Mainardi, L

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we assessed the possibility of using the pulse rate variability (PRV) extracted from the photoplethysmography signal as an alternative measurement of the HRV signal in non-stationary conditions. The study is based on analysis of the changes observed during a tilt table test in the heart rate modulation of 17 young subjects. First, the classical indices of HRV analysis were compared to the indices from PRV in intervals where stationarity was assumed. Second, the time-varying spectral properties of both signals were compared by time-frequency (TF) and TF coherence analysis. Third, the effect of replacing PRV with HRV in the assessment of the changes of the autonomic modulation of the heart rate was considered. Time-invariant HRV and PRV indices showed no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) and high correlation (>0.97). Time-frequency analysis revealed that the TF spectra of both signals were highly correlated (0.99 ± 0.01); the difference between the instantaneous power, in the LF and HF bands, obtained from HRV and PRV was small (<10 −3 s −2 ) and their temporal patterns were highly correlated (0.98 ± 0.04 and 0.95 ± 0.06 in the LF and HF bands, respectively) and TF coherence in the LF and HF bands was high (0.97 ± 0.04 and 0.89 ± 0.08, respectively). Finally, the instantaneous power in the LF band was observed to significantly increase during head-up tilt by both HRV and PRV analysis. These results suggest that although some differences in the time-varying spectral indices extracted from HRV and PRV exist, mainly in the HF band associated with respiration, PRV could be used as a surrogate of HRV during non-stationary conditions, at least during the tilt table test

  14. Equivalent conditions of complete moment convergence for extended negatively dependent random variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunying Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we study the equivalent conditions of complete moment convergence for sequences of identically distributed extended negatively dependent random variables. As a result, we extend and generalize some results of complete moment convergence obtained by Chow (Bull. Inst. Math. Acad. Sin. 16:177-201, 1988 and Li and Spătaru (J. Theor. Probab. 18:933-947, 2005 from the i.i.d. case to extended negatively dependent sequences.

  15. Fault Diagnosis for Rolling Bearings under Variable Conditions Based on Visual Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yujie; Zhou, Bo; Lu, Chen; Yang, Chao

    2017-05-25

    Fault diagnosis for rolling bearings has attracted increasing attention in recent years. However, few studies have focused on fault diagnosis for rolling bearings under variable conditions. This paper introduces a fault diagnosis method for rolling bearings under variable conditions based on visual cognition. The proposed method includes the following steps. First, the vibration signal data are transformed into a recurrence plot (RP), which is a two-dimensional image. Then, inspired by the visual invariance characteristic of the human visual system (HVS), we utilize speed up robust feature to extract fault features from the two-dimensional RP and generate a 64-dimensional feature vector, which is invariant to image translation, rotation, scaling variation, etc. Third, based on the manifold perception characteristic of HVS, isometric mapping, a manifold learning method that can reflect the intrinsic manifold embedded in the high-dimensional space, is employed to obtain a low-dimensional feature vector. Finally, a classical classification method, support vector machine, is utilized to realize fault diagnosis. Verification data were collected from Case Western Reserve University Bearing Data Center, and the experimental result indicates that the proposed fault diagnosis method based on visual cognition is highly effective for rolling bearings under variable conditions, thus providing a promising approach from the cognitive computing field.

  16. Syntactic processing is distributed across the language system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Idan; Balewski, Zuzanna; Mahowald, Kyle; Fedorenko, Evelina

    2016-02-15

    Language comprehension recruits an extended set of regions in the human brain. Is syntactic processing localized to a particular region or regions within this system, or is it distributed across the entire ensemble of brain regions that support high-level linguistic processing? Evidence from aphasic patients is more consistent with the latter possibility: damage to many different language regions and to white-matter tracts connecting them has been shown to lead to similar syntactic comprehension deficits. However, brain imaging investigations of syntactic processing continue to focus on particular regions within the language system, often parts of Broca's area and regions in the posterior temporal cortex. We hypothesized that, whereas the entire language system is in fact sensitive to syntactic complexity, the effects in some regions may be difficult to detect because of the overall lower response to language stimuli. Using an individual-subjects approach to localizing the language system, shown in prior work to be more sensitive than traditional group analyses, we indeed find responses to syntactic complexity throughout this system, consistent with the findings from the neuropsychological patient literature. We speculate that such distributed nature of syntactic processing could perhaps imply that syntax is inseparable from other aspects of language comprehension (e.g., lexico-semantic processing), in line with current linguistic and psycholinguistic theories and evidence. Neuroimaging investigations of syntactic processing thus need to expand their scope to include the entire system of high-level language processing regions in order to fully understand how syntax is instantiated in the human brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Robust Machine Learning Variable Importance Analyses of Medical Conditions for Health Care Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Sherri

    2018-03-11

    To propose nonparametric double robust machine learning in variable importance analyses of medical conditions for health spending. 2011-2012 Truven MarketScan database. I evaluate how much more, on average, commercially insured enrollees with each of 26 of the most prevalent medical conditions cost per year after controlling for demographics and other medical conditions. This is accomplished within the nonparametric targeted learning framework, which incorporates ensemble machine learning. Previous literature studying the impact of medical conditions on health care spending has almost exclusively focused on parametric risk adjustment; thus, I compare my approach to parametric regression. My results demonstrate that multiple sclerosis, congestive heart failure, severe cancers, major depression and bipolar disorders, and chronic hepatitis are the most costly medical conditions on average per individual. These findings differed from those obtained using parametric regression. The literature may be underestimating the spending contributions of several medical conditions, which is a potentially critical oversight. If current methods are not capturing the true incremental effect of medical conditions, undesirable incentives related to care may remain. Further work is needed to directly study these issues in the context of federal formulas. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  18. Comparison of winter wheat yield sensitivity to climate variables under irrigated and rain-fed conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dengpan; Shen, Yanjun; Zhang, He; Moiwo, Juana P.; Qi, Yongqing; Wang, Rende; Pei, Hongwei; Zhang, Yucui; Shen, Huitao

    2016-09-01

    Crop simulation models provide alternative, less time-consuming, and cost-effective means of determining the sensitivity of crop yield to climate change. In this study, two dynamic mechanistic models, CERES (Crop Environment Resource Synthesis) and APSIM (Agricultural Production Systems Simulator), were used to simulate the yield of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) under well irrigated (CFG) and rain-fed (YY) conditions in relation to different climate variables in the North China Plain (NCP). The study tested winter wheat yield sensitivity to different levels of temperature, radiation, precipitation, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration under CFG and YY conditions at Luancheng Agro-ecosystem Experimental Stations in the NCP. The results from the CERES and APSIM wheat crop models were largely consistent and suggested that changes in climate variables influenced wheat grain yield in the NCP. There was also significant variation in the sensitivity of winter wheat yield to climate variables under different water (CFG and YY) conditions. While a temperature increase of 2°C was the threshold beyond which temperature negatively influenced wheat yield under CFG, a temperature rise exceeding 1°C decreased winter wheat grain yield under YY. A decrease in solar radiation decreased wheat grain yield under both CFG and YY conditions. Although the sensitivity of winter wheat yield to precipitation was small under the CFG, yield decreased significantly with decreasing precipitation under the rainfed YY treatment. The results also suggest that wheat yield under CFG linearly increased by ≈3.5% per 60 ppm (parts per million) increase in CO2 concentration from 380 to 560 ppm, and yield under YY increased linearly by ≈7.0% for the same increase in CO2 concentration.

  19. Global assessment of surfing conditions: seasonal, interannual and long-term variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, A.; Losada, I.; Mendez, F.

    2012-12-01

    International surfing destinations owe a great debt to specific combinations of wind-wave, thermal conditions and local bathymetry. As surf quality depends on a vast number of geophysical variables, a multivariable standardized index on the basis of expert judgment is proposed to analyze surf resource in a worldwide domain. Data needed is obtained by combining several datasets (reanalyses): 60-year satellite-calibrated spectral wave hindcast (GOW, WaveWatchIII), wind fields from NCEP/NCAR, global sea surface temperature from ERSST.v3b, and global tides from TPXO7.1. A summary of the global surf resource is presented, which highlights the high degree of variability in surfable events. According to general atmospheric circulation, results show that west facing low to middle latitude coasts are more suitable for surfing, especially those in Southern Hemisphere. Month to month analysis reveals strong seasonal changes in the occurrence of surfable events, enhancing those in North Atlantic or North Pacific. Interannual variability is investigated by comparing occurrence values with global and regional climate patterns showing a great influence at both, global and regional scales. Analysis of long term trends shows an increase in the probability of surfable events over the west facing coasts on the planet (i.e. + 30 hours/year in California). The resulting maps provide useful information for surfers and surf related stakeholders, coastal planning, education, and basic research.; Figure 1. Global distribution of medium quality (a) and high quality surf conditions probability (b).

  20. Reduced Syntactic Processing Efficiency in Older Adults During Sentence Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zude Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have frequently reported an age-related decline in semantic processing during sentence comprehension. However, it remains unclear whether syntactic processing also declines or whether it remains constant as people age. In the present study, 26 younger adults and 20 older adults were recruited and matched in terms of working memory, general intelligence, verbal intelligence and fluency. They were then asked to make semantic acceptability judgments while completing a Chinese sentence reading task. The behavioral results revealed that the older adults had significantly lower accuracy on measures of semantic and syntactic processing compared to younger adults. Event-related potential (ERP results showed that during semantic processing, older adults had a significantly reduced amplitude and delayed peak latency of the N400 compared to the younger adults. During syntactic processing, older adults also showed delayed peak latency of the P600 relative to younger adults. Moreover, while P600 amplitude was comparable between the two age groups, larger P600 amplitude was associated with worse performance only in the older adults. Together, the behavioral and ERP data suggest that there is an age-related decline in both semantic and syntactic processing, with a trend toward lower efficiency in syntactic ability.

  1. Psycholinguistic studies on the syntactic behavior of idioms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, R W; Nayak, N P

    1989-01-01

    Six experiments examined why some idioms can be syntactically changed and still retain their figurative meanings (e.g., John laid down the law can be passivized as The law was laid down by John), while other idioms cannot be syntactically altered without losing their figurative meanings (e.g., John kicked the bucket cannot be passivized into The bucket was kicked by John). Our thesis was that the syntactic behavior of idioms is determined, to a large extent, but speakers' assumptions about the way in which parts of idioms contribute to their figurative interpretations as a whole. The results of our studies indicated that idioms whose individual semantic components contribute to their overall figurative meanings (e.g., go out on a limb) were judged as more syntactically flexible or productive than nondecomposable phrases (e.g., kick the bucket). These findings suggested that idioms do not form a unique class of linguistic items (e.g., as "dead" metaphors), but can share many of the same compositional properties normally associated with more "literal" language. The implications of these data for theories of syntactic productivity of idioms and for models of idiom comprehension are discussed.

  2. Syntactic Variation in Diminutive Suffixes: Russian, Kolyma Yukaghir, and Itelmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Steriopolo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a syntactic analysis and comparison of diminutive suffixes in Russian, Kolyma Yukaghir, and Itelmen, three genetically unrelated languages of the Russian Federation. Kolyma Yukaghir and Itelmen are on the verge of extinction. This article investigates how contact with Russian (specifically the syntax of Russian diminutives has influenced the syntax of diminutives in Kolyma Yukaghir and Itlemen. Adopting the framework of Distributed Morphology, a syntactic analysis of diminutives across the three languages reveals that they share the same manner of syntactic attachment, but differ in regards to the site or place of attachment. Specifically, it is proposed that diminutives in all three languages are syntactic modifiers; however, in relation to the place of attachment, in Russian, diminutives attach below the functional category of Number, while diminutives in Kolyma Yukaghir and Itelmen attach above the Number category. This article contributes to our understanding of variation in universal grammar and linguistic outcomes of the syntactic feature ‘diminutive’ in a multilingual situation where a majority language is in contact with two genetically unrelated endangered languages.

  3. Structure and Compressive Properties of Invar-Cenosphere Syntactic Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dung Luong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the mechanical performance of syntactic foams produced by means of the metal powder injection molding process having an Invar (FeNi36 matrix and including cenospheres as hollow particles at weight fractions (wt.% of 5 and 10, respectively, corresponding to approximately 41.6 and 60.0 vol.% in relation to the metal content and at 0.6 g/cm3 hollow particle density. The synthesis process results in survival of cenospheres and provides low density syntactic foams. The microstructure of the materials is investigated as well as the mechanical performance under quasi-static and high strain rate compressive loads. The compressive stress-strain curves of syntactic foams reveal a continuous strain hardening behavior in the plastic region, followed by a densification region. The results reveal a strain rate sensitivity in cenosphere-based Invar matrix syntactic foams. Differences in properties between cenosphere- and glass microsphere-based materials are discussed in relation to the findings of microstructural investigations. Cenospheres present a viable choice as filler material in iron-based syntactic foams due to their higher thermal stability compared to glass microspheres.

  4. Condition Monitoring for Roller Bearings of Wind Turbines Based on Health Evaluation under Variable Operating States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Fu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Condition monitoring (CM is used to assess the health status of wind turbines (WT by detecting turbine failure and predicting maintenance needs. However, fluctuating operating conditions cause variations in monitored features, therefore increasing the difficulty of CM, for example, the frequency-domain analysis may lead to an inaccurate or even incorrect prediction when evaluating the health of the WT components. In light of this challenge, this paper proposed a method for the health evaluation of WT components based on vibration signals. The proposed approach aimed to reduce the evaluation error caused by the impact of the variable operating condition. First, the vibration signal was decomposed into a set of sub-signals using variational mode decomposition (VMD. Next, the sub-signal energy and the probability distribution were obtained and normalized. Finally, the concept of entropy was introduced to evaluate the health condition of a monitored object to provide an effective guide for maintenance. In particular, the health evaluation for CM was based on a performance review over a range of operating conditions, rather than at a certain single operating condition. Experimental investigations were performed which verified the efficiency of the evaluation method, as well as a comparison with the previous method.

  5. The cross wavelet analysis of dengue fever variability influenced by meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chien; Yu, Hwa-Lung; Lee, Chieh-Han

    2015-04-01

    The multiyear variation of meteorological conditions induced by climate change causes the changing diffusion pattern of infectious disease and serious epidemic situation. Among them, dengue fever is one of the most serious vector-borne diseases distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Dengue virus is transmitted by several species of mosquito and causing lots amount of human deaths every year around the world. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of meteorological variables to the temporal variation of dengue fever epidemic in southern Taiwan. Several extreme and average indices of meteorological variables, i.e. temperature and humidity, were used for this analysis, including averaged, maximum and minimum temperature, and average rainfall, maximum 1-hr rainfall, and maximum 24-hr rainfall. This study plans to identify and quantify the nonlinear relationship of meteorological variables and dengue fever epidemic, finding the non-stationary time-frequency relationship and phase lag effects of those time series from 1998-2011 by using cross wavelet method. Results show that meteorological variables all have a significant time-frequency correlation region to dengue fever epidemic in frequency about one year (52 weeks). The associated phases can range from 0 to 90 degrees (0-13 weeks lag from meteorological factors to dengue incidences). Keywords: dengue fever, cross wavelet analysis, meteorological factor

  6. Diurnal variability of inner-shelf circulation in the lee of a cape under upwelling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, L.; Peliz, A.; Dias, J.; Oliveira, P. B.; Angélico, M. M.; Castro, J. J.; Fernandes, J. N.; Trindade, A.; Cruz, T.

    2017-07-01

    The nearshore circulation in the lee of a cape under upwelling conditions was studied using in-situ data from 3 consecutive summers (2006-2008). Focus was given to a period between 20 July and 04 August 2006 to study the diurnal variability of the cross-shelf circulation. This period was chosen because it had a steady upwelling-favourable wind condition modulated by a diurnal cycle much similar to sea breeze. The daily variability of the observed cross-shelf circulation consisted of three distinct periods: a morning period with a 3-layer vertical structure with onshore velocities at mid-depth, a mid-day period where the flow is reversed and has a 2-layer structure with onshore velocities at the surface and offshore flow below, and, lastly, in the evening, a 2-layer period with intensified offshore velocities at the surface and onshore flow at the bottom. The observed cross-shelf circulation showed a peculiar vertical shape and diurnal variability different from several other systems described in literature. We hypothesize that the flow reversal of the cross-shelf circulation results as a response to the rapid change of the wind magnitude and direction at mid-day with the presence of the cape north of the mooring site influencing this response. A numerical modelling experiment exclusively forced by winds simulated successfully most of the circulation at the ADCP site, especially the mid-day reversal and the evening's upwelling-type structure. This supports the hypothesis that the cross-shelf circulation at diurnal timescales is mostly wind-driven. By analysing the 3D circulation in the vicinity of Cape Sines we came to the conclusion that the diurnal variability of the wind and the flow interaction with topography are responsible for the circulation variability at the ADCP site, though only a small region in the south of the cape showed a similar diurnal variability. The fact that the wind diurnally undergoes relaxation and intensification strongly affects the

  7. Feedback linearization based control of a variable air volume air conditioning system for cooling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thosar, Archana; Patra, Amit; Bhattacharyya, Souvik

    2008-07-01

    Design of a nonlinear control system for a Variable Air Volume Air Conditioning (VAVAC) plant through feedback linearization is presented in this article. VAVAC systems attempt to reduce building energy consumption while maintaining the primary role of air conditioning. The temperature of the space is maintained at a constant level by establishing a balance between the cooling load generated in the space and the air supply delivered to meet the load. The dynamic model of a VAVAC plant is derived and formulated as a MIMO bilinear system. Feedback linearization is applied for decoupling and linearization of the nonlinear model. Simulation results for a laboratory scale plant are presented to demonstrate the potential of keeping comfort and maintaining energy optimal performance by this methodology. Results obtained with a conventional PI controller and a feedback linearizing controller are compared and the superiority of the proposed approach is clearly established.

  8. Identification of voltage stability condition of a power system using measurements of bus variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durlav Hazarika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several online methods were proposed for investigating the voltage stability condition of an interconnected power system using the measurements of voltage and current phasors at a bus. For this purpose, phasor measurement units (PMUs are used. A PMU is a device which measures the electrical waves on an electrical network, using a common time source (reference bus for synchronisation. This study proposes a method for online monitoring of voltage stability condition of a power system using measurements of bus variables namely – (i real power, (ii reactive power and (iii bus voltage magnitude at a bus. The measurements of real power, reactive power and bus voltage magnitude could be extracted/captured from a smart energy meter. The financial involvement for implementation of the proposed method would significantly lower compared with the PMU-based method.

  9. Identifying Reflectors in Seismic Images via Statistic and Syntactic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Perez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In geologic interpretation of seismic reflection data, accurate identification of reflectors is the foremost step to ensure proper subsurface structural definition. Reflector information, along with other data sets, is a key factor to predict the presence of hydrocarbons. In this work, mathematic and pattern recognition theory was adapted to design two statistical and two syntactic algorithms which constitute a tool in semiautomatic reflector identification. The interpretive power of these four schemes was evaluated in terms of prediction accuracy and computational speed. Among these, the semblance method was confirmed to render the greatest accuracy and speed. Syntactic methods offer an interesting alternative due to their inherently structural search method.

  10. Effects of dual-task conditions on cervical spine movement variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Daniel; Vogt, Lutz; Vogel, Johanna; Banzer, Winfried

    2017-09-22

    The potential to accurately perform cervical movements during more challenging tasks might be of importance to prevent dysfunctional motion characteristics. Although sensorimotor function during dual-task conditions are of increasing interest in biomedical and rehabilitation research, effects of such conditions on movement consistency of the neck have not yet been investigated. In this crossover MiSpEx(Medicine in Spine Exercise)-diagnostic study, we aimed to explore differences between single and dual-task conditions on cervical movement variability. Nineteen healthy participants (9 male; 24.5 ± 3.3 y) performed 10 repetitive maximal cervical movements in (1) flexion/extension and (2) lateral flexion, during one single- and during two dual-task test conditions (cognitive, motor) in a randomised and cross-over sequence. Latter consisted of a working memory n-back task (n= 2) and a repetitive ankle movement task. Range of motion (RoM) was assessed using an external three-dimensional ultrasonic movement analysis system. Coefficient of variation (CV) for repetitive RoM was analysed for differences between conditions and controlled for variances in intra-individual movement characteristics. Friedman and post-hoc Bonferroni-adjusted confidence intervals for differences from single- to dual-task values revealed changes in CV in flexion/extension from single-task to motor dual-task (+0.02 ± 0.02 (97.5%CI: 0.01; 0.03); pdual-task condition (+0.01 ± 0.02 (97.5%CI: 0.003; 0.02)) nor for lateral flexion (p> 0.05). Pearson regression analyses revealed a linear negative (pdual-task (R=2 0.55). Results for lateral flexion are comparable, baseline CV negatively impacts differences to cognitive (R=2 0.2) and motor dual-task performance (R=2 0.76; pdual-task conditions while participants with a higher variability remained almost stable or showed a decrease. The results point toward a complex interrelationship of motion patterns and adaptation processes during challenging tasks

  11. The XRF spectrometer and the selection of analysis conditions (instrumental variables)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This presentation will begin with a brief discussion of EDXRF and flat- and curved-crystal WDXRF spectrometers, contrasting the major differences between the three types. The remainder of the presentation will contain a detailed overview of the choice and settings of the many instrumental variables contained in a modern WDXRF spectrometer, and will discuss critically the choices facing the analyst in setting up a WDXRF spectrometer for different elements and applications. In particular it will discuss the choice of tube target (when a choice is possible), the kV and mA settings, tube filters, collimator masks, collimators, analyzing crystals, secondary collimators, detectors, pulse height selection, X-ray path medium (air, nitrogen, vacuum or helium), counting times for peak and background positions and their effect on counting statistics and lower limit of detection (LLD). The use of Figure of Merit (FOM) calculations to objectively choose the best combination of instrumental variables also will be discussed. This presentation will be followed by a shorter session on a subsequent day entitled - A Selection of XRF Conditions - Practical Session, where participants will be given the opportunity to discuss in groups the selection of the best instrumental variables for three very diverse applications. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  12. Rainfall Downscaling Conditional on Upper-air Variables: Assessing Rainfall Statistics in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langousis, Andreas; Deidda, Roberto; Marrocu, Marino; Kaleris, Vassilios

    2014-05-01

    Due to its intermittent and highly variable character, and the modeling parameterizations used, precipitation is one of the least well reproduced hydrologic variables by both Global Climate Models (GCMs) and Regional Climate Models (RCMs). This is especially the case at a regional level (where hydrologic risks are assessed) and at small temporal scales (e.g. daily) used to run hydrologic models. In an effort to remedy those shortcomings and assess the effect of climate change on rainfall statistics at hydrologically relevant scales, Langousis and Kaleris (2013) developed a statistical framework for simulation of daily rainfall intensities conditional on upper air variables. The developed downscaling scheme was tested using atmospheric data from the ERA-Interim archive (http://www.ecmwf.int/research/era/do/get/index), and daily rainfall measurements from western Greece, and was proved capable of reproducing several statistical properties of actual rainfall records, at both annual and seasonal levels. This was done solely by conditioning rainfall simulation on a vector of atmospheric predictors, properly selected to reflect the relative influence of upper-air variables on ground-level rainfall statistics. In this study, we apply the developed framework for conditional rainfall simulation using atmospheric data from different GCM/RCM combinations. This is done using atmospheric data from the ENSEMBLES project (http://ensembleseu.metoffice.com), and daily rainfall measurements for an intermediate-sized catchment in Italy; i.e. the Flumendosa catchment. Since GCM/RCM products are suited to reproduce the local climatology in a statistical sense (i.e. in terms of relative frequencies), rather than ensuring a one-to-one temporal correspondence between observed and simulated fields (i.e. as is the case for ERA-interim reanalysis data), we proceed in three steps: a) we use statistical tools to establish a linkage between ERA-Interim upper-air atmospheric forecasts and

  13. A hybrid approach to fault diagnosis of roller bearings under variable speed conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanxue; Yang, Lin; Xiang, Jiawei; Yang, Jianwei; He, Shuilong

    2017-12-01

    Rolling element bearings are one of the main elements in rotating machines, whose failure may lead to a fatal breakdown and significant economic losses. Conventional vibration-based diagnostic methods are based on the stationary assumption, thus they are not applicable to the diagnosis of bearings working under varying speeds. This constraint limits the bearing diagnosis to the industrial application significantly. A hybrid approach to fault diagnosis of roller bearings under variable speed conditions is proposed in this work, based on computed order tracking (COT) and variational mode decomposition (VMD)-based time frequency representation (VTFR). COT is utilized to resample the non-stationary vibration signal in the angular domain, while VMD is used to decompose the resampled signal into a number of band-limited intrinsic mode functions (BLIMFs). A VTFR is then constructed based on the estimated instantaneous frequency and instantaneous amplitude of each BLIMF. Moreover, the Gini index and time-frequency kurtosis are both proposed to quantitatively measure the sparsity and concentration measurement of time-frequency representation, respectively. The effectiveness of the VTFR for extracting nonlinear components has been verified by a bat signal. Results of this numerical simulation also show the sparsity and concentration of the VTFR are better than those of short-time Fourier transform, continuous wavelet transform, Hilbert-Huang transform and Wigner-Ville distribution techniques. Several experimental results have further demonstrated that the proposed method can well detect bearing faults under variable speed conditions.

  14. A New Fault Diagnosis Algorithm for PMSG Wind Turbine Power Converters under Variable Wind Speed Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingning Qiu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG wind turbines (WTs mitigate gearbox impacts, they requires high reliability of generators and converters. Statistical analysis shows that the failure rate of direct-drive PMSG wind turbines’ generators and inverters are high. Intelligent fault diagnosis algorithms to detect inverters faults is a premise for the condition monitoring system aimed at improving wind turbines’ reliability and availability. The influences of random wind speed and diversified control strategies lead to challenges for developing intelligent fault diagnosis algorithms for converters. This paper studies open-circuit fault features of wind turbine converters in variable wind speed situations through systematic simulation and experiment. A new fault diagnosis algorithm named Wind Speed Based Normalized Current Trajectory is proposed and used to accurately detect and locate faulted IGBT in the circuit arms. It is compared to direct current monitoring and current vector trajectory pattern approaches. The results show that the proposed method has advantages in the accuracy of fault diagnosis and has superior anti-noise capability in variable wind speed situations. The impact of the control strategy is also identified. Experimental results demonstrate its applicability on practical WT condition monitoring system which is used to improve wind turbine reliability and reduce their maintenance cost.

  15. Thermogravimetric study of a Phase Change Slurry: Effect of variable conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giro-Paloma, J.; Valle-Zermeño, R. del; Fernández, A.I.; Chimenos, J.M.; Formosa, J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dry or wet PCS present differences in their thermal behavior. • The optimum conditions of dry PCS were determined by TGA. • Type of atmosphere and heating rate were the variables under consideration. • T peak can be accurately determined at 1 °C·min −1 in N 2. • Fusion/latent heat can be best determined at 10 °C·min −1 . - Abstract: Microcapsules containing Phase Change Materials (MPCM) are widely used for passive systems in energy storage. When MPCM are mixed with a carrier fluid, Phase Change Slurries (PCS) are used for heat transfer fluids in active systems or heat transport systems. The thermal behavior of PCS can be measured as dry or wet basis, resulting in important differences in weight losses. This study explores the optimum conditions for analyzing the thermal behavior of dried PCS by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) varying the parameter conditions for obtaining peak temperature and heat flow (latent heat). The factors that were taken into account were the atmosphere of study (air and nitrogen) and the heating rate (0.5, 1, 5, and 10 °C·min −1 ). The best conditions to determine peak temperature are at 1 °C·min −1 and in N 2 atmosphere, whereas the decomposition fusion/latent heat of the sample is improved at higher heating velocities towards 10 °C·min −1 .

  16. The tradeoff between signal detection and recognition rules auditory sensitivity under variable background noise conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugli, Marco

    2015-12-07

    Animal acoustic communication commonly takes place under masked conditions. For instance, sound signals relevant for mating and survival are very often masked by background noise, which makes their detection and recognition by organisms difficult. Ambient noise (AN) varies in level and shape among different habitats, but also remarkable variations in time and space occurs within the same habitat. Variable AN conditions mask hearing thresholds of the receiver in complex and unpredictable ways, thereby causing distortions in sound perception. When communication takes place in a noisy environment, a highly sensitive system might confer no advantage to the receiver compared to a less sensitive one. The effects of noise masking on auditory thresholds and hearing-related functions are well known, and the potential role of AN in the evolution of the species' auditory sensitivity has been recognized by few authors. The mechanism of the underlying selection process has never been explored, however. Here I present a simple fitness model that seeks for the best sensitivity of a hearing system performing the detection and recognition of the sound under variable AN conditions. The model predicts higher sensitivity (i.e. lower hearing thresholds) as best strategy for species living in quiet habitats and lower sensitivity (i.e. higher hearing thresholds) as best strategy for those living in noisy habitats provided the cost of incorrect recognition is not low. The tradeoff between detection and recognition of acoustic signals appears to be a key factor determining the best level of hearing sensitivity of a species when acoustic communication is corrupted by noise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental analysis of fuzzy controlled energy efficient demand controlled ventilation economizer cycle variable air volume air conditioning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopalan Parameshwaran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for energy conservative building design, there is now a great opportunity for a flexible and sophisticated air conditioning system capable of addressing better thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency, that are strongly desired. The variable refrigerant volume air conditioning system provides considerable energy savings, cost effectiveness and reduced space requirements. Applications of intelligent control like fuzzy logic controller, especially adapted to variable air volume air conditioning systems, have drawn more interest in recent years than classical control systems. An experimental analysis was performed to investigate the inherent operational characteristics of the combined variable refrigerant volume and variable air volume air conditioning systems under fixed ventilation, demand controlled ventilation, and combined demand controlled ventilation and economizer cycle techniques for two seasonal conditions. The test results of the variable refrigerant volume and variable air volume air conditioning system for each techniques are presented. The test results infer that the system controlled by fuzzy logic methodology and operated under the CO2 based mechanical ventilation scheme, effectively yields 37% and 56% per day of average energy-saving in summer and winter conditions, respectively. Based on the experimental results, the fuzzy based combined system can be considered to be an alternative energy efficient air conditioning scheme, having significant energy-saving potential compared to the conventional constant air volume air conditioning system.

  18. Understanding Hydrological Processes in Variable Source Areas in the Glaciated Northeastern US Watersheds under Variable Climate Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, T. S.; Azzaino, Z.; Hoang, L.; Pacenka, S.; Worqlul, A. W.; Mukundan, R.; Stoof, C.; Owens, E. M.; Richards, B. K.

    2017-12-01

    The New York City source watersheds in the Catskill Mountains' humid, temperate climate has long-term hydrological and water quality monitoring data It is one of the few catchments where implementation of source and landscape management practices has led to decreased phosphorus concentration in the receiving surface waters. One of the reasons is that landscape measures correctly targeted the saturated variable source runoff areas (VSA) in the valley bottoms as the location where most of the runoff and other nonpoint pollutants originated. Measures targeting these areas were instrumental in lowering phosphorus concentration. Further improvements in water quality can be made based on a better understanding of the flow processes and water table fluctuations in the VSA. For that reason, we instrumented a self-contained upland variable source watershed with a landscape characteristic of a soil underlain by glacial till at shallow depth similar to the Catskill watersheds. In this presentation, we will discuss our experimental findings and present a mathematical model. Variable source areas have a small slope making gravity the driving force for the flow, greatly simplifying the simulation of the flow processes. The experimental data and the model simulations agreed for both outflow and water table fluctuations. We found that while the flows to the outlet were similar throughout the year, the discharge of the VSA varies greatly. This was due to transpiration by the plants which became active when soil temperatures were above 10oC. We found that shortly after the temperature increased above 10oC the baseflow stopped and only surface runoff occurred when rainstorms exceeded the storage capacity of the soil in at least a portion of the variable source area. Since plant growth in the variable source area was a major variable determining the base flow behavior, changes in temperature in the future - affecting the duration of the growing season - will affect baseflow and

  19. Instability of automotive air conditioning system with a variable displacement compressor. Part 1. Experimental investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Changqing; Dou, Chunpeng; Yang, Xinjiang; Li, Xianting [Department of Building Science, School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (People' s Republic of China)

    2005-11-01

    A test system is built first in order to investigate the instability of the automotive air conditioning (AAC) system with a variable displacement compressor (VDC), and hunting phenomena caused by the large external disturbance in the AAC system with a VDC and a thermal expansion valve, and in the AAC system with a VDC and a fixed-area throttling device are investigated experimentally in part 1 of this paper. The experimental results indicate that there also exist the hunting phenomena in the AAC system with a fixed-area throttling device. The system stability is found to be dependent on the direction of the external disturbance, and the system is apt to cause hunting when the condensing pressure decreases excessively since it may cause two-phase state at the throttling device inlet and make a large disturbance to the system. The piston stroke length will oscillate only when the oscillation amplitudes of forces acting on the wobble plate are great enough, otherwise the piston stroke length will be kept invariable, and then the system instability rule is also suitable for the AAC system with a fixed displacement compressor. From the experimental results, it is concluded that the two-phase flow at the throttling device inlet or at the evaporator outlet is the necessary condition but not sufficient condition for system hunting. Finally, a new concept, conservative stable region, is proposed based on the experimental results and theoretical analysis. (author)

  20. Extracting Archaeological Feautres from GPR Surveys Conducted with Variable Soil Moisture Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, I. M.; Glisic, B.; Gonciar, A.

    2017-12-01

    As a common tool for subsurface archaeological prospection, ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a useful method for increasing the efficiency of archaeological excavations. Archaeological sites are often temporally and financially constrained, therefore having limited ability to reschedule surveys compromised by weather. Furthermore, electromagnetic GPR surveys are especially sensitive to variations in water content, soil type, and site-specific interference. In this work, GPR scans of a partially excavated Roman villa consisting of different construction materials and phases (limestone, andesite, brick) in central Romania are compared. Surveys were conducted with a 500 MHz GPR antenna in both dry (pre-rain event) and wet (post-rain event) conditions. Especially in time or depth slices, wet surveys present additional archaeological features that are not present or clear in the standard dry conditions, while simultaneously masking the clutter present in those scans. When dry, the limestone has a similar dielectric constant to the soil and does not provide enough contrast in electromagnetic properties for strong reflections despite the significant difference in their physical properties. Following precipitation, however, the electromagnetic properties of these two materials is dominated by their respective water content and the contrast is enhanced. For this reason, the wet surveys are particularly necessary for revealing reflections from the limestone features often invisible in dry surveys. GPR surveys conducted in variable environmental conditions provide unique archaeological information, with potential near-surface geophysical applications in nondestructive material characterization and identification.

  1. Punctors: A Pragmatic Variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Diane; Sankoff, David

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the distribution of punctors, a class of markers commonly classified as nervous tics, fillers, or signs of hesitation, in one corpus of French is presented. Some aspects of their conditioning are explained in terms of the interaction of etymological, discursive, syntactic, and social constraints. (Author/MSE)

  2. The Effects of Syntactic Complexity on Processing Sentences in Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Rebecca; Ruigendijk, Esther

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of stationary (non-fluctuating) noise on processing and understanding of sentences, which vary in their syntactic complexity (with the factors canonicity, embedding, ambiguity). It presents data from two RT-studies with 44 participants testing processing of German sentences in silence and in noise. Results show a…

  3. Defining and Assessing Chinese Syntactic Complexity via TC-Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiaona

    2016-01-01

    The triad dimensions of complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF) has been widely used for assessing second language performance and development. Unlike accuracy and fluency, the construct of Chinese syntactic complexity has not been comprehensibly conceptualized or operationalized. Moreover, not tailored to the typological differences such as the…

  4. Children's Comprehension of Two Types of Syntactic Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Elly Jane

    2017-01-01

    This study asks whether children accept both interpretations of ambiguous sentences with contexts supporting each option. Twenty-six 3- to 5-year-old English-speaking children and a control group of 30 English-speaking adults participated in a truth value judgment task. As a step towards evaluating the complexity of syntactic ambiguity, the…

  5. The Recipe for Success: Syntactic Features of "la chronique gastronomique."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Dulcie M.

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes the syntactic structure of noun phrases and verb phrases in recipes and cookery articles in the French press and argues that the complexity of writing about cooking parallels the complexity of the cooking process itself, demonstrating how syntax can reflect function and meaning in a restricted text-type. (Author/MSE)

  6. Evidence for simultaneous syntactic processing of multiple words during reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snell, Joshua; Meeter, Martijn; Grainger, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    A hotly debated issue in reading research concerns the extent to which readers process parafoveal words, and how parafoveal information might influence foveal word recognition. We investigated syntactic word processing both in sentence reading and in reading isolated foveal words when these were

  7. Semantic and syntactic forces in noun phrase production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigliocco, G.; Lauer, M.; Damian, M.F.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Three experiments investigated semantic and syntactic effects in the production of phrases in Dutch. Bilingual participants were presented with English nouns and were asked to produce an adjective + noun phrase in Dutch including the translation of the noun. In 2 experiments, the authors blocked

  8. Skipping Syntactically Illegal "the" Previews: The Role of Predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Matthew J.; Angele, Bernhard; Ahn, Y. Danbi; Rayner, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Readers tend to skip words, particularly when they are short, frequent, or predictable. Angele and Rayner (2013) recently reported that readers are often unable to detect syntactic anomalies in parafoveal vision. In the present study, we manipulated target word predictability to assess whether contextual constraint modulates…

  9. Syntactic discriminative language model rerankers for statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Monz, C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a method that successfully exploits syntactic features for n-best translation candidate reranking using perceptrons. We motivate the utility of syntax by demonstrating the superior performance of parsers over n-gram language models in differentiating between Statistical

  10. Task effects on BOLD signal correlates of implicit syntactic processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, David

    2010-01-01

    BOLD signal was measured in sixteen participants who made timed font change detection judgments in visually presented sentences that varied in syntactic structure and the order of animate and inanimate nouns. Behavioral data indicated that sentences were processed to the level of syntactic structure. BOLD signal increased in visual association areas bilaterally and left supramarginal gyrus in the contrast of sentences with object- and subject-extracted relative clauses without font changes in which the animacy order of the nouns biased against the syntactically determined meaning of the sentence. This result differs from the findings in a non-word detection task (Caplan et al, 2008a), in which the same contrast led to increased BOLD signal in the left inferior frontal gyrus. The difference in areas of activation indicates that the sentences were processed differently in the two tasks. These differences were further explored in an eye tracking study using the materials in the two tasks. Issues pertaining to how parsing and interpretive operations are affected by a task that is being performed, and how this might affect BOLD signal correlates of syntactic contrasts, are discussed. PMID:20671983

  11. Syntactic Reconstruction and Reanalysis, Semantic Dead Ends, and Prefrontal Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj

    2010-01-01

    have been to Paris than […] to Oslo), using pseudo-elliptical structures (‘dead ends’) as control (More people have been to Paris than I have). (ii) Reanalysis in the face of structural ambiguity in syntactic ‘garden paths’, where the parser initially assigns an incorrect structure and is forced...

  12. [AN OVERALL SOUND PROCESS] Syntactic parameters, statistic parameters, and universals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Meeùs

    2016-05-01

    My paper intends to show that comparative musicology, in facts if not in principles, appears inherently linked to the syntactic elements of music – and so also any encyclopedic project aiming at uncovering universals in music. Not that statistic elements cannot be universal, but that they cannot be commented as such, because they remain largely unquantifiable.

  13. About the role of stylistic and syntactic devices of expansion in the informational complex of dicteme of a German advertising text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Артур Нарманович Мамедов

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights stylistic and syntactic devices of expansion, which act as compositional means, vary normative syntactic structure of an advertising text, contribute to sense formation, creating conditions for the purpose of advertiser’s intent. By means of these language elements expressing invariant tactic sense the advertiser consciously expands and/or complicates the informative complex of dicteme, an acting text unit, transmitting superfluous impressive information together with factual one. Combination of factual and impressive items of information activates both rational and emotional perceptional channels of prospective consumer, intensifies the positioning process of an advertised article.

  14. Topic Correlation Analysis for Bearing Fault Diagnosis Under Variable Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Shen, Fei; Yan, Ruqiang

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a Topic Correlation Analysis (TCA) based approach for bearing fault diagnosis. In TCA, Joint Mixture Model (JMM), a model which adapts Probability Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA), is constructed first. Then, JMM models the shared and domain-specific topics using “fault vocabulary” . After that, the correlations between two kinds of topics are computed and used to build a mapping matrix. Furthermore, a new shared space spanned by the shared and mapped domain-specific topics is set up where the distribution gap between different domains is reduced. Finally, a classifier is trained with mapped features which follow a different distribution and then the trained classifier is tested on target bearing data. Experimental results justify the superiority of the proposed approach over the stat-of-the-art baselines and it can diagnose bearing fault efficiently and effectively under variable operating conditions.

  15. Modeling of water and solute transport under variably saturated conditions: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappala, E.G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reviews the equations used in deterministic models of mass and energy transport in variably saturated porous media. Analytic, quasi-analytic, and numerical solution methods to the nonlinear forms of transport equations are discussed with respect to their advantages and limitations. The factors that influence the selection of a modeling method are discussed in this paper; they include the following: (1) the degree of coupling required among the equations describing the transport of liquids, gases, solutes, and energy; (2) the inclusion of an advection term in the equations; (3) the existence of sharp fronts; (4) the degree of nonlinearity and hysteresis in the transport coefficients and boundary conditions; (5) the existence of complex boundaries; and (6) the availability and reliability of data required by the models

  16. Application of Peleg's equation to describe creep responses of potatoes under constant and variable storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, W K; Jindal, V K

    2017-06-01

    The application of Peleg's equation to characterize creep behavior of potatoes during storage was investigated. Potatoes were stored at 25, 15, 5C, and variable (fluctuating) temperature for 16 or 26 weeks. The Peleg equation adequately described the creep response of potatoes during storage at all storage conditions (R 2  = .97to .99). Peleg constant k 1 exhibited a significant (p creep responses during storage or processing will be potentially helpful to better understand the phenomenon. The model parameters from such model could be used to relate rheological properties of raw and cooked potatoes. Moreover, the model parameters could be used to establish relationship between instrumental and sensory attributes which will help in the prediction of sensory attributes from instrumental data. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Can contrasting environmental conditions of mangroves induce morphological variability in Aratus pisonii (Crustacea: Brachyura: Sesarmidae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz López-Sánchez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aratus pisonii is one of the most common crab species in Neotropical mangroves. It shows great plasticity in its life history traits, which makes it an interesting subject for comparative studies. This study evaluated the morphometric variability in five populations of A. pisonii inhabiting mangroves with different degrees of structural development under contrasting environmental conditions. Mangrove forests located on the northwest coast of Venezuela were studied during the rainy season in 2006. The results showed morphometric differences and interaction between sampling sites and sex (PERMANOVA, P=0.0001, as well as the presence of five morphological groups in males and four in females. The findings support the existence of sexual dimorphism. Females from the dwarf hypersaline mangrove showed a wide variability associated with the chelipeds. The differences in crab morphology between sites seem to be related to a combination of environmental factors that is unique for each habitat, leading to the formation of different morphological groups, in which the mangrove structural development (resource availability and salinity (which compromises the energy budget play an important role. The presence of more robust chelipeds in females from the dwarf hypersaline mangrove seems to reflect an adaptation to the biomechanical properties of the leaves (sclerophylly.

  18. On thermoeconomics of energy systems at variable load conditions: Integrated optimization of plant design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piacentino, A.; Cardona, F.

    2007-01-01

    Thermoeconomics has been assuming a growing role among the disciplines oriented to the analysis of energy systems, its different methodologies allowing solution of problems in the fields of cost accounting, plant design optimisation and diagnostic of malfunctions. However, the thermoeconomic methodologies as such are particularly appropriate to analyse large industrial systems at steady or quasi-steady operation, but they can be hardly applied to small to medium scale units operating in unsteady conditions to cover a variable energy demand. In this paper, the fundamentals of thermoeconomics for systems operated at variable load are discussed, examining the cost formation process and, separately, the cost fractions related to capital depreciation (which require additional distinctions with respect to plants in steady operation) and to exergy consumption. The relevant effects of the efficiency penalty due to off design operation on the exergetic cost of internal flows are also examined. An original algorithm is proposed for the integrated optimization of plant design and operation based on an analytical solution by the Lagrange multipliers method and on a multi-objective decision function, expressed either in terms of net cash flow or primary energy saving. The method is suitable for application in complex energy systems, such as 'facilities of components of a same product' connected to external networks for power or heat distribution. For demonstrative purposes, the proposed thermoeconomically aided optimization is performed for a grid connected trigeneration system to be installed in a large hotel

  19. Neural correlates of semantic and syntactic processes in the comprehension of case marked pronouns: Evidence from German and Dutch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammer Anke

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that both semantic and syntactic information play a role in pronoun resolution in sentences. However, it is unclear what the relative contribution of these sources of information is for the establishment of a coreferential relationship between the pronoun and the antecedent in combination with a local structural case constraint on the pronoun (i.e. case assignment of a pronoun under preposition governing. In a prepositional phrase in German and Dutch, it is the preposition that assigns case to the pronoun. Furthermore, in these languages different overtly case-marked pronouns are used to refer to male and female persons. Thus, one can manipulate biological/syntactic gender features separately from case marking features. The major aim of this study was to determine what the influence of gender information in combination with a local structural case constraint is on the processing of a personal pronoun in a sentence. Event-related brain potential (ERP experiments were performed in German and in Dutch. In a word by word sentence reading study in German and Dutch, gender congruency between the antecedent and the pronoun was manipulated and/or case assignment by the preposition was violated while ERPs of young native speakers were recorded. Results The German and the Dutch ERP data showed an enlarged negativity broadly distributed starting approximately 350 ms after onset of the pronoun followed by a late positivity for gender violations. For syntactic incongruencies without gender violations only a positivity was present. The Dutch data showed an earlier onset of the positivity in comparison to German. Conclusion Finding negativities and positivities for conditions with a gender violation indicates that pronoun resolution with gender incongruency between the pronoun and the antecedent suffers from semantic as well as syntactic integration problems. The presence of a positivity for the syntactically incongruent

  20. AC and DC electrical properties of graphene nanoplatelets reinforced epoxy syntactic foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegeye, Ephraim; Wicker, Scott; Woldesenbet, Eyassu

    2018-04-01

    Benefits of employing graphene nanopletlates (GNPLs) in composite structures include mechanical as well as multifunctional properties. Understanding the impedance behavior of GNPLs reinforced syntactic foams may open new applications for syntactic foam composites. In this work, GNPLs reinforced syntactic foams were fabricated and tested for DC and AC electrical properties. Four sets of syntactic foam samples containing 0, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 vol% of GNPLs were fabricated and tested. Significant increase in conductivity of syntactic foams due to the addition of GNPLs was noted. AC impedance measurements indicated that the GNPLs syntactic foams become frequency dependent as the volume fraction of GNPLs increases. With addition of GNPLs, the characteristic of the syntactic foams are also observed to transition from dominant capacitive to dominant resistive behavior. This work was carried out at Southern University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Baton Rouge, LA 70802, United States of America.

  1. Syntactic flexibility and planning scope: The effect of verb bias on advance planning during sentence recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje evan de Velde

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In sentence production, grammatical advance planning scope depends on contextual factors (e.g., time pressure, linguistic factors (e.g., ease of structural processing, and cognitive factors (e.g., production speed. The present study tests the influence of the availability of multiple syntactic alternatives (i.e., syntactic flexibility on the scope of advance planning during the recall of Dutch dative phrases. We manipulated syntactic flexibility by using verbs with a strong bias or a weak bias towards one structural alternative in sentence frames accepting both verbs (e.g., strong/weak bias: De ober schotelt/serveert de klant de maaltijd [voor] 'The waiter dishes out/serves the customer the meal'. To assess lexical planning scope, we varied the frequency of the first post-verbal noun (N1, Experiment 1 or the second post-verbal noun (N2, Experiment 2. In each experiment, 36 speakers produced the verb phrases in a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP paradigm. On each trial, they read a sentence presented one word at a time, performed a short distractor task, and then saw a sentence preamble (e.g., De ober… which they had to complete to form the presented sentence. Onset latencies were compared using linear mixed effects models. N1 frequency did not produce any effects. N2 frequency only affected sentence onsets in the weak verb bias condition and especially in slow speakers. These findings highlight the dependency of planning scope during sentence recall on the grammatical properties of the verb and the frequency of post-verbal nouns. Implications for utterance planning in everyday speech are discussed.

  2. GENETIC VARIABILITY OF CULTURED PLANT TISSUES UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS AND UNDER STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolgikh Yu.I.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability induced by in vitro conditions known as somaclonal variation is of practical interest due to its potential uses in plant breeding but, on the other hand, if clonal propagation or transformation is main goal, it becomes an unwelcome phenomenon. Thus, it is important to know frequency, the genomic distribution, the mechanisms and factors influencing somaclonal variation. We studied variability of PCR-based DNA markers of cultured tissues and regenerated plants of maize and bread wheat. The original A188 line of maize and the somaclones obtained were tested using 38 RAPD and 10 ISSR primers. None of the A188 plants showed variation in the RAPD and ISSR spectra for any of the primers used. However, the PCR spectra obtained from the somaclones demonstrated some variations, i.e., 22 RAPD primers and 6 ISSR primers differentiated at least one somaclonal variant from the progenitor line. Six SCAR markers were developed based on several RAPD and ISSR fragments. The inheritance of these SCAR markers was verified in the selfing progeny of each somaclone in the R1–R4 generations and in the hybrids, with A188 as the parental line in the F1 and F2 generations. These markers were sequenced and bioinformatic searches were performed to understand the molecular events that may underlie the variability observed in the somaclones. All changes were found in noncoding sequences and were induced by different molecular events, such as the insertion of long terminal repeat transposon, precise miniature inverted repeat transposable element (MITE excision, microdeletion, recombination, and a change in the pool of mitochondrial DNA. In two groups of independently produced somaclones, the same features (morphological, molecular were variable, which confirms the theory of ‘hot spots’ occurring in the genome. The presence of the same molecular markers in the somaclones and in different non-somaclonal maize variants suggests that in some cases

  3. Resting heart rate variability predicts safety learning and fear extinction in an interoceptive fear conditioning paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Pappens

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate whether interindividual differences in autonomic inhibitory control predict safety learning and fear extinction in an interoceptive fear conditioning paradigm. Data from a previously reported study (N = 40 were extended (N = 17 and re-analyzed to test whether healthy participants' resting heart rate variability (HRV - a proxy of cardiac vagal tone - predicts learning performance. The conditioned stimulus (CS was a slight sensation of breathlessness induced by a flow resistor, the unconditioned stimulus (US was an aversive short-lasting suffocation experience induced by a complete occlusion of the breathing circuitry. During acquisition, the paired group received 6 paired CS-US presentations; the control group received 6 explicitly unpaired CS-US presentations. In the extinction phase, both groups were exposed to 6 CS-only presentations. Measures included startle blink EMG, skin conductance responses (SCR and US-expectancy ratings. Resting HRV significantly predicted the startle blink EMG learning curves both during acquisition and extinction. In the unpaired group, higher levels of HRV at rest predicted safety learning to the CS during acquisition. In the paired group, higher levels of HRV were associated with better extinction. Our findings suggest that the strength or integrity of prefrontal inhibitory mechanisms involved in safety- and extinction learning can be indexed by HRV at rest.

  4. Variability in the organic ligands released by Emiliania huxleyi under simulated ocean acidification conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Samperio-Ramos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The variability in the extracellular release of organic ligands by Emiliania huxleyi under four different pCO2 scenarios (225, 350, 600 and 900 μatm, was determined. Growth in the batch cultures was promoted by enriching them only with major nutrients and low iron concentrations. No chelating agents were added to control metal speciation. During the initial (IP, exponential (EP and steady (SP phases, extracellular release rates, normalized per cell and day, of dissolved organic carbon (DOCER, phenolic compounds (PhCER, dissolved combined carbohydrates (DCCHOER and dissolved uronic acids (DUAER in the exudates were determined. The growth rate decreased in the highest CO2 treatment during the IP (<48 h, but later increased when the exposure was longer (more than 6 days. DOCER did not increase significantly with high pCO2. Although no relationship was observed between DCCHOER and the CO2 conditions, DCCHO was a substantial fraction of the freshly released organic material, accounting for 18% to 37%, in EP, and 14% to 23%, in SP, of the DOC produced. Growth of E. huxleyi induced a strong response in the PhCER and DUAER. While in EP, PhCER were no detected, the DUAER remained almost constant for all CO2 treatments. Increases in the extracellular release of these organic ligands during SP were most pronounced under high pCO2 conditions. Our results imply that, during the final growth stage of E. huxleyi, elevated CO2 conditions will increase its excretion of acid polysaccharides and phenolic compounds, which may affect the biogeochemical behavior of metals in seawater.

  5. Study on variability of temperature and precipitation conditions in the South Eastern Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koleva-Lizama, Ivanka; Lizama Rivas, Bernardo

    2004-01-01

    Freshwater resources are an essential component of the earth's hydrosphere and an indispensable part of all terrestrial ecosystems. The freshwater environment is characterized by the hydrological cycle. Global climate change and pollution could also have an impact on freshwater resources and their availability. There is now sufficient evidence, accepted by internationally respected scientists, that human activity is having an effect on the climate of the planet. The effects are mostly the result of greenhouse gas emissions, and are in addition to naturally occurring climate change. The impacts of climate change on water resources are displayed in every sector of water system. The temperature and precipitation are the most important factors, which affect on water resources. On the basis of meteorological data for more than 45 years from several gauging stations is made an analysis on the peculiarities of the climatic conditions in the southeastern Bulgaria. In order to trace the variability of historical precipitation and temperature series the analysis of trend and deviations from climate mean of recommended by WMO 'climate normal' period 1961-1990 was used. Precipitation over the southeastern Bulgaria has a significant variability over wide range of temporal and spatial scales. The annual precipitation data were examined for evidence of a secular trend by calculation of a linear best fit for the 1952 to 2000. The tendency of rainfall decrease was determined. The drought period in the studied region is noticeable during the summer. It should be concluded that temperature increase and precipitation decrease conduct to drought in the region and it may have more severe impacts on agriculture, water supply and society.(Author)

  6. Theoretical and numerical investigations of TAP experiments. New approaches for variable pressure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senechal, U.; Breitkopf, C. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik

    2011-07-01

    Temporal analysis of products (TAP) is a valuable tool for characterization of porous catalytic structures. Established TAP-modeling requires a spatially constant diffusion coefficient and neglect convective flows, which is only valid in Knudsen diffusion regime. Therefore in experiments, the number of molecules per pulse must be chosen accordingly. New approaches for variable process conditions are highly required. Thus, a new theoretical model is developed for estimating the number of molecules per pulse to meet these requirements under any conditions and at any time. The void volume is calculated as the biggest sphere fitting between three pellets. The total number of pulsed molecules is assumed to fill the first void volume at the inlet immediately. Molecule numbers from these calculations can be understood as maximum possible molecules at any time in the reactor to be in Knudsen diffusion regime, i.e., above the Knudsen number of 2. Moreover, a new methodology for generating a full three-dimensional geometrical representation of beds is presented and used for numerical simulations to investigate spatial effects. Based on a freely available open-source game physics engine library (BULLET), beds of arbitrary-sized pellets can be generated and transformed to CFD-usable geometry. In CFD-software (ANSYS CFX registered) a transient diffusive transport equation with time-dependent inlet boundary conditions is solved. Three different pellet diameters were investigated with 1e18 molecules per pulse, which is higher than the limit from the theoretical calculation. Spatial and temporal distributions of transported species show regions inside the reactor, where non-Knudsen conditions exist. From this results, the distance from inlet can be calculated where the theoretical pressure limit (Knudsen number equals 2) is obtained, i.e., from this point to the end of the reactor Knudsen regime can be assumed. Due to linear dependency of pressure and concentration (assuming ideal

  7. Extreme conditions over Europe and North America: role of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprich-Robert, Yohan; Msadek, Rym; Delworth, Tom

    2016-04-01

    The Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV) is the result and possibly the source of marked modulations of the climate over many areas of the globe. For instance, the relatively warm and dry climate of North America throughout the 30-yr interval of 1931-60, during which the Dust Bowl and the 1950's drought occurred, has been linked to the concomitant warm phase of the AMV. During this period relative warm and wet conditions prevailed over Europe. After 1960, the Atlantic began to cool, and for almost three decades the North American climate turned wetter and cooler whereas Europe experienced cooler and dryer conditions. However, the shortness of the historical observations compared to the AMV period suggested by longer proxy (~60-80yr) does not allow to firmly conclude on the causal effect of the AMV. We use a model approach to isolate the causal role of the AMV on the occurrence of extreme events over Europe and North America. We present experiments based on two GFDL global climate models, a low resolution version, CM2.1 and a higher resolution model for the atmospheric component, FLOR. In both model experiments sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic sector are restored to the observed AMV pattern, while the other basins are left fully coupled. In order to explore and robustly isolate the AMV impacts on extreme events, we use large ensemble simulations (100 members for CM2.1 and 50 for FLOR) that we run for 20 years. We find that a positive phase of the AMV increases the frequency of occurrence of drought over North America and of extremely cold/warm conditions over Northern/Central Europe during winter/summer. Interestingly, we find that the AMV impacts on these extreme conditions are modulated by the Pacific response to the AMV itself. Members that develop a weak Pacific response show more extreme events over Europe whereas those that develop a strong Pacific response show more extreme events over North America.

  8. Distribution, abundance, and diversity of stream fishes under variable environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. Taylor; Thomas L. Holder; Richard A. Fiorillo; Lance R. Williams; R. Brent Thomas; Melvin L. Warren

    2006-01-01

    The effects of stream size and flow regime on spatial and temporal variability of stream fish distribution, abundance, and diversity patterns were investigated. Assemblage variability and species richness were each significantly associated with a complex environmental gradient contrasting smaller, hydrologically variable stream localities with larger localities...

  9. Variable structure TITO fuzzy-logic controller implementation for a solar air-conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lygouras, J.N.; Pachidis, Th. [Laboratory of Electronics, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, GR-67100 Xanthi (Greece); Kodogiannis, V.S. [Centre for Systems Analysis, School of Computer Science, University of Westminster, London HA1 3TP (United Kingdom); Tarchanidis, K.N. [Department of Petroleum Technology, Technological Education Institute of Kavala, GR-65404, Kavala (Greece); Koukourlis, C.S. [Laboratory of Telecommunications, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, GR-67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2008-04-15

    The design and implementation of a Two-Input/Two-Output (TITO) variable structure fuzzy-logic controller for a solar-powered air-conditioning system is described in this paper. Two DC motors are used to drive the generator pump and the feed pump of the solar air-conditioner. The first affects the temperature in the generator of the solar air-conditioner, while the second, the pressure in the power loop. The difficulty of Multi-Input/Multi-Output (MIMO) systems control is how to overcome the coupling effects among each degree of freedom. First, a traditional fuzzy-controller has been designed, its output being one of the components of the control signal for each DC motor driver. Secondly, according to the characteristics of the system's dynamics coupling, an appropriate coupling fuzzy-controller (CFC) is incorporated into a traditional fuzzy-controller (TFC) to compensate for the dynamic coupling among each degree of freedom. This control strategy simplifies the implementation problem of fuzzy control, but can also improve the control performance. This mixed fuzzy controller (MFC) can effectively improve the coupling effects of the systems, and this control strategy is easy to design and implement. Experimental results from the implemented system are presented. (author)

  10. Experimental study of the permeability of concrete under variable thermal and hydric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the variable thermal and hydric effect, with fissuration effect on the hydraulic behaviour of two concretes. Many experimental tests (saturation and permeability measurements, uniaxial and triaxial compressions tests) were carried out in order to investigate the temperature and saturation influence on the behaviour hydraulic on sound and micro-cracked concrete. Moreover, an experimental device for permeability measurement on macro-cracked concrete was realized, it allows to study the behaviour of macro-cracked of concrete confined and subjected to dry gas flow or very moist air at different temperatures. Multiaxial mechanical tests are coupled to the permeability measurements of sound concrete and micro-cracked by freezing and thawing, which allow to measuring the permeability under deviatoric load-unload with the effect of pre-cracking under stress. We also effectuated a test of relative permeability of concrete as a function of water saturation, subjected to drying and re-saturation, conditioning by the different relative humidity imposed. (author)

  11. LoRa Performance under Variable Interference and Heavy-Multipath Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Staniec

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available LoRa (or LoRaWAN is by far the best known representative of narrowband communication systems designed for the Internet of Things. As a system dedicated specifically for long-range operations, it possesses a considerable processing gain for the energetic link budget improvement and a remarkable immunity to multipath and interference. The paper describes outcomes of measurement campaigns during which the LoRa performance was tested against these two factors, that is, a heavy-multipath propagation and a controlled, variable interference generated, respectively, in a reverberation chamber and an anechoic chamber. Results allow quantitative appraisal of the system behavior under these harsh conditions with respect to LoRa’s three major configurable parameters: the spreading factor, bandwidth, and code rate. They also allow dividing LoRa configurational space into three distinct sensitivity regions: in the white region it is immune to both interference and multipath propagation, in the light-grey region it is only immune to the multipath phenomenon but sensitive to interference, and in the dark grey region LoRa is vulnerable to both phenomena.

  12. Automated Bearing Fault Diagnosis Using 2D Analysis of Vibration Acceleration Signals under Variable Speed Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheraz Ali Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional fault diagnosis methods of bearings detect characteristic defect frequencies in the envelope power spectrum of the vibration signal. These defect frequencies depend upon the inherently nonstationary shaft speed. Time-frequency and subband signal analysis of vibration signals has been used to deal with random variations in speed, whereas design variations require retraining a new instance of the classifier for each operating speed. This paper presents an automated approach for fault diagnosis in bearings based upon the 2D analysis of vibration acceleration signals under variable speed conditions. Images created from the vibration signals exhibit unique textures for each fault, which show minimal variation with shaft speed. Microtexture analysis of these images is used to generate distinctive fault signatures for each fault type, which can be used to detect those faults at different speeds. A k-nearest neighbor classifier trained using fault signatures generated for one operating speed is used to detect faults at all the other operating speeds. The proposed approach is tested on the bearing fault dataset of Case Western Reserve University, and the results are compared with those of a spectrum imaging-based approach.

  13. ASD Is Not DLI: Individuals With Autism and Individuals With Syntactic DLI Show Similar Performance Level in Syntactic Tasks, but Different Error Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nufar Sukenik

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Do individuals with autism have a developmental syntactic impairment, DLI (formerly known as SLI? In this study we directly compared the performance of 18 individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD aged 9;0–18;0 years with that of 93 individuals with Syntactic-Developmental Language Impairment (SyDLI aged 8;8–14;6 (and with 166 typically-developing children aged 5;2–18;1. We tested them using three syntactic tests assessing the comprehension and production of syntactic structures that are known to be sensitive to syntactic impairment: elicitation of subject and object relative clauses, reading and paraphrasing of object relatives, and repetition of complex syntactic structures including Wh questions, relative clauses, topicalized sentences, sentences with verb movement, sentences with A-movement, and embedded sentences. The results were consistent across the three tasks: the overall rate of correct performance on the syntactic tasks is similar for the children with ASD and those with SyDLI. However, once we look closer, they are very different. The types of errors of the ASD group differ from those of the SyDLI group—the children with ASD provide various types of pragmatically infelicitous responses that are not evinced in the SyDLI or in the age equivalent typically-developing groups. The two groups (ASD and SyDLI also differ in the pattern of performance—the children with SyDLI show a syntactically-principled pattern of impairment, with selective difficulty in specific sentence types (such as sentences derived by movement of the object across the subject, and normal performance on other structures (such as simple sentences. In contrast, the ASD participants showed generalized low performance on the various sentence structures. Syntactic performance was far from consistent within the ASD group. Whereas all ASD participants had errors that can originate in pragmatic/discourse difficulties, seven of them had completely normal syntax

  14. ASD Is Not DLI: Individuals With Autism and Individuals With Syntactic DLI Show Similar Performance Level in Syntactic Tasks, but Different Error Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukenik, Nufar; Friedmann, Naama

    2018-01-01

    Do individuals with autism have a developmental syntactic impairment, DLI (formerly known as SLI)? In this study we directly compared the performance of 18 individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) aged 9;0-18;0 years with that of 93 individuals with Syntactic-Developmental Language Impairment (SyDLI) aged 8;8-14;6 (and with 166 typically-developing children aged 5;2-18;1). We tested them using three syntactic tests assessing the comprehension and production of syntactic structures that are known to be sensitive to syntactic impairment: elicitation of subject and object relative clauses, reading and paraphrasing of object relatives, and repetition of complex syntactic structures including Wh questions, relative clauses, topicalized sentences, sentences with verb movement, sentences with A-movement, and embedded sentences. The results were consistent across the three tasks: the overall rate of correct performance on the syntactic tasks is similar for the children with ASD and those with SyDLI. However, once we look closer, they are very different. The types of errors of the ASD group differ from those of the SyDLI group-the children with ASD provide various types of pragmatically infelicitous responses that are not evinced in the SyDLI or in the age equivalent typically-developing groups. The two groups (ASD and SyDLI) also differ in the pattern of performance-the children with SyDLI show a syntactically-principled pattern of impairment, with selective difficulty in specific sentence types (such as sentences derived by movement of the object across the subject), and normal performance on other structures (such as simple sentences). In contrast, the ASD participants showed generalized low performance on the various sentence structures. Syntactic performance was far from consistent within the ASD group. Whereas all ASD participants had errors that can originate in pragmatic/discourse difficulties, seven of them had completely normal syntax in the structures we

  15. Using stochastic language models (SLM) to map lexical, syntactic, and phonological information processing in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopopolo, Alessandro; Frank, Stefan L; van den Bosch, Antal; Willems, Roel M

    2017-01-01

    Language comprehension involves the simultaneous processing of information at the phonological, syntactic, and lexical level. We track these three distinct streams of information in the brain by using stochastic measures derived from computational language models to detect neural correlates of phoneme, part-of-speech, and word processing in an fMRI experiment. Probabilistic language models have proven to be useful tools for studying how language is processed as a sequence of symbols unfolding in time. Conditional probabilities between sequences of words are at the basis of probabilistic measures such as surprisal and perplexity which have been successfully used as predictors of several behavioural and neural correlates of sentence processing. Here we computed perplexity from sequences of words and their parts of speech, and their phonemic transcriptions. Brain activity time-locked to each word is regressed on the three model-derived measures. We observe that the brain keeps track of the statistical structure of lexical, syntactic and phonological information in distinct areas.

  16. Music-syntactic processing and auditory memory: similarities and differences between ERAN and MMN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The early right anterior negativity (ERAN) is an event-related potential (ERP) reflecting processing of music-syntactic information, that is, of acoustic information structured according to abstract and complex regularities. The ERAN is usually maximal between 150 and 250 ms, has anterior scalp distribution (and often right-hemispheric weighting), can be modified by short- and long-term musical experience, can be elicited under ignore conditions, and emerges in early childhood. Main generators of the ERAN appear to be located in inferior fronto-lateral cortex. The ERAN resembles both the physical MMN and the abstract feature MMN in a number of properties, but the cognitive mechanisms underlying ERAN and MMN partly differ: Whereas the generation of the MMN is based on representations of regularities of intersound relationships that are extracted online from the acoustic environment, the generation of the ERAN relies on representations of music-syntactic regularities that already exist in a long-term memory format. Other processes, such as predicting subsequent acoustic events and comparing new acoustic information with the predicted sound, presumably overlap strongly for MMN and ERAN.

  17. The Syntactic Derivations of Split Antecedent Relative Clause Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina Ning Zhang

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I propose a syntactic derivation for Split Antecedent Relative Clause Constructions such as Mary met a man and John met a woman who knew each other well. I claim that the two antecedents of such a construction are originally two conjuncts of a coordinate nominal. Then each has undergone a sideward movement, landed in a new working site, and been selected by a verb. After that, a coordinate clausal complex is constructed. In the old working site, a complex nominal is also constructed, in which the relative clause takes the remnant coordinate nominal as its antecedent. Finally, the complex nominal adjoins to the coordinate clausal complex. This analysis shows how the freedom in the selection of the landing site gained from sideward movement makes the syntactic derivations of this special type of relative clause construction possible, while at the same time avoiding the problems of the alternative three-dimensional analysis.

  18. Evaluation of circularity error in drilling of syntactic foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrith H., S.; Doddamani, Mrityunjay; Gaitonde, Vinayak

    2018-04-01

    Syntactic foams are widely used in structural applications of automobiles, aircrafts and underwater vehicles due to their lightweight properties combined with high compression strength and low moisture absorption. Structural application requires drilling of holes for assembly purpose. In this investigation response surface methodology based mathematical models are used to analyze the effects of cutting speed, feed, drill diameter and filler content on circularity error both at entry and exit level in drilling of glass microballoon reinforced epoxy syntactic foam. Experiments are conducted based on full factorial design using solid coated tungsten carbide twist drills. The parametric analysis reveals that circularity error is highly influenced by drill diameter followed by spindle speed at the entry and exit level. Parametric analysis also reveals that increasing filler content decreases circularity error by 13.65 and 11.96% respectively at entry and exit levels. Average circularity error at the entry level is found to be 23.73% higher than at the exit level.

  19. Syntactic Language Extension via an Algebra of Languages and Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Brabrand, Claus

    2010-01-01

    We propose an algebra of languages and transformations as a means for extending languages syntactically. The algebra provides a layer of high-level abstractions built on top of languages (captured by context-free grammars) and transformations (captured by constructive catamorphisms). The algebra...... is self-contained in that any term of the algebra specifying a transformation can be reduced to a catamorphism, before the transformation is run. Thus, the algebra comes “for free” without sacrificing the strong safety and efficiency properties of constructive catamorphisms. The entire algebra...... as presented in the paper is implemented as the Banana Algebra Tool which may be used to syntactically extend languages in an incremental and modular fashion via algebraic composition of previously defined languages and transformations. We demonstrate and evaluate the tool via several kinds of extensions....

  20. A method for calorimetric analysis in variable conditions heating; Methode d'analyse calorimetrique en regime variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthier, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    By the analysis of the thermal transition conditions given by the quenching of a sample in a furnace maintained at a high temperature, it is possible to study the thermal diffusivity of some materials and those of solid state structure transformation on a qualitative as well as a quantitative standpoint. For instance the transformation energy of {alpha}-quartz into {beta}-quartz and the Wigner energy stored within neutron-irradiated beryllium oxide have been measured. (author) [French] L'analyse du regime thermique transitoire, obtenu par la trempe d'un echantillon dans l'enceinte d'un four maintenu a tres haute temperature, peut permettre l'etude de la diffusivite thermique de certains materiaux et celle des transformations structurales en phase solide, tant du point de vue qualitatif que du point de vue quantitatif (mesure de l'energie de transformation du quartz {alpha} en quartz {beta} et determination de l'energie Wigner emmagasinee par l'oxyde de beryllium irradie aux neutrons). (auteur)

  1. On a syntactic-semantic model with the locative case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonić Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this paper is a syntactic-semantic model whose distinctive element is the locative case with the preposition U (IN and the relevant feature (+ human being. This model is realized in three different variants - with the intransitive (A or transitive verb (B, where the nominative in the function of subject and the locative indicate different (B1 or the same (B2 referents. Furthermore, the verb belongs to a semantic class which denotes emerging, stimulation, duration, fading away, diminishing or change in the intensity, in principle, of any phenomenon, and concretely in this model such verbs appear in the collocational link with the nouns implying man's psychological, physiological or mental states, feelings or mood. With an adequate analytic procedure, all the three variants of this model are approached from the syntactic-semantic and pragmatic perspective. The paper points to the causative semantics of these structures, reduced to the metalinguistic formula 'make that X V', which confirms that the semantics of these verb-noun collocational links, syntactically speaking, condenses a complex two-member sentential structure represented by the semantically deficient verb (= causative component in the basic, matrix structure, and the complement clause with the conjunction DA (THAT and the basic verb. And precisely from this semantic feature there follows that the notion in the locative case semantically, actually, represents the BEARER of a physiological, physiological or mental state, feeling, mood, so that it represents the GRAMMATICAL SUBJECT of the corresponding basic subordinated predication whose exponent, actually, is the grammatical subject in the structure with the intransitive verb (or with the syntactically-semantically intransitive verb structure, that is the object in the structure with the transitive verb. Two possible semantic interpretations of this model are presented: the one related to the referential pointing to the

  2. [Syntactic Processing in Broca's Area: Brodmann Areas 44 and 45].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Atora; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2017-04-01

    Brodmann areas 44 and 45 are known as Broca's area; however, their true functional roles are still unknown. Recent developments in neuroimaging techniques revealed the structures and functions of Broca's area in detail. More specifically regarding language functions, sufficient evidence has been accumulated that this region subserves the center of syntactic processing, not necessarily motor functions. Here, we review a role of Broca's area as the grammar center, including other roles in nonlinguistic functions.

  3. Processing Interrogative Sentence Mood at the Semantic-Syntactic Interface: An Electrophysiological Research in Chinese, German, and Polish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chung-Shan; Dietrich, Rainer; Sommer, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Background Languages differ in the marking of the sentence mood of a polar interrogative (yes/no question). For instance, the interrogative mood is marked at the beginning of the surface structure in Polish, whereas the marker appears at the end in Chinese. In order to generate the corresponding sentence frame, the syntactic specification of the interrogative mood is early in Polish and late in Chinese. In this respect, German belongs to an interesting intermediate class. The yes/no question is expressed by a shift of the finite verb from its final position in the underlying structure into the utterance initial position, a move affecting, hence, both the sentence's final and the sentence's initial constituents. The present study aimed to investigate whether during generation of the semantic structure of a polar interrogative, i.e., the processing preceding the grammatical formulation, the interrogative mood is encoded according to its position in the syntactic structure at distinctive time points in Chinese, German, and Polish. Methodology/Principal Findings In a two-choice go/nogo experimental design, native speakers of the three languages responded to pictures by pressing buttons and producing utterances in their native language while their brain potentials were recorded. The emergence and latency of lateralized readiness potentials (LRP) in nogo conditions, in which speakers asked a yes/no question, should indicate the time point of processing the interrogative mood. The results revealed that Chinese, German, and Polish native speakers did not differ from each other in the electrophysiological indicator. Conclusions/Significance The findings suggest that the semantic encoding of the interrogative mood is temporally consistent across languages despite its disparate syntactic specification. The consistent encoding may be ascribed to economic processing of interrogative moods at various sentential positions of the syntactic structures in languages or, more

  4. Detection of Gene Interactions Based on Syntactic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Young Kim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between proteins and genes are considered essential in the description of biomolecular phenomena, and networks of interactions are applied in a system's biology approach. Recently, many studies have sought to extract information from biomolecular text using natural language processing technology. Previous studies have asserted that linguistic information is useful for improving the detection of gene interactions. In particular, syntactic relations among linguistic information are good for detecting gene interactions. However, previous systems give a reasonably good precision but poor recall. To improve recall without sacrificing precision, this paper proposes a three-phase method for detecting gene interactions based on syntactic relations. In the first phase, we retrieve syntactic encapsulation categories for each candidate agent and target. In the second phase, we construct a verb list that indicates the nature of the interaction between pairs of genes. In the last phase, we determine direction rules to detect which of two genes is the agent or target. Even without biomolecular knowledge, our method performs reasonably well using a small training dataset. While the first phase contributes to improve recall, the second and third phases contribute to improve precision. In the experimental results using ICML 05 Workshop on Learning Language in Logic (LLL05 data, our proposed method gave an F-measure of 67.2% for the test data, significantly outperforming previous methods. We also describe the contribution of each phase to the performance.

  5. Deficit-lesion correlations in syntactic comprehension in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, David; Michaud, Jennifer; Hufford, Rebecca; Makris, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    The effects of lesions on syntactic comprehension were studied in thirty-one people with aphasia (PWA). Participants were tested for the ability to parse and interpret four types of syntactic structures and elements - passives, object extracted relative clauses, reflexives and pronouns - in three tasks - object manipulation, sentence picture matching with full sentence presentation and sentence picture matching with self-paced listening presentation. Accuracy, end-of-sentence RT and self-paced listening times for each word were measured. MR scans were obtained and analyzed for total lesion volume and for lesion size in 48 cortical areas. Lesion size in several areas of the left hemisphere was related to accuracy in particular sentence types in particular tasks and to self-paced listening times for critical words in particular sentence types. The results support a model of brain organization that includes areas that are specialized for the combination of particular syntactic and interpretive operations and the use of the meanings produced by those operations to accomplish task-related operations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Age-related shifts in hemispheric dominance for syntactic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, Michelle; Federmeier, Kara D

    2017-12-01

    Recent ERP data from young adults have revealed that simple syntactic anomalies elicit different patterns of lateralization in right-handed participants depending upon their familial sinistrality profile (whether or not they have left-handed biological relatives). Right-handed participants who do not have left-handed relatives showed a strongly lateralized response pattern, with P600 responses following left-hemisphere-biased presentations and N400 responses following right-hemisphere-biased presentations. Given that the literature on aging has documented a tendency to change across adulthood from asymmetry of function to a more bilateral pattern, we tested the stability of this asymmetric response to syntactic violations by recording ERPs as 24 older adults (age 60+) with no history of familial sinistrality made grammaticality judgments on simple two-word phrases. Results showed that the asymmetric pattern observed in right-handed adults without familial sinistrality indeed changes with age, such that P600 responses come to be elicited not only with left-hemisphere-biased but also with right-hemisphere-biased presentations in older adults. These findings suggest that, as with many other cognitive functions, syntactic processing becomes more bilateral with age. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Representing idioms: syntactic and contextual effects on idiom processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsinger, Edward

    2013-09-01

    Recent work on the processing of idiomatic expressions argues against the idea that idioms are simply big words. For example, hybrid models of idiom representation, originally investigated in the context of idiom production, propose a priority of literal computation, and a principled relationship between the conceptual meaning of an idiom, its literal lemmas and its syntactic structure. We examined the predictions of the hybrid representation hypothesis in the domain of idiom comprehension. We conducted two experiments to examine the role of syntactic, lexical and contextual factors on the interpretation of idiomatic expressions. Experiment I examines the role of syntactic compatibility and lexical compatibility on the real-time processing of potentially idiomatic strings. Experiment 2 examines the role of contextual information on idiom processing and how context interacts with lexical information during processing. We find evidence that literal computation plays a causal role in the retrieval of idiomatic meaning and that contextual, lexical and structural information influence the processing of idiomatic strings at early stages during processing, which provide support for the hybrid model of idiom representation in the domain of idiom comprehension.

  8. Deficit-Lesion Correlations in Syntactic Comprehension in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, David; Michaud, Jennifer; Hufford, Rebecca; Makris, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    The effects of lesions on syntactic comprehension were studied in thirty one people with aphasia (PWA). Participants were tested for the ability to parse and interpret four types of syntactic structures and elements -- passives, object extracted relative clauses, reflexives and pronouns – in three tasks – object manipulation, sentence picture matching with full sentence presentation and sentence picture matching with self-paced listening presentation. Accuracy, end-of-sentence RT and self-paced listening times for each word were measured. MR scans were obtained and analyzed for total lesion volume and for lesion size in 48 cortical areas. Lesion size in several areas of the left hemisphere was related to accuracy in particular sentence types in particular tasks and to self-paced listening times for critical words in particular sentence types. The results support a model of brain organization that includes areas that are specialized for the combination of particular syntactic and interpretive operations and the use of the meanings produced by those operations to accomplish task-related operations. PMID:26688433

  9. Speech rhythm facilitates syntactic ambiguity resolution: ERP evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula Roncaglia-Denissen

    Full Text Available In the current event-related potential (ERP study, we investigated how speech rhythm impacts speech segmentation and facilitates the resolution of syntactic ambiguities in auditory sentence processing. Participants listened to syntactically ambiguous German subject- and object-first sentences that were spoken with either regular or irregular speech rhythm. Rhythmicity was established by a constant metric pattern of three unstressed syllables between two stressed ones that created rhythmic groups of constant size. Accuracy rates in a comprehension task revealed that participants understood rhythmically regular sentences better than rhythmically irregular ones. Furthermore, the mean amplitude of the P600 component was reduced in response to object-first sentences only when embedded in rhythmically regular but not rhythmically irregular context. This P600 reduction indicates facilitated processing of sentence structure possibly due to a decrease in processing costs for the less-preferred structure (object-first. Our data suggest an early and continuous use of rhythm by the syntactic parser and support language processing models assuming an interactive and incremental use of linguistic information during language processing.

  10. Speech rhythm facilitates syntactic ambiguity resolution: ERP evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncaglia-Denissen, Maria Paula; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Kotz, Sonja A

    2013-01-01

    In the current event-related potential (ERP) study, we investigated how speech rhythm impacts speech segmentation and facilitates the resolution of syntactic ambiguities in auditory sentence processing. Participants listened to syntactically ambiguous German subject- and object-first sentences that were spoken with either regular or irregular speech rhythm. Rhythmicity was established by a constant metric pattern of three unstressed syllables between two stressed ones that created rhythmic groups of constant size. Accuracy rates in a comprehension task revealed that participants understood rhythmically regular sentences better than rhythmically irregular ones. Furthermore, the mean amplitude of the P600 component was reduced in response to object-first sentences only when embedded in rhythmically regular but not rhythmically irregular context. This P600 reduction indicates facilitated processing of sentence structure possibly due to a decrease in processing costs for the less-preferred structure (object-first). Our data suggest an early and continuous use of rhythm by the syntactic parser and support language processing models assuming an interactive and incremental use of linguistic information during language processing.

  11. Decision Making Strategy and the Simultaneous Processing of Syntactic Dependencies in Language and Music

    OpenAIRE

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M. P.; Bouwer, Fleur L.; Honing, Henkjan

    2018-01-01

    Despite differences in their function and domain-specific elements, syntactic processing in music and language is believed to share cognitive resources. This study aims to investigate whether the simultaneous processing of language and music share the use of a common syntactic processor or more general attentional resources. To investigate this matter we tested musicians and non-musicians using visually presented sentences and aurally presented melodies containing syntactic local and long-dis...

  12. Neural correlates of successful and unsuccessful syntactic processing in primary progressive aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Wilson

    2015-04-01

    Our findings suggest that some of the regions modulated by a syntactic processing task reflect task-related functions such as working memory, attention, and executive function, specifically the anterior insula bilaterally, the supplementary motor cortex bilaterally, and left dorsal premotor cortex. In contrast, other regions were modulated only in individuals with relatively intact syntactic processing, namely the left inferior frontal junction, left posterior superior temporal sulcus, and left intraparietal sulcus, suggesting that these regions are important for syntactic processing.

  13. Variability and condition of common minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus, Cyprinidae, Cypriniformes) on the Semipalatinsk range and out of its influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrofanov, I.V.; Matmuratov, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Populations of common minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) from five rivers of Irtysh and Balkhash basins were investigated. Population from the Shagan river situated inside area of Semipalatinsk Range influence. This population has normal sexual structure and high growth rate. Condition factor of all fishes is high. Population from Semipalatinsk Range has increased variability of characteristics due to increasing of stochastic part of general variability. Abnormalities of external fish morphology are not observed in this area. Asymmetry of bilateral characteristics is low. (author)

  14. SYNTACTIC ERRORS ANALYSIS IN THE CASUAL CONVERSATION 60 COMMITED BY TWO SENIOR HIGH STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjar Setiawan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Syntactic structures are the base of English grammar. This study was aimed to analyze the syntactic errors in the casual conversation commited by two senior high students of MAN 2 Semarang. The researcher used qualitative approach to analyze and interpret the meaning of casual conversation. Furthermore, the data collection had been transcribed and analyzed based on the areas of syntactic errors analysis. The findings of the study showed that all areas of syntactic errors happened during the conversation, included auxiliaries, tenses, article, preposition, and conjunction. Both speakers also had a relatively weak vocabulary and their sentences which were sometimes incomprehensible by the interlocutor.

  15. A Capillary-Based Static Phase Separator for Highly Variable Wetting Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.; Graf, John C.; Weislogel, Mark M.

    2010-01-01

    The invention, a static phase separator (SPS), uses airflow and capillary wetting characteristics to passively separate a two-phase (liquid and air) flow. The device accommodates highly variable liquid wetting characteristics. The resultant design allows for a range of wetting properties from about 0 to over 90 advancing contact angle, with frequent complete separation of liquid from gas observed when using appropriately scaled test conditions. Additionally, the design accommodates a range of air-to-liquid flow-rate ratios from only liquid flow to over 200:1 air-to-liquid flow rate. The SPS uses a helix input section with an ice-cream-cone-shaped constant area cross section (see figure). The wedge portion of the cross section is on the outer edge of the helix, and collects the liquid via centripetal acceleration. The helix then passes into an increasing cross-sectional area vane region. The liquid in the helix wedge is directed into the top of capillary wedges in the liquid containment section. The transition from diffuser to containment section includes a 90 change in capillary pumping direction, while maintaining inertial direction. This serves to impinge the liquid into the two off-center symmetrical vanes by the airflow. Rather than the airflow serving to shear liquid away from the capillary vanes, the design allows for further penetration of the liquid into the vanes by the air shear. This is also assisted by locating the air exit ports downstream of the liquid drain port. Additionally, any droplets not contained in the capillary vanes are re-entrained downstream by a third opposing capillary vane, which directs liquid back toward the liquid drain port. Finally, the dual air exit ports serve to slow the airflow down, and to reduce the likelihood of shear. The ports are stove-piped into the cavity to form an unfriendly capillary surface for a wetting fluid to carryover. The liquid drain port is located at the start of the containment region, allowing for

  16. Application of the Unity Rockfall Model to Variable Surface Material Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Zac; Hutchinson, D. Jean; Ondercin, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    Rockfall is a geological process that poses risks to the safe operation of transportation infrastructure in mountainous environments world wide. The Unity rockfall model was created as a tool for 3D rockfall simulation as part of the Railway Ground Hazards Research Program, studying the impact of geotechnical hazards affecting Canadian railways [1]. The Unity rockfall model demonstrates the applicability of 3D video game engines for the development of realistic simulations, leveraging high-resolution site data collected using remote sensing techniques. Currently work is being done to further calibrate the model as an engineering tool for decision support. Calibration datasets include high-resolution terrestrial LiDAR and helicopter photogrammetry data collected as part of an ongoing rockfall monitoring program along the Thompson River Valley in south-central British Columbia, Canada. Change detection techniques developed as part of the program have been used to construct a database of rockfall event history and to develop magnitude-frequency relationships for rockfalls in the area [2][3]. Data collected as part of a controlled rock-rolling field program in Christchurch, New Zealand [4] is also being utilized for model calibration. Data on block dynamics for the artificially triggered rockfalls were collected through the use of embedded motion sensors and a sixteen camera setup. These experiments provide detailed information on block kinematics, and capture each impact point of the rockfall with the slope, thus offering a valuable dataset for comparison with modelling results. The research reported here explores the ability of the game engine based modelling technique to simulate rockfall under the variable slope conditions present at each of the sites where calibration data was collected. This includes steep natural rock slopes, with debris-talus cover, as well as shallower slopes with soil cover and vegetation. The varying slope conditions in each environment

  17. 音乐句法的加工%Music syntactic processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马谐; 杨玉芳; 张秋月

    2016-01-01

    Music Syntax refers to the principle of combining discrete key elements into hierarchical system.Organization of pitches based on tonality harmony is the most important music syntax which affects the expectation,the construction and the feedback on the music events of the audience from which aesthetic musical experience is finally produced.Lerdahl and Jackendoff proposed a musical tree-structure that parallel to linguistic syntax in their generative theory of tonal music (GTTM).And Rohrmeier further specified hierarchical generativerules of pitch syntax in the generative syntax model (GSM).Both the GTTM and the GSM put forward the analogy between music syntax and linguistic syntax.But what is obviously different from language processing is that the processing of music syntax of the audience reveals a cross-empiricalness effects.Whether in early studies of behavioristics or in recent studies of EPR,most evidences support that there is a syntax diagram guiding people's musical expectations without much association with their musical experiences among western audience,at least in the sense of simple linear syntax.Therefore,the acquisition of music syntax under the non-explicit conditions arouses researchers' thinking on music syntax processing mechanism.Current studies have not reached a consensus on processing of syntactic structure,and two antagonistic theories "Cognitivism" and "Physicalism" have generated."Cognitivism" put forward that since pitch syntax reflects abstract cognitive structural relations between sounds and meanings,syntactic integration requires the help of scheme drive of long-term memory,of which MUSACT and the shared syntactic integration resource hypothesis (SSIRH) are the representative theories.While "Physicalism" considered that it only needs the help of short-term memory in perception drive because pitch syntax has a property of psychoacoustics derived from voice frequency.And the periodicity pitch model (PP) and its derivate,the auditory

  18. Effect of weather data aggregation on regional crop simulation for different crops, production conditions, and response variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Gang; Hoffmann, Holger; Bussel, Van L.G.J.; Enders, Andreas; Specka, Xenia; Sosa, Carmen; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Tao, Fulu; Constantin, Julie; Raynal, Helene; Teixeira, Edmar; Grosz, Balázs; Doro, Luca; Zhao, Zhigan; Nendel, Claas; Kiese, Ralf; Eckersten, Henrik; Haas, Edwin; Vanuytrecht, Eline; Wang, Enli; Kuhnert, Matthias; Trombi, Giacomo; Moriondo, Marco; Bindi, Marco; Lewan, Elisabet; Bach, Michaela; Kersebaum, Kurt Christian; Rötter, Reimund; Roggero, Pier Paolo; Wallach, Daniel; Cammarano, Davide; Asseng, Senthold; Krauss, Gunther; Siebert, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the weather data aggregation effect (DAE) on the simulation of cropping systems for different crops, response variables, and production conditions. Using 13 processbased crop models and the ensemble mean, we simulated 30 yr continuous cropping systems for 2 crops (winter wheat and

  19. RESEARCH OF EXISTENCE OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VARIABLES BY THE METHOD OF CONDITION-CONSEQUENCE DECOMPOSITION OF EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dron'

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the work an algorithm for establishing the existence of relationship between arbitrary socio-economic variables is given. The algorithm is based on the condition-consequence decomposition of events. It involves the construction of event-model and the using two classifications – types of interdependencies between events and types of relationships between their attributes.

  20. Joint variable frame rate and length analysis for speech recognition under adverse conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Zheng-Hua; Kraljevski, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method that combines variable frame length and rate analysis for speech recognition in noisy environments, together with an investigation of the effect of different frame lengths on speech recognition performance. The method adopts frame selection using an a posteriori signal......-to-noise (SNR) ratio weighted energy distance and increases the length of the selected frames, according to the number of non-selected preceding frames. It assigns a higher frame rate and a normal frame length to a rapidly changing and high SNR region of a speech signal, and a lower frame rate and an increased...... frame length to a steady or low SNR region. The speech recognition results show that the proposed variable frame rate and length method outperforms fixed frame rate and length analysis, as well as standalone variable frame rate analysis in terms of noise-robustness....

  1. Self-healing of sandwich structures with a grid stiffened shape memory polymer syntactic foam core

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Manu; Li, Guoqiang

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, a new sandwich with an orthogrid stiffened shape memory polymer (SMP) based syntactic foam core was proposed, fabricated, programmed, impacted, healed (sealed), and compression tested, for the purposes of healing impact damage repeatedly and almost autonomously. Two prestrain levels (3% and 20%), two impact energy levels (30.0 and 53.3 J), and two recovery (healing) conditions (2D confined and 3D confined) were employed in this paper. Up to seven impact-healing cycles were conducted. Macroscopic and microscopic damage-healing observation and analysis were implemented. Residual strength was evaluated using an anti-buckling compression test fixture. It was found that the healing efficiency was over 100% for almost all the impact-healing cycles; programming using 20% prestrain led to higher residual strength than that with 3% prestrain; 3D confined recovery resulted in higher residual strength than 2D confined recovery; and as the impact energy increased, the healing efficiency slightly decreased.

  2. Accommodating Binary and Count Variables in Mediation: A Case for Conditional Indirect Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldhof, G. John; Anthony, Katherine P.; Selig, James P.; Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.

    2018-01-01

    The existence of several accessible sources has led to a proliferation of mediation models in the applied research literature. Most of these sources assume endogenous variables (e.g., M, and Y) have normally distributed residuals, precluding models of binary and/or count data. Although a growing body of literature has expanded mediation models to…

  3. Comprehension priming as rational expectation for repetition: Evidence from syntactic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myslín, Mark; Levy, Roger

    2016-02-01

    Why do comprehenders process repeated stimuli more rapidly than novel stimuli? We consider an adaptive explanation for why such facilitation may be beneficial: priming is a consequence of expectation for repetition due to rational adaptation to the environment. If occurrences of a stimulus cluster in time, given one occurrence it is rational to expect a second occurrence closely following. Leveraging such knowledge may be particularly useful in online processing of language, where pervasive clustering may help comprehenders negotiate the considerable challenge of continual expectation update at multiple levels of linguistic structure and environmental variability. We test this account in the domain of structural priming in syntax, making use of the sentential complement-direct object (SC-DO) ambiguity. We first show that sentences containing SC continuations cluster in natural language, motivating an expectation for repetition of this structure. Second, we show that comprehenders are indeed sensitive to the syntactic clustering properties of their current environment. In a series of between-groups self-paced reading studies, we find that participants who are exposed to clusters of SC sentences subsequently process repetitions of SC structure more rapidly than participants who are exposed to the same number of SCs spaced in time, and attribute the difference to the learned degree of expectation for repetition. We model this behavior through Bayesian belief update, showing that (the optimal degree of) sensitivity to clustering properties of syntactic structures is indeed learnable through experience. Comprehension priming effects are thus consistent with rational expectation for repetition based on adaptation to the linguistic environment. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanisms underlying syntactic comprehension deficits in vascular aphasia: new evidence from self-paced listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, David; Michaud, Jennifer; Hufford, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-one people with aphasia (pwa) and 41 matched controls were tested for the ability to understand sentences that required the ability to process particular syntactic elements and assign particular syntactic structures. Participants paced themselves word-by-word through 20 examples of 11 spoken sentence types and indicated which of two pictures corresponded to the meaning of each sentence. Sentences were developed in pairs such that comprehension of the experimental version of a pair required an aspect of syntactic processing not required in the corresponding baseline sentence. The need for the syntactic operations required only in the experimental version was triggered at a "critical word" in the experimental sentence. Listening times for critical words in experimental sentences were compared to those for corresponding words in the corresponding baseline sentences. The results were consistent with several models of syntactic comprehension deficits in pwa: resource reduction, slowed lexical and/or syntactic processing, abnormal susceptibility to interference from thematic roles generated non-syntactically. They suggest that a previously unidentified disturbance limiting the duration of parsing and interpretation may lead to these deficits, and that this mechanism may lead to structure-specific deficits in pwa. The results thus point to more than one mechanism underlying syntactic comprehension disorders both across and within pwa.

  5. Stuttering Frequency in Relation to Lexical Diversity, Syntactic Complexity, and Utterance Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagovich, Stacy A.; Hall, Nancy E.

    2018-01-01

    Children's frequency of stuttering can be affected by utterance length, syntactic complexity, and lexical content of language. Using a unique small-scale within-subjects design, this study explored whether language samples that contain more stuttering have (a) longer, (b) syntactically more complex, and (c) lexically more diverse utterances than…

  6. Decision Making Strategy and the Simultaneous Processing of Syntactic Dependencies in Language and Music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M.P.; Bouwer, F.L.; Honing, H.

    2018-01-01

    Despite differences in their function and domain-specific elements, syntactic processing in music and language is believed to share cognitive resources. This study aims to investigate whether the simultaneous processing of language and music share the use of a common syntactic processor or more

  7. On the Impact of L2 Speech Rhythm on Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M. Paula; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Heine, Angela; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2015-01-01

    In an event-related potential (ERP) study we investigated the role of age of acquisition (AoA) on the use of second language rhythmic properties during syntactic ambiguity resolution. Syntactically ambiguous sentences embedded in rhythmically regular and irregular contexts were presented to Turkish early and late second language (L2) learners of…

  8. The Functional Organisation of the Fronto-Temporal Language System: Evidence from Syntactic and Semantic Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Jennifer M.; Longe, Olivia A.; Randall, Billi; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2010-01-01

    Spoken language comprehension is known to involve a large left-dominant network of fronto-temporal brain regions, but there is still little consensus about how the syntactic and semantic aspects of language are processed within this network. In an fMRI study, volunteers heard spoken sentences that contained either syntactic or semantic ambiguities…

  9. Is Syntactic-Category Processing Obligatory in Visual Word Recognition? Evidence from Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Andus Wing-Kuen; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate how syntactic-category and semantic information is processed in visual word recognition. The stimuli were two-character Chinese words in which semantic and syntactic-category ambiguities were factorially manipulated. A lexical decision task was employed in Experiment 1, whereas a semantic relatedness…

  10. On the Nature of Syntactic Variation: Evidence from Complex Predicates and Complex Word-Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, William

    2001-01-01

    Provides evidence from child language acquisition and comparative syntax for existence of a syntactic parameter in the classical sense of Chomsky (1981), with simultaneous effects on syntactic argument structure. Implications are that syntax is subject to points of substantive parametric variation as envisioned in Chomsky, and the time course of…

  11. Vocabulary and Syntactic Knowledge Factors in 5th Grade Students' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Niederhauser, Dale S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined 5th grade students' levels of vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness relative to their reading comprehension performance. The aim was to explore the contributions of vocabulary and syntactic awareness as potential sources of reading comprehension difficulty for these readers. Overall, we found that both vocabulary…

  12. Syntactic Structure Building in the Anterior Temporal Lobe during Natural Story Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Jonathan; Nir, Yuval; Hasson, Uri; Malach, Rafael; Heeger, David J.; Pylkkanen, Liina

    2012-01-01

    The neural basis of syntax is a matter of substantial debate. In particular, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), or Broca's area, has been prominently linked to syntactic processing, but the anterior temporal lobe has been reported to be activated instead of IFG when manipulating the presence of syntactic structure. These findings are difficult to…

  13. Ellipsis as a Diagnostic Tool of Feature Strength and the Syntactic Structure of Ilocano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael Don

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation examines Ilocano, an Austronesian Filipino language, within the Minimalist Framework, in an effort to tease apart the general syntactic properties of the language. I show that Ilocano underlying structure can easily be captured within the standard syntactic structures proposed for languages generally (Universal Grammar). In my…

  14. Photophysiological variability of microphytobenthic diatoms after growth in different types of culture conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forster, R.M.; Martin-Jézéquel, V.R.

    2005-01-01

    Microphytobenthic diatoms have great ecological importance in estuarine and coastal marine ecosystenis, yet many aspects of their physiology have not been investigated under controlled conditions. This work describes patterns in growth rates and photosynthesis in different types of culture for

  15. The Kernel Mixture Network: A Nonparametric Method for Conditional Density Estimation of Continuous Random Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrogioni, Luca; Güçlü, Umut; van Gerven, Marcel A. J.; Maris, Eric

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces the kernel mixture network, a new method for nonparametric estimation of conditional probability densities using neural networks. We model arbitrarily complex conditional densities as linear combinations of a family of kernel functions centered at a subset of training points. The weights are determined by the outer layer of a deep neural network, trained by minimizing the negative log likelihood. This generalizes the popular quantized softmax approach, which can be seen ...

  16. How Problems of Reading Fluency and Comprehension Are Related to Difficulties in Syntactic Awareness Skills among Fifth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Thompson, H. Brian

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we assessed and analyzed 5th grade students' levels of syntactic awareness in relation to their reading fluency and comprehension. The aim was to examine the role of syntactic awareness (children's awareness of the syntactic structure of sentences and their ability to reflect on and manipulate that structure) as a potential source…

  17. Syntactic Priming and the Lexical Boost Effect during Sentence Production and Sentence Comprehension: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segaert, Katrien; Kempen, Gerard; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral syntactic priming effects during sentence comprehension are typically observed only if both the syntactic structure and lexical head are repeated. In contrast, during production syntactic priming occurs with structure repetition alone, but the effect is boosted by repetition of the lexical head. We used fMRI to investigate the neuronal…

  18. Moving from laboratory to real life conditions: Influence on the assessment of variability and stability of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Paola; Storm, Fabio; Buckley, Chris; Bisi, Maria Cristina; Stagni, Rita; Mazzà, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    The availability of wearable sensors allows shifting gait analysis from the traditional laboratory settings, to daily life conditions. However, limited knowledge is available about whether alterations associated to different testing environment (e.g. indoor or outdoor) and walking protocols (e.g. free or controlled), result from actual differences in the motor behaviour of the tested subjects or from the sensitivity to these changes of the indexes adopted for the assessment. In this context, it was hypothesized that testing environment and walking protocols would not modify motor control stability in the gait of young healthy adults, who have a mature and structured gait pattern, but rather the variability of their motor pattern. To test this hypothesis, data from trunk and shank inertial sensors were collected from 19 young healthy participants during four walking tasks in different environments (indoor and outdoor) and in both controlled (i.e. following a predefined straight path) and free conditions. Results confirmed what hypothesized: variability indexes (Standard deviation, Coefficient of variation and Poincaré plots) were significantly influenced by both environment and walking conditions. Stability indexes (Harmonic ratio, Short term Lyapunov exponents, Recurrence quantification analysis and Sample entropy), on the contrary, did not highlight any change in the motor control. In conclusion, this study highlighted an influence of environment and testing condition on the assessment of specific characteristics of gait (i.e. variability and stability). In particular, for young healthy adults, both environment and testing conditions affect gait variability indexes, whereas neither affect gait stability indexes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Data characterizing compressive properties of Al/Al2O3 syntactic foam core metal matrix sandwich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Yaseer Omar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural observations and compressive property datasets of metal matrix syntactic foam core sandwich composite at quasi-static and high strain rate (HSR conditions (525–845 s−1 are provided. The data supplied in this article includes sample preparation procedure prior to scanning electron and optical microscopy as well as the micrographs. The data used to construct the stress–strain curves and the derived compressive properties of all specimens in both quasi-static and HSR regions are included. Videos of quasi-static compressive failure and that obtained by a high speed image acquisition system during deformation and failure of HSR specimen are also included.

  20. Geometrical characterization of perlite-metal syntactic foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovinšek, Matej, E-mail: matej.borovinsek@um.si [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova ulica 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Taherishargh, Mehdi, E-mail: mehdi.taherishargh@newcastle.edu.au [The University of Newcastle, School of Engineering, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Vesenjak, Matej, E-mail: matej.vesenjak@um.si [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova ulica 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Ren, Zoran, E-mail: zoran.ren@um.si [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova ulica 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Fiedler, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.fiedler@newcastle.edu.au [The University of Newcastle, School of Engineering, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2016-09-15

    This paper introduces an improved method for the detailed geometrical characterization of perlite-metal syntactic foam. This novel metallic foam is created by infiltrating a packed bed of expanded perlite particles with liquid aluminium alloy. The geometry of the solidified metal is thus defined by the perlite particle shape, size and morphology. The method is based on a segmented micro-computed tomography data and allows for automated determination of the distributions of pore size, sphericity, orientation and location. The pore (i.e. particle) size distribution and pore orientation is determined by a multi-criteria k-nearest neighbour algorithm for pore identification. The results indicate a weak density gradient parallel to the casting direction and a slight preference of particle orientation perpendicular to the casting direction. - Highlights: •A new method for identification of pores in porous materials was developed. •It was applied on perlite-metal syntactic foam samples. •A porosity decrease in the axial direction of the samples was determined. •Pore shape analysis showed a high percentage of spherical pores. •Orientation analysis showed that more pores are oriented in the radial direction.

  1. Ejercitar arquitecturas sintácticas / Drilling syntactic structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassany, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo rescata la importancia de los conocimientos sintácticos y ofrece sugerencias prácticas de ejercicios que rompen con la gramática prescriptiva tradicional y favorecen el dominio de la sintaxis del español. El objetivo es adecuar los procedimientos de enseñanza y aprendizaje al contexto del enfoque comunicativo. El estudio realizado combina la búsqueda bibliográfica con la sistematización de la práctica escolar a partir de la contextualización de la experiencia adquirida a las potencialidades del mundo digital. El resultado esencial es la caracterización y propuestas de ejercicios que armonizan la perspectiva lingüista y la comunicativa. The paper gives arguments on the importance of syntactic knowledge offering hints of drills that break with the prescriptive traditional grammar and at the same time favor the command of Spanish syntactic structures. The aim is to tailor teaching and learning procedures to the context of the communicative approach. The study combines bibliographic search with the systematization of school practice by contextualizing prior experiences to the potentials of the digital world. The findings offer a characterization of drilling and a proposal of exercises that give harmony to linguistic and communicative perspective.

  2. Computational Modeling for Language Acquisition: A Tutorial With Syntactic Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Lisa S; Sprouse, Jon

    2015-06-01

    Given the growing prominence of computational modeling in the acquisition research community, we present a tutorial on how to use computational modeling to investigate learning strategies that underlie the acquisition process. This is useful for understanding both typical and atypical linguistic development. We provide a general overview of why modeling can be a particularly informative tool and some general considerations when creating a computational acquisition model. We then review a concrete example of a computational acquisition model for complex structural knowledge referred to as syntactic islands. This includes an overview of syntactic islands knowledge, a precise definition of the acquisition task being modeled, the modeling results, and how to meaningfully interpret those results in a way that is relevant for questions about knowledge representation and the learning process. Computational modeling is a powerful tool that can be used to understand linguistic development. The general approach presented here can be used to investigate any acquisition task and any learning strategy, provided both are precisely defined.

  3. Towards a syntactic analysis of European Portuguese cognate objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celda Morgado Choupina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at discussing selected syntactic aspects of cognate objects in European Portuguese, along the lines of Distributed Morphology (Haugen, 2009. Cognate objects may be readily discovered in numerous human languages, including European Portuguese (Chovia uma chuva miudinha. It is assumed in papers devoted to their English counterparts that they belong to various subclasses. Indeed, some of them are genuine cognates (to sleep a sleep... or hyponyms (to dance a jig; Hale & Keyser, 2002. It turns out that in European Portuguese, they can be split into four different categories: (i genuine cognate objects (chorar um choro..., (ii similar cognate objects (dançar uma dança (iii objects hyponyms (dançar um tango and (iv prepositional cognate objects (morrer de uma morte .... There are, then, significant differences between various classes of cognate objects: whereas the genuine ones call imperatively for a restrictive modifier and a definite article, the remaining ones admit it only optionally. It might be concluded, then, that a lexicalist theory set up along the lines of Hale and Keyser is unable to deal successfully with distributional facts proper to various classes of cognate constructions in European Portuguese. That is why the present study is conducted more in accordance with syntactic principles of Distributed Morphology, with a strong impact of hypotheses put forward by Haugen (2009.

  4. Radiometric ratio characterization for low-to-mid CPV modules operating in variable irradiance conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorndran, Shelby; Russo, Juan; Zhang, Deming; Gordon, Michael; Kostuk, Raymond

    2012-10-01

    In this work, a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) design methodology is proposed which aims to maximize system efficiency for a given irradiance condition. In this technique, the acceptance angle of the system is radiometrically matched to the angular spread of the site's average irradiance conditions using a simple geometric ratio. The optical efficiency of CPV systems from flat-plate to high-concentration is plotted at all irradiance conditions. Concentrator systems are measured outdoors in various irradiance conditions to test the methodology. This modeling technique is valuable at the design stage to determine the ideal level of concentration for a CPV module. It requires only two inputs: the acceptance angle profile of the system and the site's average direct and diffuse irradiance fractions. Acceptance angle can be determined by raytracing or testing a fabricated prototype in the lab with a solar simulator. The average irradiance conditions can be found in the Typical Metrological Year (TMY3) database. Additionally, the information gained from this technique can be used to determine tracking tolerance, quantify power loss during an isolated weather event, and do more sophisticated analysis such as I-V curve simulation.

  5. Method for signal conditioning and data acquisition system, based on variable amplification and feedback technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, Livio, E-mail: livio.conti@uninettunouniversity.net [Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università Telematica Internazionale Uninettuno, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II 39, 00186 Rome, Italy INFN Sezione Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Sgrigna, Vittorio [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, 84 Via della Vasca Navale, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Zilpimiani, David [National Institute of Geophysics, Georgian Academy of Sciences, 1 M. Alexidze St., 009 Tbilisi, Georgia (United States); Assante, Dario [Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università Telematica Internazionale Uninettuno, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II 39, 00186 Rome, Italy INFN Sezione Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2014-08-21

    An original method of signal conditioning and adaptive amplification is proposed for data acquisition systems of analog signals, conceived to obtain a high resolution spectrum of any input signal. The procedure is based on a feedback scheme of the signal amplification with aim at maximizing the dynamic range and resolution of the data acquisition system. The paper describes the signal conditioning, digitization, and data processing procedures applied to an a priori unknown signal in order to enucleate its amplitude and frequency content for applications in different environments: on the ground, in space, or in the laboratory. An electronic board of the conditioning module has also been constructed and described. In the paper are also discussed the main fields of application and advantages of the method with respect to those known today.

  6. [Corrective effect of aromatherapy on indices of heart rate variability in students under exam stress conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamyan, H T; Minasyan, S M

    2016-01-01

    There were investigated changes in indices of the activity of regulatory mechanisms of heart rhythm in student under exam stress conditions and the possibility of their correction with aid of aromatherapy. The examination stress was established to be accompanied by pronounced shifts of integral and spectral indices of heart rhythm in students, indicating to the activation of the sympathetic circuit of Autonomic Nervous System in conditions of examination stress. A positive, relaxation impact of the essential oil of orange on the investigated indices was also recorded. The latter is expressed by weakly pronounced changes or lack of them in data of integral and spectral heart rate indices in students from the experimental group, that indicates to the stabilizing effect of used ethereal oil on the psycho-physiological state of students in conditions of exam stress

  7. Method for signal conditioning and data acquisition system, based on variable amplification and feedback technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, Livio; Sgrigna, Vittorio; Zilpimiani, David; Assante, Dario

    2014-01-01

    An original method of signal conditioning and adaptive amplification is proposed for data acquisition systems of analog signals, conceived to obtain a high resolution spectrum of any input signal. The procedure is based on a feedback scheme of the signal amplification with aim at maximizing the dynamic range and resolution of the data acquisition system. The paper describes the signal conditioning, digitization, and data processing procedures applied to an a priori unknown signal in order to enucleate its amplitude and frequency content for applications in different environments: on the ground, in space, or in the laboratory. An electronic board of the conditioning module has also been constructed and described. In the paper are also discussed the main fields of application and advantages of the method with respect to those known today

  8. On the initial conditions for a universe with variable G and c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomide, F.M.; Uehara, M.

    1978-01-01

    Initial conditions are discussed for a closed universe with matter injection process and with time varying G and c. It is shown that the usual interpretation for the cosmic microwave background radiation can be accepted for this model universe, provided a certain initial condition is imposed on the Pryce-Hoyle field. The time varying c is responsible for two red-shift laws one for wave-length and the other for the frequency. If radiation temperature obeys the red-shift law for frequency, the primordial Planck spectrum can be reproduced along cosmic expansion [pt

  9. Effects of Age and Working Memory Load on Syntactic Processing: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela C. Alatorre-Cruz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive changes in aging include working memory (WM decline, which may hamper language comprehension. An increase in WM demands in older adults would probably provoke a poorer sentence processing performance in this age group. A way to increase the WM load is to separate two lexical units in an agreement relation (i.e., adjective and noun, in a given sentence. To test this hypothesis, event-related potentials (ERPs were collected from Spanish speakers (30 older adults, mean age = 66.06 years old; and 30 young adults, mean age = 25.7 years old who read sentences to detect grammatical errors. The sentences varied with regard to (1 the gender agreement of the noun and adjective, where the gender of the adjective either agreed or disagreed with the noun, and (2 the WM load (i.e., the number of words between the noun and adjective in the sentence. No significant behavioral differences between groups were observed in the accuracy of the response, but older adults showed longer reaction times regardless of WM load condition. Compared with young participants, older adults showed a different pattern of ERP components characterized by smaller amplitudes of LAN, P600a, and P600b effects when the WM load was increased. A smaller LAN effect probably reflects greater difficulties in processing the morpho-syntactic features of the sentence, while smaller P600a and P600b effects could be related to difficulties in recovering and mapping all sentence constituents. We concluded that the ERP pattern in older adults showed subtle problems in syntactic processing when the WM load was increased, which was not sufficient to affect response accuracy but was only observed to result in a longer reaction time.

  10. In situ observation of syntactic foams under hydrostatic pressure using X-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachambre, J.; Maire, E.; Adrien, J.; Choqueuse, D.

    2013-01-01

    Syntactic foams (hollow glass microspheres embedded in a polymeric matrix) are being used increasingly for the purpose of thermal insulation in ultradeep water. A better understanding of the damage mechanisms of these materials at the microsphere scale under such a hydrostatic loading condition is of prior importance in determining actual material limits, improving phenomenological modelling and developing novel formulations in the future. To achieve this goal, a study based on X-ray microtomography was performed on two syntactic foam materials (polypropylene and polyurethane matrix) and a standard foamed PP. A special set up has been designed in order to allow the X-ray microtomographic observation of the material during hydrostatic pressure loading using ethanol as the pressure fluid. Spatial resolution of (3.5 μm) 3 and in situ non-destructive scanning allowed a unique qualitative and quantitative analysis of the composite microstructure during stepwise isotropic compression by hydrostatic pressure up to 50 MPa. The collapse of weaker microspheres were observed during pressure increase and the damage parameters could be estimated. It is shown that the microspheres which are broken or the porosities which are close to the surface in the foamed PP are filled by a fluid (either the ethanol or the polymeric matrix itself). The hydrostatic pressure decreases the volume of the foam only slightly. In the PU matrix, ethanol diffusion is seen to induce swelling of the matrix, which is an unexpected phenomenon but reveals the high potential of X-ray microtomographic observation to improve diffusion analysis in complex media

  11. Spatial Variability in Condition of Southern Rock Lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) at the Start of the Tasmanian Fishing Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendo, Tania; Simon, Cedric; Green, Bridget; Gardner, Caleb

    2016-01-01

    The southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) industry in Australia favours red lobsters, which are usually caught in shallow waters, over paler (brindle) lobsters. This preference is driven partly by the Chinese market, where red is associated with luck and prosperity, and additionally, by the widely held perception within the industry that brindles have greater mortality rates during out of water transport than reds. Limited scientific evidence supports these industry observations; however, these studies did not evaluate the initial condition of lobsters. This study aimed first, to determine which variables better describe condition in J. edwardsii and second, to compare condition among lobsters in several sites around Tasmania at the typical time of high transport mortality. Male lobsters were collected from the South West, South East, East and North coast of Tasmania in late November/December 2014, which correspond to the start of the Tasmanian fishing season. A comprehensive condition assessment was applied by measuring tissue proximal composition, Brix index, Total Haemocyte Count, pH, haemocyanin and another 16 haemolymph parameters of interest. A useful framework to compare condition in J. edwardsii was established by first, using Brix index as a measure of nutritional condition, second, using pH, magnesium, and bicarbonate to evaluate differences in physiological condition and finally, using THC counts as a proxy for lobster health condition. Lobsters from different sites had different nutritional, physiological and health condition, consistent with industry observations, however our results indicate that some red shallow water lobsters exhibited poorer nutritional and health condition, while some deep water brindle lobsters were in good condition. Differences in condition could not be directly associated to catch depth of lobsters and was related to other spatially discrete factors which sometimes vary over distances <3 km.

  12. Effects of sodium intake on cardiovascular variables in humans during posture changes and ambulatory conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, M.; Gabrielsenm A.; Heer, M.

    2002-01-01

    and controlled laboratory conditions at the end of two consecutive 5-day periods with sodium intakes of 70 (low) and 250 (high) mmol/24 h or vice versa, respectively. Comparing high and low sodium intake, plasma volume and plasma protein concentrations were 9 and 8% higher in the seated and the supine position...

  13. Seed mass, viability, and germination of Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) under variable light and moisture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia D. Huebner

    2011-01-01

    The success of Japanese stiltgrass as an invader may be due to its ability to respond to stochastic events (e.g., by sexual reproduction via chasmogamous [CH] flowers) and to maintain a beneficial genetic make-up (e.g., by self-fertilizing via cleistogamous [CL] flowers) when conditions are stable. This paper evaluates the importance of Japanese stiltgrass seed type (...

  14. Assessing the Risk Relevance of Accounting Variables in Diverse Economic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brimble, M.; Hodgson, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the association between accounting information and systematic (beta) risk. We extend previous research by using an updated data set, a range of risk measures that adjust for different market and time-varying conditions, and by examining whether the long-run association has

  15. Sequential Fuzzy Diagnosis Method for Motor Roller Bearing in Variable Operating Conditions Based on Vibration Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Cao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel intelligent fault diagnosis method for motor roller bearings which operate under unsteady rotating speed and load is proposed in this paper. The pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution (PWVD and the relative crossing information (RCI methods are used for extracting the feature spectra from the non-stationary vibration signal measured for condition diagnosis. The RCI is used to automatically extract the feature spectrum from the time-frequency distribution of the vibration signal. The extracted feature spectrum is instantaneous, and not correlated with the rotation speed and load. By using the ant colony optimization (ACO clustering algorithm, the synthesizing symptom parameters (SSP for condition diagnosis are obtained. The experimental results shows that the diagnostic sensitivity of the SSP is higher than original symptom parameter (SP, and the SSP can sensitively reflect the characteristics of the feature spectrum for precise condition diagnosis. Finally, a fuzzy diagnosis method based on sequential inference and possibility theory is also proposed, by which the conditions of the machine can be identified sequentially as well.

  16. Gear fault diagnosis under variable conditions with intrinsic time-scale decomposition-singular value decomposition and support vector machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Zhanqiang; Qu, Jianfeng; Chai, Yi; Tang, Qiu; Zhou, Yuming [Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

    2017-02-15

    The gear vibration signal is nonlinear and non-stationary, gear fault diagnosis under variable conditions has always been unsatisfactory. To solve this problem, an intelligent fault diagnosis method based on Intrinsic time-scale decomposition (ITD)-Singular value decomposition (SVD) and Support vector machine (SVM) is proposed in this paper. The ITD method is adopted to decompose the vibration signal of gearbox into several Proper rotation components (PRCs). Subsequently, the singular value decomposition is proposed to obtain the singular value vectors of the proper rotation components and improve the robustness of feature extraction under variable conditions. Finally, the Support vector machine is applied to classify the fault type of gear. According to the experimental results, the performance of ITD-SVD exceeds those of the time-frequency analysis methods with EMD and WPT combined with SVD for feature extraction, and the classifier of SVM outperforms those for K-nearest neighbors (K-NN) and Back propagation (BP). Moreover, the proposed approach can accurately diagnose and identify different fault types of gear under variable conditions.

  17. Observations from borehole dilution logging experiments in fractured crystalline rock under variable hydraulic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.; Anderson, Alton; Williams, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying hydraulically active fractures in low permeability, crystalline-bedrock aquifers requires a variety of geophysical and hydrogeophysical borehole tools and approaches. One such approach is Single Borehole Dilution Tests (SBDT), which in some low flow cases have been shown to provide greater resolution of borehole flow than other logging procedures, such as vertical differential Heat Pulse Flowmeter (HPFM) logging. Because the tools used in SBDT collect continuous profiles of water quality or dye changes, they can identify horizontal flow zones and vertical flow. We used SBDT with a food grade blue dye as a tracer and dual photometer-nephelometer measurements to identify low flow zones.SBDT were conducted at seven wells with open boreholes (exceeding 300 ft). At most of the wells HPFM logs were also collected. The seven wells are set in low-permeability, fractured granite and gneiss rocks underlying a former tetrachloroeythylene (PCE) source area at the Savage Municipal Well Superfund site in Milford, NH. Time series SBDT logs were collected at each of the seven wells under three distinct hydraulic conditions: (1) ambient conditions prior to a pump test at an adjacent well, (2) mid test, after 2-3 days of the start of the pump test, and (3) at the end of the test, after 8-9 days of the pump test. None of the SBDT were conducted under pumping conditions in the logged well. For each condition, wells were initially passively spiked with blue dye once and subsequent time series measurements were made.Measurement accuracy and precision of the photometer tool is important in SBDT when attempting to detect low rates of borehole flow. Tests indicate that under ambient conditions, none of the wells had detectable flow as measured with HPFM logging. With SBDT, 4 of the 7 showed the presence of some very low flow. None of 5 (2 of the 7 wells initially logged with HPFM under ambient conditions were not re-logged) wells logged with the HPFM during the pump test had

  18. Crosswinds Effect on the Thermal Performance of Wet Cooling Towers Under Variable Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You Liang; Shi, Yong Feng; Hao, Jian Gang; Chang, Hao; Sun, Feng Zhong

    2018-01-01

    In order to quantitatively analyze the influence of the variable operating parameters on the cooling performance of natural draft wet cooling towers (NDWCTs), a hot model test system was set up with adjustable ambient temperature and humidity, circulating water flowrate and temperature. In order to apply the hot model test results to the real tower, the crosswind Froude number is defined. The results show that the crosswind has a negative effect on the thermal performance of the cooling tower, and there is a critical crosswind velocity corresponding to the lowest cooling efficiency. According to the crosswind Froude number similarity, when the ambient temperature decreases, or the circulating water flowrate and temperature increase, the cooling tower draft force will increase, and the critical crosswind velocity will increase correspondingly.

  19. Transfer of skill engendered by complex task training under conditions of variable priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Walter R; Basak, Chandramallika; Erickson, Kirk I; Neider, Mark; Simons, Daniel J; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika; Lee, HyunKyu; Low, Kathy A; Kramer, Arthur F

    2010-11-01

    We explored the theoretical underpinnings of a commonly used training strategy by examining issues of training and transfer of skill in the context of a complex video game (Space Fortress, Donchin, 1989). Participants trained using one of two training regimens: Full Emphasis Training (FET) or Variable Priority Training (VPT). Transfer of training was assessed with a large battery of cognitive and psychomotor tasks ranging from basic laboratory paradigms measuring reasoning, memory, and attention to complex real-world simulations. Consistent with previous studies, VPT accelerated learning and maximized task mastery. However, the hypothesis that VPT would result in broader transfer of training received limited support. Rather, transfer was most evident in tasks that were most similar to the Space Fortress game itself. Results are discussed in terms of potential limitations of the VPT approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The idiosyncrasies of streams: local variability mitigates vulnerability of trout to changing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea Watts; Brooke Penaluna; Jason Dunham

    2016-01-01

    Land use and climate change are two key factors with the potential to affect stream conditions and fish habitat. Since the 1950s, Washington and Oregon have required forest practices designed to mitigate the effects of timber harvest on streams and fish. Yet questions remain about the extent to which these practices are effective. Add in the effects of climate change—...

  1. On patterns of conditional independences and covariance signs among binary variables

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matúš, František

    Roč. 154, č. 2 ( 2018 ), s. 511-524 ISSN 0236-5294 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12010S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : conditional independence * covariance * correlation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 0.583, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/ 2018 /MTR/matus-0488279.pdf

  2. Robust RNA silencing-mediated resistance to Plum pox virus under variable abiotic and biotic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nicola, Elisa; Tavazza, Mario; Lucioli, Alessandra; Salandri, Laura; Ilardi, Vincenza

    2014-10-01

    Some abiotic and biotic conditions are known to have a negative impact on post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), thus representing a potential concern for the production of stable engineered virus resistance traits. However, depending on the strategy followed to achieve PTGS of the transgene, different responses to external conditions can be expected. In the present study, we utilized the Nicotiana benthamiana–Plum pox virus (PPV) pathosystem to evaluate in detail the stability of intron-hairpin(ihp)-mediated virus resistance under conditions known to adversely affect PTGS. The ihp plants grown at low or high temperatures were fully resistant to multiple PPV challenges, different PPV inoculum concentrations and even to a PPV isolate differing from the ihp construct by more than 28% at the nucleotide level. In addition, infections of ihp plants with viruses belonging to Cucumovirus, Potyvirus or Tombusvirus, all known to affect PTGS at different steps, were not able to defeat PPV resistance. Low temperatures did not affect the accumulation of transgenic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), whereas a clear increase in the amount of siRNAs was observed during infections sustained by Cucumber mosaic virus and Potato virus Y. Our results show that the above stress factors do not represent an important concern for the production,through ihp-PTGS technology, of transgenic plants having robust virus resistance traits.

  3. Design, conditioning, and performance of a high voltage, high brightness dc photoelectron gun with variable gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxson, Jared; Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Dobbins, John; Liu, Xianghong; Smolenski, Karl [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    A new high voltage photoemission gun has been constructed at Cornell University which features a segmented insulator and a movable anode, allowing the cathode-anode gap to be adjusted. In this work, we describe the gun's overall mechanical and high voltage design, the surface preparation of components, as well as the clean construction methods. We present high voltage conditioning data using a 50 mm cathode-anode gap, in which the conditioning voltage exceeds 500 kV, as well as at smaller gaps. Finally, we present simulated emittance results obtained from a genetic optimization scheme using voltage values based on the conditioning data. These results indicate that for charges up to 100 pC, a 30 mm gap at 400 kV has equal or smaller 100% emittance than a 50 mm gap at 450 kV, and also a smaller core emittance, when placed as the source for the Cornell energy recovery linac photoinjector with bunch length constrained to be <3 ps rms. For 100 pC up to 0.5 nC charges, the 50 mm gap has larger core emittance than the 30 mm gap, but conversely smaller 100% emittance.

  4. Do climate variables and human density affect Achatina fulica (Bowditch) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) shell length, total weight and condition factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, F S; Peso-Aguiar, M C; Assunção-Albuquerque, M J T; Gálvez, L

    2009-08-01

    The length-weight relationship and condition factor have been broadly investigated in snails to obtain the index of physical condition of populations and evaluate habitat quality. Herein, our goal was to describe the best predictors that explain Achatina fulica biometrical parameters and well being in a recently introduced population. From November 2001 to November 2002, monthly snail samples were collected in Lauro de Freitas City, Bahia, Brazil. Shell length and total weight were measured in the laboratory and the potential curve and condition factor were calculated. Five environmental variables were considered: temperature range, mean temperature, humidity, precipitation and human density. Multiple regressions were used to generate models including multiple predictors, via model selection approach, and then ranked with AIC criteria. Partial regressions were used to obtain the separated coefficients of determination of climate and human density models. A total of 1.460 individuals were collected, presenting a shell length range between 4.8 to 102.5 mm (mean: 42.18 mm). The relationship between total length and total weight revealed that Achatina fulica presented a negative allometric growth. Simple regression indicated that humidity has a significant influence on A. fulica total length and weight. Temperature range was the main variable that influenced the condition factor. Multiple regressions showed that climatic and human variables explain a small proportion of the variance in shell length and total weight, but may explain up to 55.7% of the condition factor variance. Consequently, we believe that the well being and biometric parameters of A. fulica can be influenced by climatic and human density factors.

  5. Do climate variables and human density affect Achatina fulica (Bowditch (Gastropoda: Pulmonata shell length, total weight and condition factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FS. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available The length-weight relationship and condition factor have been broadly investigated in snails to obtain the index of physical condition of populations and evaluate habitat quality. Herein, our goal was to describe the best predictors that explain Achatina fulica biometrical parameters and well being in a recently introduced population. From November 2001 to November 2002, monthly snail samples were collected in Lauro de Freitas City, Bahia, Brazil. Shell length and total weight were measured in the laboratory and the potential curve and condition factor were calculated. Five environmental variables were considered: temperature range, mean temperature, humidity, precipitation and human density. Multiple regressions were used to generate models including multiple predictors, via model selection approach, and then ranked with AIC criteria. Partial regressions were used to obtain the separated coefficients of determination of climate and human density models. A total of 1.460 individuals were collected, presenting a shell length range between 4.8 to 102.5 mm (mean: 42.18 mm. The relationship between total length and total weight revealed that Achatina fulica presented a negative allometric growth. Simple regression indicated that humidity has a significant influence on A. fulica total length and weight. Temperature range was the main variable that influenced the condition factor. Multiple regressions showed that climatic and human variables explain a small proportion of the variance in shell length and total weight, but may explain up to 55.7% of the condition factor variance. Consequently, we believe that the well being and biometric parameters of A. fulica can be influenced by climatic and human density factors.

  6. Remaining useful life estimation in heterogeneous fleets working under variable operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dahidi, Sameer; Di Maio, Francesco; Baraldi, Piero; Zio, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The availability of condition monitoring data for large fleets of similar equipment motivates the development of data-driven prognostic approaches that capitalize on the information contained in such data to estimate equipment Remaining Useful Life (RUL). A main difficulty is that the fleet of equipment typically experiences different operating conditions, which influence both the condition monitoring data and the degradation processes that physically determine the RUL. We propose an approach for RUL estimation from heterogeneous fleet data based on three phases: firstly, the degradation levels (states) of an homogeneous discrete-time finite-state semi-markov model are identified by resorting to an unsupervised ensemble clustering approach. Then, the parameters of the discrete Weibull distributions describing the transitions among the states and their uncertainties are inferred by resorting to the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) method and to the Fisher Information Matrix (FIM), respectively. Finally, the inferred degradation model is used to estimate the RUL of fleet equipment by direct Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The proposed approach is applied to two case studies regarding heterogeneous fleets of aluminium electrolytic capacitors and turbofan engines. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach in predicting the RUL and its superiority compared to a fuzzy similarity-based approach of literature. - Highlights: • The prediction of the remaining useful life for heterogeneous fleets is addressed. • A data-driven prognostics approach based on a Markov model is proposed. • The proposed approach is applied to two different heterogeneous fleets. • The results are compared with those obtained by a fuzzy similarity-based approach.

  7. REVEAL II: Seasonality and spatial variability of particle and visibility conditions in the Fraser Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryor, S.C.; Barthelmie, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents data collected during a year-long field experiment (REVEAL II) in the Fraser Valley, British Columbia. The data are used to provide information regarding ambient visibility conditions and fine particle concentrations in the valley. Although average fine mass measured during RE...... taken at a number of sites during REVEAL II are used to evaluate a simple method for obtaining (classed) quantitative estimates of visual range from this medium without requiring access to specialized instrumentation. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  8. Syntactic computations in the language network: Characterising dynamic network properties using representational similarity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Komisarjevsky Tyler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The core human capacity of syntactic analysis involves a left hemisphere network involving left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG and posterior middle temporal gyrus (LMTG and the anatomical connections between them. Here we use MEG to determine the spatio-temporal properties of syntactic computations in this network. Listeners heard spoken sentences containing a local syntactic ambiguity (e.g. …landing planes…, at the offset of which they heard a disambiguating verb and decided whether it was an acceptable/unacceptable continuation of the sentence. We charted the time-course of processing and resolving syntactic ambiguity by measuring MEG responses from the onset of each word in the ambiguous phrase and the disambiguating word. We used representational similarity analysis (RSA to characterize syntactic information represented in the LIFG and LpMTG over time and to investigate their relationship to each other. Testing a variety of lexico-syntactic and ambiguity models against the MEG data, our results suggest early lexico-syntactic responses in the LpMTG and later effects of ambiguity in the LIFG, pointing to a clear differentiation in the functional roles of these two regions. Our results suggest the LpMTG represents and transmits lexical information to the LIFG, which responds to and resolves the ambiguity.

  9. Flatfish recruitment response to decadal climatic variability and ocean conditions in the eastern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilderbuer, T. K.; Hollowed, A. B.; Ingraham, W. J.; Spencer, P. D.; Conners, M. E.; Bond, N. A.; Walters, G. E.

    2002-10-01

    This paper provides a retrospective analysis of the relationship of physical oceanography and biology and recruitment of three Eastern Bering Sea flatfish stocks: flathead sole ( Hippoglossoides elassodon), northern rock sole ( Lepidopsetta polyxystra), and arrowtooth flounder ( Atheresthes stomias) for the period 1978-1996. Temporal trends in flatfish production in the Eastern Bering Sea are consistent with the hypothesis that decadal scale climate variability influences marine survival during the early life history period. Density-dependence (spawning stock size) is statistically significant in a Ricker model of flatfish recruitment, which includes environmental terms. Wind-driven advection of flatfish larvae to favorable nursery grounds was also found to coincide with years of above-average recruitment through the use of an ocean surface current simulation model (OSCURS). Ocean forcing of Bristol Bay surface waters during springtime was mostly shoreward (eastward) during the 1980s and seaward (westerly) during the 1990s, corresponding with periods of good and poor recruitment. Distance from shore and water depth at the endpoint of 90-day drift periods (estimated time of settlement) were also found to correspond with flatfish productivity.

  10. Reliability and risk evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in variable operation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soszynska, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    The semi-Markov model of the system operation processes is proposed and its selected characteristics are determined. A system composed on multi-state components is considered and its reliability and risk characteristics are found. Next, the joint model of the system operation process and the system multi-state reliability is applied to the reliability and risk evaluation of the port oil pipeline transportation system. The pipeline system is described and its operation process unknown parameters are identified on the basis of real statistical data. The mean values of the pipeline system operation process unconditional sojourn times in particular operation states are found and applied to determining this process transient probabilities in these states. The piping different reliability structures in various its operation states are fixed and their conditional reliability functions on the basis of data coming from experts are approximately determined. Finally, after applying earlier estimated transient probabilities and system conditional reliability functions in particular operation states the unconditional reliability function, the mean values and standard deviations of the pipeline lifetimes in particular reliability states, risk function and the moment when the risk exceeds a critical value are found.

  11. Reliability and risk evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in variable operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soszynska, Joanna, E-mail: joannas@am.gdynia.p [Department of Mathematics, Gdynia Maritime University, ul. Morska 83, 81-225 Gdynia (Poland)

    2010-02-15

    The semi-Markov model of the system operation processes is proposed and its selected characteristics are determined. A system composed on multi-state components is considered and its reliability and risk characteristics are found. Next, the joint model of the system operation process and the system multi-state reliability is applied to the reliability and risk evaluation of the port oil pipeline transportation system. The pipeline system is described and its operation process unknown parameters are identified on the basis of real statistical data. The mean values of the pipeline system operation process unconditional sojourn times in particular operation states are found and applied to determining this process transient probabilities in these states. The piping different reliability structures in various its operation states are fixed and their conditional reliability functions on the basis of data coming from experts are approximately determined. Finally, after applying earlier estimated transient probabilities and system conditional reliability functions in particular operation states the unconditional reliability function, the mean values and standard deviations of the pipeline lifetimes in particular reliability states, risk function and the moment when the risk exceeds a critical value are found.

  12. Control-limit preventive maintenance policies for components subject to imperfect preventive maintenance and variable operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Mingyi; Li Hongguang; Meng Guang

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops two component-level control-limit preventive maintenance (PM) policies for systems subject to the joint effect of partial recovery PM acts (imperfect PM acts) and variable operational conditions, and investigates the properties of the proposed policies. The extended proportional hazards model (EPHM) is used to model the system failure likelihood influenced by both factors. Several numerical experiments are conducted for policy property analysis, using real lifetime and operational condition data and typical characterization of imperfect PM acts and maintenance durations. The experimental results demonstrate the necessity of considering both factors when they do exist, characterize the joint effect of the two factors on the performance of an optimized PM policy, and explore the influence of the loading sequence of time-varying operational conditions on the performance of an optimized PM policy. The proposed policies extend the applicability of PM optimization techniques.

  13. Anthropogenic modifications to drainage conditions on streamflow variability in the Wabash River basin, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, C.; Bowling, L. C.

    2011-12-01

    The Wabash River watershed is the largest watershed in Indiana and includes the longest undammed river reach east of the Mississippi River. The land use of the Wabash River basin began to significantly change from mixed woodland dominated by small lakes and wetlands to agriculture in the mid-1800s and agriculture is now the predominant land use. Over 80% of natural wetland areas were drained to facilitate better crop production through both surface and subsurface drainage applications. Quantifying the change in hydrologic response in this intensively managed landscape requires a hydrologic model that can represent wetlands, crop growth, and impervious area as well as subsurface and surface drainage enhancements, coupled with high resolution soil and topographic inputs. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model wetland algorithm has been previously modified to incorporate spatially-varying estimates of water table distribution using a topographic index approach, as well as a simple urban representation. Now, the soil water characteristics curve and a derived drained to equilibrium moisture profile are used to improve the model's estimation of the water table. In order to represent subsurface (tile) drainage, the tile drainage component of subsurface flow is calculated when the simulated water table rises above a specified drain depth. A map of the current estimated extent of subsurface tile drainage for the Wabash River based on a decision tree classifier of soil drainage class, soil slope and agricultural land use is used to activate the new tile drainage feature in the VIC model, while wetland depressional storage capacity is extracted from digital elevation and soil information. This modified VIC model is used to evaluate the performance of model physical variations in the intensively managed hydrologic regime of the Wabash River system and to understand the role of surface and subsurface storage, and land use and land cover change on hydrologic change.

  14. Monsoon variability in the Himalayas under the condition of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Keqin; Yao Tandong

    2003-01-01

    An ice core-drilling program was carried out at the accumulation area of Dasuopu glacier (28deg23'N, 85deg43'E, 7100 m a.s.l.) in the central Himalayas in 1997. The ice core was analyzed continuously for stable isotopes (δ 18 O), and major ions throughout the core. Cycles indicated by δ 18 O, cations were identified and counted as seasonal fluctuations as annual increment from maximum to maximum values. Reconstructed 300-year annual net accumulation (water equivalent) from the core, with a good correlation to Indian monsoon, reflects a major precipitation trend in the central Himalayas. The accumulation trend, separated from the time series, shows a strong negative correlation to Northern Hemisphere temperature. Generally, as northern hemisphere temperature increases 0.1degC, the accumulation decreases about 80 mm, reflecting monsoon rainfall in the central Himalayas has decreased over the past decades in the condition of global warming. (author)

  15. General conditions for maximal violation of non-contextuality in discrete and continuous variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laversanne-Finot, A; Ketterer, A; Coudreau, T; Keller, A; Milman, P; Barros, M R; Walborn, S P

    2017-01-01

    The contextuality of quantum mechanics can be shown by the violation of inequalities based on measurements of well chosen observables. An important property of such observables is that their expectation value can be expressed in terms of probabilities for obtaining two exclusive outcomes. Examples of such inequalities have been constructed using either observables with a dichotomic spectrum or using periodic functions obtained from displacement operators in phase space. Here we identify the general conditions on the spectral decomposition of observables demonstrating state independent contextuality of quantum mechanics. Our results not only unify existing strategies for maximal violation of state independent non-contextuality inequalities but also lead to new scenarios enabling such violations. Among the consequences of our results is the impossibility of having a state independent maximal violation of non-contextuality in the Peres–Mermin scenario with discrete observables of odd dimensions. (paper)

  16. Identification of two-phase flow regimes under variable gravity conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiel S Gabriel; Huawei Han

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Two-phase flow is becoming increasingly important as we move into new and more aggressive technologies in the twenty-first century. Some of its many applications include the design of efficient heat transport systems, the transfer and storage of cryogenic fluids, and condensation and flow boiling processes in heat exchangers and energy transport systems. Two-phase flow has many applications in reduced gravity environments experienced in orbiting spacecraft and earth observation satellites. Examples are heat transport systems, the transfer and storage of cryogenic fluids, and condensation and flow boiling processes in heat exchangers. A concave parallel plate capacitance sensor has been developed to measure void fraction for the purpose of objectively identifying flow regimes. The sensor has been used to collect void-fraction data at microgravity conditions aboard the NASA and ESA zero-gravity aircraft. It is shown that the flow regimes can be objectively determined from the probability density functions of the void fraction signals. It was shown that under microgravity conditions four flow regimes exist: bubbly flow, characterized by discrete gas bubbles flowing in the liquid; slug flow, consisting of Taylor bubbles separated by liquid slugs which may or may not contain several small gas bubbles; transitional flow, characterized by the liquid flowing as a film at the tube wall, and the gas phase flowing in the center with the frequent appearance of chaotic, unstable slugs; and annular flow in which the liquid flows as a film along the tube wall and the gas flows uninterrupted through the center. Since many two-phase flow models are flow regime dependent, a method that can accurately and objectively determine flow regimes is required. (authors)

  17. Identification of two-phase flow regimes under variable gravity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiel S Gabriel [University of Ontario Institute of Technology 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4 (Canada); Huawei Han [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Saskatchewan 57 Campus Dr., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5A9 (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Two-phase flow is becoming increasingly important as we move into new and more aggressive technologies in the twenty-first century. Some of its many applications include the design of efficient heat transport systems, the transfer and storage of cryogenic fluids, and condensation and flow boiling processes in heat exchangers and energy transport systems. Two-phase flow has many applications in reduced gravity environments experienced in orbiting spacecraft and earth observation satellites. Examples are heat transport systems, the transfer and storage of cryogenic fluids, and condensation and flow boiling processes in heat exchangers. A concave parallel plate capacitance sensor has been developed to measure void fraction for the purpose of objectively identifying flow regimes. The sensor has been used to collect void-fraction data at microgravity conditions aboard the NASA and ESA zero-gravity aircraft. It is shown that the flow regimes can be objectively determined from the probability density functions of the void fraction signals. It was shown that under microgravity conditions four flow regimes exist: bubbly flow, characterized by discrete gas bubbles flowing in the liquid; slug flow, consisting of Taylor bubbles separated by liquid slugs which may or may not contain several small gas bubbles; transitional flow, characterized by the liquid flowing as a film at the tube wall, and the gas phase flowing in the center with the frequent appearance of chaotic, unstable slugs; and annular flow in which the liquid flows as a film along the tube wall and the gas flows uninterrupted through the center. Since many two-phase flow models are flow regime dependent, a method that can accurately and objectively determine flow regimes is required. (authors)

  18. Infants can use distributional cues to form syntactic categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, LouAnn; Wilson, Rachel; Lewis, William

    2005-05-01

    Nearly all theories of language development emphasize the importance of distributional cues for segregating words and phrases into syntactic categories like noun, feminine or verb phrase. However, questions concerning whether such cues can be used to the exclusion of referential cues have been debated. Using the headturn preference procedure, American children aged 1;5 were briefly familiarized with a partial Russian gender paradigm, with a subset of the paradigm members withheld. During test, infants listened on alternate trials to previously withheld grammatical items and ungrammatical items with incorrect gender markings on previously heard stems. Across three experiments, infants discriminated new grammatical from ungrammatical items, but like adults in previous studies, were only able to do so when a subset of familiarization items was double marked for gender category. The results suggest that learners can use distributional cues to category structure, to the exclusion of referential cues, from relatively early in the language learning process.

  19. Working Memory and the Revision of Syntactic and Discourse Ambiguities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William S.; Caplan, David; Ostrowski, Adam; Michaud, Jennifer; Guarino, Anthony; Waters, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Two hundred participants, 50 in each of four age ranges (19 – 29; 30 – 49, 50 – 69, 70 – 90) were tested for short term working memory, speed of processing and on-line processing of three types of sentences in which an initially assigned syntactic structure and/or semantic interpretation had to be revised. Self-paced reading times were longer for the segments which signaled the need for revision, and there were interactions of age and sentence type and of speed of processing and sentence type, but not of working memory and sentence type, on reading times for these segments. The results provide evidence that working memory does not support the processes that revise the structure and interpretation of sentences and discourse. PMID:25485458

  20. POLITICAL DISCOURSE – A SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodarka Tepavcevic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The language of politics is commonly studied within discourse analysis, whereby its linguistic features relating to vocabulary, grammar structures, textual and intertextual aspects are investigated using various methodologies. This paper presents an analysis of political discourse from a syntactic-semantic point of view. The corpus studied has been extracted from five. Montenegrin dailies and the analysis attempts to describe the genre as effectuated in the Montenegrin political discourse. As a result, the functions of political language are extrapolated and illustrated and its style is described in terms of intertextuality and other linguistic strategies commonly employed in political discourse. The paper aims to give a contribution to the understanding and linguistic profiling of political language.

  1. Syntactic intergrowth problems with BCSCO and fabrication difficulties therefrom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, P.E.D.; Ratto, J.J.; Housley, R.M.; Porter, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    EDXS performed on isolated particles of the Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O high-temperature ceramic superconductor has verified the presence of significant elemental exchange between the Ca and Sr, and, to a lesser extent, between Cu and Bi. Two primary preparations, identified as primarily 24.4 A and 30.6 A, respectively, are identified. The Cu:Bi ratio in the 30.6 A material is approximately 1:1 for most particles, although only a few particles of the nominally 24.4 A material have the expected 1:2 ratio. No unequivocal assignment of atomic composition to the predominantly 24.4 A or 30.6 A appears possible, if major syntactic problems are present. 22 references

  2. Descriptive norms for 350 Chinese idioms with seven syntactic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Degao; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xiaolu

    2016-12-01

    The most important forms of idioms in Chinese, chengyus (CYs), have a fixed length of four Chinese characters. Most CYs are joined structures of two, two-character words-subject-verb units (SVs), verb-object units (VOs), structures of modification (SMs), or verb-verb units-or of four, one-character words. Both the first and second pairs of words in a four-word CY form an SV, a VO, or an SM. In the present study, normative measures were obtained for knowledge, familiarity, subjective frequency, age of acquisition, predictability, literality, and compositionality for 350 CYs, and the influences of the CYs' syntactic structures on the descriptive norms were analyzed. Consistent with previous studies, all of the norms yielded a high reliability, and there were strong correlations between knowledge, familiarity, subjective frequency, and age of acquisition, and between familiarity and predictability. Unlike in previous studies (e.g., Libben & Titone in Memory & Cognition, 36, 1103-1121, 2008), however, we observed a strong correlation between literality and compositionality. In general, the results seem to support a hybrid view of idiom representation and comprehension. According to the evaluation scores, we further concluded that CYs consisting of just one SM are less likely to be decomposable than those with a VOVO composition, and also less likely to be recognized through their constituent words, or to be familiar to, known by, or encountered by users. CYs with an SMSM composition are less likely than VOVO CYs to be decomposable or to be known or encountered by users. Experimental studies should investigate how a CY's syntactic structure influences its representation and comprehension.

  3. ERPs recorded during early second language exposure predict syntactic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen J

    2014-09-01

    Millions of adults worldwide are faced with the task of learning a second language (L2). Understanding the neural mechanisms that support this learning process is an important area of scientific inquiry. However, most previous studies on the neural mechanisms underlying L2 acquisition have focused on characterizing the results of learning, relying upon end-state outcome measures in which learning is assessed after it has occurred, rather than on the learning process itself. In this study, we adopted a novel and more direct approach to investigate neural mechanisms engaged during L2 learning, in which we recorded ERPs from beginning adult learners as they were exposed to an unfamiliar L2 for the first time. Learners' proficiency in the L2 was then assessed behaviorally using a grammaticality judgment task, and ERP data acquired during initial L2 exposure were sorted as a function of performance on this task. High-proficiency learners showed a larger N100 effect to open-class content words compared with closed-class function words, whereas low-proficiency learners did not show a significant N100 difference between open- and closed-class words. In contrast, amplitude of the N400 word category effect correlated with learners' L2 comprehension, rather than predicting syntactic learning. Taken together, these results indicate that learners who spontaneously direct greater attention to open- rather than closed-class words when processing L2 input show better syntactic learning, suggesting a link between selective attention to open-class content words and acquisition of basic morphosyntactic rules. These findings highlight the importance of selective attention mechanisms for L2 acquisition.

  4. Genetic Loci Governing Grain Yield and Root Development under Variable Rice Cultivation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Catolos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the major abiotic stress to rice grain yield under unpredictable changing climatic scenarios. The widely grown, high yielding but drought susceptible rice varieties need to be improved by unraveling the genomic regions controlling traits enhancing drought tolerance. The present study was conducted with the aim to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs for grain yield and root development traits under irrigated non-stress and reproductive-stage drought stress in both lowland and upland situations. A mapping population consisting of 480 lines derived from a cross between Dular (drought-tolerant and IR64-21 (drought susceptible was used. QTL analysis revealed three major consistent-effect QTLs for grain yield (qDTY1.1, qDTY1.3, and qDTY8.1 under non-stress and reproductive-stage drought stress conditions, and 2 QTLs for root traits (qRT9.1 for root-growth angle and qRT5.1 for multiple root traits, i.e., seedling-stage root length, root dry weight and crown root number. The genetic locus qDTY1.1 was identified as hotspot for grain yield and yield-related agronomic and root traits. The study identified significant positive correlations among numbers of crown roots and mesocotyl length at the seedling stage and root length and root dry weight at depth at later stages with grain yield and yield-related traits. Under reproductive stage drought stress, the grain yield advantage of the lines with QTLs ranged from 24.1 to 108.9% under upland and 3.0–22.7% under lowland conditions over the lines without QTLs. The lines with QTL combinations qDTY1.3+qDTY8.1 showed the highest mean grain yield advantage followed by lines having qDTY1.1+qDTY8.1 and qDTY1.1+qDTY8.1+qDTY1.3, across upland/lowland reproductive-stage drought stress. The identified QTLs for root traits, mesocotyl length, grain yield and yield-related traits can be immediately deployed in marker-assisted breeding to develop drought tolerant high yielding rice varieties.

  5. The Karush–Kuhn–Tucker optimality conditions in minimum weight design of elastic rotating disks with variable thickness and density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Jafari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Rotating discs work mostly at high angular velocity. High speed results in large centrifugal forces in discs and induces large stresses and deformations. Minimizing weight of such disks yields various benefits such as low dead weights and lower costs. In order to attain a certain and reliable analysis, disk with variable thickness and density is considered. Semi-analytical solutions for the elastic stress distribution in rotating annular disks with uniform and variable thicknesses and densities are obtained under plane stress assumption by authors in previous works. The optimum disk profile for minimum weight design is achieved by the Karush–Kuhn–Tucker (KKT optimality conditions. Inequality constrain equation is used in optimization to make sure that maximum von Mises stress is always less than yielding strength of the material of the disk.

  6. Influence of experimental conditions on data variability in the liver comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérard, M; Marchand, C; Plappert-Helbig, U

    2014-03-01

    The in vivo comet assay has increasingly been used for regulatory genotoxicity testing in recent years. While it has been demonstrated that the experimental execution of the assay, for example, electrophoresis or scoring, can have a strong impact on the results; little is known on how initial steps, that is, from tissue sampling during necropsy up to slide preparation, can influence the comet assay results. Therefore, we investigated which of the multitude of steps in processing the liver for the comet assay are most critical. All together eight parameters were assessed by using liver samples of untreated animals. In addition, two of those parameters (temperature and storage time of liver before embedding into agarose) were further investigated in animals given a single oral dose of ethyl methanesulfonate at dose levels of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, 3 hr prior to necropsy. The results showed that sample cooling emerged as the predominant influence factor, whereas variations in other elements of the procedure (e.g., size of the liver piece sampled, time needed to process the liver tissue post-mortem, agarose temperature, or time of lysis) seem to be of little relevance. Storing of liver samples of up to 6 hr under cooled conditions did not cause an increase in tail intensity. In contrast, storing the tissue at room temperature, resulted in a considerable time-dependent increase in comet parameters. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Neural dynamics of audiovisual speech integration under variable listening conditions: an individual participant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Nicholas; Wenger, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Speech perception engages both auditory and visual modalities. Limitations of traditional accuracy-only approaches in the investigation of audiovisual speech perception have motivated the use of new methodologies. In an audiovisual speech identification task, we utilized capacity (Townsend and Nozawa, 1995), a dynamic measure of efficiency, to quantify audiovisual integration. Capacity was used to compare RT distributions from audiovisual trials to RT distributions from auditory-only and visual-only trials across three listening conditions: clear auditory signal, S/N ratio of -12 dB, and S/N ratio of -18 dB. The purpose was to obtain EEG recordings in conjunction with capacity to investigate how a late ERP co-varies with integration efficiency. Results showed efficient audiovisual integration for low auditory S/N ratios, but inefficient audiovisual integration when the auditory signal was clear. The ERP analyses showed evidence for greater audiovisual amplitude compared to the unisensory signals for lower auditory S/N ratios (higher capacity/efficiency) compared to the high S/N ratio (low capacity/inefficient integration). The data are consistent with an interactive framework of integration, where auditory recognition is influenced by speech-reading as a function of signal clarity.

  8. Modeling Time-Dependent Behavior of Concrete Affected by Alkali Silica Reaction in Variable Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaggar, Mohammed; Di Luzio, Giovanni; Cusatis, Gianluca

    2017-04-28

    Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR) is known to be a serious problem for concrete worldwide, especially in high humidity and high temperature regions. ASR is a slow process that develops over years to decades and it is influenced by changes in environmental and loading conditions of the structure. The problem becomes even more complicated if one recognizes that other phenomena like creep and shrinkage are coupled with ASR. This results in synergistic mechanisms that can not be easily understood without a comprehensive computational model. In this paper, coupling between creep, shrinkage and ASR is modeled within the Lattice Discrete Particle Model (LDPM) framework. In order to achieve this, a multi-physics formulation is used to compute the evolution of temperature, humidity, cement hydration, and ASR in both space and time, which is then used within physics-based formulations of cracking, creep and shrinkage. The overall model is calibrated and validated on the basis of experimental data available in the literature. Results show that even during free expansions (zero macroscopic stress), a significant degree of coupling exists because ASR induced expansions are relaxed by meso-scale creep driven by self-equilibriated stresses at the meso-scale. This explains and highlights the importance of considering ASR and other time dependent aging and deterioration phenomena at an appropriate length scale in coupled modeling approaches.

  9. Variable gene dispersal conditions and spatial deforestation patterns can interact to affect tropical tree conservation outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamini Kashimshetty

    Full Text Available Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG, which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively, with 'Near' distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene

  10. Variable gene dispersal conditions and spatial deforestation patterns can interact to affect tropical tree conservation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashimshetty, Yamini; Pelikan, Stephan; Rogstad, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG), which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring) had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively) than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively), with 'Near' distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene dispersal

  11. Response time variability under slow and fast-incentive conditions in children with ASD, ADHD and ASD+ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye, Charlotte; Johnson, Katherine A; Kelly, Simon P; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna; Ashwood, Karen L; Azadi, Bahare; Bolton, Patrick; McLoughlin, Gráinne

    2016-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show significant behavioural and genetic overlap. Both ADHD and ASD are characterised by poor performance on a range of cognitive tasks. In particular, increased response time variability (RTV) is a promising indicator of risk for both ADHD and ASD. However, it is not clear whether different indices of RTV and changes to RTV according to task conditions are able to discriminate between the two disorders. Children with ASD (n = 19), ADHD (n = 18), ASD + ADHD (n = 29) and typically developing controls (TDC; n = 26) performed a four-choice RT task with slow-baseline and fast-incentive conditions. Performance was characterised by mean RT (MRT), standard deviation of RT (SD-RT), coefficient of variation (CV) and ex-Gaussian distribution measures of Mu, Sigma and Tau. In the slow-baseline condition, categorical diagnoses and trait measures converged to indicate that children with ADHD-only and ASD + ADHD demonstrated increased MRT, SD-RT, CV and Tau compared to TDC and ASD-only. Importantly, greater improvement in MRT, SD-RT and Tau was demonstrated in ADHD and ASD + ADHD from slow-baseline to fast-incentive conditions compared to TDC and ASD-only. Slower and more variable RTs are markers of ADHD compared to ASD and typically developing controls during slow and less rewarding conditions. Energetic factors and rewards improve task performance to a greater extent in children with ADHD compared to children with ASD. These findings suggest that RTV can be distinguished in ASD, ADHD and ASD + ADHD based on the indices of variability used and the conditions in which they are elicited. Further work identifying neural processes underlying increased RTV is warranted, in order to elucidate disorder-specific and disorder-convergent aetiological pathways. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for

  12. Hydraulic conditions of flood flows in a Polish Carpathian river subjected to variable human impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radecki-Pawlik, Artur; Czech, Wiktoria; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Mikuś, Paweł; Zawiejska, Joanna; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    Channel morphology of the Czarny Dunajec River, Polish Carpathians, has been considerably modified as a result of channelization and gravel-mining induced channel incision, and now it varies from a single-thread, incised or regulated channel to an unmanaged, multi-thread channel. We investigated effects of these distinct channel morphologies on the conditions for flood flows in a study of 25 cross-sections from the middle river course where the Czarny Dunajec receives no significant tributaries and flood discharges increase little in the downstream direction. Cross-sectional morphology, channel slope and roughness of particular cross-section parts were used as input data for the hydraulic modelling performed with the 1D steady-flow HEC-RAS model for discharges with recurrence interval from 1.5 to 50 years. The model for each cross-section was calibrated with the water level of a 20-year flood from May 2014, determined shortly after the flood on the basis of high-water marks. Results indicated that incised and channelized river reaches are typified by similar flow widths and cross-sectional flow areas, which are substantially smaller than those in the multi-thread reach. However, because of steeper channel slope in the incised reach than in the channelized reach, the three river reaches differ in unit stream power and bed shear stress, which attain the highest values in the incised reach, intermediate values in the channelized reach, and the lowest ones in the multi-thread reach. These patterns of flow power and hydraulic forces are reflected in significant differences in river competence between the three river reaches. Since the introduction of the channelization scheme 30 years ago, sedimentation has reduced its initial flow conveyance by more than half and elevated water stages at given flood discharges by about 0.5-0.7 m. This partly reflects a progressive growth of natural levees along artificially stabilized channel banks. By contrast, sediments of natural

  13. Single walled carbon nanotubes on MHD unsteady flow over a porous wedge with thermal radiation with variable stream conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kandasamy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to investigate theoretically the effect of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs in the presence of water and seawater with variable stream condition due to solar radiation energy. The conclusion is drawn that the flow motion and the temperature field for SWCNTs in the presence of base fluid are significantly influenced by magnetic field, convective radiation and thermal stratification. Thermal boundary layer of SWCNTs-water is compared to that of Cu-water, absorbs the incident solar radiation and transits it to the working fluid by convection.

  14. Variable coupling between sap-flow and transpiration in pine trees under drought conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisler, Yakir; Tatarinov, Fyodor; Rohatyn, Shani; Rotenberg, Eyal; Grunzweig, Jose M.; Yakir, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Changes in diurnal patterns in water transport and physiological activities in response to changes in environmental conditions are important adjustments of trees to drought. The rate of sap flow (SF) in trees is expected to be in agreement with the rate of tree-scale transpiration (T) and provides a powerful measure of water transport in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. The aim of this five-years study was to investigate the temporal links between SF and T in Pinus halepensis exposed to extreme seasonal drought in the Yatir forest in Israel. We continuously measured SF (20 trees), the daily variations in stem diameter (ΔDBH, determined with high precision dendrometers; 8 trees), and ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET; eddy covariance), which were complemented with short-term campaigns of leaf-scale measurements of H2O and CO2 gas exchange, water potentials, and hydraulic conductivity. During the rainy season, tree SF was well synchronized with ecosystem ET, reaching maximum rates during midday in all trees. However, during the dry season, the daily SF trends greatly varied among trees, allowing a classification of trees into three classes: 1) Trees that remain with SF maximum at midday, 2) trees that advanced their SF peak to early morning, and 3) trees that delayed their SF peak to late afternoon hours. This classification remained valid for the entire study period (2010-2015), and strongly correlated with tree height and DBH, and to a lower degree with crown size and competition index. In the dry season, class 3 trees (large) tended to delay the timing of SF maximum to the afternoon, and to advance their maximum diurnal DBH to early morning, while class 2 trees (smaller) advanced their SF maximum to early morning and had maximum daily DBH during midday and afternoon. Leaf-scale transpiration (T), measurements showed a typical morning peak in all trees, irrespective of classification, and a secondary peak in the afternoon in large trees only. Water potential and

  15. Dietary fat affects heat production and other variables of equine performance, under hot and humid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfeld, D S

    1996-07-01

    Does dietary fat supplementation during conditioning improve athletic performance, especially in the heat? Fat adaptation has been used to increase energy density, decrease bowel bulk and faecal output and reduce health risks associated with hydrolysable carbohydrate overload. It may also reduce spontaneous activity and reactivity (excitability), increase fatty acid oxidation, reduce CO2 production and associated acidosis, enhance metabolic regulation of glycolysis, improve both aerobic and anaerobic performance and substantially reduce heat production. A thermochemical analysis of ATP generation showed the least heat release during the direct oxidation of long chain fatty acids, which have a 3% advantage over glucose and 20 to 30% over short chain fatty acids and amino acids. Indirect oxidation via storage as triglyceride increased heat loss during ATP generation by 3% for stearic acid, 65% for glucose and 174% for acetic acid. Meal feeding and nutrient storage, therefore, accentuates the advantage of dietary fat. A calorimetric model was based on initial estimates of net energy for competitive work (10.76 MJ for the Endurance Test of an Olympic level 3-day-event), other work (14.4 MJ/day) and maintenance (36 MJ), then applied estimates of efficiencies to derive associated heat productions for the utilisation of 3 diets, Diet A: hay (100), Diet B: hay and oats (50:50) and Diet C: hay, oats and vegetable oil (45:45:10), the difference between the last 2 diets representing fat adaptation. During a 90.5 min speed and stamina test, heat production was estimated as 37, 35.4 and 34.6 MJ for the 3 diets, respectively, an advantage 0.8 MJ less heat load for the fat adapted horse, which would reduce water needed for evaporation by 0.33 kg and reduce body temperature increase by about 0.07 degree C. Total estimated daily heat production was 105, 93 and 88 MJ for the 3 diets, respectively, suggesting a 5 MJ advantage for the fat adapted horse (Diet C vs. Diet B). Estimated

  16. Semantic and Syntactic Associations During Word Search Modulate the Relationship Between Attention and Subsequent Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Mo, Fei; Zhang, Yunhong; Ding, Jinhong

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate how linguistic information influences attention allocation in visual search and memory for words. In Experiment 1, participants searched for the synonym of a cue word among five words. The distractors included one antonym and three unrelated words. In Experiment 2, participants were asked to judge whether the five words presented on the screen comprise a valid sentence. The relationships among words were sentential, semantically related or unrelated. A memory recognition task followed. Results in both experiments showed that linguistically related words produced better memory performance. We also found that there were significant interactions between linguistic relation conditions and memorization on eye-movement measures, indicating that good memory for words relied on frequent and long fixations during search in the unrelated condition but to a much lesser extent in linguistically related conditions. We conclude that semantic and syntactic associations attenuate the link between overt attention allocation and subsequent memory performance, suggesting that linguistic relatedness can somewhat compensate for a relative lack of attention during word search.

  17. The Influence of Syntactic Quality on Pragmatic Quality of Enterprise Process Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merethe Heggset

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As approaches and tools for process and enterprise modelling are maturing, these techniques are being taken into use on a large scale in an increasing number of organizations. In this paper we report on the use of process modelling in connection to the quality system of Statoil, a large Norwegian oil company, in particular, on the aspects found necessary to be emphasized to achieve the appropriate quality of the models in this organization. Based on the investigation of usage statistics and user feedback on models, we have identified that there are problems in comprehending some of the models. Some of these models has poorer syntactic quality than the average syntactic quality of models of the same size. An experiment with improving syntactic quality on some of these models has given mixed results, and it appears that certain syntactic errors hinder comprehension more than others.

  18. Vocabulary and syntactic knowledge factors in 5th grade students’ reading comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouider Mokhtari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined 5th grade students’ levels of vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness relative to their reading comprehension performance. The aim was to explore the contributions of vocabulary and syntactic awareness as potential sources of reading comprehension difficulty for these readers. Overall, we found that both vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness contributed in significant yet unique ways to students’ reading comprehension performance. Students who showed weaknesses in vocabulary and syntax also performed poorly on measures of reading comprehension. Additionally, we found that syntactic awareness explained a small amount of additional variance in reading comprehension beyond what was explained by vocabulary. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of research and practice addressing the relationships among syntax, vocabulary, and reading comprehension for more and less skilled readers.

  19. Low Cost P/M Aluminum Syntactic Foam for Blade Containment in Turbine Engines, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase I SBIR proposes a low density (0.75-1.2g/cc)syntactic aluminum foam energy absorber co-manufactured inside a composite fan case for turbine...

  20. Increasing Juniperus virginiana L. pollen in the Tulsa atmosphere: long-term trends, variability, and influence of meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flonard, Michaela; Lo, Esther; Levetin, Estelle

    2018-02-01

    In the Tulsa area, the Cupressaceae is largely represented by eastern red cedar ( Juniperus virginiana L.). The encroachment of this species into the grasslands of Oklahoma has been well documented, and it is believed this trend will continue. The pollen is known to be allergenic and is a major component of the Tulsa atmosphere in February and March. This study examined airborne Cupressaceae pollen data from 1987 to 2016 to determine long-term trends, pollen seasonal variability, and influence of meteorological variables on airborne pollen concentrations. Pollen was collected through means of a Burkard sampler and analyzed with microscopy. Daily pollen concentrations and yearly pollen metrics showed a high degree of variability. In addition, there were significant increases over time in the seasonal pollen index and in peak concentrations. These increases parallel the increasing population of J. virginiana in the region. Pollen data were split into pre- and post-peak categories for statistical analyses, which revealed significant differences in correlations of the two datasets when analyzed with meteorological conditions. While temperature and dew point, among others were significant in both datasets, other factors, like relative humidity, were significant only in one dataset. Analyses using wind direction showed that southerly and southwestern winds contributed to increased pollen concentrations. This study confirms that J. virginiana pollen has become an increasing risk for individuals sensitive to this pollen and emphasizes the need for long-term aerobiological monitoring in other areas.

  1. Effects from influent boundary conditions on tracer migration and spatial variability features in intermediate-scale experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, H.R.; Polzer, W.L.; Springer, E.P.

    1987-04-01

    In previous unsaturated transport studies at Los Alamos dispersion coefficients were estimated to be higher close to the tracer source than at greater distances from the source. Injection of tracers through discrete influent outlets could have accounted for those higher dispersions. Also, a lack of conservation of mass of the tracers was observed and suspected to be due to spatial variability in transport. In the present study experiments were performed under uniform influent (ponded) conditions in which breakthrough of tracers was monitored at four locations at each of four depths. All other conditions were similar to those of the unsaturated transport experiments. A comparison of results from these two sets of experiments indicates differences in the parameter estimates. Estimates were made for the dispersion coefficient and the retardation factor by the one-dimensional steady flow computer code, CFITIM. Estimates were also made for mass and for velocity and the dispersion coefficient by the method of moments. The dispersion coefficient decreased with depth under discrete influent application and increased with depth under ponded influent application. Retardation was predicted better under the discrete influent application than under ponded influent application. Differences in breakthroughs and in estimated parameters among locations at the same depth were observed under ponded influent application. Those differences indicate that there is a lack of conservation of mass as well as significant spatial variability across the experimental domain. 14 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs

  2. Contributions of syntactic awareness to reading in Chinese-speaking adolescent readers with and without dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin K H; Ho, Connie S-H; Chan, David W; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the relative contribution of syntactic awareness to Chinese reading among Chinese-speaking adolescent readers with and without dyslexia. A total of 78 junior high school students in Hong Kong, 26 dyslexic adolescent readers, 26 average adolescent readers of the same age (chronological age control group) and 26 younger readers matched with the same reading level (reading-level group) participated and were administered measures of IQ, syntactic awareness, morphological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, working memory, word reading, and reading comprehension. Results showed that dyslexic readers scored significantly lower than chronological age but similarly to reading level control groups in most measures, especially in the areas of syntactic skills. Analyses of individual data also revealed that over half of the dyslexic readers exhibited certain aspects of deficits in syntactic skills. In regression analyses, syntactic skills were the strongest predictors of ability in word reading and reading comprehension measures. This study highlights the uniquely important correlates of syntactic skills in Chinese reading acquisition and impairment. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Children’s and Adolescents’ Processing of Temporary Syntactic Ambiguity: An Eye Movement Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Engelhardt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the eye movements of 24 children and adolescents as they read sentences containing temporary syntactic ambiguities. Prior research suggested that children primarily use grammatical information when making initial parsing decisions, and they tend to disregard semantic and contextual information. On each trial, participants read a garden path sentence (e.g., While the storm blew the boat sat in the shed, and, afterwards, they answered a comprehension question (e.g., Did the storm blow the boat?. The design was 2 × 2 (verb type × ambiguity repeated measures. Verb type was optionally transitive or reflexive, and sentences were ambiguous or unambiguous. Results showed no differences in first pass reading times at the disambiguating verb (e.g., sat. However, regressions did show a significant interaction. The unambiguous-reflexive condition had approximately half the number of regressions, suggesting less processing difficulty in this condition. Developmentally, we found that adolescents had significantly better comprehension, which seemed to be linked to the increased tendency to regress from the disambiguating word. Findings are consistent with the assumption that the processing architecture is more restricted in children compared to adolescents. In addition, results indicated that variance in ambiguity resolution was associated with interference control but not working memory.

  4. Fatigue Characterization of Fire Resistant Syntactic Foam Core Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Mynul

    Eco-Core is a fire resistant material for sandwich structural application; it was developed at NC A&T State University. The Eco-Core is made of very small amount of phenolic resin and large volume of flyash by a syntactic process. The process development, static mechanical and fracture, fire and toxicity safety and water absorption properties and the design of sandwich structural panels with Eco-Core material was established and published in the literature. One of the important properties that is needed for application in transportation vehicles is the fatigue performance under different stress states. Fatigue data are not available even for general syntactic foams. The objective of this research is to investigate the fatigue performance of Eco-Core under three types of stress states, namely, cyclic compression, shear and flexure, then document failure modes, and develop empherical equations for predicting fatigue life of Eco-Core under three stress states. Compression-Compression fatigue was performed directly on Eco-Core cylindrical specimen, whereas shear and flexure fatigue tests were performed using sandwich beam made of E glass-Vinyl Ester face sheet and Eco-Core material. Compression-compression fatigue test study was conducted at two values of stress ratios (R=10 and 5), for the maximum compression stress (sigmamin) range of 60% to 90% of compression strength (sigmac = 19.6 +/- 0.25 MPa) for R=10 and 95% to 80% of compression strength for R=5. The failure modes were characterized by the material compliance change: On-set (2% compliance change), propagation (5%) and ultimate failure (7%). The number of load cycles correspond to each of these three damages were characterized as on-set, propagation and total lives. A similar approach was used in shear and flexure fatigue tests with stress ratio of R=0.1. The fatigue stress-number of load cycles data followed the standard power law equation for all three stress states. The constant of the equation were

  5. Analysis of wall-embedded Langmuir probe signals in different conditions on the Tokamak à Configuration Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Février, O.; Theiler, C.; De Oliveira, H.; Labit, B.; Fedorczak, N.; Baillod, A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the current wall-embedded Langmuir probe system installed on the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV), as well as the analysis tool chain used to interpret the current-voltage characteristic obtained when the probes are operated in swept-bias conditions. The analysis is based on a four-parameter fit combined with a minimum temperature approach. In order to reduce the effect of plasma fluctuations and measurement noise, several current-voltage characteristics are usually averaged before proceeding to the fitting. The impact of this procedure on the results is investigated, as well as the possible role of finite resistances in the circuitry, which could lead to an overestimation of the temperature. We study the application of the procedure in a specific regime, the plasma detachment, where results from other diagnostics indicate that the electron temperature derived from the Langmuir probes might be overestimated. To address this issue, we explore other fitting models and, in particular, an extension of the asymmetric double probe fit, which features effects of sheath expansion. We show that these models yield lower temperatures (up to approximately 60%) than the standard analysis in detached conditions, particularly for a temperature peak observed near the plasma strike point, but a discrepancy with other measurements remains. We explore a possible explanation for this observation, the presence of a fast electron population, and assess how robust the different methods are in such conditions.

  6. Microcontroller Based Proportional Derivative Plus Conditional Integral Controller for Electro-Mechanical Dual Acting Pulley Continuously Variable Transmission Ratio Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budianto, A; Tawi, K B; Hussein, M; Supriyo, B; Kob, M S Che; Zulkifli, Mohd Ezlamy; Khairuldean A K; Daraoh, Aishah; Ariyono, S

    2012-01-01

    Electro-Mechanical Dual Acting Pulley (EMDAP) Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) is a transmission utilized by electro-mechanical actuated system. It has a potential to reduce energy consumption because it only needs power during changing CVT ratio and no power is needed to maintain CVT ratio due to self lock mechanism design. This paper proposed simple proportional derivative plus conditional integral (PDCI) controller to control EMDAP CVT ratio which can be simply implemented on a microcontroller. This proposed controller used Astrom-Hagglund method and Ziegler-Nichols formula to tune PDCI gain. The Proportional Derivative controller is directly activated from the start but Integral controller is only activated when the error value reaches error value setting point. Simulation using Matlab/Simulink software was conducted to evaluate PDCI system performance. The simulation results showed PDCI controller has ability to perform maximum overshoot 0.1%, 0.001 steady state error and 0.5s settling time. For clamping condition, settling time is about 11.46s during changing ratio from 2.0 to 0.7, while for release condition, settling time is about 8.33s during changing ratio from 0.7 to 2.0.

  7. ANALYSES OF GENETIC VARIABILITY IN LENTINULA EDODES THROUGH MYCELIA RESPONSES TO DIFFERENT ABIOTIC CONDITIONS AND RAPD MOLECULAR MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Cristina Sayuri

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of thirty-four Lentinula edodes strains submitted to different mycelial cultivation conditions (pH and temperature was evaluated and strain variability was assessed by RAPD molecular markers. The growth at three pH values (5, 6 and 7 and four different temperatures (16, 25, 28 and 37ºC was measured using the in vitro mycelial development rate and water retention as parameters. Mycelial cultivation was successful at all pH tested, while the ideal temperature for mycelial cultivation ranged between 25 and 28ºC. The water content was lower in strains grown at 37ºC. Among 20 OPA primers (Operon Technologies, Inc. used for the RAPD analyses, seventeen presented good polymorphism (OPA01 to OPA05, OPA07 to OPA14, OPA17 to OPA20. The clustering based on similarity coefficients allowed the separation of strain in two groups with different geographic origins.

  8. Variability of morphological conditions of the Vistula river channel in the section Czerwińsk-Kępa Polska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popek Zbigniew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Variability of morphological conditions of the Vistula river channel in the section Czerwińsk-Kępa Polska. The paper presents an assessment of morphological changes that occurred in the Vistula river channel in selected section of about 33 km long, located in the middle of the Vistula river course between Czerwińsk and Kępa Polska (km 576–609. Based on the analysis of archival material from 1972–2009, a characteristics of river channel changes, taking primarily into account the horizontal layout (shape in the plan, was obtained. An attempt was made to estimate the trends and rate of transformation of the following parameters in the river channel: width, length, and position of the riverbanks, abundance and size of islands and fluvial deposits, as well as their percentage in the total area of the main river channel and the floodplain area between levees.

  9. Variability of contrail formation conditions and the implications for policies to reduce the climate impacts of aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Victoria; Noland, Robert B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to balance the climate benefits of contrail reduction against the penalties incurred when cruise altitudes are restricted. Altitude restrictions are targeted by selecting, for each 6-h period, the altitude that provides the greatest reduction in contrail for the lowest increase in carbon dioxide emission. Calculations are for western Europe. This paper discusses the variability in contrail formation conditions in the region and presents contrail reductions and carbon dioxide emission increases obtained with this optimised approach, which compare favourably with fixed altitude restrictions. A new method is also developed to estimate contrail fractions within three-dimensional grids. Conclusions discuss potential operational issues associated with a varying altitude restriction policy. (Author)

  10. Short Term Memory, Working Memory, and Syntactic Comprehension in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, David; Michaud, Jennifer; Hufford, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Sixty one people with aphasia were tested on ten tests of short term memory (STM) and for the ability to use syntactic structure to determine the meanings of eleven types of sentences in three tasks – object manipulation, picture matching and picture matching with self-paced listening. Multilevel models showed relationships between measures of the ability to retain and manipulate item and order information in STM and accuracy and RT, and a greater relationship between these STM measures and accuracy and RT for several more complex sentence types in individual tasks. There were no effects of measures of STM that reflect the use of phonological codes or rehearsal on comprehension. There was only one effect of STM measures on self-paced listening times. There were double dissociations between performance on STM and individual comprehension tasks, indicating that normal STM is not necessary to perform normally on these tasks. The results are most easily related to the view that STM plays a facilitatory role in supporting the use of the products of the comprehension process to accomplish operations related to tasks. PMID:23865692

  11. Expanded tenses in the old English orosius a syntactic strengthening*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frančiška Trobevšek Drobnak

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The present chapter reports the investigation into certain aspects of the periphrastic construction to be +present participle (e.g. NE: "he is teaching"; OE. "he is laerende" viewed as an example of a syntactic strengthening. The construc­ tion is usually referred to as "continuous tenses/form" or "progressive tenses/form", whereas Nickel (1966 uses "expanded form". Coming closest to this latter term, the "expanded tenses" employed here seems a convenient label for two reasons: a  the use of expanded tenses is not restricted to the expression of verbal aspect (Aspekt or mode of verbal action (Aktionsart, which is implied by the use of either the term "continuous  tenses/form" or the term "progressive tenses/form"; b  the expanded tenses are integrated into the English tense system, in the sense that they can be substituted  with the respective non-expanded tenses without any change in the syntax of the clause, e.g.

  12. Smearing model and restoration of star image under conditions of variable angular velocity and long exposure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng; Wang, Xiaochu; Li, Bin

    2014-03-10

    The star tracker is one of the most promising attitude measurement devices widely used in spacecraft for its high accuracy. High dynamic performance is becoming its major restriction, and requires immediate focus and promotion. A star image restoration approach based on the motion degradation model of variable angular velocity is proposed in this paper. This method can overcome the problem of energy dispersion and signal to noise ratio (SNR) decrease resulting from the smearing of the star spot, thus preventing failed extraction and decreased star centroid accuracy. Simulations and laboratory experiments are conducted to verify the proposed methods. The restoration results demonstrate that the described method can recover the star spot from a long motion trail to the shape of Gaussian distribution under the conditions of variable angular velocity and long exposure time. The energy of the star spot can be concentrated to ensure high SNR and high position accuracy. These features are crucial to the subsequent star extraction and the whole performance of the star tracker.

  13. Regression-based season-ahead drought prediction for southern Peru conditioned on large-scale climate variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Eric; Wu, Shu; Notaro, Michael; Vavrus, Stephen; Montgomery, Rob; De Piérola, José; Sánchez, Carlos; Block, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Located at a complex topographic, climatic, and hydrologic crossroads, southern Peru is a semiarid region that exhibits high spatiotemporal variability in precipitation. The economic viability of the region hinges on this water, yet southern Peru is prone to water scarcity caused by seasonal meteorological drought. Meteorological droughts in this region are often triggered during El Niño episodes; however, other large-scale climate mechanisms also play a noteworthy role in controlling the region's hydrologic cycle. An extensive season-ahead precipitation prediction model is developed to help bolster the existing capacity of stakeholders to plan for and mitigate deleterious impacts of drought. In addition to existing climate indices, large-scale climatic variables, such as sea surface temperature, are investigated to identify potential drought predictors. A principal component regression framework is applied to 11 potential predictors to produce an ensemble forecast of regional January-March precipitation totals. Model hindcasts of 51 years, compared to climatology and another model conditioned solely on an El Niño-Southern Oscillation index, achieve notable skill and perform better for several metrics, including ranked probability skill score and a hit-miss statistic. The information provided by the developed model and ancillary modeling efforts, such as extending the lead time of and spatially disaggregating precipitation predictions to the local level as well as forecasting the number of wet-dry days per rainy season, may further assist regional stakeholders and policymakers in preparing for drought.

  14. Permafrost hydrology in changing climatic conditions: seasonal variability of stable isotope composition in rivers in discontinuous permafrost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streletskiy, Dmitry A; Shiklomanov, Nikolay I; Nyland, Kelsey E; Tananaev, Nikita I; Opel, Thomas; Streletskaya, Irina D; Tokarev, Igor’; Shiklomanov, Alexandr I

    2015-01-01

    Role of changing climatic conditions on permafrost degradation and hydrology was investigated in the transition zone between the tundra and forest ecotones at the boundary of continuous and discontinuous permafrost of the lower Yenisei River. Three watersheds of various sizes were chosen to represent the characteristics of the regional landscape conditions. Samples of river flow, precipitation, snow cover, and permafrost ground ice were collected over the watersheds to determine isotopic composition of potential sources of water in a river flow over a two year period. Increases in air temperature over the last forty years have resulted in permafrost degradation and a decrease in the seasonal frost which is evident from soil temperature measurements, permafrost and active-layer monitoring, and analysis of satellite imagery. The lowering of the permafrost table has led to an increased storage capacity of permafrost affected soils and a higher contribution of ground water to river discharge during winter months. A progressive decrease in the thickness of the layer of seasonal freezing allows more water storage and pathways for water during the winter low period making winter discharge dependent on the timing and amount of late summer precipitation. There is a substantial seasonal variability of stable isotopic composition of river flow. Spring flooding corresponds to the isotopic composition of snow cover prior to the snowmelt. Isotopic composition of river flow during the summer period follows the variability of precipitation in smaller creeks, while the water flow of larger watersheds is influenced by the secondary evaporation of water temporarily stored in thermokarst lakes and bogs. Late summer precipitation determines the isotopic composition of texture ice within the active layer in tundra landscapes and the seasonal freezing layer in forested landscapes as well as the composition of the water flow during winter months. (letter)

  15. Determining the Variability of Lesion Size Measurements from CT Patient Data Sets Acquired under “No Change” Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. McNitt-Gray

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the variability of lesion size measurements in computed tomography data sets of patients imaged under a “no change” (“coffee break” condition and to determine the impact of two reading paradigms on measurement variability. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Using data sets from 32 non-small cell lung cancer patients scanned twice within 15 minutes (“no change”, measurements were performed by five radiologists in two phases: (1 independent reading of each computed tomography dataset (timepoint: (2 a locked, sequential reading of datasets. Readers performed measurements using several sizing methods, including one-dimensional (1D longest in-slice dimension and 3D semi-automated segmented volume. Change in size was estimated by comparing measurements performed on both timepoints for the same lesion, for each reader and each measurement method. For each reading paradigm, results were pooled across lesions, across readers, and across both readers and lesions, for each measurement method. RESULTS: The mean percent difference (±SD when pooled across both readers and lesions for 1D and 3D measurements extracted from contours was 2.8 ± 22.2% and 23.4 ± 105.0%, respectively, for the independent reads. For the locked, sequential reads, the mean percent differences (±SD reduced to 2.52 ± 14.2% and 7.4 ± 44.2% for the 1D and 3D measurements, respectively. CONCLUSION: Even under a “no change” condition between scans, there is variation in lesion size measurements due to repeat scans and variations in reader, lesion, and measurement method. This variation is reduced when using a locked, sequential reading paradigm compared to an independent reading paradigm.

  16. Dynamic and Thermal Properties of Aluminum Alloy A356/Silicon Carbide Hollow Particle Syntactic Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Cox

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum alloy A356 matrix syntactic foams filled with SiC hollow particles (SiCHP are studied in the present work. Two compositions of syntactic foams are studied for quasi-static and high strain rate compression. In addition, dynamic mechanical analysis is conducted to study the temperature dependent energy dissipation and damping capabilities of these materials. The thermal characterization includes study of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE. A356/SiCHP syntactic foams are not strain rate sensitive as the compressive strength displayed little variation between the tested strain rates of 0.001–2100 s−1. Microscopic analysis of the high strain rate compression tested specimens showed that the fracture is initiated by the failure of hollow particles at the onset of the plastic deformation region. This is followed by plastic deformation of the matrix material and further crushing of particles. The syntactic foams showed decrease in storage modulus with increasing temperature and the trend was nearly linear up to 500 °C. The alloy shows a similar behavior at low temperature but the decrease in storage modulus increases sharply over 375 °C. The loss modulus is very small for the tested materials because of lack of viscoelasticity in metallic materials. The trend in the loss modulus is opposite, where the matrix alloy has lower loss modulus than syntactic foams at low temperature. However, over 250 °C the matrix loss modulus starts to increase rapidly and attains a peak around 460 °C. Syntactic foams have higher damping parameter at low temperatures than the matrix alloy. Incorporation of SiCHP helps in decreasing CTE. Compared to the CTE of the matrix alloy, 23.4 × 10−6 °C−1, syntactic foams showed CTE values as low as 11.67 × 10−6 °C−1.

  17. Interrater and intrarater agreements of magnetic resonance imaging findings in the lumbar spine: significant variability across degenerative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Michael C; Buerba, Rafael A; Long, William D; Blizzard, Daniel J; Lischuk, Andrew W; Haims, Andrew H; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2014-10-01

    agreement. However, when stratified by condition, absolute interrater agreement ranged from 65.1% to 92.0%. Disc hydration, disc space height, and bone marrow changes exhibited the lowest absolute interrater agreements. The absolute intrarater agreement had a narrower range, from 74.5% to 91.5%. Fleiss kappa coefficients ranged from fair-to-substantial agreement (0.282-0.618). Even in a study using standardized evaluation criteria, there was significant variability in the interrater and intrarater agreements of MRI in assessing different degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine. Clinicians should be aware of the condition-specific diagnostic limitations of MRI interpretation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Segmentation of turbo generator and reactor coolant pump vibratory patterns: a syntactic pattern recognition approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tira, Z.

    1993-02-01

    This study was undertaken in the context of turbogenerator and reactor coolant pump vibration surveillance. Vibration meters are used to monitor equipment condition. An anomaly will modify the signal mean. At the present time, the expert system DIVA, developed to automate diagnosis, requests the operator to identify the nature of the pattern change thus indicated. In order to minimize operator intervention, we have to automate on the one hand classification and on the other hand, detection and segmentation of the patterns. The purpose of this study is to develop a new automatic system for the segmentation and classification of signals. The segmentation is based on syntactic pattern recognition. For the classification, a decision tree is used. The signals to process are the rms values of the vibrations measured on rotating machines. These signals are randomly sampled. All processing is automatic and no a priori statistical knowledge on the signals is required. The segmentation performances are assessed by tests on vibratory signals. (author). 31 figs

  19. Predicting complex syntactic structure in real time: Processing of negative sentences in Russian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanina, Nina

    2017-11-01

    In Russian negative sentences the verb's direct object may appear either in the accusative case, which is licensed by the verb (as is common cross-linguistically), or in the genitive case, which is licensed by the negation (Russian-specific "genitive-of-negation" phenomenon). Such sentences were used to investigate whether case marking is employed for anticipating syntactic structure, and whether lexical heads other than the verb can be predicted on the basis of a case-marked noun phrase. Experiment 1, a completion task, confirmed that genitive-of-negation is part of Russian speakers' active grammatical repertoire. In Experiments 2 and 3, the genitive/accusative case manipulation on the preverbal object led to shorter reading times at the negation and verb in the genitive versus accusative condition. Furthermore, Experiment 3 manipulated linear order of the direct object and the negated verb in order to distinguish whether the abovementioned facilitatory effect was predictive or integrative in nature, and concluded that the parser actively predicts a verb and (otherwise optional) negation on the basis of a preceding genitive-marked object. Similarly to a head-final language, case-marking information on preverbal noun phrases (NPs) is used by the parser to enable incremental structure building in a free-word-order language such as Russian.

  20. Effects of formulation variables on viability of L. casei loaded in whey protein-Ca alginate microparticles in simulated in vivo conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Smilkov, Katarina; Petrusevska Tozi, Lidija; Petreska Ivanovska, Tanja; Geskovski, Nikola; Petkovska, Rumenka; Glavas Dodov, Marija; Baceva, Katerina; Dimitrovski, Dejan; Mladenovska, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the influence of formulation variables of L. casei loaded whey protein-Ca-alginate microparticles on probiotic survival under different conditions, representing simulated in vivo environment.

  1. Short and long term variability of the interrupter technique under field and standardised conditions in 3-6 year old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, RMJ; Smit, HA; van Strien, RT; Koopman, LP; Brussee, JE; Brunekreef, B; Gerritsen, J; Merkus, PJFM

    2003-01-01

    Background: The short and long term variability of the interrupter technique was assessed to determine whether interrupter resistance is a stable individual characteristic over time. The effect of field and standardised measurement conditions on the within-subject variability of the interrupter

  2. Short-term heart rate variability in asthmatic obese children: effect of exhaustive exercise and different humidity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvan, K; Dabidi Roshan, V; Mahmudi, S A

    2015-11-01

    Asthmatic obese children experience changes in functional capacity and autonomic control. Previous heart rate variability (HRV) studies were based on 24-hour recordings, little research has been conducted on the short-term HRV in asthmatic obese children, primarily during physical effort indifferent environmental humidity conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aerobic activity on short-term HRV in asthmatic obese children under two different environmental humidity conditions. Ten obese boys with mild asthma as experimental group and 15 obese healthy boys with the same conditions were involved as a control group. Protocol included progressive and exhaustive aerobic activities on a calibrated ergometer pedal bicycle in two various environmental humidity 35±5% and 65±5%. HRV was measured by PADSY MEDSET Holter monitoring device during three phases; pre-test, mid-test and post-test. Then, short-term HRV was assessed from calculation of the mean R-R interval measured on HRV at each phases. HRV significantly decreased at mid-test and post-test among asthmatic and health children. However, the aforesaid changes were significantly higher in the asthmatic than health children following. Moreover, decrease of short-term HRV was significantly greater in the 35±5% than 65±5% environmental humidity. Our findings suggest from the autonomic standpoint, asthmatic and non-asthmatic children respond differently to exhaustive exercise induced stress. Aerobic exercise at an environment with high humidity compared with the low humidity appears to have additional benefits on short-term HRV in that it enhances the parasympathetic and autonomic modulation of the heart in asthmatic obese children.

  3. Stress in Context: Morpho-Syntactic Properties Affect Lexical Stress Assignment in Reading Aloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Giacomo; Sulpizio, Simone; Primativo, Silvia; Burani, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings from English and Russian have shown that grammatical category plays a key role in stress assignment. In these languages, some grammatical categories have a typical stress pattern and this information is used by readers. However, whether readers are sensitive to smaller distributional differences and other morpho-syntactic properties (e.g., gender, number, person) remains unclear. We addressed this issue in word and non-word reading in Italian, a language in which: (1) nouns and verbs differ in the proportion of words with a dominant stress pattern; (2) information specified by words sharing morpho-syntactic properties may contrast with other sources of information, such as stress neighborhood. Both aspects were addressed in two experiments in which context words were used to induce the desired morpho-syntactic properties. Experiment 1 showed that the relatively different proportions of stress patterns between grammatical categories do not affect stress processing in word reading. In contrast, Experiment 2 showed that information specified by words sharing morpho-syntactic properties outweighs stress neighborhood in non-word reading. Thus, while general information specified by grammatical categories may not be used by Italian readers, stress neighbors with morpho-syntactic properties congruent with those of the target stimulus have a primary role in stress assignment. These results underscore the importance of expanding investigations of stress assignment beyond single words, as current models of single-word reading seem unable to account for our results.

  4. Children's and adults' on-line processing of syntactically ambiguous sentences during reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly S S L Joseph

    Full Text Available While there has been a fair amount of research investigating children's syntactic processing during spoken language comprehension, and a wealth of research examining adults' syntactic processing during reading, as yet very little research has focused on syntactic processing during text reading in children. In two experiments, children and adults read sentences containing a temporary syntactic ambiguity while their eye movements were monitored. In Experiment 1, participants read sentences such as, 'The boy poked the elephant with the long stick/trunk from outside the cage' in which the attachment of a prepositional phrase was manipulated. In Experiment 2, participants read sentences such as, 'I think I'll wear the new skirt I bought tomorrow/yesterday. It's really nice' in which the attachment of an adverbial phrase was manipulated. Results showed that adults and children exhibited similar processing preferences, but that children were delayed relative to adults in their detection of initial syntactic misanalysis. It is concluded that children and adults have the same sentence-parsing mechanism in place, but that it operates with a slightly different time course. In addition, the data support the hypothesis that the visual processing system develops at a different rate than the linguistic processing system in children.

  5. The effects of supervised learning on event-related potential correlates of music-syntactic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuang; Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-11-11

    Humans process music even without conscious effort according to implicit knowledge about syntactic regularities. Whether such automatic and implicit processing is modulated by veridical knowledge has remained unknown in previous neurophysiological studies. This study investigates this issue by testing whether the acquisition of veridical knowledge of a music-syntactic irregularity (acquired through supervised learning) modulates early, partly automatic, music-syntactic processes (as reflected in the early right anterior negativity, ERAN), and/or late controlled processes (as reflected in the late positive component, LPC). Excerpts of piano sonatas with syntactically regular and less regular chords were presented repeatedly (10 times) to non-musicians and amateur musicians. Participants were informed by a cue as to whether the following excerpt contained a regular or less regular chord. Results showed that the repeated exposure to several presentations of regular and less regular excerpts did not influence the ERAN elicited by less regular chords. By contrast, amplitudes of the LPC (as well as of the P3a evoked by less regular chords) decreased systematically across learning trials. These results reveal that late controlled, but not early (partly automatic), neural mechanisms of music-syntactic processing are modulated by repeated exposure to a musical piece. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of Shear Properties for APO/MBI Syntactic Foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reser, Patrick M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lewis, Matthew W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clark, Jarod [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ahuja, Nishant [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lenke, Lary R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-14

    Triaxial compression testing is a means for mechanical characterization of a material. A unique feature of the triaxial compression test is the application of two different magnitudes of compressive pressures on the material simultaneously. The material behavior under these different compressive pressures can be monitored over time. Several important characteristics of the material, such as stress yield values and the shear failure envelope may then be determined. Also mechanical properties such as Poisson’s ratio, Young’s modulus and bulk modulus can be determined from the triaxial compression test. The triaxial compression test was employed in this investigation to characterize the shear behavior, shear failure envelope, and mechanical properties of a syntactic foam. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supplied a total of 36 samples of APO-BMI syntactic foam to the University of New Mexico, Department of Civil Engineering for testing between December 2003 and May 2004. Each sample had a diameter of 1.395±0.005 in. (3.543±0.013cm.) and a length of 2.796±0.004 in. (7.102±0.010 cm.). The samples had an average density of 0.295 g/cm3. Additional information about the material tested in this investigation can be found in the “Specimen Description” section contained in Chapter 1. The nomenclatures used in this study is presented in Chapter 1. In addition to designing and implementing triaxial compression tests capable of up to 2,000 psi. confining pressure (minor principal stress) and roughly 13,000 psi. in axial pressure (major principal stress), a pure tension test was designed and conducted on the foam material. The purpose of this pure tension test was to obtain maximum tensile stress values to enhance the characterization of the shear envelope in the stress space. The sampling procedure and specimen preparation for a standard test can be found in the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) D 5379/ D 5379 – 93. The above tests mentioned and

  7. Characterization of binary string statistics for syntactic landmine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasif, Ahmed O.; Mark, Brian L.; Hintz, Kenneth J.

    2011-06-01

    Syntactic landmine detection has been proposed to detect and classify non-metallic landmines using ground penetrating radar (GPR). In this approach, the GPR return is processed to extract characteristic binary strings for landmine and clutter discrimination. In our previous work, we discussed the preprocessing methodology by which the amplitude information of the GPR A-scan signal can be effectively converted into binary strings, which identify the impedance discontinuities in the signal. In this work, we study the statistical properties of the binary string space. In particular, we develop a Markov chain model to characterize the observed bit sequence of the binary strings. The state is defined as the number of consecutive zeros between two ones in the binarized A-scans. Since the strings are highly sparse (the number of zeros is much greater than the number of ones), defining the state this way leads to fewer number of states compared to the case where each bit is defined as a state. The number of total states is further reduced by quantizing the number of consecutive zeros. In order to identify the correct order of the Markov model, the mean square difference (MSD) between the transition matrices of mine strings and non-mine strings is calculated up to order four using training data. The results show that order one or two maximizes this MSD. The specification of the transition probabilities of the chain can be used to compute the likelihood of any given string. Such a model can be used to identify characteristic landmine strings during the training phase. These developments on modeling and characterizing the string statistics can potentially be part of a real-time landmine detection algorithm that identifies landmine and clutter in an adaptive fashion.

  8. Contributions of emotional state and attention to the processing of syntactic agreement errors: evidence from P600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Wilhelmina Francina Teresia Verhees

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The classic account of language is that language processing occurs in isolation from other cognitive systems, like perception, motor action and emotion. The theme of this paper is the relationship between a participant’s emotional state and language comprehension. Does emotional context affect how we process neutral words? Recent studies showed that processing of word meaning –traditionally conceived as an automatic process– is affected by emotional state. The influence of emotional state on syntactic processing is less clear. One study reported a mood-related P600 modulation, while another study did not observe an effect of mood on syntactic processing. The goals of this study were: First, to clarify whether and if so how mood affects syntactic processing. Second, to shed light on the underlying mechanisms by separating possible effects of mood from those of attention on syntactic processing.ERPs were recorded while participants read syntactically correct or incorrect sentences. Mood (happy vs. sad was manipulated by presenting film clips. Attention was manipulated by directing attention to syntactic features vs. physical features. The mood induction was effective. Interactions between mood, attention and syntactic correctness were obtained, showing that mood and attention modulated P600. The mood manipulation led to a reduction in P600 for sad as compared to happy mood when attention was directed at syntactic features. The attention manipulation led to a reduction in P600 when attention was directed at physical features compared to syntactic features for happy mood. From this we draw two conclusions: First, emotional state does affect syntactic processing. We propose mood-related differences in the reliance on heuristics as the underlying mechanism. Second, attention can contribute to emotion-related ERP effects in syntactic language processing. Therefore, future studies on the relation between language and emotion will have to control

  9. Contributions of emotional state and attention to the processing of syntactic agreement errors: evidence from P600.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhees, Martine W F T; Chwilla, Dorothee J; Tromp, Johanne; Vissers, Constance T W M

    2015-01-01

    The classic account of language is that language processing occurs in isolation from other cognitive systems, like perception, motor action, and emotion. The central theme of this paper is the relationship between a participant's emotional state and language comprehension. Does emotional context affect how we process neutral words? Recent studies showed that processing of word meaning - traditionally conceived as an automatic process - is affected by emotional state. The influence of emotional state on syntactic processing is less clear. One study reported a mood-related P600 modulation, while another study did not observe an effect of mood on syntactic processing. The goals of this study were: First, to clarify whether and if so how mood affects syntactic processing. Second, to shed light on the underlying mechanisms by separating possible effects of mood from those of attention on syntactic processing. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read syntactically correct or incorrect sentences. Mood (happy vs. sad) was manipulated by presenting film clips. Attention was manipulated by directing attention to syntactic features vs. physical features. The mood induction was effective. Interactions between mood, attention and syntactic correctness were obtained, showing that mood and attention modulated P600. The mood manipulation led to a reduction in P600 for sad as compared to happy mood when attention was directed at syntactic features. The attention manipulation led to a reduction in P600 when attention was directed at physical features compared to syntactic features for happy mood. From this we draw two conclusions: First, emotional state does affect syntactic processing. We propose mood-related differences in the reliance on heuristics as the underlying mechanism. Second, attention can contribute to emotion-related ERP effects in syntactic language processing. Therefore, future studies on the relation between language and emotion will

  10. MODEL-ASSISTED ESTIMATION OF THE GENETIC VARIABILITY IN PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS RELATED TO TOMATO FRUIT GROWTH UNDER CONTRASTED WATER CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Constantinescu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is a major abiotic stres threatening plant and crop productivity. In case of fleshy fruits, understanding Drought stress is a major abiotic stress threatening plant and crop productivity. In case of fleshy fruits, understanding mechanisms governing water and carbon accumulations and identifying genes, QTLs and phenotypes, that will enable trade-offs between fruit growth and quality under Water Deficit (WD condition is a crucial challenge for breeders and growers. In the present work, 117 recombinant inbred lines of a population of Solanum lycopersicum were phenotyped under control and WD conditions. Plant water status, fruit growth and composition were measured and data were used to calibrate a process-based model describing water and carbon fluxes in a growing fruit as a function of plant and environment. Eight genotype-dependent model parameters were estimated using a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm in order to minimize the prediction errors of fruit dry and fresh mass throughout fruit development. WD increased the fruit dry matter content (up to 85 % and decreased its fresh weight (up to 60 %, big fruit size genotypes being the most sensitive. The mean normalized root mean squared errors of the predictions ranged between 16-18 % in the population. Variability in model genotypic parameters allowed us to explore diverse genetic strategies in response to WD. An interesting group of genotypes could be discriminated in which i the low loss of fresh mass under WD was associated with high active uptake of sugars and low value of the maximum cell wall extensibility, and ii the high dry matter content in control treatment (C was associated with a slow decrease of mass flow. Using 501 SNP markers genotyped across the genome, a QTL analysis of model parameters allowed to detect three main QTLs related to xylem and phloem conductivities, on chromosomes 2, 4 and 8. The model was then applied to design ideotypes with high dry matter

  11. Temperature and Thermal Expansion Analysis of the Cooling Roller Based on the Variable Heat Flux Boundary Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongkang; Yang, Yang; He, Changyan

    2018-06-01

    Planar flow casting (PFC) is a primary method for preparing an amorphous ribbon. The qualities of the amorphous ribbon are significantly influenced by the temperature and thermal expansion of the cooling roller. This study proposes a new approach to analyze the three-dimensional temperature and thermal expansion of the cooling roller using variable heat flux that acted on the cooling roller as a boundary condition. First, a simplified two-dimensional model of the PFC is developed to simulate the distribution of the heat flux in the circumferential direction with the software FLUENT. The resulting heat flux is extended to be three-dimensional in the ribbon's width direction. Then, the extended heat flux is imported as the boundary condition by the CFX Expression Language, and the transient temperature of the cooling roller is analyzed in the CFX software. Next, the transient thermal expansion of the cooling roller is simulated through the thermal-structural coupling method. Simulation results show that the roller's temperature and expansion are unevenly distributed, reach the peak value in the middle width direction, and the quasi-steady state of the maximum temperature and thermal expansion are achieved after approximately 50 s and 150 s of casting, respectively. The minimum values of the temperature and expansion are achieved when the roller has a thickness of 45 mm. Finally, the reliability of the approach proposed is verified by measuring the roller's thermal expansion on the spot. This study provides theoretical guidance for the roller's thermal expansion prediction and the gap adjustment in the PFC.

  12. Decadal variability of drought conditions over the southern part of Europe based on Principal Oscillation Pattern Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita-Scholz, Monica; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Scholz, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    This study introduces a novel method of estimating the decay time, mean period and forcing statistics of drought conditions over large spatial domains, demonstrated here for southern part of Europe (10°E - 40°E, 35°N - 50°N). It uses a two-dimensional stochastically forced damped linear oscillator model with the model parameters estimated from a Principal Oscillation Pattern (POP) analysis and associated observed power spectra. POP is a diagnostic technique that aims to derive the space-time characteristics of a data set objectively. This analysis is performed on an extended observational time series of 114 years (1902 - 2015) of the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index for an accumulation period of 12 months (SPEI12), based on the Climate Research Unit (CRU TS v. 3.24) data set. The POP analysis reveals four exceptionally stable modes of variability, which together explain more than 62% of the total explained variance. The most stable POP mode, which explains 16.3% of the total explained variance, is characterized by a period of oscillation of 14 years and a decay time of 31 years. The real part of POP1 is characterized by a monopole-like structure with the highest loadings over Portugal, western part of Spain and Turkey. The second stable mode, which explains 15.9% of the total explained variance, is characterized by a period of oscillation of 20 years and a decay time of 26.4 years. The spatial structure of the real part of POP2 has a dipole-like structure with the highest positive loadings over France, southern Germany and Romania and negative loadings over southern part of Spain. The third POP mode, in terms of stability, explains 14.0% of the total variance and is characterized by a period of oscillation of 33 years and a decay time of 43.5 years. The real part of POP3 is characterized by negative loadings over the eastern part of Europe and positive loadings over Turkey. The fourth stable POP mode, explaining 15.5% of the total variance

  13. Short seed longevity, variable germination conditions, and infrequent establishment events provide a narrow window for Yucca brevifolia (Agavaceae) recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, M.; Reynolds, J.; DeFalco, Lesley A.; Esque, Todd C.

    2012-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The future of long-lived stand-forming desert plants such as Yucca brevifolia (Joshua tree) has come into question in light of climate variation and landscape-scale disturbances such as wildfire. Understanding plant establishment dynamics is important for mitigating the impacts of disturbances and promoting revegetation. • METHODS: We placed Y. brevifolia seeds in shallow caches and manipulated granivore access, nurse shrub effects, and the season of cache placement to determine conditions for seed germination and seedling establishment. • KEY RESULTS: Greatest seedling emergence occurred during spring and summer, when increased soil moisture was accompanied by warm soil temperatures. Late winter-spring emergence for cached seeds was enhanced beneath shrub canopies, but seedling survival declined beneath shrubs as temperatures increased in spring. Germinability of seed remaining in the soil was reduced from 50-68% after 12 mo residence time in soil and declined to germinability, imposing substantial losses of potential germinants. • CONCLUSIONS: Specific germination and establishment requirements impose stringent limits on recruitment rates for Y. brevifolia. Coupled with infrequent seed availability, the return rates to prefire densities and demographic structure may require decades to centuries, especially in light of potential changes to regional desert climate in combination with the potential for fire recurrence. Demographic patterns are predicted to vary spatially in response to environmental variability that limits recruitment and may already be apparent among extant populations.

  14. Analysis of vegetation condition and its relationship with meteorological variables in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Han

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Yarlung Zangbo River Basin is located in the southwest border of China, which is of great significance to the socioeconomic development and ecological environment of Southwest China. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI is an important index for investigating the change of vegetation cover, which is widely used as the representation value of vegetation cover. In this study, the NDVI is adopted to explore the vegetation condition in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin during the recent 17 years, and the relationship between NDVI and meteorological variables has also been discussed. The results show that the annual maximum value of NDVI usually appears from July to September, in which August occupies a large proportion. The minimum value of NDVI appears from January to March, in which February takes up most of the percentage. The higher values of NDVI are generally located in the lower elevation area. When the altitude is higher than 3250 m, NDVI began to decline gradually, and the NDVI became gradual stabilization as the elevation is up to 6000 m. The correlation coefficient between NDVI and precipitation in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin is greater than that with temperature. The Hurst index of the whole basin is 0.51, indicating that the NDVI of the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin shows a weak sustainability.

  15. Comparative study of the reliability of MPPT algorithms for the crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules in variable weather conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Dandoussou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules are widely used as power supply sources in the tropical areas where the weather conditions change abruptly. Fortunately, many MPPT algorithms are implemented to improve their performance. In the other hand, it is well known that these power supply sources are nonlinear dipoles and so, their intrinsic parameters may vary with the irradiance and the temperature. In this paper, the MPPT algorithms widely used, i.e. Perturb and Observe (P&O, Incremental Conductance (INC, Hill-Climbing (HC, are implemented using Matlab®/Simulink® model of a crystalline silicon photovoltaic module whose intrinsic parameters were extracted by fitting the I(V characteristic to experimental points. Comparing the simulation results, it is obvious that the variable step size INC algorithm has the best reliability than both HC and P&O algorithms for the near to real Simulink® model of photovoltaic modules. With a 60 Wp photovoltaic module, the daily maximum power reaches 50.76 W against 34.40 W when the photovoltaic parameters are fixed. Meanwhile, the daily average energy is 263 Wh/day against 195 Wh/day.

  16. Investigation on output capacity control strategy of variable refrigerant flow air conditioning system with multi-compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Qiu; Zou, Deqiu; Deng, Chenmian; Zhang, Jie; Hou, Lifeng; Yang, Min; Nong, Guicai; Feng, Yuhai

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The control model of compressor output capacity has been built. • The control strategy of compressor switching has been presented. • The switching process of standard compressor has been described. • The characteristics of EER and noise have been presented. • The control strategy and model have been proved by experiments. - Abstract: A set of 14 HP variable refrigerant flow air conditioning system (VRF AC) with multi-compressor has been designed, and the output capacity control strategy of compressor(s) including the switching control model of standard compressor has been built. In the output capacity control model, a certain suction pressure is used as the pressure control target to adjust the output capacity of compressors, and a little pressure fluctuation is taken into account to amend the target pressure. Furthermore, in the compressor switching control model, the most favorable operation frequency region is determined on base of the energy efficiency characteristic and noise characteristic of the compressor. And, in order to solve the large fluctuation problem of the system running and frequent ON-OFF action of the standard compressor, the equal output capacity switching principle can be used to determine the thermo-on and thermo-off switched frequency points, and control the switching process of the compressor. Experiments demonstrate the feasibility of this control strategy to ensure the stability and reliability, improve the energy efficiency and reduce the compressor noise.

  17. Short seed longevity, variable germination conditions, and infrequent establishment events provide a narrow window for Yucca brevifolia (Agavaceae) recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, M.; Reynolds, J.; DeFalco, Lesley A.; Esque, Todd C.

    2012-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The future of long-lived stand-forming desert plants such as Yucca brevifolia (Joshua tree) has come into question in light of climate variation and landscape-scale disturbances such as wildfire. Understanding plant establishment dynamics is important for mitigating the impacts of disturbances and promoting revegetation. • METHODS: We placed Y. brevifolia seeds in shallow caches and manipulated granivore access, nurse shrub effects, and the season of cache placement to determine conditions for seed germination and seedling establishment. • KEY RESULTS: Greatest seedling emergence occurred during spring and summer, when increased soil moisture was accompanied by warm soil temperatures. Late winter-spring emergence for cached seeds was enhanced beneath shrub canopies, but seedling survival declined beneath shrubs as temperatures increased in spring. Germinability of seed remaining in the soil was reduced from 50-68% after 12 mo residence time in soil and declined to parent plants, seeds are either removed by granivores or lose germinability, imposing substantial losses of potential germinants. • CONCLUSIONS: Specific germination and establishment requirements impose stringent limits on recruitment rates for Y. brevifolia. Coupled with infrequent seed availability, the return rates to prefire densities and demographic structure may require decades to centuries, especially in light of potential changes to regional desert climate in combination with the potential for fire recurrence. Demographic patterns are predicted to vary spatially in response to environmental variability that limits recruitment and may already be apparent among extant populations.

  18. Thai Language Sentence Similarity Computation Based on Syntactic Structure and Semantic Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbin; Feng, Yinhan; Cheng, Liang

    2018-03-01

    Sentence similarity computation plays an increasingly important role in text mining, Web page retrieval, machine translation, speech recognition and question answering systems. Thai language as a kind of resources scarce language, it is not like Chinese language with HowNet and CiLin resources. So the Thai sentence similarity research faces some challenges. In order to solve this problem of the Thai language sentence similarity computation. This paper proposes a novel method to compute the similarity of Thai language sentence based on syntactic structure and semantic vector. This method firstly uses the Part-of-Speech (POS) dependency to calculate two sentences syntactic structure similarity, and then through the word vector to calculate two sentences semantic similarity. Finally, we combine the two methods to calculate two Thai language sentences similarity. The proposed method not only considers semantic, but also considers the sentence syntactic structure. The experiment result shows that this method in Thai language sentence similarity computation is feasible.

  19. Syntactic comprehension and working memory in children with specific language impairment, autism or Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato-Tavares, Talita; Andrade, Claudia R F; Befi-Lopes, Debora; Limongi, Suelly O; Fernandes, Fernanda D M; Schwartz, Richard G

    2015-07-01

    This study examined syntactic assignment for predicates and reflexives as well as working memory effects in the sentence comprehension of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), Down syndrome (DS), high functioning Autism (HFA) and Typical Language Development (TLD). Fifty-seven children (35 boys and 22 girls) performed a computerised picture-selection sentence comprehension task. Predicate attachment and reflexive antecedent assignment (with working memory manipulations) were investigated. The results showed that SLI, HFA and DS children exhibited poorer overall performance than TLD children. Children with SLI exhibited similar performance to the DS and HFA children only when working memory demands were higher. We conclude that children with SLI, HFA and DS differ from children with TLD in their comprehension of predicate and reflexive structures where the knowledge of syntactic assignment is required. Working memory manipulation had different effects on syntactic comprehension depending on language disorder. Intelligence was not an explanatory factor for the differences observed in performance.

  20. Cognitive Factors in the Choice of Syntactic Form by Aphasic and Normal Speakers of English and Japanese: The Speaker's Impulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menn, Lise; And Others

    This study examined the role of empathy in the choice of syntactic form and the degree of independence of pragmatic and syntactic abilities in a range of aphasic patients. Study 1 involved 9 English-speaking and 9 Japanese-speaking aphasic subjects with 10 English-speaking and 4 Japanese normal controls. Study 2 involved 14 English- and 6…

  1. The Interaction of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Statistics in the Resolution of Syntactic Category Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Edward

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates how people resolve syntactic category ambiguities when comprehending sentences. It is proposed that people combine: (a) context-dependent syntactic expectations (top-down statistical information) and (b) context-independent lexical-category frequencies of words (bottom-up statistical information) in order to resolve…

  2. Syntactic Complexity Effects in Sentence Production: A Reply to MacDonald, Montag, and Gennari (2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scontras, Gregory; Badecker, William; Fedorenko, Evelina

    2017-01-01

    In our article, "Syntactic complexity effects in sentence production" [Scontras, Badecker, Shank, Lim, & Fedorenko, 2015 (EJ1057757)], we reported two elicited production experiments and argued that there is a cost associated with planning and uttering syntactically complex, object-extracted structures that contain a non-local…

  3. Double dissociation between syntactic gender and picture naming processing: a brain stimulation mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidorreta, Jose Garbizu; Garcia, Roser; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Duffau, Hugues

    2011-03-01

    Neural foundations of syntactic gender processing remain poorly understood. We used electrostimulation mapping in nine right-handed awake patients during surgery for a glioma within the left hemisphere, to study whether the cortico-subcortical structures involved in naming versus syntactic gender processing are common or distinct. In French, the article determines the grammatical gender. Thus, the patient was asked to perform a picture naming task and to give the appropriate article for each picture, with and without stimulation. Cortical stimulation elicited reproducible syntactic gender disturbances in six patients, in the inferior frontal gyrus (three cases), and in the posterior middle temporal gyrus (three cases). Interestingly, no naming disorders were generated during stimulation of the syntactic sites, while cortical areas inducing naming disturbances never elicited grammatical gender errors when stimulated. Moreover, at the subcortical level, stimulation of the white matter lateral to the caudate nucleus induced gender errors in three patients, with no naming disorders. Using cortico-subcortical electrical mapping in awake patients, we demonstrate for the first time (1) a double dissociation between syntactic gender and naming processing, supporting independent network model rather than serial theory, (2) the involvement of the left inferior frontal gyrus, especially the pars triangularis, and the posterior left middle temporal gyrus in grammatical gender processing, (3) the existence of white matter pathways, likely a sub-part of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, underlying a large-scale distributed cortico-subcortical circuit which might selectively sub-serve syntactic gender processing, even if interconnected with parallel sub-networks involved in naming (semantic and phonological) processing. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Creation Myths of Generative Grammar and the Mathematics of Syntactic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullum, Geoffrey K.

    Syntactic Structures (Chomsky [6]) is widely believed to have laid the foundations of a cognitive revolution in linguistic science, and to have presented (i) the first use in linguistics of powerful new ideas regarding grammars as generative systems, (ii) a proof that English was not a regular language, (iii) decisive syntactic arguments against context-free phrase structure grammar description, and (iv) a demonstration of how transformational rules could provide a formal solution to those problems. None of these things are true. This paper offers a retrospective analysis and evaluation.

  5. Algorithm of Syntactic Idioms Recognition in the Text: Attempt of Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sytar Hanna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention of national and foreign researchers was focused so far on structural and semantic features of syntactic idioms. Automatic analysis of these peculiar units that are on the verge of syntax and phraseology still was not carried out in the scientific literature. This issue requires a theoretical understanding and practical implementation. Purpose: To create an algorithm of recognition of syntactic idioms with one- or two-term core component in the corpus of texts. Results: Based on the results of previous theoretical studies we highlighted a number of formal and statistical criteria that enable to distinguish syntactic idioms from other language units in the corpus of Ukrainian-language texts. The author developed a block diagram of syntactic idioms recognition, incorporating two branches constructed accordingly for the sentences with one-term and sentences with two-term core component. The first branch is based on the presence of word repeats (full words concurrence or presence of other word forms of the word and the list of core components determined on previous stages of the study (є, це, то, не, так; як; з/із/зі, між, над, серед; а, але, зате, однак, проте. The second branch was created for another type of syntactic idioms – one with a two-term core component. It takes into account the following properties of the analyzed units: the presence of combinations of service parts of speech, service parts of speech with pronoun or adverb, pronoun and adverb; compliance of words combinations with the register of the syntactic idioms core components currently comprising 92 structures; association measure of mutual information ≥9, etc. Discussion: Offered algorithm enables automatic identification of syntactic idioms in the corpus of texts and removal of contexts of their use, it can be used to improve the procedure of automatic text processing and creation of automated translation

  6. Inter-Labeler and Intra-Labeler Variability of Condition Severity Classification Models Using Active and Passive Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Nir; Shahar, Yuval; Boland, Mary Regina; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Elovici, Yuval; Hripcsak, George; Moskovitch, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Background and Objectives Labeling instances by domain experts for classification is often time consuming and expensive. To reduce such labeling efforts, we had proposed the application of active learning (AL) methods, introduced our CAESAR-ALE framework for classifying the severity of clinical conditions, and shown its significant reduction of labeling efforts. The use of any of three AL methods (one well known [SVM-Margin], and two that we introduced [Exploitation and Combination_XA]) significantly reduced (by 48% to 64%) condition labeling efforts, compared to standard passive (random instance-selection) SVM learning. Furthermore, our new AL methods achieved maximal accuracy using 12% fewer labeled cases than the SVM-Margin AL method. However, because labelers have varying levels of expertise, a major issue associated with learning methods, and AL methods in particular, is how to best to use the labeling provided by a committee of labelers. First, we wanted to know, based on the labelers’ learning curves, whether using AL methods (versus standard passive learning methods) has an effect on the Intra-labeler variability (within the learning curve of each labeler) and inter-labeler variability (among the learning curves of different labelers). Then, we wanted to examine the effect of learning (either passively or actively) from the labels created by the majority consensus of a group of labelers. Methods We used our CAESAR-ALE framework for classifying the severity of clinical conditions, the three AL methods and the passive learning method, as mentioned above, to induce the classifications models. We used a dataset of 516 clinical conditions and their severity labeling, represented by features aggregated from the medical records of 1.9 million patients treated at Columbia University Medical Center. We analyzed the variance of the classification performance within (intra-labeler), and especially among (inter-labeler) the classification models that were induced by

  7. Inter-labeler and intra-labeler variability of condition severity classification models using active and passive learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Nir; Shahar, Yuval; Elovici, Yuval; Hripcsak, George; Moskovitch, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Labeling instances by domain experts for classification is often time consuming and expensive. To reduce such labeling efforts, we had proposed the application of active learning (AL) methods, introduced our CAESAR-ALE framework for classifying the severity of clinical conditions, and shown its significant reduction of labeling efforts. The use of any of three AL methods (one well known [SVM-Margin], and two that we introduced [Exploitation and Combination_XA]) significantly reduced (by 48% to 64%) condition labeling efforts, compared to standard passive (random instance-selection) SVM learning. Furthermore, our new AL methods achieved maximal accuracy using 12% fewer labeled cases than the SVM-Margin AL method. However, because labelers have varying levels of expertise, a major issue associated with learning methods, and AL methods in particular, is how to best to use the labeling provided by a committee of labelers. First, we wanted to know, based on the labelers' learning curves, whether using AL methods (versus standard passive learning methods) has an effect on the Intra-labeler variability (within the learning curve of each labeler) and inter-labeler variability (among the learning curves of different labelers). Then, we wanted to examine the effect of learning (either passively or actively) from the labels created by the majority consensus of a group of labelers. We used our CAESAR-ALE framework for classifying the severity of clinical conditions, the three AL methods and the passive learning method, as mentioned above, to induce the classifications models. We used a dataset of 516 clinical conditions and their severity labeling, represented by features aggregated from the medical records of 1.9 million patients treated at Columbia University Medical Center. We analyzed the variance of the classification performance within (intra-labeler), and especially among (inter-labeler) the classification models that were induced by using the labels provided by seven

  8. Mathematical model for thermal solar collectors by using magnetohydrodynamic Maxwell nanofluid with slip conditions, thermal radiation and variable thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Mahmood

    Full Text Available Solar energy is the cleanest, renewable and most abundant source of energy available on earth. The main use of solar energy is to heat and cool buildings, heat water and to generate electricity. There are two types of solar energy collection system, the photovoltaic systems and the solar thermal collectors. The efficiency of any solar thermal system depend on the thermophysical properties of the operating fluids and the geometry/length of the system in which fluid is flowing. In the present research a simplified mathematical model for the solar thermal collectors is considered in the form of non-uniform unsteady stretching surface. The flow is induced by a non-uniform stretching of the porous sheet and the uniform magnetic field is applied in the transverse direction to the flow. The non-Newtonian Maxwell fluid model is utilized for the working fluid along with slip boundary conditions. Moreover the high temperature effect of thermal radiation and temperature dependent thermal conductivity are also included in the present model. The mathematical formulation is carried out through a boundary layer approach and the numerical computations are carried out for cu-water and TiO2-water nanofluids. Results are presented for the velocity and temperature profiles as well as the skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number and the discussion is concluded on the effect of various governing parameters on the motion, temperature variation, velocity gradient and the rate of heat transfer at the boundary. Keywords: Solar energy, Thermal collectors, Maxwell-nanofluid, Thermal radiation, Partial slip, Variable thermal conductivity

  9. Numerical simulation of water flow and Nitrate transport through variably saturated porous media in laboratory condition using HYDRUS 2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangeer, F.; Gupta, P. K.; Yadav, B. K.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the reducing availability of water resources and the growing competition for water between residential, industrial, and agricultural users, increasing irrigation efficiency, by several methods like drip irrigation, is a demanding concern for agricultural experts. The understanding of the water and contaminants flow through the subsurface is needed for the sustainable irrigation water management, pollution assessment, polluted site remediation and groundwater recharge. In this study, the Windows-based computer software package HYDRUS-2D, which numerically simulates water and solute movement in two-dimensional, variably-saturated porous media, was used to evaluate the distribution of water and Nitrate in the sand tank. The laboratory and simulation experiments were conducted to evaluate the role of drainage, recharge flux, and infiltration on subsurface flow condition and subsequently, on nitrate movement in the subsurface. The water flow in the unsaturated zone model by Richards' equation, which was highly nonlinear and its parameters were largely dependent on the moisture content and pressure head of the partially saturated zone. Following different cases to be considered to evaluate- a) applying drainage and recharge flux to study domains, b) transient infiltration in a vertical soil column and c) subsequently, nitrate transport in 2D sand tank setup. A single porosity model was used for the simulation of water and nitrate flow in the study domain. The results indicate the transient water table position decreases as the time increase significantly by applying drainage flux at the bottom. Similarly, the water table positions in study domains increasing in the domain by applying recharge flux. Likewise, the water flow profile shows the decreasing water table elevation with increasing water content in the vertical domain. Moreover, the nitrate movement was dominated by advective flux and highly affected by the recharge flux in the vertical direction. The

  10. ERP evidence for on-line syntactic computations in 2-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusini, Perrine; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Dutat, Michel; Goffinet, François; Christophe, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Syntax allows human beings to build an infinite number of sentences from a finite number of words. How this unique, productive power of human language unfolds over the course of language development is still hotly debated. When they listen to sentences comprising newly-learned words, do children generalize from their knowledge of the legal combinations of word categories or do they instead rely on strings of words stored in memory to detect syntactic errors? Using novel words taught in the lab, we recorded Evoked Response Potentials (ERPs) in two-year-olds and adults listening to grammatical and ungrammatical sentences containing syntactic contexts that had not been used during training. In toddlers, the ungrammatical use of words, even when they have been just learned, induced an early left anterior negativity (surfacing 100-400ms after target word onset) followed by a late posterior positivity (surfacing 700-900ms after target word onset) that was not observed in grammatical sentences. This late effect was remarkably similar to the P600 displayed by adults, suggesting that toddlers and adults perform similar syntactic computations. Our results thus show that toddlers build on-line expectations regarding the syntactic category of upcoming words in a sentence. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Syntactic comprehension in reading and listening: a study with French children with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalis, Séverine; Leuwers, Christel; Hilton, Heather

    2013-01-01

    This study examined syntactic comprehension in French children with dyslexia in both listening and reading. In the first syntactic comprehension task, a partial version of the Epreuve de Compréhension syntaxico-sémantique (ECOSSE test; French adaptation of Bishop's test for receptive grammar test) children with dyslexia performed at a lower level in the written but not in the spoken modality, compared to reading age-matched children, suggesting a difficulty in handling syntax while reading. In the second task, syntactic processing was further explored through a test of relative clause processing, in which inflectional markers could aid in attributing roles to the elements in a complex syntactic structure. Children with dyslexia were insensitive to inflectional markers in both reading and listening, as was the reading age control group, while only the older normal reader group appeared to make use of the inflectional markers. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that difficulties in comprehension in dyslexia are strongly related to poor reading skills.

  12. Reading and listening in people with aphasia: effects of syntactic complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDe, Gayle

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare online effects of syntactic complexity in written and spoken sentence comprehension in people with aphasia (PWA) and adults with no brain damage (NBD). The participants in Experiment 1 were NBD older and younger adults (n = 20 per group). The participants in Experiment 2 were 10 PWA. In both experiments, the participants read and listened to sentences in self-paced reading and listening tasks. The experimental materials consisted of object cleft sentences (e.g., It was the girl who the boy hugged.) and subject cleft sentences (e.g., It was the boy who hugged the girl.). The predicted effects of syntactic complexity were observed in both Experiments 1 and 2: Reading and listening times were longer for the verb in sentences with object compared to subject relative clauses. The NBD controls showed exaggerated effects of syntactic complexity in reading compared to listening. The PWA did not show different modality effects from the NBD participants. Although effects of syntactic complexity were somewhat exaggerated in reading compared with listening, both the PWA and the NBD controls showed similar effects in both modalities.

  13. School-Age Children Talk about Chess: Does Knowledge Drive Syntactic Complexity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined language productivity and syntactic complexity in school-age children in relation to their knowledge of the topic of discussion--the game of chess. Method: Children (N = 32; mean age = 10;11 [years;months]) who played chess volunteered to be interviewed by an adult examiner who had little or no experience playing…

  14. Syntactic Recursion Facilitates and Working Memory Predicts Recursive Theory of Mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arslan, Burcu; Hohenberger, Annette; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we focus on the possible roles of second-order syntactic recursion and working memory in terms of simple and complex span tasks in the development of second-order false belief reasoning. We tested 89 Turkish children in two age groups, one younger (4;6-6;5 years) and one older

  15. Syntactic and Discourse Skills in Chinese Adolescent Readers with Dyslexia: A Profiling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; Lo, Jason C. M.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Xiao, Xiaoyun; Chan, David W.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relation of syntactic and discourse skills to morphological skills, rapid naming, and working memory in Chinese adolescent readers with dyslexia and to examine their cognitive-linguistic profiles. Fifty-two dyslexic readers (mean age, 13;42) from grade 7 to 9 in Hong Kong high schools were compared with 52…

  16. Characteristics of Syntactic Comprehension Deficits Following Closed Head Injury versus Left Cerebrovascular Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-Hinz, Susan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Two studies examined the ability to assign thematic roles and to coindex referentially dependent noun phrases in closed head injured adults (N=20), adult stroke patients (N=20), and normal adults (N=20). Results suggested that syntactic comprehension disturbances are similar following left cerebral hemisphere infarction and closed head injury.…

  17. The Indicative and Subjunctive "da"-complements in Serbian A Syntactic-Semantic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorovic, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    A syntactic-semantic investigation of subjunctive and indicative "da"-complements in Serbian is conducted in this project. After a careful comparison of Serbian sentence constructions with "da"-complements to the equivalent sentence structures in languages of the Balkans as well as other Slavic languages, it is clearly…

  18. Syntactic Structure and Information Structure: The Acquisition of Portuguese Clefts and "Be"-Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Maria; Santos, Ana Lúcia; Soares-Jesel, Carla

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the acquisition of different types of clefts and of "be"-fragments in European Portuguese. We first present the main syntactic and discourse properties of different cleft structures and of "be"-fragments in European Portuguese, and we discuss how data from first language acquisition may contribute to…

  19. Development of Lexical and Syntactic Representations: The Acquisition of Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcanli, Ozge

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation concerns the acquisition of the interaction between lexicosemantic properties of verbs and syntax, focusing on symmetrical and asymmetrical verbs in different syntactic structures. Based on linguistic evidence, it is shown that two conceptual categories, Mutuality and Number, interact to give rise to four event-types: Single…

  20. Left cytoarchitectonic BA 44 processes syntactic gender violations in determiner phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Stefan; van Ermingen, Muna; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin

    2010-10-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies make contradictory predictions about the involvement of left Brodmann's area (BA) 44 in processing local syntactic violations in determiner phrases (DPs). Some studies suggest a role for BA 44 in detecting local syntactic violations, whereas others attribute this function to the left premotor cortex. Therefore, the present event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated whether left-cytoarchitectonic BA 44 was activated when German DPs involving syntactic gender violations were compared with correct DPs (correct: 'der Baum'-the[masculine] tree[masculine]; violated: 'das Baum'--the[neuter] tree[masculine]). Grammaticality judgements were made for both visual and auditory DPs to be able to generalize the results across modalities. Grammaticality judgements involved, among others, left BA 44 and left BA 6 in the premotor cortex for visual and auditory stimuli. Most importantly, activation in left BA 44 was consistently higher for violated than for correct DPs. This finding was behaviourally corroborated by longer reaction times for violated versus correct DPs. Additional brain regions, showing the same effect, included left premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, right middle and superior frontal cortex, and left cerebellum. Based on earlier findings from the literature, the results indicate the involvement of left BA 44 in processing local syntactic violations when these include morphological features, whereas left premotor cortex seems crucial for the detection of local word category violations. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Syntactic Universals and the Acquisition of Spanish Word Order by Quechua-Speaking Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Marta; Liliana Minaya

    Because of the syntactic differences between Spanish and Quechua, Quechua-speaking children must make major word order adjustments to learn the Peruvian Spanish taught in school. This study investigates whether the order or time sequence in which these changes are adopted reflects any general constraint, or is in any way predicted by a theory of…

  2. Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Xu, Chunshan; Liang, Junying

    2017-07-01

    Dependency distance, measured by the linear distance between two syntactically related words in a sentence, is generally held as an important index of memory burden and an indicator of syntactic difficulty. Since this constraint of memory is common for all human beings, there may well be a universal preference for dependency distance minimization (DDM) for the sake of reducing memory burden. This human-driven language universal is supported by big data analyses of various corpora that consistently report shorter overall dependency distance in natural languages than in artificial random languages and long-tailed distributions featuring a majority of short dependencies and a minority of long ones. Human languages, as complex systems, seem to have evolved to come up with diverse syntactic patterns under the universal pressure for dependency distance minimization. However, there always exist a small number of long-distance dependencies in natural languages, which may reflect some other biological or functional constraints. Language system may adapt itself to these sporadic long-distance dependencies. It is these universal constraints that have shaped such a rich diversity of syntactic patterns in human languages.

  3. Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Xu, Chunshan; Liang, Junying

    2017-07-01

    Dependency distance, measured by the linear distance between two syntactically related words in a sentence, is generally held as an important index of memory burden and an indicator of syntactic difficulty. Since this constraint of memory is common for all human beings, there may well be a universal preference for dependency distance minimization (DDM) for the sake of reducing memory burden. This human-driven language universal is supported by big data analyses of various corpora that consistently report shorter overall dependency distance in natural languages than in artificial random languages and long-tailed distributions featuring a majority of short dependencies and a minority of long ones. Human languages, as complex systems, seem to have evolved to come up with diverse syntactic patterns under the universal pressure for dependency distance minimization. However, there always exist a small number of long-distance dependencies in natural languages, which may reflect some other biological or functional constraints. Language system may adapt itself to these sporadic long-distance dependencies. It is these universal constraints that have shaped such a rich diversity of syntactic patterns in human languages. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. BROCAS APHASIA - A SYNTACTIC AND/OR A MORPHOLOGICAL DISORDER - A CASE-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BASTIAANSE, R

    The patient described here suffers from Broca's aphasia without a comprehension disorder. She is unique, since she has two speech styles available and she shifts between them spontaneously. One style is characterized by a mild syntactic disorder and the other by a quite severe morphological and

  5. Syntactic Awareness and Arithmetic Word Problem Solving in Children with and without Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Christian; Jiménez, Juan E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; Bisschop, Elaine; Villarroel, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    Arithmetic word problem (AWP) solving is a highly demanding task for children with learning disabilities (LD) since verbal and mathematical information have to be integrated. This study examines specifically how syntactic awareness (SA), the ability to manage the grammatical structures of language, affects AWP solving. Three groups of children in…

  6. Reconstructing paleoceanographic conditions in the westernmost Mediterranean during the last 4.000 yr: tracking rapid climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Moreno, V.; Martínez-Ruiz, F.; Jiménez-Espejo, F. J.; Gallego-Torres, D.; Rodrigo-Gámiz, M.; Sakamoto, T.; Böttcher, M.; García-Orellana, J.; Ortega-Huertas, M.

    2009-04-01

    The westernmost Mediterranean (Alboran Sea basin) is a key location for paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic reconstructions since high sedimentation rates provide ultra high-resolution records at centennial and millennial scales. Here, we present a paleoenvironmental reconstruction for the last 4000 yr, which is based on a multi-proxy approach that includes major and trace element-content fluctuations and mineral composition of marine sediments. The investigated materials correspond to several gravity and box cores recovered in the Alboran Sea basin during different oceanographic cruises (TTR-14 and TTR-17), which have been sampled at very high resolution. Comparative analysis of these cores allows establishing climate oscillations at centennial to millennial scales. Although relatively more attention have been devoted to major climate changes during the last glacial cycle, such as the Last Glacial Maximun, deglaciation and abrupt cooling events (Heinrich and Younger Dryas), the late Holocene has also been punctuated by significant rapid climate variability including polar cooling, aridity and changes in the intensity of the atmospheric circulation. These climate oscillations coincide with significant fluctuations in chemical and mineral composition of marine sediments. Thus, bulk and clay mineralogy, REE composition and Rb/Al, Zr/Al, La/Lu ratios provide information on the sedimentary regime (eolian-fluvial input and source areas), Ba-based proxies on fluctuations in marine productivity and redox sensitive elements on oxygen conditions at time of deposition. A decrease in fluvial-derived elements/minerals (e.g., Rb, detrital mica) takes places during the so-called Late Bronze Age-Iron Age, Dark Age, and Little Ice Age Period. Meanwhile an increase is evidenced during the Medieval Warm Period and the Roman Humid Period. This last trend runs parallel to a decline of element/minerals of typical eolian source (Zr, kaolinite) with the exception of the Roman Humid

  7. Developmental Exposure to Mild Variable Stress: Adult Offspring Performance in Trace Fear Conditioning after Prenatal and Postnatal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    In utero exposure to mild variable stress has been reported to influence learning and memory formation in offspring. Our research aims to examine whether nonchemical environmental stressors will exacerbate effects to chemical exposure. This study utilized a varying stress parad...

  8. Syntactic bootstrapping in children with Down syndrome: the impact of bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleave, Patricia L; Kay-Raining Bird, Elizabeth; Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to add to our knowledge of bilingual learning in children with Down syndrome (DS) using a syntactic bootstrapping task. Four groups of children and youth matched on non-verbal mental age participated. There were 14 bilingual participants with DS (DS-B, mean age 12;5), 12 monolingual participants with DS (DS-M, mean age 10;10), 9 bilingual typically developing children (TD-B; mean age 4;1) and 11 monolingual typically developing children (TD-M; mean age 4;1). The participants completed a computerized syntactic bootstrapping task involving unfamiliar nouns and verbs. The syntactic cues employed were a for the nouns and ing for the verbs. Performance was better on nouns than verbs. There was also a main effect for group. Follow-up t-tests revealed that there were no significant differences between the TD-M and TD-B or between the DS-M and DS-B groups. However, the DS-M group performed more poorly than the TD-M group with a large effect size. Analyses at the individual level revealed a similar pattern of results. There was evidence that Down syndrome impacted performance; there was no evidence that bilingualism negatively affected the syntactic bootstrapping skills of individuals with DS. These results from a dynamic language task are consistent with those of previous studies that used static or product measures. Thus, the results are consistent with the position that parents should be supported in their decision to provide bilingual input to their children with DS. Readers of this article will identify (1) research evidence regarding bilingual development in children with Down syndrome and (2) syntactic bootstrapping skills in monolingual and bilingual children who are typically developing or who have Down syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Linguistically deprived children: meta-analysis of published research underlines the importance of early syntactic language use for normal brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vyshedskiy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed all published reports of individuals not exposed to syntactic language until puberty: two feral children, who grew up without hearing any language, and eight deaf linguistic isolates, who grew up communicating to their families using homesign or kitchensign, a system of gestures which allows them to communicate simple commands but lacks much in the way of syntax. A common observation in these individuals is the lifelong difficulty understanding syntax and spatial prepositions, even after many years of rehabilitation. This debilitating condition stands in stark contrast to linguistic isolates’ performance on memory as well as semantic tests: they could easily remember hundreds of newly learned words and identify previously seen objects by name. The lack of syntactic language comprehension in linguistic isolates may stem from inability to understand words and/or grammar or inability to mentally synthesize known objects into novel configurations. We have previously shown that purposeful construction of novel mental images is the function of the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC ability to dynamically control posterior cortex neurons (Vyshedskiy et al. 2017. Here we have ranked all tests performed on linguistic isolates by their reliance on the LPFC control of the posterior cortex: a the amount of posterior cortex territory that needs to be recruited by the LPFC and b the number of disparate objects that have to be combined together by the LPFC in order to answer the test question. According to our analysis, linguistic isolates performed well in all tests that did not involve the LPFC control of the posterior cortex, showed decreasing scores in tests that involved greater recruitment of the posterior cortex by the LPFC, and failed in tests that involved greatest recruitment of posterior cortex necessary for mental synthesis of multiple objects. This pattern is consistent with inadequate frontoposterior connections in linguistic isolates

  10. From Transition Systems to Variability Models and from Lifted Model Checking Back to UPPAAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimovski, Aleksandar; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    efficient lifted (family-based) model checking for real-time variability models. This reduces the cost of maintaining specialized family-based real-time model checkers. Real-time variability models can be model checked using the standard UPPAAL. We have implemented abstractions as syntactic source...

  11. College education and wages in the UK : Estimating conditional average structural functions in nonadditive models with binary endogenous variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies debate how the unobserved dependence between the monetary return to college education and selection into college can be characterised. This paper examines this question using British data. We develop a semiparametric local instrumental variables estimator for identified features of a

  12. Comparison of two systems for long-term heart rate variability monitoring in free-living conditions - a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Jesper; Korshoj, Mette; Skotte, Jorgen H

    2011-01-01

    Actiheart and Holter recorders, and signals were processed to RR-interval time series. Segments of 5-minute duration were sampled every 30 minutes, and spectral components of the heart rate variability were calculated. Actiheart and Holter values were compared using Deming regression analysis and Bland...

  13. Hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions and quality of primary care: their relation with socioeconomic and health care variables in the Madrid regional health service (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magán, Purificación; Alberquilla, Angel; Otero, Angel; Ribera, José Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSH) have been proposed as an indirect indicator of the effectiveness and quality of care provided by primary health care. To investigate the association of ACSH rates with population socioeconomic factors and with characteristics of primary health care. Cross-sectional, ecologic study. Using hospital discharge data, ACSH were selected from the list of conditions validated for Spain. All 34 health districts in the Region of Madrid, Spain. Individuals aged 65 years or older residing in the region of Madrid between 2001 and 2003, inclusive. Age- and gender-adjusted ACSH rates in each health district. The adjusted ACSH rate per 1000 population was 35.37 in men and 20.45 in women. In the Poisson regression analysis, an inverse relation was seen between ACSH rates and the socioeconomic variables. Physician workload was the only health care variable with a statistically significant relation (rate ratio of 1.066 [95% CI; 1.041-1.091]). These results were similar in the analyses disaggregated by gender. In the multivariate analyses that included health care variables, none of the health care variables were statistically significant. ACSH may be more closely related with socioeconomic variables than with characteristics of primary care activity. Therefore, other factors outside the health system must be considered to improve health outcomes in the population.

  14. Interfaces, syntactic movement, and neural activation: A new perspective on the implementation of language in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj

    2008-01-01

    Studies of language deficits as well as neuroimaging studies indicate that syntactic processing of displaced constituents is implemented in the brain as a distributed cortical network of modules. The data from the present fMRI study on two types of syntactic movement in Danish offers further...... support for such a distributed syntactic network. These results, together with the results from a number of other fMRI studies in the literature, form the basis for the Domain Hypothesis according to which differential activation in the subcomponents of the cortical network reflects computation...... of different syntactic domains—the interface levels between syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. The activation patters result from the interaction between movement and target domain, not (non-) canonicity or working memory per se. Specifically, movement to the CP-domain activates areas including Broca's area...

  15. Experimental Determination of Effect of Variable Resistance on Lead ZirconateTitanate (PZT-5A4Eunder various Thermal and Frequency Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Elahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A specially designed apparatus and circuit working on the principle of inverse piezoelectricity due to the effect of polarization was used to find the relationship between resistance and peak to peak voltage of Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT-5A4E by shocking it at variable frequencies and at variable resistances under various thermal conditions within Curie temperature limit using equivalent circuit method. It was found that by increasing temperature, peak to peak voltage increases and similarly by increasing frequency, peak to peak voltage decreases and with the increase in resistance peak to peak voltage decreases.

  16. Variability of thermal and precipitation conditions in the growing season in Poland in the years 1966-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Arkadiusz M.; Szyga-Pluta, Katarzyna

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the thermal and precipitation conditions and their changes in the growing season in Poland in the years 1966-2015. Data on average daily air temperature and daily precipitation totals for 30 stations from the period of 1966-2015 were used. The data were obtained from the collections of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management—National Research Institute. The growing season was defined as the period of average daily air temperature ≥ 5 °C. The mathematical formulas proposed by Gumiński (1948) were used to determine its start and end dates. In the growing season in Poland in the years 1966-2015, there were more significant changes in the thermal conditions than there were in the precipitation conditions. In terms of long-term trends over the study period, thermal conditions during the growing season are characterised by an increase in mean air temperature, an increase in the sum of air temperatures and an increasing occurrence of seasons classified as above-normal seasons. Precipitation conditions of the growing season show large temporal and spatial variations in precipitation and a predominance of normal conditions. The changes in precipitation were not statistically significant, except for Świnoujście.

  17. Age-related changes in ERP components of semantic and syntactic processing in a verb final language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee Eun Sung

    2014-04-01

    Both syntactic and semantic violations elicited negativity effects at 300-500ms time window, and the negativity effects were slightly attenuated in the elderly group. The results suggested that Korean speakers may process a syntactic component of a case marker under the semantic frame integration, eliciting the negativity effects associated with semantic violations. Elderly adults showed attenuated effects compared to the young group, indicating age-related changes emerged during real-time sentence processing.

  18. Functional segregation of the inferior frontal gyrus for syntactic processes: a functional magnetic-resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Yuji; Toyoda, Hiroshi; Honda, Manabu; Yoshida, Haruyo; Kochiyama, Takanori; Ebe, Kazutoshi; Sadato, Norihiro

    2008-07-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in 18 normal volunteers to determine whether there is separate representation of syntactic, semantic, and verbal working memory processing in the left inferior frontal gyrus (GFi). We compared a sentence comprehension task with a short-term memory maintenance task to identify syntactic and semantic processing regions. To investigate the effects of syntactic and verbal working memory load while minimizing the differences in semantic processes, we used comprehension tasks with garden-path (GP) sentences, which require re-parsing, and non-garden-path (NGP) sentences. Compared with the short-term memory task, sentence comprehension activated the left GFi, including Brodmann areas (BAs) 44, 45, and 47, and the left superior temporal gyrus. In GP versus NGP sentences, there was greater activity in the left BAs 44, 45, and 46 extending to the left anterior insula, the pre-supplementary motor area, and the right cerebellum. In the left GFi, verbal working memory activity was located more dorsally (BA 44/45), semantic processing was located more ventrally (BA 47), and syntactic processing was located in between (BA 45). These findings indicate a close relationship between semantic and syntactic processes, and suggest that BA 45 might link verbal working memory and semantic processing via syntactic unification processes.

  19. High Variability in Cellular Stoichiometry of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Within Classes of Marine Eukaryotic Phytoplankton Under Sufficient Nutrient Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Nathan S; Sexton, Julie; Riggins, Tracey; Brown, Jeff; Lomas, Michael W; Martiny, Adam C

    2018-01-01

    Current hypotheses suggest that cellular elemental stoichiometry of marine eukaryotic phytoplankton such as the ratios of cellular carbon:nitrogen:phosphorus (C:N:P) vary between phylogenetic groups. To investigate how phylogenetic structure, cell volume, growth rate, and temperature interact to affect the cellular elemental stoichiometry of marine eukaryotic phytoplankton, we examined the C:N:P composition in 30 isolates across 7 classes of marine phytoplankton that were grown with a sufficient supply of nutrients and nitrate as the nitrogen source. The isolates covered a wide range in cell volume (5 orders of magnitude), growth rate (temperature (2-24°C). Our analysis indicates that C:N:P is highly variable, with statistical model residuals accounting for over half of the total variance and no relationship between phylogeny and elemental stoichiometry. Furthermore, our data indicated that variability in C:P, N:P, and C:N within Bacillariophyceae (diatoms) was as high as that among all of the isolates that we examined. In addition, a linear statistical model identified a positive relationship between diatom cell volume and C:P and N:P. Among all of the isolates that we examined, the statistical model identified temperature as a significant factor, consistent with the temperature-dependent translation efficiency model, but temperature only explained 5% of the total statistical model variance. While some of our results support data from previous field studies, the high variability of elemental ratios within Bacillariophyceae contradicts previous work that suggests that this cosmopolitan group of microalgae has consistently low C:P and N:P ratios in comparison with other groups.

  20. Lexical, Morphological, and Syntactic Characteristics of Verbs in the Spontaneous Production of Italian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D'Odorico

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates from a developmental point of view the lexical, morphological, and syntactic characteristics of verb production during the first stages of language acquisition. The spontaneous productions of children with different mean length of utterance (MLU were analysed, examining the relative production of different types of verbs (transitive, intransitive, and mixed, the arguments expressed or omitted in the utterances containing a verb, the morphological inflections produced by the children for each verb, and the generalisation of the syntactic construction with which specific verbs were produced. Data are interpreted in support of the hypothesis that children have a limited abstract knowledge of verbs in the early period of multiword utterance production and that the process of abstractness and generalisation develops gradually on the basis of linguistic experience.

  1. On the idiom ne gine (gibi mi (ti etc.: Syntactic structure, semantics, and lexicographic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Marija D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the idiom ne gine mi (ti etc. and its variant ne gibi mi (ti etc.. The research is based on the historical and contemporary corpus that also comprises the dialectological material. After pointing out chronological and areal characteristics of the two idiom variants, their syntactic structure as well as semantics are discussed. In the domain of semantics the special attention is paid to the change of the axiological component of the idiomatic meaning. It is argued that there might be the interrelation between this change and the syntactic structure of the idiom. The final segment of the paper is concerned with the status of the analysed idiomatic phrases in the most important monolingual general and phraseological dictionaries. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178007: Etimološka istraživanja srpskog jezika i izrada Etimološkog rečnika srpskog jezika

  2. Hole Quality Assessment in Drilling of Glass Microballoon/Epoxy Syntactic Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrith, H. S.; Doddamani, Mrityunjay; Gaitonde, Vinayak; Gupta, Nikhil

    2018-05-01

    Syntactic foams reinforced with glass microballoons are used as alternatives for conventional materials in structural application of aircrafts and automobiles due to their unique properties such as light weight, high compressive strength, and low moisture absorption. Drilling is the most commonly used process of making holes for assembling structural components. In the present investigation, grey relation analysis (GRA) is used to optimize cutting speed, feed, drill diameter, and filler content to minimize cylindricity, circularity error, and damage factor. Experiments based on full factorial design are conducted using a vertical computer numerical control machine and tungsten carbide twist drills. GRA reveals that a combination of lower cutting speed, filler content, and drill diameter produces a good quality hole at optimum intermediate feed in drilling syntactic foams composites. GRA also shows that the drill diameter has a significant effect on the hole quality. Furthermore, damage on the hole exit side is analyzed using a scanning electron microscope.

  3. Additive Manufacturing of Syntactic Foams: Part 2: Specimen Printing and Mechanical Property Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashish Kumar; Saltonstall, Brooks; Patil, Balu; Hoffmann, Niklas; Doddamani, Mrityunjay; Gupta, Nikhil

    2018-03-01

    High-density polyethylene (HDPE) and its fly ash cenosphere-filled syntactic foam filaments have been recently developed. These filaments are used for three-dimensional (3D) printing using a commercial printer. The developed syntactic foam filament (HDPE40) contains 40 wt.% cenospheres in the HDPE matrix. Printing parameters for HDPE and HDPE40 were optimized for use in widely available commercial printers, and specimens were three-dimensionally (3D) printed for tensile testing at strain rate of 10-3 s-1. Process optimization resulted in smooth operation of the 3D printer without nozzle clogging or cenosphere fracture during the printing process. Characterization results revealed that the tensile modulus values of 3D-printed HDPE and HDPE40 specimens were higher than those of injection-molded specimens, while the tensile strength was comparable, but the fracture strain and density were lower.

  4. Exploring the Role of Syntactic Information on User Behavior in Online Social Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöklint, Mimmi

    2013-01-01

    of this information is available through numbers and numbers as self-representative visualisations such as likes, views, shares, endorsements and diggs, which sparked an interest in its role in influencing users. This study thus explores the role of syntactic information on user behaviour in online social platforms......The proliferation of information technologies, applications and online services has changed the way users access information. In particular, an increasing amount of users engage with online social platforms on a daily basis where they are exposed to a continuous stream of information. A great deal...... information. Nevertheless, it became clear that public syntactic information was still unconsciously processed and applied as a measure or benchmark on the online social content....

  5. 2D simulation and performance evaluation of bifacial rear local contact c-Si solar cells under variable illumination conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Katsaounis, Theodoros

    2017-09-18

    A customized 2D computational tool has been developed to simulate bifacial rear local contact PERC type PV structures based on the numerical solution of the transport equations through the finite element method. Simulations were performed under various device material parameters and back contact geometry configurations in order to optimize bifacial solar cell performance under different simulated illumination conditions. Bifacial device maximum power output was also compared with the monofacial equivalent one and the industrial standard Al-BSF structure. The performance of the bifacial structure during highly diffused irradiance conditions commonly observed in the Middle East region due to high concentrations of airborne dust particles was also investigated. Simulation results demonstrated that such conditions are highly favorable for the bifacial device because of the significantly increased diffuse component of the solar radiation which enters the back cell surface.

  6. 2D simulation and performance evaluation of bifacial rear local contact c-Si solar cells under variable illumination conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Katsaounis, Theodoros; Kotsovos, Konstantinos; Gereige, Issam; Al-Saggaf, Ahmed; Tzavaras, Athanasios

    2017-01-01

    A customized 2D computational tool has been developed to simulate bifacial rear local contact PERC type PV structures based on the numerical solution of the transport equations through the finite element method. Simulations were performed under various device material parameters and back contact geometry configurations in order to optimize bifacial solar cell performance under different simulated illumination conditions. Bifacial device maximum power output was also compared with the monofacial equivalent one and the industrial standard Al-BSF structure. The performance of the bifacial structure during highly diffused irradiance conditions commonly observed in the Middle East region due to high concentrations of airborne dust particles was also investigated. Simulation results demonstrated that such conditions are highly favorable for the bifacial device because of the significantly increased diffuse component of the solar radiation which enters the back cell surface.

  7. The Theory of Thermodynamic Systems with Internal Variables of State: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Compliance with the Second Law of Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnip, A. I.

    2018-01-01

    Based on the entropy-free thermodynamic approach, a generalized theory of thermodynamic systems with internal variables of state is being developed. For the case of nonlinear thermodynamic systems with internal variables of state and linear relaxation, the necessary and sufficient conditions have been proved for fulfillment of the second law of thermodynamics in entropy-free formulation which, according to the basic theorem of the theory, are also necessary and sufficient for the existence of a thermodynamic potential. Moreover, relations of correspondence between thermodynamic systems with memory and systems with internal variables of state have been established, as well as some useful relations in the spaces of states of both types of systems.

  8. Differential Signatures of Second Language Syntactic Performance and Age on the Structural Properties of the Left Dorsal Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayako Yamamoto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In adult second language (L2 acquisition, individual differences are considerably large even among people with similar experiences. The neural mechanisms underlying this variability would include structural plasticity of language-related pathways. To elucidate such neuroplasticity, we focused on the transitional period of adolescence, which is associated with certain plasticity toward maturation following the sensitive period of language acquisition (≤12 years old. The adolescent brain would thus be influenced by age-dependent factors, as well as performances in L2. Here, we examined individual differences in L2 performances controlling the duration of experience to reveal the differential signatures of performances and age on the plasticity of structural properties in major language-related pathways. We recruited Japanese students at two ages, i.e., junior (age: 13–14 and senior (age: 16–17 high-school students, all of whom started to expose to English at age 12 or 13. We divided them into subgroups, so that either L2 performance [Junior (High/Senior (Low] or age [Senior (Low/Senior (High] was matched in group comparisons; the duration of L2 experience was also controlled between the Senior (Low and Senior (High groups. We then examined the thickness and fractional anisotropy (FA of the dorsal and ventral pathways, i.e., the arcuate fasciculus (Arcuate and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF, respectively, using semi-automatic methods for selecting regions without branches. Regarding FA in the left Arcuate, the Senior (High group showed significantly higher FA than the other two groups, indicating performance-related group differences. Further, FA in the left Arcuate was selectively correlated with the accuracy of a syntactic task. Regarding the thickness of the left Arcuate, the Senior (High and Senior (Low groups showed significantly larger thickness than the Junior (High group, indicating age-related group differences. These

  9. Stability of Marangoni Convection in a Fluid Layer with Variable Viscosity and deformable Free Surface under Free-Slip condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hafizah Zainal Abidin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The steady marangoni convection is investigated in ahorizontal layer of fluid with a free-slip bottom heated frombelow and cooled from above. Since the viscosity is temperaturedependentthe consequences of relaxing oberbeck-boussinesqapproximation and free surface deformability are theoreticallyexamined by means of small disturbance analysis. Prediction forthe onset of convection are obtained from the analysis bynumerical technique. The effect of variable viscosity and surfacedeformation on the onset of fluid motion is investigated in detail.It is shown that the critical values of marangoni and wavenumber depend strongly on the viscosity variation and surfacedeformation.

  10. Genetic variability in uptake of nitrogen at various growth stages of barley and wheat under dryland conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della, A.; Hadjichristodoulou, A.

    1976-01-01

    Protein and dry matter in a number of high protein and commercial varieties of barley and wheat were tested at various growth stages and at two locations. Large genetic variability was found in uptake of nitrogen, which was taken up generally before heading. High protein yields were not associated with high protein content but with higher dry matter yields. Nitrogen fertilization increased protein content and protein yield at a low protein location only. It was concluded that it is possible to breed for both high grain and high straw protein varieties. (author)

  11. Automatization of the measurement to the environmental gamma dose rate and of meteorological variables that condition it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, O.; Alonso, D.; Capote, E.; Ramos, E.O.; Carrazana, J. A.; Prendes, M.; Manzano, J. F.; Tomas, J.; Kalbert, O.; Ledo, L.M.; Guibert, R.; Leyva, J.C.; Montalvan, A.; Fabelo, O.; Cartas, H.

    2004-01-01

    The National Network of Environmental Radiological Surveillance of the Republic of Cuba has strengthened its detection and answer capacity regarding its constant monitoring of the National atmospheric means. 4 type A posts of that network measure the gamma dose rate and the data are being received in real time. The CPHR as head Center receives the information of the remaining posts at a relatively short time, for a series of computer tools, has been developed for that purpose. On the other hand, in the radiological post of our center the wind speed and its direction monitoring have been automated, the information on these meteorological variables is collected in real time

  12. PRAGMATICS OF GRAMMATICAL FORMS: MORPHOLOGICAL AND SYNTACTIC MEANS IN THE SERVICE OF EXPRESSING POLITENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Matešić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Politeness can be expressed verbally, non-verbally or by merging the verbal and nonverbal means through various strategies in both written and oral (direct and indirect communication. The foundations of the theory of politeness in linguistic terms were laid in the works of Robin T. Lakoff in the 1970’s and those of Penelope Brown and Steven Levinson in the 1980’s. The phenomenon of verbal, or linguistic, politeness is related to the idea of pragmalinguistic competence as one of the basic elements of communicative competence concerning the choice of adequate means of expression in various linguistic situations. As a pragmalinguistic phenomenon, politeness is achieved through various functions and social meanings of linguistic structures. That is why the theory of (linguistic politeness is concerned, in addition to other issues, with the typology of linguistic means used for the expression of politeness in different languages and in various communicative situations. The paper analyses the means and methods used to express politeness in the Croatian language on the morphological and the syntactic level. Certain mechanisms for the implementation of politeness strategies are detected, such as the choice between different verb forms (i.e. for the purpose of statement de-imperativization, the choice of morphological means (i.e. the use of personal and reflexive pronouns, especially in pseudo paremiological units, or the use of diminutive, the choice between the syntactic transformations (i.e. the use of interrogatives, and syntactic structures in general, especially with respect to the difference between the syntax of a sentence and that of an utterance. In addition to contributing to the development of the politeness theory, the analysis of morphological and syntactic means also contributes to a more complete description of certain grammatical categories in language manuals.

  13. Decision Making Strategy and the Simultaneous Processing of Syntactic Dependencies in Language and Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M P; Bouwer, Fleur L; Honing, Henkjan

    2018-01-01

    Despite differences in their function and domain-specific elements, syntactic processing in music and language is believed to share cognitive resources. This study aims to investigate whether the simultaneous processing of language and music share the use of a common syntactic processor or more general attentional resources. To investigate this matter we tested musicians and non-musicians using visually presented sentences and aurally presented melodies containing syntactic local and long-distance dependencies. Accuracy rates and reaction times of participants' responses were collected. In both sentences and melodies, unexpected syntactic anomalies were introduced. This is the first study to address the processing of local and long-distance dependencies in language and music combined while reducing the effect of sensory memory. Participants were instructed to focus on language (language session), music (music session), or both (dual session). In the language session, musicians and non-musicians performed comparably in terms of accuracy rates and reaction times. As expected, groups' differences appeared in the music session, with musicians being more accurate in their responses than non-musicians and only the latter showing an interaction between the accuracy rates for music and language syntax. In the dual session musicians were overall more accurate than non-musicians. However, both groups showed comparable behavior, by displaying an interaction between the accuracy rates for language and music syntax responses. In our study, accuracy rates seem to better capture the interaction between language and music syntax; and this interaction seems to indicate the use of distinct, however, interacting mechanisms as part of decision making strategy. This interaction seems to be subject of an increase of attentional load and domain proficiency. Our study contributes to the long-lasting debate about the commonalities between language and music by providing evidence for their

  14. Some Syntactic Features of Relative Constructions in the Greek New Testament

    OpenAIRE

    Herman C du Toit

    2016-01-01

    In the Greek New Testament, relative sentences that are introduced by relative pronouns alone, apart from the adverbial uses, are the most frequent subordinate sentence type. The research reported on in this paper aimed to investigate and describe a number of syntactic features of relative constructions in the Greek New Testament, taking account, among others, of some typological parameters that have been developed in the general linguistics literature for these constructions.The results indi...

  15. Syntactic and Morphosyntactic Processing in Stroke-Induced and Primary Progressive Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia K. Thompson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports findings derived from three experiments examining syntactic and morphosyntactic processing in individuals with agrammatic and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-G and PPA-L, respectively and stroke-induced agrammatic and anomic aphasia (StrAg and StrAn, respectively. We examined comprehension and production of canonical and noncanonical sentence structures and production of tensed and nontensed verb forms using constrained tasks in experiments 1 and 2, using the Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS [57] and the Northwestern Assessment of Verb Inflection (NAVI, Thompson and Lee, experimental version test batteries, respectively. Experiment 3 examined free narrative samples, focusing on syntactic and morphosyntactic measures, i.e. production of grammatical sentences, noun to verb ratio, open-class to closed-class word production ratio, and the production of correctly inflected verbs. Results indicate that the two agrammatic groups (i.e., PPA-G and StrAg pattern alike on syntactic and morphosyntactic measures, showing more impaired noncanonical compared to canonical sentence comprehension and production and greater difficulties producing tensed compared to nontensed verb forms. Their spontaneous speech also contained significantly fewer grammatical sentences and correctly inflected verbs, and they produced a greater proportion of nouns compared to verbs, than healthy speakers. In contrast, PPA-L and StrAn individuals did not display these deficits, and performed significantly better than the agrammatic groups on these measures. The findings suggest that agrammatism, whether induced by degenerative disease or stroke, is associated with characteristic deficits in syntactic and morphosyntactic processing. We therefore recommend that linguistically sophisticated tests and narrative analysis procedures be used to systematically evaluate the linguistic ability of individuals with PPA, contributing to

  16. Retrieving Semantic and Syntactic Word Properties: ERP Studies on the Time Course in Language Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, O.

    2006-01-01

    The present doctoral thesis investigates the temporal characteristics of the retrieval of semantic and syntactic word properties in language comprehension. In particular, an attempt is made to assess the retrieval order of semantic category and grammatical gender information, using the lateralized readiness potential and the inhibition-related N2 effect. Chapter 1 contains a general introduction. Chapter 2 reports an experiment that employs the two-choice go/nogo task in combination with EEG ...

  17. Perception Development of Complex Syntactic Construction in Children with Hearing Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Teymouri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Auditory perception or hearing ability is critical for children in acquisition of language and speech hence hearing loss has different effects on individuals’ linguistic perception, and also on their functions. It seems that deaf people suffer from language and speech impairments such as in perception of complex linguistic constructions. This research was aimed to study the perception of complex syntactic constructions in children with hearing-impairment. Methods: The study design was case-control. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, twenty children with severe to profound hearing impairment, aged 8-12 years and twenty normal-hearing children, aged 6-7 years were selected in a simple random sampling from exceptional schools for deaf people and from normal kindergartens and schools for normal cases. The perception of sentences was tested by using a researcher-made task called sentence-picture matching task. At first the content validity was determined and then the reliability was confirmed with Cronbach Alpha Test. Data were analyzed by statistical tests such as Independent Samples T-Test and Mann-Whitney U Test using SPSS. Results: Perception of the group with hearing-impairment was significantly lower than the normal control group. The hearing-impaired children failed to perceive complex syntactic structures. Linguistic function of the group with hearing-impairment on perception of sentences with simple word order was better than on complex sentences. Discussion: If rich linguistic inputs are not available for children during the critical period of the first language acquisition, the syntactic skill, especially in complex syntactic constructions, will not normally develop. In order to establish a foundation for a healthy perfect development of syntax, at the early years of life, children should be exposed to a natural language.

  18. Decision Making Strategy and the Simultaneous Processing of Syntactic Dependencies in Language and Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Roncaglia-Denissen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite differences in their function and domain-specific elements, syntactic processing in music and language is believed to share cognitive resources. This study aims to investigate whether the simultaneous processing of language and music share the use of a common syntactic processor or more general attentional resources. To investigate this matter we tested musicians and non-musicians using visually presented sentences and aurally presented melodies containing syntactic local and long-distance dependencies. Accuracy rates and reaction times of participants’ responses were collected. In both sentences and melodies, unexpected syntactic anomalies were introduced. This is the first study to address the processing of local and long-distance dependencies in language and music combined while reducing the effect of sensory memory. Participants were instructed to focus on language (language session, music (music session, or both (dual session. In the language session, musicians and non-musicians performed comparably in terms of accuracy rates and reaction times. As expected, groups’ differences appeared in the music session, with musicians being more accurate in their responses than non-musicians and only the latter showing an interaction between the accuracy rates for music and language syntax. In the dual session musicians were overall more accurate than non-musicians. However, both groups showed comparable behavior, by displaying an interaction between the accuracy rates for language and music syntax responses. In our study, accuracy rates seem to better capture the interaction between language and music syntax; and this interaction seems to indicate the use of distinct, however, interacting mechanisms as part of decision making strategy. This interaction seems to be subject of an increase of attentional load and domain proficiency. Our study contributes to the long-lasting debate about the commonalities between language and music by

  19. A CFD Approach for Prediction of Unintended Porosities in Aluminum Syntactic Foam: A Preliminary Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shizhao; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum Syntactic Foam (ASF) is a material with great potential in applications related to lightweight structures and structural damping. However, experimental investigations in literature report that the infiltration process to fabricate ASF often results in incomplete infiltration. Published...... calculates the pressure, velocity and free surface of the aluminum. The results of the numerical model illustrate that this method has great potential of predicting unintended porosities in ASF and thereby optimizing the parameters involved in the infiltration process....

  20. Translation of Syntactic Repetitions as Formal-Aesthetic Marker in Das Brot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosyidah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Translating repetition as a formal-aesthetic marker in a literary text is a hard task and challenge for translators. The topic of this study is translation of syntactic repetition as formal-aesthetic marker in literary text. The problems examined include: (1 the syntactic repetitions in the source text and (2 the strategies to translate these repetitions carried out by the students. This is a case study with a qualitative approach which is aimed to describe the syntactic repetitions as formal aesthetic markers in the German short story Das Brot written by Wolfgang Borchert and to explain the strategies used by Indonesian students to translate the syntactic repetitions. The research data are repetitive sentences gained from the German short story and from the translated versions done by 60 students. The analysis was carried out interactively and sociosemiotically. The results show that there were repetitions at the sentence level including sentence parts, sentences and content repetition in the source text. The strategies used by the students to translate the repetitions of sentence part and sentence were exact preservation and modified preservation with reduction, implicitation and addition of extra words, avoidance with deletion, explicitation, implicitation, nominalization, and synonymy. In the meantime, content repetitions were translated using the strategy of exact preservation and preservation with modification by adding extra words and using role-based terms of address. Thus, the results lead to two new variations of modified preservation, namely preservation by adding extra words and by changing addressing terms and one new variation of avoidance that is explicitation.

  1. Gastric adenocarcinoma in common variable immunodeficiency: features of cancer and associated gastritis may be characteristic of the condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Petris, Giovanni; Dhungel, Bal M; Chen, Longwen; Chang, Yu-Hui H

    2014-10-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. The aim of the study was to determine the morphological features of CVID-associated gastric adenocarcinoma (CAGA) and of the background gastritis. The population of gastric cancer patients with CVID of Mayo Clinic in the period 2000-2010 was studied; 6 cases of CVID (2 males, 4 females, average age 47 years, age range 26-71 years) were found in 5793 patients with gastric cancer in the study period. Each patient underwent gastric resection for which histology slides were reviewed. Chronic gastritis variables, CVID-related findings, and features of the adenocarcinoma were recorded. CAGA was of intestinal type, with high number of intratumoral lymphocytes (ITLs). Cancer was diagnosed in younger patients than in the overall population of gastric cancer. Severe atrophic metaplastic pangastritis with extensive dysplasia was present in the background in 4 cases, with features of lymphocytic gastritis in 2 cases. Features of CVID (plasma cells paucity in 4 of 6 cases, lymphoid nodules prominent in four cases) could be detected. In summary, gastric adenocarcinoma at young age with ITLs, accompanied by atrophic metaplastic pangastritis, should alert the pathologist of the possibility of CAGA. It follows that, in presence of those characteristics, the search of CVID-associated abnormalities should be undertaken in the nonneoplastic tissues. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. On the Latent Variable Interpretation in Sum-Product Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peharz, Robert; Gens, Robert; Pernkopf, Franz; Domingos, Pedro

    2017-10-01

    One of the central themes in Sum-Product networks (SPNs) is the interpretation of sum nodes as marginalized latent variables (LVs). This interpretation yields an increased syntactic or semantic structure, allows the application of the EM algorithm and to efficiently perform MPE inference. In literature, the LV interpretation was justified by explicitly introducing the indicator variables corresponding to the LVs' states. However, as pointed out in this paper, this approach is in conflict with the completeness condition in SPNs and does not fully specify the probabilistic model. We propose a remedy for this problem by modifying the original approach for introducing the LVs, which we call SPN augmentation. We discuss conditional independencies in augmented SPNs, formally establish the probabilistic interpretation of the sum-weights and give an interpretation of augmented SPNs as Bayesian networks. Based on these results, we find a sound derivation of the EM algorithm for SPNs. Furthermore, the Viterbi-style algorithm for MPE proposed in literature was never proven to be correct. We show that this is indeed a correct algorithm, when applied to selective SPNs, and in particular when applied to augmented SPNs. Our theoretical results are confirmed in experiments on synthetic data and 103 real-world datasets.

  3. Syntactic Recursion Facilitates and Working Memory Predicts Recursive Theory of Mind.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Arslan

    Full Text Available In this study, we focus on the possible roles of second-order syntactic recursion and working memory in terms of simple and complex span tasks in the development of second-order false belief reasoning. We tested 89 Turkish children in two age groups, one younger (4;6-6;5 years and one older (6;7-8;10 years. Although second-order syntactic recursion is significantly correlated with the second-order false belief task, results of ordinal logistic regressions revealed that the main predictor of second-order false belief reasoning is complex working memory span. Unlike simple working memory and second-order syntactic recursion tasks, the complex working memory task required processing information serially with additional reasoning demands that require complex working memory strategies. Based on our results, we propose that children's second-order theory of mind develops when they have efficient reasoning rules to process embedded beliefs serially, thus overcoming a possible serial processing bottleneck.

  4. Effects of Lexico-syntactic Errors on Teaching Materials: A Study of Textbooks Written by Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peace Chinwendu Israel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined lexico-syntactic errors in selected textbooks written by Nigerians. Our focus was on the educated bilinguals (acrolect who acquired their primary, secondary and tertiary education in Nigeria and the selected textbooks were textbooks published by Vanity Publishers/Press. The participants (authors cut across the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria – Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba and the selection of the textbooks covered the major disciplines of study. We adopted the descriptive research design and specifically employed the survey method to accomplish the purpose of our exploratory research.  The lexico-syntactic errors in the selected textbooks were identified and classified into various categories. These errors were not different from those identified over the years in students’ essays and exam scripts. This buttressed our argument that students are merely the conveyor belt of errors contained in the teaching material and that we can analyse the students’ lexico-syntactic errors in tandem with errors contained in the material used in teaching.

  5. Syntactic Recursion Facilitates and Working Memory Predicts Recursive Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Burcu; Hohenberger, Annette; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we focus on the possible roles of second-order syntactic recursion and working memory in terms of simple and complex span tasks in the development of second-order false belief reasoning. We tested 89 Turkish children in two age groups, one younger (4;6–6;5 years) and one older (6;7–8;10 years). Although second-order syntactic recursion is significantly correlated with the second-order false belief task, results of ordinal logistic regressions revealed that the main predictor of second-order false belief reasoning is complex working memory span. Unlike simple working memory and second-order syntactic recursion tasks, the complex working memory task required processing information serially with additional reasoning demands that require complex working memory strategies. Based on our results, we propose that children’s second-order theory of mind develops when they have efficient reasoning rules to process embedded beliefs serially, thus overcoming a possible serial processing bottleneck. PMID:28072823

  6. Syntactic transfer in the initial stages of adult third language and fourth language acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbube Tavakol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper elucidates the articulated proposals for the initial stages of adult third language (L3 syntactic transfer, addressing their application for L3 and the subsequent fourth language (L4 acquisition. The study was set to demonstrate empirical evidence in line with or against the tenets of the models and to indicate if and how syntactic transfer might obtain differently depending on the language being acquired– L3 vs. L4. The models to be tested were Full Transfer/Full Access (FT/FA, L2 Status Factor Hypothesis (LSFH, Cumulative Enhancement Model (CEM and Typological Primacy Model (TPM. Following a principles and parameters framework, six parameters were selected to generate several language pairings and an adult female’s L3 Italian and L4 German’s early spontaneous productions of the selected features were audio-recorded. The accuracy levels with which the features were produced in tandem with the results of error analyses violated the positions of FT/FA as considered for L3/s acquisition and CEM and consistently identified Typological proximity and L2 status as affecting syntactic transfer during the early stages multilingual acquisition.

  7. Neural correlates of music-syntactic processing in two-year old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Jentschke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Music is a basic and ubiquitous socio-cognitive domain. However, our understanding of the time course of the development of music perception, particularly regarding implicit knowledge of music-syntactic regularities, remains contradictory and incomplete. Some authors assume that the acquisition of knowledge about these regularities lasts until late childhood, but there is also evidence for the presence of such knowledge in four- and five-year-olds. To explore whether such knowledge is already present in younger children, we tested whether 30-month-olds (N = 62 show neurophysiological responses to music-syntactically irregular harmonies. We observed an early right anterior negativity in response to both irregular in-key and out-of-key chords. The N5, a brain response usually present in older children and adults, was not observed, indicating that processes of harmonic integration (as reflected in the N5 are still in development in this age group. In conclusion, our results indicate that 30-month-olds already have acquired implicit knowledge of complex harmonic music-syntactic regularities and process musical information according to this knowledge.

  8. Syntactic Priming As a Test of Argument Structure: A Self-paced Reading Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Oltra-Massuet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using data from a behavioral structural priming experiment, we test two competing theoretical approaches to argument structure, which attribute different configurations to (intransitive structures. These approaches make different claims about the relationship between unergatives and transitive structures selecting either a DP complement or a small clause complement in structurally unambiguous sentences, thus making different predictions about priming relations between them. Using statistical tools that combine a factorial 6 × 6 within subjects ANOVA, a mixed effects ANCOVA and a linear mixed effects regression model, we report syntactic priming effects in comprehension, which suggest a stronger predictive contribution of a model that supports an interpretive semantics view of syntax, whereby syntactic structures do not necessarily reflect argument/event structure in semantically unambiguous configurations. They also contribute novel experimental evidence that correlate representational complexity with language processing in the mind and brain. Our study further upholds the validity of combining quantitative methods and theoretical approaches to linguistics for advancing our knowledge of syntactic phenomena.

  9. Some Effects of Explicit Grammar Instruction and Syntactic Priming on Students’ Written Language Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Muhammad Asfah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural or syntactic priming is a phenomenon in which prior exposure to specific language structures either facilitates or interferes with a learner’s subsequent language production [1]. Exposure to English structures through explicit instruction is reported to have inconclusive results. [2] reported that explicit and implicit grammar instruction ends up with automatization. This study reexamines the effect of syntactic priming and explicit grammar instruction on students’ writing. Specific grammatical features frequently appeared on TOEFL (Written Expression Section test were intensively practiced and then the students took a test whose items were specifically collected from TOEFL practice tests. Finally, the students were assigned to write a short essay. Sentences with similar structures which the students had been exposed to were extracted from the students’ essays. Out of 40 test items, only 59.86% in average could be answered correctly, and all of the grammatical features to which the students were previously exposed were contained in their essays. However, in average only eight out of 18 sentences were grammatically constructed. It can be concluded that although priming method with explicit instruction leads the students to use similar syntactic features in their writing, it seems to have little impact on students’ grammatical knowledge for immediate use in written language production.

  10. Chesterman’s Syntactic Strategies in Translating English Passive Voice Construction into Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabab Ahmad Mizher

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Contrastive analysis studies occupy a vital role in the course of translation studies. Similarities and differences between systems of languages facilitate the process of learning a foreign/second language along with translating from one language into another. Thus, this study seeks to shed light on strategies employed by EFL learners in translating English passive voice construction into Arabic. More specifically, it investigated these strategies against the syntactic strategies that are proposed by Andrew Chesterman in his book Memes of Translation. Participants from six Jordanian universities (Public and Private who were studying general translation courses were administered to a translation test of five English sentences that contain both agentive and agentless passive constructions in which participants were asked to translate them into Arabic. The results reveal that participants use the following strategies when translating agentive passive sentences: maintaining passive, topicalization, periphrastic structure and activization. However, when translating agentless passive sentences, participants use the following strategies: maintaining passive, periphrastic structure, lexicalization and activization. These strategies correspond to Chesterman’s syntactic strategies: literal translation strategy, transposition, clause structure change and sentence structure change.  Keywords: Chesterman, Memes of Translation, English-Arabic Translation Strategies, Syntactic Strategies, Passive Voice, Contrastive Analysis (CA

  11. Physiological age at harvest regulates the variability in postharvest ripening, sensory and nutritional characteristics of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Coghshall due to growing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joas, Jacques; Vulcain, Emmanuelle; Desvignes, Claire; Morales, Emeline; Léchaudel, Mathieu

    2012-04-01

    Climacteric fruits are harvested at the green-mature stage and ripen during their marketing cycle. However, growing conditions induce variability into the maturity stage of mangoes at harvest, with an impact on their final quality. Assuming that the physiological age can be correctly evaluated by a criterion based on the variable chlorophyll fluorescence of the skin (F(v)) and that differences in physiological age depend on growing conditions, controlled stress experiments were carried out on mango fruit by manipulating either the leaf/fruit ratio or the light environment. Delays from 9 to 30 days were observed, depending on stress level and harvest stage, to obtain the same F(v) value. For moderate stress, fruit composition after ripening was partially compensated for, with little or no difference in sugar, dry matter, carotenoid and aroma contents. For more pronounced stress, the major metabolites were not particularly affected, but the synthesis capacity of carotenoids and aromas was lower after maturity. The ripening ability of a fruit is acquired on the tree and defines its postharvest changes. Control of the physiological age at harvest can minimise the variability observed under natural conditions and guarantee fruit batches whose postharvest changes will be relatively homogeneous. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Dental, periodontal and salivary conditions in diabetic children associated with metabolic control variables and nutritional plan adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Rosas, C Y; Cárdenas Vargas, E; Castañeda-Delgado, J E; Aguilera-Galaviz, L A; Aceves Medina, M C

    2018-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that has manifestations other than alterations in endocrine regulation or in metabolic pathways. Several diseases of the oral cavity have been associated with diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 in young people according to their evolution. Scarce information exists regarding the role of diabetes and its association with the oral health status in paediatric diabetic patients. The aims of the study were to assess the quality of saliva, saliva acidogenicity, dental caries experience, fluorosis and periodontal status in diabetic patients and to evaluate their relationship with metabolic control variables and nutritional plan adherence. The study population consisted of 60 paediatric patients with both types of diabetes mellitus. Saliva testing included stimulated flow, pH (using pH indicator strips), buffer capacity and Snyder's Test. DMFT/dmft and dental caries experience were determined on the basis of ICDAS II codes. The periodontal status was assessed by PI and GI and fluorosis by FI. Nutritional plan adherence was established from the subscale "Dietary Control" of the Diabetes Self-Management Profile questionnaire. Medical Data was retrieved from the clinical registers in the Diabetic Clinic. We describe the main characteristics of the oral cavity related variables of our population that might guide the clinical practice in similar settings; we found a dmft/DMFT of 1.71 ± 1.74 and 0.64 ± 1.03, PI of 1.91 ± 0.75, GI of 0.50 ± 0.56 and a fluorosis prevalence of 61%. We identified several correlated variables, which indicate strong associations between the nutritional habits of the patients and co-occurrence of oral cavity physiopathological alterations. Several correlations were found between acidogenic activity of the saliva (Snyder Test) and the percentage of adherence to the nutritional plan and to the dmft index. Furthermore, a significant correlation between the buffering capacity of the saliva and the glycemic control of

  13. Punctuated Holocene climate of Vestfirðir, Iceland, linked to internal/external variables and oceanographic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harning, David J.; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Miller, Gifford H.

    2018-06-01

    Emerging Holocene paleoclimate datasets point to a non-linear response of Icelandic climate against a background of steady orbital cooling. The Vestfirðir peninsula (NW Iceland) is an ideal target for continued climate reconstructions due to the presence of a small ice cap (Drangajökull) and numerous lakes, which provide two independent means to evaluate existing Icelandic climate records and to constrain the forcing mechanisms behind centennial-scale cold anomalies. Here, we present new evidence for Holocene expansions of Drangajökull based on 14C dates from entombed dead vegetation as well as two continuous Holocene lake sediment records. Lake sediments were analyzed for both bulk physical (MS) and biological (%TOC, δ13C, C/N, and BSi) parameters. Composite BSi and C/N records from the two lakes yield a sub-centennial qualitative perspective on algal (diatom) productivity and terrestrial landscape stability, respectively. The Vestfirðir lake proxies suggest initiation of the Holocene Thermal Maximum by ∼8.8 ka with subsequent and pronounced cooling not apparent until ∼3 ka. Synchronous periods of reduced algal productivity and accelerated landscape instability point to cold anomalies centered at ∼8.2, 6.6, 4.2, 3.3, 2.3, 1.8, 1, and 0.25 ka. Triggers for cold anomalies are linked to variable combinations of freshwater pulses, low total solar irradiance, explosive and effusive volcanism, and internal modes of climate variability, with cooling likely sustained by ocean/sea-ice feedbacks. The climate evolution reflected by our glacial and organic proxy records corresponds closely to marine records from the North Iceland Shelf.

  14. Reproduction rates under variable food conditions and starvation in Mnemiopsis leidyi: significance for the invasion success of a ctenophore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Møller, Lene Friis; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Europe. Furthermore, starved animals continue to produce eggs for up to 12 days after cessation of feeding with high overall hatching success of 65–90%. These life history traits allow M. leidyi to thrive and reproduce in environments with varying food conditions and give it a competitive advantage under...... on the reproduction of laboratory-reared and field-caught animals during starvation. Our results show that the half-saturation zooplankton prey concentration for egg production is reached at food levels of 12–23 µgC L−1, which is below the average summer food concentration encountered in invaded areas of northern...... unfavourable conditions. This may explain why recurrent population blooms are observed and sustained in localized areas in invaded northern Europe, where water exchange is limited and zooplankton food resources are quickly depleted by M. leidyi. We suggest that these reproductive life history traits are key...

  15. Analytical constraints on layered gas trapping and smoothing of atmospheric variability in ice under low-accumulation conditions

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    K. Fourteau

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate for the first time the loss and alteration of past atmospheric information from air trapping mechanisms under low-accumulation conditions through continuous CH4 (and CO measurements. Methane concentration changes were measured over the Dansgaard–Oeschger event 17 (DO-17,  ∼  60 000 yr BP in the Antarctic Vostok 4G-2 ice core. Measurements were performed using continuous-flow analysis combined with laser spectroscopy. The results highlight many anomalous layers at the centimeter scale that are unevenly distributed along the ice core. The anomalous methane mixing ratios differ from those in the immediate surrounding layers by up to 50 ppbv. This phenomenon can be theoretically reproduced by a simple layered trapping model, creating very localized gas age scale inversions. We propose a method for cleaning the record of anomalous values that aims at minimizing the bias in the overall signal. Once the layered-trapping-induced anomalies are removed from the record, DO-17 appears to be smoother than its equivalent record from the high-accumulation WAIS Divide ice core. This is expected due to the slower sinking and densification speeds of firn layers at lower accumulation. However, the degree of smoothing appears surprisingly similar between modern and DO-17 conditions at Vostok. This suggests that glacial records of trace gases from low-accumulation sites in the East Antarctic plateau can provide a better time resolution of past atmospheric composition changes than previously expected. We also developed a numerical method to extract the gas age distributions in ice layers after the removal of the anomalous layers based on comparison with a weakly smoothed record. It is particularly adapted for the conditions of the East Antarctic plateau, as it helps to characterize smoothing for a large range of very low-temperature and low-accumulation conditions.

  16. SYNTACTIC COMPLEXITY IN THE READING MATERIALS OF ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES LEVELS 1 – 3

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    Widdy Wijanti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Teaching Open Journal Systems LLT Journal ISSNs: e-ISSN: 2579-9533 (electronic p-ISSN: 1410-7201 (print User Username Password Remember me Journal Content Search Search Scope Browse By Issue By Author By Title Other Journals Font Size Make font size smaller Make font size default Make font size larger LLT Journal Barcode TOOLS FULL PAPER GUIDELINES Article Tools Print this article Indexing metadata How to cite item Email this article (Login required Email the author (Login required About The Author Widdy Wijanti Sampoerna University, Jakarta Indonesia OUR CONTACT LLT Journal English Language Education Sanata Dharma University Yogyakarta, Indonesia For more details, please visit: LLT Journal Contact Address Home About Login Register Search Current Archives Author Guidelines Editorial Team Focus and Scope Publication Ethics Author Index Originality Screening Indexing and Abstracting Review Process Article Processing Charges Article Submission Charges Publishing Rights Peer Reviewers Home > Vol 20, No 2 (2017 > Wijanti SYNTACTIC COMPLEXITY IN THE READING MATERIALS OF ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES LEVELS 1 – 3 Widdy Wijanti Abstract In Indonesia, English is still considered as a foreign language and has become a crucial subject of study especially in the university level. For this reason, English for Academic Purposes has been conducted in the first year of college level for many years. Unfortunately, although many Asian countries including Indonesia have run the EAP course, the output is that there are still many Indonesian students who do not meet the vocabulary size and syntactic complexity that are expected while their learning process in the university. This results lower grades that they have in their assignments. Therefore, the recent study is aimed at evaluating the reading materials of EAP, especially in measuring the syntactic complexity containing in the texts as it is strongly believed in

  17. Investigating the possibility of a syntactic impairment in the semantic variant of PPA using a constrained production task: Preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cupit

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA, syntactic skills are generally thought to be preserved, while in the non-fluent variant (nfvPPA syntactic impairment is a core diagnostic feature (Gorno-Tempini et al., 2011. There are, however, some indications in the literature that syntactic processing may not be entirely normal in svPPA. Most studies of syntactic production in svPPA have used unconstrained tasks and have found no syntactic impairment (e.g., Bird et al., 2000; Kave et al., 2007. In the two published studies that have found a syntactic impairment in svPPA, one used a constrained task (Benedet et al., 2006, and the other (Meteyard & Patterson, 2009 did not. However, the authors of the latter article suggested that the observed syntactic errors were subtle. They also suggested that a syntactic impairment in svPPA might not be observed in spontaneous language samples due to an overreliance on simpler structures. In the current study, we used a constrained sentence production task to compare the syntactic abilities of individuals with nfvPPA, svPPA and healthy controls longitudinally, to investigate the existence of a syntactic impairment in the different PPA variants. We predicted that by using a constrained task we would observe a syntactic impairment in both variants of PPA. We tested 18 participants with nfvPPA, 13 with svPPA and 23 control participants. They were tested up to three separate times, with approximately one year between sessions. Groups were matched on age and years of education. The patient groups were matched on Mini Mental State Examination score (Folstein, Folstein & McHugh, 1975 and estimated time post onset of initial symptoms, but the nfvPPA group scored higher than the svPPA group on the Boston Naming Test (Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001. We used the sentence production task from Caplan and Hanna (1998 to elicit active, passive, dative and dative-passive sentences. A mixed ANOVA (Group X

  18. Optimal design of structures with multiple design variables per group and multiple loading conditions on the personal computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, D. T.; Rogers, J. L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A finite element based programming system for minimum weight design of a truss-type structure subjected to displacement, stress, and lower and upper bounds on design variables is presented. The programming system consists of a number of independent processors, each performing a specific task. These processors, however, are interfaced through a well-organized data base, thus making the tasks of modifying, updating, or expanding the programming system much easier in a friendly environment provided by many inexpensive personal computers. The proposed software can be viewed as an important step in achieving a 'dummy' finite element for optimization. The programming system has been implemented on both large and small computers (such as VAX, CYBER, IBM-PC, and APPLE) although the focus is on the latter. Examples are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the code. The present programming system can be used stand-alone or as part of the multilevel decomposition procedure to obtain optimum design for very large scale structural systems. Furthermore, other related research areas such as developing optimization algorithms (or in the larger level: a structural synthesis program) for future trends in using parallel computers may also benefit from this study.

  19. Gene expression in response to Cotton Leaf Curl Virus infection in Gossypium hirsutum under variable environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman Iqra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton Leaf Curl Disease (CLCuD is one of the threatening constrains of cotton production in Pakistan for which no adequate remedy is available until now. Local variety of Gossypium hirsutum (FH-142 was grown in field and infected naturally by CLCuV under variable range of temperature and humidity. Plants showed thickening of veins in lower leaf surface at 34°C and 60% relative humidity at 15days post infection (dpi and curling of leaf margins at 33°C with 58% relative humidity at 30dpi. Remarkable leaf darkening was observed with reduced boll formation at 45dpi at 26°C and 41% relative humidity. Enation developed, severe thickening and curling of leaves intensified and plants showed dwarf growth at 60dpi at 24°C with 52% relative humidity. PCR amplification of Rep associated gene confirmed the presence of CLCuD-associated begomovirus in the infected samples. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the amplification and differential expression of a number of pathogen stress responsive genes at different levels of temperature and humidity. This observation predicts that Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCuV interacts with several host genes that are upregulated to make plants susceptible or suppress other genes to overcome host defense responses.

  20. Improvement in Simulation of Eurasian Winter Climate Variability with a Realistic Arctic Sea Ice Condition in an Atmospheric GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Ham, Yoo-Geun; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates how much a realistic Arctic sea ice condition can contribute to improve simulation of the winter climate variation over the Eurasia region. Model experiments are set up using different sea ice boundary conditions over the past 24 years (i.e., 1988-2011). One is an atmospheric model inter-comparison (AMIP) type of run forced with observed sea-surface temperature (SST), sea ice, and greenhouse gases (referred to as Exp RSI), and the other is the same as Exp RSI except for the sea ice forcing, which is a repeating climatological annual cycle (referred to as Exp CSI). Results show that Exp RSI produces the observed dominant pattern of Eurasian winter temperatures and their interannual variation better than Exp CSI (correlation difference up to approx. 0.3). Exp RSI captures the observed strong relationship between the sea ice concentration near the Barents and Kara seas and the temperature anomaly across Eurasia, including northeastern Asia, which is not well captured in Exp CSI. Lagged atmospheric responses to sea ice retreat are examined using observations to understand atmospheric processes for the Eurasian cooling response including the Arctic temperature increase, sea-level pressure increase, upper-level jet weakening and cold air outbreak toward the mid-latitude. The reproducibility of these lagged responses by Exp RSI is also evaluated.

  1. Improvement in simulation of Eurasian winter climate variability with a realistic Arctic sea ice condition in an atmospheric GCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Ham, Yoo-Geun; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates how much a realistic Arctic sea ice condition can contribute to improve simulation of the winter climate variation over the Eurasia region. Model experiments are set up using different sea ice boundary conditions over the past 24 years (i.e., 1988–2011). One is an atmospheric model inter-comparison (AMIP) type of run forced with observed sea-surface temperature (SST), sea ice, and greenhouse gases (referred to as Exp RSI), and the other is the same as Exp RSI except for the sea ice forcing, which is a repeating climatological annual cycle (referred to as Exp CSI). Results show that Exp RSI produces the observed dominant pattern of Eurasian winter temperatures and their interannual variation better than Exp CSI (correlation difference up to ∼0.3). Exp RSI captures the observed strong relationship between the sea ice concentration near the Barents and Kara seas and the temperature anomaly across Eurasia, including northeastern Asia, which is not well captured in Exp CSI. Lagged atmospheric responses to sea ice retreat are examined using observations to understand atmospheric processes for the Eurasian cooling response including the Arctic temperature increase, sea-level pressure increase, upper-level jet weakening and cold air outbreak toward the mid-latitude. The reproducibility of these lagged responses by Exp RSI is also evaluated. (letter)

  2. Competition between autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial plankton for inorganic nutrients induced by variability in estuarine biophysicochemical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A.; Quigg, A.

    2016-02-01

    Competition for inorganic nutrients between autotrophic and heterotrophic fractions of microbial plankton (0.2-20μm) was investigated at two stations in a sub-tropical estuary, Galveston Bay, Texas. Competition potential between these groups is enhanced because individuals are similar in size, reducing variability among their nutrient uptake efficiencies. Further, in estuaries, allochthonous supplements to autochthonous carbon may satisfy heterotrophic requirements, allowing alternative factors to limit abundance. The relative abundance of autotrophs and heterotrophs stained with SYBR Green I and enumerated on a Beckman Coulter Gallios flow cytometer were evaluated monthly during a year-long study. Shifts in the relative in situ abundance were significantly related to temperature, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), phosphorous (Pi), and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations revealing opposing gradients of limitation by different abiotic factors. In corresponding in vitro nutrient enrichment bioassays the relative contribution of autotrophic or heterotrophic microbial plankton to significant enrichment responses varied. Only during macro- (>20μm) phytoplankton blooms do autotrophic microbial plankton respond to nutrient enrichment. Contrastingly, the heterotrophic microbial plankton responded to nutrient enrichment primarily when temperature limitation was alleviated. Therefore, the potential for autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial plankton competition for limiting nutrients is highest when autotrophic microbial plankton are also competing with larger phytoplankton during bloom events. Based on this evidence, we hypothesize that the autotrophic microbial fraction has a competitive advantage over the heterotrophs for inorganic nutrients in Galveston Bay. The observed microbial competition during estuarine phytoplankton blooms may have important consequences on biogeochemical processes including carbon and nutrient cycling.

  3. Updated analysis of flatfish recruitment response to climate variability and ocean conditions in the Eastern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilderbuer, Thomas; Stockhausen, William; Bond, Nicholas

    2013-10-01

    This study provides a retrospective analysis of the relationship between physical oceanography, biology and recruitment of three Eastern Bering Sea flatfish stocks: flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon), northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra), and arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias) during the period 1978-2005. Stock assessment model estimates of recruitment and spawning stock size indicate that temporal patterns in productivity are consistent with decadal scale (or shorter) patterns in climate variability, which may influence marine survival during the early life history phases. Density-dependence (through spawning stock size) was statistically significant in a Ricker stock-recruit model of flatfish recruitment that included environmental terms. Wind-driven advection of northern rock sole and flathead sole larvae to favorable nursery grounds was found to coincide with years of above-average recruitment. Ocean forcing of Bristol Bay surface waters during springtime was mostly on-shelf (eastward) during the 1980s and again in the early 2000s, but was off-shelf (westerly) during the 1990s, corresponding with periods of good and poor recruitment, respectively. Finally, the Arctic Oscillation was found to be an important indicator of arrowtooth flounder productivity. Model results were applied to IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) future springtime wind scenarios to predict the future impact of climate on northern rock sole productivity and indicated that a moderate future increase in recruitment might be expected because the climate trends favor on-shelf transport but that density-dependence will dampen this effect such that northern rock sole abundance will not be substantially affected by climate change.

  4. Assessment of process variables on the use of macauba pulp oil as feedstock for the continuous production of ethyl esters under pressurized conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. da S. Colonelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the potential of macauba pulp oil (MPO as a feedstock for continuous ester production using ethanol under pressurized conditions. Experiments were performed in order to obtain data for the effect of process variables on ethyl ester (FAEE and free fatty acid (FFA conversion in a catalyst-free process. From the results, it appears that the MPO to ethanol mass ratio and the pressure were the variables with more favorable effect on the evaluated response variables. The addition of n-hexane caused an increase in the production of esters; however, this had a negative effect on FFA conversion. The addition of water was unfavorable for oil processing with high acidity. In this process, esterification and transesterification occur simultaneously, and the high FFA content in MPO provides high yields (85 wt% of esters; 93% FFA conversion at low temperature, since the esterification reaction rate is higher than the transesterification. The decomposition of fatty acids was evaluated and levels <5% were observed under the evaluated experimental conditions.

  5. Diurnal Variability of the inner-shelf circulation in the lee of a cape under upwelling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Luisa; Peliz, Álvaro; Marchesiello, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The circulation over the inner-shelf is a key component of shelf dynamics and an important mechanism for cross-shore exchange on most shelves. Yet our understanding of the cross-shore circulation and how it depends on different forcing conditions, bathymetry and stratification remains poor due in part to sparse observations and the difficulty of resolving spatial and temporal scales within the inner-shelf. Most studies of cross-shore transport on the inner-shelf consider only a 2D circulation, due to coastal upwelling or downwelling and assume along-shore uniformity. However, divergence in the along-shore and cross-shore flows may occur with the presence of complex coastline topography or subtle bathymetric features, and can drive substantial horizontal cross-shore exchange, with same order of magnitude as coastal upwelling and downwelling. A recent study using observational data collected near cape Sines, Portugal, showed that not only wind, waves and tides are important forcing mechanisms of the inner-shelf circulation, but also that the along-shore pressure gradient plays a major role on driving cross-shore exchange. A modeling study was conducted in order to study the complexity of the inner-shelf dynamics, in the presence of a cape. A simplified configuration was used in order to isolate the effects of individual processes: wind, heat fluxes, tides and waves. The preliminary results of the effects of these processes on the inner-shelf circulation will be presented.

  6. Mathematical model for thermal solar collectors by using magnetohydrodynamic Maxwell nanofluid with slip conditions, thermal radiation and variable thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Asif; Aziz, Asim; Jamshed, Wasim; Hussain, Sajid

    Solar energy is the cleanest, renewable and most abundant source of energy available on earth. The main use of solar energy is to heat and cool buildings, heat water and to generate electricity. There are two types of solar energy collection system, the photovoltaic systems and the solar thermal collectors. The efficiency of any solar thermal system depend on the thermophysical properties of the operating fluids and the geometry/length of the system in which fluid is flowing. In the present research a simplified mathematical model for the solar thermal collectors is considered in the form of non-uniform unsteady stretching surface. The flow is induced by a non-uniform stretching of the porous sheet and the uniform magnetic field is applied in the transverse direction to the flow. The non-Newtonian Maxwell fluid model is utilized for the working fluid along with slip boundary conditions. Moreover the high temperature effect of thermal radiation and temperature dependent thermal conductivity are also included in the present model. The mathematical formulation is carried out through a boundary layer approach and the numerical computations are carried out for cu-water and TiO2 -water nanofluids. Results are presented for the velocity and temperature profiles as well as the skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number and the discussion is concluded on the effect of various governing parameters on the motion, temperature variation, velocity gradient and the rate of heat transfer at the boundary.

  7. The Impact of Different Habitat Conditions on the Variability of Wild Populations of a Medicinal Plant Betonica officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Kostrakiewicz-Gierałt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants are important source of beneficial bioactive compounds which may find various applications as functional ingredients, such as components of food supplements, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. One such medicinal plant is Betonica officinalis, populations of which were investigated in 2012‒13. The studies were conducted in patches of Molinietum caeruleae dominated by: small meadow taxa (patch I; the shrub willow Salix repens ssp. rosmarinifolia (patch II; large tussock grasses Deschampsia caespitosa and Molinia caerulaea (patch III; tall-growing macroforbs Filipendula ulmaria and Solidago canadensis (patch IV. Over successive patches, the average height of plant cover increased, as did soil moisture, while light availability at ground level decreased. Much greater abundance and density of the Betonica officinalis population were found in patches I, III and IV, while lower values for these parameters were noted in patch II. Individuals in pre-reproductive stages were absent during whole study period in all study plots, vegetative ramet clusters were observed in plots situated in patches I and III in the first year of observations, while only generative ramet clusters occurred in plots set in patches II and IV. The number of rosettes per ramet cluster, number and dimensions of rosette leaves, height of flowering stems, number of cauline leaves, length of inflorescences, as well as number and length of flowers increased gradually over successive patches, whereas the number of generative stems per ramet cluster did not differ remarkably among populations. On the basis of the performed studies it might be concluded that the condition of populations deteriorated from patches overgrown by large-tussock grasses and characterized by considerable share of native and alien tall-growing macroforbs, via patch dominated by small meadow taxa, to patch prevailed by shrub willows.

  8. Spatial match-mismatch between juvenile fish and prey provides a mechanism for recruitment variability across contrasting climate conditions in the eastern Bering Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddon, Elizabeth Calvert; Kristiansen, Trond; Mueter, Franz J; Holsman, Kirstin K; Heintz, Ron A; Farley, Edward V

    2013-01-01

    Understanding mechanisms behind variability in early life survival of marine fishes through modeling efforts can improve predictive capabilities for recruitment success under changing climate conditions. Walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) support the largest single-species commercial fishery in the United States and represent an ecologically important component of the Bering Sea ecosystem. Variability in walleye pollock growth and survival is structured in part by climate-driven bottom-up control of zooplankton composition. We used two modeling approaches, informed by observations, to understand the roles of prey quality, prey composition, and water temperature on juvenile walleye pollock growth: (1) a bioenergetics model that included local predator and prey energy densities, and (2) an individual-based model that included a mechanistic feeding component dependent on larval development and behavior, local prey densities and size, and physical oceanographic conditions. Prey composition in late-summer shifted from predominantly smaller copepod species in the warmer 2005 season to larger species in the cooler 2010 season, reflecting differences in zooplankton composition between years. In 2010, the main prey of juvenile walleye pollock were more abundant, had greater biomass, and higher mean energy density, resulting in better growth conditions. Moreover, spatial patterns in prey composition and water temperature lead to areas of enhanced growth, or growth 'hot spots', for juvenile walleye pollock and survival may be enhanced when fish overlap with these areas. This study provides evidence that a spatial mismatch between juvenile walleye pollock and growth 'hot spots' in 2005 contributed to poor recruitment while a higher degree of overlap in 2010 resulted in improved recruitment. Our results indicate that climate-driven changes in prey quality and composition can impact growth of juvenile walleye pollock, potentially severely affecting recruitment variability.

  9. Effects of the Syntactic Complexity on Speech Dysfluency of Stuttering Persian-Speaking Children and Adults in Conversational Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Mahmoodi Bakhtiari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Recently, researchers have increasingly turned to study the relation between stuttering and syntactic complexity. This study investigates the effect of syntactic complexity on theamount of speech dysfluency in stuttering Persian-speaking children and adults in conversational speech. The obtained results can pave the way to a better understanding of stuttering in children andadults, and finding more appropriate treatments.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the participants were 15 stuttering adult Persian-speakers, older than 15 years, and 15 stuttering child Persian-speakers of 4-6 years of age. In this study, first a 30 minute sample of the spontaneous speech of the participants was provided. Then the utterances of each person were studied in respect to the amount of dysfluency and syntactic complexity. The obtained information was analyzed using paired samples t-test.Results: In both groups of stuttering children and adults, there was a significant difference between the amount of dysfluency of simple and complex sentences (p<0.05.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that an increase in syntactic complexity in conversational speech, increased the amount of dysfluency in stuttering children and adults. Moreover,as a result of increase of syntactic complexity, dysfluency had a greater increase in stuttering children than stuttering adults.

  10. Month-to-month variability of Indian summer monsoon rainfall in 2016: role of the Indo-Pacific climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdary, Jasti S.; Srinivas, G.; Du, Yan; Gopinath, K.; Gnanaseelan, C.; Parekh, Anant; Singh, Prem

    2018-03-01

    -Western Pacific circulation anomalies in August 2016 are well predicted when the coupled model is initiated with initial conditions from end of July and beginning of August compared to May. This analysis suggests the importance of the WNP circulation in forcing strong sub-seasonal/month to month rainfall variations over India.

  11. Analysis of Direct Outdoor Air Cooling Efficency for Combined Variable Air Volume Air-conditioning System in Stores in Cold Climates of China

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Zhiwen

    2006-01-01

    Direct outdoor air cooling contributes a lot not only to the improvement of the indoor air quality but also to the energy saving. Its full use will reduce the water chiller’s running time especially in some stores where cooling load keeps much higher and longer than that in other buildings. A novel air-conditioning system named Combined Variable Air Volume system (CVAV), combining a normal AHU with a separate outdoor air supply system, was proposed firstly by the authors. The most attractive ...

  12. Cut-elimination for the mu-calculus with one variable

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    Grigori Mints

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We establish syntactic cut-elimination for the one-variable fragment of the modal mu-calculus. Our method is based on a recent cut-elimination technique by Mints that makes use of Buchholz' Omega-rule.

  13. Influence of Variable Thermal Conductivity on MHD Boundary Layer Slip Flow of Ethylene-Glycol Based Cu Nanofluids over a Stretching Sheet with Convective Boundary Condition

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    N. Bhaskar Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is carried out to investigate the influence of variable thermal conductivity and partial velocity slip on hydromagnetic two-dimensional boundary layer flow of a nanofluid with Cu nanoparticles over a stretching sheet with convective boundary condition. Using similarity transformation, the governing boundary layer equations along with the appropriate boundary conditions are transformed to a set of ordinary differential equations. Employing Runge-kutta fourth-order method along with shooting technique, the resultant system of equations is solved. The influence of various pertinent parameters such as nanofluid volume fraction parameter, the magnetic parameter, radiation parameter, thermal conductivity parameter, velocity slip parameter, Biot number, and suction or injection parameter on the velocity of the flow field and heat transfer characteristics is computed numerically and illustrated graphically. The present results are compared with the existing results for the case of regular fluid and found an excellent agreement.

  14. Some Syntactic Features of Relative Constructions in the Greek New Testament

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    Herman C du Toit

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Greek New Testament, relative sentences that are introduced by relative pronouns alone, apart from the adverbial uses, are the most frequent subordinate sentence type. The research reported on in this paper aimed to investigate and describe a number of syntactic features of relative constructions in the Greek New Testament, taking account, among others, of some typological parameters that have been developed in the general linguistics literature for these constructions.The results indicate that relative constructions in the Greek New Testament have a variety of features, all of which have counterparts in some modern (or other ancient languages, despite the differences. The relative sentence in the Greek New Testament is mostly postnominal, and the relative pronoun-type is used in those cases for encoding the role of the coreferential element in the relative sentence. Phrases expressing a variety of syntactic functions in a sentence (e.g. subject, direct object, etc. are accessible to relativisation, that is, they can be represented by relative pronouns. Nominal elements serve mostly as antecedents of relative sentences, although sentences appear in that function as well.A variety of syntactic types of relative sentences can be distinguished, including the prenominal participial, postnominal finite/participial, circumnominal, free relative, adverbial, prejoined, postjoined, sentential and conjoined types. These can be linked in a systematic way to the four functions of relative sentences in the New Testament, i.e. identifying, appositive, adverbial and continuative.Relative sentences also play a role in communicative strategies. Prejoined relative sentences, for example, are most suitable for exposition and theme-building, especially in the correlative diptych construction.

  15. Building a comprehensive syntactic and semantic corpus of Chinese clinical texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bin; Dong, Bin; Guan, Yi; Yang, Jinfeng; Jiang, Zhipeng; Yu, Qiubin; Cheng, Jianyi; Qu, Chunyan

    2017-05-01

    To build a comprehensive corpus covering syntactic and semantic annotations of Chinese clinical texts with corresponding annotation guidelines and methods as well as to develop tools trained on the annotated corpus, which supplies baselines for research on Chinese texts in the clinical domain. An iterative annotation method was proposed to train annotators and to develop annotation guidelines. Then, by using annotation quality assurance measures, a comprehensive corpus was built, containing annotations of part-of-speech (POS) tags, syntactic tags, entities, assertions, and relations. Inter-annotator agreement (IAA) was calculated to evaluate the annotation quality and a Chinese clinical text processing and information extraction system (CCTPIES) was developed based on our annotated corpus. The syntactic corpus consists of 138 Chinese clinical documents with 47,426 tokens and 2612 full parsing trees, while the semantic corpus includes 992 documents that annotated 39,511 entities with their assertions and 7693 relations. IAA evaluation shows that this comprehensive corpus is of good quality, and the system modules are effective. The annotated corpus makes a considerable contribution to natural language processing (NLP) research into Chinese texts in the clinical domain. However, this corpus has a number of limitations. Some additional types of clinical text should be introduced to improve corpus coverage and active learning methods should be utilized to promote annotation efficiency. In this study, several annotation guidelines and an annotation method for Chinese clinical texts were proposed, and a comprehensive corpus with its NLP modules were constructed, providing a foundation for further study of applying NLP techniques to Chinese texts in the clinical domain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Syntactic constraints and individual differences in native and non-native processing of wh-movement

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    Adrienne eJohnson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a debate as to whether second language (L2 learners show qualitatively similar processing profiles as native speakers or whether L2 learners are restricted in their ability to use syntactic information during online processing. In the realm of wh-dependency resolution, research has examined whether learners, similar to native speakers, attempt to resolve wh-dependencies in grammatically licensed contexts but avoid positing gaps in illicit contexts such as islands. Also at issue is whether the avoidance of gap filling in islands is due to adherence to syntactic constraints or whether islands simply present processing bottlenecks. One approach has been to examine the relationship between processing abilities and the establishment of wh-dependencies in islands. Grammatical accounts of islands do not predict such a relationship as the parser should simply not predict gaps in illicit contexts. In contrast, a pattern of results showing that individuals with more processing resources are better able to establish wh-dependencies in islands could conceivably be compatible with certain processing accounts. In a self-paced reading experiment which examines the processing of wh- dependencies, we address both questions, examining whether native English speakers and Korean learners of English show qualitatively similar patterns and whether there is a relationship between working memory, as measured by counting span and reading span, and processing in both island and non-island contexts. The results of the self-paced reading experiment suggest that learners can use syntactic information on the same timecourse as native speakers, showing qualitative similarity between the two groups. Results of regression analyses did not reveal a significant relationship between working memory and the establishment of wh-dependencies in islands but we did observe significant relationships between working memory and the processing of licit wh-dependencies. As the

  17. Syntactic and Lexical Complexity of B2 Listening Comprehension Subtests in English: A Comparative Study

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    Ilc Gašper

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adopting Weir’s (2005 socio-cognitive validation framework, the present paper focuses on the syntactic and lexical complexity of listening comprehension subtests in three B2-level examinations: The City Guilds international examination in English, The First Certificate in English, and the General Matura in English. By analysing and interpreting the results obtained from different automated tools, the research aims to determine to what extent the three subtests are comparable. The results of the study suggest the unreliability of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR as a sole mechanism for test comparisons.

  18. The 'PEARL' Data Warehouse: Initial Challenges Faced with Semantic and Syntactic Interoperability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Samhar; Boyd, Andy; Curcin, Vasa; Bache, Richard; Ali, Asad; Miles, Simon; Taweel, Adel; Delaney, Brendan; Macleod, John

    2017-01-01

    Data about patients are available from diverse sources, including those routinely collected as individuals interact with service providers, and those provided directly by individuals through surveys. Linking these data can lead to a more complete picture about the individual, to inform either care decision making or research investigations. However, post-linkage, differences in data recording systems and formats present barriers to achieving these aims. This paper describes an approach to combine linked GP records with study observations, and reports initial challenges related to semantic and syntactic interoperability issues.

  19. Comprehension of idioms by children with learning disabilities: metaphoric transparency and syntactic frozenness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsen, Eileen P; Burke-Williams, Debra

    2004-05-01

    Third and fifth grade children with and without learning disabilities participated in this study. Syntactically frozen and flexible idioms and transparent and opaque idioms were used as stimuli to examine the ability to identify the correct idiom and to explain idiom meanings. Grade and diagnostic category affected performance on the explanation task but not on the forced choice task. Idiom type was also a factor affecting comprehension and explanation. Literal responses occurred rarely and were more likely to occur on the forced choice task.

  20. A syntactical comparison between pair sentential calculus PSC and Gupta's definitional calculus Cn

    OpenAIRE

    石井,忠夫

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we will compare two logical systems PSC and Cn with a syntactical point of view. Because both notions of the pair-sentence with stage number in PSC and Gupta's sentence-definition with revision stage number in Cn are very similar, and both can deal with paradoxical sentences like a simple Liar sentence. His system was defined as a predicate calculus, but here we will introduce the propositional version of Cn for the comparison, and we had the following results: (1) C0 is a sublo...

  1. Processing the ITU vocabulary: revisions and adaptations to the Pisa syntactic-semantic parser

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Carol; Federici, Stefano; Montemagni, Simonetta; Calzolari, Nicoletta

    1993-01-01

    The first version of the Pisa syntactic-semantic parser was described in detail in Deliverable 4, Section 2 and Appendices 2,3, and 4. The scope of this report is to discuss the testing of the parser on the sample set of vocabulary which has been selected from the ITU Corpus (see Deliverable 6.1) and to illustrate the revisions and extensions that are now being implemented. The report therefore concentrates on presenting analysis and extraction activities. We need to specify clearly all the k...

  2. Temporal variability of the quality of Taraxacum officinale seed progeny from the East-Ural radioactive trace: is there an interaction between low level radiation and weather conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozolotina, Vera N; Antonova, Elena V

    2017-03-01

    The multiple stressors, in different combinations, may impact differently upon seed quality, and low-level doses of radiation may enhance synergistic or antagonistic effects. During 1991-2014 we investigated the quality of the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale s.l.) seed progeny growing under low-level radiation exposure at the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) area (result of the Kyshtym accident, Russia), and in plants from areas exposed to background radiation. The viability of the dandelion seed progeny was assessed according to chronic radiation exposure, accounting for the variability of weather conditions among years. Environmental factors (temperature, precipitation, and their ratio in different months) can modify the radiobiological effects. We found a wide range of possible responses to multiple stressors: inhibition, stimulation, and indifferent effects in different seasons. The intraspecific variability of the quality of dandelion seed progeny was greatly increased under conditions of low doses of chronic irradiation. Temperature was the most significant factor for seed progeny formation in the EURT zone, whereas the sums of precipitation and ratios of precipitation to temperature dominantly affected organisms from the background population.

  3. Performance analysis and comparison of an Atkinson cycle coupled to variable temperature heat reservoirs under maximum power and maximum power density conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P.-Y.; Hou, S.-S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, performance analysis and comparison based on the maximum power and maximum power density conditions have been conducted for an Atkinson cycle coupled to variable temperature heat reservoirs. The Atkinson cycle is internally reversible but externally irreversible, since there is external irreversibility of heat transfer during the processes of constant volume heat addition and constant pressure heat rejection. This study is based purely on classical thermodynamic analysis methodology. It should be especially emphasized that all the results and conclusions are based on classical thermodynamics. The power density, defined as the ratio of power output to maximum specific volume in the cycle, is taken as the optimization objective because it considers the effects of engine size as related to investment cost. The results show that an engine design based on maximum power density with constant effectiveness of the hot and cold side heat exchangers or constant inlet temperature ratio of the heat reservoirs will have smaller size but higher efficiency, compression ratio, expansion ratio and maximum temperature than one based on maximum power. From the view points of engine size and thermal efficiency, an engine design based on maximum power density is better than one based on maximum power conditions. However, due to the higher compression ratio and maximum temperature in the cycle, an engine design based on maximum power density conditions requires tougher materials for engine construction than one based on maximum power conditions

  4. Leaf area index estimation in a pine plantation with LAI-2000 under direct sunlight conditions: relationship with inventory and hydrologic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, A.; Campo, A. D. del

    2011-01-01

    LAI is a key factor in light and rainfall interception processes in forest stands and, for this reason, is called to play an important role in global change adaptive silviculture. Therefore, it is necessary to develop practical and operative methodologies to measure this parameter as well as simple relationships with other silviculture variables. This work has studied 1) the feasibility of LAI-2000 sensor in estimating LAI-stand when readings are taken under direct sunlight conditions; and 2) the ability of LAI in studying rainfall partitioned into throughfall (T) in an Aleppo pine stand after different thinning intensities, as well as its relationships to basal area, (G), cover (FCC), and tree density (D). Results showed that the angular correction scheme applied to LAI-2000 direct-sunlight readings stabilized them for different solar angles, allowing a better operational use of LAI-2000 in Mediterranean areas, where uniform overcast conditions are difficult to meet and predict. Forest cover showed the highest predictive ability of LAI (R 2 = 0.98; S = 0.28), then G (R 2 = 0.96; S = 0.43) and D (R 2 = 0.50; S = 0.28). In the hydrological plane, T increased with thinning intensity, being G the most explanatory variable (R 2 = 0.81; S = 3.07) and LAI the one that showed the poorest relation with it (R 2 = 0.69; S = 3.95). These results open a way for forest hydrologic modeling taking LAI as an input variable either estimated form LAI-2000 or deducted from inventory data. (Author) 36 refs.

  5. Morpho-syntactic processing of Arabic plurals after aphasia: dissecting lexical meaning from morpho-syntax within word boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwaileh, Tariq; Body, Richard; Herbert, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Within the domain of inflectional morpho-syntax, differential processing of regular and irregular forms has been found in healthy speakers and in aphasia. One view assumes that irregular forms are retrieved as full entities, while regular forms are compiled on-line. An alternative view holds that a single mechanism oversees regular and irregular forms. Arabic offers an opportunity to study this phenomenon, as Arabic nouns contain a consonantal root, delivering lexical meaning, and a vocalic pattern, delivering syntactic information, such as gender and number. The aim of this study is to investigate morpho-syntactic processing of regular (sound) and irregular (broken) Arabic plurals in patients with morpho-syntactic impairment. Three participants with acquired agrammatic aphasia produced plural forms in a picture-naming task. We measured overall response accuracy, then analysed lexical errors and morpho-syntactic errors, separately. Error analysis revealed different patterns of morpho-syntactic errors depending on the type of pluralization (sound vs broken). Omissions formed the vast majority of errors in sound plurals, while substitution was the only error mechanism that occurred in broken plurals. The dissociation was statistically significant for retrieval of morpho-syntactic information (vocalic pattern) but not for lexical meaning (consonantal root), suggesting that the participants' selective impairment was an effect of the morpho-syntax of plurals. These results suggest that irregular plurals forms are stored, while regular forms are derived. The current findings support the findings from other languages and provide a new analysis technique for data from languages with non-concatenative morpho-syntax.

  6. Effect modification of the association between meteorological variables and mortality by urban climatic conditions in the tropical city of Kaohsiung, Taiwan

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    William B. Goggins

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A deeper understanding of extreme hot weather are needed in cities sensitive to heat effects, an investigation was done in the tropical town of Kaohsiung in Taiwan. Its 11 districts were divided into three climatic classes varying from high urban heat, low levels of green space and lack of proximity to water bodies to low urban heat, adequate green space and proximity to water bodies. Daily data on natural mortality, meteorological variables, and pollutants from May-October 1999-2008 were analysed using generalised additive models for the time-series data. Subgroup analyses were conducted, stratifying decedents according to the level of planning activity required in order to mitigate adverse heat effects in their residential areas, classifying districts as “level 1” for those requiring a high level of mitigation action; “level 2” for those requiring some action; and “level 3” for those that need only preserve existing conditions. Stratified analyses showed that mortality increases per 1 °C rise on average, either on the same day or in the previous 4 days (lags 0-4, were associated with 2.8%, 2.3% and -1.3% for level 1, 2 and 3 districts, respectively. The slope describing the association between temperature and mortality was higher above 29.0 °C resulting in corresponding increases of 4.2%, 5.0% and 0.3% per per 1 °C rise in temperature, respectively. Other meteorological variables were not significantly associated with mortality. It is concluded that hot season mortality in Kaohsiung is only sensitive to heat effects in districts classified as having unfavourably climatic conditions and requiring mitigation efforts in city planning. Urban planning measures designed to improve climatic conditions could reduce excess mortality resulting from extreme hot weather.

  7. Interannual variability in the extent and intensity of tropical dry forest deciduousness in the Mexican Yucatan (2000-2016): Drivers and Links to Regional Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuba, Nicholas Joseph

    The dry topical forests of the southern Yucatan Peninsula experience multiple natural and anthropogenic disturbances, as well as substantial interannual climate variability that can result in stark interannual differences in vegetation phenology. Dry season deciduousness is a typical response to limit tree water loss during prolonged periods of hot and dry conditions, and this behavior has both direct implications for ecosystem functioning, and the potential to indicate climate conditions when observed using remotely-sensed data. The first research paper of this dissertation advances methods to assess the accuracy of remotely-sensed measurements of canopy conditions using in-situ observations. Linear regression models show the highest correlation (R2 = 0.751) between in-situ canopy gap fraction and Landsat NDWISWIR2. MODIS time series NDWISWIR2 are created for the period March 2000-February 2011, and exhibit stronger correlation with time series of TRMM precipitation data than do MODIS EVI time series (R2= 0.48 vs. R2 = 0.43 in deciduous forest areas). The second paper examines differences between the deciduous phenology of young forest stands and older forest stands. Land-cover maps are overlaid to determine whether forested areas are greater than or less than 22 years old in 2010, and metrics related to deciduous phenology are derived from MODIS EVI2 time series in three years, 2008 to 2011. Statistical tests that compare matched pairs of young (12-22 years) and older (>22 years) forest stand age class samples are used to detect significant differences in metrics related to the intensity and timing of deciduousness. In all three years, younger forests exhibit significantly more intense deciduousness, measured as total seasonal change of EVI2 normalized by annual maximum EVI2 (pmediating environmental factors that drive the spatial and temporal variability in the intensity of deciduousness, and point toward analyzing deciduousness to reveal information about other

  8. Syntactic Dependencies and Verbal Inflection: Complementisers and Verbal Forms in Standard Arabic

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    Feras Saeed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the syntactic dependency between complementisers and verbal forms in Standard Arabic and provides a new analysis of this dependency. The imperfective verb in this language surfaces with three different forms, where each form is indicated by a different suffixal marker attached to the end of the verb as (-u, (-a, or (-Ø. The occurrence of each suffixal marker on the verb corresponds to the co-occurrence of a particular type of Comp-elements in the C/T domain. I argue that these morphological markers on the three verbal forms are the manifestation of an Agree relation between an interpretable unvalued finiteness feature [Fin] on C and an uninterpretable but valued instance of the same feature on v, assuming feature transfer and feature sharing between C/T and v (Pesetsky & Torrego 2007; Chomsky 2008. I also argue that the different verbal forms in Standard Arabic are dictated by the co-occurrence of three types of Comp-elements: i C-elements; ii T-elements which ultimately move to C; and iii imperative/negative elements. Keywords: feature transfer/sharing, verbal forms, complementisers, finiteness, syntactic dependency, Standard Arabic

  9. The Interaction of Contextual and Syntactic Information in the Processing of Turkish Anaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gračanin-Yuksek, Martina; Lago, Sol; Şafak, Duygu Fatma; Demir, Orhan; Kırkıcı, Bilal

    2017-12-01

    In contrast with languages where anaphors can be classified into pronouns and reflexives, Turkish has a tripartite system that consists of the anaphors o, kendi, and kendisi. The syntactic literature on these anaphors has proposed that whereas o behaves like a pronoun and kendi behaves like a reflexive, kendisi has a more flexible behavior and it can function as both a pronoun and a reflexive. Using acceptability judgments and a self-paced reading task, we examined how Turkish anaphors are processed in isolated sentences and within larger discourse contexts. We manipulated contextual information by creating passages where the context favored a local, long-distance or extra-sentential referent prior to the appearance of the anaphor. We measured the effect of the context on participants' reading times and their end-of-trial coreference assignments. Our results suggest that contextual information affects the interpretive possibilities associated with an anaphor, but that the influence of context depends on the degree to which the anaphor is syntactically constrained.

  10. Executive function and intelligence in the resolution of temporary syntactic ambiguity: an individual differences investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paul E; Nigg, Joel T; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2017-07-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of intelligence and executive functions in the resolution of temporary syntactic ambiguity using an individual differences approach. Data were collected from 174 adolescents and adults who completed a battery of cognitive tests as well as a sentence comprehension task. The critical items for the comprehension task consisted of object/subject garden paths (e.g., While Anna dressed the baby that was small and cute played in the crib), and participants answered a comprehension question (e.g., Did Anna dress the baby?) following each one. Previous studies have shown that garden-path misinterpretations tend to persist into final interpretations. Results showed that both intelligence and processing speed interacted with ambiguity. Individuals with higher intelligence and faster processing were more likely to answer the comprehension questions correctly and, specifically, following ambiguous as opposed to unambiguous sentences. Inhibition produced a marginal effect, but the variance in inhibition was largely shared with intelligence. Conclusions focus on the role of individual differences in cognitive ability and their impact on syntactic ambiguity resolution.

  11. Syntactic Complexity Effects of Russian Relative Clause Sentences in Children with and without Developmental Language Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Kornilov, Sergey A; Kornilova, Tatiana V; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2016-01-01

    We investigated relative clause (RC) comprehension in 44 Russian-speaking children with typical language (TD) and developmental language disorder (DLD); M age = 10.67, SD = 2.84, and 22 adults. Flexible word order and morphological case in Russian allowed us to isolate factors that are obscured in English, helping us to identify sources of syntactic complexity and evaluate their roles in RC comprehension by children with typical language and their peers with DLD. We administered a working memory and an RC comprehension (picture-choice) task, which contained subject- and object-gap center-embedded and right branching RCs. The TD group, but not adults, demonstrated the effects of gap, embedding, and case. Their lower accuracy relative to adults was not fully attributable to differences in working memory. The DLD group displayed lower than TD children overall accuracy, accounted for by their lower working memory scores. While the effect of gap and embedding on their performance was not different from what was found for the TD group, children with DLD exhibited a diminished effect of case, suggesting reduced sensitivity to morphological case markers as processing cues. The implications of these results to theories of syntactic complexity and core deficits in DLD are discussed.

  12. Second Language Acquisition of Syntactic Movement in English by Turkish Adult Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhan Agcam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been much discussion on the involvement of Universal Grammar (UG in Second Language Acquisition (SLA process. Despite growing research in the field, few precise answers to the problem have been suggested so far. Hence, recent L2 studies within the generative framework have shifted from investigating this issue to determining whether or not interlanguage grammars exhibit natural language characteristics (Can, Kilimci & Altunkol, 2007. The present study aimed to investigate L2 acquisition of syntactic movement in English noun clauses by Turkish adult learners. Accordingly, L1 involvement in SLA was sought through examining the upper intermediate Turkish learners’ knowledge about the movement in question. The study addressed the questions of whether or not Turkish adult ESL learners have problems, stemming from L1 interference, with the construction of the syntactic movement in English noun clauses, and whether or not there is any order of acquisition between the noun clauses in subject position and object position along with various wh-words. The study reported related findings, and concluded with a few pedagogical implications for practice, and a couple of suggestions for further directions.

  13. Syntactic mixing across generations in an environment of community-wide bilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eStoll

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative analysis of a trans-generational, conversational corpus of Chintang (Tibeto-Burman speakers with community-wide bilingualism in Nepali (Indo-European reveals that children show more code-switching into Nepali than older speakers. This confirms earlier proposals in the literature that code-switching in bilingual children decreases when they gain proficiency in their dominant language, especially in vocabulary. Contradicting expectations from other studies, our corpus data also reveal that for adults, multi-word insertions of Nepali into Chintang are just as likely to undergo full syntactic integration as single-word insertions. Speakers of younger generations show less syntactic integration. We propose that this reflects a change between generations, from strongly asymmetrical, Chintang-dominated bilingualism in older generations to more balanced bilingualism where Chintang and Nepali operate as clearly separate systems in younger generations. This change is likely to have been triggered by the increase of Nepali presence over the past few decades.

  14. Check specific compounds lyrics Saeb and Biddle, based on syntactic and semantic core composition

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    khodabakhsh asadollahi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Saebe Tabrizi and Bidele Dehlavi of the most famous poets in Hindi, which each in turn, the Iranian branch and Hindi Hindi style, the lyrics have been changed in this period. Most scholars who have studied the poetry Biddle to research, Specific compounds as one of the most important factors in a monopoly ambiguity Biddle poetry and in the making and meaning of these compounds have less reflection. Here are the lyrics to rely on dictionary and Biddle, the Iranian branch of specific compounds in both Hindi and Hindi poetry style is investigated. Combining both his first two exocentric and endocentric compounds is assorted, Based on Syntactic relations, various models of deep structure and composition relationships is presented. Saeb specific compounds and Biddle in deep syntactic relations as diverse as the relationship between the finite, nominative, accusative, amendment and so on.The semantic structure, certain combinations of the two poets more varied combinations are commonplace in standard language, so that some of the compounds exist in terms of meaning in language

  15. Text Comprehension Mediates Morphological Awareness, Syntactic Processing, and Working Memory in Predicting Chinese Written Composition Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Wagner, Richard K.; Meng, Wanjin; Leong, Che Kan

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to test opposing views about four issues concerning predictors of individual differences in Chinese written composition: (a) Whether morphological awareness, syntactic processing, and working memory represent distinct and measureable constructs in Chinese or are just manifestations of general language ability; (b) whether they are important predictors of Chinese written composition, and if so, the relative magnitudes and independence of their predictive relations; (c) whether observed predictive relations are mediated by text comprehension; and (d) whether these relations vary or are developmentally invariant across three years of writing development. Based on analyses of the performance of students in grades 4 (n = 246), 5 (n = 242) and 6 (n = 261), the results supported morphological awareness, syntactic processing, and working memory as distinct yet correlated abilities that made independent contributions to predicting Chinese written composition, with working memory as the strongest predictor. However, predictive relations were mediated by text comprehension. The final model accounted for approximately 75 percent of the variance in Chinese written composition. The results were largely developmentally invariant across the three grades from which participants were drawn. PMID:25530630

  16. LEXICAL OPERATIONS AND HIGH -LEVEL SYNTACTIC OPERATIONS WITH OLD ENGLISH -A, -E, -O, AND -U

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lacalle Palacios

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explain the lexical and high-level syntactic operations comprising the Old English suffixes -a, -e, -o and -u. Previous research has dealt with these suffixes, which constitute an area of overlapping between inflection and derivation, in terms of inflection, zero derivation or continuity between inflection and derivation. The position adopted in this article is that these affixes are fully derivational, although interesting points of convergence with inflection arise that deserve discussion. In this respect, a fundamental difference is made between explicit and implicit morphological relations. Such relations are considered in the derivational and the inflectional dimensions. Regarding lexical operations, the analysis concentrates on the subjective and objective functions realized by these suffixes, while, as far as high-level syntactic operations are concerned, a distinction is drawn between motivated and unmotivated inflective relations. The fact that most of the suffixes under scrutiny perform the subjective and the objective function is in keeping with the Separation Hypothesis, in terms of which grammatical morphemes are the output of phonological operations independent of the semantic operations that they realize. The results are also in accordance with the Universal Grammatical Function Theory, which predicts that the functions of inflectional and lexical derivation are the same.

  17. NUMERICAL ESTIMATION OF EFFECTIVE ELASTIC MODULI OF SYNTACTIC FOAMS REINFORCED BY SHORT GLASS FIBERS

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    Wei Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of hollow glass microsphere/epoxy resin syntactic foams reinforced by short glass fibers are studied using representative volume elements. Both the glass fibers and the hollow glass microspheres exhibit random arrangement in the epoxy resin. The volume fraction and wall thickness of hollow glass microspheres and the volume fraction of glass fibers are considered as parameters. It is observed that the elastic modulus values of syntactic foams decrease with the increase of microsphere volume fraction when the microsphere relative wall thickness is lower. However, it increases with the increase of microsphere volume fraction when the relative wall thickness exceeds a critical value. The elastic modulus value goes through a maximum when the relative wall thickness is around 0.06 at 25 % volume fraction of microspheres. The addition of glass fibers reduces the critical wall thickness values of the microspheres and increases the mechanical properties of the composites. The highest stress lies on the equatorial plane perpendicular to the loading direction. Adding fibers reduces the large stress distribution areas on the microspheres, and the fibers aligned with the loading direction play an important load-bearing role.

  18. Additive Manufacturing of Syntactic Foams: Part 1: Development, Properties, and Recycling Potential of Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashish Kumar; Patil, Balu; Hoffmann, Niklas; Saltonstall, Brooks; Doddamani, Mrityunjay; Gupta, Nikhil

    2018-03-01

    This work focuses on developing filaments of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and their hollow particle-filled syntactic foams for commercial three-dimensional (3D) printers based on fused filament fabrication technology. Hollow fly-ash cenospheres were blended by 40 wt.% in a HDPE matrix to produce syntactic foam (HDPE40) filaments. Further, the recycling potential was studied by pelletizing the filaments again to extrude twice (2×) and three times (3×). The filaments were tensile tested at 10-4 s-1, 10-3 s-1, and 10-2 s-1 strain rates. HDPE40 filaments show an increasing trend in modulus and strength with the strain rate. Higher density and modulus were noticed for 2× filaments compared to 1× filaments because of the crushing of some cenospheres in the extrusion cycle. However, 2× and 3× filament densities are nearly the same, showing potential for recycling them. The filaments show better properties than the same materials processed by conventional injection molding. Micro-CT scans show a uniform dispersion of cenospheres in all filaments.

  19. Syntactically Silent Subjects: Luis Muñoz and the Poetry of Ellipsis

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    Judith Nantell

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Luis Muñoz (1966 is one of contemporary Spain’s most salient poets. His work has been described as demonstrating a discourse of ellipsis; yet no study has examined in detail his masterful use of syntactic and figurative omission. In fact, even though Muñoz’s published collections to date span two centuries, no single study has been devoted to his decidedly innovative expressivity. His work has been commented on in various panoramic essays considering contemporary poetry published in Spain at this temporal intersection and a number of his poems have been gathered into noteworthy anthologies of this same era. His poetry has been nominated for prestigious awards in Spain and in 2001 Correspondencias ‘Correspondences’ received the fourth Premio Internacional de Poesía del 27 as well as the Premio de Ojo Crítico de Poesía . The present study examines Muñoz’s most recent Querido silencio (2006 ‘Dear Silence’ where ellipsis figures prominently as the poet maximizes and exploits conceptual and linguistic efficiency. In one exemplary poem, “Dejar la poesía” ‘Leave Poetry,’ two syntactically silent subjects engage in an innovative conversation concerning the nature of poetry. At the same time this intriguing dialogue also offers a unique response to the essential question framing this poem and the collection as a whole: Why is poetry an addiction?

  20. Semantic and syntactic interoperability in online processing of big Earth observation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudmanns, Martin; Tiede, Dirk; Lang, Stefan; Baraldi, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The challenge of enabling syntactic and semantic interoperability for comprehensive and reproducible online processing of big Earth observation (EO) data is still unsolved. Supporting both types of interoperability is one of the requirements to efficiently extract valuable information from the large amount of available multi-temporal gridded data sets. The proposed system wraps world models, (semantic interoperability) into OGC Web Processing Services (syntactic interoperability) for semantic online analyses. World models describe spatio-temporal entities and their relationships in a formal way. The proposed system serves as enabler for (1) technical interoperability using a standardised interface to be used by all types of clients and (2) allowing experts from different domains to develop complex analyses together as collaborative effort. Users are connecting the world models online to the data, which are maintained in a centralised storage as 3D spatio-temporal data cubes. It allows also non-experts to extract valuable information from EO data because data management, low-level interactions or specific software issues can be ignored. We discuss the concept of the proposed system, provide a technical implementation example and describe three use cases for extracting changes from EO images and demonstrate the usability also for non-EO, gridded, multi-temporal data sets (CORINE land cover).

  1. The integration of lexical, syntactic, and discourse features in bilingual adolescents' writing: an exploratory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzak, Robin L

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the bilingual writing of adolescent English language learners (ELLs) using quantitative tools. Linguistic measures were applied to the participants' writing at the lexical, syntactic, and discourse levels, with the goal of comparing outcomes at each of these levels across languages (Spanish/English) and genres (expository/narrative). Twenty Spanish-speaking ELLs, ages 11-14 years, each produced 8 expository and narrative autobiographical texts. Texts were coded and scored for lexical sophistication, syntactic complexity, and overall text quality. Scores were analyzed using Friedman's 2-way analysis of variance by ranks (Siegel & Castellan, 1988); resulting ranks were compared across languages and genre topics. The text topic impacted rank differences at all levels. Performance at the three levels was similar across languages, indicating that participants were emerging writers in both Spanish and English. The impact of genre was generally inconsequential at all levels. Similar results across languages implied the potential transfer of writing skills. Overall, students appeared to apply a knowledge-telling strategy to writing rather than strategically planning, composing, and revising their writing. Finally, outcomes highlighted the synergistic relationships among linguistic levels in text composition, indicating a need to address the interaction of vocabulary, morphosyntax, and text-level structures in the instruction and assessment of ELL writing.

  2. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. [Lewis 8 by 6-foot supersonic wind tunnel tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of a coannular exhaust nozzle for a proposed variable stream control supersonic propulsion system. Tests were conducted with two simulated configurations differing primarily in the fan duct flowpaths: a short flap mechanism for fan stream control with an isentropic contoured flow splitter, and an iris fan nozzle with a conical flow splitter. Both designs feature a translating primary plug and an auxiliary inlet ejector. Tests were conducted at takeoff and simulated cruise conditions. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. At simulated supersonic cruise, both configurations demonstrated good performance, comparable to levels assumed in earlier advanced supersonic propulsion studies. However, at subsonic cruise, both configurations exhibited performance that was 6 to 7.5 percent less than the study assumptions. At take off conditions, the iris configuration performance approached the assumed levels, while the short flap design was 4 to 6 percent less.

  3. Mathematical model for thermal and entropy analysis of thermal solar collectors by using Maxwell nanofluids with slip conditions, thermal radiation and variable thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Asim; Jamshed, Wasim; Aziz, Taha

    2018-04-01

    In the present research a simplified mathematical model for the solar thermal collectors is considered in the form of non-uniform unsteady stretching surface. The non-Newtonian Maxwell nanofluid model is utilized for the working fluid along with slip and convective boundary conditions and comprehensive analysis of entropy generation in the system is also observed. The effect of thermal radiation and variable thermal conductivity are also included in the present model. The mathematical formulation is carried out through a boundary layer approach and the numerical computations are carried out for Cu-water and TiO2-water nanofluids. Results are presented for the velocity, temperature and entropy generation profiles, skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number. The discussion is concluded on the effect of various governing parameters on the motion, temperature variation, entropy generation, velocity gradient and the rate of heat transfer at the boundary.

  4. Dependency distance: A new perspective on the syntactic development in second language acquisition. Comment on "Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural language" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingyang; Ouyang, Jinghui

    2017-07-01

    Liu et al. [1] offers a clear and informative account of the use of dependency distance in studying natural languages, with a focus on the viewpoint that dependency distance minimization (DDM) can be regarded as a linguistic universal. We would like to add the perspective of employing dependency distance in the studies of second languages acquisition (SLA), particularly the studies of syntactic development.

  5. Do Young Children Have Adult-Like Syntactic Categories? Zipf's Law and the Case of the Determiner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Julian M.; Freudenthal, Daniel; Krajewski, Grzegorz; Gobet, Fernand

    2013-01-01

    Generativist models of grammatical development assume that children have adult-like grammatical categories from the earliest observable stages, whereas constructivist models assume that children's early categories are more limited in scope. In the present paper, we test these assumptions with respect to one particular syntactic category, the…

  6. Translation Competence and Translation Performance: Lexical, Syntactic and Textual Patterns in Student Translations of a Specialized EU Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Adrienn

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study aiming to reveal the recurring patterns of lexical, syntactic and textual errors in student translations of a specialized EU genre from English into Hungarian. By comparing the student translations to the official translation of the text, this article uncovers the most frequent errors that students made…

  7. Subordinated clauses usage and assessment of syntactic maturity: A comparison of oral and written retellings in beginning writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Sánchez Abchi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present longitudinal study aims to explore possible syntactic complexity differences between oral and written story retellings produced by Spanish speaking children at the end of the 1st and 2nd grades of primary education. It is assumed that differences between oral and written modalities can be found due in part to the cognitive demands of low level writing skills. Indeed, it has been observed that written texts produced by children are shorter and of lower quality than oral ones (Berninger, et al., , 1992; Berninger & Swanson,1994. However, how the transcription skills might constrain the syntactic complexity of children’s written texts is not well established.The children (N=163 that participated in this study were attending three different schools located in Córdoba Province, Argentina. The children were examined at the end of the 1st and 2nd year of primary education. The oral and written retellings were analyzed using Length, T- unit number and Syntactic Complexity Index (SCI (Hunt, 1965; 1970. The analysis of children’s productions showed differences between grades and modalities. The differences between modalities were found in text Length and T-unit, but not in SCI. These results suggest that transcription skills do not affect syntactic performance. Nevertheless, a more detailed analysis revealed differences between groups. Possible restrictions of the original text on children’s performance were also observed. The implications and the scope of the SCI and units used for the analysis are furthered discussed.

  8. Language and ToM Development in Autism versus Asperger Syndrome: Contrasting Influences of Syntactic versus Lexical/Semantic Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Jessica; Peterson, Candida

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) development by a sample of 63 children aged 5-12 years (24 with Asperger syndrome, 19 with high-functioning autism, and 20 age-matched typical developers) was assessed with a five-task false-belief battery in relation to both lexical (vocabulary) and syntactic (grammar) language skills. Contrary to some previous research, no…

  9. Effects of Syntactic Complexity, Semantic Reversibility, and Explicitness on Discourse Comprehension in Persons with Aphasia and in Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Joshua; Hoover, Elizabeth; Waters, Gloria; Kiran, Swathi; Caplan, David; Berardino, Alex; Sandberg, Chaleece

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Prior studies of discourse comprehension have concluded that the deficits of persons with aphasia (PWA) in syntactically based comprehension of sentences in isolation are not predictive of deficits in comprehension of sentences in discourse (Brookshire & Nicholas, 1984; Caplan & Evans, 1990). However, these studies used semantically…

  10. Persian Native Speakers Reading Persian and English Texts: Their Strategic Behavior to Overcome Syntactic and Semantic Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimorad, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to discover semantic and syntactic problems Persian native speakers might have while reading English and Persian texts and different strategies they use to overcome those problems. To this end, a convenient sample of 40 intermediate students studying English Literature at Shiraz University was selected. Twenty of them were asked…

  11. The time course of syntactic activation during language processing: a model based on neuropsychological and neurophysiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederici, A D

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents a model describing the temporal and neurotopological structure of syntactic processes during comprehension. It postulates three distinct phases of language comprehension, two of which are primarily syntactic in nature. During the first phase the parser assigns the initial syntactic structure on the basis of word category information. These early structural processes are assumed to be subserved by the anterior parts of the left hemisphere, as event-related brain potentials show this area to be maximally activated when phrase structure violations are processed and as circumscribed lesions in this area lead to an impairment of the on-line structural assignment. During the second phase lexical-semantic and verb-argument structure information is processed. This phase is neurophysiologically manifest in a negative component in the event-related brain potential around 400 ms after stimulus onset which is distributed over the left and right temporo-parietal areas when lexical-semantic information is processed and over left anterior areas when verb-argument structure information is processed. During the third phase the parser tries to map the initial syntactic structure onto the available lexical-semantic and verb-argument structure information. In case of an unsuccessful match between the two types of information reanalyses may become necessary. These processes of structural reanalysis are correlated with a centroparietally distributed late positive component in the event-related brain potential.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Stimulating the Brain's Language Network: Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution after TMS to the Inferior Frontal Gyrus and Middle Temporal Gyrus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acheson, D.J.; Hagoort, P.

    2013-01-01

    The posterior middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) are two critical nodes of the brain's language network. Previous neuroimaging evidence has supported a dissociation in language comprehension in which parts of the MTG are involved in the retrieval of lexical syntactic

  13. Syntactic computation in the human brain: the degree of merger as a key factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinri Ohta

    Full Text Available Our goal of this study is to characterize the functions of language areas in most precise terms. Previous neuroimaging studies have reported that more complex sentences elicit larger activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus (L. F3op/F3t, although the most critical factor still remains to be identified. We hypothesize that pseudowords with grammatical particles and morphosyntactic information alone impose a construction of syntactic structures, just like normal sentences, and that "the Degree of Merger" (DoM in recursively merged sentences parametrically modulates neural activations. Using jabberwocky sentences with distinct constructions, we fitted various parametric models of syntactic, other linguistic, and nonlinguistic factors to activations measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. We demonstrated that the models of DoM and "DoM+number of Search (searching syntactic features" were the best to explain activations in the L. F3op/F3t and supramarginal gyrus (L. SMG, respectively. We further introduced letter strings, which had neither lexical associations nor grammatical particles, but retained both matching orders and symbol orders of sentences. By directly contrasting jabberwocky sentences with letter strings, localized activations in L. F3op/F3t and L. SMG were indeed independent of matching orders and symbol orders. Moreover, by using dynamic causal modeling, we found that the model with a inhibitory modulatory effect for the bottom-up connectivity from L. SMG to L. F3op/F3t was the best one. For this best model, the top-down connection from L. F3op/F3t to L. SMG was significantly positive. By using diffusion-tensor imaging, we confirmed that the left dorsal pathway of the superior longitudinal and arcuate fasciculi consistently connected these regions. Lastly, we established that nonlinguistic order-related and error-related factors significantly activated the right (R. lateral premotor cortex and R. F3op/F3t

  14. Retrieval Interference in Syntactic Processing: The Case of Reflexive Binding in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Umesh; Vasishth, Shravan; Lewis, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that in online sentence comprehension the dependency between a reflexive pronoun such as himself/herself and its antecedent is resolved using exclusively syntactic constraints. Under this strictly syntactic search account, Principle A of the binding theory-which requires that the antecedent c-command the reflexive within the same clause that the reflexive occurs in-constrains the parser's search for an antecedent. The parser thus ignores candidate antecedents that might match agreement features of the reflexive (e.g., gender) but are ineligible as potential antecedents because they are in structurally illicit positions. An alternative possibility accords no special status to structural constraints: in addition to using Principle A, the parser also uses non-structural cues such as gender to access the antecedent. According to cue-based retrieval theories of memory (e.g., Lewis and Vasishth, 2005), the use of non-structural cues should result in increased retrieval times and occasional errors when candidates partially match the cues, even if the candidates are in structurally illicit positions. In this paper, we first show how the retrieval processes that underlie the reflexive binding are naturally realized in the Lewis and Vasishth (2005) model. We present the predictions of the model under the assumption that both structural and non-structural cues are used during retrieval, and provide a critical analysis of previous empirical studies that failed to find evidence for the use of non-structural cues, suggesting that these failures may be Type II errors. We use this analysis and the results of further modeling to motivate a new empirical design that we use in an eye tracking study. The results of this study confirm the key predictions of the model concerning the use of non-structural cues, and are inconsistent with the strictly syntactic search account. These results present a challenge for theories advocating the infallibility of the human

  15. Minimalist Program and its fundamental improvements in syntactic theory: evidence from Agreement Asymmetry in Standard Arabic

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    Nasser Al-Horais

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:auto; mso-para-margin-right:1.0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:auto; mso-para-margin-left:2.0cm; text-align:justify; text-indent:-1.0cm; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The Minimalist Program is a major line of inquiry that has been developing inside Generative Grammar since the early nineties, when it was proposed by Chomsky  (1993, 1995. In that time, Chomsky (1998: 5 presents Minimalist Program as a program, not as a theory, but today, Minimalist Program lays out a very specific view of the basis of syntactic grammar that, when compared to other formalisms, is often taken to look very much like a theory. The prime concern of this paper, however, is  to provide a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the art of minimalist approach to the theory of grammar. In this regard, this paper discusses some new ideas articulated recently by Chomsky, and have led to several fundamental improvements in syntactic theory  such as changing the function of movement and the Extended Projection Principle (EPP feature, or proposing new theories such as Phases and Feature Inheritance. In order to evidence the significance of these fundamental improvements, the current paper provides a minimalist analysis to account for agreement and word-order asymmetry in Stranded Arabic. This fresh minimalist account meets the challenges (to the basic tenets of syntactic theory occurred

  16. Between morphology and function: How syntactic centers of the Beijing city are defined

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    Tao Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of big data provides a new angle of view on investigating whether, and if so, how to define the urban center through analyzing urban spatial morphology intrinsically interacts with its functions. This article, using empirical research of the Beijing city, first seeking to explore spatial configuration-the complex relation between any pair of individual spaces regarding other contextual spaces – of urban network collected from Baidu. And then, focusing on conducting a statistical correlation between the configurational patterns of urban network and the aggregation patterns of functions. Based on the different patterns of aggregation or dispersion of those functions we discussed, as well as the multi-scale syntactic location choice underlying those patterns, it then can be identified four types of centers in the Beijing city, which may be called active center, ordinary center, brand centers and specified center, as well as the extent to which spatial layout influences functional distribution.

  17. Syntactic intergrowth problems with BCSCO and fabrication difficulties therefrom. [Bismuth-Calcium-Strontium-Copper-Oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, P. E. D.; Ratto, J. J.; Housley, R. M.; Porter, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    EDXS performed on isolated particles of the Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O high-temperature ceramic superconductor has verified the presence of significant elemental exchange between the Ca and Sr, and, to a lesser extent, between Cu and Bi. Two primary preparations, identified as primarily 24.4 A and 30.6 A, respectively, are identified. The Cu:Bi ratio in the 30.6 A material is approximately 1:1 for most particles, although only a few particles of the nominally 24.4 A material have the expected 1:2 ratio. No unequivocal assignment of atomic composition to the predominantly 24.4 A or 30.6 A appears possible, if major syntactic problems are present.

  18. Logic without unique readability - a study of semantic and syntactic ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    One of the main reasons for introducing a formal language is to remove ambiguity, the possibility of assigning several meanings to a linguistic expression. Typically, this is achieved through ensuring unique readability of formulas by using brackets (or another convention, such as Polish notation...... not hold true universally. Whereas e.g. scope ambiguities in natural languages have been studied extensively, ambiguous formal languages have not been the focus of in depth research. Here, we lift the assumption of unique readability by omitting the brackets from propositional logic, making it possible...... to formally distinguish between syntactic and semantic ambiguity. A valuation then amounts to a semantic disambiguation, and rather than a unique valuation (truth value), there is a set of valuations corresponding to ways a formula could have been constructed. We show what happens to familiar concepts...

  19. A Syntactic Correspondence between Context-Sensitive Calculi and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Danvy, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    We present a systematic construction of environment-based abstract machines from context-sensitive calculi of explicit substitutions, and we illustrate it with ten calculi and machines for applicative order with an abort operation, normal order with generalized reduction and call/cc, the lambda......-mu-calculus, delimited continuations, stack inspection, proper tail-recursion, and lazy evaluation. Most of the machines already exist but have been obtained independently and are only indirectly related to the corresponding calculi. All of the calculi are new and they make it possible to directly reason about...... the execution of the corresponding machines. In connection with the functional correspondence between evaluation functions and abstract machines initiated by Reynolds, the present syntactic correspondence makes it possible to construct reduction-free normalization functions out of reduction-based ones, which...

  20. Using sound to solve syntactic problems: the role of phonology in grammatical category assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M H

    1992-04-01

    One ubiquitous problem in language processing involves the assignment of words to the correct grammatical category, such as noun or verb. In general, semantic and syntactic cues have been cited as the principal information for grammatical category assignment, to the neglect of possible phonological cues. This neglect is unwarranted, and the following claims are made: (a) Numerous correlations between phonology and grammatical class exist, (b) some of these correlations are large and can pervade the entire lexicon of a language and hence can involve thousands of words, (c) experiments have repeatedly found that adults and children have learned these correlations, and (d) explanations for how these correlations arose can be proposed and evaluated. Implications of these phenomena for language representation and processing are discussed.

  1. The processing of syntactic islands – an fMRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj; Kizach, Johannes; Nyvad, Anne Mette

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether LIFG activation was sensitive to increases in syntactic working memory load triggered by multiple extractions from an embedded clause, so-called island violations, and whether there was any difference between argument and adjunct extraction. Event......-related fMRI (n=30) was used to measure the cortical effects of the differences in acceptability between ungrammatical sentences and three types of wh-movement in Danish: short movement (to the front of an embedded clause), long movement (to the beginning of the matrix clause), and movement across another...... wh-phrase. The neural activation in LIFG was predicted to correlate negatively with the level of acceptability. Ungrammatical sentences were predicted to engage LIFG, potentially overlapping with the effects of acceptability. The behavioral results replicated the findings from an earlier study...

  2. Annotating patient clinical records with syntactic chunks and named entities: the Harvey Corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savkov, Aleksandar; Carroll, John; Koeling, Rob; Cassell, Jackie

    The free text notes typed by physicians during patient consultations contain valuable information for the study of disease and treatment. These notes are difficult to process by existing natural language analysis tools since they are highly telegraphic (omitting many words), and contain many spelling mistakes, inconsistencies in punctuation, and non-standard word order. To support information extraction and classification tasks over such text, we describe a de-identified corpus of free text notes, a shallow syntactic and named entity annotation scheme for this kind of text, and an approach to training domain specialists with no linguistic background to annotate the text. Finally, we present a statistical chunking system for such clinical text with a stable learning rate and good accuracy, indicating that the manual annotation is consistent and that the annotation scheme is tractable for machine learning.

  3. From Logic Programming Semantics to the Consistency of Syntactical Treatments of Knowledge and Belief

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    that we can keep the predicate approach if we make suitable restrictions to our set of epistemic axioms. Their results are proved by careful translations from corresponding modal formalisms. In the present paper we show that their results fit nicely into the framework of logic programming semantics......, in that we show their results to be corollaries of well-known results in this field. This does not only allow us to demonstrate a close connection between consistency problems in the syntactic treatment of propositional attitudes and problems in semantics for logic programs, but it also allows us......This paper concerns formal theories for reasoning about the knowledge and belief of agents. It has seemed attractive to researchers in artificial intelligence to formalise these propositional attitudes as predicates of first-order predicate logic. This allows the agents to express stronger...

  4. Magnetic studies of archaeological obsidian: Variability of eruptive conditions within obsidian flows is key to high-resolution artifact sourcing (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, J. M.; Frahm, E.; Muth, M.

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have endeavored to use petrophysical traits of obsidian, particularly its magnetic properties, as an alternative to conventional geochemical sourcing, one of the greatest successes in archaeological science. Magnetic approaches, however, have not seen widespread application due to their mixed success. In a time when geochemical analyses can be conducted non-destructively, in the field, and in a minute or two, magnetic measurements of obsidian must offer novel archaeological insights to be worthwhile, not merely act as a less successful version of geochemistry. To this end, we report the findings of a large-scale study of obsidian magnetism, which includes 912 geological obsidian specimens and 97 artifacts measured for six simple magnetic parameters. Based on these results, we propose, rather than using magnetic properties to source artifacts to a particular obsidian flow (inter-flow sourcing), these properties are best used to differentiate quarrying sites within an individual flow (intra-flow sourcing). The magnetic properties within an individual flow are highly variable, due to the fact that a single flow experiences a wide array of cooling rates, absolute temperatures, viscosities, deformation, and oxidation. These conditions affect the concentrations, compositions, size distributions, shapes, and spatial arrangements of magnetic grains within an obsidian specimen and, thus, its intrinsic magnetic properties. This variability decreases dramatically at spatial scales of individual outcrops, and decreases even further at scales of hand samples. Thus, magnetic data appear to shift the scale of obsidian sourcing from flows to quarries and, in turn, enable new insights into raw-material procurement strategies, group mobility, lithic technology, and the organization of space and production. From a geologic perspective, the magnetic variability of obsidian can be broadly interpreted within the context of the igneous processes that were active during

  5. Effect of beam condition in variable-shaped electron-beam direct writing for 0.25 μm and below

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirasawa, S.; Nakajima, K.; Tamura, T.; Aizaki, N.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of incident electron-beam conditions, which are acceleration voltage and beam blur of variable-shaped electron-beam direct writing, is investigated using the deposited energy distribution to realize a fine pattern of ≤0.25 μm in trilayer resist process. The deposited energy distribution is calculated using a three-dimensional Monte Carlo method. In a trilayer resist system, a thin bottom resist layer can be used, because the contrast value derived from the Monte Carlo calculation is independent of the bottom layer thickness. The beam blur of 0.05 μm does not degrade 0.25 μm line-and-space (L/S) patterns, but seriously degrades 0.1 μm L/S patterns. Higher acceleration voltage is effective for improving the contrast. At lower acceleration voltage, the slope of the deposited energy profile defined at the resist bottom is mainly influenced by electron scattering. On the other hand, at higher acceleration voltage, the slope of deposited energy profile mainly depends on the beam blur. The 0.1 μm L/S patterns are expected to be resolved at 30 kV when there is less than 0.02 μm beam blur with trilayer resist system. The possibility of using a single layer resist process for 0.1 μm L/S pattern will be barely realized at the conditions of 50 kV and 0.02 μm beam blur

  6. Distinguishing the impacts of human activities and climate variability on runoff and sediment load change based on paired periods with similar weather conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Fei; Hessel, Rudi; Mu, Xingmin; Maroulis, Jerry; Zhao, Guangju; Geissen, Violette; Ritsema, Coen

    2015-01-01

    Runoff and sediment loads from river basin are largely affected by the interplay of climate variability and human activities within the basin. However, distinguishing the impacts of climate variability and human activities would vastly improve our knowledge of water resources, climate variability

  7. Study of Stage-wise Pressure Pulsation in an Electric Submersible Pump under Variable Frequency Operation at Shut-off Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, A.; Kumaraswamy, S.

    2018-01-01

    Pressure pulsation causes vibration in the Electric Submersible Pump (ESP) and affects the life and performance of its system. ESP systems are installed at depths ranging from a few meters to several hundred meters. Unlike pumps used on the surface, once they are installed they become inaccessible for maintenance or for any kind of diagnostic measurement that might be taken directly on them. Therefore a detailed knowledge of mean and fluctuating pressures is required to achieve an optimal pressure distribution inside the ESP. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the stage-wise pulsating pressure in ESP at shut-off condition at different speeds. Experiments were conducted on a pump having five stages. A variable frequency drive was used to operate the pump at five different speeds. Piezoresistive transducers were mounted at each stage of ESP to capture the unsteady pressure signals. Fast Fourier Transformation was carried out on the pressure signals to convert into frequency domain and the spectra of pressure pulsation signals were analyzed. The obtained results indicated the existence of fundamental frequency corresponding to the speed of rotation times the number of impeller blades and of the whole series of harmonics of higher frequencies.

  8. Variability of the morphometric features of Calliphora vicina (Diptera, Calliphoridae under the varying and constant micro-climatic condi-tions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Faly

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Variability of the main morphometric features of imago flies Calliphora vicina R.-D. (Diptera, Calliphoridae of two samples was studied. First sample consists of individuals caught in the wild (park ecosystems of Dnipropetrovsk, the second one – specimens cultured in the laboratory under the constant temperature and humidity. Possible using of C. vicina R.-D. as a bioindicator of anthropogenic factors is analysed. Environmental factors may act as the stimulators of adaptive changes in physiological functions, as the constraints that cause impossibility of the existence of certain species in particular conditions, and as modifiers that determine the morpho- anatomical and physiological changes in organisms. The most significant differences between studied samples were found for the width (“laboratory” individuals are characterized by larger head size and for the length of limbs segments. The fluctuating range of the head width in specimens collected in the wild is much wider, due to the heterogeneity of the micro-climatic conditions of the larvae development and trophic resources. Maximal negative asymmetry of the head width is observed in individuals C. vicina R.-D. of the “natural” sample as compared with “laboratory” individuals. Among imagoes caught in the wild the individuals with a relatively wide head are dominated, as evidenced by the large positive value of kurtosis. At the same time, the distribution of values in “laboratory” individuals is almost normal. In adults bred in the laboratory the shortening of segments of the leg pair I is observed in comparison with the individuals of “natural” sample. Similar results were recorded for other insect groups cultivated in a laboratory. For most other linear measurements of the C. vicina R.-D. body the differences between samples are not registered. Ephemeral existence of the substrate of blow flies leads to higher prevailing evolutionary adaptation of species to varying

  9. Conservadorismo condicional: estudo a partir de variáveis econômicas Conditional conservatism: a study based on economic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Lacerda Moreira

    2010-12-01

    usefulness of that information. Conditional Conservatism is linked to the trend for accounting to require a higher degree of good news verification before disclosing it in the income when compared with the degree of bad news verification. In view of concerns with accounting information quality, this article aims to review the reflection of Conditional Conservatism in accounting income, based on economic variables. The study uses the Reverse Model of Associated Profit to Returns (BASU, 1997 and the model proposed by Kahn and Watts (2009, which examine the relation between accounting profit variables and economic return, using positive and negative returns as a proxy for good and bad news, and other variables widely accepted for the evaluation of conservatism. Therefore, statistical models were estimated for a sample of 96 companies from 2005 to 2007, based on annual information available in Economática® and data reported in explanatory notes. To select an economic event that may influence the asymmetric recognition of economic income, the researchers decided to compare results between companies listed on Bovespa's governance levels and other companies. The obtained results confirm the hypothesis on the use of conditional conservatism among sample companies for income measurement purposes. The positive differences in the degree of conservatism for companies adhering to governance levels are not conclusive, as the models showed scattered results. The economic variables offer advantages when the bad news may not be as clearly visible in the financial statements, which may reduce expected future results.

  10. Assessing temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton composition in a large reservoir in the Brazilian northeastern region under intense drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortência de Souza Barroso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Castanhão Reservoir, a large aquatic system in the Brazilian semi-arid region that serves multiples uses as water drinking supply and intensive fish-cage aquaculture site. In order to understand the effects of environmental conditions on the spatial and temporal variability of the phytoplankton functional groups (FG and the main ‘characterizing taxa’, sub-superficial water samples were collected from March 2012 to August 2013, a period distinguished by the continuous drop in reservoir volume due to rainfall shortage. Eighteen functional groups and 102 total phytoplankton taxa were found in the Castanhão reservoir during the study. No significant differences were observed relative to spatial variation of total phytoplankton composition throughout the reservoir (PERMANOVA, P>0.05. On the other hand, according to cluster analysis results, three temporal phases have been identified (Similarity Profile, P<0.05, based on 102 phytoplankton taxa. The ‘characterizing taxa’ was found using the Similarity Percentage procedure (cut-off 90%, being thus defined as those taxa that contributed the most to the similarity within each temporal phase. Nineteen ‘characterizing taxa’ described the Castanhão reservoir, with predominance of those typical of mixing and turbidity conditions. Cyanobacteria dominated through the three temporal phases. According to the redundancy analysis, nutrient availability and water transparency were found to influence the phytoplankton temporal dynamics. The phase I (rainy season was most represented by Planktolyngbya minor/Pl. limnetica (FG = S1, which reached best performance under strongly decreased phosphate-P concentrations and low water transparency. In phase II (dry season, Romeria victoriae (FG = ? outcompeted other cyanobacteria probably due the increase in water transparency and decrease in ammonium-N. Finally, in phase III (rainy season the decrease of water transparency

  11. 变温环境室空调系统实验研究%Experimental Study on Air Conditioning System of Variable Temperature Ambient Chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张柱; 吴蔚兰

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces experimental facilities on air conditioning system of variable temperature ambient chamber.Researching and analysis the operating parameters of temperature distribution,compressor start-stop cycle and cooling capacity and COP changes.The results showed that the closer chamber controlled temperature is located to the ambient temperature,the smaller the temperature fluctuations is,temperature difference is also smaller;compared with the theoretical value,with ambient chamber temperature rising,compressor cooling capacity and COP rise;theoretical cooling capacity is more than the actual cooling capacity and compression of the start-stop,regardless of the theoretical value or experimental values,showed a downward trend from low to high,but the low temperature test values close to the theoretical value,when the high temperature is lower than the theoretical value.%介绍了变温环境室空调系统实验装置,研究分析了不同工况下室内温度分布、压缩机启停周期、制冷量及COP等运行参数的变化情况.实验结果表明:室内控制温度越接近坐落环境温度,温度波动幅度越小,不同位置的温差也越小;与理论值相比,压缩机的制冷量及COP随环境室温度升高而升高,理论制冷量大于实际制冷量;而压缩机启停比,无论理论值还是实验值,均呈现从低温到高温下降的趋势,但低温时实验值接近于理论值,高温时低于理论值.

  12. Variable strength of forest stand attributes and weather conditions on the questing activity of Ixodes ricinus ticks over years in managed forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Lauterbach

    Full Text Available Given the ever-increasing human impact through land use and climate change on the environment, we crucially need to achieve a better understanding of those factors that influence the questing activity of ixodid ticks, a major disease-transmitting vector in temperate forests. We investigated variation in the relative questing nymph densities of Ixodes ricinus in differently managed forest types for three years (2008-2010 in SW Germany by drag sampling. We used a hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach to examine the relative effects of habitat and weather and to consider possible nested structures of habitat and climate forces. The questing activity of nymphs was considerably larger in young forest successional stages of thicket compared with pole wood and timber stages. Questing nymph density increased markedly with milder winter temperatures. Generally, the relative strength of the various environmental forces on questing nymph density differed across years. In particular, winter temperature had a negative effect on tick activity across sites in 2008 in contrast to the overall effect of temperature across years. Our results suggest that forest management practices have important impacts on questing nymph density. Variable weather conditions, however, might override the effects of forest management practices on the fluctuations and dynamics of tick populations and activity over years, in particular, the preceding winter temperatures. Therefore, robust predictions and the detection of possible interactions and nested structures of habitat and climate forces can only be quantified through the collection of long-term data. Such data are particularly important with regard to future scenarios of forest management and climate warming.

  13. V S30, slope, H 800 and f 0: performance of various site-condition proxies in reducing ground-motion aleatory variability and predicting nonlinear site response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derras, Boumédiène; Bard, Pierre-Yves; Cotton, Fabrice

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the ability of various site-condition proxies (SCPs) to reduce ground-motion aleatory variability and evaluate how SCPs capture nonlinearity site effects. The SCPs used here are time-averaged shear-wave velocity in the top 30 m ( V S30), the topographical slope (slope), the fundamental resonance frequency ( f 0) and the depth beyond which V s exceeds 800 m/s ( H 800). We considered first the performance of each SCP taken alone and then the combined performance of the 6 SCP pairs [ V S30- f 0], [ V S30- H 800], [ f 0-slope], [ H 800-slope], [ V S30-slope] and [ f 0- H 800]. This analysis is performed using a neural network approach including a random effect applied on a KiK-net subset for derivation of ground-motion prediction equations setting the relationship between various ground-motion parameters such as peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity and pseudo-spectral acceleration PSA ( T), and M w, R JB, focal depth and SCPs. While the choice of SCP is found to have almost no impact on the median ground-motion prediction, it does impact the level of aleatory uncertainty. V S30 is found to perform the best of single proxies at short periods ( T < 0.6 s), while f 0 and H 800 perform better at longer periods; considering SCP pairs leads to significant improvements, with particular emphasis on [ V S30- H 800] and [ f 0-slope] pairs. The results also indicate significant nonlinearity on the site terms for soft sites and that the most relevant loading parameter for characterising nonlinear site response is the "stiff" spectral ordinate at the considered period.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Dissociations and Associations of Performance in Syntactic Comprehension in Aphasia and their Implications for the Nature of Aphasic Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, David; Michaud, Jennifer; Hufford, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Sixty one pwa were tested on syntactic comprehension in three tasks: sentence-picture matching, sentence-picture matching with auditory moving window presentation, and object manipulation. There were significant correlations of performances on sentences across tasks. First factors in unrotated factor analyses accounted for most of the variance on which all sentence types loaded in each task. Dissociations in performance between sentence types that differed minimally in their syntactic structures were not consistent across tasks. These results replicate previous results with smaller samples and provide important validation of basic aspects of aphasic performance in this area of language processing. They point to the role of a reduction in processing resources and of the interaction of task demands and parsing and interpretive abilities in the genesis of patient performance. PMID:24061104

  15. Some stylistic and syntactic devices of expansion and complication of a German advertising sentence in translation into Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Артур Нарманович Мамедов

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The translate of an advertising text of source language doesn't fully correspond the criteria of communicative equivalence without an adequate transfer of the invariant functional dominance, the construction, which expands or complicates the syntactic structure of an advertising sentence. Alternative correspondences of the target language, which fully transfer the meaning of such construction in certain cases of its usage, are often being found in macrocontext in the process of translation of such constructions.

  16. Reorganization of syntactic processing following left-hemisphere brain damage: does right-hemisphere activity preserve function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Lorraine K; Wright, Paul; Randall, Billi; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A

    2010-11-01

    The extent to which the human brain shows evidence of functional plasticity across the lifespan has been addressed in the context of pathological brain changes and, more recently, of the changes that take place during healthy ageing. Here we examine the potential for plasticity by asking whether a strongly left-lateralized system can successfully reorganize to the right-hemisphere following left-hemisphere brain damage. To do this, we focus on syntax, a key linguistic function considered to be strongly left-lateralized, combining measures of tissue integrity, neural activation and behavioural performance. In a functional neuroimaging study participants heard spoken sentences that differentially loaded on syntactic and semantic information. While healthy controls activated a left-hemisphere network of correlated activity including Brodmann areas 45/47 and posterior middle temporal gyrus during syntactic processing, patients activated Brodmann areas 45/47 bilaterally and right middle temporal gyrus. However, voxel-based morphometry analyses showed that only tissue integrity in left Brodmann areas 45/47 was correlated with activity and performance; poor tissue integrity in left Brodmann area 45 was associated with reduced functional activity and increased syntactic deficits. Activity in the right-hemisphere was not correlated with damage in the left-hemisphere or with performance. Reduced neural integrity in the left-hemisphere through brain damage or healthy ageing results in increased right-hemisphere activation in homologous regions to those left-hemisphere regions typically involved in the young. However, these regions do not support the same linguistic functions as those in the left-hemisphere and only indirectly contribute to preserved syntactic capacity. This establishes the unique role of the left hemisphere in syntax, a core component in human language.

  17. Quantifying human disturbance in watersheds: Variable selection and performance of a GIS-based disturbance index for predicting the biological condition of perennial streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, James A.; Carlisle, Daren M.; Weber, Lisa C.

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing the relative severity of human disturbance in watersheds is often part of stream assessments and is frequently done with the aid of Geographic Information System (GIS)-derived data. However, the choice of variables and how they are used to quantify disturbance are often subjective. In this study, we developed a number of disturbance indices by testing sets of variables, scoring methods, and weightings of 33 potential disturbance factors derived from readily available GIS data. The indices were calibrated using 770 watersheds located in the western United States for which the severity of disturbance had previously been classified from detailed local data by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). The indices were calibrated by determining which variable or variable combinations and aggregation method best differentiated between least- and most-disturbed sites. Indices composed of several variables performed better than any individual variable, and best results came from a threshold method of scoring using six uncorrelated variables: housing unit density, road density, pesticide application, dam storage, land cover along a mainstem buffer, and distance to nearest canal/pipeline. The final index was validated with 192 withheld watersheds and correctly classified about two-thirds (68%) of least- and most-disturbed sites. These results provide information about the potential for using a disturbance index as a screening tool for a priori ranking of watersheds at a regional/national scale, and which landscape variables and methods of combination may be most helpful in doing so.

  18. The role of syntax in complex networks: Local and global importance of verbs in a syntactic dependency network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čech, Radek; Mačutek, Ján; Žabokrtský, Zdeněk

    2011-10-01

    Syntax of natural language has been the focus of linguistics for decades. The complex network theory, being one of new research tools, opens new perspectives on syntax properties of the language. Despite numerous partial achievements, some fundamental problems remain unsolved. Specifically, although statistical properties typical for complex networks can be observed in all syntactic networks, the impact of syntax itself on these properties is still unclear. The aim of the present study is to shed more light on the role of syntax in the syntactic network structure. In particular, we concentrate on the impact of the syntactic function of a verb in the sentence on the complex network structure. Verbs play the decisive role in the sentence structure (“local” importance). From this fact we hypothesize the importance of verbs in the complex network (“global” importance). The importance of verb in the complex network is assessed by the number of links which are directed from the node representing verb to other nodes in the network. Six languages (Catalan, Czech, Dutch, Hungarian, Italian, Portuguese) were used for testing the hypothesis.

  19. Processing lexical semantic and syntactic information in first and second language: fMRI evidence from German and Russian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Fiebach, Christian J; Kempe, Vera; Friederici, Angela D

    2005-06-01

    We introduce two experiments that explored syntactic and semantic processing of spoken sentences by native and non-native speakers. In the first experiment, the neural substrates corresponding to detection of syntactic and semantic violations were determined in native speakers of two typologically different languages using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results show that the underlying neural response of participants to stimuli across different native languages is quite similar. In the second experiment, we investigated how non-native speakers of a language process the same stimuli presented in the first experiment. First, the results show a more similar pattern of increased activation between native and non-native speakers in response to semantic violations than to syntactic violations. Second, the non-native speakers were observed to employ specific portions of the frontotemporal language network differently from those employed by native speakers. These regions included the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), superior temporal gyrus (STG), and subcortical structures of the basal ganglia.

  20. Comparing Effect of 'Summarizing', 'Question-Answer Relationship', and 'Syntactic Structure Identification' on the Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Hemmati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at comparing the effects of 'question-answer relationship strategy', 'summarizing', and 'syntactic structure identification training'on the reading comprehension of Iranian EFL learners. The participants were sixty (34 women and 26 men intermediate students who answered an English reading comprehension test consisting of three reading passages as the pretest. During the treatment, the students in the first group were supposed to summarize the passages. The subjects in the second group familiarized with the syntactic structure identification strategy and the ones in the third group were taught the question-answer relationship strategy. At the end of the treatment, an English reading comprehension test similar to the pretest was administered to the groups as a posttest. The results suggested that there is statistically significant difference between the reading comprehension abilities of the three classes. Furthermore the use of QAR strategy led to better comprehension of reading texts with syntactic structure training and summarizing between which there was no significant difference.

  1. Microstructure and Deformation Response of TRIP-Steel Syntactic Foams to Quasi-Static and Dynamic Compressive Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehinger, David; Weise, Jörg; Baumeister, Joachim; Funk, Alexander; Krüger, Lutz; Martin, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of hollow S60HS glass microspheres and Fillite 106 cenospheres in a martensitically transformable AISI 304L stainless steel matrix was realized by means of metal injection molding of feedstock with varying fractions of the filler material. The so-called TRIP-steel syntactic foams were studied with respect to their behavior under quasi-static compression and dynamic impact loading. The interplay between matrix material behavior and foam structure was discussed in relation to the findings of micro-structural investigations, electron back scatter diffraction EBSD phase analyses and magnetic measurements. During processing, the cenospheres remained relatively stable retaining their shape while the glass microspheres underwent disintegration associated with the formation of pre-cracked irregular inclusions. Consequently, the AISI 304L/Fillite 106 syntactic foams exhibited a higher compression stress level and energy absorption capability as compared to the S60HS-containing variants. The α′ -martensite kinetic of the steel matrix was significantly influenced by material composition, strain rate and arising deformation temperature. The highest ferromagnetic α′-martensite phase fraction was detected for the AISI 304L/S60HS batches and the lowest for the TRIP-steel bulk material. Quasi-adiabatic sample heating, a gradual decrease in strain rate and an enhanced degree of damage controlled the mechanical deformation response of the studied syntactic foams under dynamic impact loading. PMID:29695107

  2. Seasonal and diurnal variability of essential oil and its components in Origanum onites L. grown in the ecological conditions of Çukurova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirpik, Muzaffer

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkish Oregano ( Origanum onites L. is one of the most commonly collected from nature as well as cultivated Origanum species in Turkey . In addition, Turkish Oregano is the most exported Origanum species from Turkey to the entire World. In this study, the seasonal and diurnal variability of the essential oil content in Origanum onites L. grown in the ecological conditions of Çukurova was studied from September 2000-August 2001. Monthly variability of the essential oil composition was also studied. The plant cuttings collected from the region were rooted in the greenhouse and transferred to the field in a split plot design with three replications. One year later from transplanting, fresh leaves from the top shoots were collected every week three times a day on Monday (at 08.00, 12.00 and 16.00 o'clock throughout the year. The content and composition of the essential oil were analysed in fresh leaf samples by hydrodistillation. The essential oil content changed according to the seasons and the hour of day. The highest essential oil content (% 1.92 was found in the post-flowering -at the beginning of the seed formation period in the afternoon harvests during the second half of June (40th week. The essential oil composition varied monthly and the highest value (% 73.65 of carvacrol, the main component of the essential oil, was obtained from the flowering period in MayEl orégano turco ( Origanum onites L. es uno de los más recolectados de la naturaleza así como la especie de orégano más cultivada en Turquía. Además es la especie de orégano más exportada desde Turquía a todo el mundo. En este trabajo se estudió la variabilidad estacional y diurna del contenido de aceite esencial de Origanum onites L. cultivado en las condiciones ecológicas de Çukurova desde Septiembre de 2000 a Agosto de 2001. Se estudió también la variabilidad mensual de la composición del aceite esencial. Los plantones recogidos en la región fueron plantados en un

  3. The Study of the Effect of Syntactic Complexity of Noun and Verb Phrase Structure on the Occurrence of Stuttering in 4-6 Year Pre-School Stuttering Persian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Ahangar

    2013-04-01

    that, in Persian-speaking children, there is a meaningful relation between the variable of syntactic complexity, based on noun and verb phrase structure and the variable of stuttering frequency.

  4. How Do Different Cognitive and Linguistic Variables Contribute to Reading in Arabic? A Cross-Sectional Study from First to Sixth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Ibrahim A.; Khateb, Asaid; Ibrahim, Raphiq; Taha, Haitham

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of linguistic and cognitive variables to reading processes might vary depending on the particularities of the languages studied. This view is thought to be particularly true for Arabic which is a diglossic language and has particular orthographic and morpho-syntactic systems. This cross-sectional study examined the contribution of…

  5. Relative Weighting of Semantic and Syntactic Cues in Native and Non-Native Listeners' Recognition of English Sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu-Feng; Koenig, Laura L

    2016-01-01

    Non-native listeners do not recognize English sentences as effectively as native listeners, especially in noise. It is not entirely clear to what extent such group differences arise from differences in relative weight of semantic versus syntactic cues. This study quantified the use and weighting of these contextual cues via Boothroyd and Nittrouer's j and k factors. The j represents the probability of recognizing sentences with or without context, whereas the k represents the degree to which context improves recognition performance. Four groups of 13 normal-hearing young adult listeners participated. One group consisted of native English monolingual (EMN) listeners, whereas the other three consisted of non-native listeners contrasting in their language dominance and first language: English-dominant Russian-English, Russian-dominant Russian-English, and Spanish-dominant Spanish-English bilinguals. All listeners were presented three sets of four-word sentences: high-predictability sentences included both semantic and syntactic cues, low-predictability sentences included syntactic cues only, and zero-predictability sentences included neither semantic nor syntactic cues. Sentences were presented at 65 dB SPL binaurally in the presence of speech-spectrum noise at +3 dB SNR. Listeners orally repeated each sentence and recognition was calculated for individual words as well as the sentence as a whole. Comparable j values across groups for high-predictability, low-predictability, and zero-predictability sentences suggested that all listeners, native and non-native, utilized contextual cues to recognize English sentences. Analysis of the k factor indicated that non-native listeners took advantage of syntax as effectively as EMN listeners. However, only English-dominant bilinguals utilized semantics to the same extent as EMN listeners; semantics did not provide a significant benefit for the two non-English-dominant groups. When combined, semantics and syntax benefitted EMN

  6. Noun Countability; Count Nouns and Non-count Nouns, What are the Syntactic Differences Between them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar A. Alkazwini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Words that function as the subjects of verbs, objects of verbs or prepositions and which can have a plural form and possessive ending are known as nouns. They are described as referring to persons, places, things, states, or qualities and might also be used as an attributive modifier. In this paper, classes and subclasses of nouns shall be presented, then, noun countability branching into count and non-count nous shall be discussed. A number of present examples illustrating differences between count and non-count nouns and this includes determiner-head-co-occurrence restrictions of number, subject-verb agreement, in addition to some exceptions to this agreement rule shall be discussed. Also, the lexically inherent number in nouns and how inherently plural nouns are classified in terms of (+/- count are illustrated. This research will discuss partitive construction of count and non-count nouns, nouns as attributive modifier and, finally, conclude with the fact that there are syntactic difference between count and non-count in the English Language.

  7. Reading, syntactic, orthographic, and working memory skills of bilingual Arabic-English speaking Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Siegel, Linda S

    2002-11-01

    This study assessed the reading, language, and memory skills of 56 bilingual Arab-Canadian children age's 9-14. English was their main instructional language, and Arabic was the language spoken at home. All children attended a Heritage Language Program in Toronto where they were taught to read and write Arabic. The children were administered word and pseudo-word reading, language, and working memory tests in English and Arabic. The majority of the children showed at least adequate proficiency in both languages. There was a significant relationship between the acquisition of word and pseudo-word reading working memory, and syntactic awareness skills in the two languages. The poor readers in Arabic had lower scores on all linguistic tasks, except the visual task. There were no significant differences between bilingual English Arabic children and monolingual English-speaking children on the reading, language, and memory tasks. However, bilingual English Arabic children who had reading problems in English had higher scores on English pseudo-word reading and spelling tasks than monolingual English-speaking children with reading disabilities, probably because of positive transfer from the regular nature of Arabic orthography. In this case, bilingualism does not appear to have negative consequences for the development of language reading skills in both languages--Arabic and English--despite the different nature of the two orthographies.

  8. [Eye movement parameters in reading the sentences with syntactic ambiguity in Russian language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, V A; Fedorova, O V; Latanov, A V

    2014-01-01

    We studied the eye movement parameters during reading of syntactically ambiguous sentences with feminine relative clause in Russian language. A priori difficulties of sentence structural analysis results in increase of time spent on reading as opposed to reading control sentences (unambiguous). Such a delay is caused by an increase of frequency of regressions (backward saccades) which are executed for rereading an ambiguous fragment ofsentence. This fact in turn leads to an increase in number of fixations and their duration. The total reading time for particular words composing the ambiguous fragment of sentence depended on disambiguation result (relative clause attachment, early/late closure). In case of early closure (when the subject attached relative clause to first noun) the total reading time for this noun exceeded one for second noun. In case of late closure (when the subject attached relative clause to second noun) the total reading time for both nouns didn't differ. Our results indicate that early closure domination in Russian language determines the greater total reading time for first noun of nominal group associated with relative clause.

  9. Analysis of syntactic foam – GFRP sandwich composites for flexural loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Daniel; Velmurugan, R.; Jayaganthan, R.; Gupta, N. K.; Manzhirov, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The use of glass microballoon (GMB) — epoxy syntactic foams as a sandwich core material is studied. The skins and foam core are fabricated and joined instantaneously unlike the procedures followed in the previous studies. Each successive layer of the sandwich is fabricated when the previous layer is in a semi-gelled state. These sandwich samples are characterized for their properties under flexural loading. The failure modes and mechanical properties are carefully investigated. The change in fabrication technique results in a significant increase in the load bearing pattern of the sandwich. In earlier studies, debonding was found to occur prematurely since the bonding between the skins and core is the weakest plane. Using the current technique, core cracking occurs first, followed by skin fiber breaking and debonding happens at the end. This ensures that the load carrying phase of the structure is extended considerably. The sandwich is also analytically studied using Reddy’s higher order shear deformation theory. A higher order theory is selected as the sandwich can no longer be considered as a thin beam and thus shear effects also need to be considered in addition to bending effects.

  10. Syntactic learning by mere exposure – An ERP study in adult learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederici Angela D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artificial language studies have revealed the remarkable ability of humans to extract syntactic structures from a continuous sound stream by mere exposure. However, it remains unclear whether the processes acquired in such tasks are comparable to those applied during normal language processing. The present study compares the ERPs to auditory processing of simple Italian sentences in native and non-native speakers after brief exposure to Italian sentences of a similar structure. The sentences contained a non-adjacent dependency between an auxiliary and the morphologically marked suffix of the verb. Participants were presented four alternating learning and testing phases. During learning phases only correct sentences were presented while during testing phases 50 percent of the sentences contained a grammatical violation. Results The non-native speakers successfully learned the dependency and displayed an N400-like negativity and a subsequent anteriorily distributed positivity in response to rule violations. The native Italian group showed an N400 followed by a P600 effect. Conclusion The presence of the P600 suggests that native speakers applied a grammatical rule. In contrast, non-native speakers appeared to use a lexical form-based processing strategy. Thus, the processing mechanisms acquired in the language learning task were only partly comparable to those applied by competent native speakers.

  11. Syntactic learning by mere exposure--an ERP study in adult learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jutta L; Oberecker, Regine; Friederici, Angela D

    2009-07-29

    Artificial language studies have revealed the remarkable ability of humans to extract syntactic structures from a continuous sound stream by mere exposure. However, it remains unclear whether the processes acquired in such tasks are comparable to those applied during normal language processing. The present study compares the ERPs to auditory processing of simple Italian sentences in native and non-native speakers after brief exposure to Italian sentences of a similar structure. The sentences contained a non-adjacent dependency between an auxiliary and the morphologically marked suffix of the verb. Participants were presented four alternating learning and testing phases. During learning phases only correct sentences were presented while during testing phases 50 percent of the sentences contained a grammatical violation. The non-native speakers successfully learned the dependency and displayed an N400-like negativity and a subsequent anteriorily distributed positivity in response to rule violations. The native Italian group showed an N400 followed by a P600 effect. The presence of the P600 suggests that native speakers applied a grammatical rule. In contrast, non-native speakers appeared to use a lexical form-based processing strategy. Thus, the processing mechanisms acquired in the language learning task were only partly comparable to those applied by competent native speakers.

  12. Syntactic learning by mere exposure - An ERP study in adult learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jutta L; Oberecker, Regine; Friederici, Angela D

    2009-01-01

    Background Artificial language studies have revealed the remarkable ability of humans to extract syntactic structures from a continuous sound stream by mere exposure. However, it remains unclear whether the processes acquired in such tasks are comparable to those applied during normal language processing. The present study compares the ERPs to auditory processing of simple Italian sentences in native and non-native speakers after brief exposure to Italian sentences of a similar structure. The sentences contained a non-adjacent dependency between an auxiliary and the morphologically marked suffix of the verb. Participants were presented four alternating learning and testing phases. During learning phases only correct sentences were presented while during testing phases 50 percent of the sentences contained a grammatical violation. Results The non-native speakers successfully learned the dependency and displayed an N400-like negativity and a subsequent anteriorily distributed positivity in response to rule violations. The native Italian group showed an N400 followed by a P600 effect. Conclusion The presence of the P600 suggests that native speakers applied a grammatical rule. In contrast, non-native speakers appeared to use a lexical form-based processing strategy. Thus, the processing mechanisms acquired in the language learning task were only partly comparable to those applied by competent native speakers. PMID:19640301

  13. How Much of Language Acquisition Does Operant Conditioning Explain?

    OpenAIRE

    Sturdy, Christopher B.; Nicoladis, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1950s, when Chomsky argued that Skinner’s arguments could not explain syntactic acquisition, psychologists have generally avoided explicitly invoking operant or instrumental conditioning as a learning mechanism for language among human children. In this article, we argue that this is a mistake. We focus on research that has been done on language learning in human infants and toddlers in order to illustrate our points. Researchers have ended up inventing learning mechanisms that, in ...

  14. College Education and Wages in the U.K. : Estimating Conditional Average Structural Functions in Nonadditive Models with Binary Endogenous Variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies debate how the unobserved dependence between the monetary return to college education and selection into college can be characterized. This paper examines this question using British data. We develop a semiparametric local instrumental variables estimator for identified features of a

  15. A study of probabilistic fatigue crack propagation models in Mg Al Zn alloys under different specimen thickness conditions by using the residual of a random variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seon Soon

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this paper was to evaluate several probabilistic fatigue crack propagation models using the residual of a random variable, and to present the model fit for probabilistic fatigue behavior in Mg Al Zn alloys. The proposed probabilistic models are the probabilistic Paris Erdogan model, probabilistic Walker model, probabilistic Forman model, and probabilistic modified Forman models. These models were prepared by applying a random variable to the empirical fatigue crack propagation models with these names. The best models for describing fatigue crack propagation models with these names. The best models for describing fatigue crack propagation models with these names. The best models for describing fatigue crack propagation models with these names. The best models vor describing fatigue crack propagation behavior in Mg Al Zn alloys were generally the probabilistic Paris Erdogan and probabilistic Walker models. The probabilistic Forman model was a good model only for a specimen with a thickness of 9.45mm

  16. Fluctuations in the large-scale atmospheric circulation and ocean conditions associated with the dominant modes of wintertime precipitation variability for the contiguous United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, T.P.; Blier, W.

    1994-01-01

    The historical Climatic Division record of monthly- and seasonal-mean wintertime precipitation totals are analyzed to document the dominant patterns of precipitation variability for the contiguous United States. The analysis technique employed is the Rotated Principal Component analysis. Time series for the leading patterns are related to global sea-surface temperatures (SSTs), and to gridded surface and upper-air analyses for the Northern Hemisphere

  17. Syntactic and Story Structure Complexity in the Narratives of High- and Low-Language Ability Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peristeri, Eleni; Andreou, Maria; Tsimpli, Ianthi M.

    2017-01-01

    Although language impairment is commonly associated with the autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the Diagnostic Statistical Manual no longer includes language impairment as a necessary component of an ASD diagnosis (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). However, children with ASD and no comorbid intellectual disability struggle with some aspects of language whose precise nature is still outstanding. Narratives have been extensively used as a tool to examine lexical and syntactic abilities, as well as pragmatic skills in children with ASD. This study contributes to this literature by investigating the narrative skills of 30 Greek-speaking children with ASD and normal non-verbal IQ, 16 with language skills in the upper end of the normal range (ASD-HL), and 14 in the lower end of the normal range (ASD-LL). The control group consisted of 15 age-matched typically-developing (TD) children. Narrative performance was measured in terms of both microstructural and macrostructural properties. Microstructural properties included lexical and syntactic measures of complexity such as subordinate vs. coordinate clauses and types of subordinate clauses. Macrostructure was measured in terms of the diversity in the use of internal state terms (ISTs) and story structure complexity, i.e., children's ability to produce important units of information that involve the setting, characters, events, and outcomes of the story, as well as the characters' thoughts and feelings. The findings demonstrate that high language ability and syntactic complexity pattern together in ASD children's narrative performance and that language ability compensates for autistic children's pragmatic deficit associated with the production of Theory of Mind-related ISTs. Nevertheless, both groups of children with ASD (high and low language ability) scored lower than the TD controls in the production of Theory of Mind-unrelated ISTs, modifier clauses and story structure complexity. PMID:29209258

  18. Syntactic and Story Structure Complexity in the Narratives of High- and Low-Language Ability Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peristeri, Eleni; Andreou, Maria; Tsimpli, Ianthi M

    2017-01-01

    Although language impairment is commonly associated with the autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the Diagnostic Statistical Manual no longer includes language impairment as a necessary component of an ASD diagnosis (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). However, children with ASD and no comorbid intellectual disability struggle with some aspects of language whose precise nature is still outstanding. Narratives have been extensively used as a tool to examine lexical and syntactic abilities, as well as pragmatic skills in children with ASD. This study contributes to this literature by investigating the narrative skills of 30 Greek-speaking children with ASD and normal non-verbal IQ, 16 with language skills in the upper end of the normal range (ASD-HL), and 14 in the lower end of the normal range (ASD-LL). The control group consisted of 15 age-matched typically-developing (TD) children. Narrative performance was measured in terms of both microstructural and macrostructural properties. Microstructural properties included lexical and syntactic measures of complexity such as subordinate vs. coordinate clauses and types of subordinate clauses. Macrostructure was measured in terms of the diversity in the use of internal state terms (ISTs) and story structure complexity, i.e., children's ability to produce important units of information that involve the setting, characters, events, and outcomes of the story, as well as the characters' thoughts and feelings. The findings demonstrate that high language ability and syntactic complexity pattern together in ASD children's narrative performance and that language ability compensates for autistic children's pragmatic deficit associated with the production of Theory of Mind-related ISTs. Nevertheless, both groups of children with ASD (high and low language ability) scored lower than the TD controls in the production of Theory of Mind-unrelated ISTs, modifier clauses and story structure complexity.

  19. Cooperation of deterministic dynamics and random noise in production of complex syntactical avian song sequences: a neural network model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi eYamashita

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available How the brain learns and generates temporal sequences is a fundamental issue in neuroscience. The production of birdsongs, a process which involves complex learned sequences, provides researchers with an excellent biological model for this topic. The Bengalese finch in particular learns a highly complex song with syntactical structure. The nucleus HVC (HVC, a premotor nucleus within the avian song system, plays a key role in generating the temporal structures of their songs. From lesion studies, the nucleus interfacialis (NIf projecting to the HVC is considered one of the essential regions that contribute to the complexity of their songs. However, the types of interaction between the HVC and the NIf that can produce complex syntactical songs remain unclear. In order to investigate the function of interactions between the HVC and NIf, we have proposed a neural network model based on previous biological evidence. The HVC is modeled by a recurrent neural network (RNN that learns to generate temporal patterns of songs. The NIf is modeled as a mechanism that provides auditory feedback to the HVC and generates random noise that feeds into the HVC. The model showed that complex syntactical songs can be replicated by simple interactions between deterministic dynamics of the RNN and random noise. In the current study, the plausibility of the model is tested by the comparison between the changes in the songs of actual birds induced by pharmacological inhibition of the NIf and the changes in the songs produced by the model resulting from modification of parameters representing NIf functions. The efficacy of the model demonstrates that the changes of songs induced by pharmacological inhibition of the NIf can be interpreted as a trade-off between the effects of noise and the effects of feedback on the dynamics of the RNN of the HVC. These facts suggest that the current model provides a convincing hypothesis for the functional role of NIf-HVC interaction.

  20. Syntactic and Story Structure Complexity in the Narratives of High- and Low-Language Ability Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Peristeri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although language impairment is commonly associated with the autism spectrum disorder (ASD, the Diagnostic Statistical Manual no longer includes language impairment as a necessary component of an ASD diagnosis (American Psychiatric Association, 2013. However, children with ASD and no comorbid intellectual disability struggle with some aspects of language whose precise nature is still outstanding. Narratives have been extensively used as a tool to examine lexical and syntactic abilities, as well as pragmatic skills in children with ASD. This study contributes to this literature by investigating the narrative skills of 30 Greek-speaking children with ASD and normal non-verbal IQ, 16 with language skills in the upper end of the normal range (ASD-HL, and 14 in the lower end of the normal range (ASD-LL. The control group consisted of 15 age-matched typically-developing (TD children. Narrative performance was measured in terms of both microstructural and macrostructural properties. Microstructural properties included lexical and syntactic measures of complexity such as subordinate vs. coordinate clauses and types of subordinate clauses. Macrostructure was measured in terms of the diversity in the use of internal state terms (ISTs and story structure complexity, i.e., children's ability to produce important units of information that involve the setting, characters, events, and outcomes of the story, as well as the characters' thoughts and feelings. The findings demonstrate that high language ability and syntactic complexity pattern together in ASD children's narrative performance and that language ability compensates for autistic children's pragmatic deficit associated with the production of Theory of Mind-related ISTs. Nevertheless, both groups of children with ASD (high and low language ability scored lower than the TD controls in the production of Theory of Mind-unrelated ISTs, modifier clauses and story structure complexity.

  1. Analysis of morpho-agronomic and climatic variables in successive agricultural years provides novel information regarding the phenological cycle of Jatropha in conditions of the Brazilian cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domiciano, Gisele P; Alves, Alexandre A; Laviola, Bruno G; Albrecht, Julio C

    2014-12-01

    Phenological studies can provide information that enables the understanding of the dynamics of plants and how these dynamics are related to the biotic and abiotic environment. In order to study the phenological phases of Jatropha during two agricultural years, agronomic and climatic variables, such as temperature and rainfall, were evaluated. Data for each variable in each year and each genotype were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the differences were tested at 5% probability by F test. In addition, the correlation of growth behavior and reproductive development of two Jatropha accessions (CNPAE-102 and CNPAE-169) as a function of time elapsed after the start of the phenological cycle with climatic variables were analyzed through Pearson's correlation. It was found that: (i) the resuming of plant growth by producing new branches and flowers of both genotypes coincides with the start of the rainy season, (ii) the flowering may be related to the increase in temperature and rainfall; (iii) the number of inflorescences per plant and number of female flowers determine the number of green fruits, (iv) the environmental changes are responsible for the delimitation of phenophases; and finally that (v) the responses to phenological changes are genotype-dependent.

  2. Analysis of morpho-agronomic and climatic variables in successive agricultural years provides novel information regarding the phenological cycle of Jatropha in conditions of the Brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GISELE P. DOMICIANO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenological studies can provide information that enables the understanding of the dynamics of plants and how these dynamics are related to the biotic and abiotic environment. In order to study the phenological phases of Jatropha during two agricultural years, agronomic and climatic variables, such as temperature and rainfall, were evaluated. Data for each variable in each year and each genotype were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA and the differences were tested at 5% probability by F test. In addition, the correlation of growth behavior and reproductive development of two Jatropha accessions (CNPAE-102 and CNPAE-169 as a function of time elapsed after the start of the phenological cycle with climatic variables were analyzed through Pearson's correlation. It was found that: (i the resuming of plant growth by producing new branches and flowers of both genotypes coincides with the start of the rainy season, (ii the flowering may be related to the increase in temperature and rainfall; (iii the number of inflorescences per plant and number of female flowers determine the number of green fruits, (iv the environmental changes are responsible for the delimitation of phenophases; and finally that (v the responses to phenological changes are genotype-dependent.

  3. Dependency distance minimization in understanding of ambiguous structure. Comment on "Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yiyi

    2017-07-01

    Dependency Distance, proposed by Hudson [1], calculated by Liu [2,3], is an important concept in Dependency Theory. It can be used as a measure of the syntactic difficulty, and lots of research [2,4] have testified the universal of Dependency Distance in various languages. Human languages seem to present a preference for short dependency distance, which may be explained in terms of general cognitive constraint of limited working memory [5]. Psychological experiments in English, German, Russian and Chinese support the hypothesis that Dependency Distance minimization (DDM) make languages to evolve into some syntactic patterns to reduce memory burden [6-9]. The study of psychology focuses on the process and mechanism of syntactic structure selection in speech comprehension. In many speech comprehension experiments [10], ambiguous structure is an important experimental material.

  4. Determinants of endogenous analgesia magnitude in a diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC) paradigm: do conditioning stimulus painfulness, gender and personality variables matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Michal; Weissman-Fogel, Irit; Crispel, Yonathan; Pud, Dorit; Granovsky, Yelena; Sprecher, Elliot; Yarnitsky, David

    2008-05-01

    Descending modulation of pain can be demonstrated psychophysically by dual pain stimulation. This study evaluates in 31 healthy subjects the association between parameters of the conditioning stimulus, gender and personality, and the endogenous analgesia (EA) extent assessed by diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC) paradigm. Contact heat pain was applied as the test stimulus to the non-dominant forearm, with stimulation temperature at a psychophysical intensity score of 60 on a 0-100 numerical pain scale. The conditioning stimulus was a 60s immersion of the dominant hand in cold (12, 15, 18 degrees C), hot (44 and 46.5 degrees C), or skin temperature (33 degrees C) water. The test stimulus was repeated on the non-dominant hand during the last 30s of the conditioning immersion. EA extent was calculated as the difference between pain scores of the two test stimuli. State and trait anxiety and pain catastrophizing scores were assessed prior to stimulation. EA was induced only for the pain-generating conditioning stimuli at 46.5 degrees C (p=0.011) and 12 degrees C (p=0.003). EA was independent of conditioning pain modality, or personality, but a significant gender effect was found, with greater EA response in males. Importantly, pain scores of the conditioning stimuli were not correlated with EA extent. The latter is based on both our study population, and on additional 82 patients, who participated in another study, in which EA was induced by immersion at 46.5 degrees C. DNIC testing, thus, seems to be relatively independent of the stimulation conditions, making it an easy to apply tool, suitable for wide range applications in pain psychophysics.

  5. Why pitch sensitivity matters: Event-related potential evidence of metric and syntactic violation detection among Spanish late learners of German.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren eSchmidt-Kassow

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Event-related potential (ERP data in monolingual German speakers have shown that sentential metric expectancy violations elicit a biphasic ERP pattern consisting of an anterior negativity and a posterior positivity (P600. This pattern is comparable to that elicited by syntactic violations. However, proficient French late learners of German do not detect violations of metric expectancy in German. They also show qualitatively and quantitatively different ERP responses to metric and syntactic violations. We followed up the questions whether (1 latter evidence results from a potential pitch cue insensitivity in speech segmentation in French speakers, or (2 if the result is founded in rhythmic language differences. Therefore, we tested Spanish late learners of German, as Spanish, contrary to French, uses pitch as a segmentation cue even though the basic segmentation unit is the same in French and Spanish (i.e., the syllable. We report ERP responses showing that Spanish L2 learners are sensitive to syntactic as well as metric violations in German sentences independent of attention to task in a P600 response. Overall, the behavioral performance resembles that of German native speakers. The current data suggest that Spanish L2 learners are able to extract metric units (trochee in their L2 (German even though their basic segmentation unit in Spanish is the syllable. In addition Spanish in contrast to French L2 learners of German are sensitive to syntactic violations indicating a tight link between syntactic and metric competence. This finding emphasizes the relevant role of metric cues not only in L2 prosodic but also in syntactic processing.

  6. Existence of solutions for a fourth order eigenvalue problem ] {Existence of solutions for a fourth order eigenvalue problem with variable exponent under Neumann boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ben Haddouch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work we will study the eigenvalues for a fourth order elliptic equation with $p(x$-growth conditions $\\Delta^2_{p(x} u=\\lambda |u|^{p(x-2} u$, under Neumann boundary conditions, where $p(x$ is a continuous function defined on the bounded domain with $p(x>1$. Through the Ljusternik-Schnireleman theory on $C^1$-manifold, we prove the existence of infinitely many eigenvalue sequences and $\\sup \\Lambda =+\\infty$, where $\\Lambda$ is the set of all eigenvalues.

  7. Dependency distance in language evolution. Comment on "Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingli; Chen, Xinying

    2017-07-01

    In the target article [1], Liu et al. provide an informative introduction to the dependency distance studies and proclaim that language syntactic patterns, that relate to the dependency distance, are associated with human cognitive mechanisms, such as limited working memory and syntax processing. Therefore, such syntactic patterns are probably 'human-driven' language universals. Sufficient evidence based on big data analysis is also given in the article for supporting this idea. The hypotheses generally seem very convincing yet still need further tests from various perspectives. Diachronic linguistic study based on authentic language data, on our opinion, can be one of those 'further tests'.

  8. Damage detection methodology under variable load conditions based on strain field pattern recognition using FBGs, nonlinear principal component analysis, and clustering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Pérez, Julián; Torres-Arredondo, M.-A.; Alvarez-Montoya, Joham

    2018-01-01

    Structural health monitoring consists of using sensors integrated within structures together with algorithms to perform load monitoring, damage detection, damage location, damage size and severity, and prognosis. One possibility is to use strain sensors to infer structural integrity by comparing patterns in the strain field between the pristine and damaged conditions. In previous works, the authors have demonstrated that it is possible to detect small defects based on strain field pattern recognition by using robust machine learning techniques. They have focused on methodologies based on principal component analysis (PCA) and on the development of several unfolding and standardization techniques, which allow dealing with multiple load conditions. However, before a real implementation of this approach in engineering structures, changes in the strain field due to conditions different from damage occurrence need to be isolated. Since load conditions may vary in most engineering structures and promote significant changes in the strain field, it is necessary to implement novel techniques for uncoupling such changes from those produced by damage occurrence. A damage detection methodology based on optimal baseline selection (OBS) by means of clustering techniques is presented. The methodology includes the use of hierarchical nonlinear PCA as a nonlinear modeling technique in conjunction with Q and nonlinear-T 2 damage indices. The methodology is experimentally validated using strain measurements obtained by 32 fiber Bragg grating sensors bonded to an aluminum beam under dynamic bending loads and simultaneously submitted to variations in its pitch angle. The results demonstrated the capability of the methodology for clustering data according to 13 different load conditions (pitch angles), performing the OBS and detecting six different damages induced in a cumulative way. The proposed methodology showed a true positive rate of 100% and a false positive rate of 1.28% for a

  9. Gentree of Tool for Syntactic Analysis Based On Younger Cocke Kasami Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Wijanarto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Syntactic analysis is a series of processes in order to validate a string that is received by a language. Understanding the process of reduction rules to become a tree is the part that is difficult to explain. This paper describes the results of the design tool to automate an input string into a decrease in the rules to trees in the visualized with images either in the form of files or display, performance evaluation tools and analysis of students' understanding of the tool by the algorithm Cocke Younger Kasami (cyk was selected as one of the cases for parsing techniques in the Context Free Grammar (CFG in the form of Chomsky Normal Form (CNF. These results indicate that the model successfully implemented into the application named genTree (Generator Tree, application performance gained a significant number of measurements of the variations in the complexity of the grammar and the input string by 29.13% with the complexities 7 and 8:50% with the complexity of 20, while for long input string against time processing algorithm can be a value of 3.3 and 66.98% as well as 29 and 6:19%, also obtained differences in the ability of the t-test on a group of students control against the experimental group with a value of t = 5.336 with df 74, p value of 0.001 , on the level of signfikansi 0.05% (5%. Also terapat increase in the percentage of correct answers was 58% in the variation of difficulty, 83% of the variation was easy. Sebalikanya wrong answer decline by 60% in difficult variation, the variation was 100% and 57% for easy variation. Recently there is a change decrease in the percentage of students who are not doing as much as 60% in the variation of difficulty, 44% of the variation was 13% on the variations easily can be concluded that the applications run efficiently and optimally, but also can effectively improve students' understanding in beajar automata with case cyk algorithm. Keywords—Tool, Analysis, Syntax, Algorithms, Trees

  10. Fast self paced listening times in syntactic comprehension is aphasia -- implications for deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Michaud

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sixty one people with aphasia (pwa and forty one matched controls were tested for the ability to understand sentences that required the ability to assign particular syntactic structures. Participants paced themselves word-by-word through twenty examples of eleven spoken sentence types and indicated which of two pictures corresponded to the meaning of each sentence. Sentences were developed in pairs such that comprehension of the experimental version of a pair required an aspect of syntactic processing not required in the corresponding baseline sentence. The need for the syntactic operations required only in the experimental version was triggered at a “critical word” in the experimental sentence. Listening times for critical words in experimental sentences were compared to those for corresponding words in the corresponding baseline sentences. We adjusted self paced listening times for word duration by subtracting word durations from tag-to-tag self paced listening times to correct for word duration, yielding what we have previously called “corrected listening times.” Corrected listening times above ceiling (10,000 msec for sentence-final words and 5,000 msec for all other words were discarded. For controls, this led to 0.2% of data being discarded and for PWAs 2.2% were discarded. Corrected listening times that were more than 3 standard deviations above or below the mean for that sentence type for each subject were adjusted either down to the upper limit or up to the lower limit of the 3SD range (not discarded. For accurate sentences, 1.7% of the control data were adjusted and 1.8% of the aphasic data were adjusted. For inaccurate sentences, 10% of the corrected listening times were adjusted for controls and 3.3% for aphasics. Our interest is in incremental parsing and interpretation. The measure we used of this process was the residual of a regression of corrected self paced listening times for critical words in experimental sentences

  11. Variabilidade espacial de atributos físicos do solo sob diferentes usos e manejos Spatial variability of physical attributes of soil under different use and management conditions

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    Eloiza G. S. Cavalcante

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O preparo de solo e as espécies vegetais têm expressivo efeito na variabilidade espacial do solo. Portanto, objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a variabilidade espacial de alguns atributos físicos de um Latossolo Vermelho do cerrado do Mato Grosso do Sul, sob diferentes usos e manejos. O solo foi amostrado em uma malha, com intervalos regulares de 2,0 m, perfazendo o total de 64 pontos, nas profundidades de 0-0,10 m e 0,10-0,20 m para densidade do solo e nas profundidades de 0-0,15 m; 0,15-0,30 m; 0,30-0,45 m e 0,45-0,60 m para resistência do solo à penetração e teor de água no solo, em áreas com vegetação natural (cerrado, plantio direto, preparo convencional e pastagem. O maior coeficiente de variação e efeito pepita ocorreram para a resistência do solo à penetração. O sistema plantio direto apresentou maior alcance quando comparado com o do cerrado, preparo convencional e área com pastagem. As formas de uso e de manejo empregadas induziram, em ordem crescente, plantio direto, preparo convencional e pastagem à degradação dos atributos físicos do solo em relação ao cerrado.The soil tillage and the vegetable species have expressive effect on spatial variability of soil. The objective of this work was to study the spatial variability of some physical attributes of savannah soil (Oxisol of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, under different management. The soil samples were collected in a grid, with regular intervals of 2.0 m, total of 64 points, in the depths of 0-0.10 m and 0.10-0.20 m for bulk density and in the depths 0-0.15 m; 0.15-0.30 m; 0.30-0.45 m and 0.45-0.60 m for the soil resistance to the penetration and soil water content, in the areas with native vegetation (savannah, no-tillage, conventional system and pasture. The greatest variability measured through the variation coefficient and nugget effect was observed for the soil resistance to penetration. The no-tillage showed major range when compared to native

  12. Semantic, syntactic, and phonological processing of written words in adult developmental dyslexic readers: an event-related brain potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Sönke

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study used event-related brain potentials to investigate semantic, phonological and syntactic processes in adult German dyslexic and normal readers in a word reading task. Pairs of German words were presented one word at a time. Subjects had to perform a semantic judgment task (house – window; are they semantically related?, a rhyme judgment task (house – mouse; do they rhyme? and a gender judgment task (das – Haus [the – house]; is the gender correct? [in German, house has a neutral gender: das Haus]. Results Normal readers responded faster compared to dyslexic readers in all three tasks. Onset latencies of the N400 component were delayed in dyslexic readers in the rhyme judgment and in the gender judgment task, but not in the semantic judgment task. N400 and the anterior negativity peak amplitudes did not differ between the two groups. However, the N400 persisted longer in the dyslexic group in the rhyme judgment and in the semantic judgment tasks. Conclusion These findings indicate that dyslexics are phonologically impaired (delayed N400 in the rhyme judgment task but that they also have difficulties in other, non-phonological aspects of reading (longer response times, longer persistence of the N400. Specifically, semantic and syntactic integration seem to require more effort for dyslexic readers and take longer irrespective of the reading task that has to be performed.

  13. Exact solution for a two-phase Stefan problem with variable latent heat and a convective boundary condition at the fixed face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollati, Julieta; Tarzia, Domingo A.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, in Tarzia (Thermal Sci 21A:1-11, 2017) for the classical two-phase Lamé-Clapeyron-Stefan problem an equivalence between the temperature and convective boundary conditions at the fixed face under a certain restriction was obtained. Motivated by this article we study the two-phase Stefan problem for a semi-infinite material with a latent heat defined as a power function of the position and a convective boundary condition at the fixed face. An exact solution is constructed using Kummer functions in case that an inequality for the convective transfer coefficient is satisfied generalizing recent works for the corresponding one-phase free boundary problem. We also consider the limit to our problem when that coefficient goes to infinity obtaining a new free boundary problem, which has been recently studied in Zhou et al. (J Eng Math 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10665-017-9921-y).

  14. The influence of variable operating conditions on the design and exploitation of fly ash pneumatic transport systems in thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stanojević

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of an air-slide pneumatic conveying system depends, first of all, on several basic elements chosen or calculated during the design of a plant: air-slide design parameters, air mover characteristics, as well as the physical and chemical properties of the material to be transported. However, during the exploitation of this type of system which is used for handling ash in thermal-power plants, either gradual and/or sudden changes in the operating conditions can arise. This may be due to changes both in the proportion of ash content, and in the flow characteristics of the porous membrane. The consequences of changes in these conditions on the performance of the ash handling system are analyzed, based upon the results of the experimental work carried out on the test rig at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Belgrade, and upon the on-site measurements at the thermal-power plant "Nikola Tesla B".

  15. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. Comprehensive data report. Volume 2: Tabulated aeroynamic data book 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    Tabulated data from wind tunnel tests conducted to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of an advanced coannular exhaust nozzle for a future supersonic propulsion system are presented. Tests were conducted with two test configurations: (1) a short flap mechanism for fan stream control with an isentropic contoured flow splitter, and (2) an iris fan nozzle with a conical flow splitter. Both designs feature a translating primary plug and an auxiliary inlet ejector. Tests were conducted at takeoff and simulated cruise conditions. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. At simulated supersonic cruise, both configurations demonstrated good performance, comparable to levels assumed in earlier advanced supersonic propulsion studies. However, at subsonic cruise, both configurations exhibited performance that was 6 to 7.5 percent less than the study assumptions. At takeoff conditions, the iris configuration performance approached the assumed levels, while the short flap design was 4 to 6 percent less. Data are provided through test run 25.

  16. Efficiency improvement of a spark-ignition engine at full load conditions using exhaust gas recirculation and variable geometry turbocharger – Numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjerić, Momir; Taritaš, Ivan; Tomić, Rudolf; Blažić, Mislav; Kozarac, Darko; Lulić, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A cylinder model was calibrated according to experimental results. • A full cycle simulation model of turbocharged spark-ignition engine was made. • Engine performance with high pressure exhaust gas recirculation was studied. • Cooled exhaust gas recirculation lowers exhaust temperature and knock occurrence. • Leaner mixtures enable fuel consumption improvement of up to 11.2%. - Abstract: The numerical analysis of performance of a four cylinder highly boosted spark-ignition engine at full load is described in this paper, with the research focused on introducing high pressure exhaust gas recirculation for control of engine limiting factors such as knock, turbine inlet temperature and cyclic variability. For this analysis the cycle-simulation model which includes modeling of the entire engine flow path, early flame kernel growth, mixture stratification, turbulent combustion, in-cylinder turbulence, knock and cyclic variability was applied. The cylinder sub-models such as ignition, turbulence and combustion were validated by using the experimental results of a naturally aspirated multi cylinder spark-ignition engine. The high load operation, which served as a benchmark value, was obtained by a standard procedure used in calibration of engines, i.e. operation with fuel enrichment and without exhaust gas recirculation. By introducing exhaust gas recirculation and by optimizing other engine operating parameters, the influence of exhaust gas recirculation on engine performance is obtained. The optimum operating parameters, such as spark advance, intake pressure, air to fuel ratio, were found to meet the imposed requirements in terms of fuel consumption, knock occurrence, exhaust gas temperature and variation of indicated mean effective pressure. By comparing the results of the base point with the results that used exhaust gas recirculation the improvement in fuel consumption of 8.7%, 11.2% and 1.5% at engine speeds of 2000 rpm, 3500 rpm and 5000

  17. Growth potential of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in nine types of ready-to-eat vegetables stored at variable temperature conditions during shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Barbosa, Matheus S; Destro, Maria Teresa; Landgraf, Mariza; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2012-06-15

    Growth potential (δ) is defined as the difference between the population of a microorganism at the end of shelf-life of specific food and its initial population. The determination of δ of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in RTE vegetables can be very useful to determine likely threats to food safety. However, little is known on the behavior of these microorganisms in several RTE vegetables. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the δ of both pathogens in nine different types of RTE vegetables (escarole, collard green, spinach, watercress, arugula, grated carrot, green salad, and mix for yakisoba) stored at refrigeration (7°C) and abuse temperature (15°C). The population of aerobic microorganisms and lactic acid bacteria, including those showing antimicrobial activity has been also determined. Results indicated that L. monocytogenes was able to grow (δ≥0.5 log(10)) in more storage conditions and vegetables than Salmonella. Both microorganisms were inhibited in carrots, although a more pronounced effect has been observed against L. monocytogenes. The highest δ values were obtained when the RTE vegetables were stored 15°C/6days in collard greens (δ=3.3) and arugula (δ=3.2) (L. monocytogenes) and arugula (δ=4.1) and escarole (δ=2.8) (Salmonella). In most vegetables and storage conditions studied, the counts of total aerobic microorganisms raised significantly independent of the temperature of storage (pvegetables partially or fully stored at abuse temperature with recovery of isolates showing antimicrobial activity. In conclusion, the results of this study show that Salmonella and L. monocytogenes may grow and reach high populations in RTE vegetables depending on storage conditions and the definition of effective intervention strategies are needed to control their growth in these products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Geoffroy's side-necked turtle [Phrynops geoffroanus (Schweigger, 1812), Testudines: Chelidae] as a model for evolutionary ecotoxicology: relationship between environmental contamination, conditions and genetic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venancio, L P R; Zuccari, D A P C; Bonini-Domingos, C R

    2013-12-19

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of human activity factors, such as environmental contamination and habitat changes, as drivers for changing the physiological, biochemical, and genetic diversity of Geoffroy's side-necked turtle populations in one of the most impacted watersheds in southeastern Brazil. The impact of chemical and organic contamination was determined by ecotoxicological analyses to assess the action of some of the major components involved in protection against oxidative stress, phase I and II detoxification metabolism, and antioxidant capacity. The results indicated the influence of domestic and industrial effluents on detoxification metabolism and oxidative stress. However, in spite of increased activity and effect of EROD (CYP1A1) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, GST average values in the urban area agreed with those expected for hypoxic conditions according to the literature. This observation suggests that increased GST in response to ROS production due to the presence of pollutants increases the antioxidant defense network, controlling the oxidative damage caused by hypoxia and reperfusion. To determine the conditions that are reflected in individual ability (fitness), we evaluated the mathematical relationship between weight and length, and found that changes in body shape and weight increase, allowing inferences about animal health and welfare. The data obtained indicate differences in conditions that are associated with the area, but also with sex and reproductive period, and contamination gradient, indicating a strong influence of environmental stressors on the physiology of the specimens. The evaluation of genetic structure among populations of Preto River and Felicidade Stream, based on microsatellites, demonstrated that there was no genetic differentiation, due to extensive gene flow between the areas and high genetic diversity. However, after analysis of intrapopulation structure, we observed the existence

  19. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. Comprehensive data report. Volume 3: Graphical data book 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    A graphical presentation of the aerodynamic data acquired during coannular nozzle performance wind tunnel tests is given. The graphical data consist of plots of nozzle gross thrust coefficient, fan nozzle discharge coefficient, and primary nozzle discharge coefficient. Normalized model component static pressure distributions are presented as a function of primary total pressure, fan total pressure, and ambient static pressure for selected operating conditions. In addition, the supersonic cruise configuration data include plots of nozzle efficiency and secondary-to-fan total pressure pumping characteristics. Supersonic and subsonic cruise data are given.

  20. Production dynamics and life cycle of dominant chironomids (diptera, chironomidae) in a subtropical stream in China: adaptation to variable flow conditions in summer and autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yunjun; Li, Xiaoyu

    2007-07-01

    The production dynamics and trophic basis of 7 dominant species of chironomids were investigated in the area of a second-order river of the Hanjiang River basin, in central China from June 2003 to June 2004. The results showed that Tvetenia discoloripes was by far the most abundant chironomid, dominating the overall standing stock of the taxa. In terms of lif ecycle, Chaetocladius sp., Eukiefferiella potthasti and T. discoloripes developed 1 generation a year, whereas Microtendipes sp. and Pagastia sp. developed two, while Pentaneura sp. and Polypedilum sp. developed three. T. discoloripes was the most productive chironomid with 120.305 8 g/m2. a, Pentaneura sp. and E. potthasti had relatively high production values of >17 g/m2.a, and the rest were 0.5), especially for filter-collectors Microtendipes sp., Chaetocladius sp., Chaetocladius sp., T. discoloripes and Pagastia sp. All species except Pentaneura sp. consumed a large portion of amorphous detritus, constituting more than 90% of their diets, and contributing nearly 90% to their secondary production. All the 7 chironomids represent obvious adaptation to local highly variable climate in summer and autumn in life cycle pattern, production dynamics, and food type.