Tobbe, Patrick A.; Matras, Alex L.; Wilson, Heath E.
The advent of the new Ares I launch vehicle has highlighted the need for advanced dynamic analysis tools for variable mass, flexible structures. This system is composed of interconnected flexible stages or components undergoing rapid mass depletion through the consumption of solid or liquid propellant. In addition to large rigid body configuration changes, the system simultaneously experiences elastic deformations. In most applications, the elastic deformations are compatible with linear strain-displacement relationships and are typically modeled using the assumed modes technique. The deformation of the system is approximated through the linear combination of the products of spatial shape functions and generalized time coordinates. Spatial shape functions are traditionally composed of normal mode shapes of the system or even constraint modes and static deformations derived from finite element models of the system. Equations of motion for systems undergoing coupled large rigid body motion and elastic deformation have previously been derived through a number of techniques . However, in these derivations, the mode shapes or spatial shape functions of the system components were considered constant. But with the Ares I vehicle, the structural characteristics of the system are changing with the mass of the system. Previous approaches to solving this problem involve periodic updates to the spatial shape functions or interpolation between shape functions based on system mass or elapsed mission time. These solutions often introduce misleading or even unstable numerical transients into the system. Plus, interpolation on a shape function is not intuitive. This paper presents an approach in which the shape functions are held constant and operate on the changing mass and stiffness matrices of the vehicle components. Each vehicle stage or component finite element model is broken into dry structure and propellant models. A library of propellant models is used to describe the
Ruth, Michael J.
Development of a responsive, high-bandwidth missile autopilot for airframes which have structural modes of unusually low frequency presents a challenging design task. Such systems are viable candidates for modern, state-space control design methods. The PC-MATLAB interactive software package provides an environment well-suited to the development of candidate linear control laws for flexible missile autopilots. The strengths of MATLAB include: (1) exceptionally high speed (MATLAB's version for 80386-based PC's offers benchmarks approaching minicomputer and mainframe performance); (2) ability to handle large design models of several hundred degrees of freedom, if necessary; and (3) broad extensibility through user-defined functions. To characterize MATLAB capabilities, a simplified design example is presented. This involves interactive definition of an observer-based state-space compensator for a flexible missile autopilot design task. MATLAB capabilities and limitations, in the context of this design task, are then summarized.
C o •(SxIDU) NOulSOd XVI •IDNV Figure 5. Thre desired and actual trajectory for the rigid missile with rigid-body. c•ntroller (T...fql, temp9, templO , lmn,cl, c2, fl1, f 2, f 3, f 4, betal, bet a2, fq2) %%%%%i;%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %% %%~%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%*%%%%A
The book presents up-to-date and unifying formulations for treating dynamics of different types of mechanical systems with variable mass. The starting point is overview of the continuum mechanics relations of balance and jump for open systems from which extended Lagrange and Hamiltonian formulations are derived. Corresponding approaches are stated at the level of analytical mechanics with emphasis on systems with a position-dependent mass and at the level of structural mechanics. Special emphasis is laid upon axially moving structures like belts and chains, and on pipes with an axial flow of fluid. Constitutive relations in the dynamics of systems with variable mass are studied with particular reference to modeling of multi-component mixtures. The dynamics of machines with a variable mass are treated in detail and conservation laws and the stability of motion will be analyzed. Novel finite element formulations for open systems in coupled fluid and structural dynamics are presented.
Humphrey, L. Dennis
Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Missile Signature Center (AMSC) is a national facility supporting the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and other DoD programs and customers with analysis,...
Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher
Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...
Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher
Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...
At the present day, an unparalleled number of international actors, be it national governments or non-state groups, have acquired or are seeking to acquire both weapons of mass destruction and the means to deliver them. Those means of delivery can be Ballistic Missiles that can bridge vast – even intercontinental – distances. The use of Ballistic Missiles with conventional warheads is also an evolving threat as witnessed by the Chinese anti-ship ballistic missile. The defence of land forces a...
Lewis, George N.
The potential effectiveness of ballistic missile defenses today remains a subject of debate. After a brief discussion of terminal and boost phase defenses, this chapter will focus on long-range midcourse defenses. The problems posed by potential countermeasures to such midcourse defenses are discussed as are the sensor capabilities a defense might have available to attempt to discriminate the actual missile warhead in a countermeasures environment. The role of flight testing in assessing ballistic missile defense effectiveness is discussed. Arguments made about effectiveness by missile defense supporters and critics are summarized.
Ralph, Jason F.; Smith, Moira I.; Heather, Jamie P.
The reliable detection and tracking of missile plumes in sequences of infrared images is a crucial factor in developing infrared missile warning systems for use in military and civil aircraft. This paper discusses the development of a set of algorithms that allow missile plumes to be detected, tracked and classified according to their perceived motion in the image plane. The aim is to classify the missile motion so as to provide an indication of the guidance law which is being used and, hence, to determine the type of missile that may be present and allow the appropriate countermeasures to be deployed. The algorithms allow for the motion of the host platform and they determine the missile motion relative to the fixed background provided by the scene. The tracks produced contain sufficient information to allow good discrimination between several standard missile types.
Salih Mahmoud Attiya
Full Text Available Aerodynamic modeling of ballistic missile in pitch plane is performed and the open-loop transfer function related to the jet deflector angle as input and pitch rate, normal acceleration as output has been derived with certain acceptable assumptions. For typical values of ballistic missile parameters such as mass, velocity, altitude, moment of inertia, thrust, moment and lift coefficient show that, the step time response and frequency response of the missile is unstable. The steady state gain, damping ratio and undraped natural frequency depend on the missile parameters. To stabilize the missile a lead compensator must be added to the forward loop.
In recent years, the development of ballistic missiles by North Korea has been a key motivation for US efforts to stem missile proliferation and to develop defenses against intermediate and long-range missiles. In the 1980s, North Korea reverse-engineered short-range Soviet Scud missiles and began to produce and sell them. In 1993, it flight-tested a missile reported to have a range of up to 1,300 kilometers, which would allow it to target most of Japan. In 1998, it launched a multi-stage missile over Japan; it later announced that the launch had been an attempt to place a satellite in orbit. An important question is what these tests imply for its current capability and its possible future missile development. Since North Korea has sold missiles to countries in the Middle East and South Asia and is reported to be assisting Iran's missile development program, understanding its capabilities is relevant to security concerns in several parts of the world. In this talk I will discuss my analysis of the publicly available information about North Korea's missile tests, and my conclusions about possible future developments. This includes estimates of ranges and payloads of its next potential generation of missiles, and comments about their potential military utility.
At the present day, an unparalleled number of international actors, be it national governments or non-state groups, have acquired or are seeking to acquire both weapons of mass destruction and the means to deliver them. Those means of delivery can be Ballistic Missiles that can bridge vast – even
Full Text Available In this paper the extended Lagrangian formalism for the rheonomic systems (Dj. Mušicki, 2004, which began with the modification of the mechanics of such systems (V. Vujičić, 1987, is extended to the systems with variable mass, with emphasis on the corresponding energy relations. This extended Lagrangian formalism is based on the extension of the set of chosen generalized coordinates by new quantities, suggested by the form of nonstationary constraints, which determine the position of the frame of reference in respect to which these generalized coordinates refer. As a consequence, an extended system of the Lagrangian equations is formulated, accommodated to the variability of the masses of particles, where the additional ones correspond to the additional generalized coordinates. By means of these equations, the energy relations of such systems have been studied, where it is demonstrated that here there are four types of energy conservation laws. The obtained energy laws are more complete and natural than the corresponding ones in the usual Lagrangian formulation for such systems. It is demonstrated that the obtained energy laws, are in full accordance with the energy laws in the corresponding vector formulation, if they are expressed in terms of the quantities introduced in this formulation of mechanics. The obtained results are illustrated by an example: the motion of a rocket, which ejects the gasses backwards, while this rocket moves up a straight line on an oblique plane, which glides uniformly in a horizontal direction.
Carvalho, J. C.; Lima, J. A. S.
RESUMEN. Se presenta una versi6n Newtoniana de los modelos cosmol6gicos espacialmente e isotr6picos con masa variable. La influencia de la variaci6n de masa en la evoluci6n de la funci6n de escala est establecida para el caso de un Universo lieno de polvo bajo Ia suposici6n de que esta variaci6n es un efecto estrictamente cosmol6jico. Se muestra que el hiperb6lico, parab6lico 0 el#ptico dcl movimiento de puede ser modificado a lo larjo de la expansi6n. ABSTRACT. This paper presents a Newtonian version of the spatially homojeneous and isotropic cosmolojical models with variable mass. The influence of the mass variation on the evolution of the scale function is established for the case of a dust-filled Universe under the assumption that this variation is a strict cosmolojical effect. It is shown that the hyperbolic, parabolic or elliptic character of the fluid motion can be modified alonj the expansion. Keq : COSMOLOGY
.... The Evolved SEASPARROW Missile, a Navy Acquisition Category II program, is an improved version of the RIM-7P SEASPARROW missile that will intercept high-speed maneuvering, anti-ship cruise missiles...
based Midcourse Defense (GMD) system to enhance our capability against Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles . We are currently sustaining 30...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-362 Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Program Name Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) DoD Component DoD Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Planning Estimate) National Security
The United States has pursued defenses against nuclear-armed long-range ballistic missiles since at least the 1950s. At the same time, concerns that missile defenses could undermine nuclear deterrence and potentially spark an arms race led the United States and Soviet Union to negotiate limits on these systems. The 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty constrained strategic missile defenses for thirty years. After abandoning the treaty in 2002, President George W. Bush began fielding the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) homeland missile defense system on an extremely aggressive schedule, nominally to respond to threats from North Korea and Iran. Today, nearly fifteen years after its initial deployment, the potential and the limits of this homeland missile defense are apparent. Its test record is poor and it has no demonstrated ability to stop an incoming missile under real-world conditions. No credible strategy is in place to solve the issue of discriminating countermeasures. Insufficient oversight has not only exacerbated the GMD system's problems, but has obscured their full extent, which could encourage politicians and military leaders to make decisions that actually increase the risk of a missile attack against the United States. These are not the only costs. Both Russia and China have repeatedly expressed concerns that U.S. missile defenses adversely affect their own strategic capabilities and interests, particularly taken in light of the substantial US nuclear forces. This in turn affects these countries' nuclear modernization priorities. This talk will provide a technical overview of the US strategic missile defense system, and how it relates to deterrence against non-peer adversaries as well as how it affects deterrence with Russia and China and the long-term prospects for nuclear reductions
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Missile technology. 742.5 Section 742... BASED CONTROLS § 742.5 Missile technology. (a) License requirements. (1) In support of U.S. foreign... establish the existence of a contract. (d) Missile Technology Control Regime. Missile Technology Control...
missiles if the war had lasted six more months. With another two years, German research could have produced the first intercontinental ballistic missile ...consideration of missile defenses against strategic threats to the United States homeland (e.g. intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM)) lies...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY COST EFFECTIVE REGIONAL BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE by Christopher M. Ford, Colonel, U.S. Army A Research
Han, S.C.; Ditmar, P.
A spatiospectral localization method is discussed for processing the global geopotential coefficients from satellite mission data to investigate time-variable gravity. The time-variable mass variation signal usually appears associated with a particular geographical area yielding inherently regional
MISSILES by J. Hodges November 1989 DL~M* !7!J’nTMN A Approv"d ir public teleaol Distnution Ur- datod Procurement Executive, Ministry of Defence...large computer resources. These methods depend on experimental data- bases as input to a simple theoretical framework. The more comprehensive the...practical difficulties of providing an experimental data- base covering all possible missile configurations, all semi-empirical methods are restricted to a
completed in order to validate deficiency discovered during IOT &E and support for FOC declaration in 2017. There are no significant software-related...General Notes The SM-6 Development was funded under PE 0604366N - Project 3092. The FY 2017 PB includes RDT&E funding for other STANDARD Missile...Spares are included in BLI 6120 P1-35. RDT&E Appn BA PE Navy 1319 05 0604366N Project Name 3092 Standard Missile 6 Program (Shared) (Sunk
Russian of meeting between then Prime Minister Putin and defence experts in Sarov, Russia , February 24, 2012. 64. Viktor Yesin and Yevgeniy Savostyanov... Putin Letter to Obama to Address Missile Defense, Security,” RIA-Novosti, May 15, 2013, available from en.rian.ru/ russia /20130515/181170446.html...UNITED STATES · ARMY WAR COLLEGE PRESS Carlisle Barrac , ’A STR KNG T H ..,... WI SDOM EUROPEAN MISSILE DEFENSE AND RUSSIA Keir Giles with
Conner, George W.; Ehiers, Mark A.; Marshall, Kneale T.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Concepts commonly found in ASW search are used to model the flow and detection of mobile launchers for short range ballistic missiles. Emphasis is on detection and destruction of the launcher before launch. The benefit of pre-hostility intelligence and pre-missile-launch prosecution, the backbone of successful ASW, is revealed through the analysis of a circulation model which reflects the standard operations of a third world mobile mi...
Full Text Available In order to provide accurate launching pitching angular velocity (LPAV for the exterior trajectory optimization design, multi-flexible body dynamics (MFBD technology is presented to study the changing law of LPAV of the rotating missile based on spiral guideway. An MFBD virtual prototype model of the rotating missile launching system is built using multi-body dynamics modeling technology based on the built flexible body models of key components and the special force model. The built model is verified with the frequency spectrum analysis. With the flexible body contact theory and nonlinear theory of MFBD technology, the research is conducted on the influence of a series of factors on LPAV, such as launching angle change, clearance between launching canister and missile, thrust change, thrust eccentricity and mass eccentricity, etc. Through this research, some useful values of the key design parameters which are difficult to be measured in physical tests are obtained. Finally, a simplified mathematical model of the changing law of LPAV is presented through fitting virtual test results using the linear regression method and verified by physical flight tests. The research results have important significance for the exterior trajectory optimization design.
.... This thesis describes the use of microelectronic-miniature (MEM) technologies to measure the strap down rates experienced by a rolling airframe missile and the model required to effectively determine the missile's attitude during its flight...
Full Text Available The paper reviews the history of technical development in the field of hypervelocity missiles. It highlights the fact that the development of anti-ballistic systems in USA, Russia, France, UK, Sweden, and Israel is moving toward the final deployment stage; that USA and Israel are trying to sell PAC 2 and Arrow 2 to India; and that India’s Agni and Prithvi missiles have improved their accuracy, with assistance from Russia. Consequently, the paper proposes enhanced effort for development in Pakistan of a basic hypersonic tactical missile, with 300 KM range, 500 KG payload, and multi-rolecapability. The author argues that a system, developed within the country, at the existing or upgraded facilities, will not violate MTCR restrictions, and would greatly enhance the country’s defense capability. Furthermore, it would provide high technology jobs toPakistani citizens. The paper reinforces the idea by suggesting that evolution in the field of aviation and electronics favors the development of ballistic, cruise and guided missile technologies; and that flight time of short and intermediate range missiles is so short that its interception is virtually impossible.
... No: 2012-1335] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2009-0481] Protection Against Turbine Missiles... Against Turbine Missiles.'' This guide describes methods acceptable to the NRC staff for protecting safety-related structures, systems, and components against missiles resulting from turbine failure by the...
Mammadli, A. H.
Problems of movement of bodies with variable masses within the framework of the two-body problem are considered. It is shown, that under certain conditions by the method of spatial-time transformation the differential equations of movement with variable coefficients suppose autonomization, i.e. are transformed to the differential equations with constant coefficients, integrated in quadrature. The analogue of the Jacobi integral is found, surfaces of zero velocity and possible regions of motion are determined. As an example the problem of the motion of a star with a variable mass inside a globular cluster with a variable mass is considered. It has turned out, that the solution of differential equations in new variables represents elliptical epicycloids, and in initial variables it is a very complex trajectory. At the research of motion in the gravitating and resisting medium it is shown, that in the law change of Jeans mass the change of a body mass sign is admissible.
Gasanov, S. A.
We consider the motion of a variable-mass star inside a layered, inhomogeneous, rotating elliptical variable-mass galaxy. Under certain conditions, the differential equations of motion of a star inside the galaxy admit autonomization. The autonomized differential equations in this problem are similar to those for the motion of a constant-mass star. We have found analogs for the Jacobi integral and the Eddington-Jeans law for the variation of the density of the galaxy in its center and layers.
Full Text Available Missile defense systems are often related to major military resources aimed at shielding a specific region from incoming attacks. They are intended to detect, track, intercept, and destruct incoming enemy missiles. These systems vary in cost, efficiency, dependability, and technology. In present times, the possession of these types of systems is associated with large capacity military countries. Demonstrated here are the mathematical techniques behind missile systems which calculate trajectories of incoming missiles and potential intercept positions after initial missile detection. This procedure involved the use of vector-valued functions, systems of equations, and knowledge of projectile motion concepts.
Wu, S. Q.; Cai, X.
Hawking evaporation of photons in a variable-mass Kerr space-time is investigated by using a method of the generalized tortoise coordinate transformation. The blackbody radiant spectrum of photons displays a new spin-rotation coupling effect obviously dependent on different helicity states of photons.
powerful weapon being rendered useless instantly. It is also not mentioned in current general literature how the electronic communi- cations (including those of RPV's)would fare if nuclear weapons were to be used.41. It would appear, however, that the Israelis consider the. American Lance surface-to-surface missiles,.
The trajectories of projectiles are easily calculated and the way to the trajectories of intercontinental ballistic missiles is only a little more demanding. The first can be considered as limiting cases of the second. However, at the beginning of physics the two cases were taken as completely unrelated.
Belatedly, Western Nations are trying to staunch the flow of technology that has helped create a number of new ballistic missile forces in the Third World. Ballistic missiles already are being used in one Third World conflict. Since the end of February, Iran and Iraq have fired more than 100 short-range, inaccurate missiles at each other's cities, causing thousands of casualties. These events illustrate that ballistic missiles are becoming an ominous reality in the Third World. Indeed, 20 Third World countries, including Israel and Brazil, currently possess ballistic missiles or are striving to develop them. On one level, these missiles - which are propelled by rockets into the upper atmosphere, travel in a ballistic trajectory, and are pulled by gravity to their targets - are for these nations a logical step in building up their military forces. While the missiles vary in range and accuracy, they can reach many targets in regional conflicts. Unlike manned aircraft, the do not require large, vulnerable bases. They are not as easily intercepted as slow bombers. And they are easier to develop because they are less sophisticated than modern cruise missiles such as the U.S. air-launched cruise missiles. In terms of global security, the most worrisome aspect of Third World ballistic missiles is their potential as nuclear weapons delivery systems.
injuring missile, but it may be only one of many contributors to the morphology of the wound. High velocity projectiles, striking bone and/or teeth ...This is especially true of hits shattering the hard enamel of teeth . These findings tend to re-emphasize the work of Mcleod who stated that...through controlled studies to determine the morphology of wounds caused by such projectiles and to establish and disseminate treatment data which
D.D. Ganji; M. Gorji; M. Hatami; A. Hasanpour; N. Khademzadeh
In this study, applications of some analytical methods on nonlinear equation of the launching of a rocket with variable mass are investigated. Differential transformation method (DTM), homotopy perturbation method (HPM) and least square method (LSM) were applied and their results are compared with numerical solution. An excellent agreement with analytical methods and numerical ones is observed in the results and this reveals that analytical methods are effective and convenient. Also a paramet...
my education here in Naval Postgraduate School. vi I. INTRODUCTION The expectation of any missile system is to hit the target with high probability; in...sqrt(xm(2,i)A2+xm(4,i)-2); % Missile velocity gaia -mis(i)=atan2(xm(4,i),xm(2,i)); % Missile vel. angle sigma(l,i)=atan2((xt(3,i)-XM(3,i)),(xt(l,i)-xm
Yost, David S.
T h e Atlantic Alliance may be at the threshold of a new debate on the implications of ballistic missile defense (BMD) for European security. Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger and several U.S. Senators and Congressmen support a thorough review of U.S. BMD options, including possible revision of the 1972 Anti- Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty and its 1974 Protocol. Although active defense of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) seems the most likely application f...
efforts at missile defense (such as the 1960s- era Nike -Zeus program) were aimed at countering the vast Soviet missile arsenal. Recent efforts are...on unclassified performance parameters for the various radars and interceptors and assumed that the systems would work “as advertised .” (A...develop defenses against ballistic missiles. Early U.S. efforts (such as the 1960s-era Nike -Zeus program) were aimed at countering the Soviet Union’s
Full Text Available Many technological processes in the field of agricultural production mechanization, such as a grain crop, planting root-tuber fruits, fertilizing, spraying and dusting, pressing feed materials, harvesting of various cultures, etc. are performed by the machine-tractor units with variable mass of links or processed media and materials. In recent years, are also developing the systems of automatic control, adjusting and control of technological processes and working members in agriculture production. Is studied the dynamics of transition processes of mountain self-propelled chassis with variable mass at real change disconnect or joining masses that is most often used in the function of movement (m(t = ctm(t = ct. Are derived the formulas of change of velocity of movement on displacement of unit and is defined the dependence of this velocity on the tractor and technological machine performance, with taking into account the gradual increase or removing of agricultural materials masses. According to the equation is possible to define a linear movement of machine-tractor unit. According to the obtained expressions we can define the basic operating parameters of machine-tractor unit with variable mass. The results of research would be applied at definition of characteristics of units, at development of new agricultural tractors.
Current missile-warning sensors on aircraft mostly operate in the ultraviolet wavelength band. Aimed primarily at detecting short-range, shoulder-fired surface-to-air missiles, the detection range of the sensors is of the same order as the threat range, which is 3-5 km. However, this range is only attained against older missiles, with bright exhaust flames. Modern missile developments include the use of new propellants, which generate low-intensity plumes. These threats are detected at much s...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory comprises several hardware-in-the-loop missile flight simulations designed specifically to evaluate the effectiveness of electro-optical air defense...
Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.
Fundamentals of missile and nuclear weapons systems are presented in this book which is primarily prepared as the second text of a three-volume series for students of the Navy Reserve Officers' Training Corps and the Officer Candidate School. Following an introduction to guided missiles and nuclear physics, basic principles and theories are…
For the modeling problem of shipborne missile fire frequency, the fire frequency models with unconstant parameters were proposed, including maximum fire frequency models with unconstant parameters, and actual fire frequency models with unconstant parameters, which can be used to calculate the missile fire frequency with unconstant parameters.
Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.
The increasing proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction poses new risks worldwide. For a threatened nation and given the characteristics of this threat a layered ballistic missile defence system strategy appears to be the preferred solution. However, such a strategy
2 These flights took place in 2000, and the destruction was done by the tactical high-energy laser (THEL) at White Sands, New Mexico ...Defense Agency and the U.S. Navy launched a prototype Standard Missile-2 Bloc IVA from the “Desert Ship” complex at White Sands Missile Range, NM, on
Current missile-warning sensors on aircraft mostly operate in the ultraviolet wavelength band. Aimed primarily at detecting short-range, shoulder-fired surface-to-air missiles, the detection range of the sensors is of the same order as the threat range, which is 3-5 km. However, this range is only
Starinova, Olga L.; Salmin, Vadim V. [Samara State Aerospace University (National Research University), 34, Moskovskoye shosse, Samara, 443086 (Russian Federation)
The Gylden-Meshcherskii problem is used for various cases of dynamics of two points of the variable mass. For example, it describes of double star evolution due to mass loss at the photon expense and the corpuscular activity. Except, it is mathematical model for the movement of spacecraft with propulsion system. In the present work the mass variation laws, allowing a stationary form of the movement differential equations are considered. Movement simulation for all cases was conducted. The relative movement trajectories was constructed as for known Eddington-Jeans laws and for other mass variation laws.
Full Text Available The deflectable nose missile has a longer range by deflecting its nose to improve its aerodynamic feature. Based on detached eddy simulation (DES, the supersonic flow fields of a missile with deflectable nose are simulated numerically and its aerodynamic force coefficients are calculated under the condition of the deflection angles vary from 0° to 8°, angles of attack, 0°–8°, and mach numbers, 2 to 5. Coupling these aerodynamic coefficients with the plumb plane ballistic equations, the extended flight range has been calculated. Furthermore, the genetic algorithm (GA is employed for the solution of maximum range of the deflected missile.
F. A. Abd El-Salam
Full Text Available The equations of motion of a missile under the air drag effects are constructed. The modified TD88 is surveyed. Using Lagrange's planetary equations in Gauss form, the perturbations, due to the air drag in the orbital elements, are computed between the eccentric anomalies of the burn out and the reentry points [Ebo,2π−Ebo], respectively. The range equation is expressed as an infinite series in terms of the eccentricity e and the eccentric anomaly E. The different errors in the missile-free range due to the drag perturbations in the missile trajectory are obtained.
A 48-year-old-woman was struck dead by lightning on October 24, 2010, in Pretoria, South Africa. The cause of death was due to direct lightning strike. Examination showed secondary missile injury on her legs. This secondary missile (shrapnel) injury was caused by the lightning striking the concrete pavement next to her. Small pieces of concrete were located embedded within the shrapnel wounds. This case report represents the first documented case of secondary missile formation (shrapnel injury) due to lightning strike in the literature.
Program, 1997), 117. 14 Maj Thomas J. Gosling, Maj James W. Knapp, and Maj Kenneth R. Morrison, “Future Management Applications in the Minuteman...Canada: Hole in the Head Press, 2014), 194-198. 18 Figure 2: A Growing Missile Business Source: Maj Roger Tollerud, Maj Steve Kucynda...and Maj Don Karcewski, Guide for Minuteman Missile Maintenance Managers, 1970 ca. Provided by Association of Air Force Missileers. The Titan II
enemy missiles of various ranges , speeds, sizes, and performance characteristics in different phases of flight.3 Once an enemy missile has been...BMD SM-3 Block IB features capabilities to identify, discriminate, and track objects during flight to defend against short - and medium- range ballistic... missiles threats. • Aegis BMD SM-3 Block IIA Aegis BMD SM-3 Block IIA has increased range , more sensitive seeker technology, and an advanced
Karmanova, T.I.; Loboiko, G.B.
This paper shows how the motion of plates with variable and constant mass is different. An equation of motion of a body with variable mass is presented which takes into account the decrease in the velocity after the collision. The authors explain how the work performed by the explosion products on a plate with increasing mass does not equal the kinetic energy acquired by the plate in the absence of an external pressure, but that the presence of the pressure from the explosion products partially compensates the loss in the velocity on collision. As the plate moves and its mass increases, the relative fraction of uncompensated losses will increase, since the pressure decreases on expansion.
Full Text Available In this study, applications of some analytical methods on nonlinear equation of the launching of a rocket with variable mass are investigated. Differential transformation method (DTM, homotopy perturbation method (HPM and least square method (LSM were applied and their results are compared with numerical solution. An excellent agreement with analytical methods and numerical ones is observed in the results and this reveals that analytical methods are effective and convenient. Also a parametric study is performed here which includes the effect of exhaust velocity (Ce, burn rate (BR of fuel and diameter of cylindrical rocket (d on the motion of a sample rocket, and contours for showing the sensitivity of these parameters are plotted. The main results indicate that the rocket velocity and altitude are increased with increasing the Ce and BR and decreased with increasing the rocket diameter and drag coefficient.
school of natural sciences has eight departments: atomic energy, automation (computer science), biology, chemistry, geography, geology , mathematics...with 15 Hwasŏng missiles destined for Yemen .176 Coalition forces let the shipment continue because there was no legal justification for...confiscating the cargo, and Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh assured U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney that Yemen would cease its missile imports from the
N. Lewis and Theodore A. Postol , “European Missile Defense: The Technologi cal Basis of Russian Concerns,” Arms Control Today 37, no. 8 (October...PAC-3), and the Theater High-Altitude Area Defense ( THAAD ) system. As General Obering recently testified: “None of this capability existed as...East. PAC-3 and THAAD are theater defense systems, providing protection against short- and some medium-range missiles. PAC-3 engages short- range
Current missile-warning sensors on aircraft mostly operate in the ultraviolet wavelength band. Aimed primarily at detecting short-range, shoulder-fired surface-to-air missiles, the detection range of the sensors is of the same order as the threat range, which is 3-5 km. However, this range is only attained against older missiles, with bright exhaust flames. Modern missile developments include the use of new propellants, which generate low-intensity plumes. These threats are detected at much shorter ranges by current ultraviolet warning sensors, resulting in short reaction times. Infrared sensors are able to detect targets at a much longer range. In contrast with the ultraviolet band, in which a target is observed against an almost zero background, infrared sensors must extract targets from a complex background. This leads to a much higher false-alarm rate, which has thus far prevented the deployment of infrared sensors in a missile warning system. One way of reducing false-alarms levels is to make use of the spectral difference between missile plumes and the background. By carefully choosing two wavelength bands, the contrast between missile plume and background can be maximised. This paper presents a method to search for the best possible combination of two bands in the mid-wave infrared, that leads to the longest detection ranges and that works for a wide range of missile propellants. Detection ranges predicted in the infrared will be compared with those obtained in the ultraviolet, to demonstrate the increased range and, therefore, the increased reaction time for the aircraft.
Hatchell, Brian; Mauss, Fred; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Amaya, Ivan; Skorpik, Jim; Silvers, Kurt; Marotta, Steve
Military missiles are exposed to many sources of mechanical vibration that can affect system reliability, safety, and mission effectiveness. One of the most significant exposures to vibration occurs when the missile is being carried by an aviation platform, which is a condition known as captive carry. If the duration of captive carry exposure could be recorded during the missile's service life, several advantages could be realized. Missiles that have been exposed to durations outside the design envelop could be flagged or screened for maintenance or inspection; lightly exposed missiles could be selected for critical mission applications; and missile allocation to missions could be based on prior use to avoid overuse. The U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has been developing health monitoring systems to assess and improve reliability of missiles during storage and field exposures. Under the direction of AMRDEC staff, engineers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a Captive Carry Health Monitor (CCHM) for the HELLFIRE II missile. The CCHM is an embedded usage monitoring device installed on the outer skin of the HELLFIRE II missile to record the cumulative hours the host missile has been in captive carry mode and thereby assess the overall health of the missile. This paper provides an overview of the CCHM electrical and package design, describes field testing and data analysis techniques used to identify captive carry, and discusses the potential application of missile health and usage data for real-time reliability analysis and fleet management.
Hildreth, Steven A
... so. The Administration will ask the 110th Congress to fund a National Missile Defense (NMD) site in Europe, which some analysts argue is needed because of the threat of North Korean ballistic missiles to Europe...
Hill, Craig Alan.
Development of countermeasures against infrared missiles is enhanced by an ability to quantify the effects of the countermeasure. Analysts must be capable of accurately determining the attitude of the missile throughout its flight. This thesis describes the use of micro-miniature technologies to measure the rates experienced by a missile and the model required to effectively determine the missile's attitude. The Applied Technology Associates ARS-04E and the Tokin America CG-16D sensors were e...
Director, Operational Test and Evaluation 2015 Assessment of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS...Evaluation (DOT&E) as they pertain to the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS). Congress specified these requirements in the fiscal year 2002 (FY02...systems are the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD), Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (Aegis BMD), Terminal High-Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), and
A description is given of the novel design features, operational capabilities and development history of the Pershing II ballistic missile, with emphasis on its updated flight sequence and reentry vehicle terminal guidance. The use of digital target data allows the missile to be switched from one target to another by a quick change of software. Extensive tests have been conducted to determine the effect of electronic countermeasures, and it has been found that the correlation process used, involving data from more than 10 sq mi of terrain, makes the terminal-homing guidance radar seeker difficult to confuse. Attention is also given to such development possibilities for the missile as active target-acquisition sensors, an earth-penetration nuclear warhead, runway-destroying submunitions and range extensions to equal that of the Soviet SS-20 IRBM.
Guidance Only Flight Test (DASO- 24) N/A AUG 2012 FEB 2013 APR 2013 1 (Ch-1) First Missile Electronics Flight Test ( PTM - 1/DASO-25) N/A SEP 2013 MAR 2014...Program Manager was able to pull ahead the First Missile Electronics Flight Test ( PTM -1) flight that had been previously scheduled for DASO-25 (September...the First Missile Electronics Flight Test ( PTM -1) flight that had been previously scheduled for DASO-25 (September 2013) so that it was able to occur
a limited intercontinental ballistic missile attack from countries such as North Korea and Iran. According to recent testimony from senior DOD...officials, the warfighter remains confident in its ability to protect the nation from a limited intercontinental ballistic missile attack.6 However...Defense The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) is developing the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) to defend the U.S. homeland and U.S. regional
Spearman, M. L.
A comprehensive development history of missile airframe aerodynamics is presented, encompassing ground-, ground vehicle-, ship-, and air-launched categories of all ranges short of strategic. Emphasis is placed on the swift acceleration of missile configuration aerodynamics by German researchers in the course of the Second World War and by U.S. research establishments thereafter, often on the foundations laid by German workers. Examples are given of foundational airframe design criteria established by systematic researches undertaken in the 1950s, regarding L/D ratios, normal force and pitching moment characteristics, minimum drag forebodies and afterbodies, and canard and delta winged configuration aerodynamics.
Singhal, M.K.; Walls, J.C.
Simplified empirical formulae and some tabular data for the design/evaluation of structure barriers to resist wind/tornado generated missiles impact are presented in this paper. The scope is limited to the missiles defined by UCRL-15910 which are to be considered for moderate and high hazard facilities only. The method presented herein are limited to consideration of local effects on the barrier, i.e., the barrier must be capable of stopping the missile, and the barrier must no cause the generation of secondary missiles due to scabbing. Overall structural response to missile impact and structural effects derived from wind pressure are not addressed in this paper.
Abd El-Salam, F. A.; Abd El-Bar, S. E.
The ranges of the ballistic missile trajectories are very sensitive to any kind of errors. Most of the missile trajectory is a part of an elliptical orbit. In this work, the missile problem is stated. The variations in the orbital elements are derived using Lagrange planetary equations. Explicit expressions for the errors in the missile range due to the in-orbit plane changes are derived. Explicit expressions for the errors in the missile range due to the out-of-orbit plane changes are derive...
Prabhakar, N.; Kumar, I. D.; Tata, S. K.; Vaithiyanathan, V.
A simplified guidance scheme for the target missiles used in Ballistic Missile Defence is presented in this paper. The proposed method has two major components, a Ground Guidance Computation (GGC) and an In-Flight Guidance Computation. The GGC which runs on the ground uses a missile model to generate attitude history in pitch plane and computes launch azimuth of the missile to compensate for the effect of earth rotation. The vehicle follows the pre launch computed attitude (theta) history in pitch plane and also applies the course correction in azimuth plane based on its deviation from the pre launch computed azimuth plane. This scheme requires less computations and counters In-flight disturbances such as wind, gust etc. quite efficiently. The simulation results show that the proposed method provides the satisfactory performance and robustness.
The paper analyses critically the threat perceptions of the West, and especially the United States, regarding ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction in the hands of Asian states. Reviewing Southwest, South and Northeast Asia it finds these regions to be more stable as commonly assumed and little evidence to support the assumption that the states in these regions are undeterrable. A deployment by the United States of ballistic missile defences is thus found to be both superfluous a...
RELIABILITY OF / MISSILE MATERIEL PROGRANI MISSILE gYDRAULIC AND NEUMATIC SYSTEMS ACTUATOR ANALYSIS .. 7 ." Joe C. Mitchell Approved by: Donald R. Earles...amplifier. 3-5 - M77777,77-7WT7 SECTION 4 ACTUATOR CLASSIFICATION Actuators have been classified in accordance with the mechanism and type. Figure 4-1...definition of the data already on hdrnd. More detailed identification of those units classified only by their generic names should be attempted. A more
program will integrate the Patriot and Improved Sentinel components to support the engagement of air breathing targets, cruise missiles, unmanned aerial...was to demonstrate a 2013 “ snap -shot” of development efforts focused on achieving common AAMDC capability from the Brigade Combat Teams Air Defense Air
PROFESSIONAL STUDIES PAPER: SUSTAINABILITY OF THE 21M MISSILE MAINTAINER LIEUTENANT COLONEL DAVID S. MILLER AIR...of the health and sustainability of the ICBM maintenance officer career field will reveal conclusions and recommendations that could assist the...maintenance career field as healthy and sustainable , and ready to flourish. However, the evidence presented in this paper will show otherwise. To
Barrett, Ronald M.; Gross, R. Steven; Brozoski, Fred
A new type of subsonic missile flight control surface using piezoelectric flexspar actuators is presented. The flexspar design uses an aerodynamic shell which is pivoted at the quarter-chord about a graphite main spar. The shell is pitched up and down by a piezoelectric bender element which is rigidly attached to a base mount and allowed to rotate freely at the tip. The element curvature, shell pitch deflection and torsional stiffness are modeled using laminated plate theory. A one-third scale TOW 2B missile model was used as a demonstration platform. A static wing of the missile was replaced with an active flexspar wing. The 1' X 2.7' active flight control surface was powered by a bi-morph bender with 5-mil PZT-5H sheets. Bench and wind tunnel testing showed good correlation between theory and experiment and static pitch deflections in excess of +/- 14 degree(s). A natural frequency of 78.5 rad/s with a break frequency of 157 rad/s was measured. Wind tunnel tests revealed no flutter or divergence tendencies. Maximum changes in lift coefficient were measured at (Delta) CL equals +/- .73 which indicates that terminal and initial missile load factors may be increased by approximately 3.1 and 12.6 g's respectively, leading to a greatly reduced turn radius of only 2,400 ft.
Wagner, G.G.; Stewart, W.A.
The widely dispersed, unmanned launch facilities (LFs) for land-based ICBMs (intercontinental ballistic missiles) currently do not have visual assessment capability for existing intrusion alarms. The security response force currently must assess each alarm on-site. Remote assessment will enhance manpower, safety, and security efforts. Sandia National Laboratories was tasked by the USAF Electronic Systems Center to research, recommend, and demonstrate a cost-effective remote video assessment capability at missile LFs. The project`s charter was to provide: system concepts; market survey analysis; technology search recommendations; and operational hardware demonstrations for remote video assessment from a missile LF to a remote security center via a cost-effective transmission medium and without using visible, on-site lighting. The technical challenges of this project were to: analyze various video transmission media and emphasize using the existing missile system copper line which can be as long as 30 miles; accentuate and extremely low-cost system because of the many sites requiring system installation; integrate the video assessment system with the current LF alarm system; and provide video assessment at the remote sites with non-visible lighting.
Systems Company patented a system called TERCOM* as part of the " fingerprint " guidance for Chance Vought’s strategic attack missile called SLAM...Force Base, New York. USAF selected it because of its location relative to Soviet targets and initial TERCOM nmapping restrictions. The unit received
exsanguination six hours after surgery. The second patient died of septicaemia on the fifth postoperative clay (Table 111). TABLE Ill Outcome of treatment of patients with high velocity missile injuries of the liver. Discussion. The diagnosis of penetrating abdominal injury is usually straightforward. Injury to the liver m:ly be.
Qiao, Yan; Xu, Wei; Jia, Wantao; Han, Qun
Variable-mass systems have received widespread attention and show prominent significance with the explosive development of micro- and nanotechnologies, so there is a growing need to study the influences of mass disturbances on systems. This paper is devoted to investigating the stochastic response of a variable-mass system subject to weakly random excitation, in which the mass disturbance is modeled as a Poisson white noise. Firstly, the original system is approximately replaced by the associated conservative system with small disturbance based on the Taylor expansion technique. Then the stationary response of the approximate system is obtained by applying the stochastic averaging method. At last, a representative variable-mass oscillator is worked out to illustrate the effectiveness of the analytical solution by comparing with Monte Carlo simulation. The relative change of mean-square displacement is used to measure the influences of mass disturbance on system responses. Results reveal that the stochastic responses are more sensitive to mass disturbance for some system parameters. It is also found that the influences of Poisson white noise as the mass disturbance on system responses are significantly different from that of Gaussian white noise of the same intensity.
Stackpoole, Margaret M. (Inventor); Ghandehari, Ehson M. (Inventor); Thornton, Jeremy J. (Inventor); Covington, Melmoth Alan (Inventor)
A low-density article comprising a flexible substrate and a pyrolizable material impregnated therein, methods of preparing, and devices using the article are disclosed. The pyrolizable material pyrolizes above 350 C and does not flow at temperatures below the pyrolysis temperature. The low-density article remains flexible after impregnation and continues to remain flexible when the pyrolizable material is fully pyrolized.
Critchlow, C. L.; Williams, R. C.
The subject of this thesis is the system consisting of the engagements between attacking intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) reentry vehicles (RV) and a defending ballistic missile defense system. The thesis presents a brief overview of the actual system before proceeding with the development of a computer simulation model designed to aid analysis of the system. The primary language of the main program is SLAM; the supporting programs use FORTRAN V. The RV/Antiballistic missile (ABM) system is modeled as a network through which the RVs flow. The capabilities of the RV with regard to yield and accuracy can be set to the user's desires as can the vulnerabilities of the RV to the two primary kill mechanisms considered, X-ray and neutron radiation. The ABM system consists of a two-tiered, layered terminal defense system with high altitude (70,000 - 150,000 feet) and low altitude (10,000 - 70,000 feet) interceptors. Interceptor yield and accuracy are changeable. Either layer can be activated or deactivated, singly or together, to permit flexibility in the comparison of actual of hypothetical systems.
Guo, Hua-ling; Deng, Jia-hao; Cai, Ke-rong
Ballistic missile defense system (BMDS) is a weapon system for intercepting enemy ballistic missiles. It includes ballistic-missile warning system, target discrimination system, anti-ballistic-missile guidance systems, and command-control communication system. Infrared imaging detection and laser imaging detection are widely used in BMDS for surveillance, target detection, target tracking, and target discrimination. Based on a comprehensive review of the application of target-detection techniques in the missile defense system, including infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA), ground-based radar detection technology, 3-dimensional imaging laser radar with a photon counting avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays and microchip laser, this paper focuses on the infrared and laser imaging detection techniques in missile defense system, as well as the trends for their future development.
Montag, W. H.; Detwiler, D. F., Jr.; Hall, L.
This paper addresses the unique problems associated with launching the Black Brant V, VIII, and IX sounding rocket vehicles at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) and the significance of the introduction of the S19 to the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Wallops Flight Facility sounding rocket program in terms of launch flexibility, improved impact dispersion, higher flight reliability, and reduced program costs. This paper also discusses salient flight results from NASA 36.011UL (the first S19 guided Black Brant launched at WSMR) and the NASA Comet Halley missions (36.010DL and 36.017DL).
Abate, G.L.; Winchenbach, G.L. (USAF, Armament Laboratory, Eglin AFB, FL (USA))
Subsonic and transonic aerodynamic data for missiles with solid and slotted wrap around fin configurations are presented. Free-flight aeroballistic tests to obtain this data were conducted at atmospheric pressure over a Mach number range of 0.8 to 1.6. The aerodynamic coefficients and derivatives presented were extracted from the position-attitude-time histories of the experimentally measured trajectories using non-linear numerical integration data reduction routines. Results of this testing and analysis show the static and dynamic stability variations for solid and slotted wrap around fin configurations. The presence of a side moment dependent on pitch angle, inherent to wrap around fin configurations, is measured for both configurations. Results indicate a reduction in the magnitude of this side-moment for missiles with slotted fins. Also, roll dependence with Mach number effects are not present with the slotted fin configurations. Designers should consider these factors whenever wrap around fins are utilized. 14 refs.
Evces, C. R.; Fearing, P. D.
This report presents preliminary work on the vehicle concept for a robotic missile launcher. A computerized literature search is documented, and important mobility and control concepts from the search are discussed. A survey of commercially available roving vehicles, both remotely and manually controlled, is also presented. Design concepts are evaluated for application to a robotic missile launcher vehicle based on constraining design criteria. Conceptual designs are based on a commercially available vehicle (the Emerson Electric Fast Attack Vehicle), and a proposed special purpose vehicle are presented. Recommendations are made for further research and/or testing in the areas of feasibility of candidate control links and payloads, maneuverability versus armor, cost versus survivability, and applications in reconnaissance.
EDENBURN,MICHAEL W.; TROST,LAWRENCE C.
This paper compares the cost and effectiveness of several potential options that may be used to monitor silo-based ballistic missiles. Silo door monitoring can be used to verify that warheads removed to deactivate or download silo-based ballistic missiles have not been replaced. A precedent for monitoring warhead replacement using reentry vehicle on site inspections (RV-OSIs) and using satellites has been established by START-I and START-II. However, other monitoring options have the potential to be less expensive and more effective. Three options are the most promising if high verification confidence is desired: random monitoring using door sensors; random monitoring using manned or unmanned aircraft; and continuous remote monitoring using unattended door sensors.
Full Text Available On September 17, 2009—the 70th anniversary of the Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939 that marked the beginning of World War II—the Obama Administration announced its intention to shelve plans for the U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD that had been developed under former President George W. Bush. Pointing to a new intelligence assessment, President Obama argued that his predecessor's plan to deploy an X-band radar station outside of Prague, Czech Republic, and 10 two-stage interceptor missiles in Poland would not adequately protect America and its European allies from the Iranian threat and reiterated his opposition to utilizing unproven technology in any European BMD architecture.
... Regulation Supplement; Repeal of Restriction on Ballistic Missile Defense Research, Development, Test, and... Ballistic Missile Defense research, development, test, and evaluation from foreign sources. DATES: Effective...) repealed the restriction from foreign sources of acquisition of Ballistic Missile Defense research...
types of aircraft sensors are considered: radar, launch and missile approach detectors. Their limits are also defined by geometric shapes within the...E FOIZC OPLP- IZELE’A% Q CLAST D 6 I AQ3 f v r RATE Commeme I Lj%-vljtK EVA- CoMMMLF 51 ok) MA Lsu- A vwwov GV A Vc-k I m4uE A FIGURE 3-22 erVAD 3
Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-205 Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Mission and Description 6 Executive Summary 7 Threshold Breaches 8 Schedule 9 Performance 10 Track to Budget 15 Cost and...Funding 16 Low Rate Initial Production 24 Foreign Military Sales 25 Nuclear Costs 25 Unit Cost 26 Cost Variance 29 Contracts 32
TECHNICAL REPORT RDMR-SS-12-08 MISSILELAB USER’S GUIDE Lamar M. Auman System Simulation and Development Directorate...MissileLab User’s Guide 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Lamar M. Auman and Kristina Kirby-Brown 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...of the user-defined body point cells are colored yellow, while some are colored white . Yellow shaded cells indicate points that do not have a
One of the key technical questions about national missile defenses is whether they can be expected to work under real-world conditions if the attacker takes steps to defeat the defense. This talk will discuss steps that an emerging missile state could take to confuse, overwhelm, or otherwise defeat the planned US NMD system developed by the Clinton administration. It will consider three such ``countermeasures" that would be within the technical capability of a state that could develop and deploy a long-range missile capable of reaching the United States, which is the threat the NMD system is intended to defend against. The talk will be based on the April 2000 report ``Countermeasures: A Technical Evaluation of the Operational Effectiveness of the Planned US National Missile Defense System," which was co-authored by the speaker and 10 other physicists and engineers. Although the talk will refer to the ground-based NMD system under development, the conclusions are applicable to any mid-course NMD system using hit-to-kill infrared-homing interceptors, regardless of their basing mode. The three countermeasures considered are: (1) biological weapons deployed on 100 or more small bomblets, or submunitions, that would be released shortly after the boost phase; (2) nuclear warheads with anti-simulation balloon decoys, in which the attacker disguises the warhead by enclosing it in an aluminum-coated mylar balloon and releasing it along with a large number of otherwise similar but empty balloons; and (3) nuclear warheads with cooled shrouds, in which the attacker foils the kill vehicle's homing process by covering each nuclear warhead with a double-walled cone containing liquid nitrogen.
Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-498 Air Force Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Fuze Modernization (ICBM Fuze Mod) As of FY...Assigned: June 27, 2013 Program Information Program Name Air Force Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Fuze Modernization (ICBM Fuze Mod) DoD...in a memo dated August 18, 2013, titled "Air Force Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Fuze Program Phase 6.3 Development Engineering Authorization
The Purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization's proposals for a National Missile Defense (NMD). This thesis compares the costs of missile systems that will provide a NMD, such as Patriot Advanced Capability - 3 (PAC-3), Navy Area (SM-2 Block WA), Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), Navy Theater-Wide (SM-3), and the Ground-Based Interceptor (GBI). The data gathered for this thesis included unclassified performance data and the gross cost data rele...
Recent successful tests of the Theater High-Altitude Air Defense System (THAAD) and the Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV) against simulated incoming ballistic missiles have again thrust the issue of ballistic missile defense (BMD) into the policy spotlight. Scholars have typically included defense spending in studies of distributive politics. This paper studies the determinants of ballistic missile policy in Congress, distinguishing between the public sphere of floor voting and less-visible...
Butler, Geoffrey S.
The problem of estimating the performance requirements for interceptors of short range (less than 500 nm) ballistic missiles is addressed. Classical orbit determination methods are used to parametrically study the impulsive interceptor launch velocities required to intercept incoming ballistic missiles. Atmospheric and planetary rotational effects are neglected. Dependent variables include the relative positions of the interceptor and ballistic missile launch sites to the target point, interceptor acquisition delay time and depressed ballistic missile trajectories. The resulting data is reduced to a series of curves highlighting the relative impact of each parameter. Factors limiting the interceptor time of flight are shown to have the strongest influence on interceptor launch velocity requirements.
Field, George; Spergel, David
Orbiting platforms carrying infrared lasers have been proposed as weapons forming the first tier of a ballistic missile defense system under the President's Strategic Defense Initiative. As each laser platform can destroy a limited number of missiles, one of several methods of countering such a system is to increase the number of offensive missiles. Hence it is important to know whether the cost-exchange ratio, defined as the ratio of the cost to the defense of destroying a missile to the cost to the offense of deploying an additional missile, is greater or less than 1. Although the technology to be used in a ballistic missile defense system is still extremely uncertain, it is useful to examine methods for calculating the cost-exchange ratio. As an example, the cost of an orbiting infrared laser ballistic missile defense system employed against intercontinental ballistic missiles launched simultaneously from a small area is compared to the cost of additonal offensive missiles. If one adopts lower limits to the costs for the defense and upper limits to the costs for the offense, the cost-exchange ratio comes out substantially greater than 1. If these estimates are confirmed, such a ballistic missile defense system would be unable to maintain its effectiveness at less cost than it would take to proliferate the ballistic missiles necessary to overcome it and would therefore not satisfy the President's requirements for an effective strategic defense. Although the method is illustrated by applying it to a space-based infrared laser system, it should be straightforward to apply it to other proposed systems.
Rapanotti, John L.; Gilbert, Bruno; Richer, Guy; Stowe, Robert
Modern anti-tank missiles and the requirement of rapid deployment have significantly reduced the use of passive armour in protecting land vehicles. Vehicle survivability is becoming more dependent on sensors, computers and countermeasures to detect and avoid threats. An analysis of missile propellants suggests that missile detection based on plume characteristics alone may be more difficult than anticipated. Currently, the passive detection of missiles depends on signatures with a significant ultraviolet component. This approach is effective in detecting anti-aircraft missiles that rely on powerful motors to pursue high-speed aircraft. The high temperature exhaust from these missiles contains significant levels of carbon dioxide, water and, often, metal oxides such as alumina. The plumes emits strongest in the infrared, 1 to 5micrometers , regions with a significant component of the signature extending into the ultraviolet domain. Many anti-tank missiles do not need the same level of propulsion and radiate significantly less. These low velocity missiles, relying on the destructive force of shaped-charge warhead, are more difficult to detect. There is virtually no ultraviolet component and detection based on UV sensors is impractical. The transition in missile detection from UV to IR is reasonable, based on trends in imaging technology, but from the analysis presented in this paper even IR imagers may have difficulty in detecting missile plumes. This suggests that the emphasis should be placed in the detection of the missile hard body in the longer wavelengths of 8 to 12micrometers . The analysis described in this paper is based on solution of the governing equations of plume physics and chemistry. These models will be used to develop better sensors and threat detection algorithms.
Field, G; Spergel, D
Orbiting platforms carrying infrared lasers have been proposed as weapons forming the first tier of a ballistic missile defense system under the President's Strategic Defense Initiative. As each laser platform can destroy a limited number of missiles, one of several methods of countering such a system is to increase the number of offensive missiles. Hence it is important to know whether the cost-exchange ratio, defined as the ratio of the cost to the defense of destroying a missile to the cost to the offense of deploying an additional missile, is greater or less than 1. Although the technology to be used in a ballistic missile defense system is still extremely uncertain, it is useful to examine methods for calculating the cost-exchange ratio. As an example, the cost of an orbiting infrared laser ballistic missile defense system employed against intercontinental ballistic missiles launched simultaneously from a small area is compared to the cost of additional offensive missiles. If one adopts lower limits to the costs for the defense and upper limits to the costs for the offense, the cost-exchange ratio comes out substantially greater than 1. If these estimates are confirmed, such a ballistic missile defense system would be unable to maintain its effectiveness at less cost than it would take to proliferate the ballistic missiles necessary to overcome it and would therefore not satisfy the President's requirements for an effective strategic defense. Although the method is illustrated by applying it to a space-based infrared laser system, it should be straightforward to apply it to other proposed systems.
De Jong, P.; Schaap, A.
New buildings are designed for first users. For a sustainable approach there are many advantages in designing in flexibility and adjustability in order to enable and facilitate the other sequential users. For the first investor this flexibility is translated into improved exit values due to
global norm or treaty banning trade in ballistic missiles (the function of the Missile Technology Control Regime is to facilitate ad hoc coordination...No “one size fits all” – tailor your marketing literature to the prospective customer • Target your market within the Agency and do your homework
Ahmad, A.; Saad, M. R.; Che Idris, A.; Rahman, M. R. A.; Sujipto, S.
Cruise missile can be classified as a smart bomb and also Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) due to its ability to move and manoeuvre by itself without a pilot. Cruise missile flies in constant velocity in cruising stage. Malaysia is one of the consumers of cruise missiles that are imported from other nations, which can have distinct geographic factors including their local terrains compared to Malaysia. Some of the aerodynamic performances of missile such as drag and lift coefficients can be affected by the local geographic conditions in Malaysia, which is different from the origin nation. Therefore, a detailed study must be done to get aerodynamic performance of cruise missiles that operate in Malaysia. The effect of aerodynamic angles such as angle of attack and side slip can be used to investigate the aerodynamic performances of cruise missile. Hence, subsonic wind tunnel testings were conducted to obtain the aerodynamic performances of the missile at various angle of attack and sideslip angles. Smoke visualization was also performed to visualize the behaviour of flow separation. The optimum angle of attack found was at α=21° and side slip, β=10° for optimum pitching and yawing motion of cruise missile.
Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To determine the pattern of causalities of Iraqi ballistic missile attacks on Tehran, the capital of Iran, during Iraq-Iran war. Methods: Data were extracted from the Army Staff Headquarters based on daily reports of Iranian army units during the war. Results: During 52 days, Tehran was stroked by 118 Al-Hussein missiles (a modified version of Scud missile. Eighty-six missiles landed in populated areas. During Iraqi missile attacks, 422 civilians died and 1 579 injured (4.9 deaths and 18.3 injuries per missile. During 52 days, 8.1 of the civilians died and 30.4 injured daily. Of the cases that died, 101 persons (24% were excluded due to the lack of information. Among the remainders, 179 (55.8% were male and 142 (44.2% were female. The mean age of the victims was 25.3 years±19.9 years. Our results show that the high accuracy of modified Scud missiles landed in crowded ar-eas is the major cause of high mortality in Tehran. The pres-ence of suitable warning system and shelters could reduce civilian casualties. Conclusion: The awareness and readiness of civilian defense forces, rescue services and all medical facilities for dealing with mass casualties caused by ballistic missile at-tacks are necessary. Key words: Mortality; War; Mass casualty incidents; Wounds and injuries
Crumpton, Kenneth S.
The estimation of launch vehicle performance parameters was explored through the use of a Bayes Filter. The missile dynamics were modeled using a seven state system consisting of the vehicle position and velocity vectors, and the acceleration due to thrust. An assumed solution was used in the model obviating the need for a numerical integration subroutine. The filter was run with two different missile flight profiles. The program produced good approximations of the missile thrust acceleration even through staging events. The results of the Bayes filter were improved with the use of fading memory. The fading memory values were adjusted until the filter closely approximated the missile acceleration values. The filter was able to handle the second missile flight profile without any adjustment in the fading memory and with no degradation of results.
1,500 Afghanistan* Scud B USSR Argentina Alacran Condor 2 Indigenous Brazil MB/EE-150 MB/EE-300 MB/EE-600 MB/EE-1000 Indigenous SS-150 SS-300 SS-1000...aroad-mobile Scud B deriv- dor program. The Alacran is a single-stage, solid- ative for which Avibras is receiving technical as- propellant missile that...Avibras has also been working sile is the Condor 2. since 1960 on the solid-propellant motors for the The Alacran is believed to be about 6.9 m long Sonda
Finnie, J W
The neuropathological alterations in sheep associated with head wounds inflicted by a .22 calibre rifle are reported. Brain damage was manifest as a permanent haemorrhagic wound cavity produced by crushing and laceration of tissue during missile penetration, secondary tracks due to bone and bullet fragments, widely distributed stretch injuries to blood vessels, nerve fibres and neurons as a consequence of the radial forces of the temporary cavity which develops as a bullet penetrates tissue, marked subarachnoid and intraventricular haemorrhage, and distortion and displacement of the brain.
Coyle, Philip E.
America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about 10 billion per year, and proposes to add about 5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles.
Coyle, Philip E. [Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, Washington, DC (United States)
America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about $10 billion per year, and proposes to add about $5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles.
learned after the war that the Nazis had also completed fabrication of a container to transport V-2s across the Atlantic, towed by snorkel-equipped U-Boats...2002). 2 ―Missile Defense: The First Sixty Years.‖ (Washington, DC: Missile Defense Agency, August 15, 2008), 1. 3 ― V2 ,‖ in Wikipedia. 2010. http
Storlien, Len; Oakes, Nick D; Kelley, David E
...). Such capacities characterize the healthy state and can be termed 'metabolic flexibility'. However, increasing evidence points to metabolic inflexibility as a key dysfunction of the cluster of disease states encompassed by the term 'metabolic syndrome...
Fronczek, Ron C.; Hayslett, Charles R.
We present an overview of the optics and optical data gathering programs conducted at White Sands Missile Range. Activities at White Sands Missile Range have always been diverse - the first test conducted there was the world's first nuclear explosion. In the forty years since that event the range has hosted a large assortment of vehicles including V2, Nike, Aerobee, Space Shuttle, Cruise, and the Copperhead. The last three of these devices illustrate the difficulty of the White Sands optical data gathering task. One is acquired in orbit, one as it crosses through a mountain pass, and one as it issues from the muzzle of a cannon. A combination of optical, radar, video, computer, and communications technology has produced a versatile system that can satisfy the data gathering requirements of most range users. Another example of the diverse optics programs at the range is the development of the High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility (HELSTF). Because of the nature of the systems being tested, the HELSTF is full of optics and optical systems including the TRW MIRACL laser and the Hughes SEA LITE Beam Director.
Full Text Available The diffuse interface model of Saurel et al. (2008 is used for the computation of compressible cavitating flows around underwater missiles. Such systems use gas injection and natural cavitation to reduce drag effects. Consequently material interfaces appear separating liquid and gas. These interfaces may have a really complex dynamics such that only a few formulations are able to predict their evolution. Contrarily to front tracking or interface reconstruction method the interfaces are computed as diffused numerical zones, that are captured in a routinely manner, as is done usually with gas dynamics solvers for shocks and contact discontinuity. With the present approach, a single set of partial differential equations is solved everywhere, with a single numerical scheme. This leads to very efficient solvers. The algorithm derived in Saurel et al. (2009 is used to compute cavitation pockets around solid bodies. It is first validated against experiments done in cavitation tunnel at CNU. Then it is used to compute flows around high speed underwater systems (Shkval-like missile. Performance data are then computed showing method ability to predict forces acting on the system.
Şahıngıl, Mehmet Cihan
A missile warning system can detect the incoming missile threat(s) and automatically cue the other Electronic Attack (EA) systems in the suit, such as Directed Infrared Counter Measure (DIRCM) system and/or Counter Measure Dispensing System (CMDS). Most missile warning systems are currently based on passive sensor technology operating in either Solar Blind Ultraviolet (SBUV) or Midwave Infrared (MWIR) bands on which there is an intensive emission from the exhaust plume of the threatening missile. Although passive missile warning systems have some clear advantages over pulse-Doppler radar (PDR) based active missile warning systems, they show poorer performance in terms of time-to-impact (TTI) estimation which is critical for optimizing the countermeasures and also "passive kill assessment". In this paper, we consider this problem, namely, TTI estimation from passive measurements and present a TTI estimation scheme which can be used in passive missile warning systems. Our problem formulation is based on Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The algorithm uses the area parameter of the threat plume which is derived from the used image frame.
Spearman, M. Leroy
Wind tunnel investigations of some tactical and strategic missile systems developed by the former Soviet Union have been included in the basic missile research programs of the NACA/NASA. Studies of the Soviet missiles sometimes revealed innovative design features that resulted in unusual or unexpected aerodynamic characteristics. In some cases these characteristics have been such that the measured performance of the missile exceeds what might have been predicted. In other cases some unusual design features have been found that would alleviate what might otherwise have been a serious aerodynamic problem. In some designs, what has appeared to be a lack of refinement has proven to be a matter of expediency. It is a purpose of this paper to describe some examples of unusual design features of some Soviet missiles and to illustrate the effectiveness of the design features on the aerodynamic behavior of the missile. The paper draws on the experience of the author who for over 60 years was involved in the aerodynamic wind tunnel testing of aircraft and missiles with the NACA/NASA.
Levin, A. D.; Castellano, C. R.; Hague, D. S.
An aircraft-missile system which performs a high acceleration takeoff followed by a supersonic dash to a 'safe' distance from the launch site is presented. Topics considered are: (1) technological feasibility to the dash on warning concept; (2) aircraft and boost trajectory requirements; and (3) partial cost estimates for a fleet of aircraft which provide 200 missiles on airborne alert. Various aircraft boost propulsion systems were studied such as an unstaged cryogenic rocket, an unstaged storable liquid, and a solid rocket staged system. Various wing planforms were also studied. Vehicle gross weights are given. The results indicate that the dash on warning concept will meet expected performance criteria, and can be implemented using existing technology, such as all-aluminum aircraft and existing high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines.
Full Text Available In order to predict the immunity of a generic missile (GENEC, not only the electronic system but also the enclosure has to be taken into consideration. While a completely closed metallic missile enclosure shows a high electric shielding effectiveness, it is decreased substantially by apertures which could not be avoided by different reasons. The shielding effectiveness of the generic missile could be investigated by means of a hollow cylinder equipped with different apertures. Numerical simulations and measurements of this hollow cylinder will be carried out and analyzed.
The Department of Defense is taking three major actions to modernize the intercontinental ballistic missile component of the U.S. strategic forces. Specifically, DOD is: (1) developing a small ICBM and its hard mobile launcher, (2) researching other basing technology, and (3) deploying Peacekeeper (MX) missiles in Minuteman silos. Potential major issues of the small ICBM can now be identified. For instance, for a 500 missile force on hard mobile launchers: (1) life cycle cost would be about $44 billion in 1982 dollars, (2) personnel requirements would be about 20,000 people, and (3) up to 28,000 square miles of land would be required for wartime operations. The Peacekeeper program is in production while development testing continues. Results to date have been positive. Current congressional action to limit the number of missiles deployed will affect program cost and schedule.
As so-called "wooden rounds," which are intended to sit stably in storage for extended periods and then function precisely as desired, at a moment's notice, Air Force missiles would appear to be an...
Zaharia Sebastian Marian
Full Text Available Designing a ballistic missile flight depends on the mission and the stress to which the missile is subject. Missile’s requests are determined by: the organization of components; flight regime type, engine configuration and aerodynamic performance of the rocket flight. In this paper has been developed a ballistic missile with a smooth fuselage type, 10 control surfaces, 8 directional surfaces for cornering execution, 2 for maneuvers of execution to change the angle of incidence and 4 stabilizers direction. Through the technology of gluing and clamping of the shell and the use of titanium components, mass of ballistic missile presented a significant decrease in weight and a structure with high strength.
Wiegand, Ronald C
.... Heads, not tails sounds a call to the Missile Defense Agency, Strategic Command and all Services to commit to producing BPI capability (first kinetic, then directed energy), ahead of other systems and upgrades.
In order to improve ship self-defense against sea-skimming missiles, several concepts, such as the free electron laser, high-power microwaves, and the Phalanx gun system are reviewed and evaluated in this thesis...
... missile systems, see § 121.1, Cat. VIII (a), target drones and reconnaissance drones (see § 121.1, Cat...) or terrain characteristics (see § 121.1, Category XI(b) and (d)); (c) Global Positioning System (GPS...
The U.S. military must assume its future adversaries will possess arsenals that include sophisticated cruise missiles capable of being launched from multiple platforms and engaging both land and sea targets...
The chapter deals with the presupposed conflict of interests between employers and employees resulting from a decoupling of operating hours and working times. It starts from the notion that both long operating hours and flexibility are relative concepts. As there is some discretion, the ultimate
information presented in this report. Xi . ....... --------- GLOSSARY ABL Armored box launcher ACE Alternate cruise engine ACSM Advanced conventional... guidelines previously provided to the DMA by letter of June 30, 1977, for the generation of data bases required by land-attack cruise missiles that...of Air Force and Navy studies, including the Air Force Strike Options Comparison Study and the Advanced Conventional Standoff Missile ( ACSM ) Study
Ferguson, Charles D.; MacDonald, Bruce W.
We are focused on understanding the nuclear dynamics of a world in which more than one nation is developing and deploying ballistic missile defense systems for strategic purposes. Strategic purposes could mean for defense of a national territory, defending command and control centers, protecting nuclear-armed ballistic missiles to help ensure retaliatory forces, or providing political cover for development of anti-satellite weapons that could target strategic military communications as well ...
Clarke, Timothy L.
Japan's development of a missile defense system has been accompanied by the acquisition of potentially offensive military assets, an increased command and control capability, significant restructuring of the collective defense establishment, and doctrinal changes that allow pre-emption should an attack be deemed imminent. Regardless of the long-standing Japanese debate on the constitutionality of the use of force, the introduction of missile defense has institutionalized key structural el...
Malmstrom AFB, Montana in June 2017. iv Abstract Most of the attention and scholarly analysis of the Cuban Missile Crisis focuses on 13 days...their constituents by accurately articulating what is an existential threat to a nation that spans approximately 3.8 million square miles with over...to violate it. Most of the attention and scholarly analysis of the Cuban Missile Crisis focuses on 13 days, specifically 16-28 October 1962. However
Marshall, Kneale T.
This paper contains the formulation and analysis of a model to measure, compare, and contrast the effects of counterforce (pre-launch attack) and active defense (post-launch attack) against tactical ballistic missiles (TBM's). It is shown that without counterforce an active defense system could require an impractical number of weapons to counter incoming missiles and/or their warheads. This number is shown to decrease geometrically as effective counterforce is...
Ahmed M. Kamel
Full Text Available Autonomous Navigation Systems used in missiles and other high dynamic platforms are mostly dependent on the Global Positioning System (GPS. GPS users face limitations in terms of missile high dynamics and signal interference. Receiver’s tracking loops bandwidth requirements to avoid these problems are conflicting. The paper presents a novel signal frequency and phase tracking algorithm for very high dynamic conditions, which mitigates the conflicting choice of bandwidths and reduces tracking loop measurement noise. It exploits the flexibility of fuzzy control systems for directly generating the required Numerically Controlled Oscillator (NCO tuning frequency using phase and frequency discriminators information and is labeled Fuzzy Frequency Phase Lock Loop (FFPLL. Because Fuzzy Systems can be computationally demanding and an Inertial Navigation System (INS is often onboard the vehicle, an assisted INS Doppler version has been designed and is also proposed. Assessment of the new GPS tracking method is performed with both simulated and experimental data under jamming conditions. The main enhancements of the proposed system consist in reduced processing time, improved tracking continuity and faster reacquisition time.
Li, Lijuan; Liu, Ke
IR guidance has been widely used in near range dogfight air-to-air missiles while radar guidance is dominant in medium and long range air-to-air missiles. With the development of stealth airplanes and advanced electronic countermeasures, radar missiles have met with great challenges. In this article, the advantages and potential problems of applying IR guidance in medium range air-to-air missiles are analyzed. Approaches are put forward to solve the key technologies including depressing aerodynamic heating, increasing missiles' sensitivity and acquiring target after launch. IR medium range air-to-air missiles are predicted to play important role in modern battle field.
Full Text Available The case is presented for a more flexible approach to licensing online library resources. Today's distributed education environment creates pressure for UK higher and further education institutions (HEI/FEIs to form partnerships and to develop educational products and roll them out across the globe. Online library resources are a key component of distributed education and yet existing licensing agreements struggle to keep pace with the increasing range of users and purposes for which they are required. This article describes the process of developing a flexible approach to licensing and proposes a new model licence for online library resources which has the adaptability needed in this new global educational landscape. These ideas have been presented and discussed at various workshops across Eduserv's and JISC Collections' higher education and publisher communities, and further consultation is ongoing.
Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Pallesen, Trine
This report presents the first findings from our qualitative study of consumer behaviour vis-à-vis flexible consumption. The main of objective of this report is to present our first round of data from Bornholm, and to assist the design of products/services designed in WP6. In the report, we adopt...... the perspective of the consumer: what does living in a demand response setup look like to participants – and what kinds of behaviour and interest motivate – and emerge from – their participation in EcoGrid 2.0.......This report presents the first findings from our qualitative study of consumer behaviour vis-à-vis flexible consumption. The main of objective of this report is to present our first round of data from Bornholm, and to assist the design of products/services designed in WP6. In the report, we adopt...
Hawks, Michael; Perram, Glen
The depth of absorption bands in observed spectra of distant, bright sources can be used to estimate range to the source. Previous efforts in this area relied on Beer's Law to estimate range from observations of infrared CO II bands, with disappointing results. A modified approach is presented that uses band models and observations of the O II absorption band near 762 nm. This band is spectrally isolated from other atmospheric bands, which enables direct estimation of molecular absorption from observed intensity. Range is estimated by comparing observed values of band-average absorption, (see manuscript), against predicted curves derived from either historical data or model predictions. Accuracy of better than 0.5% has been verified in short-range (up to 3km) experiments using a Fourier transform interferometer at 1cm -1 resolution. A conceptual design is described for a small, affordable passive ranging sensor suitable for use on tactical aircraft for missile attack warning and time-to-impact estimation. Models are used to extrapolate experimental results (using 1 cm -1 resolution data) to analyze expected performance of this filter-based system.
Approaching “work” as at heart a practice of exchange, this volume explores sociality in work environments marked by the kind of structural changes that have come to define contemporary “flexible” capitalism. It introduces anthropological exchange theory to a wider readership, and shows how...... the perspective offers new ways to enquire about the flexible capitalism’s social dimensions. The essays contribute to a trans-disciplinary scholarship on contemporary economic practice and change by documenting how, across diverse settings, “gift-like” socialities proliferate, and even sustain the intensified...
Domke, W.K. (ed.) (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Krantz, S. (comp.) (California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA)); Stulberg, A. (comp.) (Rand Corp., Santa Monica, CA (USA))
This report is an overview of the discussions and papers given at a workshop and brainstorming secession on missile proliferation. The relationship between missiles and nuclear and chemical weapons are also discussed. (JEF)
Menon, P. K; Sweriduk, G. D; Ohlmeyer, E. J
Due to their potential for reducing the weapon size and efficiency, design methods for realizing hit-to- kill capabilities in missile systems are of significant research interest in the missile flight control community...
Fraenkel, Rami; Haski, Jacob; Mizrahi, Udi; Shkedy, Lior; Shtrichman, Itay; Pinsky, Ephi
Electro-optical missile seekers pose exceptional requirements for infrared (IR) detectors. These requirements include: very short mission readiness (time-to-image), one-time and relatively short mission duration, extreme ambient conditions, high sensitivity, fast frame rate, and in some cases small size and cost. SCD is engaged in the development and production of IR detectors for missile seeker applications for many years. 0D, 1D and 2D InSb focal plane arrays (FPAs) are packaged in specially designed fast cool-down Dewars and integrated with Joule-Thomson (JT) coolers. These cooled MWIR detectors were integrated in numerous seekers of various missile types, for short and long range applications, and are combat proven. New technologies for the MWIR, such as epi-InSb and XBn-InAsSb, enable faster cool-down time and higher sensitivity for the next generation seekers. The uncooled micro-bolometer technology for IR detectors has advanced significantly over the last decade, and high resolution - high sensitivity FPAs are now available for different applications. Their much smaller size and cost with regard to the cooled detectors makes these uncooled LWIR detectors natural candidates for short and mid-range missile seekers. In this work we will present SCD's cooled and uncooled solutions for advanced electro-optical missile seekers.
Jourdan, P; Billant, J B; Desgeorges, M
If the missile head injury treatment is relatively well codified, wound ballistic, on the other hand, is not well known of neurosurgeons. Different means of study and tissue simulants are being listed. In face of numerous contradictory results, we shall only retain the M.L. Fackler method with 10% gelatin. Experimental results will depend on: 1. Missile parameters. For instance, in soft homogeneous tissue, one can discern shells with an uncertain path, full jacketed bullets which tumble after a variable "neck", and non jacketed missiles which cause wound through "mushrooming" and/or fragmentation effect. Buckshot wounds obey the rule "all or none". 2. Body reactions, particularly the clash with a hard material like bone, which can overturn everything described in soft tissues. These wound ballistic notions have lead us to formulate two pathogenic hypothesizes, allowing us to understand sometime case reports which had first seemed paradoxical: the brain structure, enclosed in the skull will not able to survive any major temporary cavity, the more or less deep missile pathway through the skull will be very different according to the type and energy of the missile, and to the hardness of pierced bone.
Kaplan, Joseph A.; Chappell, Alan R.; Mcmanus, John W.
A generic missile model was developed to evaluate the benefits of using a dynamic missile fly-out simulation system versus a static missile launch envelope system for air-to-air combat simulation. This paper examines the performance of a launch envelope model and a missile fly-out model. The launch envelope model bases its probability of killing the target aircraft on the target aircraft's position at the launch time of the weapon. The benefits gained from a launch envelope model are the simplicity of implementation and the minimal computational overhead required. A missile fly-out model takes into account the physical characteristics of the missile as it simulates the guidance, propulsion, and movement of the missile. The missile's probability of kill is based on the missile miss distance (or the minimum distance between the missile and the target aircraft). The problems associated with this method of modeling are a larger computational overhead, the additional complexity required to determine the missile miss distance, and the additional complexity of determining the reason(s) the missile missed the target. This paper evaluates the two methods and compares the results of running each method on a comprehensive set of test conditions.
performing prelaunch missile operations (that is, launch site setup and missile erection and alignment), and degrading missile accuracy if the...employ long-term hide sites that are at greater distances from the launch areas but usually within tens of kilometers from support areas. Routine MEL
...-2010-0288] Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide provides licensees and applicants with... hurricane and design-basis hurricane-generated missiles that a nuclear power plant should be designed to...
... 2011 United States Ballistic Missile Defense Cooperation Study. Agenda: Topics tentatively scheduled... Portugal, announced a new Strategic Concept that focuses the Alliance on ballistic missiles. The timing of... Office of the Secretary Closed Meeting of the Missile Defense Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of...
Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress Ronald O’Rourke Specialist in Naval...Affairs April 5, 2016 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R41129 Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine...Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program Congressional Research Service Contents Introduction
Qian, Hua-ming; Sun, Long; Cai, Jia-nan; Peng, Yu
The traditional strapdown inertial/celestial integrated navigation method used in a ballistic missile cannot accurately estimate the accelerometer bias. It might cause a divergence of navigation errors. To solve this problem, a new navigation method named strapdown inertial/starlight refractive celestial integrated navigation is proposed. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, a simulated program of a ballistic missile is presented. The simulation results indicated that, when multiple refraction stars are used, the proposed method can accurately estimate the accelerometer bias, and suppress the divergence of navigation errors completely. Specifically, in order to apply this method to a ballistic missile, a novel measurement equation based on stellar refraction was developed. Furthermore a method to calculate the number of refraction stars observed by the stellar sensor was given. Finally, the relationship between the number of refraction stars used and the navigation accuracy is analysed.
Wei, Mo; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Wu, Yingli
In this paper, both Pareto game theory and learning theory algorithms are utilized in a resource management module for a practical missile interception system. The resource management module will determine how many and which antimissiles will be launched for interception. Such interception decisions are based on the number of invading missiles, availability of antimissiles, special capability of antimissiles, and realistic constraints on the movements of both invading missiles and antimissiles such as minimum turning radius, maximum velocity, fuel range, etc. Simulations demonstrate performance improvements when compared to existing strategies (i.e. random assignment), independent of guidance laws (i.e. Proportional Navigation (PN) or the Differential-Game-based Guidance Law (DGL) guidance laws) under end-game interception cases or midcourse interception situations.
Full Text Available Hypersonic cruise missile always adopts the configuration of waverider body with the restraint of scramjet. As a result, the lateral motion exhibits serious coupling, and the controller design of the lateral lateral system cannot be conducted separately for yaw channel and roll channel. A multiple input and multiple output optimal control method with integrators is presented to design the lateral combined control system for hypersonic cruise missile. A hypersonic cruise missile lateral model is linearized as a multiple input and multiple output plant, which is coupled by kinematics and fin deflection between yaw and roll. In lateral combined controller, the integrators are augmented, respectively, into the loop of roll angle and lateral overload to ensure that the commands are tracked with zero steady-state error. Through simulation, the proposed controller demonstrates good performance in tracking the command of roll angle and lateral overload.
Lee, Hyuk-Kee [Hyundai, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung-Eock [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
In this paper, the effect of the fluid on the impact force was evaluated using the commercial software LS-DYNA. In order to verify the proposed finite element (FE) models, the impact force and impulse of the missiles filled with the fluid (wet missile) were investigated, and the analysis results were compared with the force plate tests conducted by VTT laboratory in Finland. A parametric study was performed to evaluate the impulse as per the position filled with the fluid and the impact velocity. The impulses of the wet missiles obtained from the parametric study were compared with those calculated by the modified Riera function. The effect of the fluid on the impact force was evaluated in this study. Based on this study, the following conclusions have been obtained: (1) The impulse/momentum ratios of the wet missiles filled with fluid in the front part were larger than those filled with fluid in the middle part. The difference was 5.5%, 5.3%, 6.2%, 3.8%, 2.9% and 1.0% for the impact velocities of 100 m/s, 110 m/s, 120 m/s, 130 m/s, 140 m/s, and 150 m/s, respectively. (2) The impulse/momentum ratios of the wet missiles by the FE analysis was larger than those by the modified Riera function up to 23.1% and 20.8%, respectively, when the fluid was filled in the front and middle parts. The modified Riera function underestimated the impulses of the wet missiles.
Marquet, L. C.
Directed Energy Weapons (DEW) utilize a variety of techniques to concentrate destructive levels of energy over vast distances almost instantaneously. For this reason, directed energy systems are considered to be candidate weapons for intercepting intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM's) as they are being launched, and before they are able to release their multiple, independently targeted reentry vehicles (MIRV'S bearing nuclear warheads. Considerable leverage is gained by the defense since a single missile killed during this boost phase will eliminate not only 6 to 10 RV's, but also perhaps hundreds of decoys which would otherwise be deployed to confuse and saturate subsequent defense layers.
Kun, Ya; Chen, Xin; Li, Chuntao
For the performance of missile with high Mach number and strongly nonlinear dynamics, this paper uses robust control to design maneuver controller. Robust servomechanism linear quadratic regulator (RSLQR) control is used to form the inner loop and proportional-plus-integral (PI) control is used to provide yawing tracking with no error. Contrast simulations under three types of deviation have been done to confirm robustness of the RSLQR-plus-PI control. Simulation results shows that RSLQR-plus-PI control would resist the disturbance and maintain the properties of the controller, guarantee the robustness and stability of missile more effectively than pure PI control.
Full Text Available This research article investigates the squeezing flow of Newtonian fluid with variable viscosity over a stretchable sheet inserted in Darcy porous medium. Cattaneo-Christov double diffusion models are implemented to scrutinize the characteristics of heat and mass transfer via variable thermal conductivity and variable mass diffusivity. These models are the modification of conventional laws of Fourierâs and Fickâs via thermal and solutal relaxation times respectively. The homotopy analysis Method (HAM is being utilized to provide the solution of highly nonlinear system of coupled partial differential equations after converted into dimensionless governing equations. The behavior of flow parameters on velocity, concentration, and temperature distributions are sketched and analyzed physically. The result indicates that both concentration and temperature distributions decay for higher solutal and thermal relaxation parameters respectively. Keywords: Squeezing flow, Porous medium, Variable viscosity, Cattaneo-Christov heat and mass flux models, Variable thermal conductivity, Variable mass diffusivity
Sen, Guo; Munan, Li
The target of cooperative engagement of missile teams is to furthest improve hit rate of target according to communication and cooperation among missiles. In this paper the problems of image fusion between missile teams in complex combat environment was analyzed, after which an muti-agent blackboard cooperative model was presented and a public information platform of missile team is built according to this model. Through these, the fusion of images taken from muti-sensor of missiles can be realized and the hit rate of attacking target will be improved. At last, an simulation experiment were performed, and the feasibility of the method is proved by simulation experiment.
PLA and could play a key enabling role in Chinese counter- intervention campaigns (Hagen, 2010; Vick , 2011).9 The topic holds particular importance for...capabilities ( Vick et al., 2001, pp. 57–81). A TEL can begin moving soon after it has launched a missile, meaning that the target location error...States detects a missile launch, it could be anywhere within a 35-km2 circle after 10 minutes ( Vick et al., 2001, p. 73). Even if the TEL has to wait
Khan, Feroz Hassan (Pakistan Army, Islamabad, Pakistan); Vannoni, Michael Geoffrey; Rajen, Gaurav (Gaia Research Consulting, Albuquerque, NM)
India and Pakistan have created sizeable ballistic missile forces and are continuing to develop and enlarge them. These forces can be both stabilizing (e.g., providing a survivable force for deterrence) and destabilizing (e.g., creating strategic asymmetries). Missile forces will be a factor in bilateral relations for the foreseeable future, so restraint is necessary to curtail their destabilizing effects. Such restraint, however, must develop within an atmosphere of low trust. This report presents a set of political and operational options, both unilateral and bilateral, that decreases tensions, helps rebuild the bilateral relationship, and prepares the ground for future steps in structural arms control. Significant steps, which build on precedents and do not require extensive cooperation, are possible despite strained relations. The approach is made up of three distinct phases: (1) tension reduction measures, (2) confidence building measures, and (3) arms control agreements. The goal of the first phase is to initiate unilateral steps that are substantive and decrease tensions, establish missiles as a security topic for bilateral discussion, and set precedents for limited bilateral cooperation. The second phase would build confidence by expanding current bilateral security agreements, formalizing bilateral understandings, and beginning discussion of monitoring procedures. The third phase could include bilateral agreements limiting some characteristics of national missile forces including the cooperative incorporation of monitoring and verification.
of Sydney. This article draws on the authors’ book A Low-Visibility Force Multiplier: Assessing China’s Cruise Missile Ambitions (NDU Press, 2014...infrastructure; didactic PLA discussions (Modern Navy and People’s Navy); generalist deliberations on the de- velopment trajectory and operational use of
Hildreth, Steven A; Ek, Carl
...) in Europe to defend against an Iranian missile threat. The system would include 10 interceptors in Poland, and radar in the Czech Republic. Deployment of the European GMD capability is scheduled to be completed by 2013 at a cost of $4.04 billion.
And the situation will continue to be so unless tertiary care hospitals are set up within and around the armed and conflict zones, war torn areas and battle fields, rather than risking transportation, time of resuscitation, intervention and the results. Key words: Craniocerebral, Kashmir, Missile Injuries, Outcome.
United States began to evaluate ways to protect against ballistic missile attack. This study led to the development of the Nike- Zeus System, which...34 because they do Live o a resevation. in a VA my left temple . i believe I am part Cherokee Indian. I believe hospital, are handicapped. there was
The aerodynamic heating of a ballistic missile due to only convection is analysed taking into consideration the effects of gravity. The amount of heat transferred to the wetted area and to the nose region has been separately determined, unlike A Miele's treatise without consideration of gravity. The peak heating ratesto the ...
Abstract. The aerodynamic heating of a ballistic missile due to only convection is analysed taking into consideration the effects of gravity. The amount of heat transferred to the wetted area and to the nose region has been separately determined, unlike A Miele's treatise without consideration of gravity. The peak heating rates ...
Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 4 (1979) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Missiles and aircraft - Part 4. C Meyer. Abstract.
Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 4 (1978) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Missiles and aircraft (Part 1).
Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 3 (1979) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Missiles and aircraft (Part 3).
Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (1979) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Missiles and aircraft (part 2).
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Flexible Electronics Research Facility designs, synthesizes, tests, and fabricates materials and devices compatible with flexible substrates for Army information...
Alexey I. Podberezkin
Full Text Available The article analyses the political and military aspects of progress in the dialogue between Russia and the U.S./NATO on cooperation in missile defense; investigates the past experiences and current state of cooperation between Russia and the Alliance on missile defense issues; examines the technical features of American missile defence systems today; finds a solution to question whether or not the European Missile Defence Program actually threatens Russia's nuclear deterrent and strategic stability in general; identifies both potential benefits and possible losses for Russia stemming from the development of cooperation with the United States and NATO in countering ballistic missile threats, or from refusal to have such cooperation. Evidently, the initiative of creation of a missile defense in Europe surely belongs to the USA. Washington has enormous technological, financial, economic, military and institutional capabilities in the field of a missile defense, exceeding by far other NATO member-states. In February 2010, the President of the United States B. Obama adopted a project "European Phased Adaptive Approach" (EPAA as an alternative to G. Bush's global strategic missile defense plan. The first two stages of the Phased Adaptive Approach are focused on creating a system capable of intercepting small, medium and intermediate-range ballistic missiles. The possibility of intercepting long-range missiles is postponed to the third (2018 and forth phases (2020. Moscow finds especially troublesome the third and the fourth phases of Washington's project of creating a European segment of the global antiballistic missile system, considering prospective capabilities of the U.S. interceptor missiles 61 and the envisioned areas of their deployment. The U.S. counter-evidence is that phase four interceptors do not exist yet. Russia insists on getting the political and legal guarantees from the U.S. and NATO that their missile defense systems will not slash
Riccitiello, S. R.; Sawko, P. M. (Inventor)
Flexible intumescent protection sheeting of unusually uniform thickness were prepared from epoxy-polysulfide compositions, containing microfibers and the ammonium salt of 1,4-nitroaniline-2-sulfonic acid, as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,663,464, except that an ammonium salt particle size in the order of 5 to 8 microns and a fiber size of about 1/128th inch in length and 3 to 5 microns in diameter were found critical to obtain the required density of 1.46 to 1.50 g/cc. The insulation sheeting was prepared by a continuous process involving vacuum mixing, calendering, and curing under very strict conditions which depend to some extent upon the thickness of the sheet produced.
Paterson, Thomas S.
Due to the cost and complexity of infrared and radar sensors, visible sensors could be a useful alternative for strategic defense surveillance systems, provided the threat is exposed to sunlight for a significant portion of its trajectory. This paper examines the exposure of ballistic missile trajectories to sunlight as a function of solar latitude (time of year) and launch time. Nine representative trajectories were chosen to illustrate the effects of range, apogee, and maximum latitude on sunlight exposure. It was found that certain Soviet-to-CONUS trajectories would be completely in the Earth's shadow only when launched during a brief time window on or near the winter solstice. Certain SLBM trajectories had full-shadow launch windows from late fall to early spring. However, trajectories representing those of SS-18's flew very close to the pole, exposing most of their paths to sunlight regardless of launch time or solar latitude. Weighting the trajectories to represent aggregates of a Soviet spike attack, at least 69 percent of the threat was exposed to sunlight for at least 500 seconds on the winter solstice, and at least 95 percent was exposed on the spring/fall equinoxes. These percentages exceed the JCS requirements of a Phase One Strategic Defense System, particularly because of the susceptibility of SS-18 trajectories to sunlight exposure.
Full Text Available Linear first/second order fin direct current (DC actuator model approximations for missile applications are currently limited to angular position and angular velocity state variables. Furthermore, existing literature with detailed DC motor models is decoupled from the application of interest: tail controller missile lateral acceleration (LATAX performance. This paper aims to integrate a generic DC fin actuator model with dual-mode feedforward and feedback control for tail-controlled missiles in conjunction with the autopilot system design. Moreover, the characteristics of the actuator torque information in relation to the aerodynamic fin loading for given missile trim velocities are also provided. The novelty of this paper is the integration of the missile LATAX autopilot states and actuator states including the motor torque, position and angular velocity. The advantage of such an approach is the parametric analysis and suitability of the fin actuator in relation to the missile lateral acceleration dynamic behaviour.
Full Text Available Missile is a guided weapon and designed to protect outermost island from a thread of other country. It, commonly, is used as self defense. This research presented surface-to-surface missile in final dive manoeuvre for fixed target. Furthermore, it was proposed manoeuvring based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, autopilot system, which needs accuration and minimum both time and thrust of missile while attacking object. This paper introduced pontryagin’s Minimum Principle, which is useable to solve the problem. The numerical solution showed that trajectory of the missile is split it up in three sub-intervals; flight, climbing, and diving. The numerical simulation showed that the missile must climb in order to satisfy the final dive condition and the optimum time of a missile depend on initial condition of the altitude and the terminal velocity
Kozlovsky, Alexander; Shalimov, Sergey; Lukianova, Renata
We report on ionosonde and meteor radar observations made in Sodankyla Geophysical Observatory (SGO, 67N, 27E, Finland) on December 9, 2009 during a test launch of the Russian solid propellant military missile. Because of the technical problem the missile was self-destroyed around 07 UT at ionospheric height (170-260 km) over the Kola Peninsula (Russia), at a distance about 500 km to east from the observatory. Products of the explosion, including long-lived ionized aluminum oxides, were spread into the large area and reached the region of SGO meteor radar observations in about 2 hours (around 09 UT). After about 3 hours (around 10 UT) a sporadic E layer presumably composed of the remains was observed close to the zenith of the SGO ionosonde. We present the data and discuss possible mechanisms accounting for both vertical and horizontal transport of the remains. Theoretical estimations suggest that the observed transport could be likely due to thermospheric turbulence.
Long, Robert L.; Boor, R.A.; Cole, W.M.; Elder, G.E.
A brief statement of the mission of the White Sands Missile Range Nuclear Effects Laboratory is given. The new Nuclear Effects Laboratory Facility is described. This facility consists of two buildings-a laboratory and a reactor building. The White Sands Missile Range bare critical assembly, designated as the MoLLY-G, is described. The MoLLY-G, an unreflected, unmoderated right circular cylinder of uranium-molybdenum alloy designed for pulsed operation, will have a maximum burst capability of approximately 2 x 10/sup 17/ fissions with a burst width of 50 microseconds. The reactor construction and operating procedures are described. As designed, the MoLLY-G will provide an intense source of pulsed neutron and gamma radiation for a great variety of experimental and test arrangements. (auth)
Yong Hua Fan
Full Text Available A discrete variable structure control (DVSC with sliding vector is presented to track the velocity and acceleration command for a hypersonic cruise missile. In the design an integrator is augmented to ensure the tracking with zero steady-state errors. Furthermore the sliding surface of acceleration is designed using the error of acceleration and acceleration rate to avoid the singularity of control matrix. A proper power rate reaching law is utilized in this proposal; therefore the state trajectory from any initial point can be driven into the sliding surface. Besides, in order to validate the robustness of controller, the unmolded dynamic and parameter disturbance of the missile are considered. Through simulation the proposed controller demonstrates good performance in tracking velocity and acceleration command.
HOST Host Installation Host Interface Host Nation Support Hostile Environment Hostile Track hp HPA HPC HPCC HPG HPI HPIR HPL HPM HQ...NL NLO NLOS NLT nm NMA NMC NMCC NMCS NMD NMD 3+3 NMD GBR NMD HPT NMDJPO NTCS Intelligence Processing Service (USN term). OBSOLETE...Range Insensitive Axes . Reverse Illuminated Blocked Impurity Transducer. Retro Intercontinental Ballistic Missile. Royal Institute of International
no need to culti- vate missiles as an RMA since it had developed and deployed forward-based air forces and carrier battle groups for power projec...they were stopped cold by the Soviets at Kursk in 1943. The US RMA of global power projection based upon forward air bases and carriers has yet to...areas with minimal ability to conduct a battle damage assessment, except for that announced on public news broadcasts. Threat technical
constrained) KARMAN - von Karman (L-D Haack; length-diameter constrained) • If DAFT < DCENTR the afterbody is a boattail. • If DAFT > DCENTR the...or 1> (tangent ogive) - CONICAL LAFT - Afterbody length L 0. DAFT - Afterbody diameter at base (must be > 0 and not equal to...DCENTR, LAFT, DAFT , and DEXIT should also be defined when using the AXIBOD option 2 input scheme. If they are not specified, Missile Datcom will use
Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-555 Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile (JASSM) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...6 Mission and Description 7 Executive Summary 8 Threshold Breaches 10 Schedule 11 Performance 14 Track to Budget 16 Cost...and Funding 17 Low Rate Initial Production 33 Foreign Military Sales 34 Nuclear Costs 34 Unit Cost 35 Cost Variance 41 Contracts
6. 50Hughs, p. 38. For a discussion of the shortcomings of the Patriot defenses, see Theodore A. Postol , "Lessons of the Gulf War Experience with...34 December 1991. Postol , Theodore A. "Lessons of the Gulf War Experience with Patriot." International Security 16 (Winter 1991/1992): 119-171. Potter, William...Corps SAM, expected to have a missile defense footprint of about 40 kIn; --Theater High Altitude Area Defense ( THAAD ), expected to defend a
Hughes, Christopher W.
Since December 1998, the Japanese government has formally committed itself to undertake cooperative technological research with the US into Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD). Japanese government policy-makers stress that the BMD project remains at present purely at the research stage, and that separate government decisions will be necessary before any progression towards the stages of development, production and deployment. Nevertheless, even at the research phase it is clear that both Japanese...
Nowell, John B., Jr.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This study utilizes regression analysis to develop equations which relate missile overall and subsection weights and geometries, including wings and fins, to variables which are considered to be the input for a new design in the conceptual or preliminary design phase, These variables include packaging requirements such as maximum length, diameter and weight, as well as performance characteristics such as mission an range. Data for th...
Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-492 Patriot Advanced Capability-3 Missile Segment Enhancement ( PAC -3 MSE) As of FY 2017...President’s Budget Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) March 21, 2016 09:42:58 UNCLASSIFIED PAC -3 MSE December 2015 SAR March...ORD - Operational Requirements Document OSD - Office of the Secretary of Defense O&S - Operating and Support PAUC - Program Acquisition Unit Cost PAC
J. Yu. Parshkova
Full Text Available The article reflects the US officials' point of view on the development of its national missile defense. The major threat to international security is the proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction. The United States and the former Soviet Union made huge efforts to reduce and limit offensive arms. However, presently the proliferation of ballistic missiles spreads all over the world, especially in the Middle East, because of the ballistic missile technology falling into the hands of hostile non-state groups. Missile defenses can provide a permanent presence in a region and discourage adversaries from believing they can use ballistic missiles to coerce or intimidate the U.S. or its allies. With the possible attack regional missile defense systems will be promptly mobilized to enhance an effective deterrent. The ultimate goal of such large-scale missile defense deployment is to convince the adversaries that the use of ballistic missiles is useless in military terms and that any attack on the United States and its allies is doomed to failure. The United States has missile defense cooperative programs with a number of allies, including United Kingdom, Japan, Australia, Israel, Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Czech Republic, Poland, Italy and many others. The Missile Defense Agency also actively participates in NATO activities to maximize opportunities to develop an integrated NATO ballistic missile defense capability. The initiative of the development of US BMD naturally belongs to the United States. That country has enormous technological, financial, economic, military and institutional capabilities, exceeding by far those of the other NATO members combined.
Lesiw, Richard T.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis analyzes the current status of the Russian Federation's ballistic missile submarine force. It reviews the history of the ballistic missile submarine force, its current status, and the implementation of plans currently in progress and as well as the advantages and disadvantages of maintaining a ballistic missile submarine force. This thesis also assesses the other two legs of the nuclear triad - the intercontinental balli...
Full Text Available An efficient empirical approach was developed to accurately represent the blast shock wave loading resulting from the launch of a missile from a military aircraft to be used in numerical analyses. Based on experimental test series of missile launches in laboratory environment and from a helicopter, equations were derived to predict the time- and position-dependent overpressure. The method was finally applied and validated in a structural analysis of a helicopter tail boom under missile launch shock wave loading.
Missile-3 THAAD Terminal High Altitude Area Defense This is a work of the U.S. government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United... THAAD ) THAAD is a mobile, ground-based missile defense system designed to defend against short- and medium-range ballistic missiles in the late...middle and end of their flight. THAAD is organized as a battery, which includes interceptors, launchers, an AN/TPY-2 radar, a fire control and
SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Counterforce and Theater Missile Defense: Can the Army Use an ASW Approach to the SCUD Hunt ? (U) B. AUTHOR(S) James J. Wirtz...ABSTRACT Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified I TL 0 COUNTERFORCE AND THEATER MISSILE DEFENSE: CAN THE ARMY USE AN ASW APPROACH TO THE SCUD HUNT ...alliance relations and deterrence. V COUNTERFORCE AND THEATER MISSILE DEFENSE: CAN THE ARMY USE AN ASW APPRO CH TO THE SCUD HUNT ? Introduction. As events
Missile Defense Plan,” Arms Control Today, May 2010: 24-32. The quoted passage appears on p. 26. The associated white paper is George N. Lewis and...8217 new SMART -L long-range naval radar could be integrated into U.S. ballistic missile defense architectures, namely the Aegis Ashore system in Europe...upgraded and rearchitectured SMART -L D-band volume search radar that will give the ships a ballistic missile defence (BMD) early warning capability
REPORT OF THE DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD TASK FORCE ON Defense Strategies for Advanced Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threats January 2017 Office of...Science Board Task Force on Defense Strategies for Advanced Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threats completed its information-gathering in February 2016...Defense Strategies fo r Advanced Ballistic and Crui se Missile Threats l am pleased to forward the final report of the DSB Task Force on Defense
Steckl, Andrew J.; You, Han; Kim, Duk-Young
Electrowetting (EW) technology is shown to be quite flexible in operation and able to operate on flexible substrates. Complementary ON/OFF characteristics of EW devices have been obtained through a plasma irradiation and annealing process. This enables the design of EW array operation in a reduced power mode. Examples of EW operation on flexible substrates are discussed. This includes paper, plastic and metal substrates. Prototypes of flexible EW arrays on plastic substrates are demonstrated to switch reversibly by applying a low voltage difference (20 V). The array operation is maintained even when the display is mechanically flexed. These results indicate the promise of flexible EW devices for mobile and other devices, including video rate flexible e-paper.
McComas, Brian K.
A Missile Defense Sensor is a complex optical system, which sits idle for long periods of time, must work with little or no on-board calibration, be used to find and discriminate targets, and guide the kinetic warhead to the target within minutes of launch. A short overview of the Missile Defense problem will be discussed here, as well as, the top-level performance drivers, like Noise Equivalent Irradiance (NEI), Acquisition Range, and Dynamic Range. These top-level parameters influence the choice of optical system, mechanical system, focal plane array (FPA), Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC), and cryogenic system. This paper will not only discuss the physics behind the performance of the sensor, but it will also discuss the "art" of optimizing the performance of the sensor given the top level performance parameters. Balancing the sensor sub-systems is key to the sensor's performance in these highly stressful missions. Top-level performance requirements impact the choice of lower level hardware and requirements. The flow down of requirements to the lower level hardware will be discussed. This flow down directly impacts the FPA, where careful selection of the detector is required. The flow down also influences the ROIC and cooling requirements. The key physics behind the detector and cryogenic system interactions will be discussed, along with the balancing of subsystem performance. Finally, the overall system balance and optimization will be discussed in the context of missile defense sensors and expected performance of the overall kinetic warhead.
Calhoon, W. H; Kenzakowski, D. C
... components and missile defense systems. Current engineering level models neglect turbulent-chemistry interactions and typically underpredict the intensity of plume afterburning and afterburning burnout...
... components and missile defense systems. Current engineering level models neglect turbulence chemistry interactions and typically underpredict the intensity of plume afterburning and afterburning burnout...
Khaji, Ali; Fallahdoost, Shoaodin; Soroush, Mohammad Reza
To determine the nature and extent of Iranian casualties by ballistic missile attacks during the eight years of the Iraq-Iran war. The data collected about Iraqi missile strikes on Iranian cities included the following: date and time, number and type of missiles, cities targeted, and injuries and deaths resulting from impacts of missiles in civilian areas. The data were extracted from a database that was constructed by the army staff headquarters based on daily reports of Iranian army units during the war. Over a period of eight years (1980-1988), Iraqi army fired 533 ballistic missiles at Iranian territories. From those, 414 missiles (77.7%) landed on Iranian cities. The impacts of these missiles caused the deaths of 2,312 civilians and injured 11,625 others. Three types of ballistic missiles were used: FROG-7, Scud, and Al-Hussein (a modified version of the Scud missile). Twenty-seven cities in Iran were struck by Iraqi ballistic missiles. The highest mortalities from ballistic missiles were in Dezful and Tehran. Iraqi missile attacks continued for 90 months (2,748 days). Our results point to the necessity of investigating the psychological consequences of Iraqi ballistic missile attacks among survivors in 27 Iranian cities during the eight years of the Iraq-Iran war.
Automated precise guided missile defence has been around for some years, and is a modern-day mechanism used frequently since 2011 to defend against rocket attacks penetrating national airspace. Israel's automated Iron Dome Missile Defence System has intercepted over 1 000 rockets during two recent military ...
... to sound produced by the engines of all launch vehicles, and, in some cases, their booster rockets... Marine Mammals Incidental to Missile Launch Operations from San Nicolas Island, CA AGENCY: National... three species of seals and sea lions incidental to missile launch operations from San Nicolas Island...
Ruffin, Paul B.
The military market drives the thrust for the development of robust, high performance MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) devices with applications such as: competent and smart munitions, aircraft and missile autopilots, tactical missile guidance, fire control systems, platform stabilization, smart structures with embedded inertial sensors, missile system health monitoring, aerodynamic flow control, and multiple intelligent small projectiles. Army missile applications will be a fertile market for MEMS products, such as MEMS-based inertial sensors. MEMS technology should significantly enhance performance and provide more robust mission capability in applications where arrays of MEMS devices are required. The Army Aviation and Missile Command Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center is working diligently with other government agencies, academia, and industry to develop high performing MEMS devices to withstand shock, vibration, temperature, humidity, and long-term storage conditions often encountered by Army missile systems. The goals of the ongoing DARPA MEMS technology programs will meet a significant portion of the Army missile systems requirements. In lieu of presenting an all-inclusive review of Army MEMS applications, this paper addresses a number of opportunities and associated challenges for MEMS systems operating in military environments. Near term applications and the less mature, high-risk applications of MEMS devices are addressed.
Trottemant, E.J.; Vermeulen, A.; Weiss, M.
New developments and improvements on evasive missiles have led to a situation in which the current missile guidance laws have difficulties to intercept maneuvering targets. The nature of the interception problem with 2 non-cooperative players leads to the field of differential games. Recent studies
Maltese, Dominique; Lucas, Andre
Nowadays, Combat Systems have to counter different kinds of threats including surface targets and air targets. In that last case, fast-moving incoming missiles such as BUNT missiles turn out to be the most threatening ones. Indeed, their maneuver capabilities are difficult to be managed by tracking processes. Plus, when a defense missile launched by the fire system is remote conrolled, threat maneuvers may decrease the interception capabilities of the Combat System i.e. the Probability to Kill (PK). The article addresses this situation. A practical aglorithm of data fusion is presented; the case studied is a short-range fire control platform. The Combat System features a dual-sensor system that combines a Track Radar and a Thermal Imager while a Missile Guidance Unit (MGU) takes into account the incoming target and the Defense Missile tracks to remote control the missile towards its target. Then, statistic results of tracking performances and interception sequences are given for different incoming missile scenarios and sensors suites (radar-alone configuration, combination of the active sensor with a Thermal Imager). They highlight how data fusion reacts with the overall anti-missiles fire system performances and especially its miss distance.
Khaji, Ali; Fallahdoost, Shoaodin; Soroush, Mohammad-Reza; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
To determine the pattern of causalities of Iraqi ballistic missile attacks on Tehran, the capital of Iran, during Iraq-Iran war. Data were extracted from the Army Staff Headquarters based on daily reports of Iranian army units during the war. During 52 days, Tehran was stroked by 118 Al-Hussein missiles (a modified version of Scud missile). Eighty-six missiles landed in populated areas. During Iraqi missile attacks, 422 civilians died and 1 579 injured (4.9 deaths and 18.3 injuries per missile). During 52 days, 8.1 of the civilians died and 30.4 injured daily. Of the cases that died, 101 persons (24%) were excluded due to the lack of information. Among the remainders, 179 (55.8%) were male and 142 (44.2%) were female. The mean age of the victims was 25.3 years+/-19.9 years. Our results show that the high accuracy of modified Scud missiles landed in crowded areas is the major cause of high mortality in Tehran. The presence of suitable warning system and shelters could reduce civilian casualties. The awareness and readiness of civilian defense forces, rescue services and all medical facilities for dealing with mass casualties caused by ballistic missile attacks are necessary.
Wilkening, Dean A.
This chapter explains and summarizes the main findings of a recent National Research Council study entitled Making Sense of Ballistic Missile Defense: An Assessment of Concepts and Systems for U.S. Boost-Phase Missile Defense in Comparison to Other Alternatives.
... Acquisition 225.7016 Restriction on Ballistic Missile Defense research, development, test, and evaluation. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on Ballistic Missile Defense research, development, test, and evaluation. 225.7016 Section 225.7016 Federal Acquisition...
... Part 334 Pacific Ocean Off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii... of the Pacific Ocean off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii... Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii by increasing the water area...
In flexible endoscopy a flexible tube with a steerable camera is used to inspect the internal patient tracts and to perform small surgical interventions. In current practice the physician is faced with usability problems. Often assistance is required to manipulate the flexible endoscope and the
Bandstra, R. W.
A computer program is developed to model a spinning intercontinental Ballistic Missile (IICBM) during the first stage boost phase. The equations of motion are derived and presented and a full rotation matrix is used to show the relationship between a launch-centered, nonrotating earth inertial reference frame and the missile body reference frame. The moments of inertia and aerodynamic forces are derived and presented. A feedback controller is derived which proved to be a necessary additiion to the system in order to reduce the angle of attack. The angle of attack of the missile produced adverse effects on the burnout vector without the feedback controller, but the effects are reduced considerably with the controller included. Problem areas include possibly excessive nozzle gimbal rates caused by the feedback controller and the need to change the initial kick angle if the missile is spinning in order to achieve the same burnout conditions as a nonspinning missile.
Hadas, N; Schiffer, J; Rogev, M; Shperber, Y
Tangential missile wounds of the head without skull fracture are a known entity. Usually, references in the literature indicate that this type of injury results from a high-velocity missile impact. We present a case of a tangential missile head wound caused by a low-velocity missile. As the range of fire was short, the quantity of energy that might be released could be equated with that released by a high-velocity missile fired from a much longer range. This possibility should be brought to the attention of clinicians as an essential element in this pre-treatment clinical evaluation. We propose a pathomechanical explanation for the development of the clinical state.
Montero Yéboles, Daniel
Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles are capable of placing a nuclear warhead at more than 5,000 km away from its launching base. With the lethal power of a nuclear warhead a whole city could be wiped out by a single weapon causing millions of deaths. This means that the threat posed to any country from a single ICBM captured by a terrorist group or launched by a 'rogue' state is huge. This threat is increasing as more countries are achieving nuclear and advanced launcher capabilities. In orde...
Chvala, William D.; Solana, Amy E.; States, Jennifer C.; Warwick, William M.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dixon, Douglas R.
The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewable Energy Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.
Wu, Longlong; Xu, Shiyou; Li, Gang; Chen, Zengping
In order to extract precession frequency, an crucial parameter in ballistic target recognition, which reflected the kinematical characteristics as well as structural and mass distribution features, we developed a dynamic RCS signal model for a conical ballistic missile warhead, with a log-norm multiplicative noise, substituting the familiar additive noise, derived formulas of micro-Doppler induced by precession motion, and analyzed time-varying micro-Doppler features utilizing time-frequency transforms, extracted precession frequency by measuring the spectrogram's texture, verified them by computer simulation studies. Simulation demonstrates the excellent performance of the method proposed in extracting the precession frequency, especially in the case of low SNR.
This photograph of Dr. von Braun, shown here to the left of General Bruce Medaris, was taken in the fall of 1959, immediately prior to Medaris' retirement from the Army. At the time, von Braun and his associates worked for the Army Ballistics Missile Agency in Huntsville, Alabama. Those in the photograph have been identified as Ernst Stuhlinger, Frederick von Saurma, Fritz Mueller, Hermarn Weidner, E.W. Neubert (partially hidden), W.A. Mrazek, Karl Heimburg, Arthur Rudolph, Otto Hoberg, von Braun, Oswald Lange, Medaris, Helmut Hoelzer, Hans Maus, E.D. Geissler, Hans Heuter, and George Constan.
Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent
sourcing flexibility. Here we draw on prior research in the fields of organizational flexibility, international business and global sourcing as well as case examples and secondary studies. In the second part of the paper, we discuss the implications of global sourcing flexibility for firm strategy...... and operations against the backdrop of the theory-based definition of the construct. We discuss in particular the importance of global sourcing flexibility for operational performance stability, and the trade-off between specialization benefits, emerging from location and service provider specialization, versus...... flexibility. We finally discuss implications for management and international business research, within and beyond the domain of global services sourcing....
Kozlovsky, Alexander; Shalimov, Sergey; Lukianova, Renata; Lester, Mark
We report on ionosonde and meteor radar observations made in Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (SGO, 67°22'N, 26°38'E, Finland) on 9 December 2009, during a test launch of the Russian solid propellant military missile. Due to a technical problem, the missile was self-destroyed around 07 UT at an ionospheric height (near 200 km altitude) over the Kola Peninsula (Russia), at a distance about 500 km to east from the observatory. Products of the explosion were spread into a large area and reached the region of SGO meteor radar observations in about 2 h (around 09 UT). After about 3 h (around 10 UT), a sporadic E layer presumably composed of the remains including long-lived metallic (aluminum and its oxides) ions, was observed near the zenith of the SGO ionosonde. We discuss possible mechanisms accounting for transport of the remains. (1) Since the event occurred during a long-lasting period of extremely low solar and magnetic activity, the ionospheric electric field was unlikely to play a substantial role in the transport of the remains and sporadic E layer formation. (2) The horizontal transport of the remains cannot be explained by the neutral winds based on empirical models. (3) Theoretical estimations suggest that the observed transport could be due to thermospheric turbulence.
Full Text Available SAR raw signal simulation under the case of maneuver and high-speed has been a challenging and urgent work recently. In this paper, a new method based on one-dimensional fast Fourier transform (1DFFT algorithm is presented for raw signal simulation of maneuvering target for missile-borne SAR. Firstly, SAR time-domain raw signal model is given and an effective Range Frequency Azimuth Time (RFAT algorithm based on 1DFFT is derived. In this algorithm, the “Stop and Go” (SaG model is adopted and the wide radar scattering characteristic of target is taken into account. Furthermore, the “Inner Pulse Motion” (IPM model is employed to deal with high-speed case. This new RFAT method can handle the maneuvering cases, high-speed cases, and bistatic radar cases, which are all possible in the missile-borne SAR. Besides, this raw signal simulation adopts the electromagnetic scattering calculation so that we do not need a scattering rate distribution map as the simulation input. Thus, the multiple electromagnetic reflections can be considered. Simulation examples prove the effectiveness of our method.
Higgins, Christopher J.; Salmon, Neil A.
QinetiQ has used a suite of modelling tools to predict the millimetric plume signatures from a range of ballistic missile types, based on the accepted theory that Bremsstrahlung emission, generated by the collision of free electrons with neutral species in a rocket motor plume, is the dominant signature mechanism. Plume signatures in terms of radiation temperatures varied from a few hundred Kelvin to over one thousand Kelvin, and were predicted to be dependent on emission frequency, propellant type and missile thrust. Two types of platform were considered for the passive mmw imager launch detection system; a High Altitude Platform Station (HAPS) and a satellite based platform in low, mid and geosynchronous earth orbits. It was concluded that the optimum operating frequency for a HAPS based imager would be 35GHz with a 4.5m aperture and a sensitivity of 20mK providing visibility through 500 vertical feet of cloud. For a satellite based platform with a nadir view, the optimum frequency is 220 GHz. With such a system, in a low earth orbit at an altitude of 320km, with a sensitivity of 20mK, a 29cm aperture would be desirable.
Lavie; Amit; Epstein; Tzischinsky
The present paper reports on the influence of the Scud missile attacks during the Gulf War on the sleep of Israeli children. Two studies were performed. In the first, sleep habits and sleep disturbances of 61 (mean age 20 months) infants were assessed by questionnaires completed by their parents 5 months before the war and immediately after the end of the War. Comparison of pre- and post-war data revealed no major changes in sleep habits or in sleep quality. In the second study, sleep of 55 children was monitored at home by actigraphs during the last month of the War. All children were aroused during missile attacks, but returned to sleep immediately, with no evidence of carry-over effects once the 'all clear' sign was given. Comparison of sleep quality measures obtained during the War with those of age- and sex-matched children monitored a year before the war did not reveal any significant differences apart from the immediate response to the attack.
Gao, Wei; Tie, Weitao
In order to test and evaluate the jamming effect of electronic warfare weapons on missiles, a method based on seeker captive flight jamming test and missile flight simulation test is put forward, in which real data for the jamming effect of the electronic warfare weapon on seekers is obtained by seeker captive flight jamming test, and immitted into a missile digital simulation system to perform large numbers of missile flight simulation tests under jamming, then one could evaluate the jamming effect of the electronic warfare weapon on missiles according to the simulation test results. The method is demonstrated and validated by test and evaluation of the jamming effect of a smokescreen jamming device on TV guidance missiles. The results show that, the method proposed here not only overcomes the shortcomings of both pure digital simulation test and field test, but also combines their advantages, thus could be taken as an easy, economical and reliable method for testing and evaluating electronic jamming effect on missiles.
Ocokoljić Goran J.
Full Text Available This paper presents modification of the existing guided missile which was done by replacing the existing front part with the new five, while the rear part of the missile with rocket motor and missile thrust vector control system remains the same. The shape of all improved front parts is completely different from the original one. Modification was performed based on required aerodynamic coefficients for the existing guided missile. The preliminary aerodynamic configurations of the improved missile front parts were designed based on theoretical and computational fluid dynamics simulations. All aerodynamic configurations were tested in the T-35 wind tunnel at the Military Technical Institute in order to determine the final geometry of the new front parts. The 3-D Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes numerical simulations were carried out to predict the aerodynamic loads of the missile based on the finite volume method. Experimental results of the axial force, normal force, and pitching moment coefficients are presented. The computational results of the aerodynamic loads of a guided missile model are also given, and agreed well with.
Matrices with coefficients having uncertainties of type o (.) or O (.), called flexible matrices, are studied from the point of view of nonstandard analysis. The uncertainties of the afore-mentioned kind will be given in the form of the so-called neutrices, for instance the set of all infinitesimals. Since flexible matrices have uncertainties in their coefficients, it is not possible to define the identity matrix in an unique way and so the notion of spectral identity matrix arises. Not all nonsingular flexible matrices can be turned into a spectral identity matrix using Gauss-Jordan elimination method, implying that that not all nonsingular flexible matrices have the inverse matrix. Under certain conditions upon the size of the uncertainties appearing in a nonsingular flexible matrix, a general theorem concerning the boundaries of its minors is presented which guarantees the existence of the inverse matrix of a nonsingular flexible matrix.
Fan, Jinxiang; Wang, Feng
Today's infrared imaging guiding missiles are facing many challenges. With the development of targets' stealth, new-style IR countermeasures and penetrating technologies as well as the complexity of the operational environments, infrared imaging guiding missiles must meet the higher requirements of efficient target detection, capability of anti-interference and anti-jamming and the operational adaptability in complex, dynamic operating environments. Missileborne infrared imaging detecting systems are constrained by practical considerations like cost, size, weight and power (SWaP), and lifecycle requirements. Future-generation infrared imaging guiding missiles need to be resilient to changing operating environments and capable of doing more with fewer resources. Advanced IR imaging detecting and information exploring technologies are the key technologies that affect the future direction of IR imaging guidance missiles. Infrared imaging detecting and information exploring technologies research will support the development of more robust and efficient missile-borne infrared imaging detecting systems. Novelty IR imaging technologies, such as Infrared adaptive spectral imaging, are the key to effectively detect, recognize and track target under the complicated operating and countermeasures environments. Innovative information exploring techniques for the information of target, background and countermeasures provided by the detection system is the base for missile to recognize target and counter interference, jamming and countermeasure. Modular hardware and software development is the enabler for implementing multi-purpose, multi-function solutions. Uncooled IRFPA detectors and High-operating temperature IRFPA detectors as well as commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology will support the implementing of low-cost infrared imaging guiding missiles. In this paper, the current status and features of missile-borne IR imaging detecting technologies are summarized. The key
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2017, held in London, UK, in June 2017. The 21 full papers presented in this book together with 4 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 43 submissions....... The papers cover the following topics: foundations of flexible querying; recommendation and ranking; technologies for flexible representations and querying; knowledge discovery and information/data retrieval; intuitionistic sets; and generalized net model....
Lu, Li; Sheng, Wen; Liu, Shihua; Zhang, Xianzhi
The ballistic missile hyperspectral data of imaging spectrometer from the near-space platform are generated by numerical method. The characteristic of the ballistic missile hyperspectral data is extracted and matched based on two different kinds of algorithms, which called transverse counting and quantization coding, respectively. The simulation results show that two algorithms extract the characteristic of ballistic missile adequately and accurately. The algorithm based on the transverse counting has the low complexity and can be implemented easily compared to the algorithm based on the quantization coding does. The transverse counting algorithm also shows the good immunity to the disturbance signals and speed up the matching and recognition of subsequent targets.
McFarland, Michael Bryan
Research has shown that neural networks can be used to improve upon approximate dynamic inversion for control of uncertain nonlinear systems. In one architecture, the neural network adaptively cancels inversion errors through on-line learning. Such learning is accomplished by a simple weight update rule derived from Lyapunov theory, thus assuring stability of the closed-loop system. In this research, previous results using linear-in-parameters neural networks were reformulated in the context of a more general class of composite nonlinear systems, and the control scheme was shown to possess important similarities and major differences with established methods of adaptive control. The neural-adaptive nonlinear control methodology in question has been used to design an autopilot for an anti-air missile with enhanced agile maneuvering capability, and simulation results indicate that this approach is a feasible one. There are, however, certain difficulties associated with choosing the proper network architecture which make it difficult to achieve the rapid learning required in this application. Accordingly, this technique has been further extended to incorporate the important class of feedforward neural networks with a single hidden layer. These neural networks feature well-known approximation capabilities and provide an effective, although nonlinear, parameterization of the adaptive control problem. Numerical results from a six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear agile anti-air missile simulation demonstrate the effectiveness of the autopilot design based on multilayer networks. Previous work in this area has implicitly assumed precise knowledge of the plant order, and made no allowances for unmodeled dynamics. This thesis describes an approach to the problem of controlling a class of nonlinear systems in the face of both unknown nonlinearities and unmodeled dynamics. The proposed methodology is similar to robust adaptive control techniques derived for control of linear
Full Text Available This paper introduces the design of multichannel acquisition circuit based on FPGA which samples and records the Doppler signals, ignition signal and the working condition of fuze security enforcement agencies of missile fuze in real-time in the test of high speed dynamic intersection. Furthermore, for the problem of increasing number of sample channel which causes the complexity of the multiplexer control, a general programmable channel switching method is proposed based on FPGA. In the method, FPGA is the control core, and using the internal ROM resource effectively simplifies the complexity of channel switch in the multichannel acquisition system. This paper analyzes the acquisition system design, and describes the design of hardware circuit and analog switch address coding in detail. The test result shows that the acquisition circuit meets the design requirements with high sampling precision and application value.
Renes, Wim M.
This paper discusses the design of flexible and intelligent library buildings. The first section addresses how flexibility, as one of the requirements of a library building, that has high priority in the planning process. Intelligent libraries are considered in the second section, and functionality is stressed. The third section examines…
Recently, flexible electronic devices have attracted increasing interest, due to the opportunities they promise for new applications such as wearable devices, where the components are required to flex during normal use. In this light, different magnetic sensors, like microcoil, spin valve, giant magnetoresistance (GMR), magnetoimpedance (MI), have been studied previously on flexible substrates.
Stallcup, Scott S.
FLEXAN (Flexible Animation), computer program animating structural dynamics on Evans and Sutherland PS300-series graphics workstation with VAX/VMS host computer. Typical application is animation of spacecraft undergoing structural stresses caused by thermal and vibrational effects. Displays distortions in shape of spacecraft. Program displays single natural mode of vibration, mode history, or any general deformation of flexible structure. Written in FORTRAN 77.
Bienert, W. B.; Wolf, D. A.
Narrow Tube carries 10 watts or more to moving parts. Heat pipe 12 inches long and diameter of 0.312 inch (7.92mm). Bent to minimum radius of 2.5 blocks. Flexible section made of 321 stainless steel tubing (Cajon Flexible Tubing or equivalent). Evaporator and condenser made of oxygen free copper. Working fluid methanol.
Ponton, Michael K.; Williford, Clifford B.; Lagen, Nicholas T.
Cylindrical shield designed to fit around flexible pipe to protect nearby workers from injury and equipment from damage if pipe ruptures. Designed as pressure-relief device. Absorbs impact of debris ejected radially from broken flexible pipe. Also redirects flow of pressurized fluid escaping from broken pipe onto flow path allowing for relief of pressure while minimizing potential for harm.
Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent. While maintaining large-scale production and prototyping rapidity, this flexible and translucent scheme demonstrates the potential to transform conventionally stiff electronic devices into thin and foldable ones without compromising long-term performance and reliability. In this work, we report on the fabrication and characterization of reversibly bistable flexible electronic switches that utilize flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The transistors are fabricated initially on rigid (100) silicon substrates before they are peeled off. They can be used to control flexible batches of light-emitting diodes, demonstrating both the relative ease of scaling at minimum cost and maximum reliability and the feasibility of integration. The peeled-off silicon fabric is about 25 µm thick. The fabricated devices are transferred to a reversibly bistable flexible platform through which, for example, a flexible smartphone can be wrapped around a user’s wrist and can also be set back to its original mechanical position. Buckling and cyclic bending of such host platforms brings a completely new dimension to the development of flexible electronics, especially rollable displays.
Özertem, Kemal Arda
Automatic target acquisition (ATA) and automatic target recognition (ATR) are two vital tasks for missile systems, and having a robust detection and recognition algorithm is crucial for overall system performance. In order to have a robust target detection and recognition algorithm, an extensive image database is required. Automatic target recognition algorithms use the database of images in training and testing steps of algorithm. This directly affects the recognition performance, since the training accuracy is driven by the quality of the image database. In addition, the performance of an automatic target detection algorithm can be measured effectively by using an image database. There are two main ways for designing an ATA / ATR database. The first and easy way is by using a scene generator. A scene generator can model the objects by considering its material information, the atmospheric conditions, detector type and the territory. Designing image database by using a scene generator is inexpensive and it allows creating many different scenarios quickly and easily. However the major drawback of using a scene generator is its low fidelity, since the images are created virtually. The second and difficult way is designing it using real-world images. Designing image database with real-world images is a lot more costly and time consuming; however it offers high fidelity, which is critical for missile algorithms. In this paper, critical concepts in ATA / ATR database design with real-world images are discussed. Each concept is discussed in the perspective of ATA and ATR separately. For the implementation stage, some possible solutions and trade-offs for creating the database are proposed, and all proposed approaches are compared to each other with regards to their pros and cons.
Full Text Available Carbon aerogels are highly porous materials with a large inner surface area. Due to their high electrical conductivity they are excellent electrode materials in supercapacitors. Their brittleness, however, imposes certain limitations in terms of applicability. In that context, novel carbon aerogels with varying degree of flexibility have been developed. These highly porous, light aerogels are characterized by a high surface area and possess pore structures in the micrometer range, allowing for a reversible deformation of the aerogel network. A high ratio of pore size to particle size was found to be crucial for high flexibility. For dynamic microstructural analysis, compression tests were performed in-situ within a scanning electron microscope allowing us to directly visualize the microstructural flexibility of an aerogel. The flexible carbon aerogels were found to withstand between 15% and 30% of uniaxial compression in a reversible fashion. These findings might stimulate further research and new application fields directed towards flexible supercapacitors and batteries.
The vital U.S. national interests of protecting the homeland, citizens abroad and deployed military forces are significantly threatened by current and emerging ballistic missile-capable nations, states of concern...
Full Text Available A guidance law for attacking ground target based on motion camouflage strategy is proposed in this paper. According to the relative position between missile and target, the dual second-order dynamics model is derived. The missile guidance condition is given by analyzing the characteristic of motion camouflage strategy. Then, the terminal guidance law is derived by using the relative motion of missile and target and the guidance condition. In the process of derivation, the three-dimensional guidance law could be designed in a two-dimensional plane and the difficulty of guidance law design is reduced. A two-dimensional guidance law for three-dimensional space is derived by bringing the estimation for target maneuver. Finally, simulation for the proposed guidance law is taken and compared with pure proportional navigation. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed guidance law can be applied to air-to-ground missiles.
... ambitions at a relatively acceptable cost. This thesis shows that the introduction of a layered missile defense capability will serve to enhance regional security for the United States and its allies by raising...
Adragna, Steven P.
Ballistic missile defense is discussed, and the rationale behind the proposal to place defensive weapons in space is examined. Strategic defense is a national security, political, and moral imperative. (RM)
This report presents the results of a study demonstrating an approach for using viscous computational fluid dynamic simulations to calculate the flow field and aerodynamic coefficients for a missile with grid fin...
.... After maintaining four days of silence, North Korean officials stated that the Western labeled MRBM flight test was not the test firing of a ballistic missile but was a three-stage rocket launch...
The audit objective was to determine whether the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization complied with legislation and DoD policy covering commercial potential requirements for Phase 1 of the SBIR program...
This paper describes the application of a method for technology concept selection to the design of a hypersonic high-speed standoff missile capable of achieving pin-point strike of long-range targets...
Full Text Available simulating the missile-aircraft engagement scenario. Parameters considered include signature spectral colour ratio, spatial shape, kinematics, temporal behaviour, as well as the effect of the atmosphere and background. From this analysis the significance...
Wang, Jianming; Liu, Lihua; Yu, Hua
The micro-motion of ballistic missile targets induces micro-Doppler modulation on the radar return signal, which is a unique feature for the warhead discrimination during flight. In order to extract the micro-Doppler feature of ballistic missile targets, time-frequency analysis is employed to process the micro-Doppler modulated time-varying radar signal. The images of time-frequency distribution (TFD) reveal the micro-Doppler modulation characteristic very well. However, there are many existing time-frequency analysis methods to generate the time-frequency distribution images, including the short-time Fourier transform (STFT), Wigner distribution (WD) and Cohen class distribution, etc. Under the background of ballistic missile defence, the paper aims at working out an effective time-frequency analysis method for ballistic missile warhead discrimination from the decoys.
... of the highly turbulent flow field produced by a pulsed, lateral jet control thruster and the interaction of this jet with the supersonic free stream and missile boundary layer were completed for different...
Kan, Shirley A
...) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missiles that could deliver them. Recipients of China s technology include Pakistan and countries that the State Department says support terrorism, like Iran, North Korea, and Libya...
Kan, Shirley A
...) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missiles that could deliver them. Recipients of China's technology include Pakistan and countries that the State Department says support terrorism, such as Iran, North Korea, and Libya...
Kan, Shirley A
...) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and the missiles that could deliver them. Recipients of China's technology include Pakistan and countries that the State Department says support terrorism, such as Iran, North Korea, and Libya...
Kan, Shirley A
...) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missiles that could deliver them. Recipients of China's technology include Pakistan and countries that the State Department says support terrorism, like Iran, North Korea, and Libya...
Full Text Available Six-degree-of-freedom ballistic trajectory model can be used to verify design indicators, performance parameters, and correctness so they have been put forward in the missile argumentation and design process. Mathematical simulation is the basis of late semiphysical simulation and field firing testing, and it can greatly reduce the field shooting test time, which shortens the missile test cycle and so reduces costs.
It was heady stuff for a little boy. 2 ’Quoted in Jacob Neufeld, Ballistic Missiles in the United States Air Force: 1945-1960 (Washington, D.C...the Weapon that Changed the World (1991), Jacob Neufeld’s superb Ballistic Missiles in the United States Air Force, 1945-1960 (1990), Edmund Beard’s...Khrushchev, "Disarmament for Durable Peace and Friendship," in The Soviet Art of War: Doctrine, Strategy, and Tactics, ed. Harriet Fast Scott and
slab that had characteristics similar to reinforced concrete. Press reports indicate that the warhead entered the target at a 90 degree angle and... static test-firings of a prototype rocket engine in 2005. 39 According to the Defense Science Board Task Force, this missile might have delivered a 2,000... tracked the launches of hundreds of ballistic missiles over the years, and they had demonstrated the capability to “acquire sufficient data to determine
Binte Fatima Tuz ZAHRA; Syed Tauqeer ul Islam RIZVI; Syed Irtiza Ali SHAH
In this paper, a novel approach has been presented to integrate command to line-of-sight (CLOS) guidance and proportional navigation (PN) guidance in order to reduce miss distance and to increase the effectiveness of surface to air missiles. Initially a comparison of command to line-of-sight guidance and proportional navigation has been presented. Miss distance, variation of angle-of-attack, normal and lateral accelerations and error of missile flight path from direct line-of-sight have been ...
undergraduate and graduate text, Homeland Security: Controlling the New Security Environment. 1 Shoulder Launched Missiles (A.K.A. MANPADS): The...global trade and just-in-time delivery, along with its leadership status in the world’s largest industry, travel and tourism , make it even more... Thesis , (Monterey, California: March 2005), 8. 3. Robert Sherman, “The Real Terrorist Missile Threat, and What Can Be Done About It,” The Journal
propulsion technology first occurred many years ago: To help jumpstart the UK’s nuclear - powered submarine program, the United States transferred to the UK a... nuclear - powered attack submarines (SSNs), nuclear - powered cruise missile submarines (SSGNs), and nuclear - powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs). 2...2 In the designations SSN, SSGN, SSBN, and SSBN(X), the SS stands for submarine, N stands for nuclear - powered (meaning the ship is
Ehlers, Mark A.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Persian Gulf War introduced a new, highly effective threat in the form of the mobile short range ballistic missile (SRBM). The non-guided SCUD missile proved to be most effective in the political area as Iraq continually targeted Israel in an attempt to force them into the conflict through retaliation. Although this Iraqi objective ultimately failed, a price was paid by the Coalition forces. A significant percentage of Allied ai...
Kreitler, Walter M
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis describes and analyzes a possible deployment posture for the Soviet ballistic missile submarine force. It examines the proposition that the Soviet Navy will establish a point defense, labeled "Close Aboard Bastions" (CABs), for its ballistic missile submarine fleet within the Soviet claimed 12 nautical mile territorial sea. This is a logical derivation of the currently widely held view that the Soviets will estab...
Gray, Greer J.; Aouf, Nabil; Richardson, Mark; Butters, Brian; Walmsley, Roy
Ship self defense against heat-seeking anti-ship missiles is of great concern to modern naval forces. One way of protecting ships against these threats is to use infrared (IR) offboard countermeasures. These decoys need precise placement to maximize their effectiveness, and simulation is an invaluable tool used in determining optimum deployment strategies. To perform useful simulations, high-fidelity models of missiles are required. We describe the development of an imaging IR anti-ship missile model for use in countermeasure effectiveness simulations. The missile model's tracking algorithm is based on a target recognition system that uses a neural network to discriminate between ships and decoys. The neural network is trained on shape- and intensity-based features extracted from simulated imagery. The missile model is then used within ship-decoy-missile engagement simulations, to determine how susceptible it is to the well-known walk-off seduction countermeasure technique. Finally, ship survivability is improved by adjusting the decoy model to increase its effectiveness against the tracker.
Sakarya, Doǧan Uǧur
Drag force effect is an important aspect of range performance in missile applications especially for long flight time. However, old fashioned gimbal approaches force to increase missile diameter. This increase has negative aspect of rising in both drag force and radar cross sectional area. A new gimbal approach was proposed recently. It uses a beam steering optical arrangement. Therefore, it needs less volume envelope for same field of regard and same optomechanical assembly than the old fashioned gimbal approaches. In addition to longer range performance achieved with same fuel in the new gimbal approach, this method provides smaller cross sectional area which can be more invisible in enemies' radar. In this paper, the two gimbal approaches - the old fashioned one and the new one- are compared in order to decrease drag force and radar cross sectional area in missile application. In this study; missile parameters are assumed to generate gimbal and optical design parameters. Optical design is performed according to these missile criteria. Two gimbal configurations are designed with respect to modeled missile parameters. Also analyzes are performed to show decreased drag force and radar cross sectional area in the new approach for comparison.
Connell, Leonard W.; Edenburn, Michael W.; Fraley, Stanley K.; Trost, Lawrence C.
This paper presents a framework for evaluating the technical merits of strategic ballistic missile de-alerting measures, and it uses the framework to evaluate a variety of possible measures for silo-based, land-mobile, and submarine-based missiles. De-alerting measures are defined for the purpose of this paper as reversible actions taken to increase the time or effort required to launch a strategic ballistic missile. The paper does not assess the desirability of pursuing a de-alerting program. Such an assessment is highly context dependent. The paper postulates that if de-alerting is desirable and is used as an arms control mechanism, de-alerting measures should satisfy specific cirteria relating to force security, practicality, effectiveness, significant delay, and verifiability. Silo-launched missiles lend themselves most readily to de-alerting verification, because communications necessary for monitoring do not increase the vulnerabilty of the weapons by a significant amount. Land-mobile missile de-alerting measures would be more challenging to verify, because monitoring measures that disclose the launcher's location would potentially increase their vulnerability. Submarine-launched missile de-alerting measures would be extremely challlenging if not impossible to monitor without increasing the submarine's vulnerability.
Shir, Daniel; Ballard, Zachary S.; Ozcan, Aydogan
Mechanical flexibility and the advent of scalable, low-cost, and high-throughput fabrication techniques have enabled numerous potential applications for plasmonic sensors. Sensitive and sophisticated biochemical measurements can now be performed through the use of flexible plasmonic sensors integrated into existing medical and industrial devices or sample collection units. More robust sensing schemes and practical techniques must be further investigated to fully realize the potentials of flexible plasmonics as a framework for designing low-cost, embedded and integrated sensors for medical, environmental, and industrial applications. PMID:27547023
nuclear deterrent force, or “triad,” which also includes land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and land-based long-range bombers. At any...any vessel owned, operated, or controlled by the Department of Defense that carries operational intercontinental ballistic missiles . Precedents for...Navy Columbia Class (Ohio Replacement) Ballistic Missile Submarine (SSBN[X]) Program: Background and Issues for Congress Ronald O’Rourke
including long-range bombers and cruise missiles. The current Air Force concept for achieving this type of capability is the Global Strike Task Force ( GSTF ... GSTF is centered on early insertion of B-2 bombers equipped with conventional bombs, supported by F-22 escorts and advanced ISR to identify enemy...conventional cruise missiles. Plans to re- christen these ballistic missile submarines as SSGNs are underway, and may complement the GSTF program well
Leong, Weng Wai.
In recent military conflicts, ballistic missiles have been used to achieve military and psychological objectives. With the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), the growing threat of ballistic missiles being used as a delivery platform for WMD by rogue nations or militant groups becomes a concern for many countries. Defense against such threats becomes increasingly important. There are different guidance laws for the missile interception of aerial targets. These include purs...
Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs....
Full Text Available This communication explores the concept of flexibility, a propos insulin preparations and insulin regimes used in the management of type 2 diabetes. The flexibility of an insulin regime or preparation is defined as their ability to be injected at variable times, with variable injection-meal time gaps, in a dose frequency and quantum determined by shared decision making, with a minimal requirement of glucose monitoring and health professional consultation, with no compromise on safety, efficiency and tolerability. The relative flexibility of various basal, prandial and dual action insulins, as well as intensive regimes, is compared. The biopsychosocial model of health is used to assess the utility of different insulins while encouraging a philosophy of flexible insulin usage.
Wallenhorst, E. L.
Circular seal both slides and flexes to accomodate relative motion between two sealed members. Originally developed for Space Shuttle orbiter, it contains sliding seal to accommodate engine gimbaling and flexible seal that absorbs forward motion at high thrust of engine heat shield relative to airframe. Other possible applications are in support structures of heavy machinery and vehicle engines. Flexible sliding seal is ring about 7 feet in diameter and can withstand temperatures up to 1,600 F.
The end of the cold war and the drastic downsizing of missile research along with the steady retirement of personnel versed in the technical aspects of missile performance evaluation through photographic processes have created a situation where the number of qualified individuals to provide such services is precariously low and where the technology itself is being forgotten. At the Imaging and Photographic Technology Department at the Rochester Institute of Technology we are making a small effort to teach introductory concepts often taken directly from imaging technologies associated with missile range photography. These technologies involve near-miss analysis and basic photogrammetry, streak photography for measurements of velocity, acceleration and event duration, shadowgraph and schlieren imaging, high speed flash photography of explosive events, etc. One of the methods by which a healthy dose of respect for traditional technology is taught is by setting up a mock missile range in the Department's High Speed laboratory. This project includes a missile firing control station, a photography section, a missile assembly area and other interdependent activities. Students build their own rockets, are taught the fundamental principles related to synchroballistic photography, they become range 'officers' and are never in charge of launching their own rocket and acquiring their own data but have to depend on their classmates to perform their assigned roles without error. Eventually the students then analyze the film data and report on the performance characteristics of their missiles. It is the purpose of this paper to share with professional technologists one project that is part of the Imaging and Photographic Technology curriculum at RIT designed to help preserve the technologies which provide the foundation upon which SPIE itself was founded.
Whitney, Dwight E.
The influence of learning in the form of past relevant experience was examined in data collected for strategic ballistic missiles developed by the United States. A total of twenty-four new missiles were developed and entered service between 1954 and 1990. Missile development costs were collected and analyzed by regression analysis using the learning curve model with factors for past experience and other relevant cost estimating relationships. The purpose of the study was to determine whether prior development experience was a factor in the development cost of these like systems. Of the twenty-four missiles in the population, development costs for twelve of the missiles were collected from the literature. Since the costs were found to be segmented by military service, a discrete input variable for military service was used as one of the cost estimating relationships. Because there were only two US Navy samples, too few to analyze for segmentation and learning rate, they were excluded from the final analysis. The final analysis was on a sample of ten out of eighteen US Army and US Air Force missiles within the population. The result of the analysis found past experience to be a statistically significant factor in describing the development cost of the US Army and US Air Force missiles. The influence equated to a 0.86 progress ratio, indicating prior development experience had a positive (cost-reducing) influence on their development cost. Based on the result, it was concluded that prior development experience was a factor in the development cost of these systems.
Starkey, Ryan Peter
Aspects relating to the aerodynamic, geometric, and propulsive design and analysis of missile-class, waverider-based hypersonic vehicles are explored. A quasi-one-dimensional engine model, including the effects of fuel injection, mixing, chemical production rates, heat transfer, and viscous losses is developed and utilized to assess the effects of finite rate hydrocarbon chemistry on optimized missile configurations. Resultant optimized single and double engine missile designs are shown for changes in fuel mixing length, fuel mixing efficiency, fuel injector location, and assumed fuel mass fraction. The effects of these different design conditions on the cruise range are explored, as well as perturbations around these design points for optimized vehicles. Aerodynamics are evaluated using a newly developed modified shock-expansion method. Missiles are optimized for steady-state trim conditions at the beginning of cruise using parallelized genetic algorithm optimization software developed for this study. All missile designs are assumed to reach cruising altitude and velocity through the use of an external rocket booster. The missile is geometrically constrained to fit within the 0.61 m x 0.61 m x 4.27 m [2 foot x 2 foot x 14 foot] box limits for a Naval vertical launch tube and has a desired cruise range of 750 km [400 nm] at Mach 6. Investigations are also shown for the effects of various modeling assumptions: (1) shock-expansion method versus a new modified shock-expansion aerodynamic method, (2) boundary layer assumptions, (3) assumed combustor temperature profile versus finite rate chemistry computations, and (4) ratio of specific heats assumptions. An overall analysis and optimization toolkit is developed for quick calculation of hypersonic aerodynamics and propulsion with added insight into externally constrained vehicles. Results show that the optimized combustor designs were extremely sensitive to small changes in flow conditions and that high
China's opposition to U.S. ballistic missile defense was forcefully articulated officially and unofficially between 1991 and 2001. Vociferous opposition gave way to near silence following U.S. ABM Treaty withdrawal, raising a question about precisely whether and how China will respond to future U.S. deployments in both the political and military-operational realms. To gauge likely future responses, it is useful to put the experience of the 1991-2001 period into historical context. China's attitudes toward BMD have passed through a series of distinct phases since the beginning of the nuclear era, as China has been concerned alternately with the problems of strategic defense by both the Soviet Union and United States (and others) around its periphery. Throughout this era it has also pursued its own strategic defense capabilities. There are important elements of continuity in China's attitudes concerns about the viability of its own force and about strategic stability. These suggest the likelihood of significant responses to U.S. BMD even in the absence of sharp rhetoric. (author)
Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun
Retail buildings has an important role for demand side energy flexibility because of their high energy consumption, variety of energy flexibility resources, and centralized control via building control systems. Energy flexibility requires agreements and collaborations among different actors......, barriers, and benefits), energy management activities and technology adoptions, and the stakeholders’ interaction for the energy flexibility in retail buildings....
Rosenfeld, John H.; Gernert, Nelson J.; Sarraf, David B.; Wollen, Peter J.; Surina, Frank C.; Fale, John E.
Flexible heat pipes of an improved type are fabricated as layers of different materials laminated together into vacuum- tight sheets or tapes. In comparison with prior flexible heat pipes, these flexible heat pipes are less susceptible to leakage. Other advantages of these flexible heat pipes, relative to prior flexible heat pipes, include high reliability and greater ease and lower cost of fabrication. Because these heat pipes are very thin, they are highly flexible. When coated on outside surfaces with adhesives, these flexible heat pipes can be applied, like common adhesive tapes, to the surfaces of heat sinks and objects to be cooled, even if those surfaces are curved.
Brown, Clarence A., Jr.; Edwards, Frederick G.
A preliminary investigation was conducted to determine whether a warhead stage of an antimissile missile could be placed within an arbitrary 2-nautical-mile-radius maneuver cylinder around an intercontinental-ballistic-missile (ICBM) flight path above an altitude of 140,000 feet, a horizontal range of 40 nautical miles, at a flight-path angle of approximately 20 deg, and within 50 seconds after take-off using only aerodynamic forces to turn the antimissile missile. The preliminary investigation indicated that an antimissile missile using aerodynamic forces for turning was capable of intercepting the ICBM for the stated conditions of this study although the turning must be completed below an altitude of approximately 70,000 feet to insure that the antimissile missile will be at the desired flight-path angle. Trim lift coefficients on the order of 2 to 3 and a maximum normal-acceleration force of from 25g to 35g were necessary to place the warhead stage in intercept position. The preliminary investigation indicated that for the two boosters investigated the booster having a burning time of 10 seconds gave greater range up the ICBM flight path than did the booster having a burning time of 15 seconds for the same trim lift coefficient and required the least trim lift coefficient for the same range.
Danilo V. Ćuk
Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of three lateral acceleration autopilots for a surface-to-surface missile: three-loop conventional acceleration autopilot, and gamma-dot and three-loop acceleration autopilot based upon the inverse-dynamic control. The surface-to-surface missile motion is described by nonlinear differential equations whose parameters change rapidly over a very wide range due to variable velocity and altitude. The requirement for the accurate controlling of the missile in such an environment represents a challenge for the autopilot designer. The brief review of the calculation of the autopilot gains is given using the concept of the 'point' stability for the linear time-varying system with 'frozen' dynamic coefficients. The method of the inverse-dynamic control is presented in the next section for two types of the autopilots: gamma-dot and acceleration autopilot. Both of them require the design of the estimators for the variables used as inputs to the control law. Finally, six-degree-of-freedom simulation results of the missile response to the demanded command on the typical ballistic trajectory are presented. The comparison of three autopilots considers the steady state errors and the sensitivity of the response to the highly variable environment. It was shown that the inverse-dynamic control can be very effective in the controlling of the surface-to-surface missile.
Eguchi, Yuzuru; Murakami, Takahiro; Hirakuchi, Hiromaru; Sugimoto, Soichiro; Hattori, Yasuo [Nuclear Risk Research Center (External Natural Event Research Team), Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Abiko (Japan)
An efficient evaluation method for the probability of a tornado missile strike without using the Monte Carlo method is proposed in this paper. A major part of the proposed probability evaluation is based on numerical results computed using an in-house code, Tornado-borne missile analysis code, which enables us to evaluate the liftoff and flight behaviors of unconstrained objects on the ground driven by a tornado. Using the Tornado-borne missile analysis code, we can obtain a stochastic correlation between local wind speed and flight distance of each object, and this stochastic correlation is used to evaluate the conditional strike probability, QV(r), of a missile located at position r, where the local wind speed is V. In contrast, the annual exceedance probability of local wind speed, which can be computed using a tornado hazard analysis code, is used to derive the probability density function, p(V). Then, we finally obtain the annual probability of tornado missile strike on a structure with the convolutional integration of product of QV(r) and p(V) over V. The evaluation method is applied to a simple problem to qualitatively confirm the validity, and to quantitatively verify the results for two extreme cases in which an object is located just in the vicinity of or far away from the structure.
Blair, W. Dale; Brandt-Pearce, Maite
When tracking a manned aircraft with a phase array radar, detecting a missile launch (i.e., a target split) is particularly important because the missile can have a very small radar cross section (RCS) and drop below the horizon of the radar shortly after launch. Reliable detection of the launch is made difficult because the RCS of the missile is very small compared to that of the manned aircraft and the radar typically revisits a manned aircraft every few seconds. Furthermore, any measurements of the aircraft and missile taken shortly after the launch will be merged until the two targets are resolved in range, frequency, or space. In this paper, detection of the launched missile is addressed through the detection of the presence of target multiplicity with the in-phase and quadrature monopulse measurements. The probability of detecting the launch using monopulse processing will be studied with regard to the tracking signal-to-noise ratio and the number of pulses n the radar waveform.
Pascale, Danny; Volckaert, Guy
A neural network is used to extract the flight model of guided, short to medium range, tripod and shoulder-fired missile systems which is then integrated into a training simulator. The simulator uses injected video to replace the optical sight and is fitted with a multi-axis positioning system which senses the gunner's movement. The movement creates an image shift and affects the input data to the missile control algorithm. Accurate flight dynamics are a key to efficient training, particularly in the case of closed loop guided systems. However, flight model data is not always available, either because it is proprietary, or because it is too complex to embed in a real time simulator. A solution is to reverse engineer the flight model by analyzing the missile's response when submitted to typical input conditions. Training data can be extracted from either recorded video or from a combination of weapon and missile positioning data. The video camera can be located either on the weapon or attached to a through-sight adapter. No knowledge of the missile flight transfer function is used in the process. The data is fed to a three-layer back-propagation type neural network. The network is configured within a standard spreadsheet application and is optimized with the built-in solver functions. The structure of the network, the selected inputs and outputs, as well as training data, output data after training, and output data when embedded in the simulator are presented.
Li, Ming; Jiang, Yue-song
In recent years, the micro-Doppler effect has been proposed as a new technique for signature analysis and extraction of radar targets. The ballistic missile is known as a typical radar target and has been paid many attentions for the complexities of its motions in current researches. The trajectory of a ballistic missile can be generally divided into three stages: boost phase, midcourse phase and terminal phase. The midcourse phase is the most important phase for radar target recognition and interception. In this stage, the warhead forms a typical micro-motion called micro-nutation which consists of three basic micro-motions: spinning, coning and wiggle. This paper addresses the issue of signature analysis of ballistic missile warhead in terahertz band via discussing the micro-Doppler effect. We establish a simplified model (cone-shaped) for the missile warhead followed by the micro-motion models including of spinning, coning and wiggle. Based on the basic formulas of these typical micro-motions, we first derive the theoretical formula of micro-nutation which is the main micro-motion of the missile warhead. Then, we calculate the micro-Doppler frequency in both X band and terahertz band via these micro-Doppler formulas. The simulations are given to show the superiority of our proposed method for the recognition and detection of radar micro targets in terahertz band.
DeChamplain, A.; Hamel, N.; Rainville, P.-A. [Laval Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Gosselin, P. [Numerica Technologies Inc., Quebec (Canada); Wong, F. [Defence R and D Canada - Valcartier, Valcartier, Quebec (Canada)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility to control a missile or rocket by mean of an active flow control device such as MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) in the form of a microbubble. For this simple aerodynamic form coupled to the geometry of a generic missile, different microbubble arrangements can have a very significant impact in steady operation. Using CFD, combinations of different microbubble configurations (ratio between the apparent diameter and apparent height) and positions on the surface of the missile were evaluated for their impact on overall system performance for a missile flying at Mach 2.5 at an altitude of 6 km at a zero angle of attack. From a validation study with the generic missile geometry tested experimentally, the Fluent commercial code gave an excellent accuracy of 2% for the drag coefficient. With the appropriate numerical parameters from the validation, different configurations of microbubble(s) were simulated to give only marginal changes to the coefficient of moment as compared to experimental values at an angle of attack of 14 degrees. Considering the major advantages in weight and space savings, this would certainly be a technology to implement for small changes in guidance parameters. (author)
Yang, Yu-Guang; Yang, Rui; Cao, Wei-Feng; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
We propose a flexible protocol for one-out-of- nquantum oblivious transfer (QOT) Compared with existing QOT protocols, our protocol is more flexible. We demonstrate that, by adjusting the value of 𝜃 the flexible one-out-of- nQOT is allowable where n can be located theoretically on any value the communicating parties wanted. Meanwhile, it also meets the rigorous security requirements of the oblivious transfer (OT) definition, which ensures Bob can receive on average one of n messages held by Alice, while Alice cannot know which one Bob has received. Finally, we analyze the security of our protocol and show that it is not based on quantum bit commitment and does not violate Lo's no-go theorem so that its security can be achieved.
This article reviews the present state of the art in the field of flexible antibacterial coatings which efficiently kill bacteria on their surfaces. Coatings are formed using a reactive magnetron sputtering. The effect of the elemental composition and structure of the coating on its antibacterial and mechanical properties is explained. The properties of Cr-Cu-O, Al-Cu-N, and Zr-Cu-N antibacterial coatings are used as examples and described in detail. The efficiency of killing of bacteria was tested for the Escherichia coli bacterium. The principle of the formation of thick, flexible antibacterial coatings which are resistant to cracking under bending is explained. It is shown that magnetron sputtering enables production of robust, several-micrometer thick, flexible antibacterial coatings for long-term use. The antibacterial coatings produced by magnetron sputtering present huge potential for many applications.
Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors\\'s magnetic field and frequency responses and their dependence on the sensors\\'s deflection. For the first time, the impedance characteristic is obtained through reflection coefficient analysis over a wide range of frequencies from 0.1 MHz to 3 GHz and for deflections ranging from zero curvature to a radius of 7.2 cm. The sensor element maintains a high MI ratio of up to 90% and magnetic sensitivity of up to 9.2%/Oe over different bending curvatures. The relationship between the curvature and material composition is discussed based on the magnetostriction effect and stress simulations. The sensor\\'s large frequency range, simple fabrication process and high sensitivity provide a great potential for flexible electronics and wireless applications.
The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system.......The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system....
in the event of a first strike against the United States. Strategic Missile Warning is a no fail mission. From detection of a missile warning alert ...relayed he has over 1000 Missile Warning and Space Surveillance alert shifts.92 His in-depth knowledge is hard to match; and is an indispensable...AU/ACSC/2016 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE DECENNIAL OF AIR FORCE SPACE COMMAND’S ONLY GROUND BASED MISSILE WARNING CLASSIC
..., Fla.; Air Force missile testing area, Patrick Air Force Base, Fla. 334.590 Section 334.590 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.590 Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral, Fla.; Air Force missile testing area, Patrick Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zone. An area in the Atlantic Ocean immediately offshore from...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch vehicles and sounding rockets) and Unmanned Air...: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.3 Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile...
... Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area. 334.210 Section 334.210 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.210 Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area. (a) The danger zone—(1) Prohibited area. A circle 1,000 yards in radius with its...
... Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants,'' in support of NRC reviews of early site permit (ESP), standard design... INFORMATION: The staff issues DC/COL-ISGs to facilitate staff activities associated with its review of ESP, DC....221 on Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION...
Full Text Available We consider the integrated problem of allocation and control of surface-to-air-missiles for interception of ballistic targets. Previous work shows that using multiple missile and utilizing collaborative estimation and control laws for target interception can significantly decrease the mean miss distance. However, most of these methods are highly sensitive to initial launch conditions, such as the initial pitch and heading angles. In this work we develop a methodology for optimizing selection of multiple missiles to launch among a collection of missiles with prespecified launch coordinates, along with their launch conditions. For the interception we use 3-DoF models for missiles and the ballistic target. The trajectory of the missiles is controlled using three-dimensional extensions of existing algorithms for planar collaborative control and estimation laws. Because the dynamics of the missiles and nature of the allocation problem is highly nonlinear and involves both discrete and continuous variables, the optimization problem is cast as a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem (MINP. The main contribution of this work is the development of a novel probabilistic search algorithm for efficiently solving the missile allocation problem. We verify the algorithm by performing extensive Monte-Carlo simulations on different interception scenarios and show that the developed approach yields significantly less average miss distance and more efficient use of resources compared to alternative methods.
Pawlewicz, W. T.; Mann, I. B.; Martin, P. M.; Hays, D. D.; Graybeal, A. G.
The adaptation of an existing Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) optical coating capability developed for high power fusion laser applications to the case of RF and laser hardening of plastic missile domes used by US Army (MICOM) is reported. RF hardening of Hellfire and Copperhead 1.06 micron missile domes by use of transparent conductive Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coatings is demonstrated. The project involved adaptation of a coating material and process developed for flat glass components used in fusion lasers to the case of hemispherical or conical heat sensitive plastic domes used on laser guided missiles. Specific ITO coating property goals are an electrical sheet resistance of 10 ohms/square, a coated dome transmission of 80% or more at 1.06 micron wavelength (compared to 90% for a bare dome), and good adhesion. The sheet resistance goal of 10 ohms/square was expected to result in an RF attenuation of 30 dB at the frequencies of importance.
Spearman, M. L.; Fournier, R. H.
The aerodynamic characteristics for a winged and a wingless cruciform missile are examined. The body was an ogive-cylinder with a 3.5 caliber forebody; an overall length-to-diameter ratio of 11.667; and has cruciform tails that were trapexoidal in planform. Tests were made both with and without 72.9 deg cruciform delta wings. The investigation was made for Mach numbers from 1.50 to 4.63, roll attitudes of 0 and 45 deg, angles of attack from -40 to 22 deg, and tail control deflections from 10 to -40 deg. The purpose is to determine the influence of the aerodynamic behavior on the design choice for maneuverable missiles intended primarily for air-to-air or surface-to-surface missions. The results indicate that the winged missile with its more linear aerodynamic characteristics and higher lift-curve slope, should provide the highest maneuverability over a large operational range.
Zimmerman, Peter D.
Intercontinental ballistic missiles based in silos have become relatively vulnerable, at least in theory, to counter-force attacks. This theoretical vulnerability may not, in fact, be a serious practical concern; it is nonetheless troubling both to policy-makers and to the public. Furthermore, the present generation of ICBMs is aging (the Minuteman II single warhead missile will exceed its operational life-span early in the next decade) and significant restructuring of the ballistic missile force may well be necessary if a Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) is signed. This paper compares several proposed schemes for modernizing the ICBM force. Because the rail-garrison MIRVd mobile system is the least costly alternative to secure a large number of strategic warheads, it receives a comparatively large amount of attention.
Bhutta, Bilal A.; Lewis, Clark H.
Finned missile design entails accurate and computationally fast numerical techniques for predicting viscous flows over complex lifting configurations at small to moderate angles of attack and over Mach 3 to 15; these flows are often characterized by strong embedded shocks, so that numerical algorithms are also required to capture embedded shocks. The recent real-gas Flux Vector Splitting technique is here extended to investigate the Mach 3 flow over a typical finned missile configuration with/without side fin deflections. Elliptic grid-generation techniques for Mach 15 flows are shown to be inadequate for Mach 3 flows over finned configurations and need to be modified. Fin-deflection studies indicate that even small amounts of missile fin deflection can substantially modify vehicle aerodynamics. This 3D parabolized Navier-Stokes scheme is also extended into an efficient embedded algorithm for studying small axially separated flow regions due to strong fin and control surface deflections.
Eggers, A J , Jr
It is demonstrated with the aid of similitude arguments that a model launched from a hypervelocity gun upstream through a special supersonic nozzle should experience aerodynamic heating and resulting thermal stresses like those encountered by a long-range ballistic missile entering the earth's atmosphere. This demonstration hinges on the requirements that model and missile be geometrically similar and made of the same material, and that they have the same flight speed and Reynolds number (based on conditions just outside the boundary layer) at corresponding points in their trajectories. The hypervelocity gun provides the model with the required initial speed, while the nozzle scales the atmosphere, in terms of density variation, to provide the model with speeds and Reynolds numbers over its entire trajectory. Since both the motion and aerodynamic heating of a missile tend to be simulated in the model tests, this combination of hypervelocity gun and supersonic nozzle is termed an atmosphere entry simulator.
Schiphorst, Roelof; Hoeksema, F.W.; Slump, Cornelis H.
Flexible radio receivers are also called Software Defined Radios (SDRs) , . The focus of our SDR project  is on designing the front end, from antenna to demodulation in bits, of a °exible, multi-standard WLAN receiver. We try to combine an instance of a (G)FSK receiver (Bluetooth) with an
Osther, Palle J S
Currently, indications for flexible ureterorenoscopy (fURS) are expanding, mainly due to technological advancements. Although data from clinical series definitely presents fURS as a safe procedure, serious complications including sepsis and ureteral lesions do occur. These complications seem to b......, ureteral access sheaths, safty guidewires, pain medication, prestenting and pharmacologic modulation of pyeloureteral dynamics are reviewed from a pathophysiological perspective....
Classroom design for the 21st-century learning environment should accommodate a variety of learning skills and needs. The space should be large enough so it can be configured to accommodate a number of learning activities. This also includes furniture that provides flexibility and accommodates collaboration and interactive work among students and…
A set of flexible metal bellows being fatigue-tested by repeated offset motion. Such bellows assemblies were used in the SPS vacuum system at places where , for instance, beam stoppers and collimators had to be moved frequently in and out of the beam path.
Suggests that strategy choice is a misleading characterization of efficient mental calculation and that teaching mental calculation methods as a whole is not conducive to flexibility. Proposes an alternative in which calculation is thought of as an interaction between noticing and knowledge. Presents an associated teaching approach to promote…
Ray, Jerry A.; Larson, Gerald A.; Terry, John E.
The Air-to-Ground Missiles Systems (AGMS) Project Management Office (PMO) chose to invest in hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation as an integral part of their Longbow/HELLFIRE (Helicopter Launched, Fire-and-Forget) Modular Missile System program throughout the development and production phases. This investment has resulted in two HWIL simulations, developed by the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM) Missile Research Development and Engineering Center, that have had unprecedented success in program support from the early development through production phases. The Millimeter Simulation System 1 (MSS-1) facility is capable of edge-of- the-envelope performance analysis and verification using high- fidelity target, background, and countermeasures signature modeling. The System Test/Acceptance Facility (STAF), developed in partnership with Redstone Technical Test Center, tests full-up missiles for production lot acceptance. Between these two facilities, HWIL simulation is responsible for pre- flight confidence testing of missile hardware and software, software independent verification and validation (IV&V) testing, comprehensive performance evaluation, component verification, production lot acceptance, and data gathering for the shelf life extension program. One payoff of the MSS-1 HWIL investment has been an extremely effective flight test program with MSS-1 receiving credit for saving three flight tests and documenting over 40 failure modes. With the advent of the Performance Based Specification, the MSS-1 has become involved in continuous verification of high level specifications since contractor controlled, low-level specifications are subject to change. The STAF has saved 8 million annually through providing a non-destructive lot acceptance-testing paradigm, and further benefited the production phase by discovering three production problems. This paper will highlight the innovative uses of HWIL simulation as utilized in the Longbow/HELLFIRE program and
Full Text Available Researchers interested in mathematical proficiency have recently begun to explore the development of strategic flexibility, where flexibility is defined as knowledge of multiple strategies for solving a problem and the ability to implement an innovative strategy for a given problem solving circumstance. However, anecdotal findings from this literature indicate that students do not consistently use an innovative strategy for solving a given problem, even when these same students demonstrate knowledge of innovative strategies. This distinction, sometimes framed in the psychological literature as competence vs. performance—has not been previously studied for flexibility. In order to explore the competence/performance distinction in flexibility, this study developed and validated measures for potential flexibility (e.g., competence, or knowledge of multiple strategies and practical flexibility (e.g., performance, use of innovative strategies for solving equations. The measures were administrated to a sample of 158 Chinese middle school students through a Tri-Phase Flexibility Assessment, in which the students were asked to solve each equation, generate additional strategies, and evaluate own multiple strategies. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model of potential and practical flexibility. Satisfactory internal consistency was found for the measures. Additional validity evidence included the significant association with flexibility measured with the previous method. Potential flexibility and practical flexibility were found to be distinct but related. The theoretical and practical implications of the concepts and their measures of potential flexibility and practical flexibility are discussed.
Xu, Le; Liu, Ru-De; Star, Jon R.; Wang, Jia; Liu, Ying; Zhen, Rui
Researchers interested in mathematical proficiency have recently begun to explore the development of strategic flexibility, where flexibility is defined as knowledge of multiple strategies for solving a problem and the ability to implement an innovative strategy for a given problem solving circumstance. However, anecdotal findings from this literature indicate that students do not consistently use an innovative strategy for solving a given problem, even when these same students demonstrate knowledge of innovative strategies. This distinction, sometimes framed in the psychological literature as competence vs. performance—has not been previously studied for flexibility. In order to explore the competence/performance distinction in flexibility, this study developed and validated measures for potential flexibility (e.g., competence, or knowledge of multiple strategies) and practical flexibility (e.g., performance, use of innovative strategies) for solving equations. The measures were administrated to a sample of 158 Chinese middle school students through a Tri-Phase Flexibility Assessment, in which the students were asked to solve each equation, generate additional strategies, and evaluate own multiple strategies. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model of potential and practical flexibility. Satisfactory internal consistency was found for the measures. Additional validity evidence included the significant association with flexibility measured with the previous method. Potential flexibility and practical flexibility were found to be distinct but related. The theoretical and practical implications of the concepts and their measures of potential flexibility and practical flexibility are discussed. PMID:28848481
Full Text Available The fuzziness and randomness is integrated by using digital characteristics, such as Expected value, Entropy and Hyper entropy. The cloud model adapted to reliability evaluation is put forward based on the concept of the surface to air missile weapon. The cloud scale of the qualitative evaluation is constructed, and the quantitative variable and the qualitative variable in the system reliability evaluation are corresponded. The practical calculation result shows that it is more effective to analyze the reliability of the surface to air missile weapon by this way. The practical calculation result also reflects the model expressed by cloud theory is more consistent with the human thinking style of uncertainty.
making framework. It is common for TMD systems to be developed and deployed via bilateral negotiations. The only TMD project that has been subject to...sol-air moyenne portée- terrestre , that is, a ground based surface- to-air medium-range missile. 52 “Aster 30 SAMP/T – Surface-to-Air Missile Platform...alone rather than via a joint development with Alliance members that have expressed interest. Additionally, some European members of the Alliance
Elgin, Stephen D.; Sutliff, Thomas J.
The Naval Weapons Center at China Lake, California is currently evaluating a counter rotating propfan system as a means of propulsion for the next generation of cruise missiles. The details and results of a structural dynamic test program are presented for scale model graphite-epoxy composite propfan blades. These blades are intended for use on a cruise missile wind tunnel model. Both dynamic characteristics and strain operating limits of the blades are presented. Complications associated with high strain level fatigue testing methods are also discussed.
online: http://www.armscontrol.org/ACT/sep97/focsept.htm]. Lewis, George N. and Postol , Theodore A., �Future challenges to Ballistic Missile Defense...systems ( THAAD and Navy Theater-Wide) are capable of defending large areas from missiles with ranges up to 3,500 km. Lewis and Yingbo note that the...6. 13 The Army�s Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3); the Theater High-Altitude Area Defense ( THAAD ); the Navy Area Defense; and the Navy Theater
Binte Fatima Tuz ZAHRA
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach has been presented to integrate command to line-of-sight (CLOS guidance and proportional navigation (PN guidance in order to reduce miss distance and to increase the effectiveness of surface to air missiles. Initially a comparison of command to line-of-sight guidance and proportional navigation has been presented. Miss distance, variation of angle-of-attack, normal and lateral accelerations and error of missile flight path from direct line-of-sight have been used as noteworthy criteria for comparison of the two guidance laws. Following this comparison a new approach has been proposed for determining the most suitable guidance gains in order to minimize miss distance and improve accuracy of the missile in delivering the warhead, while using CLOS guidance. This proposed technique is based on constrained nonlinear minimization to optimize the guidance gains. CLOS guidance has a further limitation of significant increase in normal and lateral acceleration demands during the terminal phase of missile flight. Furthermore, at large elevation angles, the required angle-of-attack during the terminal phase increases beyond design specifications. Subsequently, a missile with optical sensors only and following just the CLOS guidance has less likelihood to hit high speed targets beyond 45º in elevation plane. A novel approach has thus been proposed to overcome such limitations of CLOS-only guidance for surface to air missiles. In this approach, an integrated guidance algorithm has been proposed whereby the initial guidance law during rocket motor burnout phase remains CLOS, whereas immediately after this phase, the guidance law is automatically switched to PN guidance. This integrated approach has not only resulted in slight increase in range of the missile but also has significantly improved its likelihood to hit targets beyond 30 degrees in elevation plane, thus successfully overcoming various limitations of CLOS
organizational structure that will create the optimal combat effectiveness for the system. This study reviews the present and past mobile systems and their organizational structures. This includes systems deployed by both the U.S. Army and Air Force. A proposed structure based on the analysis of those systems is presented for consideration. The deployment of rail garrison (RG) intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) systems within the Continental United States by the Strategic Air Command (SAC) has created a need for a review of current missile organizational structures
Fedor, J. V.
The Flexible Spacecraft Dynamics and Control program (FSD) was developed to aid in the simulation of a large class of flexible and rigid spacecraft. FSD is extremely versatile and can be used in attitude dynamics and control analysis as well as in-orbit support of deployment and control of spacecraft. FSD has been used to analyze the in-orbit attitude performance and antenna deployment of the RAE and IMP class satellites, and the HAWKEYE, SCATHA, EXOS-B, and Dynamics Explorer flight programs. FSD is applicable to inertially-oriented spinning, earth oriented, or gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft. The spacecraft flexibility is treated in a continuous manner (instead of finite element) by employing a series of shape functions for the flexible elements. Torsion, bending, and three flexible modes can be simulated for every flexible element. FSD can handle up to ten tubular elements in an arbitrary orientation. FSD is appropriate for studies involving the active control of pointed instruments, with options for digital PID (proportional, integral, derivative) error feedback controllers and control actuators such as thrusters and momentum wheels. The input to FSD is in four parts: 1) Orbit Construction FSD calculates a Keplerian orbit with environmental effects such as drag, magnetic torque, solar pressure, thermal effects, and thruster adjustments; or the user can supply a GTDS format orbit tape for a particular satellite/time-span; 2) Control words - for options such as gravity gradient effects, control torques, and integration ranges; 3) Mathematical descriptions of spacecraft, appendages, and control systems- including element geometry, properties, attitudes, libration damping, tip mass inertia, thermal expansion, magnetic tracking, and gimbal simulation options; and 4) Desired state variables to output, i.e., geometries, bending moments, fast Fourier transform plots, gimbal rotation, filter vectors, etc. All FSD input is of free format, namelist construction. FSD
Brogaard Kristensen, S.
This report describes the work done on modelling and simulation of the complex diffusion of gas through the wall of a flexible pipe. The diffusion and thus the pressure in annulus depends strongly on the diffusion and solubility parameters of the gas-polymer system and on the degree of blocking of the outer surface of the inner liner due to pressure reinforcements. The report evaluates the basis modelling required to describe the complex geometries and flow patterns. Qualitatively results of temperature and concentration profiles are shown in the report. For the program to serve any modelling purpose in 'real life' the results need to be validated and possibly the model needs corrections. Hopefully, a full-scale test of a flexible pipe will provide the required temperatures and pressures in annulus to validate the models. (EHS)
Villumsen, Sigurd; Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Kristiansen, Morten
This paper describes a new flexible and fast approach to laser cutting called ROBOCUT. Combined with CAD/CAM technology, laser cutting of metal provides the flexibility to perform one-of-a-kind cutting and hereby realises mass production of customised products. Today’s laser cutting techniques...... possess, despite their wide use in industry, limitations regarding speed and geometry. Research trends point towards remote laser cutting techniques which can improve speed and geometrical freedom and hereby the competitiveness of laser cutting compared to fixed-tool-based cutting technology...... such as punching. This paper presents the concepts and preliminary test results of the ROBOCUT laser cutting technology, a technology which potentially can revolutionise laser cutting....
Yang, Yanjiang; Bao, Feng; Deng, Robert
In this paper, we propose a novel authentication method for digital images that achieves fine authenticating granularity (e.g., block-level granularity). Its appealing flexibility lies in the fact that with only one piece of authenticating data (e.g., digital signature or message authentication code) spanning all blocks, each block can be independently authenticated while ignoring the other blocks. In our method, the authenticating data are derived by means of the Chinese Remainder Theorem. To further attest its flexibility, the method provides adjustable confidence by managing the public system parameters. Security issues, advantages, as well as limitations related to the method are addressed. A wide range of potential applications are envisioned to demonstrate its practical significance.
and observables. This is usually called code semiotics as distinguished from Pattee’s physical semiotics or Favareau’s sign semiotics . Biosystem...tweaked somewhat. To begin with, an initial investment is required to implement a more flexible de- sign , which we refer to as the investment cost...through unfamiliar territory, providing road signs at every turn to direct you in making the best and most informed driving decisions. This is the essence
a century, the phenomenon has not played a role in the development of linguistic typology or modern grammatical theory. The current volume aims to address this gap by offering detailed studies on flexible word classes, investigating their properties and what it means for the grammar of a language to have...... Indonesian, Santali, Sri Lanka Malay, Lushootseed, Gooniyandi, and Late Archaic Chinese. Readership: Linguists and students of linguistics and cognitive sciences, anthropologists, philosophers...
Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....
On September 28, 2006, in Washington, DC, ITP and Booz Allen Hamilton conducted a fuel flexibility workshop with attendance from various stakeholder groups. Workshop participants included representatives from the petrochemical, refining, food and beverage, steel and metals, pulp and paper, cement and glass manufacturing industries; as well as representatives from industrial boiler manufacturers, technology providers, energy and waste service providers, the federal government and national laboratories, and developers and financiers.
Yang Gu; Xuewen Wang; Wen Gu; Yongjin Wu; Tie Li; Ting Zhang
Flexible mechanosensors with a high sensitivity and fast response speed may advance the wearable and implantable applications of healthcare devices,such as real-time heart rate,pulse,and respiration monitoring.In this paper,we introduce a novel flexible electronic eardrum (EE) based on single-walled carbon nanotubes,polyethylene,and polydimethylsiloxane with micro-structured pyramid arrays.The EE device shows a high sensitivity,high signal-to-noise ratio (approximately 55 dB),and fast response time (76.9 μs) in detecting and recording sound within a frequency domain of 20-13,000 Hz.The mechanism for sound detection is investigated and the sensitivity is determined using the micro-structure,thickness,and strain state.We also demonstrated that the device is able to distinguish human voices.This unprecedented performance of the flexible electronic eardrum has implications for many applications such as implantable acoustical bioelectronics and personal voice recognition.
Gong, Y.; Janssen, M.
In their attempt to improve their systems and architectures, organizations need to be aware of the types of flexibility and agility and the current level of each type of flexibility and agility. Flexibility is the general ability to react to changes, whilst agility is the speed in responding to
Mulinski, Ksawery Jan
In a continuously changing business environment the role of supply chain flexibility is constantly increasing. A flexible supply chain can ensure survival in quickly changing market conditions as well as enable sustainable growth. This thesis explores the topic of supply chain flexibility with focus
Chou, B Ralph; Gupta, Alina; Hovis, Jeffery K
Previous work has shown that the impact resistance to blunt missiles is affected by coatings applied to either CR-39 or polycarbonate lenses. We investigated the effects of multiple antireflection (minimum angle of resolution [MAR]) coatings on the resistance of polycarbonate lenses to puncture on impact by sharp, high-speed missiles. Four groups of surfaced plano polycarbonate lenses were investigated. Two groups had a scratch-resistant (SR) coating applied to both surfaces. One of these groups had a 2-mm center thickness and the other had a 3-mm center thickness. The other two groups of 2-mm and 3-mm thick lenses had a MAR coating applied over the SR coating. The lenses were impacted by a missile consisting of an industrial sewing machine needle mounted in a cylindrical aluminum carrier. The sharp missiles were able to pierce the lenses at speeds between 29.6 m/s and 46.2 m/s. Impact resistance was lowest for the thinner lenses and lenses with a MAR coating. The effect of the MAR and lens thickness was subadditive. We have confirmed previous observations that polycarbonate lenses are more susceptible to penetration by sharp, high-speed missiles than blunt missiles. We have also found that reducing lens center thickness and applying a MAR coating further reduces the penetration resistance. Therefore, the use of 2-mm center thickness and MAR-coated polycarbonate lenses should be discouraged for industrial eye protectors where sharp missile hazards are possible.
4479. 39 Demetri Sevastopulo, Guy Dinmore, and Neil Buckley, “Experts Sceptical [sic] On Chances For Missile Deal,” Financial Times, June 21, 2007...Institute, a Washington think tank , held at the National Press Club. “Certainly by the near-term capability, between now and 2015, that’s a lot of
the U.S. Army Air Corps began Operation Crossbow, the Anglo-American bombing campaign against Adolf Hitler’s V-1 and V-2 missile forces and a...expanded to include leadership in the integration of all AMD require- ments, capabilities, and architectures, a nod to its repository of IAMD
2015 Air & Space Power Joumall 71 \\J VIEWS •1• Figure. Hangar with HIPPO technology scheduled for construction at Andersen AFB, Guam. (From briefing...new, game -changing technologies.16 Rail guns, hypersonic missiles, and other cutting-edge technologies will give us an advantage for years to come
foreign systems and assistance to complement its own indige - nous LACM efforts. It has received Harpy antiradiation drones with stand-off ranges of... indig - enous technologies, components, and weapons (for example, the Type 1474 serial radar system and PL-12 air-to-air missiles).21 Russian
... biological weapons. Such proliferation has been identified as a threat to international peace and security... helps to clarify what is usable for rockets, missiles, or unmanned aerial vehicles capable of achieving... necessary for the MTCR to achieve its purpose. Moreover, it is in the public's interest to waive the notice...
financial setbacks, missile technology failures, and the Kursk sinking in 2000, the SSBN force has slipped back to a lesser prominence.9 B. MAJOR...range category. In the battle for survival, the SLBMs and ALCMs are the most likely potential losers. When the two platforms – submarines and
... 0648-XA832 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Missile Launch.... SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), as amended, and implementing... Air Warfare Center Weapons Division, U.S. Navy (Navy), to take three species of seals and sea lions...
Knoche , 1.6., High Incidence Aerody-namics of M~issiles During Launch Phase, NMBB GMNBI-I Report UA-523 80, Januarv 1980. 3. Roane. Donald P., The Effect...Balance. Balance Calibration Laborator\\. NASA-Ames Research Facility, July 1987. 413. Aiello. Gennaro f. and Bateman. Michael C.. .1crod~womic Szabiiic
Aerodynamic Test and Analysis of a Slender Generic Missile Configura- tion," AIAA Paper 89-3368, August 1989. 14. Gustafson, J.L., Montry, G.R., and Benner , RE...E. and Patricia A. Blake on July 12, 1960 in Salt Lake City, Utah. He graduated from Richfield High School in Richfield, Utah in 1978 and joined the
Reports. l. AFSPCMAN 91-710, Range Safety User Requirements Manual – Range Safety Policies and Procedures. m. EWR 127-1, Eastern and Western Ranges...AFSPCMAN - Air Force Space Command Manual EWR – Eastern Western Range RCC – Range Commanders Council SMC - Space and Missile Systems Center
policy disaster.” See “A Flawed and Dangerous U.S. Missile Defense Plan, George N. Lewis and Theodore A. Postol , Arms Control Today, May 2010, pp. 24...demand. The PAA would be based primarily on existing BMD sensors and Patriot, THAAD , and Aegis BMD interceptors. Secretary Gates argued the PAA would
... environmental conditions and the status and behavior of focal animal groups prior to and following each launch... night. Nighttime launches will only occur when required by the test objectives, e.g., when testing the... disturbances from missile launches may cause the animals to move towards or enter the water. The current LOA...
... Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology & Logistics and the Director, Missile Defense Agency... System. The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics or designee may act upon.... The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology & Logistics or designee, in keeping with...
... of the Secretary Availability of the Fiscal Year 2009 Missile Defense Agency Services Contracts... United States Code as amended by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 (NDAA 08... Procurement and Acquisition Policy, Office of Strategic Sourcing (DPAP/SS) will make available to the public...
Aerospace Industry Association-sponsored event on Capitol Hill yesterday. Obering, currently an executive with Booz Allen Hamilton [BAH], served as...The Chokai test failure cost Japan a $55 million loss, he said, adding, “It wasn’t cheap .”... In the Chokai test, the target missile was launched
A prospective study of 15 consecutive patients admitted with high velocity missile liver injuries of the liver was done at Lacor hospital between November 1996 and May 1997. Operative findings, treatment offered and factors influencing morbidity and mortality were noted. All patients were followed up for two months ...
Trommer, Gert F.; Mueller, R.; Opitz, S.
An inertial measurement unit (IMU) with angular rate, angular increment and linear acceleration measurement systems for short range missile application is described. It consists of a three axis fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) cluster, three linear vibrating beam accelerometers and an electronics device for signal evaluation and data transmission via a serial transputer link. The FOG cluster is realized by means of a passive all-fiber open loop configuration. Due to the inherent optical phase shift of 3 by 3 couplers, completely passive operation near the quadrature point is achieved without the need for a non- reciprocal optical phase modulation in the fiber loop. Basing on that concept more than 50 rugged IMUs have been built for implementation into a short range air to air missile. Verification tests for flight clearance with stresses simulating air carriage and missile free flight environments have been computed. The operation under extreme vibration and shock environments without the use of vibration isolator fixings due to very tight requirements on data time delay has been demonstrated. The first telemetered missile firings have been performed successfully. The line- setup for large quantity series production is progressing. The implementation of the workstations for the integration of the IMU is finished. The production equipment for calibration and acceptance testing of IMUs in parallel allowing for a rate of more than 150 unit per month has been installed and will be operational in autumn this year.
Smit, C.J.; Jong, de M.L.
Missile tests in the Meldorfer Bucht have been under debate for many years, especially since the test area has become part of the National Park Schleswig Holsteinisches Wattenmeer. Alterra Texel, as an independent institute involved in biological research in the Wadden Sea for many years, has been
Method for computing no-escape envelope of short-range air-to-air missile devised. Useful for analysis of both strategies for avoidance and strategies for attack. With modifications, also useful in analysis of control strategies for one-on-one air-to-air combat, or wherever multiple control strategies considered.
... physiological (auditory) impacts. The noise and visual disturbances from missile launches may cause the animals... minimal disturbance to pinnipeds and will focus on a subgroup of pinnipeds within the haul out aggregation..., they do not record sound, so no simultaneous audio recording separate from the acoustic monitoring data...
process, and transition and transfer of operations and sustainment of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) elements to the Military Departments...reason why the defense-wide funding approach could not be immediately employed as an interim measure to facilitate the quick transfer of operations and
continued) IOT &E With A Bang, Full-Rate Production Review,” Inside the Navy, October 7, 2013. 85...absence of adequate sensors/Ballistic Missile C3 to overcome this. The fact that this form of EI is not viable in shorter-range regional applications
Buford, James A., Jr.; Paone, Thad
A greater awareness of and increased interest in the use of modeling and simulation (M&S) has been demonstrated at many levels within the Department of Defense (DoD) and all the Armed Services agencies in recent years. M&S application is regarded as a viable means of lowering the life cycle costs of theater missile defense (TMD) weapon system acquisition beginning with studies of new concepts of warfighting through user training and post-deployment support. The Missile Research, Engineering, and Development Center (MRDEC) of the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM) has an extensive history of applying all types of M&S to TMD weapon system development and has been a particularly strong advocate of hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation for many years. Over the past 10 years MRDEC has developed specific and dedicated HWIL capabilities for TMD applications in both the infrared and radio frequency sensor domains. This paper provides an overview of the infrared-based TMD HWIL missile facility known as the Imaging Infrared System Simulation (I2RSS) which is used to support the Theater High Altitude Air Defense (THAAD) missile system. This facility uses M&S to conduct daily THAAD HWIL missile simulations to support flight tests, missile/system development, independent verification and validation of weapon system embedded software and simulations, and missile/system performance against current and future threat environments. This paper describes the THAAD TMD HWIL role, process, major components, HWIL verification/validation, and daily HWIL support areas in terms of both missile and complete system.
Lately, the effect-based approach has gained importance in executing air operations. Thus, it makes more successful in obtaining the desired results by breaking the enemy's determination in a short time. Air force is the first option to be chosen in order to defuse the strategic targets. However, the problems such as the defense of targets and country, radars, range…etc. becoming serious problems. At this level ballistic missiles emerge as a strategic weapon. Ultimate emerging technologies guided by the INS and GPS can also be embedded with multiple warheads and reinforced with conventional explosive, ballistic missiles are weapons that can destroy targets with precision. They have the advantage of high speed, being easily launched from every platform and not being easily detected by air defense systems contrary to other air platforms. While these are the advantages, there are also disadvantages of the ballistic missiles. The high cost, unavailability of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, and its limited effect while using conventional explosives against destroying the fortified targets are the disadvantages. The features mentioned above should be considered as limitation to the impact of the ballistic missiles. The aim is to impose the requests on enemies without starting a war with all components and to ensure better implementation of the operation functions during the air operations. In this study, effects of ballistic missiles in the future on air battle theatre will be discussed in the beginning, during the process and at the end phase of air operations within the scope of an effect-based approach.
Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Abello, Alberto
The flexibility of individual energy prosumers (producers and/or consumers) has drawn a lot of attention in recent years. Aggregation of such flexibilities provides prosumers with the opportunity to directly participate in the energy market and at the same time reduces the complexity of scheduling...... the energy units. However, aggregated flexibility should support normal grid operation. In this paper, we build on the flex-offer (FO) concept to model the inherent flexibility of a prosumer (e.g., a single flexible consumption device such as a clothes washer). An FO captures flexibility in both time...... and amount dimensions. We define the problem of aggregating FOs taking into account grid power constraints. We also propose two constraint-based aggregation techniques that efficiently aggregate FOs while retaining flexibility. We show through a comprehensive evaluation that our techniques, in contrast...
Flexible pipes are often a technically attractive alternative to the traditional steel pipe. Often commercial utilisation of oil/gas fields depends on the use of flexible pipes. An example is when floating production vessels are used, where the flexible pipe follows the wave induced motions...... and thus resists the loading from the environment in a more suitable way.A flexible pipe is a composite structure, built up of several layers each having a specific function. Due to the flexibility, the response of the pipe in wave induced motions are governed by a complex hydroelastic set of differential...... equations.An important part in the design of flexible pipes is the end fitting. The purpose of the end fitting is mainly to connect pipe units, but it also combines and terminates the different layers of the flexible pipe. The end fitting system contains a bending stiffener and an end fitting. The bending...
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2013, held in Granada, Spain, in September 2013. The 59 full papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers...... are organized in a general session train and a parallel special session track. The general session train covers the following topics: querying-answering systems; semantic technology; patterns and classification; personalization and recommender systems; searching and ranking; and Web and human......-line learning on data streams; and intelligent information extraction from texts....
Ruiz Palmero, Julio
Uno de los principales activos que han aportado las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (TIC) al campo educativo, principalmente en estos últimos años con la aparición de aplicaciones y herramientas de la denominada Web 2.0, ha sido el gran abanico de posibilidades que se han abierto en el ámbito del aprendizaje formal e informal en entornos abiertos y flexibles. Hoy en día, la necesidad de flexibilizar y adaptar la oferta formativa a la realidad que nos rodea, en donde se est...
Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz; Zimmermann, Francisca
Despite extensive studies of street culture and the risks of offending and victimization in urban marginalized areas, little is known about the role of cultural repertoires for variation in victimization risks among young men not involved in crime. Based on two ethnographic studies, conducted...... rejection of crime-involved youth. Young men who perform flexible cultural repertoires, by incorporating and shifting between gang and decent repertoires, experience low victimization due to their adaptation to crime-involved youth. Findings emphasize the importance of detailed investigations of the way...
are organized in a general session train and a parallel special session track. The general session train covers the following topics: querying-answering systems; semantic technology; patterns and classification; personalization and recommender systems; searching and ranking; and Web and human......This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2013, held in Granada, Spain, in September 2013. The 59 full papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers...
Rabinkin, Daniel V.; Rutledge, Edward; Monticciolo, Paul
Interceptor missiles process IR images to locate an intended target and guide the interceptor towards it. Signal processing requirements have increased as the sensor bandwidth increases and interceptors operate against more sophisticated targets. A typical interceptor signal processing chain is comprised of two parts. Front-end video processing operates on all pixels of the image and performs such operations as non-uniformity correction (NUC), image stabilization, frame integration and detection. Back-end target processing, which tracks and classifies targets detected in the image, performs such algorithms as Kalman tracking, spectral feature extraction and target discrimination. In the past, video processing was implemented using ASIC components or FPGAs because computation requirements exceeded the throughput of general-purpose processors. Target processing was performed using hybrid architectures that included ASICs, DSPs and general-purpose processors. The resulting systems tended to be function-specific, and required custom software development. They were developed using non-integrated toolsets and test equipment was developed along with the processor platform. The lifespan of a system utilizing the signal processing platform often spans decades, while the specialized nature of processor hardware and software makes it difficult and costly to upgrade. As a result, the signal processing systems often run on outdated technology, algorithms are difficult to update, and system effectiveness is impaired by the inability to rapidly respond to new threats. A new design approach is made possible three developments; Moore's Law - driven improvement in computational throughput; a newly introduced vector computing capability in general purpose processors; and a modern set of open interface software standards. Today's multiprocessor commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) platforms have sufficient throughput to support interceptor signal processing requirements. This application
Electrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm) based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM). An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.
Leela Mohana Reddy A
Full Text Available AbstractElectrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM. An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.
In an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, a cold water riser pipe is releasably supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. The pipe is substantially vertical and has its lower end far below the hull above the ocean floor. The pipe is defined essentially entirely of a material which has a modulus of elasticity substantially less than that of steel, e.g., high density polyethylene, so that the pipe is flexible and compliant to rather than resistant to applied bending moments. The position of the lower end of the pipe relative to the hull is stabilized by a weight suspended below the lower end of the pipe on a flexible line. The pipe, apart from the weight, is positively buoyant. If support of the upper end of the pipe is released, the pipe sinks to the ocean floor, but is not damaged as the length of the line between the pipe and the weight is sufficient to allow the buoyant pipe to come to a stop within the line length after the weight contacts the ocean floor, and thereafter to float submerged above the ocean floor while moored to the ocean floor by the weight. The upper end of the pipe, while supported by the hull, communicates to a sump in the hull in which the water level is maintained below the ambient water level. The sump volume is sufficient to keep the pipe full during heaving of the hull, thereby preventing collapse of the pipe.
Orbovic, Nebojsa, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Sagals, Genadijs; Blahoianu, Andrei
This paper describes the work conducted by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) related to the influence of transverse reinforcement on perforation capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs under “hard” missile impact (impact with negligible missile deformations). The paper presents the results of three tests on reinforced concrete slabs conducted at VTT Technical Research Centre (Finland), along with the numerical simulations as well as a discussion of the current code provisions related to impactive loading. Transverse reinforcement is widely used for improving the shear and punching strength of concrete structures. However, the effect of this reinforcement on the perforation resistance under localized missile impact is still unclear. The goal of this paper is to fill the gap in the current literature related to this topic. Based on similar tests designed by the authors with missile velocity below perforation velocity, it was expected that transverse reinforcement would improve the perforation resistance. Three slabs were tested under almost identical conditions with the only difference being the transverse reinforcement. One slab was designed without transverse reinforcement, the second one with the transverse reinforcement in form of conventional stirrups with hooks and the third one with the transverse reinforcement in form of T-headed bars. Although the transverse reinforcement reduced the overall damage of the slabs (the rear face scabbing), the conclusion from the tests is that the transverse reinforcement does not have important influence on perforation capacity of concrete slabs under rigid missile impact. The slab with T-headed bars presented a slight improvement compared to the baseline specimen without transverse reinforcement. The slab with conventional stirrups presented slightly lower perforation capacity (higher residual missile velocity) than the slab without transverse reinforcement. In conclusion, the performed tests show slightly
...) is the primary work environment for an Army Soldier. Characterizing this atmospheric surface layer was the focus of five field studies conducted between fiscal years 2001 2005 at White Sands Missile Range, NM...
Kamal, N.; Sawhney, P.
The succession of nuclear tests by India and Pakistan in May 1998 has changed the nature of their missile rivalry, which is only one of numerous manifestations of their relationship as hardened adversaries, deeply sensitive to each other's existing and evolving defense capabilities. The political context surrounding this costly rivalry remains unmediated by arms control measures or by any nascent prospect of detente. As a parallel development, sensible voices in both countries will continue to talk of building mutual confidence through openness to avert accidents, misjudgments, and misinterpretations. To facilitate a future peace process, this paper offers possible suggestions for stabilization that could be applied to India's and Pakistan's missile situation. Appendices include descriptions of existing missile agreements that have contributed to better relations for other countries as well as a list of the cooperative monitoring technologies available to provide information useful in implementing subcontinent missile regimes.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) predictions are compared with the wind-tunnel tests for a missile consisting of ogive-nose cylindrical body, four wings and four in-lined tail panels at nominal supersonic Mach Nos...
Dynamic properties of a protein are crucial for all protein functions, and those of signaling proteins are closely related to the biological function of living beings. The protein flexibility signal concept can be used to analyze this relationship. Protein flexibility controls the rate of protein conformational change and influences protein function. The modification of protein flexibility results in a change of protein activity. The logical nature of protein flexibility cannot be explained by applying the principles of protein three-dimensional structure theory or conformation concept. Signaling proteins show high protein flexibility. Many properties of signaling can be traced back to the dynamic natures of signaling protein. The action mechanism of volatile anesthetics and universal cellular reactions are related to flexibility in the change of signaling proteins. We conclude that protein dynamics is an enzyme-enhanced process, called dynamicase.
A. N. Klishin
Full Text Available When modeling the aircraft motion it is advisable to choose a particular model of the Earth, depending both on the task and on the required accuracy of calculation. The article describes various models of the Earth, such as the flat Earth with a plane-parallel field of gravity, spherical and non-rotating Earth with a plane-parallel field of gravity, spherical and non-rotating Earth with a central gravitational field, spherical and non-rotating Earth, taking into account the polar flattening of the Earth, spherical Earth based compression and polar daily rotation. The article also considers the influence of these models on the motion of the selected aircraft.To date, there is technical equipment to provide highly accurate description of the Earthshape, gravitational field, etc. The improved accuracy of the Earth model description results in more correct description of the trajectory and motion parameters of a ballistic missile. However, for short ranges (10-20 km this accuracy is not essential, and, furthermore, it increases time of calculation. Therefore, there is a problem of choosing the optimal description of the Earth parameters.The motion in the model of the Earth, which takes into account a daily rotation of the planet and polar flattening, is discussed in more detail, and the geographical latitude impact on coordinates of the points of fall of a ballistic missile is analyzed on the basis of obtained graphs.The article individually considers a problem of the wind effect on the aircraft motion and defines dependences of the missile motion on the parameters of different wind loads, such as wind speed and height of its action.A mathematical model of the missile motion was built and numerically integrated, using the Runge-Kutta 4th order method, for implementation and subsequent analysis.Based on the analysis of the calculation results in the abovementioned models of the Earth, differences in impact of these models on the parameters of the
National Defense Authorization Act PAC-3 Patriot Advanced Capability-3 SM-3 Standard Missile-3 THAAD Terminal High Altitude Area Defense This is a...various ranges. • Terminal High Altitude Area Defense ( THAAD ): a mobile, ground- based missile defense system that includes a fire control and...providing forces and resources to support fielding the BMD systems and the specific BMD elements they operate. The Army operates the PAC-3 and THAAD
In this thesis, a multiple hypotheses tracking (MHT) algorithm is developed to successfully track multiple ballistic missiles within the boost phase. The success of previous work on the MHT algorithm and its application in other scientific fields enables this study to realize an efficient form of the algorithm and examine its feasibility in tracking multiple crossing ballistic missiles even though various accelerations due to staging are present. A framework is developed for the MHT, whi...
Yuksek, Burak; Ure, N. Kemal
We consider the integrated problem of allocation and control of surface-to-air-missiles for interception of ballistic targets. Previous work shows that using multiple missile and utilizing collaborative estimation and control laws for target interception can significantly decrease the mean miss distance. However, most of these methods are highly sensitive to initial launch conditions, such as the initial pitch and heading angles. In this work we develop a methodology for optimizing selection ...
Allen, H Julian; Eggers, A J , Jr
A simplified analysis of the velocity and deceleration history of ballistic missiles entering the earth's atmosphere at high supersonic speeds is presented. The results of this motion analysis are employed to indicate means available to the designer for minimizing aerodynamic heating. The heating problem considered involves not only the total heat transferred to a missile by convection, but also the maximum average and local time rates of convective heat transfer.
Ekman, Torbjörn; Mechlenborg, Peter; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh
of a given class. This approach can be deployed both on a statically typed virtual machine, such as the JVM, and on a dynamic virtual machine, such as a Smalltalk virtual machine. We have implemented our approach to language interoperability on top of a prototype virtual machine for embedded systems based......Virtual machines raise the abstraction level of the execution environment at the cost of restricting the set of supported languages. Moreover, the ability of a language implementation to integrate with other languages hosted on the same virtual machine typically constrains the features...... of the language. In this paper, we present a highly flexible yet efficient approach to hosting multiple programming languages on an object-oriented virtual machine. Our approach is based on extending the interface of each class with language-specific wrapper methods, offering each language a tailored view...
are organized in a general session train and a parallel special session track. The general session train covers the following topics: querying-answering systems; semantic technology; patterns and classification; personalization and recommender systems; searching and ranking; and Web and human......-computer interaction. The special track covers some some specific and, typically, newer fields, namely: environmental scanning for strategic early warning; generating linguistic descriptions of data; advances in fuzzy querying and fuzzy databases: theory and applications; fusion and ensemble techniques for on......This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2013, held in Granada, Spain, in September 2013. The 59 full papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers...
are organized in a general session train and a parallel special session track. The general session train covers the following topics: querying-answering systems; semantic technology; patterns and classification; personalization and recommender systems; searching and ranking; and Web and human......This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2013, held in Granada, Spain, in September 2013. The 59 full papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers......-computer interaction. The special track covers some some specific and, typically, newer fields, namely: environmental scanning for strategic early warning; generating linguistic descriptions of data; advances in fuzzy querying and fuzzy databases: theory and applications; fusion and ensemble techniques for on...
Agergaard, Jytte; Thao, Thi Vu
of the female porters demonstrate a particular way of adapting to the migration process. Also, it is emphasised how women's flexible practices are facilitated by women's own village-based networks. It is suggested that ‘in-betweenness’, which stands for the simultaneous and overlapping presence of urban......Industrialisation and urban growth are constitutive aspects of Vietnam's new economy and are important driving forces behind increasing rural-to-urban migration. Growth in informal sector employment is a significant aspect of this development, which has provided for both male and female migrants......, although they generally are engaged in different occupations. Based on a case study among porters at Hanoi's Long Bien Market, this paper examines rural-to-urban migrants' gendered migration practices. Two interrelated aspects of gendered migration practices are in focus: the role of migration networks...
Lerman, Sheera F; Rudich, Zvia; Shahar, Golan
This study focused on the effects of exposure to terrorist missile attacks on the physical and mental well being of chronic pain patients. In this prospective and longitudinal design, 55 chronic pain patients treated at a specialty pain clinic completed self-report questionnaires regarding their pain, depression and anxiety pre- and post a three week missile attack on the southern region of Israel. In addition, levels of direct and indirect exposure to the attacks were measured. Results of regression analyses showed that exposure to the attacks through the media predicted an increase in pain intensity and in the sensory component of pain during the pre-post war period, but did not predict depression, anxiety or the affective component of pain. These findings contribute to the understanding of the effects of terrorism on physical and emotional distress and identify chronic pain patients as a vulnerable population requiring special attention during terrorism-related stress.
Cummings, Mary L.
A FORTRAN computer code (SKINTEMP) has been developed to calculate transient missile/aircraft aerodynamic heating parameters utilizing basic flight parameters such as altitude, Mach number, and angle of attack. The insulated skin temperature of a vehicle surface on either the fuselage (axisymmetric body) or wing (two-dimensional body) is computed from a basic heat balance relationship throughout the entire spectrum (subsonic, transonic, supersonic, hypersonic) of flight. This calculation method employs a simple finite difference procedure which considers radiation, forced convection, and non-reactive chemistry. Surface pressure estimates are based on a modified Newtonian flow model. Eckert's reference temperature method is used as the forced convection heat transfer model. SKINTEMP predictions are compared with a limited number of test cases. SKINTEMP was developed as a tool to enhance the conceptual design process of high speed missiles and aircraft. Recommendations are made for possible future development of SKINTEMP to further support the design process.
Full Text Available An agile missile with tail fins and pulse thrusters has continuous and discontinuous control inputs. This brings certain difficulty to the autopilot design and stability analysis. Indirect robust control via Theta-D technique is employed to handle this problem. An acceleration tracking system is formulated based on the nonlinear dynamics of agile missile. Considering the dynamics of actuators, there is an error between actual input and computed input. A robust control problem is formed by treating the error as input uncertainty. The robust control is equivalent to a nonlinear quadratic optimal control of the nominal system with a modified performance index including uncertainty bound. Theta-D technique is applied to solve the nonlinear optimal control problem to obtain the final control law. Numerical results show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed strategy.
To combat contamination of physical assets and provide reliable data to decision makers in the space and missile defense community, a modular open system architecture for creation of contamination models and standards is proposed. Predictive tools for quantifying the effects of contamination can be calibrated from NASA data of long-term orbiting assets. This data can then be extrapolated to missile defense predictive models. By utilizing a modular open system architecture, sensitive data can be de-coupled and protected while benefitting from open source data of calibrated models. This system architecture will include modules that will allow the designer to trade the effects of baseline performance against the lifecycle degradation due to contamination while modeling the lifecycle costs of alternative designs. In this way, each member of the supply chain becomes an informed and active participant in managing contamination risk early in the system lifecycle.
Jin, Sang-Hun; Kang, Ho-Gyun
This paper presents an image seeker simulation including image processing, servo control, target model, and missile trajectory. We propose a software architecture for a seeker embedded computer. It makes core processing algorithms including image processing reusable at the source level through multiple platforms. The embedded software simulator implemented in C/C++, the servo control simulator implemented in Matlab, and the integrated simulator combined the both simulators based on Windows Component Object Module (COM) technology is presented. The integrated simulation enables developers to practice an interactive study between image processing and servo control about missions including lock-on and target tracking. The implemented simulator can be operated in low cost computer systems. This can be used to algorithm development and analysis at the design, implementation, and evaluation. Simulation examples for a short range ground-to-ground missile seeker are presented.
Wang, Gang; Wang, Wen Bing; Liang, Chang Hong
Beam characteristics such as beamwidth and beam intensity of short-pulse radiation with electromagnetic missile effect, not restricted to the electromagnetic missile, are generally range dependent in pulse propagation. An effective measure to study such beam characteristics is to investigate the local drop rate of the energy pattern in the beam profile and the local decay rate of energy in the pulse beam. It is shown that both the energy decay rate and the energy drop rate are definitely determined by the time-space source parameters so that the beam characteristics can be readily evaluated and properly controlled. Moreover, the underlying relation between the slow decay rate and the energy drop rate are constructed, which shows perfect harmony in achieving slower-energy decay and higher-energy concentration in the beam.
Ocokoljić Goran J.
Full Text Available Testing of the Anti-Tank Missile with jets simulations in the T-35 wind tunnel is part of the development program of short range anti-tank system. The main task of this experiment was to provide an experimental data base for estimation of real jets influence. Analysis was presented for Mach number 0.2, model configurations with and without jets, and three jet tabs positions: tabs out of the jets, upper or lower tabs in the jets. Missile model designed that instead of the products of combustion through nozzles allow high pressure air corresponding mass flow. In additional to the wind tunnel test results the paper, also presents the results of CFD simulations. The results are presented by normal force and pitching moment coefficients.
Han, Wei; Zhao, Yuejin; Hu, Xinqi
When a hypersonic missile with a side mounted IR seeker is launched in the atmosphere, a serious aero-optical effect is formed and affects the quality of the detector's imaging. And in the course of the missile flight time,aero-optical effects changes over time, which makes real-time, accurate correction of optical distortion becomes very difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to study the relationship between the optical distortion and time.In this paper, Fluent,a computational fluid dynamics(CFD) internet applications is used to make researches on effect of optical transmission of the flow field outside the IR window. And a thermal finite element analysis (FEA) of an IR window is used to study the aerodynamic heat effect.
Sawyer, W. C.; Monta, W. J.; Carter, W. V.; Alexander, W. K.
This paper presents selected results of a panel loads study conducted as part of the final phase of an extensive investigation of an air-breathing missile concept employing wrap-around aerodynamic surfaces. Typical results for M = 2.36 are presented for the fin load results, plus a brief review of basic results of the previously reported tests. Vapor screen results are also discussed. The present results indicate that the fin load characteristics are nearly identical for planar and curved fins having the same projected planform and would permit the use of planar-surface predictions for supersonic speeds in the preliminary design stages of missiles employing wrap-around curved fins.
mid-1990s. In August 1995 it launched an ICBM armed with a “pointy” front end (and no explosive warhead) against a granite slab that had...ballistic missile (SLIRBM). It requested industry participation in the study in mid-2003, and planned to conduct two static test-firings of a...eliminate pursuit of the program. The study noted that the United States and Russia had monitored and tracked the launches of hundreds of ballistic
David R. Whipple, hai artment of Adinst<t’e c2e ABSTRACT "Yhis thesis is an analysis of the flight hour cost program at the Pacific Missile Test Center...LEVEL 2 TRAIN COSTS TO BE COSTS COSTS COSTS COSTS NOIA LIZED A-3 A-6 CIVILIANS 87 306,000 A-7 CONTRCTOR F-4 STSI 81 620,325 F-14 SAC 33 568,750 F-18 HIC 5
success; (2) the size and effects of an attack must be formally constrained; and (3)  Since, as noted above, the Soviets have tended to deprecate ...34limited nuclear employment" as a bourgeois self -delusion, the West undeniably runs the risk that its attempts at discriminating nuclear use would...parameters, and flying missiles on depressed trajectories we might also degrade defensive performance. Some of these capabilities are, however, not now
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Thermo mechanical modeling and simulation of a satellite and intercontinental ballistic missile assumes importance due to the increased interest in assessing the potential of such attacks. Effective and innovative methods are sought in assessing the structural integrity of such structural components. In this study, we present modeling and simulation aspects of two generic models loaded by high energy laser beam. We present an applicati...
College (ACSC) and the National War College (NWC) dealt with motivational theory largely based on the work of Maslow, McGregor, Vroom , and Herzberg...with twenty-one pages of comments by crew members. As would be expected , the bulk of the comments touched on complaints regarding some facet of missile...whether a significant difference existed between an observed number of responses that fell into each category and the expected number based on the null
Junker, Vernon L.
Proliferation of tactical ballistic missile (IBM) systems throughout the Third World represents a serious threat to American national interests. As demonstrated during operation Desert Storm in Iraq, countering this threat is a very difficult problem. A joint, multi-level infrastructure to counter the TBM threat is vital to American security. This thesis considers the joint infrastructure and tactics necessary to counter the TBM threat. During peacetime, infrastructure assets monitor TBM forc...
torpedo tube launched AURs as part of the United Kingdom Foreign Military Sales case, and 15 surface AURs (FY 2013 funded through Buy-to- Budget ). The...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-289 Tactical Tomahawk RGM-109E/UGM-109E Missile (TACTOM) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget ...References 5 Mission and Description 6 Executive Summary 7 Threshold Breaches 9 Schedule 10 Performance 12 Track to Budget 13
Division. DEPUTY ASSISTANT COMMANDANTS: 28 Jan 1958 Col Gordon W. Seaward 15 Jan 1959 Col C. de W. W. Lang 6 Jun 1960 Col William A. Hadflela I Jul...1958 per USAAMS Memo #29, 1958. DEPUTY ASSISTANT COMMANDANTS, RESEARCH AND DEVELOP- MENT- I Oct 1957 - 12 Jul 1958 Col C. de W. W. Lang *See also...whose assignment, actual or antic- ipated, is to duty involving operation and/or maintenance of the Serg •oant missile and associated equipment. Normal
in a ground-based system, called the Sol-Air Moyen Portee/ Terrestre (SAMP/T) that uses the Aster 15 and the Aster 30 missiles with a range of up to...development processes “ via a spiral pathway culminating in an operator-in-the- 107 COL Tim Polaske Chief...Reentry Vehicle SAMP/T Sol-Air Moyen Portee/ Terrestre SBI Space Based Interceptor SBIRS Space Based Infrared Satellite SHAPE
Siddiqui, Irfan; Jacobus, Lucas; Navejas, Abel; Parker, Stephen; Harr, Cameron; Long, David; Wiehe, Blake; Chacon, Abbot; Mellroth, Chris; Adams, Eric; Gomes, John; Berthelotte, Brad
SYSTEMS ENGINEERING CAPSTONE PROJECT REPORT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Increasing political tensions between nations, coupled with advancements in technology, have resulted in the need for a Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) system, specifically in the European theater where ally nations are particularly vulnerable. This report focuses on defending Turkey with a solution that could be fielded by FY18. It includes the following mature technologies: Patriot Advan...
Defence (U), Operational Research and Analysis Project Report 723 (SECRET/RELCANUS) (in preparation). 14. Postol , Theodore A., Lessons of the Gulf War...PAC-2 system used in the Gulf War used a proximity fuzed blast fragmentation warhead, systems such as the PAC-3 upgrade and THAAD Theatre Missile...contingency scenarios, using TMD systems such as Patriot, THAAD and Boost-Phase Intercept systems; and c. use of the model in support of scientific studies
George Lewis, Theodore Postol , and David Wright. Highly Capable Theater Missile Defense and the ABM Treaty. Arms Control Today. April 1994, pp. 3-7...permitted TMD testing and deployment is acute because of the status of the most advanced TMD program called THAAD (Theater High-Altitude Area Defense...The THAAD program enters its testing phase later this year. The challenge in establishing an understanding involves balancing Russian concerns
Full Text Available The conception and evaluation indices of the bearing capacity of the concrete pavement field floor are analyzed in this paper. In order to get the damage process of the concrete panel, its tension and compression injury factors are derived, and a field floor structural dynamic model with concrete damage constitutive relation is built based on ABAQUS, and the influence of thickness and Young’s modulus of the concrete panel to the vehicular missile launching is comparatively analyzed.
through 22 May 1989 at the North Oscura Range area of White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. The FDTE employed a single preproduction prototype NLOS...gear: Each gunner wore BDU’s, kevlar helmet, web gear, two canteens (empty) on a belt. For MOPP4 trials gunners wore MOPP4 overgarment, mask/hood...gloves, overboots, web gear, canteens on a belt. Gunners did not wear a flack jacket. MOPP4 trials for the two crewmen evaluated in the afternoon were
intelligence demands of the PGS mission. The Obama Administration’s description of the prompt global strike mission focuses more on regional than...www.stratcom.mil/factsheets/gs/. 15A description of some of these scenarios can be found in the National Academies Study on Prompt Global Strike. See...DOD conducted a second test of the HTV-2 vehicle on August 10, 2011. According to DARPA, the Minotaur missile successfully boosted the HPV -2 vehicle
while keeping the actuator efforts (for deflecting aileron , elevator and rudder) small. In the computer simulation, the missile model is subject to...tracking the desired lateral accelerations and roll rate, where the control inputs are aileron , elevator and rudder deflections. The optimal LQR design... plane . We deal with these dominant zeros and their effects in the next section. As for the high-altitude high-speed run (see Figure 7) the response is
Smit, C.J.; Jong, de, M.L.
Missile tests in the Meldorfer Bucht have been under debate for many years, especially since the test area has become part of the National Park Schleswig Holsteinisches Wattenmeer. Alterra Texel, as an independent institute involved in biological research in the Wadden Sea for many years, has been asked to quantify the effects of these tests by means of a brief field study. The results presented in this report are based on observations during a single observation day. Our results are combined...
Evaluation of the Transfer of International Traffic in Arms Regulations-Controlled Missile Defense Technology to the National Aeronautics and Space... Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Visit us at www.dodig.mil Objective In response to House Report 113-446, “Howard P. ‘Buck’ McKeon...Regulations (ITAR)-controlled missile defense technology from the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA
Grube Hansen, David; Bilberg, Arne; Madsen, Erik Skov
SMEs are in general highly flexible and agile in order to accommodate the customer demands in the paradigm of High Mix-Low Volume manufacturing. The flexibility and agility have mainly been enabled by manual labor, but as we are entering the technology and data driven fourth industrial revolution...
Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach
induced by time and amount individually, and by their com- bination. To this end, we introduce several flexibility measures that take into account the combined effect of time and energy on flex-offer flexibility and discuss their respective pros and cons through a number of realistic examples....
Siksnys, Laurynas; Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja
of such objects while preserving flexibility. Hence, this paper formally defines the concept of flexibility objects (flex-objects) and provides a novel and efficient solution for aggregating and disaggregating flex-objects. Out of the broad range of possible applications, this paper will focus on smart grid...... the energy domain show that the proposed solutions provide good performance while satisfying the strict requirements....
Pawlewicz, W.T.; Mann, I.B.; Martin, P.M.; Hays, D.D.; Graybeal, A.G.
This report summarizes key results and accomplishements during the first year of a Manufacturing Methods and Technology project to adapt an existing Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) optical coating capability developed for high-power fusion-laser applications to the case of rf and laser hardening of plastic missile domes used by the US Army (MICOM). The primary objective of the first year's work was to demonstrate rf hardening of Hellfire and Copperhead 1.06-micron missile domes by use of transparent conductive Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coatings. The project thus involved adaptation of a coating material and process developed for flat glass components used in fusion lasers to the case of hemispherical or conical heat-sensitive plastic domes used on laser-guided missiles. Specific ITO coating property goals were an electrical sheet resistance of 10 Ohms/square, a coated-dome transmission of 80% or more at 1.06 micron wavelength (compared to 90% for a bare dome), and good adhesion. The sheet resistance goal of 10 Ohms/square was expected to result in an rf attenuation of 30 dB at the frequencies of importance.
Danilo V. Ćuk
Full Text Available Modern tactical surface-to-surface missiles, equipped with strapdown inertial navigation systems, achieve very good accuracy compared with free-flight rockets. The probable range dispersion mainly depends on instruments errors and longitudinal disturbances such as rocket motor total-impulse deviation as well as differences between the estimated and actual values of the axial force and head wind. This paper gives an extension of the correlated velocity concept for surface-to-surface missiles without a thrust-terminating mechanism. The calculated parameters of the correlated velocity are stored into the memory of an onboard guidance computer. On the basis of the correlated velocity concept, the modified proportional navigation with the adjustment of the time-to-go of the missile to the target was proposed. It is shown that the new guidance law can compensate for the longitudinal disturbances of different levels successfully. The effectiveness of the proposed guidance method was confirmed by means of the calculated probable range and lateral dispersion for the anticipated disturbances in the guidance system.
Stoebner, Andrew A; Sachanandani, Neil S; Borschel, Gregory H
Nerve injuries from missile and gunshot wounds often produce significant disability, and their management is controversial. The role of the surgeon in cases of missile wounds with neurologic deficits is not well defined. Enhancing the trauma team's ability to recognize treatable nerve injuries will lead to improved outcomes. Further, raising awareness of the time-sensitive nature of these injuries will also improve results in these cases. We reviewed a consecutive series of 17 pediatric patients with peripheral nerve injuries caused by missile and gunshot wounds in a tertiary care children's hospital. We examined the indications for surgery, presence of associated injuries, mechanisms of injury, demographic characteristics and clinical outcomes. Urban victims were significantly more likely to have been intentionally assaulted than rural or suburban victims and they were also less likely to have completed follow-up care. High-energy weapons were more likely to require surgery compared with low-energy weapons. Patients presenting with tendon injuries were more likely to have a high-grade nerve injury requiring surgery. Patients presenting with tendon lacerations or high-energy mechanisms were significantly more likely to require surgery. Early exploration should be undertaken in cases where transection is likely to have occurred. Early decompression of common entrapment sites distal to repairs or injuries should be performed. Because follow-up is poor in this population, treatment should be prompt and thorough.
Ozdemir, Onur; Niu, Ruixin; Varshney, Pramod K.; Drozd, Andrew L.; Loe, Richard
The problem of ballistic missile tracking in the presence of clutter is investigated. Probabilistic data association filter (PDAF) is utilized as the basic filtering algorithm. We propose to use sequential Monte Carlo methods, i.e., particle filters, aided with amplitude information (AI) in order to improve the tracking performance of a single target in clutter when severe nonlinearities exist in the system. We call this approach "Monte Carlo probabilistic data association filter with amplitude information (MCPDAF-AI)." Furthermore, we formulate a realistic problem in the sense that we use simulated radar cross section (RCS) data for a missile warhead and a cylinder chaff using Lucernhammer1, a state of the art electromagnetic signature prediction software, to model target and clutter amplitude returns as additional amplitude features which help to improve data association and tracking performance. A performance comparison is carried out between the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the particle filter under various scenarios using single and multiple sensors. The results show that, when only one sensor is used, the MCPDAF performs significantly better than the EKF in terms of tracking accuracy under severe nonlinear conditions for ballistic missile tracking applications. However, when the number of sensors is increased, even under severe nonlinear conditions, the EKF performs as well as the MCPDAF.
Ozeki, Masaru; Heki, Kosuke
A dense array of global positioning system (GPS) receivers is a useful tool to study ionospheric disturbances. Here we report observations by a Japanese GPS array of ionospheric holes, i.e., localized electron depletion. They were made by neutral molecules in exhaust plumes (e.g., water) of ballistic missiles from North Korea, Taepodong-1 and -2, launched on 31 August, 1998, and 5 April, 2009, respectively. Negative anomaly of electron density emerged ˜6 min after the launches in the middle of the Japan Sea, and extended eastward along the missile tracks. By comparing the numerical simulation of electron depletion and the observed change in ionospheric total electron content, we suggest that the exhaust plumes from the Taepodong-2 second stage effused up to ˜1.5 × 1026 water molecules per second. The ionospheric hole signature was used to constrain the Taepodong-2 trajectory together with other information, e.g., coordinates of the launch pad, time and coordinates of the first stage splashdown, and height and time of the second stage passage over Japan. The Taepodong-2 is considered to have reached the ionospheric F region in ˜6 min, flown above northeastern Japan ˜7 min after the launch, and crashed to the Pacific Ocean without attaining the first astronautical velocity. The ionospheric hole in the 1998 Taepodong-1 launch was much less in size, but it is difficult to compare directly the thrusts of the two missiles due to uncertainty of the Taepodong-1 trajectory.
Teilum, Kaare; Olsen, Johan G; Kragelund, Birthe B
Proteins are dynamic entities, and they possess an inherent flexibility that allows them to function through molecular interactions within the cell, among cells and even between organisms. Appreciation of the non-static nature of proteins is emerging, but to describe and incorporate...... this into an intuitive perception of protein function is challenging. Flexibility is of overwhelming importance for protein function, and the changes in protein structure during interactions with binding partners can be dramatic. The present review addresses protein flexibility, focusing on protein-ligand interactions....... The thermodynamics involved are reviewed, and examples of structure-function studies involving experimentally determined flexibility descriptions are presented. While much remains to be understood about protein flexibility, it is clear that it is encoded within their amino acid sequence and should be viewed...
Leonhardt, K.; Wüster, S.; Rost, J. M.
We study the link between atomic motion and exciton transport in flexible Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of highly excited light alkali-metal atoms, for which motion due to dipole-dipole interaction becomes relevant. In two one-dimensional atom chains crossing at a right angle adiabatic exciton transport is affected by a conical intersection of excitonic energy surfaces, which induces controllable nonadiabatic effects. A joint exciton-motion pulse that is initially governed by a single energy surface is coherently split into two modes after crossing the intersection. The modes induce strongly different atomic motion, leading to clear signatures of nonadiabatic effects in atomic density profiles. We have shown how this scenario can be exploited as an exciton switch, controlling direction and coherence properties of the joint pulse on the second of the chains [K. Leonhardt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 223001 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.223001]. In this article we discuss the underlying complex dynamics in detail, characterize the switch, and derive our isotropic interaction model from a realistic anisotropic one with the addition of a magnetic bias field.
Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab
A test model of the flexible foot support was constructed early in the design stages to check its reactions to applied loads. The prototype was made of SS 304 and contained four vertical plates as opposed to the fourteen Inconel 718 plates which comprise the actual structure. Due to the fact that the prototype was built before the design of the support was finalized, the plate dimensions are different from those of the actual proposed design (i.e. model plate thickness is approximately one-half that of the actual plates). See DWG. 3740.210-MC-222376 for assembly details of the test model and DWG. 3740.210-MB-222377 for plate dimensions. This stanchion will be required to not only support the load of the inner vessel of the cryostat and its contents, but it must also allow for the movement of the vessel due to thermal contraction. Assuming that each vertical plate acts as a column, then the following formula from the Manual of Steel Construction (American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Eigth edition, 1980) can be applied to determine whether or not such columns undergoing simultaneous axial compression and transverse loading are considered safe for the given loading. The first term is representative of the axially compressive stress, and the second term, the bending stress. If the actual compressive stress is greater than 15% of the allowable compressive stress, then there are additional considerations which must be accounted for in the bending stress term.
Collins, Madeline Carlisle; Macphee, David; Harris, Caleb
Previous research has shown that windmills with flexible blades are more efficient than those with rigid blades. Flexibility offers passive pitch control, preferable to active pitch control which is costly and requires maintenance. Flexible blades morph such that the blade more closely resembles its design point at part load and over load. The lift-to-drag ratios on individual blades was investigated. A mold was designed and machined from an acrylic slab for the casting of blades with a NACA 0012 cross section. A flexible blade was cast from silicone and a rigid blade was cast from polyurethane. Each of these blades was tested in a wind tunnel, cantilever mounted, spanning the whole test section. The angle of attack was varied by rotating the mount. All tests were performed at the same wind speed. A load cell within the mount measured forces on the blade, from which the lift and drag forces were calculated. The stall point for the flexible blade occurred later than for the rigid blade, which agrees with previous research. Lift-to-drag ratios were larger for the flexible blade at all angles of attack tested. Flexible blades seem to be a viable option for passive pitch control. Future research will include different airfoil cross sections, wind speeds, and blade materials. Funding from NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 is greatly appreciated.
This article argues that in addition to the major flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts of speech systems (Contentive, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members...... classes. Finally this article wants to claim that the distinction between rigid and flexible noun categories (a) adds a new dimension to current classifications of parts of speech systems, (b) correlates with certain grammatical phenomena (e.g. so-called number discord), and (c) helps to explain the parts...
Shaubach, R. M.; Gernert, N. J.
A Phase I SBIR NASA program for developing and demonstrating high-performance flexible heat pipes for use in the thermal management of spacecraft is examined. The program combines several technologies such as flexible screen arteries and high-performance circumferential distribution wicks within an envelope which is flexible in the adiabatic heat transport zone. The first six months of work during which the Phase I contract goal were met, are described. Consideration is given to the heat-pipe performance requirements. A preliminary evaluation shows that the power requirement for Phase II of the program is 30.5 kilowatt meters at an operating temperature from 0 to 100 C.
Spirco, J.; Fomin, V.; Egyedi, M.
Based on a literature review the paper investigates how standards influence flexibility of information technology (IT) infrastructures. Thereby we explore the concept of flexibility, the ways of achieving it and identify the characteristics of standards that influence flexibility. The existing
Nebojša N. Gaćeša
Full Text Available U radu je analiziran program za simulaciju sistema za upravljanje letom protivbrodske rakete sa radarskom glavom za samonavođenje. Analiziran je matematički model rakete, model autopilota i model cilja. Ovakvim pristupom dobijen je rezultat koji omogućava uspostavljanje realnijeg procesa praćenja leta konkretne protivbrodske rakete, budući da upravljanje letom rakete na celoj trajektoriji ima znatne prednosti u odnosu na nevođene projektile, pre svega zbog mogućnosti gađanja pokretnih ciljeva. Simulacioni model upravljanja letom rakete pruža mogućnosti za dalje proučavanje ove klase raketa. / The paper analyzes a program for simulating the flight control of an antiship missile with the radar seeker. The paper analyzes a mathematic missile model an autopilot model and a target model. Thus obtained results enable a more realistic process of flight tracking of a particular antiship missile as the missile guidance along the whole trajectory provides many advantages over unguided projectiles, primarily because of the possibility to fire at moving targets. The flight control simulation model enables further study of this missile class.
Akinwande, Deji; Petrone, Nicholas; Hone, James
.... With the discovery of hexagonal boron nitride as an ideal dielectric, the materials are now in place to advance integrated flexible nanoelectronics, which uniquely take advantage of the unmatched...
Galgani, Jose E.; Moro, Cedric; Ravussin, Eric
Metabolic flexibility is the capacity for the organism to adapt fuel oxidation to fuel availability. The inability to modify fuel oxidation in response to changes in nutrient availability has been implicated in the accumulation of intramyocellular lipid and insulin resistance. The metabolic flexibility assessed by the ability to switch from fat to carbohydrate oxidation is usually impaired during a hyperinsulinemic clamp in insulin-resistant subjects; however, this “metabolic inflexibility” i...
Dhere, Neelkanth G.
Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.
Studies in Language 32-3 (2008), 727-752. Special issue: Parts of Speech: Descriptive tools, theoretical constructs Jan Rijkhoff - On flexible and rigid nouns This article argues that in addition to the flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts-of-speech systems (Contentive...... classifications of parts-of-speech systems, (b) correlates with certain grammatical phenomena (e.g. so called number discord), and (c) helps to explain the parts-of-speech hierarchy....
Sibinski, Maciej; Jakubowska, Malgorzata; Sloma, Marcin
The aim of this paper is to present research dedicated to the elaboration of novel, miniaturized flexible temperature sensors for textronic applications. Examined sensors were manufactured on a single yarn, which ensures their high flexibility and good compatibility with textiles. Stable and linear characteristics were obtained by special technological process and applied temperature profiles. As a thermo-sensitive materials the innovative polymer compositions filled with multiwalled carbon n...
Bal, Pieter; Jansen, Paul G W
As demographic changes impact the workplace, governments, organizations and workers arelooking for ways to sustain optimal working lives at higher ages. Workplace flexibility has beenintroduced as a potential way workers can have more satisfying working lives until theirretirement ages. This paper presents a critical review of the literature on workplace flexibilityacross the lifespan. It discusses how flexibility has been conceptualized across differentdisciplines, and postulates a definitio...
xiii Abstract xv 1 Introduction 1 2 Foundations of Technology 13 3 Technological Dislocations 37 4 Rise of the Missile Mafia ...Peace, 247. 51 Chapter 4 Rise of the Missile Mafia There will be a gun in the F-4 over my dead body. —Gen William Momyer, USAF Like Gen Hap Arnold...work.”2 RISE OF THE MISSILE MAFIA 52 Momyer’s faith in missiles proved to be without basis during Vietnam, as aptly illustrated in the dismal
Bitla, Yugandhar; Chen, Ching; Lee, Hsien-Chang; Do, Thi Hien; Ma, Chun-Hao; Qui, Le Van; Huang, Chun-Wei; Wu, Wen-Wei; Chang, Li; Chiu, Po-Wen; Chu, Ying-Hao
The emerging technological demands for flexible and transparent electronic devices have compelled researchers to look beyond the current silicon-based electronics. However, fabrication of devices on conventional flexible substrates with superior performance are constrained by the trade-off between processing temperature and device performance. Here, we propose an alternative strategy to circumvent this issue via the heteroepitaxial growth of transparent conducting oxides (TCO) on the flexible mica substrate with performance comparable to that of their rigid counterparts. With the examples of ITO and AZO as a case study, a strong emphasis is laid upon the growth of flexible yet epitaxial TCO relying muscovite's superior properties compared to those of conventional flexible substrates and its compatibility with the present fabrication methods. Besides excellent optoelectro-mechanical properties, an additional functionality of high-temperature stability, normally lacking in the current state-of-the-art transparent flexitronics, is provided by these heterostructures. These epitaxial TCO electrodes with good chemical and thermal stabilities as well as mechanical durability can significantly contribute to the field of flexible, light-weight, and portable smart electronics.
A Byelorussian savant, Vassili Nesterenko, reveals that Moscow had developed, in the eighties years very light and mobile reactors to supply steps of fire of its missiles. The Chernobylsk accident has stopped this project. The realizations of these nuclear plants were called Pamir. In 200, it was question to launch again this project but for civil applications. In 2002, the Russian Minister of Atomic Energy has launched the idea of floating nuclear power plants that could be installed in the region of Arkhangelsk (North west of russia) and on the river banks of Tchoukotka (North east of the Siberia). The nuclear power plants would be constituted of two 35 MW reactors coming from ice-breakers and would cost 180 millions dollars. They would be installed on a big barge anchored near the coast. But this project has risen numerous notices because of their insufficient safety. (N.C.)
Kagan, Ilya; Schor, Razia; Kigli-Shemesh, Ronit; Ovadia, Karin Lee; Melnikov, Semyon
Israeli hospitals must continuously develop various mechanisms to protect both patients and staff against the physical threat of missile attacks during war situations. To examine the difficulties and dilemmas with which the staff of a psychiatric hospital had to deal during missile attacks. A quality improvement project consisting of three stages (1) establishment of a steering committee; (2) execution of a staff nurses' focus group; and (3) categorization of issues raised and suggestions for care improvement in future emergencies. The project stressed the challenges of dealing with restrained patients during missile alarms, waking up patients or dealing with those who refuse to enter the protected area, mismatching of the security needs in protected areas, and institutionalized emotional support for staff members. Suitable policies for clinical and management behavior and for information transfer between management and wards are essential during a continuous emergency. © The Author(s) 2016.
LaQuay, Ryan Matthew
In locations where workforce is exposed to high relative humidity and light winds, heat stress is a significant concern. Such is the case at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Heat stress is depicted by the wet bulb globe temperature, which is the official measurement used by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. The wet bulb globe temperature is measured by an instrument which was designed to be portable and needing routine maintenance. As an alternative form for measuring the wet bulb globe temperature, algorithms have been created to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature from basic meteorological observations. The algorithms are location dependent; therefore a specific algorithm is usually not suitable for multiple locations. Due to climatology similarities, the algorithm developed for use at the Dryden Flight Research Center was applied to data from the White Sands Missile Range. A study was performed that compared a wet bulb globe instrument to data from two Surface Atmospheric Measurement Systems that was applied to the Dryden wet bulb globe temperature algorithm. The period of study was from June to September of2009, with focus being applied from 0900 to 1800, local time. Analysis showed that the algorithm worked well, with a few exceptions. The algorithm becomes less accurate to the measurement when the dew point temperature is over 10 Celsius. Cloud cover also has a significant effect on the measured wet bulb globe temperature. The algorithm does not show red and black heat stress flags well due to shorter time scales of such events. The results of this study show that it is plausible that the Dryden Flight Research wet bulb globe temperature algorithm is compatible with the White Sands Missile Range, except for when there are increased dew point temperatures and cloud cover or precipitation. During such occasions, the wet bulb globe temperature instrument would be the preferred method of measurement. Out of the 30
study from 2002 is about! It‘s not cost- free. And of course some people argue, okay, this is of the cost of one tank . Look how difficult it is to...get the European politicians to pay for one tank . For the U.S. it may sound ridiculous but for Europeans it‘s not ridiculous. But this is a...12, 2008). Staff Writers. 2006. ―Europe sceptical about U.S. missile shield plans.‖ Space War. May 26. http://www.spacewar.com/reports
Zhang, Yunzhi; Wang, Gang
Based on the background of air and missile defense distributed element corporative engagement, the interception task allocation problem of multiple weapon units with multiple targets under network condition is analyzed. Firstly, a mathematical model of task allocation is established by combat task decomposition. Secondly, the initialization assignment based on auction contract and the adjustment allocation scheme based on swap contract were introduced to the task allocation. Finally, through the simulation calculation of typical situation, the model can be used to solve the task allocation problem in complex combat environment.
Malcolm, G. N.
The aerodynamic phenomena associated with high angles of attack and their effects on the dynamic stability characteristics of airplane and missile configurations are examined. Information on dynamic effects is limited. Steady flow phenomena and their effects on the forces and moments are reviewed. The effects of asymmetric vortices and of vortex bursting on the dynamic response of flight vehicles are reviewed with respect to their influence on: (1) nonlinearity of aerodynamic coefficients with attitude, rates, and accelerations; (2) cross coupling between longitudinal and lateral directional models of motion; (3) time dependence and hysteresis effects; (4) configuration dependencey; and (5) mathematical modeling of the aerodynamics.
Kaye, Brian H
Exciting reading for anyone with a curious mind!. 'Walking one day by a golf course in Wisconsin, I was startled to hear a sharp bang as a golf ball narrowly missed my head and hit a tree. My companion cheerfully remarked, 'That could have killed you, you know.' I picked up the innocent looking little white ball and looked at it with new respect.'. Prompted by this perilous experience, Brian Kaye has written a delightful and informative book on the design and behavior of different kinds of missiles from golf balls, arrows, and slingshots to comets and rockets to outer space. You'll learn about
clés étaient perçus par les autres, principalement par les États-Unis. Le triste épisode de la gestion de la crise des missiles de Cuba par Ottawa...cette crise ainsi que dans d’autres dossiers. Considérations relatives à la mise en œuvre : Cet ensemble de connaissances peut servir de toile de ...Defence, 2010 © Sa majesté la reine, représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2010 Abstract This Technical Memorandum, which is the
Bell, Samuel D.
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis examines the implication of China’s near completion of a viable nuclear triad. The objective is to determine first, how this submarine will fit into China’s no-first-use policy with regards to their nuclear weapons. And second, determine how advanced this weapon platform will be. With the introduction of multiple Type 094 “Jin” class ballistic missile submarines, has Beijing set the stage for a possible return to Cold War leve...
standpoint, there is no question that the Navy views the CG as the most capable AMD platform. It is designed from the keel up for anti-air warfare and...conjunction for the AMDC. Although the current CWC construct has never been tested to that depth in a real-world application, CSGs train to large...coherent unity of effort. In short, ef- fective command and control is the backbone of air and missile defense. In 2004, a multi- agent simulation of
region. In particular, the way the Is- raelis decapitated the Egyptian Air Force on June 5 in only 3 hours engendered tremendous awe among the Arab...reached our own soil or that of our allies?”2 Al- though Reagan’s speech made references to America’s allies, the international reactions were lukewarm...in a memo, “Iraq has the most aggressive and advanced ballistic missile development program in the Arab World.”8 Like the Egyptians , the Iraqis
Paiva, Clifford A.
The U.S. Navy has been requested to provide insightful responses to questions regarding low and high resolution target discrimination and target classification capabilities for short medium range ballistic missiles (SRBM/MRBM). Specific targets studied for this paper include foreign solid booster exhaust plume and hardbody systems (PHS). Target gradient edge intensities were extracted for aimpoint selection and will be added to the pattern referencing library database at NSWC Dahlgren Division. The results of this study indicate an increasing requirement for advanced image processing on the focal plane array of a LEAP (light exoatmospheric projectile) type kill kinetic vehicle (KKV) in order to implement effective correlation matching routines.
Wu, Longlong; Xie, Yongjie; Xu, Daping; Ren, Li
Radar Micro-Doppler signatures are of great potential for target detection, classification and recognition. In the mid-course phase, warheads flying outside the atmosphere are usually accompanied by precession. Precession may induce additional frequency modulations on the returned radar signal, which can be regarded as a unique signature and provide additional information that is complementary to existing target recognition methods. The main purpose of this paper is to establish a more actual precession model of conical ballistic missile warhead and extract the precession parameters by utilizing Viterbi & Kalman algorithm, which improving the precession frequency estimation accuracy evidently , especially in low SNR.
Heki, K.; Ozeki, M.
The dense array of ~1000 Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers in Japan provides useful information on atmosphere and ionosphere in terms of delays of microwaves in propagation media. Here we introduce its brand-new application, determination of the trajectories of ballistic missiles by using their electron depletion signatures in ionosphere. Booker (1961) first detected F-region ion depletion associated with a missile passage. Later, formation of an ionospheric hole by the launch of Skylab was observed, and Mendillo et al. (1975) attributed the electron depletion to the water molecules in the rocket exhaust. In Japan, ionospheric depletion after the launch of the H-IIA rocket was observed at GPS receivers in southern Japan using differences in phases between the two carrier frequencies L1 and L2 (Furuya & Heki, 2008). The so-called Taepodong-1, and -2 (the North Korean government claims that they successfully launched satellites), ballistic missiles with liquid fuel engines, were launched from Musudanri, North Korea, in August 1998, and April 2009, respectively. Their first stage engines splashed down onto the Japan Sea, and their second stage engines flew over northeastern Japan and reached the Pacific Ocean. We investigated GPS data before and after the launches, and detected that linear electron depletion areas appear in the northern part of the Japan Sea (~300 km east of the launch pad) approximately six minutes after the launch. Such electron depletion occurs as a result of exchange of positive charges between oxygen ions and water molecules, and dissociative recombination of water with electrons. The ionospheric hole rapidly grows and gradually decays as the water molecules diffuse. By comparing the numerical simulation results of ionospheric hole formation (water diffusion and chemical reaction) and the observed change in ionospheric total electron content (TEC), we conclude that the Taepodong-1 exhaust included water molecules ~0.5 percent of those in
We develop the mathematical theory for an automatic, space-based system to deflect NEOs by virtue of missiles shot from the Earth-Moon L1 and L3 Lagrangian Points. A patent application has been filed for the relevant code, dubbed ASTEROFF (= Asteroids OFF !). This code was already implemented, and a copyright for it was registered. In a paper published in Acta Astronautica, Vol. 50, No. 3, pp. 185-199 (2002), this author proved mathematically the following theorem (hereafter called the ``confocal conics theorem''): ``Within the sphere of influence of the Earth, any NEO could be hit by a missile at just an angle of 90 degrees, was the missile shot from Lagrangian Points L1 or L3 of the Earth-Moon system, rather than from the surface of the Earth''. As a consequence, the hitting missile would have move along a ``confocal ellipse'' (centered at the Earth) uniquely determined by the NEO's incoming hyperbola. Based on the above theorem, the author further shows in this paper that: The proposed defense system would be ideal to deflect NEOs that are small, i.e. less than one kilometer in diameter. Small NEOs are just the most difficult ones to be detected early enough and to such an orbital accuracy to be positively sure that they are indeed hazardous. The traditional theory of Keplerian orbits can successfully be applied to get an excellent first-order approximation of the (otherwise unknown) mathematical formulae of the energy/momentum requested to achieve the NEO deflection. Many engineering details about the missiles shot from L1 and L3, however, still have to be implemented into our simulations, partly because they are classified. Was one missile not enough to deflect the NEO completely, it is a great advantage of the ``confocal conics'' used here that the new, slightly deflected NEO's hyperbola would certainly be hit at nearly 90 degrees by another and slightly more eccentric elliptical missile trajectory. A sufficient number of missiles could thus be launched in a
560 grams (20 oz) of rice, 240 grams (8.5 oz) of other grain, 100 grams of meat (3.5 oz), 1 KG of vegetables (2.2 lbs), 20 grams of soy sauce , and 10...exports of ballistic missiles and related technology. North Korea’s missile program also became important as a status symbol to bolster the prestige... important — if not more important —than the performance of conventional KPA forces along the DMZ would be the execution of numerous Second Front
Rusalov, V M; Biryukov, S D
Forty-seven two-children families from Moscow were used in a study to assess genetic determination of behavior flexibility, which was measured by eight laboratory tests. Flexibility is regarded as a temperament trait. There was no age- or sex-specific differentiation of human behavioral flexibility. Genetic determination of indices was used as a criterion for construct validization of flexibility tests. Factor analysis produced two principal components of flexibility: "operational flexibility" and "afferent flexibility." The study showed that a considerable part of the phenotypic variability of the flexibility indices included in different factors is under approximately equal genetic control. The flexibility factors differ in their genetic determination. In the inheritance of the first factor the leading role belongs to the additive component, whereas the dominance effects are more prominent in the second factor of flexibility.
The paper provides a review on some of the significant research work done on wearable flexible sensors (WFS). Sensors fabricated with flexible materials have been attached to a person along with the embedded system to monitor a parameter and transfer the significant data to the monitoring unit for further analyses. The use of wearable sensors has played a quite important role to monitor physiological parameters of a person to minimize any malfunctioning happening in the body. The paper categorizes the work according to the materials used for designing the system, the network protocols and different types of activities that were being monitored. The challenges faced by the current sensing systems and future opportunities for the wearable flexible sensors regarding its market values are also briefly explained in the paper.
Sauer, Arne; Preller, Fabian
The paper deals with the design and performance verification of a high performance and flexible carbon fibre thermal link.Project goal was to design a space qualified thermal link combining low mass, flexibility and high thermal conductivity with new approaches regarding selected materials and processes. The idea was to combine the advantages of existing metallic links regarding flexibility and the thermal performance of high conductive carbon pitch fibres. Special focus is laid on the thermal performance improvement of matrix systems by means of nano-scaled carbon materials in order to improve the thermal performance also perpendicular to the direction of the unidirectional fibres.One of the main challenges was to establish a manufacturing process which allows handling the stiff and brittle fibres, applying the matrix and performing the implementation into an interface component using unconventional process steps like thermal bonding of fibres after metallisation.This research was funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi).
How long does a space or an object have to last? If in the past an object or a building manufacturing was designed to last as much as possible, nowadays it is designed to have a life related to the time in which it will be used. Flexibility is what characterizes a space, it’s the ability to be variable and adaptable to changes in the lives of users or in relation to the use which these will make over time. The evolution of the labour market, the difficulty of inserting within it and the need to push more and more frequent move today in the trial of living space models increasingly flexible: people, especially young people, are forced to move on territory outlining a new condition to which the flexible nomadic dwellings offer an adequate response, ensuring high functional performance in confined spaces.
Teilum, Kaare; Olsen, Johan G; Kragelund, Birthe B
for a delineation of the molecular details of their function. Several of these mutations interfered with the binding of a specific ligand with a concomitant effect on the stability of the protein scaffold. It has been ambiguous and not straightforward to recognize if any relationships exist between the stability...... presented is it clear that there are specific sites (flexibility hotspots) in proteins that are important for both binding and stability. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Dynamics: Experimental and Computational Approaches.......Proteins rely on flexibility to respond to environmental changes, ligand binding and chemical modifications. Potentially, a perturbation that changes the flexibility of a protein may interfere with its function. Millions of mutations have been performed on thousands of proteins in quests...
Jenkins, Charles F.; Howard, Boyd D.
A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprising a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present.
Full Text Available Manager of sport competition has right to decide and also to take responsibility for costs, income and financial results. From economic point of wiev flexible budget and planning cost calculations is top management base for analyzing success level of sport competition. Flexible budget is made before sport competition with few output level, where one is always from static plan-master plan. At the end of competition when we have results, we make report of plan executing and we also analyzing plan variances. Results of comparation between achieved and planning level of static budget can be acceptable if achieved level is approximate to budget level or if we analyzing results from gross or net income. Flexible budget become very important in case of world eco- nomic crises
Caballero Muñoz, Domingo; Blanco Prieto, Antonio
The aim of this article is to analyse the transferral of flexibility from contemporary organizations to workers. Through the approach of management by competencies, organizations try to develop in their workers behaviours that are related to efficient job performance. In order to appraise the importance of this approach, we used a critical-rational perspective to discuss the productivity demands that are characteristic of advanced industrial societies. The article shows how the link between workers' flexibility management and their emotional competencies affects their lives, which, like the organizations, should be versatile and adaptable to change.
Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Mathiassen, Lars
-sponsored program, mobile technology proved to have considerable interpretive flexibility with variation in perceived nature of technology, technology strategy, and technology use between agencies. What was first seen as a very promising innovation across the Danish home care sector subsequently became the topic...... of debate as technology use arrangements ran counter to existing norms and values in individual agencies. Conclusions: Government-sponsored programs can have both positive and negative results, and managers need to be aware of this and the interpretive flexibility of mobile technology. Mobile technology...
The worldwide market for polymer electronic products has been estimated to be worth up to £15 billion by 2015 and the opportunity for new markets could be as high as £125 billion by 2025.'The rapid development of polymer electronics has revealed the possibility for transforming the electronics market by offering lighter, flexible and more cost effective alternatives to conventional materials and products. With applications ranging from printed, flexible conductors and novel semiconductor components to intelligent labels and large area displays and solar panels, products that were previously un
Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach
in both energy production and consumption, is the key to solving these problems. Flexibilities can be expressed as flex-offers, which due to their high number need to be aggregated to reduce the complexity of energy scheduling. In this paper, we discuss balance aggregation techniques that already during......One of the main goals of recent developments in the Smart Grid area is to increase the use of renewable energy sources. These sources are characterized by energy fluctuations that might lead to energy imbalances and congestions in the electricity grid. Exploiting inherent flexibilities, which exist...
Sansare, K; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F
Gunshot injuries are an emerging form of trauma that oral radiologists increasingly have to deal with. There are two main types of gunshot injuries: high-velocity and low-velocity bullet injuries. The outcome of high-velocity gunshot injury is usually fatal; however, a non-fatal low-velocity injury to the maxillofacial region is more likely to be encountered by the oral and maxillofacial radiologist. It is therefore important to up-to-date knowledge of ballistic science and its implications in the field of maxillofacial radiology. The ability of oral and maxillofacial radiologists to predict the missile trajectory will aid the assessment and localization of the damage caused by the bullet and its splinters. Predicting the missile trajectory may also be of help to law enforcement agencies and forensic scientists in determining the type of firearm used and direction of fire. This article, which examines two cases, attempts to highlight to the oral radiologist this emerging form of trauma and its implications.
Full Text Available According to motion characteristic of an asymmetric rolling missile with damage fin, a three-channel controlled model is established. The controller which is used to realize non-linear tracking and decoupling control of the roll and angle motion is introduced based on an improved trajector y linearization control method. The improved method is composed of the classic trajectory linearization control method and a compensation control law. The classic trajectory linearization control method is implemented in the time-scale separation principle. The Lipschitz non-linear state observer systematically obtained by solving the linear matrix inequality approach is provided to estimate state variables and unknown parameters, and then the compensation control law utilizing the estimated unknown parameters improves the TLC method. Simulation experiments show that the adaptive decoupling control ensure tracking performance, and the robustness and accuracy of missile attitude control are ensured under the condition of the system parameters uncertainty, random observation noise and external disturbance caused by damage fin.
We feel that the concept of intercepting a fractionated threat from a tactical ballistic missile is potentially feasible and would have very high payoff for the defense. Many other concepts have been suggested to solve this problem, although they have mostly been more futuristic approaches, e.g. aircrafty based lasers. We also believe that current technologies are not likely to be adequate for the expected types of very small submunition payloads, especially in the presence of relatively simple countermeasures. The MEDUSA concept, or its clones, may very well provide a vehicle for the study of less stressing threats, e.g. separating warheads and provide a lethality enhancement for non-deployed payloads. An opportunity also exists to investigate alternative technologies, such as the explosively-formed ``disk`` idea. The use of high-precision, limited field-of-view sensor-fuzed munitions is a subject of interest in other Defense Department programs and may have application to the important area of theater missile defense.
Cooper, G J; Ryan, J M
It is apparent from review of published papers and books that misunderstanding and confusion exists in the minds of many authors describing the interaction of penetrating missiles with tissues. These misapprehensions may influence the management of wounds by suggesting didactic approaches based upon a preconceived notion of the nature and severity of the wound for different types of projectiles. This review considers the biophysics of penetrating missile wounds, highlights some of the more common misconceptions and seeks to reconcile the conflicting and confusing management doctrines that are promulgated in the literature-differences that arise not only from two scenarios, peace and war, but also from misapprehensions of the wounding process. Wounds of war and of peacetime differ both in the nature of the wound and in the propensity for wound infection. Additionally, the limitations imposed by war dictate the type of management that may be practised and result in procedures that would be considered inappropriate by some in civilian clinical practice. Many of the procedures described in civilian peacetime settings, such as reliance on antibiotics alone for the control of infection in penetrating wounds, or minimal excision and debridement, can yield good results but would herald disaster if transposed to a war setting.
A new adaptive critic autopilot design for bank-to-turn missiles is presented. In this paper, the architecture of adaptive critic learning scheme contains a fuzzy-basis-function-network based associative search element (ASE), which is employed to approximate nonlinear and complex functions of bank-to-turn missiles, and an adaptive critic element (ACE) generating the reinforcement signal to tune the associative search element. In the design of the adaptive critic autopilot, the control law receives signals from a fixed gain controller, an ASE and an adaptive robust element, which can eliminate approximation errors and disturbances. Traditional adaptive critic reinforcement learning is the problem faced by an agent that must learn behavior through trial-and-error interactions with a dynamic environment, however, the proposed tuning algorithm can significantly shorten the learning time by online tuning all parameters of fuzzy basis functions and weights of ASE and ACE. Moreover, the weight updating law derived from the Lyapunov stability theory is capable of guaranteeing both tracking performance and stability. Computer simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive critic autopilot.
Sasi Bhushana Rao, G.; Nambari, Swathi; Kota, Srikanth; Ranga Rao, K. S.
Stealth Technology manages many signatures for a target in which most radar systems use radar cross section (RCS) for discriminating targets and classifying them with regard to Stealth. During a war target’s RCS has to be very small to make target invisible to enemy radar. In this study, Radar Cross Section of perfectly conducting objects like cylinder, truncated cone (frustum) and circular flat plate is estimated with respect to parameters like size, frequency and aspect angle. Due to the difficulties in exactly predicting the RCS, approximate methods become the alternative. Majority of approximate methods are valid in optical region and where optical region has its own strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, the analysis given in this study is purely based on far field monostatic RCS measurements in the optical region. Computation is done using Physical Optics (PO) method for determining RCS of simple models. In this study not only the RCS of simple models but also missile shaped and rocket shaped models obtained from the cascaded objects with backscatter has been computed using Matlab simulation. Rectangular plots are obtained for RCS in dbsm versus aspect angle for simple and missile shaped objects using Matlab simulation. Treatment of RCS, in this study is based on Narrow Band.
Lu, Li; Sheng, Wen; Jiang, Wei; Jiang, Feng
The infrared detection technology of ballistic missile based on near space platform can effectively make up the shortcomings of high-cost of traditional early warning satellites and the limited earth curvature of ground-based early warning radar. In terms of target detection capability, aiming at the problem that the formula of the action distance based on contrast performance ignores the background emissivity in the calculation process and the formula is only valid for the monochromatic light, an improved formula of the detecting range based on contrast performance is proposed. The near space infrared imaging system parameters are introduced, the expression of the contrastive action distance formula based on the target detection of the near space platform is deduced. The detection range of the near space infrared system for the booster stage ballistic missile skin, the tail nozzle and the tail flame is calculated. The simulation results show that the near-space infrared system has the best effect on the detection of tail-flame radiation.
Full Text Available To simulate dynamic Radar Cross Section (RCS of missile target group, an efficient RCS prediction approach is proposed based on the high-frequency asymptotic theory. The minimal energy trajectory and coordinate transformation is used to get trajectories of the missile, decoys and roll booster, and establish the dynamic scene for the separate procedure of the target group, and the dynamic RCS including specular reflection, edge diffraction and multi-reflection from the target group are obtained by Physical Optics (PO, Equivalent Edge Currents (EEC and Shooting-and-Bouncing Ray (SBR methods. Compared with the dynamic RCS result with the common interpolation method, the proposed method is consistent with the common method when the targets in the scene are far away from each other and each target is not sheltered by others in the incident direction. When the target group is densely distributed and the shelter effect can not be neglected, the interpolation method is extremely difficult to realize, whereas the proposed method is successful.
Full Text Available This article examines the implications of the deployment of the US ballistic missile defense (BMD system in the Baltic and Nordic regions. These implications are to be considered to ensure Russia’s military security. Using the structural-functional method, the authors analyse the internal structure of the US BMD in Europe, stages of its implementation, and its influence on the military equilibrium in the region. Being similar to other regional missile defence systems of the Pentagon, BMD in Europe increases the offensive capabilities of the US armed forces and its allies and in doing so, it stops performing a purely defensive mission declared by Washington. It is stressed that the deployment of mobile sea- and land-based BMD elements in the Baltic Sea region and Nordic countries will inevitably destabilize the strategic situation and may lead to a new round of arms race in the region. The efficacy of BMD in Europe is evaluated from the perspective of military technology. The system’s potential threats to Russia’s military security and its armed forces are assessed. The article considers measures to enhance national security that could be taken by Russia provided the US plans to deploy BMD in Europe are fully implemented.
Schweitzer, Caroline; Stein, Karin; Wendelstein, Norbert
The detection and tracking of ballistic missiles (BMs) during launch or cloud break using satellite based electro-optical (EO) sensors is a promising possibility for pre-instructing early warning and fire control radars. However, the successful detection of a BM is depending on the applied infrared (IR)-channel, as emission and reflection of threat and background vary in different spectral (IR-) bands and for different observation scenarios. In addition, the spatial resolution of the satellite based system also conditions the signal-to-clutter-ratio (SCR) and therefore the predictability of the flight path. Generally available satellite images provide data in spectral bands, which are suitable for remote sensing applications and earth surface observations. However, in the fields of BM early warning, these bands are not of interest making the simulation of background data essential. The paper focuses on the analysis of IR-bands suitable for missile detection by trading off the suppression of background signature against threat signal strength. This comprises a radiometric overview of the background radiation in different spectral bands for different climates and seasons as well as for various cloud types and covers. A brief investigation of the BM signature and its trajectory within a threat scenario is presented. Moreover, the influence on the SCR caused by different observation scenarios and varying spatial resolution are pointed out. The paper also introduces the software used for simulating natural background spectral radiance images, MATISSE ("Advanced Modeling of the Earth for Environment and Scenes Simulation") by ONERA .
Full Text Available The current security environment is characterized by a high degree of instability and unpredictability, through the manifestation of new risks and threats, especially those with asymmetrical nature, by redefining the relations between the great powers, and increasing freedom of action of the regional actors (state and non-state. At the international level, the end of the Cold War has led to a fragmentation of efforts in the security field, with direct implications on the need for further efforts of the international community coordination. In this era of profound change and transformation it is not possible the adoption of an isolationist policy of security, but only in a broader context of interdependencies and relationships between general trends, threats or challenges specific to a particular area or geographic areas. Swift operationalization of the anti-missile system will strengthen the national security both directly, through the protection it provides for the entire national territory, and indirectly, as the system will have a deterrent important role, able to mitigate risks of possible attacks by ballistic missiles. The role of deterrence will remove the risk of attack against any Allied territory on which, by virtue of membership in NATO and obligations involved according to article 5 of the Washington Treaty, Romania has also responsibilities.
Brighton, Caroline H; Thomas, Adrian L R; Taylor, Graham K
The ability to intercept uncooperative targets is key to many diverse flight behaviors, from courtship to predation. Previous research has looked for simple geometric rules describing the attack trajectories of animals, but the underlying feedback laws have remained obscure. Here, we use GPS loggers and onboard video cameras to study peregrine falcons, Falco peregrinus , attacking stationary targets, maneuvering targets, and live prey. We show that the terminal attack trajectories of peregrines are not described by any simple geometric rule as previously claimed, and instead use system identification techniques to fit a phenomenological model of the dynamical system generating the observed trajectories. We find that these trajectories are best-and exceedingly well-modeled by the proportional navigation (PN) guidance law used by most guided missiles. Under this guidance law, turning is commanded at a rate proportional to the angular rate of the line-of-sight between the attacker and its target, with a constant of proportionality (i.e., feedback gain) called the navigation constant ( N ). Whereas most guided missiles use navigation constants falling on the interval 3 ≤ N ≤ 5, peregrine attack trajectories are best fitted by lower navigation constants (median N drones designed to remove other drones from protected airspace. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.
Goran M. Lazić
Full Text Available Protivoklopni vođeni projektili namenjeni su za uništavanje teško-oklopljenih tenkova, kao i drugih oklopnih vozila. Ovaj rad nudi istorijsko-tehnički pregled (razvoj projektila kroz generacije i osnovni podaci vezani za borbeno-operativno dejstvo ovih projektila ovog tipa naoružanja koje poseduju zemlje zapadne Evrope, Izraela i Indije. Pored osnovnih podataka navode se i cene nekih projektila ponaosob, kao i tendencije razvoja u ovoj grani naoružanja. / Anti-tank guided missiles are designed to hit and destroy heavily armored tanks and other armored fighting vehicles. This review offers a historical and technical overview (development of missiles throughout generations and basic data about combat and operational actions of this type of weapons in Western Europe, Israel and India. The review also offers prices of some missiles and tendencies of development in this branch. Anti-tank guided missiles are primarily designed to destroy armoured tanks as well as other armoured vehicles. Anti-tank guided systems differ in size, from small ones (shoulder-launched missile weapons carried by a single person to complex weapon systems (crewserved, vehicle-mounted and airborne systems. The first generation of anti-tank guided missiles is a manually guided MCLOS (Manual Command to Line of Sight projectile requiring an operator to guide and steer it to a target by a joystick. Vickers vigilant is a British anti-tank wire-guided missile, produced in 1956. The Bantam (Bofors Anti-Tank Missile or Robot 53 (RB 53 is a Swedish anti-tank wire-guided missile, produced in 1963. Cobra is a German - Swiss product which entered the operational use in 1956. It was replaced by Cobra 2000 and Mamaba systems, which are anti-tank guided missiles of the first generation, but with improved guidance and electronics. ENTAC (Engin téléguidé anti-char or MGM Petronor-32A is a French anti-tank wire-guided missile, widely spread and still in the operational use in many
Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Donolato, Marco; Gobbi, Marco
Magnetic tunnel junctions and nano-sized domain-wall conduits have been fabricated on the flexible substrate Kapton. Despite the delicate nature of tunneling barriers and zig-zag shaped nanowires, the devices show an outstanding integrity and robustness upon mechanical bending. High values...
Cross, Cynthia; Nguyen, Hai D.; Ruemmele, Warren; Andish, Kambiz K.; McCalley, Sean
Flexible metal-fabric radiators have been considered as alternative means of dissipating excess heat from spacecraft and space suits. The radiators also may be useful in such special terrestrial applications as rejecting heat from space-suit-like protective suits worn in hot work environments. In addition to flexibility and consequent ease of deployment and installation on objects of varying sizes and shapes, the main advantages of these radiators over conventional rigid radiators are that they weigh less and occupy less volume for a given amount of cooling capacity. A radiator of this type includes conventional stainless-steel tubes carrying a coolant fluid. The main radiating component consists of a fabric of interwoven aluminum-foil strips bonded to the tubes by use of a proprietary process. The strip/tube bonds are strong and highly thermally conductive. Coolant is fed to and from the tubes via flexible stainless-steel manifolds designed to accommodate flexing of, and minimize bending forces on, the fabric. The manifolds are sized to minimize pressure drops and distribute the flow of coolant evenly to all the tubes. The tubes and manifolds are configured in two independent flow loops for operational flexibility and protective redundancy.
Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) are systems that can be programed to alter their procedures to suit varying production requirements. Use of and trends related to these systems in the United States and foreign countries are discussed. A detailed diagram of a hypothetical FMS is provided. (JN)
Nguyen, Nhan T.
This presentation presents an overview of flight control research for flexible high aspect wing aircraft in support of the NASA ARMD Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) project. It summarizes multi-objective flight control technology being developed for drag optimization, flutter suppression, and maneuver and gust load alleviation.
Fosgerau, Mogens; Mabit, Stefan L.
We propose a method to generate flexible mixture distributions that are useful for estimating models such as the mixed logit model using simulation. The method is easy to implement, yet it can approximate essentially any mixture distribution. We test it with good results in a simulation study...
Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.
Blanken, Anneloes; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.; Bult-Spiering, Mirjam; Abel, J.; Barlow, J.; Carthey, J.; Codinhoto, R.; Dewulf, G.; Dilani, A.
Over the last decade hospitals concessions have been increasingly implemented around the world. Nonetheless, concession arrangements are subject to many criticisms, which are to a large extent related to the issue of flexibility. Several authors have expressed concerns as to whether concession
Chelune, Gordon J.
The relationship between dispositional level of self-disclosure or disclosure flexibility--a measure of appropriateness of self-disclosure with respect to social-situational norms--and indices of effective interpersonal functioning were investigated in two experiments. Results of Study I revealed that when differences in social desirability were…
Molleman, E.; Slomp, J.
This study deals with workforce flexibility defined in terms of 'multifunctionality' and 'redundancy'. These concepts refer, respectively, to the number of different tasks a worker has mastered and the number of workers that are qualified to do a specific task. A third factor to be considered is
Cornelius, William L.
Effective flexibility procedures are one of the essential tools by which excellence can be attained. Although stretching exercises provide obvious benefits, negative outcomes can result unless effective stretching procedures are incoroporated. Characteristics of effective stretching include warmup before stretching, stretch before and after…
Harkema, S.; Pendyala, R.K.; Geurts, C.G.C.; Helgers, P.L.J.; Levell, J.W.; Wilson, J.S.; MacKerron, D.
Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are a promising lighting technology. In particular OLEDs fabricated on plastic foils are believed to hold the future. These planar devices are subject to various optical losses, which requires sophisticated light management solutions. Flexible OLEDs on plastic
Prats, F.; Pitarch, A.
Revision 1 of Regulatory Guide 1.76, March 2007 establishes the criteria for evaluating nuclear plants against the adverse effects of a tornado. Basically, these effects can be summarized in three: effect of wind speed, effect of internal depression and effect of tornado-generated missiles tornado. The latter effect is to be considered in this paper.
Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Sagy, Shifra; Roth, Guy
Employing the salutogenic approach (Antonovsky, 1987), this pilot study aimed at exploring the mediation effect of Sense of Coherence (SOC) on the relationships between exposure to missile attacks and stress-related reactions among adolescents. A strong SOC means a tendency to see the world as more comprehensible, manageable and meaningful. Data…
was established, and Korolev was named its chief constructor for long-range ballistic missiles. His col- league Glushko, who was now serving as...provoking concept, see John W. Kingdon, Agendas , Alternatives, and Public Policies (New York: Long- man Press, 1995), 172–73. 45. Armacost, The
Zou, Mingzhi; Ma, Yue; Yuan, Xin; Hu, Yi; Liu, Jie; Jin, Zhong
Flexible devices, such as flexible electronic devices and flexible energy storage devices, have attracted a significant amount of attention in recent years for their potential applications in modern human lives. The development of flexible devices is moving forward rapidly, as the innovation of methods and manufacturing processes has greatly encouraged the research of flexible devices. This review focuses on advanced materials, architecture designs and abundant applications of flexible devices, and discusses the problems and challenges in current situations of flexible devices. We summarize the discovery of novel materials and the design of new architectures for improving the performance of flexible devices. Finally, we introduce the applications of flexible devices as key components in real life. Project supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (Nos. 2017YFA0208200, 2016YFB0700600, 2015CB659300), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21403105, 21573108), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 020514380107).
Jovall, Ola; Larsson, Jan-Anders; Thunell, Bjoern [Scanscot Technology AB, Ideon Research Park, Lund (Sweden)
Analysis of impact load effects to be accounted for in nuclear power plant engineering includes several complicated issues. During the expansive build up of the Swedish nuclear power plants in the 1970s and the beginning of the 1980s, no rational computer based analysis methods were available to handle these types of events. Simplified empirical methods, based on experiences from ballistic experiments within the American military industry, constituted the basic analysis tools. Modern analysis methods based on the finite element technique have during recent years been used more often within the nuclear power plant industry. These methods have made it possible to eliminate several of the shortages associated with the traditional methods of analysis. On behalf of the Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate, Scanscot Technology has performed a review of the traditional and modern analysis methods aimed at handling missile impact in nuclear power plants. Emphasis has been put on the advantages and possibilities that can be achieved by using modern analysis methods, but also to identify and define new uncertainties that may arise. Acceptance criteria regarding dynamic load effects have traditionally been focused on safety-related systems and components. Generally, corresponding demands on safety-related structures have been overlooked or treated on the basis of other acceptance criteria. Therefore, another aim of this commission is to create a comprehensive perspective for safety-related systems, components and structures regarding the acceptance criteria to be applied for evaluation of dynamic load effects in the case of accidental events. In this report the various types of impact loads, which should be regarded within the scope of postulated accidental events in nuclear power plants, are described. Furthermore, special issues regarding load effects and acceptance criteria for safety-related systems and structures are treated. The traditional methods of determining impact load
Smith, Ronald A.; Shipman, Mark; Holder, E. J.; Williams, James K.
The United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command (USASMDC) has interest in a technology demonstration that capitalizes on investment in fire control and smart interceptor technologies that have matured beyond basic research. The concept "SWORD" (Short range missile defense With Optimized Radar Distribution) consists of a novel approach utilizing a missile interceptor and interferometric fire control radar. A hit-to-kill, closed-loop, command guidance scheme is planned that takes advantage of extremely accurate target and interceptor state vectors derived via the fire control radar. The fire control system has the capability to detect, track, and classify multiple threats in a tactical regime as well as simultaneously provide command guidance updates to multiple missile interceptors. The missile interceptor offers a cost reduction potential as well as an enhancement to the kinematics range and lethality over existing SHORAD systems. Additionally, the Radio Frequency (RF) guidance scheme offers increased battlefield weather performance. The Air Defense (AD) community, responding to current threat capabilities and trends, has identified an urgent need to have a capability to counter proliferated, low cost threats with a low cost-per-kill weapon system. The SWORD system will offer a solution that meets this need. The SWORD critical technologies will be identified including a detailed description of each. Validated test results and basic principles of operation will be presented to prove the merit of the past investments. The Deptuy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Technology [DAS(R&T)] has a three-year Science and Technology Program to evaluate the errors and proposed mitigation techniques associated with target spectral dispersion and range gate straddle. Preliminary Bench-Top Experiment results will be presented in this paper.
Allen, Julian H
An analysis is given of the oscillating motion of a ballistic missile which upon entering the atmosphere is angularly misaligned with respect to the flight path. The history of the motion for some example missiles is discussed from the point of view of the effect of the motion on the aerodynamic heating and loading. The miss distance at the target due to misalignment and to small accidental trim angles is treated. The stability problem is also discussed for the case where the missile is tumbling prior to atmospheric entry.
the views of the Armed Services about the nature of their future requirements. On the other hand, the initial stimulus for the development of a new...drawback of extremely large computational requirements. However, they also have the greatest potential for future development. The method developed...recirculation (V) a l’intgrieur duquel reflue le courant alimentent la couche de m6lange. La consid6ration de chacune de ces r6gions parmet de d6finir la
This book provides an introduction to software-defined radio and cognitive radio, along with methodologies for applying knowledge representation, semantic web, logic reasoning and artificial intelligence to cognitive radio, enabling autonomous adaptation and flexible signaling. Readers from the wireless communications and software-defined radio communities will use this book as a reference to extend software-defined radio to cognitive radio, using the semantic technology described. Readers with a background in semantic web and artificial intelligence will find in this book the application of semantic web and artificial intelligence technologies to wireless communications. For readers in networks and network management, this book presents a new approach to enable interoperability, collaborative optimization and flexible adaptation of network components. Provides a comprehensive ontology covering the core concepts of wireless communications using a formal language; Presents the technical realization of using a ...
Royle, Nick J; Russell, Andrew F; Wilson, Alastair J
Parenting behaviors, such as the provisioning of food by parents to offspring, are known to be highly responsive to changes in environment. However, we currently know little about how such flexibility affects the ways in which parenting is adapted and evolves in response to environmental variation. This is because few studies quantify how individuals vary in their response to changing environments, especially social environments created by other individuals with which parents interact. Social environmental factors differ from nonsocial factors, such as food availability, because parents and offspring both contribute and respond to the social environment they experience. This interdependence leads to the coevolution of flexible behaviors involved in parenting, which could, paradoxically, constrain the ability of individuals to rapidly adapt to changes in their nonsocial environment. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Vasileiou, Thomas; Gerber, Julia; Prautzsch, Jana; Schutzius, Thomas M; Poulikakos, Dimos
Inspired by manifestations in nature, microengineering and nanoengineering of synthetic materials to achieve superhydrophobicity has been the focus of much work. Generally, hydrophobicity is enhanced through the combined effects of surface texturing and chemistry; being durable, rigid materials are the norm. However, many natural and technical surfaces are flexible, and the resulting effect on hydrophobicity has been largely ignored. Here, we show that the rational tuning of flexibility can work synergistically with the surface microtexture or nanotexture to enhance liquid repellency performance, characterized by impalement and breakup resistance, contact time reduction, and restitution coefficient increase. Reduction in substrate areal density and stiffness imparts immediate acceleration and intrinsic responsiveness to impacting droplets (∼350 × g), mitigating the collision and lowering the impalement probability by ∼60% without the need for active actuation. Furthermore, we exemplify the above discoveries with materials ranging from man-made (thin steel or polymer sheets) to nature-made (butterfly wings).
Akinwande, Deji; Petrone, Nicholas; Hone, James
2014/2015 represents the tenth anniversary of modern graphene research. Over this decade, graphene has proven to be attractive for thin-film transistors owing to its remarkable electronic, optical, mechanical and thermal properties. Even its major drawback--zero bandgap--has resulted in something positive: a resurgence of interest in two-dimensional semiconductors, such as dichalcogenides and buckled nanomaterials with sizeable bandgaps. With the discovery of hexagonal boron nitride as an ideal dielectric, the materials are now in place to advance integrated flexible nanoelectronics, which uniquely take advantage of the unmatched portfolio of properties of two-dimensional crystals, beyond the capability of conventional thin films for ubiquitous flexible systems.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present research dedicated to the elaboration of novel, miniaturized flexible temperature sensors for textronic applications. Examined sensors were manufactured on a single yarn, which ensures their high flexibility and good compatibility with textiles. Stable and linear characteristics were obtained by special technological process and applied temperature profiles. As a thermo-sensitive materials the innovative polymer compositions filled with multiwalled carbon nanotubes were used. Elaborated material was adapted to printing and dip-coating techniques to produce NTC composites. Nanotube sensors were free from tensometric effect typical for other carbon-polymer sensor, and demonstrated TCR of 0.13%/K. Obtained temperature sensors, compatible with textile structure, can be applied in rapidly developing smart textiles and be used for health and protections purposes.
Full Text Available This paper proposes a two-rate hybrid neural network system, which consists of two artificial neural network subsystems. These neural network subsystems are used as the dynamic subsystems controllers.1 This is because such neuromorphic controllers are especially suitable to control complex systems. An illustrative example - two-rate neural network hybrid control of decomposed stochastic model of a rigid guided missile over different operating conditions - was carried out using the proposed two-rate state-space decomposition technique. This example demonstrates that this research technique results in simplified low-order autonomous control subsystems with various speeds of actuation, and shows the quality of the proposed technique. The obtained results show that the control tasks for the autonomous subsystems can be solved more qualitatively than for the original system. The simulation and animation results with use of software package Simulink demonstrate that this research technique would work for real-time stochastic systems.
Full Text Available Terminal guidance law design and its implementation are considered for homing missiles against maneuvering targets. The lateral acceleration dynamics are taken into account in the design. In the guidance law design, the line-of-sight acceleration signals are incorporated into the acceleration reference signals to compensate for the targets’ maneuvers. Then the commanded accelerations are designed and the convergent tracking of the lateral accelerations to these signals is proven theoretically. In the guidance implementation, a linear high-gain differentiator is used to estimate the line-of-sight rates and the line-of-sight acceleration signals. To avoid the magnifying effects of higher order differentiation, a practical design of commanded accelerations is given to realize approximate tracking of the lateral accelerations to the given reference signals. Simulation is conducted for both cases with and without measurement noises. The simulation results justify the feasibility of the design and the implementation.
Ehrsam, E. E.; Cresswell, S. A.; Mckelvey, G. R.; Matthews, F. L.
An approach developed to improve the ground instrumentation time tagging accuracy and adapted to support the Minuteman ICBM program is desired. The Timing Insertion Unit (TIU) technique produces a telemetry data time tagging resolution of one tenth of a microsecond, with a relative intersite accuracy after corrections and velocity data (range, azimuth, elevation and range rate) also used in missile guidance system analysis can be correlated to within ten microseconds of the telemetry guidance data. This requires precise timing synchronization between the metric and telemetry instrumentation sites. The timing synchronization can be achieved by using the radar automatic phasing system time correlation methods. Other time correlation techniques such as Television (TV) Line-10 and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GEOS) terrestial timing receivers are also considered.
Nettle, J. Cary
A rocket of the 1000-pound-thrust class using liquid oxygen and JP-4 fuel as propellant was installed in the Lewis 8- by 6-foot tunnel to permit a controlled study of some of the factors affecting the heating of a rocket-missile base. Temperatures measured in the base region are presented from findings of three motor extension lengths relative to the base. Data are also presented for two combustion efficiency levels in the rocket motor. Temperature as high as 1200 F was measured in the base region because of the ignition of burnable rocket gases. combustibles that are dumped into the base by accessories seriously aggravate the base-burning temperature rise.
Hosking, R. J.
In the most common mathematical model for a moving load on a continuously- supported flexible plate, the plate is assumed thin and elastic. An exception is the inclusion of viscoelasticity in the theory for the response of a floating ice plate, where the deflexion at the critical load speed corresponding to the minimum phase speed of hybrid flexural-gravity waves consequently approaches a steady state. This is in contrast to the elastic theory, where the response is predi...
Anderson, G. E.; Fell, D. M.; Tesinsky, J. S. (Inventor)
A flexible pile thermal barrier insulator included a plurality of upstanding pile yarns. A generally planar backing section supported the upstanding pile yarns. The backing section included a plurality of filler yarns forming a mesh in a first direction. A plurality of warp yarns were looped around said filler yarns and pile yarns in the backing section and formed a mesh in a second direction. A binder prevented separation of the yarns in the backing section.
Geurts, H.M.; Corbett, B.; Solomon, M.
We present an overview of current literature addressing cognitive flexibility in autism spectrum disorders. Based on recent studies at multiple sites, using diverse methods and participants of different autism subtypes, ages and cognitive levels, no consistent evidence for cognitive flexibility
TECULESCU Silviu Alexandru
Full Text Available The paper follows to offer the most efficient solutions for the attainment by Romania of the economic development level associated to the Western European countries. It proposes the division of the flexibility of labour market in three components, namely: internal flexibility, external flexibility and wage flexibility. The analysis performed within the present study will emphasize the wage flexibility. Wage flexibility can be classified in four components: a plans of individual and group incentives; b plans of assigning wages out of productivity; c plans of distribution of profits and, respectively, d plans of suggestions. The labour market flexibility, in general, and especially the wage flexibility contributes to the increase of employee motivation at the workplace, aspect which leeds to the growth of labour productivity, through this one being put the bases of the medium- and long-term economic development.
The rule that established the HCFC allowance system also created an allowance transfer mechanism to provide flexibility. This fact sheet highlights the flexibilities incorporated into the HCFC allowance system.
Agerfalk, Par J.; Fitzgerald, Brian
peer-reviewed The minitrack on Flexible and Distributed Software Development Processes addresses two important and partially intertwined current themes in software development: process flexibility and globally distributed software development
Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.
A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprises a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present. 7 figs.
Loher, Hannah; Kreis, Roland; Boesch, Chris; Christ, Emanuel
In addition to the subcutaneous and the visceral fat tissue, lipids can also be stored in non-adipose tissue such as in hepatocytes (intrahepatocellular lipids; IHCL), skeletal (intramyocellular lipids; IMCL) or cardiac muscle cells (intracardiomyocellular lipids; ICCL). Ectopic lipids are flexible fuel stores that can be depleted by physical exercise and repleted by diet. They are related to obesity and insulin resistance. Quantification of IMCL was initially performed invasively, using muscle biopsies with biochemical and/or histological analysis. ¹H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS) is now a validated method that allows for not only quantifying IMCL non-invasively and repeatedly, but also assessing IHCL and ICCL. This review summarizes the current available knowledge on the flexibility of ectopic lipids. The available evidence suggests a complex interplay between quantitative and qualitative diet, fat availability (fat mass), insulin action, and physical exercise, all important factors that influence the flexibility of ectopic lipids. Furthermore, the time frame of the intervention on these parameters (short-term vs. long-term) appears to be critical. Consequently, standardization of physical activity and diet are critical when assessing ectopic lipids in predefined clinical situations.
Harris, Jeffrey H.; Hender, Timothy C.; Carreras, Benjamin A.; Cantrell, Jack L.; Morris, Robert N.
An 1=1 helical winding which spirals about a conventional planar, circular central conductor of a helical-axis stellarator adds a significant degree of flexibility by making it possible to control the rotational transform profile and shear of the magnetic fields confining the plasma in a helical-axis stellarator. The toroidal central conductor links a plurality of toroidal field coils which are separately disposed to follow a helical path around the central conductor in phase with the helical path of the 1=1 winding. This coil configuration produces bean-shaped magnetic flux surfaces which rotate around the central circular conductor in the same manner as the toroidal field generating coils. The additional 1=1 winding provides flexible control of the magnetic field generated by the central conductor to prevent the formation of low-order resonances in the rotational transform profile which can produce break-up of the equilibrium magnetic surfaces. Further, this additional winding can deepen the magnetic well which together with the flexible control provides increased stability.
effectiveness. Other the Soyuz TM-22 spacecraft. Thus grid fins have found a characteristics of lattice controls are small hinge moments with number of... capsule . The four . turbulent x=0.3m new operating conditions (LSCNI to 4, table 1) defined for ------ turbulent xt=o.15m the conical nozzle are...from Russia and the Ukraine. You will see very different type of creatures imagined to move close to the sea. Whether you personally are interested, or
Ronald Sabo; Jung-Hun Seo; Zhenqiang Ma
Flexible electronics have a large number of potential applications including malleable displays and wearable computers. The current research into high-speed, flexible electronic substrates employs the use of plastics for the flexible substrate, but these plastics typically have drawbacks, such as high thermal expansion coefficients. Transparent films made from...
... COMMISSION 17 CFR Ch. II Regulatory Flexibility Agenda AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION... rulemaking actions pursuant to the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) (Pub. L. 96-354, 94 Stat. 1164) (Sept. 19... of a Regulatory Flexibility Act analysis is required. The Commission's complete RFA agenda will be...
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pricing flexibility. 1.774 Section 1.774..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers Tariffs § 1.774 Pricing flexibility. (a) Petitions. (1) A petition seeking pricing flexibility for specific services pursuant to part 69, subpart H, of this chapter...
.... II Semiannual Regulatory Flexibility Agenda AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System... Flexibility Act and the Board's Statement of Policy Regarding Expanded Rulemaking Procedures. The Board... Regulatory Flexibility Act, and public comment is invited on those entries. The complete Unified Agenda will...