WorldWideScience

Sample records for variable format information

  1. Designing for informed group formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Juel Jacobsen, Alice; Riis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    A new design ―project preparation‖ preparing for the group formation in problem based project work is proposed and investigated. The main problem is to overcome group formation based on existing relations. The hypothesis is that theme development and group formation are somewhat counterproductive...

  2. Designing for informed group formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Juel Jacobsen, Alice; Riis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    A new design ―project preparation‖ preparing for the group formation in problem based project work is proposed and investigated. The main problem is to overcome group formation based on existing relations. The hypothesis is that theme development and group formation are somewhat counterproductive....... Following research based design methodology an experiment separating the two was initiated.This was to provide for more openness and creativity in contrast to a design in which existing relations seem predominant....

  3. Graphical route information on variable message signs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkim, T.P.; Mede, P.H.J. van der; Janssen, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on experiments in the Netherlands on the use of graphical route information panels (GRIP) as part of variable message systems (VMS) providing information to drivers. GRIP appear to be as safe as regular VMS. Digestion of the information presented is initially quicker for regular VMS, but

  4. Continuous-variable quantum information processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Leuchs, G.; Silberhorn, C.

    2010-01-01

    the continuous degree of freedom of a quantum system for encoding, processing or detecting information, one enters the field of continuous-variable (CV) quantum information processing. In this paper we review the basic principles of CV quantum information processing with main focus on recent developments...... in the field. We will be addressing the three main stages of a quantum information system; the preparation stage where quantum information is encoded into CVs of coherent states and single-photon states, the processing stage where CV information is manipulated to carry out a specified protocol and a detection...... stage where CV information is measured using homodyne detection or photon counting....

  5. Variability in Labrador Sea Water formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderloos, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) transports of a large amount of heat towards the North Atlantic region. Since this circulation is considered to have shown pronounced variability in the past, and a weakening is projected for the 21st century, it is very important to understand

  6. The Information Content of Financial and Economic Variables: Empirical Tests of Information Variables in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kengo Kato

    1991-01-01

    The main topic of this paper is "information variables" (or "indicators") of monetary policy, which work as criteria for setting the direction of monetary policy. After briefly surveying the notion and candidates of information variables, according to the studies mainly in the United States, empirical tests using Japan's data are conducted. It can be said that some information variables seem to be useful, but the results are mixed in general.

  7. Continuous Variables Quantum Information in Noisy Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berni, Adriano

    safe from the detrimental effects of noise and losses. In the present work we investigate continuous variables Gaussian quantum information in noisy environments, studying the effects of various noise sources in the cases of a quantum metrological task, an error correction scheme and discord...

  8. Spacetime replication of continuous variable quantum information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, Patrick; Nezami, Sepehr; Salton, Grant; Sanders, Barry C

    2016-01-01

    The theory of relativity requires that no information travel faster than light, whereas the unitarity of quantum mechanics ensures that quantum information cannot be cloned. These conditions provide the basic constraints that appear in information replication tasks, which formalize aspects of the behavior of information in relativistic quantum mechanics. In this article, we provide continuous variable (CV) strategies for spacetime quantum information replication that are directly amenable to optical or mechanical implementation. We use a new class of homologically constructed CV quantum error correcting codes to provide efficient solutions for the general case of information replication. As compared to schemes encoding qubits, our CV solution requires half as many shares per encoded system. We also provide an optimized five-mode strategy for replicating quantum information in a particular configuration of four spacetime regions designed not to be reducible to previously performed experiments. For this optimized strategy, we provide detailed encoding and decoding procedures using standard optical apparatus and calculate the recovery fidelity when finite squeezing is used. As such we provide a scheme for experimentally realizing quantum information replication using quantum optics. (paper)

  9. Computer-based formative assessment: variables influencing feedback behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, C.F.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment can be used to stimulate and direct student learning. This refers to the formative function of assessment. Formative assessments contribute to learning by generating feedback. Here, feedback is conceptualised as information about learners actual state of performance intended to modify

  10. Quantum information and continuous variable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giedke, G.K.

    2001-08-01

    This thesis treats several questions concerning quantum information theory of infinite dimensional continuous variable (CV) systems. We investigate the separability properties of Gaussian states of such systems. Both the separability and the distillability problem for bipartite Gaussian states are solved by deriving operational criteria for these properties. We consider multipartite Gaussian states and obtain a necessary and sufficient condition that allows the complete classification of three-mode tripartite states according to their separability properties. Moreover we study entanglement distillation protocols. We show that the standard protocols for qubits are robust against imperfect implementation of the required quantum operations. For bipartite Gaussian states we find a universal scheme to distill all distillable states and propose a concrete quantum optical realization. (author)

  11. Formation of amyloid fibers by monomeric light chain variable domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumshtein, Boris; Esswein, Shannon R; Landau, Meytal; Ryan, Christopher M; Whitelegge, Julian P; Phillips, Martin L; Cascio, Duilio; Sawaya, Michael R; Eisenberg, David S

    2014-10-03

    Systemic light chain amyloidosis is a lethal disease characterized by excess immunoglobulin light chains and light chain fragments composed of variable domains, which aggregate into amyloid fibers. These fibers accumulate and damage organs. Some light chains induce formation of amyloid fibers, whereas others do not, making it unclear what distinguishes amyloid formers from non-formers. One mechanism by which sequence variation may reduce propensity to form amyloid fibers is by shifting the equilibrium toward an amyloid-resistant quaternary structure. Here we identify the monomeric form of the Mcg immunoglobulin light chain variable domain as the quaternary unit required for amyloid fiber assembly. Dimers of Mcg variable domains remain stable and soluble, yet become prone to assemble into amyloid fibers upon disassociation into monomers. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Quantum teleportation for continuous variables and related quantum information processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusawa, Akira; Takei, Nobuyuki

    2007-01-01

    Quantum teleportation is one of the most important subjects in quantum information science. This is because quantum teleportation can be regarded as not only quantum information transfer but also a building block for universal quantum information processing. Furthermore, deterministic quantum information processing is very important for efficient processing and it can be realized with continuous-variable quantum information processing. In this review, quantum teleportation for continuous variables and related quantum information processing are reviewed from these points of view

  13. Variable-scale Geo-information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of geo-information is changing by the advent of new mobile devices, such as tablet-pc's that harness a lot of computing power. This type of information is more and more applied in mainstream digital consumer products, in a net-centric environment (i.e. dissemination takes place via the

  14. Constructor:synthesizing information about uncertain variables.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, W. Troy (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, NY); Ferson, Scott (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, NY); Hajagos, Janos (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, NY); Myers, David S. (Applied Biomathematics, Setauket, NY)

    2005-09-01

    Constructor is software for the Microsoft Windows microcomputer environment that facilitates the collation of empirical information and expert judgment for the specification of probability distributions, probability boxes, random sets or Dempster-Shafer structures from data, qualitative shape information, constraints on moments, order statistics, densities, and coverage probabilities about uncertain unidimensional quantities. These quantities may be real-valued, integer-valued or logical values.

  15. Asking Better Questions: How Presentation Formats Influence Information Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Charley M.; Meder, Björn; Filimon, Flavia; Nelson, Jonathan D.

    2017-01-01

    While the influence of presentation formats have been widely studied in Bayesian reasoning tasks, we present the first systematic investigation of how presentation formats influence information search decisions. Four experiments were conducted across different probabilistic environments, where subjects (N = 2,858) chose between 2 possible search…

  16. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF THE INFORMATION-COMMUNICATION COMPETENCE FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyannikov Mikhail Mikhailovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Informatization of society has significantly changed the paradigm of education, posing the new problems to the scientists. One of such problems is the formation of new conscience – conscience, whose inalienable part is the information culture. The information-communication competence is the basis for the formation of such conscience. In this connection the aim of study is the analysis of psychological peculiarities of the formation of information-communication competence and determination of the role of this personality new formation in conscience of a modern human. The characteristic features of psychological new formations, the stages of cultural development and the role of cultural level of society in the formation of world outlook of a child are studied in this work. In the result of study there was found out the basis of psychic development. The sphere of results application includes the conclusions received in the result of study, which can be used by scholars, who deal with the problem of psychic development of a child. In practice the data of study help to understand better the stages of skill formation and the role of elementary actions in the formation of complex behavioral system.

  17. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF THE INFORMATION-COMMUNICATION COMPETENCE FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Михайлович Пьянников

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Informatization of society has significantly changed the paradigm of education, posing the new problems to the scientists. One of such problems is the formation of new conscience – conscience, whose inalienable part is the information culture. The information-communication competence is the basis for the formation of such conscience. In this connection the aim of study is the analysis of psychological peculiarities of the formation of information-communication competence and determination of the role of this personality new formation in conscience of a modern human. The characteristic features of psychological new formations, the stages of cultural development and the role of cultural level of society in the formation of world outlook of a child are studied in this work. In the result of study there was found out the basis of psychic development. The sphere of results application includes the conclusions received in the result of study, which can be used by scholars, who deal with the problem of psychic development of a child. In practice the data of study help to understand better the stages of skill formation and the role of elementary actions in the formation of complex behavioral system.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-33

  18. Chemical evolution, stellar nucleosynthesis and a variable star formation rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, K.A.; Thielemann, F.K.; Truran, J.W.

    1986-04-01

    The effects of a decreasing star formation rate (SFR) on the galactic abundances of elements produced in massive stars (M ≥ 10 Msub solar). On the basis of a straightforward model of galactic evolution, a relation between the upper mass limit of type II supernovae (M/sub SN/) contributing to chemical evolution and the decline of the SFR (tau) is derived, when the oxygen abundance is determined only by massive stars. The additional requirement that all intermediate mass elements (Ne-Ti), which are also predominantly due to nucleosynthesis in massive stars, are produced in solar proportions leads to a unique value of M/sub SN/ and tau. The application of this method with abundance yields from Arnett (1978) and Woosley and Weaver (1986) resuults, however, in contradicting solutions: M/sub SN/ ≅ 45 Msub solar, tau = ∞, and M/sub SN/ ≅ 15 Msub solar, tau = 3 x 10 9 y. Thus, in order that this approach provide an effective probe of the SFR over the history of our galaxy it is essential that converging and more accurate predictions of the consequences of stellar and supernova nucleosynthesis will be forthcoming. 54 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Informing patients: the influence of numeracy, framing, and format of side effect information on risk perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ellen; Hart, P Sol; Fraenkel, Liana

    2011-01-01

    Given the importance of effective patient communication, findings about influences on risk perception in nonmedical domains need replication in medical domains. To examine whether numeracy influences risk perceptions when different information frames and number formats are used to present medication risks. The authors manipulated the frame and number format of risk information in a 3 (frame: positive, negative, combined) × 2 (number format: frequency, percentage) design. Participants from an Internet sample (N = 298), randomly assigned to condition, responded to a single, hypothetical scenario. The main effects and interactions of numeracy, framing, and number format on risk perception were measured. Participants given the positive frame perceived the medication as less risky than those given the negative frame. Mean risk perceptions for the combined frame fell between the positive and negative frames. Numeracy did not moderate these framing effects. Risk perceptions also varied by number format and numeracy, with less-numerate participants given risk information in a percentage format perceiving the medication as less risky than when given risk information in a frequency format; highly numerate participants perceived similar risks in both formats. The generalizability of the findings is limited due to the use of non-patients, presented a hypothetical scenario. Given the design, one cannot know whether observed differences would translate into clinically significant differences in patient behaviors. Frequency formats appear to increase risk perceptions over percentage formats for less-numerate respondents. Health communicators need to be aware that different formats generate different risk perceptions among patients varying in numeracy.

  20. Revealing Relationships among Relevant Climate Variables with Information Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Golera, Anthony; Curry, Charles T.; Huyser, Karen A.; Kevin R. Wheeler; Rossow, William B.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of the NASA Earth-Sun Exploration Technology Office is to understand the observed Earth climate variability, thus enabling the determination and prediction of the climate's response to both natural and human-induced forcing. We are currently developing a suite of computational tools that will allow researchers to calculate, from data, a variety of information-theoretic quantities such as mutual information, which can be used to identify relationships among climate variables, and transfer entropy, which indicates the possibility of causal interactions. Our tools estimate these quantities along with their associated error bars, the latter of which is critical for describing the degree of uncertainty in the estimates. This work is based upon optimal binning techniques that we have developed for piecewise-constant, histogram-style models of the underlying density functions. Two useful side benefits have already been discovered. The first allows a researcher to determine whether there exist sufficient data to estimate the underlying probability density. The second permits one to determine an acceptable degree of round-off when compressing data for efficient transfer and storage. We also demonstrate how mutual information and transfer entropy can be applied so as to allow researchers not only to identify relations among climate variables, but also to characterize and quantify their possible causal interactions.

  1. Estimating dew formation in rice, using seasonally averaged diel patterns of weather variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, W.; Goudriaan, J.

    2004-01-01

    If dew formation cannot be measured it has to be estimated. Available simulation models for estimating dew formation require hourly weather data as input. However, such data are not available for places without an automatic weather station. In such cases the diel pattern of weather variables might

  2. Professional formation of the information professionals: librarians in literature, reflexions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Machado Teles Walter

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the information and communication technologies in the labour environment of the information professionals caused changes in the way of working, in the perspectives of the offer of services and products to users, and in the necessities of professional education. This work discusses some difficulties related to the formation of librarians, concerning to the disciplines related to information technologies, and how literature has been discussing this subject. It is also pointed the interface with other professionals and how the distinctive characteristics of the librarians should be warranted so they can compete to information jobs.

  3. Migration, Business Formation, and the Informal Economy in Urban Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riosmena, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Although the informal economy has grown rapidly in several developing nations, and migration and informality may be related to similar types of credit constraints and market failures, previous research has not systematically attempted to identify if migrant households are more likely to start informal and formal businesses alike and if this association varies across local contexts. We examine the relationship between prior U.S. migration and the creation of both formal and informal businesses in urban Mexico using several criteria to indirectly assess sector location. We use data from 56 communities from the Mexican Migration Project to estimate multilevel survival and nonmultilevel competing risk models predicting the likelihood of informal, formal, and no business formation. The recent return migration of the household head is strongly associated with informal business creation, particularly in economically dynamic areas. On the other hand, migrants are only marginally more likely to start formal businesses in highly economically dynamic sending areas. PMID:23721676

  4. A malware detection scheme based on mining format information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jinrong; Wang, Junfeng; Zou, Guozhong

    2014-01-01

    Malware has become one of the most serious threats to computer information system and the current malware detection technology still has very significant limitations. In this paper, we proposed a malware detection approach by mining format information of PE (portable executable) files. Based on in-depth analysis of the static format information of the PE files, we extracted 197 features from format information of PE files and applied feature selection methods to reduce the dimensionality of the features and achieve acceptable high performance. When the selected features were trained using classification algorithms, the results of our experiments indicate that the accuracy of the top classification algorithm is 99.1% and the value of the AUC is 0.998. We designed three experiments to evaluate the performance of our detection scheme and the ability of detecting unknown and new malware. Although the experimental results of identifying new malware are not perfect, our method is still able to identify 97.6% of new malware with 1.3% false positive rates.

  5. Information Literacy Follow-Through: Enhancing Preservice Teachers' Information Evaluation Skills through Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, Sara Robertson; Fry, Sara Winstead; Ruppel, Margie

    2011-01-01

    An investigation into preservice teachers' information evaluation skills at a large university suggests that formative assessment can improve student achievement. Preservice teachers were asked to apply information evaluation skills in the areas of currency, relevancy, authority, accuracy, and purpose. The study used quantitative methods to assess…

  6. Formative science and indicial science: epistemological proposal for information science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliany Alvarenga de Araújo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Epistemological reflections on the Information Science as scientific field that if structure in the context of modern science, in theoretical and methodological terms and technologies of the information in applied terms. Such configuration made possible the sprouting of this science; however we consider that the same one will not guarantee to this science the full development as field of consistent and modern knowledge. Modern Science, while scientific practical vision and meets depleted and the information technologies are only auto-regulated mechanisms that function according to principles of automatisms. To leave of these considerations we propols the concept of Formative Science (Bachelard, 1996 and the Indiciario Paradigm (1991 with epistemological basis for the Information Science. The concept of formative science if a base on the principles of tree states of the scientific spirit and the psychological condition of the scientific progress and the indiciario paradigm it considers the intuição (empirical and rational as methodological base to make it scientific.

  7. Online information Impact in the virtual destination image formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Maria Conceição Salmim Rafael

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the destination image in the decision process and choice of destination by tourists is transverse to its intangible nature. Recent studies expand and modify the conventional image constructs specifying information sources transmitted through the internet. The scenario resulting from the literature review allows us to understand the importance of experience for touristic activity and theoretical proposition of virtual tourism as "virtual tourist experience", its determinants and its implications for the overall image destination formation. This study presents a literature review base to the empiric research proposal whose general objective comprises the analysis of the influence of factors, such as interactivity, in online communication and contact with virtual tourism experiences online in image destination formation and image destination.

  8. Investigating the Interannual Variability of the Circulation and Water Mass Formation in the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofianos, S. S.; Papadopoulos, V. P.; Denaxa, D.; Abualnaja, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The interannual variability of the circulation and water mass formation in the Red Sea is investigated with the use of a numerical model and the combination of satellite and in-situ observations. The response of Red Sea to the large-scale variability of atmospheric forcing is studied through a 30-years simulation experiment, using MICOM model. The modeling results demonstrate significant trends and variability that are mainly located in the central and northern parts of the basin. On the other hand, the exchange pattern between the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean at the strait of Bab el Mandeb presents very weak interannual variability. The results verify the regularity of the water mass formation processes in the northern Red Sea but also show significant variability of the circulation and thermohaline conditions in the areas of formation. Enhanced water mass formation conditions are observed during specific years of the simulation (approximately five years apart). Analysis of recent warm and cold events in the northernmost part of the basin, based on a combination of atmospheric reanalysis results and oceanic satellite and in-situ observations, shows the importance of the cyclonic gyre that is prevailing in this part of the basin. This gyre can effectively influence the sea surface temperature (SST) and intensify or mitigate the winter effect of the atmospheric forcing. Upwelling induced by persistent periods of the gyre functioning drops the SST over the northernmost part of the Red Sea and can produce colder than normal winter SST even without extreme atmospheric forcing. These mechanisms are crucial for the formation of intermediate and deep water masses in the Red Sea and the strength of the subsequent thermohaline cells.

  9. Molecular variability in Amerindians: widespread but uneven information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO M. SALZANO

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A review was made in relation to the molecular variability present in North, Central, and South American Indian populations. It involved results from ancient DNA, mitochondrial DNA in extant populations, HLA and other autosomal markers, X and Y chromosome variation, as well as data from parasitic viruses which could show coevolutionary changes. The questions considered were their origin, ways in which the early colonization of the continent took place, types and levels of the variability which developed, peculiarities of the Amerindian evolutionary processes, and eventual genetic heterogeneity which evolved in different geographical areas. Although much information is already available, it is highly heterogeneous in relation to populations and types of genetic systems investigated. Unfortunately, the present trend of favoring essentially applied research suggest that the situation will not basically improve in the future.Foi realizada uma revisão quanto à variabilidade molecular presente em populações indígenas das Américas do Norte, Central e do Sul. Ela envolveu resultados sobre DNA antigo, DNA mitocondrial em populações atuais, HLA e outros marcadores autossômicos, variação nos cromossomos X e Y, bem como dados de virus parasitas que podem mostrar mudanças coevolucionárias. As questões consideradas foram a sua origem, maneiras como ocorreu a colonização pré-histórica do continente, tipos e níveis da variabilidade que foi desenvolvida, peculiaridades dos processos evolucionários em ameríndios, e a eventual heterogeneidade genética que surgiu em diferentes áreas geográficas. Apesar de que já foi obtida muita informação, ela é muito heterogênea quanto a populações e tipos de sistemas genéticos investigados. Infelizmente, a tendência atual a favorecer pesquisas essencialmente aplicadas sugere que esta situação não deverá melhorar no futuro.

  10. Variables affecting viral plaque formation in microculture plaque assays using homologous antibody in a liquid overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, A S; Stanton, G J; Green, J A; Baron, S

    1977-05-01

    A liquid antibody microculture plaque assay and the variables that govern its effectiveness are described. The assay is based on the principle that low concentrations of homologous antibody can inhibit secondary plaque formation without inhibiting formation of primary plaques. Thus, clear plaques that followed a linear dose response were produced. The assay was found to be more rapid, less cumbersome, and less expensive than assays using agar overlays and larger tissue culture plates. It was reproducible, quantitative, and had about the same sensitivity as the agar overlay technique in measuring infectious coxsackievirus type B-3. It was more sensitive in assaying adenovirus type 3 and Western equine encephalomyelitis, vesicular stomatitis, Semliki forest, Sendai, Sindbis, and Newcastle disease viruses than were liquid, carboxymethylcellulose, and methylcellulose microculture plaque assays. The variables influencing sensitivity and accuracy, as determined by using coxsackievirus type B-3, were: (i) the inoculum volume of virus; (ii) the incubation period of virus; and (iii) the incubation temperature.

  11. Tetrafluoroethane (R134a) hydrate formation within variable volume reactor accompanied by evaporation and condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, K.; Choo, Y. S.; Hong, H. J.; Yoon, Y. S.; Song, M. H., E-mail: songm@dgu.edu [Department of Mechanical, Robotics, and Energy Engineering, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Vast size hydrate formation reactors with fast conversion rate are required for the economic implementation of seawater desalination utilizing gas hydrate technology. The commercial target production rate is order of thousand tons of potable water per day per train. Various heat and mass transfer enhancement schemes including agitation, spraying, and bubbling have been examined to maximize the production capacities in scaled up design of hydrate formation reactors. The present experimental study focused on acquiring basic knowledge needed to design variable volume reactors to produce tetrafluoroethane hydrate slurry. Test vessel was composed of main cavity with fixed volume of 140 ml and auxiliary cavity with variable volume of 0 ∼ 64 ml. Temperatures at multiple locations within vessel and pressure were monitored while visual access was made through front window. Alternating evaporation and condensation induced by cyclic volume change provided agitation due to density differences among water and vapor, liquid and hydrate R134a as well as extended interface area, which improved hydrate formation kinetics coupled with latent heat release and absorption. Influences of coolant temperature, piston stroke/speed, and volume change period on hydrate formation kinetics were investigated. Suggestions of reactor design improvement for future experimental study are also made.

  12. Tetrafluoroethane (R134a) hydrate formation within variable volume reactor accompanied by evaporation and condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, K.; Choo, Y. S.; Hong, H. J.; Yoon, Y. S.; Song, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Vast size hydrate formation reactors with fast conversion rate are required for the economic implementation of seawater desalination utilizing gas hydrate technology. The commercial target production rate is order of thousand tons of potable water per day per train. Various heat and mass transfer enhancement schemes including agitation, spraying, and bubbling have been examined to maximize the production capacities in scaled up design of hydrate formation reactors. The present experimental study focused on acquiring basic knowledge needed to design variable volume reactors to produce tetrafluoroethane hydrate slurry. Test vessel was composed of main cavity with fixed volume of 140 ml and auxiliary cavity with variable volume of 0 ∼ 64 ml. Temperatures at multiple locations within vessel and pressure were monitored while visual access was made through front window. Alternating evaporation and condensation induced by cyclic volume change provided agitation due to density differences among water and vapor, liquid and hydrate R134a as well as extended interface area, which improved hydrate formation kinetics coupled with latent heat release and absorption. Influences of coolant temperature, piston stroke/speed, and volume change period on hydrate formation kinetics were investigated. Suggestions of reactor design improvement for future experimental study are also made

  13. The Generalization of Mutual Information as the Information between a Set of Variables: The Information Correlation Function Hierarchy and the Information Structure of Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, David R.

    2004-01-01

    The topic of this paper is a hierarchy of information-like functions, here named the information correlation functions, where each function of the hierarchy may be thought of as the information between the variables it depends upon. The information correlation functions are particularly suited to the description of the emergence of complex behaviors due to many- body or many-agent processes. They are particularly well suited to the quantification of the decomposition of the information carried among a set of variables or agents, and its subsets. In more graphical language, they provide the information theoretic basis for understanding the synergistic and non-synergistic components of a system, and as such should serve as a forceful toolkit for the analysis of the complexity structure of complex many agent systems. The information correlation functions are the natural generalization to an arbitrary number of sets of variables of the sequence starting with the entropy function (one set of variables) and the mutual information function (two sets). We start by describing the traditional measures of information (entropy) and mutual information.

  14. The contribution of hydroxylamine content to spatial variability of N2O formation in soil of a Norway spruce forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shurong; Herbst, Michael; Bol, Roland; Gottselig, Nina; Pütz, Thomas; Weymann, Daniel; Wiekenkamp, Inge; Vereecken, Harry; Brüggemann, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Hydroxylamine (NH2OH), a reactive intermediate of several microbial nitrogen turnover processes, is a potential precursor of nitrous oxide (N2O) formation in the soil. However, the contribution of soil NH2OH to soil N2O emission rates in natural ecosystems is unclear. Here, we determined the spatial variability of NH2OH content and potential N2O emission rates of organic (Oh) and mineral (Ah) soil layers of a Norway spruce forest, using a recently developed analytical method for the determination of soil NH2OH content, combined with a geostatistical Kriging approach. Potential soil N2O emission rates were determined by laboratory incubations under oxic conditions, followed by gas chromatographic analysis and complemented by ancillary measurements of soil characteristics. Stepwise multiple regressions demonstrated that the potential N2O emission rates, NH2OH and nitrate (NO3-) content were spatially highly correlated, with hotspots for all three parameters observed in the headwater of a small creek flowing through the sampling area. In contrast, soil ammonium (NH4+) was only weakly correlated with potential N2O emission rates, and was excluded from the multiple regression models. While soil NH2OH content explained the potential soil N2O emission rates best for both layers, also NO3- and Mn content turned out to be significant parameters explaining N2O formation in both soil layers. The Kriging approach was improved markedly by the addition of the co-variable information of soil NH2OH and NO3- content. The results indicate that determination of soil NH2OH content could provide crucial information for the prediction of the spatial variability of soil N2O emissions.

  15. An experiment on selecting most informative variables in socio-economic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jenkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many studies where data are collected on several variables, there is a motivation to find if fewer variables would provide almost as much information. Variance of a variable about its mean is the common statistical measure of information content, and that is used here. We are interested whether the variability in one variable is sufficiently correlated with that in one or more of the other variables that the first variable is redundant. We wish to find one or more ‘principal variables’ that sufficiently reflect the information content in all the original variables. The paper explains the method of principal variables and reports experiments using the technique to see if just a few variables are sufficient to reflect the information in 11 socioeconomic variables on 130 countries from a World Bank (WB database. While the method of principal variables is highly successful in a statistical sense, the WB data varies greatly from year to year, demonstrating that fewer variables wo uld be inadequate for this data.

  16. VARIABILITY AND STAR FORMATION IN LEO T, THE LOWEST LUMINOSITY STAR-FORMING GALAXY KNOWN TODAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clementini, Gisella; Cignoni, Michele; Ramos, Rodrigo Contreras; Federici, Luciana; Tosi, Monica [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Ripepi, Vincenzo; Marconi, Marcella; Musella, Ilaria, E-mail: gisella.clementini@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: rodrigo.contreras@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: luciana.federici@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: monica.tosi@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: michele.cignoni@unibo.it, E-mail: ripepi@na.astro.it, E-mail: marcella@na.astro.it, E-mail: ilaria@na.astro.it [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, I-80131 Napoli (Italy)

    2012-09-10

    We present results from the first combined study of variable stars and star formation history (SFH) of the Milky Way 'ultra-faint' dwarf (UFD) galaxy Leo T, based on F606W and F814W multi-epoch archive observations obtained with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We have detected 14 variable stars in the galaxy. They include one fundamental-mode RR Lyrae star and 11 Anomalous Cepheids with periods shorter than 1 day, thus suggesting the occurrence of multiple star formation episodes in this UFD, of which one about 10 Gyr ago produced the RR Lyrae star. A new estimate of the distance to Leo T of 409{sup +29}{sub -27} kpc (distance modulus of 23.06 {+-} 0.15 mag) was derived from the galaxy's RR Lyrae star. Our V, V - I color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of Leo T reaches V {approx} 29 mag and shows features typical of a galaxy in transition between dwarf irregular and dwarf spheroidal types. A quantitative analysis of the SFH, based on the comparison of the observed V, V - I CMD with the expected distribution of stars for different evolutionary scenarios, confirms that Leo T has a complex SFH dominated by two enhanced periods about 1.5 and 9 Gyr ago, respectively. The distribution of stars and gas shows that the galaxy has a fairly asymmetric structure.

  17. Experimental continuous-variable cloning of partial quantum information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabuncu, Metin; Leuchs, Gerd; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2008-01-01

    The fidelity of a quantum transformation is strongly linked with the prior partial information of the state to be transformed. We illustrate this interesting point by proposing and demonstrating the superior cloning of coherent states with prior partial information. More specifically, we propose...... two simple transformations that under the Gaussian assumption optimally clone symmetric Gaussian distributions of coherent states as well as coherent states with known phases. Furthermore, we implement for the first time near-optimal state-dependent cloning schemes relying on simple linear optics...

  18. Similar star formation rate and metallicity variability time-scales drive the fundamental metallicity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, Paul; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars; McKinnon, Ryan; Marinacci, Federico; Simcoe, Robert A.; Springel, Volker; Pillepich, Annalisa; Naiman, Jill; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Weinberger, Rainer; Nelson, Dylan; Genel, Shy

    2018-06-01

    The fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) is a postulated correlation between galaxy stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), and gas-phase metallicity. At its core, this relation posits that offsets from the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) at a fixed stellar mass are correlated with galactic SFR. In this Letter, we use hydrodynamical simulations to quantify the time-scales over which populations of galaxies oscillate about the average SFR and metallicity values at fixed stellar mass. We find that Illustris and IllustrisTNG predict that galaxy offsets from the star formation main sequence and MZR oscillate over similar time-scales, are often anticorrelated in their evolution, evolve with the halo dynamical time, and produce a pronounced FMR. Our models indicate that galaxies oscillate about equilibrium SFR and metallicity values - set by the galaxy's stellar mass - and that SFR and metallicity offsets evolve in an anticorrelated fashion. This anticorrelated variability of the metallicity and SFR offsets drives the existence of the FMR in our models. In contrast to Illustris and IllustrisTNG, we speculate that the SFR and metallicity evolution tracks may become decoupled in galaxy formation models dominated by feedback-driven globally bursty SFR histories, which could weaken the FMR residual correlation strength. This opens the possibility of discriminating between bursty and non-bursty feedback models based on the strength and persistence of the FMR - especially at high redshift.

  19. Heterogeneous Systems for Information-Variable Environments (HIVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    for reducing the burden, to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188...which emerges across a wide range of time scales, is often ignored in human–autonomy systems.1 Current technologies to estimate individual humans...actuated Hokuyo LiDAR, and a Garmin GPS), traversed these paths at a speed of about 1.2 m/s while recording all sensor data. Orange soccer balls were

  20. Variability of flax characters, associated with fibre formation, and environmental influence on their expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina B Brach

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work the results of long-term evaluation of lines of flax genetic collection created in VIR are generalized. A wide variability of fibre productivity and quality characters, and also stability of their manifestation in varying environment is revealed. The genotypes possessing contrast traits of productivity, quality and stability of their display in different years are distinguished. Dependence of correlations between the evaluated characters on the environment parameters is detected. The described lines can serve as a material for profound studying of physiological processes of fibre formation, for the analysis of traits inheritance and successful breeding.

  1. Evaluation of maillard reaction variables and their effect on heterocyclic amine formation in chemical model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Cara; Karim, Faris; Smith, J Scott

    2015-02-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs), highly mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic by-products, form during Maillard browning reactions, specifically in muscle-rich foods. Chemical model systems allow examination of in vitro formation of HCAs while eliminating complex matrices of meat. Limited research has evaluated the effects of Maillard reaction parameters on HCA formation. Therefore, 4 essential Maillard variables (precursors molar concentrations, water amount, sugar type, and sugar amounts) were evaluated to optimize a model system for the study of 4 HCAs: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoline, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline. Model systems were dissolved in diethylene glycol, heated at 175 °C for 40 min, and separated using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. To define the model system, precursor amounts (threonine and creatinine) were adjusted in molar increments (0.2/0.2, 0.4/0.4, 0.6/0.6, and 0.8/0.8 mmol) and water amounts by percentage (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%). Sugars (lactose, glucose, galactose, and fructose) were evaluated in several molar amounts proportional to threonine and creatinine (quarter, half, equi, and double). The precursor levels and amounts of sugar were significantly different (P < 0.05) in regards to total HCA formation, with 0.6/0.6/1.2 mmol producing higher levels. Water concentration and sugar type also had a significant effect (P < 0.05), with 5% water and lactose producing higher total HCA amounts. A model system containing threonine (0.6 mmol), creatinine (0.6 mmol), and glucose (1.2 mmol), with 15% water was determined to be the optimal model system with glucose and 15% water being a better representation of meat systems. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Informal Learning and Identity Formation in Online Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhow, Christine; Robelia, Beth

    2009-01-01

    All students today are increasingly expected to develop technological fluency, digital citizenship, and other twenty-first century competencies despite wide variability in the quality of learning opportunities schools provide. Social network sites (SNSs) available via the internet may provide promising contexts for learning to supplement…

  3. Variability in the primary emissions and secondary gas and particle formation from vehicles using bioethanol mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramsch, E; Papapostolou, V; Reyes, F; Vásquez, Y; Castillo, M; Oyola, P; López, G; Cádiz, A; Ferguson, S; Wolfson, M; Lawrence, J; Koutrakis, P

    2018-04-01

    Bioethanol for use in vehicles is becoming a substantial part of global energy infrastructure because it is renewable and some emissions are reduced. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and total hydrocarbons (THC) are reduced, but there is still controversy regarding emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), aldehydes, and ethanol; this may be a concern because all these compounds are precursors of ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The amount of emissions depends on the ethanol content, but it also may depend on the engine quality and ethanol origin. Thus, a photochemical chamber was used to study secondary gas and aerosol formation from two flex-fueled vehicles using different ethanol blends in gasoline. One vehicle and the fuel used were made in the United States, and the others were made in Brazil. Primary emissions of THC, CO, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) from both vehicles decreased as the amount of ethanol in gasoline increased. NO x emissions in the U.S. and Brazilian cars decreased with ethanol content. However, emissions of THC, CO, and NO x from the Brazilian car were markedly higher than those from the U.S. car, showing high variability between vehicle technologies. In the Brazilian car, formation of secondary nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and ozone (O 3 ) was lower for higher ethanol content in the fuel. In the U.S. car, NO 2 and O 3 had a small increase. Secondary particle (particulate matter [PM]) formation in the chamber decreased for both vehicles as the fraction of ethanol in fuel increased, consistent with previous studies. Secondary to primary PM ratios for pure gasoline is 11, also consistent with previous studies. In addition, the time required to form secondary PM is longer for higher ethanol blends. These results indicate that using higher ethanol blends may have a positive impact on air quality. The use of bioethanol can significantly reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Given the extent of

  4. FORMATION OF INFORMATIONAL-COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE OF SUBJECT TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana G. Lytvynova

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available New ways of the development of the informational competence have been determined in the work. Core general standards for the teachers of subjects have been defined. The definition of informational – communicative competence and its components have been discovered.

  5. Assuring Integrity of Information Utility in Cyber-Learning Formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, James L.; Stein, Linda L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a cyber-learning project for the World Wide Web developed by faculty and librarians at the University of Delaware that combined discovery learning with problem-based learning to develop critical thinking and quality management for information. Undergraduates were to find, evaluate, and use information to generate an Internet marketing…

  6. Supply of genetic information--amount, format, and frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misztal, I; Lawlor, T J

    1999-05-01

    The volume and complexity of genetic information is increasing because of new traits and better models. New traits may include reproduction, health, and carcass. More comprehensive models include the test day model in dairy cattle or a growth model in beef cattle. More complex models, which may include nonadditive effects such as inbreeding and dominance, also provide additional information. The amount of information per animal may increase drastically if DNA marker typing becomes routine and quantitative trait loci information is utilized. In many industries, evaluations are run more frequently. They result in faster genetic progress and improved management and marketing opportunities but also in extra costs and information overload. Adopting new technology and making some organizational changes can help realize all the added benefits of the improvements to the genetic evaluation systems at an acceptable cost. Continuous genetic evaluation, in which new records are accepted and breeding values are updated continuously, will relieve time pressures. An online mating system with access to both genetic and marketing information can result in mating recommendations customized for each user. Such a system could utilize inbreeding and dominance information that cannot efficiently be accommodated in the current sire summaries or off-line mating programs. The new systems will require a new organizational approach in which the task of scientists and technicians will not be simply running the evaluations but also providing the research, design, supervision, and maintenance required in the entire system of evaluation, decision making, and distribution.

  7. Towards an information extraction and knowledge formation framework based on Shannon entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliescu Dragoș

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Information quantity subject is approached in this paperwork, considering the specific domain of nonconforming product management as information source. This work represents a case study. Raw data were gathered from a heavy industrial works company, information extraction and knowledge formation being considered herein. Involved method for information quantity estimation is based on Shannon entropy formula. Information and entropy spectrum are decomposed and analysed for extraction of specific information and knowledge-that formation. The result of the entropy analysis point out the information needed to be acquired by the involved organisation, this being presented as a specific knowledge type.

  8. Communicating effectiveness of intervention for chronic diseases: what single format can replace comprehensive information?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stovring, Henrik; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Kristiansen, Ivar S

    2008-01-01

    to treatment. RESULTS: After being informed about all four formats, 52%-79% of the respondents consented to treatment, depending on level of effectiveness and initial information format. Overall, ARR gave highest concordance, 94% (95% confidence interval (91%; 97%)) between initial and final decision, but ARR...

  9. 40 CFR 355.21 - In what format should the information be submitted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS EMERGENCY PLANNING AND NOTIFICATION Emergency Planning How to Comply § 355.21 In what format should the information be submitted? EPA... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In what format should the information...

  10. Comparison of information about the quality of apparel in three retail formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Elizabeth K; Reiley, Kathryn

    2003-06-01

    Multiple options are available for selection and purchase of apparel including in-store, catalogue, and Internet. The present purpose was to compare information about quality available to consumers in three retail formats. Students studying quality of apparel selected a product which could be purchased in each of the three formats, completed an evaluation from both a consumer's and preprofessional perspective, and made recommendations for improving information on quality. A total of 413 recommendations were categorized and tested for independence. Students had similar expectations for cues of quality across Internet, catalogue, and in-store formats including fiber content, country of origin, 3-dimensional information about fit, color accuracy, size charts, and strong customer service. Students expected a uniform array of information on quality regardless of the shopping format. Merchandisers must be aware of the total image across formats and be prepared to explore methods for improving communication of information on quality in each.

  11. Simulated interannual variability of the Greenland Sea deep water formation and its connection to surface forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haekkinen, Sirpa

    1995-01-01

    A fully prognostic Arctic ice-ocean model is used to study the interannual variability of deepwater formation in the Greenland Sea Gyre based on the simulations for the Arctic ice-ocean system for the period 1955 and 1960 - 1985. The model uses monthly climatology for thermodynamic forcing components (such as air temperature and cloudiness), together with constant annual net precipitation and river runoff. The daily wind forcing is derived from analyzed sea level air pressures from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). In summary, the model shows that the occurence of deep convection in the Greenland Sea Gyre is controlled by the extensive Fram Strait ice export and/or local wind conditions in the Greenland Sea. In the latter case the weakening of the local wind curl allows the Polar Front to move eastward. The movement of the Polar Front causes adverse ice conditions, often together with much larger than normal ice export from the Arctic, such as in 1968, which can block convection in the gyre. The density difference between upper and lower layers is investigated as an indication of water mass formation through convection, occurring as strong diffusion in the model. The model-simulated density difference between the average top 100 m and deep levels reveals that the period 1960 - 1985 had only a few distinct years with weak stratification, and, especially, the model predicts no deep convection since the nid-1970s. The common factor for the years of the weakest decrease of the model-predicted heat content of the upper 2000 m which can, to a high degree, be explained by local heat loss.

  12. Communicating effectiveness of intervention for chronic diseases: what single format can replace comprehensive information?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiansen Ivar S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is uncertainty about how GPs should convey information about treatment effectiveness to their patients in the context of cardiovascular disease. Hence we study the concordance of decisions based on one of four single information formats for treatment effectiveness with subsequent decisions based on all four formats combined with a pictorial representation. Methods A randomized study comprising 1,169 subjects aged 40–59 in Odense, Denmark. Subjects were randomized to receive information in terms of absolute risk reduction (ARR, relative risk reduction (RRR, number needed to treat (NNT, or prolongation of life (POL without heart attack, and were asked whether they would consent to treatment. Subsequently the same information was conveyed with all four formats jointly accompanied by a pictorial presentation of treatment effectiveness. Again, subjects should consider consent to treatment. Results After being informed about all four formats, 52%–79% of the respondents consented to treatment, depending on level of effectiveness and initial information format. Overall, ARR gave highest concordance, 94% (95% confidence interval (91%; 97% between initial and final decision, but ARR was not statistically superior to the other formats. Conclusion Decisions based on ARR had the best concordance with decisions based on all four formats and pictorial representation, but the difference in concordance between the four formats was small, and it is unclear whether respondents fully understood the information they received.

  13. CERIF: The Common European Research Information Format Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Jörg

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available With increased computing power more data than ever are being and will be produced, stored and (re- used. Data are collected in databases, computed and annotated, or transformed by specific tools. The knowledge from data is documented in research publications, reports, presentations, or other types of files. The management of data and knowledge is difficult, and even more complicated is their re-use, exchange, or integration. To allow for quality analysis or integration across data sets and to ensure access to scientific knowledge, additional information - Research Information - has to be assigned to data and knowledge entities. We present the metadata model CERIF to add information to entities such as Publication, Project, Organisation, Person, Product, Patent, Service, Equipment, and Facility and to manage the semantically enhanced relationships between these entities in a formalized way. CERIF has been released as an EC Recommendation to European Member States in 2000. Here, we refer to the latest version CERIF 2008-1.0.

  14. Environmental Virtue: Motivation, Skill and (In)formation Technology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Environmental virtue ethics faces the problem of motivation: there is a gap between knowledge and action. This paper first analyzes the roots of this problem and discusses possible solutions that require the use of imagination and information technology. Then it reformulates the problem of

  15. INFORMATION SYSTEM OF AIRPORT NETWORK DEVELOPMENT MONITORING FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Smirnov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the approaches to the development of information system in public administration of this important branch of transport civil aviation. In particular, it is shown that the application of algorithmic elements allows to increase the objectivity and transparency when making decisions regarding the regulation of development of the airport network.

  16. Latest Permian carbonate carbon isotope variability traces heterogeneous organic carbon accumulation and authigenic carbonate formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobben, Martin; van de Velde, Sebastiaan; Gliwa, Jana; Leda, Lucyna; Korn, Dieter; Struck, Ulrich; Vinzenz Ullmann, Clemens; Hairapetian, Vachik; Ghaderi, Abbas; Korte, Christoph; Newton, Robert J.; Poulton, Simon W.; Wignall, Paul B.

    2017-11-01

    isotope variability. These findings put constraints on the application of Permian-Triassic carbon isotope chemostratigraphy based on whole-rock samples, which appears less refined than classical biozonation dating schemes. On the other hand, this signal of increased carbon isotope variability concurrent with the largest mass extinction of the Phanerozoic may provide information about local carbon cycling mediated by spatially heterogeneous (sub-)sea-floor microbial communities under suppressed bioturbation.

  17. Latest Permian carbonate carbon isotope variability traces heterogeneous organic carbon accumulation and authigenic carbonate formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schobben

    2017-11-01

    observed signal of carbon isotope variability. These findings put constraints on the application of Permian–Triassic carbon isotope chemostratigraphy based on whole-rock samples, which appears less refined than classical biozonation dating schemes. On the other hand, this signal of increased carbon isotope variability concurrent with the largest mass extinction of the Phanerozoic may provide information about local carbon cycling mediated by spatially heterogeneous (sub-sea-floor microbial communities under suppressed bioturbation.

  18. Informed Traders as Liquidity Providers: Anonymity, Liquidity and Price Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Rindi

    2008-01-01

    The tendency to introduce anonymity into financial markets apparently runs counter to the theory supporting transparency. This paper studies the impact of pre-trade transparency on liquidity in a market where risk-averse traders accommodate the liquidity demand of noise traders. When some risk-averse investors become informed, an adverse selection problem ensues for the others, making them reluctant to supply liquidity. Hence the disclosure of traders' identities improves liquidity by mitigat...

  19. Effect of information, uncertainty and parameter variability on profits in a queue with various pricing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Li, Shiyong

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents an unobservable single-server queueing system with three types of uncertainty, where the service rate, or waiting cost or service quality is random variable that may obtain n(n > 2) values. The information about the realised values of parameters is only known to the server. We are concerned about the server's behaviour: revealing or concealing the information to customers. The n-value assumption and the server's behaviour enable us to consider various pricing strategies. In this paper, we analyse the effect of information and uncertainty on profits and make comparisons between the profits under different pricing strategies. Moreover, as for parameter variability reflected by the number of each parameter's possible choices n, we observe the effect of variable n on all types of profits and find that revealing the parameter information can much more benefit the server with the increase of n.

  20. Kinematic variables and water transport control the formation and location of arc volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, T L; Till, C B; Lev, E; Chatterjee, N; Médard, E

    2009-06-04

    The processes that give rise to arc magmas at convergent plate margins have long been a subject of scientific research and debate. A consensus has developed that the mantle wedge overlying the subducting slab and fluids and/or melts from the subducting slab itself are involved in the melting process. However, the role of kinematic variables such as slab dip and convergence rate in the formation of arc magmas is still unclear. The depth to the top of the subducting slab beneath volcanic arcs, usually approximately 110 +/- 20 km, was previously thought to be constant among arcs. Recent studies revealed that the depth of intermediate-depth earthquakes underneath volcanic arcs, presumably marking the slab-wedge interface, varies systematically between approximately 60 and 173 km and correlates with slab dip and convergence rate. Water-rich magmas (over 4-6 wt% H(2)O) are found in subduction zones with very different subduction parameters, including those with a shallow-dipping slab (north Japan), or steeply dipping slab (Marianas). Here we propose a simple model to address how kinematic parameters of plate subduction relate to the location of mantle melting at subduction zones. We demonstrate that the location of arc volcanoes is controlled by a combination of conditions: melting in the wedge is induced at the overlap of regions in the wedge that are hotter than the melting curve (solidus) of vapour-saturated peridotite and regions where hydrous minerals both in the wedge and in the subducting slab break down. These two limits for melt generation, when combined with the kinematic parameters of slab dip and convergence rate, provide independent constraints on the thermal structure of the wedge and accurately predict the location of mantle wedge melting and the position of arc volcanoes.

  1. Variable surface composition and radial interface formation in self-assembled free, mixed Ar/Xe clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchaplyguine, M.; Maartensson, N.; Lundwall, M.; Oehrwall, G.; Feifel, R.; Svensson, S.; Bjoerneholm, O.; Gisselbrecht, M.; Sorensen, S.

    2004-01-01

    Using photoelectron spectroscopy, we demonstrate how the self-assembling process of cluster formation in an adiabatic expansion leads to radial segregation and layering as well as to variable surface composition for binary Ar/Xe clusters. The radial structuring can be qualitatively understood from the different interatomic bonding strengths of the two components

  2. Reasoning about variables in 11 to 18 year olds: informal, schooled and formal expression in learning about functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Michal; Watson, Anne; Lerman, Steve

    2016-09-01

    This study examines expressions of reasoning by some higher achieving 11 to 18 year-old English students responding to a survey consisting of function tasks developed in collaboration with their teachers. We report on 70 students, 10 from each of English years 7-13. Iterative and comparative analysis identified capabilities and difficulties of students and suggested conjectures concerning links between the affordances of the tasks, the curriculum, and students' responses. The paper focuses on five of the survey tasks and highlights connections between informal and formal expressions of reasoning about variables in learning. We introduce the notion of `schooled' expressions of reasoning, neither formal nor informal, to emphasise the role of the formatting tools introduced in school that shape future understanding and reasoning.

  3. Temporal information partitioning: Characterizing synergy, uniqueness, and redundancy in interacting environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwell, Allison E.; Kumar, Praveen

    2017-07-01

    Information theoretic measures can be used to identify nonlinear interactions between source and target variables through reductions in uncertainty. In information partitioning, multivariate mutual information is decomposed into synergistic, unique, and redundant components. Synergy is information shared only when sources influence a target together, uniqueness is information only provided by one source, and redundancy is overlapping shared information from multiple sources. While this partitioning has been applied to provide insights into complex dependencies, several proposed partitioning methods overestimate redundant information and omit a component of unique information because they do not account for source dependencies. Additionally, information partitioning has only been applied to time-series data in a limited context, using basic pdf estimation techniques or a Gaussian assumption. We develop a Rescaled Redundancy measure (Rs) to solve the source dependency issue, and present Gaussian, autoregressive, and chaotic test cases to demonstrate its advantages over existing techniques in the presence of noise, various source correlations, and different types of interactions. This study constitutes the first rigorous application of information partitioning to environmental time-series data, and addresses how noise, pdf estimation technique, or source dependencies can influence detected measures. We illustrate how our techniques can unravel the complex nature of forcing and feedback within an ecohydrologic system with an application to 1 min environmental signals of air temperature, relative humidity, and windspeed. The methods presented here are applicable to the study of a broad range of complex systems composed of interacting variables.

  4. Picture versus words: A comparison of pictorial and verbal informed assent formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Dutt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background for the Study: Informed consent is a process of obtaining permission from the participant to participate in research. Involving children in a research requires them to give their “assent” for participation. Informed assent is obtained from children even after their guardians have given consent for participation. Studies have shown that children have difficulty understanding the key elements of research process such as right to withdraw from the study or the meaning of “harm” involved in the research process. Further, the studies have also propounded that using child-friendly methods such as using pictures and simple language would facilitate children's understanding. Objectives: In this study, pictorial and verbal assent formats were compared find out which format is suitable for children's understanding of informed assent with respect to research. Methods: A sample of 389 school going children and adolescents of both the gender, ranging from 7 to 16 years were considered for the study. The sample was randomly divided into two groups, where for one group (n = 197, pictorial assent format was administered and another group (n = 192, verbal assent format was administered. The pictorial assent format was developed for the study by the corresponding author. Results and Conclusions: Analysis revealed that there was a significant level of interaction between gender and the two assent formats. Males were able to understand pictorial assent format better compared to the females, whereas females were able to understand verbal assent format better than the males, when age and education were considered as covariates. Further, it was found that as age increases there is better understanding of research processes in both the formats. Hence, while the process of obtaining assent for participation in research, age of child must be considered and with respect to gender differences males tend to prefer pictorial formats whereas females tend to

  5. Choosing a Doctor: Does Presentation Format Affect the Way Consumers Use Health Care Performance Information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Patricia; Goodall, Stephen; Street, Deborah J; Greene, Jessica

    2017-12-01

    Choosing a new health service provider can be difficult and is dependent on the type and clarity of the information available. This study examines if the presentation of service quality information affects the decisions of consumers choosing a general medical practice. The aim was to examine the impact of presentation format on attribute level interpretation and relative importance. A discrete choice experiment eliciting preferences for a general medical practice was conducted using four different presentation formats for service quality attributes: (1) frequency and percentage with an icon array, (2) star ratings, (3) star ratings with a text benchmark, and (4) percentage alone. A total of 1208 respondents from an online panel were randomised to see two formats, answering nine choices for each, where one was a dominated choice. Logistic regression was used to assess the impact of presentation format on the probability of choosing a dominated alternative. A generalised multinomial logit model was used to estimate the relative importance of the attribute levels. The probability of incorrectly choosing a dominated alternative was significantly higher when the quality information was presented as a percentage relative to a frequency with icon array, star rating or bench-marked star rating. Preferences for a practice did not differ significantly by presentation format, nor did the probability of finding the information difficult to understand. Quantitative health service quality information will be more useful to consumers if presented by combining the numerical information with a graphic, or using a star rating if appropriate for the context.

  6. Training Effects on Older Adults in Information and Communication Technologies Considering Psychosocial Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sónia; Torres, Ana; Mealha, Óscar; Veloso, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to contribute knowledge about the impact of the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) on the self-concept, mood, and quality of life of institutionalized older adults in retirement homes and day care centers (Portuguese institutions). It also studies the influence of independent variables such as…

  7. Quantitative assessment of drivers of recent global temperature variability: an information theoretic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Ankush; Ramesh, Durbha Sai; Vichare, Geeta; Koganti, Triven; Gurubaran, S.

    2017-12-01

    Identification and quantification of possible drivers of recent global temperature variability remains a challenging task. This important issue is addressed adopting a non-parametric information theory technique, the Transfer Entropy and its normalized variant. It distinctly quantifies actual information exchanged along with the directional flow of information between any two variables with no bearing on their common history or inputs, unlike correlation, mutual information etc. Measurements of greenhouse gases: CO2, CH4 and N2O; volcanic aerosols; solar activity: UV radiation, total solar irradiance ( TSI) and cosmic ray flux ( CR); El Niño Southern Oscillation ( ENSO) and Global Mean Temperature Anomaly ( GMTA) made during 1984-2005 are utilized to distinguish driving and responding signals of global temperature variability. Estimates of their relative contributions reveal that CO2 ({˜ } 24 %), CH4 ({˜ } 19 %) and volcanic aerosols ({˜ }23 %) are the primary contributors to the observed variations in GMTA. While, UV ({˜ } 9 %) and ENSO ({˜ } 12 %) act as secondary drivers of variations in the GMTA, the remaining play a marginal role in the observed recent global temperature variability. Interestingly, ENSO and GMTA mutually drive each other at varied time lags. This study assists future modelling efforts in climate science.

  8. Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on surfaces of variable roughness and hydrophobicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Lone; Pillai, Saju; Iversen, Anders

    L.Biofilm formation on surfaces in food production and processing can deteriorate the quality of food products and be a hazard to consumers. The food industry currently uses a number of approaches to either remove biofilm or prevent its formation. Due to the inherent resilience of bacteria...... in biofilm, a particularly attractive approach is the modification of surfaces with the aim to impede the first step in biofilm formation, namely bacterial adhesion. Surface properties such as hydrophobicity, roughness and predisposition for fouling by protein are recognised as important in bacterial...... adhesion. Sol-gel technology and the recent availability of organic modified silicas have lead to development of hybrid organic/inorganic glass ceramic coatings with specialised surface properties. In this study we investigate bacterial adhesion and the subsequent biofilm formation on stainless steel (SS...

  9. FRC formation studies in a field reversed theta pinch with a variable length coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqueda, R.; Sobehart, J.; Rodrigo, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    The formation phase of field reversed configurations (FRC) produced using a theta pinch has received considerable attention lately in connection with the possibility of developing formation methods in time scales longer than the Alven radial time, which would permit the use of low-voltage technology and represent an important engineering simplification in the trend towards larger scale machines sup (1)). The mechanisms leading to the loss of trapped reversed flux during the preheating 2 ) and formation sup (3,4)) stages, looking for maximization of this quantity in order to improve on the stability and transport properties of the configuration in its final equilibrium state are investigated. As a result, semi-emperical scaling laws have been obtained relating the reversed flux loss with experimental operating parameters during the early stages of the formation process 1 ). (author) [pt

  10. NEAR-INFRARED VARIABILITY AMONG YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE STAR FORMATION REGION CYGNUS OB7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolk, Scott J.; Rice, Thomas S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Aspin, Colin [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    We present an analysis of near-infrared time-series photometry in J, H, and K bands for about 100 epochs of a 1 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 1 Degree-Sign region of the Lynds 1003/1004 dark cloud in the Cygnus OB7 region. Augmented by data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, we identify 96 candidate disk bearing young stellar objects (YSOs) in the region. Of these, 30 are clearly Class I or earlier. Using the Wide-Field Imaging Camera on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, we were able to obtain photometry over three observing seasons, with photometric uncertainty better than 0.05 mag down to J Almost-Equal-To 17. We study detailed light curves and color trajectories of {approx}50 of the YSOs in the monitored field. We investigate the variability and periodicity of the YSOs and find the data are consistent with all YSOs being variable in these wavelengths on timescales of a few years. We divide the variability into four observational classes: (1) stars with periodic variability stable over long timescales, (2) variables which exhibit short-lived cyclic behavior, (3) long-duration variables, and (4) stochastic variables. Some YSO variability defies simple classification. We can explain much of the observed variability as being due to dynamic and rotational changes in the disk, including an asymmetric or changing blocking fraction, changes to the inner disk hole size, as well as changes to the accretion rate. Overall, we find that the Class I:Class II ratio of the cluster is consistent with an age of <1 Myr, with at least one individual, wildly varying source {approx}100, 000 yr old. We have also discovered a Class II eclipsing binary system with a period of 17.87 days.

  11. Wind Forced Variability in Eddy Formation, Eddy Shedding, and the Separation of the East Australian Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Christopher Y. S.; Kiss, Andrew E.; Jourdain, Nicolas C.; England, Matthew H.; van Sebille, Erik

    2017-12-01

    The East Australian Current (EAC), like many other subtropical western boundary currents, is believed to be penetrating further poleward in recent decades. Previous observational and model studies have used steady state dynamics to relate changes in the westerly winds to changes in the separation behavior of the EAC. As yet, little work has been undertaken on the impact of forcing variability on the EAC and Tasman Sea circulation. Here using an eddy-permitting regional ocean model, we present a suite of simulations forced by the same time-mean fields, but with different atmospheric and remote ocean variability. These eddy-permitting results demonstrate the nonlinear response of the EAC to variable, nonstationary inhomogeneous forcing. These simulations show an EAC with high intrinsic variability and stochastic eddy shedding. We show that wind stress variability on time scales shorter than 56 days leads to increases in eddy shedding rates and southward eddy propagation, producing an increased transport and southward reach of the mean EAC extension. We adopt an energetics framework that shows the EAC extension changes to be coincident with an increase in offshore, upstream eddy variance (via increased barotropic instability) and increase in subsurface mean kinetic energy along the length of the EAC. The response of EAC separation to regional variable wind stress has important implications for both past and future climate change studies.

  12. Comparison of Accuracy and Speed of Information Identification by Nonpathologists in Synoptic Reports With Different Formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Andrew A; Gould, Edwin W

    2017-03-01

    - The College of American Pathologists requires synoptic reports for specific types of pathology reports. - To compare the accuracy and speed of information retrieval in synoptic reports of different formats. - We assessed the performance of 28 nonpathologists from 4 different types of users (cancer registrars, MDs, medical non-MDs, and nonmedical) at identifying specific information in various formatted synoptic reports, using a computerized quiz that measured both accuracy and speed. - There was no significant difference in the accuracy of data identification for any user group or in any format. While there were significant differences in raw time between users, these were eliminated when normalized times were used. Compared with the standard format of a required data element (RDE) and response on 1 line, both a list of responses without an RDE (21%, P RDE header on one line, response indented on the second line) (12%, P RDE response pairs in a random order were significantly slower (16%, P < .001). - There are significant differences in ease of use by nonpathologists between different synoptic report formats. Such information may be useful in deciding between different format options.

  13. Influence of flow variability on floodplain formation and destruction, Little Missouri River, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.R.; Friedman, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Resolving observations of channel change into separate planimetric measurements of floodplain formation and destruction reveals distinct relations between these processes and the flow regime. We analyzed a time sequence of eight bottomland images from 1939 to 2003 along the Little Missouri River, North Dakota, to relate geomorphic floodplain change to flow along this largely unregulated river. At the decadal scale, floodplain formation and destruction varied independently. Destruction was strongly positively correlated with the magnitude of infrequent high flows that recur every 5-10 yr, whereas floodplain formation was negatively correlated with the magnitude of frequent low flows exceeded 80% of the time. At the century scale, however, a climatically induced decrease in peak flows has reduced the destruction rate, limiting the area made available for floodplain formation. The rate of destruction was not uniform across the floodplain. Younger surfaces were consistently destroyed at a higher rate than older surfaces, suggesting that throughput of contaminants would have occurred more rapidly than predicted by models that assume uniform residence time of sediment across the floodplain. Maps of floodplain ages produced by analysis of sequential floodplain images are similar to maps of forest ages produced through dendrochronology, confirming the assumption of dendrogeomorphic studies that riparian tree establishment in this system is limited to recent channel locations. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  14. Regulative feedback in pattern formation: towards a general relativistic theory of positional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Johannes; Irons, David; Monk, Nick

    2008-10-01

    Positional specification by morphogen gradients is traditionally viewed as a two-step process. A gradient is formed and then interpreted, providing a spatial metric independent of the target tissue, similar to the concept of space in classical mechanics. However, the formation and interpretation of gradients are coupled, dynamic processes. We introduce a conceptual framework for positional specification in which cellular activity feeds back on positional information encoded by gradients, analogous to the feedback between mass-energy distribution and the geometry of space-time in Einstein's general theory of relativity. We discuss how such general relativistic positional information (GRPI) can guide systems-level approaches to pattern formation.

  15. Can climate variability information constrain a hydrological model for an ungauged Costa Rican catchment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Montano, Beatriz; Westerberg, Ida K.; Fuentes-Andino, Diana; Hidalgo-Leon, Hugo; Halldin, Sven

    2017-04-01

    Long-term hydrological data are key to understanding catchment behaviour and for decision making within water management and planning. Given the lack of observed data in many regions worldwide, hydrological models are an alternative for reproducing historical streamflow series. Additional types of information - to locally observed discharge - can be used to constrain model parameter uncertainty for ungauged catchments. Climate variability exerts a strong influence on streamflow variability on long and short time scales, in particular in the Central-American region. We therefore explored the use of climate variability knowledge to constrain the simulated discharge uncertainty of a conceptual hydrological model applied to a Costa Rican catchment, assumed to be ungauged. To reduce model uncertainty we first rejected parameter relationships that disagreed with our understanding of the system. We then assessed how well climate-based constraints applied at long-term, inter-annual and intra-annual time scales could constrain model uncertainty. Finally, we compared the climate-based constraints to a constraint on low-flow statistics based on information obtained from global maps. We evaluated our method in terms of the ability of the model to reproduce the observed hydrograph and the active catchment processes in terms of two efficiency measures, a statistical consistency measure, a spread measure and 17 hydrological signatures. We found that climate variability knowledge was useful for reducing model uncertainty, in particular, unrealistic representation of deep groundwater processes. The constraints based on global maps of low-flow statistics provided more constraining information than those based on climate variability, but the latter rejected slow rainfall-runoff representations that the low flow statistics did not reject. The use of such knowledge, together with information on low-flow statistics and constraints on parameter relationships showed to be useful to

  16. YSOVAR: MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY AMONG YSOs IN THE STAR FORMATION REGION GGD12-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolk, Scott J.; Günther, H. Moritz; Poppenhaeger, Katja; Forbrich, J. [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cody, A. M. [NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 244-5 Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Rebull, L. M.; Stauffer, J. R. [Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Hillenbrand, L. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Plavchan, P. [Department of Physics Astronomy and Materials Science, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO 65897 (United States); Covey, K. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA 98225-9164 (United States); Song, Inseok, E-mail: swolk@cfa.harvard.edu [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    We present an IR-monitoring survey with the Spitzer Space Telescope of the star-forming region GGD 12-15. More than 1000 objects were monitored, including about 350 objects within the central 5′, which is found to be especially dense in cluster members. The monitoring took place over 38 days and is part of the Young Stellar Object VARiability project. The region was also the subject of a contemporaneous 67 ks Chandra observation. The field includes 119 previously identified pre-main sequence star candidates. X-rays are detected from 164 objects, 90 of which are identified with cluster members. Overall, we find that about half the objects in the central 5′ are young stellar objects (YSOs) based on a combination of their spectral energy distribution, IR variability, and X-ray emission. Most of the stars with IR excess relative to a photosphere show large amplitude (>0.1 mag) mid-infrared (mid-IR) variability. There are 39 periodic sources, and all but one is found to be a cluster member. Almost half of the periodic sources do not show IR excesses. Overall, more than 85% of the Class I, flat spectrum, and Class II sources are found to vary. The amplitude of the variability is larger in more embedded YSOs. Most of the Class I/II objects exhibit redder colors in a fainter state, which is compatible with time-variable extinction. A few become bluer when fainter, which can be explained with significant changes in the structure of the inner disk. A search for changes in the IR due to X-ray events is carried out, but the low number of flares prevented an analysis of the direct impact of X-ray flares on the IR light curves. However, we find that X-ray detected Class II sources have longer timescales for change in the MIR than a similar set of non-X-ray detected Class IIs.

  17. Intra-individual variability in information processing speed reflects white matter microstructure in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Erin L; Wojtowicz, Magdalena A; Omisade, Antonina; Fisk, John D

    2013-01-01

    Slowed information processing speed is commonly reported in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), and is typically investigated using clinical neuropsychological tests, which provide sensitive indices of mean-level information processing speed. However, recent studies have demonstrated that within-person variability or intra-individual variability (IIV) in information processing speed may be a more sensitive indicator of neurologic status than mean-level performance on clinical tests. We evaluated the neural basis of increased IIV in mildly affected relapsing-remitting MS patients by characterizing the relation between IIV (controlling for mean-level performance) and white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Twenty women with relapsing-remitting MS and 20 matched control participants completed the Computerized Test of Information Processing (CTIP), from which both mean response time and IIV were calculated. Other clinical measures of information processing speed were also collected. Relations between IIV on the CTIP and DTI metrics of white matter microstructure were evaluated using tract-based spatial statistics. We observed slower and more variable responses on the CTIP in MS patients relative to controls. Significant relations between white matter microstructure and IIV were observed for MS patients. Increased IIV was associated with reduced integrity in more white matter tracts than was slowed information processing speed as measured by either mean CTIP response time or other neuropsychological test scores. Thus, despite the common use of mean-level performance as an index of cognitive dysfunction in MS, IIV may be more sensitive to the overall burden of white matter disease at the microstructural level. Furthermore, our study highlights the potential value of considering within-person fluctuations, in addition to mean-level performance, for uncovering brain-behavior relationships in neurologic disorders with widespread white matter pathology.

  18. Climate Informed Economic Instruments to Enhance Urban Water Supply Resilience to Hydroclimatological Variability and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.; Carriquiry, M.; Souza Filho, F. A.

    2006-12-01

    Hydroclimatological variability presents acute challenges to urban water supply providers. The impact is often most severe in developing nations where hydrologic and climate variability can be very high, water demand is unmet and increasing, and the financial resources to mitigate the social effects of that variability are limited. Furthermore, existing urban water systems face a reduced solution space, constrained by competing and conflicting interests, such as irrigation demand, recreation and hydropower production, and new (relative to system design) demands to satisfy environmental flow requirements. These constraints magnify the impacts of hydroclimatic variability and increase the vulnerability of urban areas to climate change. The high economic and social costs of structural responses to hydrologic variability, such as groundwater utilization and the construction or expansion of dams, create a need for innovative alternatives. Advances in hydrologic and climate forecasting, and the increasing sophistication and acceptance of incentive-based mechanisms for achieving economically efficient water allocation offer potential for improving the resilience of existing water systems to the challenge of variable supply. This presentation will explore the performance of a system of climate informed economic instruments designed to facilitate the reduction of hydroclimatologic variability-induced impacts on water-sensitive stakeholders. The system is comprised of bulk water option contracts between urban water suppliers and agricultural users and insurance indexed on reservoir inflows designed to cover the financial needs of the water supplier in situations where the option is likely to be exercised. Contract and insurance parameters are linked to forecasts and the evolution of seasonal precipitation and streamflow and designed for financial and political viability. A simulation of system performance is presented based on ongoing work in Metro Manila, Philippines. The

  19. Formation of spectrum of accelerated particles and the hydromagnetic turbulence in the variable magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savane, Y. Sy; Diaby, I.; Faza Barry, M.; Lomonossov, V.

    2002-11-01

    We study the acceleration of charged particles by the variable magnetic field. The study is based on the determination of spectrum of accelerated particles and the spectrum of hydro magnetic turbulence. We plan the self-consistent system of equation and we also find out the solution of the system for the spectrum of particles and hydro magnetic turbulence with the conditions of effective acceleration in the cosmic space of solar system. (author)

  20. Formation of communicational and informational competence of future professionals of physical education and sport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudin A.P.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The technology of formation communication information competency of the future experts of physical training and sports is presented. 240 students of 4 rates of two institutes participated in research. Data of questionnaire of the future experts are used. Importance of use of new information technologies in educational process is exhibited. Milestones of introduction of computer and multimedia means are defined. Necessity of initiating for educational process of discipline «Sports - pedagogical computer science» is justified.

  1. FOREIGN EXPERIENCE OF THE FORMATION OF INFORMATION SECURITY CULTURE IN SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Malyuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of ever increasing information dependence of all spheres of activity of the company reliability and dependability of information and communication technologies (ICT, quality of information, which is used by members of the information society, saving secrets is of paramount importance. Users must trust all information services they use. Otherwise, the consequences for society and each individual can be simply disastrous. Thus, one of the main problems of the development of the information society is to ensure the information security of the individual, society and state. In order to successfully resist the flow of threats and challenges, each member of the information society must have a certain minimum knowledge, culture and appropriate information to be prepared for an active struggle for the purity of the various types of ICT cyber-hawks, cybercriminals, cyber-terrorists and just cyber-bullies. At the same time, as shown by statistics and sociological research, while rapidly increasing the level of the use of global information and communication networks the level of information literacy of users and their information culture is extremely low. Only about 10 percent of people are more or less aware of the dangers they face while working on the Internet, or they (unwillingly is subjected to its correspondents. Thus, today the key issue of the Information Society becomes the formation of information culture of users and, above all, raising their awareness in this area. Analysis of approaches and expertise to solve this problem (especially overseas is the subject of this article. The conceptual and substantive plans for the material of the article is based on a UN General Assembly resolution that approved in December 2002 the principles of formation of global culture of cybersecurity

  2. "Formative ""Use"" of Assessment Information: It's a Process, so Let's Say What We Mean"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Good

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The term formative assessment is often used to describe a type of assessment. The purpose of this paper is to challenge the use of this phrase given that formative assessment as a noun phrase ignores the well-established understanding that it is a process more than an object. A model that combines content, context, and strategies is presented as one way to view the process nature of assessing formatively. The alternate phrase formative use of assessment information is suggested as a more appropriate way to describe how content, context, and strategies can be used together in order to close the gap between where a student is performing currently and the intended learning goal.

  3. The role of discharge variability in the formation and preservation of alluvial sediment bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Christopher R.; Alexander, Jan; Allen, Jonathan P.

    2018-03-01

    Extant, planform-based facies models for alluvial deposits are not fully fit for purpose, because they over-emphasise plan form whereas there is little in the alluvial rock record that is distinctive of any particular planform, and because the planform of individual rivers vary in both time and space. Accordingly, existing facies models have limited predictive capability. In this paper, we explore the role of inter-annual peak discharge variability as a possible control on the character of the preserved alluvial record. Data from a suite of modern rivers, for which long-term gauging records are available, and for which there are published descriptions of subsurface sedimentary architecture, are analysed. The selected rivers are categorized according to their variance in peak discharge or the coefficient of variation (CVQp = standard deviation of the annual peak flood discharge over the mean annual peak flood discharge). This parameter ranges over the rivers studied between 0.18 and 1.22, allowing classification of rivers as having very low ( 0.90) annual peak discharge variance. Deposits of rivers with very low and low peak discharge variability are dominated by cross-bedding on various scales and preserve macroform bedding structure, allowing the interpretation of bar construction processes. Rivers with moderate values preserve mostly cross-bedding, but records of macroform processes are in places muted and considerably modified by reworking. Rivers with high and very high values of annual peak discharge variability show a wide range of bedding structures commonly including critical and supercritical flow structures, abundant in situ trees and transported large, woody debris, and their deposits contain pedogenically modified mud partings and generally lack macroform structure. Such a facies assemblage is distinctively different from the conventional fluvial style recorded in published facies models but is widely developed both in modern and ancient alluvial

  4. Using Theory to Inform Water Conservation in Business Communities: Formative Research from a Chamber Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarge, Melanie A.; Daggett, Samantha; VanDyke, Matthew S.

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed to collect formative information for the development of theoretically driven water conservation communication efforts targeting the business sector of water users. Members from a West Texas Chamber of Commerce were recruited for participation in an online survey. Questionnaire responses were collected from 176 commercial…

  5. Trapped in Our Own Discursive Formations: Toward an Archaeology of Library and Information Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Gary P.

    2003-01-01

    Introduces Michel Foucault's "Archaeology of Knowledge" as a way of addressing Wayne Wiegand's charges of problems in the discipline of library and information science. Highlights include a discussion of discursive formations, or the ways in which a collection of texts are organized with respect to each other; and history as a discursive…

  6. Integrating conflicting information from multiple texts: Effects of prior attitudes and text format

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Strien, Johan; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Els

    2011-01-01

    Van Strien, J. L. H., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2011, August). Integrating conflicting information from multiple texts: Effects of prior attitudes and text format. Round table session presented at the Junior Researchers pre-conference of the biannual meeting of the European

  7. The effect of regulation feedback in a computer-based formative assessment on information problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Caroline; Walraven, Amber; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of regulation feedback in a computer-based formative assessment in the context of searching for information online. Fifty 13-year-old students completed two randomly selected assessment tasks, receiving automated regulation feedback between them. Student performance

  8. Probing the formation of silicon nano-crystals (Si-ncs) using variable energy positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knights, A. P.; Bradley, J. D. B.; Hulko, O.; Stevanovic, D. V.; Edwards, C. J.; Kallis, A.; Coleman, P. G.; Crowe, I. F.; Halsall, M. P.; Gwilliam, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    We describe preliminary results from studies of the formation of silicon nano-crystals (Si-ncs) embedded in stoichiometric, thermally grown SiO2 using Variable Energy Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (VEPAS). We show that the VEPAS technique is able to monitor the introduction of structural damage. In SiO2 through the high dose Si+ ion implantation required to introduce excess silicon as a precursor to Si-nc formation. VEPAS is also able to characterize the rate of the removal of this damage with high temperature annealing, showing strong correlation with photoluminescence. Finally, VEPAS is shown to be able to selectively probe the interface between Si-ncs and the host oxide. Introduction of hydrogen at these interfaces suppresses the trapping of positrons at the interfaces.

  9. Sampling intraspecific variability in leaf functional traits: Practical suggestions to maximize collected information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzellis, Francesco; Palandrani, Chiara; Savi, Tadeja; Alberti, Roberto; Nardini, Andrea; Bacaro, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    The choice of the best sampling strategy to capture mean values of functional traits for a species/population, while maintaining information about traits' variability and minimizing the sampling size and effort, is an open issue in functional trait ecology. Intraspecific variability (ITV) of functional traits strongly influences sampling size and effort. However, while adequate information is available about intraspecific variability between individuals (ITV BI ) and among populations (ITV POP ), relatively few studies have analyzed intraspecific variability within individuals (ITV WI ). Here, we provide an analysis of ITV WI of two foliar traits, namely specific leaf area (SLA) and osmotic potential (π), in a population of Quercus ilex L. We assessed the baseline ITV WI level of variation between the two traits and provided the minimum and optimal sampling size in order to take into account ITV WI , comparing sampling optimization outputs with those previously proposed in the literature. Different factors accounted for different amount of variance of the two traits. SLA variance was mostly spread within individuals (43.4% of the total variance), while π variance was mainly spread between individuals (43.2%). Strategies that did not account for all the canopy strata produced mean values not representative of the sampled population. The minimum size to adequately capture the studied functional traits corresponded to 5 leaves taken randomly from 5 individuals, while the most accurate and feasible sampling size was 4 leaves taken randomly from 10 individuals. We demonstrate that the spatial structure of the canopy could significantly affect traits variability. Moreover, different strategies for different traits could be implemented during sampling surveys. We partially confirm sampling sizes previously proposed in the recent literature and encourage future analysis involving different traits.

  10. Availability, Location, and Format of Nutrition Information in Fast-food Chain Restaurants in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobin, Erin; Lebenbaum, Michael; Rosella, Laura; Hammond, David

    2015-03-01

    To assess the availability, location, and format of nutrition information in fast-food chain restaurants in Ontario. Nutrition information in restaurants was assessed using an adapted version of the Nutrition Environment Measures Study for Restaurants (NEMS-R). Two raters independently visited 50 restaurants, 5 outlets of each of the top-10 fast-food chain restaurants in Canada. The locations of the restaurants were randomly selected within the Waterloo, Wellington, and Peel regions in Ontario, Canada. Descriptive results are presented for the proportion of restaurants presenting nutrition information by location (e.g., brochure), format (e.g., use of symbols), and then by type of restaurant (e.g., quick take-away, full-service). Overall, 96.0% (n = 48) of the restaurants had at least some nutrition information available in the restaurant. However, no restaurant listed calorie information for all items on menu boards or menus, and only 14.0% (n = 7) of the restaurants posted calorie information and 26.0% (n = 13) of restaurants posted other nutrients (e.g., total fat) for at least some items on menus boards or menus. The majority of the fast-food chain restaurants included in our study provided at least some nutrition information in restaurants; however, very few restaurants made nutrition information readily available for consumers on menu boards and menus.

  11. Analysis of Students' Online Information Searching Strategies, Exposure to Internet Information Pollution and Cognitive Absorption Levels Based on Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Adile Askim; Emiroglu, Bülent Gürsel

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine students' online information searching strategies, their cognitive absorption levels and the information pollution levels on the Internet based on different variables and to determine the correlation between these variables. The study was designed with the survey model, the study group included 198…

  12. Volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds in suburban Paris: variability, origin and importance for SOA formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait-Helal, W.; Borbon, A.; Beekmann, M.; Doussin, J.F.; Durand-Jolibois, R.; Grand, N.; Michoud, V.; Miet, K.; Perrier, S.; Siour, G.; Zapf, P.; Sauvage, S.; Fronval, I.; Leonardis, T.; Locoge, N.; Gouw, J.A. de; Colomb, A.; Gros, V.; Lopez, M.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of gaseous and particulate organic carbon were performed during the MEGAPOLI experiments, in July 2009 and January-February 2010, at the SIRTA observatory in suburban Paris. Measurements comprise primary and secondary volatile organic compounds (VOCs), of both anthropogenic and biogenic origins, including C12-C16 n-alkanes of intermediate volatility (IVOCs), suspected to be efficient precursors of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The time series of gaseous carbon are generally consistent with times series of particulate organic carbon at regional scale, and are clearly affected by meteorology and air mass origin. Concentration levels of anthropogenic VOCs in urban and suburban Paris were surprisingly low (2-963 ppt) compared to other mega-cities worldwide and to rural continental sites. Urban enhancement ratios of anthropogenic VOC pairs agree well between the urban and suburban Paris sites, showing the regional extent of anthropogenic sources of similar composition. Contrary to other primary anthropogenic VOCs (aromatics and alkanes), IVOCs showed lower concentrations in winter (≤ 5 ppt) compared to summer (13-27 ppt), which cannot be explained by the gas-particle partitioning theory. Higher concentrations of most oxygenated VOCs in winter (18-5984 ppt) suggest their dominant primary anthropogenic origin. The respective role of primary anthropogenic gaseous compounds in regional SOA formation was investigated by estimating the SOA mass concentration expected from the anthropogenic VOCs and IVOCs (I/VOCs) measured at SIRTA. From an integrated approach based on emission ratios and SOA yields, 38% of the SOA measured at SIRTA is explained by the measured concentrations of I/VOCs, with a 2% contribution by C12-C16 n-alkane IVOCs. From the results of an alternative time-resolved approach, the average IVOC contribution to SOA formation is estimated to be 7 %, which is half of the average contribution of the traditional aromatic compounds (15 %). Both

  13. Measures for interoperability of phenotypic data: minimum information requirements and formatting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćwiek-Kupczyńska, Hanna; Altmann, Thomas; Arend, Daniel; Arnaud, Elizabeth; Chen, Dijun; Cornut, Guillaume; Fiorani, Fabio; Frohmberg, Wojciech; Junker, Astrid; Klukas, Christian; Lange, Matthias; Mazurek, Cezary; Nafissi, Anahita; Neveu, Pascal; van Oeveren, Jan; Pommier, Cyril; Poorter, Hendrik; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Scholz, Uwe; van Schriek, Marco; Seren, Ümit; Usadel, Björn; Weise, Stephan; Kersey, Paul; Krajewski, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Plant phenotypic data shrouds a wealth of information which, when accurately analysed and linked to other data types, brings to light the knowledge about the mechanisms of life. As phenotyping is a field of research comprising manifold, diverse and time-consuming experiments, the findings can be fostered by reusing and combining existing datasets. Their correct interpretation, and thus replicability, comparability and interoperability, is possible provided that the collected observations are equipped with an adequate set of metadata. So far there have been no common standards governing phenotypic data description, which hampered data exchange and reuse. In this paper we propose the guidelines for proper handling of the information about plant phenotyping experiments, in terms of both the recommended content of the description and its formatting. We provide a document called "Minimum Information About a Plant Phenotyping Experiment", which specifies what information about each experiment should be given, and a Phenotyping Configuration for the ISA-Tab format, which allows to practically organise this information within a dataset. We provide examples of ISA-Tab-formatted phenotypic data, and a general description of a few systems where the recommendations have been implemented. Acceptance of the rules described in this paper by the plant phenotyping community will help to achieve findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable data.

  14. Randomised controlled trials for evaluating the prescribing impact of information meetings led by pharmacists and of new information formats, in General Practice in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnano Lucia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suboptimal translation of valid and relevant information in clinical practice is a problem for all health systems. Lack of information independent from commercial influences, limited efforts to actively implement evidence-based information and its limited comprehensibility are important determinants of this gap and may influence an excessive variability in physicians' prescriptions. This is quite noticeable in Italy, where the philosophy and methods of Evidence-Based Medicine still enjoy limited diffusion among practitioners. Academic detailing and pharmacist outreach visits are interventions of proven efficacy to make independent and evidence-based information available to physicians; this approach and its feasibility have not yet been tested on a large scale and, moreover, they have never been formally tested in Italy. Methods/Design Two RCTs are planned: 1 a two-arm cluster RCT, carried out in Emilia-Romagna and Friuli Venezia Giulia, will evaluate the effectiveness of small group meetings, randomising about 150 Primary Care Groups (corresponding to about 2000 GPs to pharmacist outreach visits on two different topics. Physicians' prescriptions (expressed as DDD per 1000 inhabitants/day, knowledge and attitudes (evaluated through the answers to a specific questionnaire will be compared for target drugs in the two groups (receiving/not receiving each topic. 2 A three-arm RCT, carried out in Sardinia, will evaluate both the effectiveness of one-to-one meetings (one pharmacist visiting one physician per time and of a 'new' information format (compared to information already available on changing physicians' prescription of specific drugs. About 900 single GPs will be randomised into three groups: physicians receiving a visit supported by "traditional" information material, those receiving a visit with "new" information material on the same topic and those not receiving any visit/material. Discussion The two proposed RCTs aim

  15. Variable cycle control model for intersection based on multi-source information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Yue; Qu, Wen-Cong; Chen, Yan-Yan

    2018-05-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of traffic control system in the era of big data, a new variable cycle control model based on multi-source information is presented for intersection in this paper. Firstly, with consideration of multi-source information, a unified framework based on cyber-physical system is proposed. Secondly, taking into account the variable length of cell, hysteresis phenomenon of traffic flow and the characteristics of lane group, a Lane group-based Cell Transmission Model is established to describe the physical properties of traffic flow under different traffic signal control schemes. Thirdly, the variable cycle control problem is abstracted into a bi-level programming model. The upper level model is put forward for cycle length optimization considering traffic capacity and delay. The lower level model is a dynamic signal control decision model based on fairness analysis. Then, a Hybrid Intelligent Optimization Algorithm is raised to solve the proposed model. Finally, a case study shows the efficiency and applicability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  16. A New Variable Selection Method Based on Mutual Information Maximization by Replacing Collinear Variables for Nonlinear Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemi, Jahan B.; Zolfonoun, Ehsan [Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Selection of the most informative molecular descriptors from the original data set is a key step for development of quantitative structure activity/property relationship models. Recently, mutual information (MI) has gained increasing attention in feature selection problems. This paper presents an effective mutual information-based feature selection approach, named mutual information maximization by replacing collinear variables (MIMRCV), for nonlinear quantitative structure-property relationship models. The proposed variable selection method was applied to three different QSPR datasets, soil degradation half-life of 47 organophosphorus pesticides, GC-MS retention times of 85 volatile organic compounds, and water-to-micellar cetyltrimethylammonium bromide partition coefficients of 62 organic compounds.The obtained results revealed that using MIMRCV as feature selection method improves the predictive quality of the developed models compared to conventional MI based variable selection algorithms.

  17. A New Variable Selection Method Based on Mutual Information Maximization by Replacing Collinear Variables for Nonlinear Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi, Jahan B.; Zolfonoun, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    Selection of the most informative molecular descriptors from the original data set is a key step for development of quantitative structure activity/property relationship models. Recently, mutual information (MI) has gained increasing attention in feature selection problems. This paper presents an effective mutual information-based feature selection approach, named mutual information maximization by replacing collinear variables (MIMRCV), for nonlinear quantitative structure-property relationship models. The proposed variable selection method was applied to three different QSPR datasets, soil degradation half-life of 47 organophosphorus pesticides, GC-MS retention times of 85 volatile organic compounds, and water-to-micellar cetyltrimethylammonium bromide partition coefficients of 62 organic compounds.The obtained results revealed that using MIMRCV as feature selection method improves the predictive quality of the developed models compared to conventional MI based variable selection algorithms

  18. Information-communication technologies in formation of corporate culture of higher school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алла Борисовна Денисова

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The corporate culture of high school possesses a powerful educational potential and it is a condition of formation of readiness and successful adaptation of the graduating student in his life after studies to environment. The corporate culture is formed by means of all forms of student's activity, but is the most effective in nonlearning sphere. To be modern and actual, the nonlearning activity, directed on formation of the corporate competence of students, demands making a system of technical and informational support.

  19. Optimization of rainfall networks using information entropy and temporal variability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenqi; Wang, Dong; Singh, Vijay P.; Wang, Yuankun; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Lachun; Zou, Xinqing; Liu, Jiufu; Zou, Ying; He, Ruimin

    2018-04-01

    Rainfall networks are the most direct sources of precipitation data and their optimization and evaluation are essential and important. Information entropy can not only represent the uncertainty of rainfall distribution but can also reflect the correlation and information transmission between rainfall stations. Using entropy this study performs optimization of rainfall networks that are of similar size located in two big cities in China, Shanghai (in Yangtze River basin) and Xi'an (in Yellow River basin), with respect to temporal variability analysis. Through an easy-to-implement greedy ranking algorithm based on the criterion called, Maximum Information Minimum Redundancy (MIMR), stations of the networks in the two areas (each area is further divided into two subareas) are ranked during sliding inter-annual series and under different meteorological conditions. It is found that observation series with different starting days affect the ranking, alluding to the temporal variability during network evaluation. We propose a dynamic network evaluation framework for considering temporal variability, which ranks stations under different starting days with a fixed time window (1-year, 2-year, and 5-year). Therefore, we can identify rainfall stations which are temporarily of importance or redundancy and provide some useful suggestions for decision makers. The proposed framework can serve as a supplement for the primary MIMR optimization approach. In addition, during different periods (wet season or dry season) the optimal network from MIMR exhibits differences in entropy values and the optimal network from wet season tended to produce higher entropy values. Differences in spatial distribution of the optimal networks suggest that optimizing the rainfall network for changing meteorological conditions may be more recommended.

  20. Students’ Trust Formation and Credibility Judgements in Online Health Information – A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Khosrowjerdi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Health information is a frequent subject for online information seeking. Research on the phenomenon has to a certain extent included students. This review, based on an analysis of 61 articles, shows the current state of the art of research on students’ trust in online health information. The review covers methodological approaches and findings of previous previous empirical studies: research design; trustworthy health information sources; credibility assessment; and factors impacting on trust formation. The analysis of research designs reveals that the survey method was most frequent, but small qualitative studies were also occurring. More than half of the studies were administered in the USA, while only a smaller part concerned ‘non-Western’ countries. Female subjects were more frequent than male.The concept of trust was not always explicitly defined in the studies. The students' actual propensity to use internet was generally taken as an expression of trust. The antecedents of trust identified in the studies can be summarized as the perceived quality of the information, the perceived credibility of the source or source provider, the users’ general inclination to trust, the actual use of information, and the perceived intelligibility of the information. The findings show that Internet was among the main sources for health information, but parents or other family members, friends, schools, health professionals were also frequent sources of health information, and students were not immediately accepting online information as trustworthy. The students’ trust and credibility judgments were influenced by social and demographic, cultural, psychological, knowledge and skills-related, and source, system and content-related factors. Governmental and organizational websites were reported as the most trustful sources, although some issues regarding website features and presentation of content were reported as barriers. Easy access were of

  1. Temporal variability in shell mound formation at Albatross Bay, northern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Holdaway

    Full Text Available We report the results of 212 radiocarbon determinations from the archaeological excavation of 70 shell mound deposits in the Wathayn region of Albatross Bay, Australia. This is an intensive study of a closely co-located group of mounds within a geographically restricted area in a wider region where many more shell mounds have been reported. Valves from the bivalve Tegillarca granosa (Linnaeus, 1758 were dated. The dates obtained are used to calculate rates of accumulation for the shell mound deposits. These demonstrate highly variable rates of accumulation both within and between mounds. We assess these results in relation to likely mechanisms of shell deposition and show that rates of deposition are affected by time-dependent processes both during the accumulation of shell deposits and during their subsequent deformation. This complicates the interpretation of the rates at which shell mound deposits appear to have accumulated. At Wathayn, there is little temporal or spatial consistency in the rates at which mounds accumulated. Comparisons between the Wathayn results and those obtained from shell deposits elsewhere, both in the wider Albatross Bay region and worldwide, suggest the need for caution when deriving behavioural inferences from shell mound deposition rates, and the need for more comprehensive sampling of individual mounds and groups of mounds.

  2. Olfactory map formation in the Drosophila brain: genetic specificity and neuronal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochtrup, Anna; Hummel, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    The development of the Drosophila olfactory system is a striking example of how genetic programs specify a large number of different neuron types and assemble them into functional circuits. To ensure precise odorant perception, each sensory neuron has to not only select a single olfactory receptor (OR) type out of a large genomic repertoire but also segregate its synaptic connections in the brain according to the OR class identity. Specification and patterning of second-order interneurons in the olfactory brain center occur largely independent of sensory input, followed by a precise point-to-point matching of sensory and relay neurons. Here we describe recent progress in the understanding of how cell-intrinsic differentiation programs and context-dependent cellular interactions generate a stereotyped sensory map in the Drosophila brain. Recent findings revealed an astonishing morphological diversity among members of the same interneuron class, suggesting an unexpected variability in local microcircuits involved in insect sensory processing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hopf Bifurcation of a Delayed Epidemic Model with Information Variable and Limited Medical Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caijuan Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider SIR epidemic model in which population growth is subject to logistic growth in absence of disease. We get the condition for Hopf bifurcation of a delayed epidemic model with information variable and limited medical resources. By analyzing the corresponding characteristic equations, the local stability of an endemic equilibrium and a disease-free equilibrium is discussed. If the basic reproduction ratio ℛ01, we obtain sufficient conditions under which the endemic equilibrium E* of system is locally asymptotically stable. And we also have discussed the stability and direction of Hopf bifurcations. Numerical simulations are carried out to explain the mathematical conclusions.

  4. Information content of neural networks with self-control and variable activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolle, D.; Amari, S.I.; Dominguez Carreta, D.R.C.; Massolo, G.

    2001-01-01

    A self-control mechanism for the dynamics of neural networks with variable activity is discussed using a recursive scheme for the time evolution of the local field. It is based upon the introduction of a self-adapting time-dependent threshold as a function of both the neural and pattern activity in the network. This mechanism leads to an improvement of the information content of the network as well as an increase of the storage capacity and the basins of attraction. Different architectures are considered and the results are compared with numerical simulations

  5. Visual system of recovering and combination of information for ENDF (Evaluated Nuclear Data File) format libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Claudia A.S. Velloso; Corcuera, Raquel A. Paviotti

    1997-01-01

    This report presents a data information retrieval and merger system for ENDF (Evaluated Nuclear Data File) format libraries, which can be run on personal computers under the Windows TM environment. The input is the name of an ENDF/B library, which can be chosen in a proper window. The system has a display function which allows the user to visualize the reaction data of a specific nuclide and to produce a printed copy of these data. The system allows the user to retrieve and/or combine evaluated data to create a single file of data in ENDF format, from a number of different files, each of which is in the ENDF format. The user can also create a mini-library from an ENDF/B library. This interactive and easy-to-handle system is a useful tool for Nuclear Data Centers and it is also of interest to nuclear and reactor physics researchers. (author)

  6. Temporal dynamic of wood formation in Pinus cembra along the alpine treeline ecotone and the effect of climate variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Andreas; Baumgartner, Daniel; Zimmermann, Jolanda; Oberhuber, Walter

    2009-06-01

    We determined the temporal dynamic of cambial activity and xylem development of stone pine (Pinus cembra L.) throughout the treeline ecotone. Repeated micro-sampling of the developing tree ring was carried out during the growing seasons 2006 and 2007 at the timberline (1950 m a.s.l.), treeline (2110 m a.s.l.) and within the krummholz belt (2180 m a.s.l.) and the influence of climate variables on intra-annual wood formation was determined.At the beginning of both growing seasons, highest numbers of cambial and enlarging cells were observed at the treeline. Soil temperatures at time of initiation of cambial activity were c. 1.5 °C higher at treeline (open canopy) compared to timberline (closed canopy), suggesting that a threshold root-zone temperature is involved in triggering onset of above ground stem growth.The rate of xylem cell production determined in two weekly intervals during June through August 2006-2007 was significantly correlated with air temperature (temperature sums expressed as degree-days and mean daily maximum temperature) at the timberline only. Lack of significant relationships between tracheid production and temperature variables at the treeline and within the krummholz belt support past dendroclimatological studies that more extreme environmental conditions (e.g., wind exposure, frost desiccation, late frost) increasingly control tree growth above timberline.Results of this study revealed that spatial and temporal (i.e. year-to-year) variability in timing and dynamic of wood formation of Pinus cembra is strongly influenced by local site factors within the treeline ecotone and the dynamics of seasonal temperature variation, respectively.

  7. In situ formation and spatial variability of particle number concentration in a European megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikridas, M.; Sciare, J.; Freutel, F.; Crumeyrolle, S.; von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Borbon, A.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Merkel, M.; Crippa, M.; Kostenidou, E.; Psichoudaki, M.; Hildebrandt, L.; Engelhart, G. J.; Petäjä, T.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Drewnick, F.; Baltensperger, U.; Wiedensohler, A.; Kulmala, M.; Beekmann, M.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-09-01

    Ambient particle number size distributions were measured in Paris, France, during summer (1-31 July 2009) and winter (15 January to 15 February 2010) at three fixed ground sites and using two mobile laboratories and one airplane. The campaigns were part of the Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation (MEGAPOLI) project. New particle formation (NPF) was observed only during summer on approximately 50 % of the campaign days, assisted by the low condensation sink (about 10.7 ± 5.9 × 10-3 s-1). NPF events inside the Paris plume were also observed at 600 m altitude onboard an aircraft simultaneously with regional events identified on the ground. Increased particle number concentrations were measured aloft also outside of the Paris plume at the same altitude, and were attributed to NPF. The Paris plume was identified, based on increased particle number and black carbon concentration, up to 200 km away from the Paris center during summer. The number concentration of particles with diameters exceeding 2.5 nm measured on the surface at the Paris center was on average 6.9 ± 8.7 × 104 and 12.1 ± 8.6 × 104 cm-3 during summer and winter, respectively, and was found to decrease exponentially with distance from Paris. However, further than 30 km from the city center, the particle number concentration at the surface was similar during both campaigns. During summer, one suburban site in the NE was not significantly affected by Paris emissions due to higher background number concentrations, while the particle number concentration at the second suburban site in the SW increased by a factor of 3 when it was downwind of Paris.

  8. The information technologies in the initial formation process of the professional of education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliurca Padilla García

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Universities should give the students methods, aids and ways to obtain knowledge, in correspondence with the scientific development reached, so that they can assume a transformer position in the different acting contexts. In this sense, the information technologies not only provide the student with tools and resources of information, but also propitiate an environment that promotes interactions and educative exchange experiences between the students and teachers. Deepening about the role these resources play in the educational environment is of great importance to get its integration in a systematic and systemic way to the initial formation process of the professional of education so, its application in their formation surpasses the traditional concept of using de aims, and becomes an element that significantly strikes in a new configuration of the didactic approach of the process in the nowadays conditions.

  9. Variable Persister Gene Interactions with (pppGpp for Persister Formation in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Persisters comprise a group of phenotypically heterogeneous metabolically quiescent bacteria with multidrug tolerance and contribute to the recalcitrance of chronic infections. Although recent work has shown that toxin-antitoxin (TA system HipAB depends on stringent response effector (pppGppin persister formation, whether other persister pathways are also dependent on stringent response has not been explored. Here we examined the relationship of (pppGpp with 15 common persister genes (dnaK, clpB, rpoS, pspF, tnaA, sucB, ssrA, smpB, recA, umuD, uvrA, hipA, mqsR, relE, dinJ using Escherichia coli as a model. By comparing the persister levels of wild type with their single gene knockout and double knockout mutants with relA, we divided their interactions into five types, namely A “dependent” (dnaK, recA, B “positive reinforcement” (rpoS, pspF, ssrA, recA, C “antagonistic” (clpB, sucB, umuD, uvrA, hipA, mqsR, relE, dinJ, D “epistasis” (clpB, rpoS, tnaA, ssrA, smpB, hipA, and E “irrelevant” (dnaK, clpB, rpoS, tnaA, sucB, smpB, umuD, uvrA, hipA, mqsR, relE, dinJ. We found that the persister gene interactions are intimately dependent on bacterial culture age, cell concentrations (diluted versus undiluted culture, and drug classifications, where the same gene may belong to different groups with varying antibiotics, culture age or cell concentrations. Together, this study represents the first attempt to systematically characterize the intricate relationships among the different mechanisms of persistence and as such provide new insights into the complexity of the persistence phenomenon at the level of persister gene network interactions.

  10. A new task format for investigating information search and organization in multiattribute decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettlin, Florence; Bröder, Arndt; Henninger, Mirka

    2015-06-01

    In research on multiattribute decisions, information is typically preorganized in a well-structured manner (e.g., in attributes-by-options matrices). Participants can therefore conveniently identify the information needed for the decision strategy they are using. However, in everyday decision situations, we often face information that is not well-structured; that is, we not only have to search for, but we also need to organize the information. This latter aspect--subjective information organization--has so far largely been neglected in decision research. The few exceptions used crude experimental manipulations, and the assessment of subjective organization suffered from laborious methodology and a lack of objectiveness. We introduce a new task format to overcome these methodological issues, and we provide an organization index (OI) to assess subjective organization of information objectively and automatically. The OI makes it possible to assess information organization on the same scale as the strategy index (SI) typically used for assessing information search behavior. A simulation study shows that the OI has a similar distribution as the SI but that the two indices are a priori largely independent. In a validation experiment with instructed strategy use, we demonstrate the usefulness of the task to trace decision processes in multicue inference situations.

  11. Spatial variability of soil CO2 emission in a sugarcane area characterized by secondary information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel De Bortoli Teixeira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil CO2 emission (FCO2 is governed by the inherent properties of the soil, such as bulk density (BD. Mapping of FCO2 allows the evaluation and identification of areas with different accumulation potential of carbon. However, FCO2 mapping over larger areas is not feasible due to the period required for evaluation. This study aimed to assess the quality of FCO2 spatial estimates using values of BD as secondary information. FCO2 and BD were evaluated on a regular sampling grid of 60 m × 60 m comprising 141 points, which was established on a sugarcane area. Four scenarios were defined according to the proportion of the number of sampling points of FCO2 to those of BD. For these scenarios, 67 (F67, 87 (F87, 107 (F107 and 127 (F127 FCO2 sampling points were used in addition to 127 BD sampling points used as supplementary information. The use of additional information from the BD provided an increase in the accuracy of the estimates only in the F107, F67 and F87 scenarios, respectively. The F87 scenario, with the approximate ratio between the FCO2 and BD of 1.00:1.50, presented the best relative improvement in the quality of estimates, thereby indicating that the BD should be sampled at a density 1.5 time greater than that applied for the FCO2. This procedure avoided problems related to the high temporal variability associated with FCO2, which enabled the mapping of this variable to be elaborated in large areas.

  12. Quantifying the variability of financial disclosure information reported by authors presenting at annual spine conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Brian L; Miller, Christopher P; Whang, Peter G; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, greater attention has been directed toward determining how potential financial conflicts of interest may affect the integrity of biomedical research. To address this issue, various disclosure policies have been adopted in an attempt to increase the transparency of this process. However, the consistency of such reporting among spine surgeons remains unknown. This study quantifies the variability in the self-reported disclosures of individual authors presenting at multiple spine conferences during the same year. The author disclosure information published for the 2008 North American Spine Society (NASS), Cervical Spine Research Society (CSRS), and Scoliosis Research Society (SRS), conferences were compiled into a database. We evaluated the disclosure policy for each society and compared the disclosure listings of authors who presented at more than one of these meetings. Disclosure records were available for 1,231 authors at NASS, 550 at CSRS, and 642 at SRS. Of these individuals, 278 (NASS), 129 (CSRS), and 181 (SRS) presented at one of the other conferences and 40 presented at all three conferences. North American Spine Society and CSRS required disclosure of all financial relationships, whereas SRS only requested disclosures pertinent to authors' presentations. Of the 153 authors who presented at the NASS and CSRS meetings, 51% exhibited discrepancies in their disclosure information. In contrast, only 9% of the 205 individuals whose data was listed at both the NASS and SRS conferences demonstrated irregularities. Similarly, 18% of the 56 authors who had provided information to both CSRS and SRS were inconsistent in their reporting. These findings emphasize the significant variability that currently exists in the reporting of financial conflicts of interest by authors who presented at three major spine conferences within the past year. We believe these discrepancies are likely because of confusion regarding what relationships should be acknowledged

  13. Variability of contrail formation conditions and the implications for policies to reduce the climate impacts of aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Victoria; Noland, Robert B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to balance the climate benefits of contrail reduction against the penalties incurred when cruise altitudes are restricted. Altitude restrictions are targeted by selecting, for each 6-h period, the altitude that provides the greatest reduction in contrail for the lowest increase in carbon dioxide emission. Calculations are for western Europe. This paper discusses the variability in contrail formation conditions in the region and presents contrail reductions and carbon dioxide emission increases obtained with this optimised approach, which compare favourably with fixed altitude restrictions. A new method is also developed to estimate contrail fractions within three-dimensional grids. Conclusions discuss potential operational issues associated with a varying altitude restriction policy. (Author)

  14. What Information Is Necessary for Speech Categorization? Harnessing Variability in the Speech Signal by Integrating Cues Computed Relative to Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Bob; Jongman, Allard

    2011-01-01

    Most theories of categorization emphasize how continuous perceptual information is mapped to categories. However, equally important are the informational assumptions of a model, the type of information subserving this mapping. This is crucial in speech perception where the signal is variable and context dependent. This study assessed the…

  15. Non-uniform multivariate embedding to assess the information transfer in cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variability series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faes, Luca; Nollo, Giandomenico; Porta, Alberto

    2012-03-01

    The complexity of the short-term cardiovascular control prompts for the introduction of multivariate (MV) nonlinear time series analysis methods to assess directional interactions reflecting the underlying regulatory mechanisms. This study introduces a new approach for the detection of nonlinear Granger causality in MV time series, based on embedding the series by a sequential, non-uniform procedure, and on estimating the information flow from one series to another by means of the corrected conditional entropy. The approach is validated on short realizations of linear stochastic and nonlinear deterministic processes, and then evaluated on heart period, systolic arterial pressure and respiration variability series measured from healthy humans in the resting supine position and in the upright position after head-up tilt. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Generalized bibliographic format as used by the Ecological Sciences Information Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, L.J.; Pfuderer, H.A.; Collier, B.N.

    1979-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for the preparation of computer input for the information programs being developed by the Ecological Sciences Information Center (ESIC)/Information Center Complex (ICC) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Through the use of a generalized system, the data of all the centers of ICC are compatible. Literature included in an information data base has a number of identifying characteristics. Each of these characteristics or data fields can be recognized and searched by the computer. The information for each field must have an alphanumeric label or field descriptor. All of the labels presently used are sets of upper-case letters approximating the name of the field they represent. Presently, there are 69 identified fields; additional fields may be included in the future. The format defined here is designed to facilitate the input of information to the ADSEP program. This program processes data for the ORNL on-line (ORLOOK) search system and is a special case of the ADSEP text input option

  17. Generalized bibliographic format as used by the Ecological Sciences Information Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, L.J.; Pfuderer, H.A.; Collier, B.N.

    1979-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for the preparation of computer input for the information programs being developed by the Ecological Sciences Information Center (ESIC)/Information Center Complex (ICC) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Through the use of a generalized system, the data of all the centers of ICC are compatible. Literature included in an information data base has a number of identifying characteristics. Each of these characteristics or data fields can be recognized and searched by the computer. The information for each field must have an alphanumeric label or field descriptor. All of the labels presently used are sets of upper-case letters approximating the name of the field they represent. Presently, there are 69 identified fields; additional fields may be included in the future. The format defined here is designed to facilitate the input of information to the ADSEP program. This program processes data for the ORNL on-line (ORLOOK) search system and is a special case of the ADSEP text input option.

  18. COMBINE archive and OMEX format: one file to share all information to reproduce a modeling project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Frank T; Adams, Richard; Moodie, Stuart; Cooper, Jonathan; Glont, Mihai; Golebiewski, Martin; Hucka, Michael; Laibe, Camille; Miller, Andrew K; Nickerson, David P; Olivier, Brett G; Rodriguez, Nicolas; Sauro, Herbert M; Scharm, Martin; Soiland-Reyes, Stian; Waltemath, Dagmar; Yvon, Florent; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2014-12-14

    With the ever increasing use of computational models in the biosciences, the need to share models and reproduce the results of published studies efficiently and easily is becoming more important. To this end, various standards have been proposed that can be used to describe models, simulations, data or other essential information in a consistent fashion. These constitute various separate components required to reproduce a given published scientific result. We describe the Open Modeling EXchange format (OMEX). Together with the use of other standard formats from the Computational Modeling in Biology Network (COMBINE), OMEX is the basis of the COMBINE Archive, a single file that supports the exchange of all the information necessary for a modeling and simulation experiment in biology. An OMEX file is a ZIP container that includes a manifest file, listing the content of the archive, an optional metadata file adding information about the archive and its content, and the files describing the model. The content of a COMBINE Archive consists of files encoded in COMBINE standards whenever possible, but may include additional files defined by an Internet Media Type. Several tools that support the COMBINE Archive are available, either as independent libraries or embedded in modeling software. The COMBINE Archive facilitates the reproduction of modeling and simulation experiments in biology by embedding all the relevant information in one file. Having all the information stored and exchanged at once also helps in building activity logs and audit trails. We anticipate that the COMBINE Archive will become a significant help for modellers, as the domain moves to larger, more complex experiments such as multi-scale models of organs, digital organisms, and bioengineering.

  19. RPPAML/RIMS: a metadata format and an information management system for reverse phase protein arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislaus, Romesh; Carey, Mark; Deus, Helena F; Coombes, Kevin; Hennessy, Bryan T; Mills, Gordon B; Almeida, Jonas S

    2008-12-22

    Reverse Phase Protein Arrays (RPPA) are convenient assay platforms to investigate the presence of biomarkers in tissue lysates. As with other high-throughput technologies, substantial amounts of analytical data are generated. Over 1,000 samples may be printed on a single nitrocellulose slide. Up to 100 different proteins may be assessed using immunoperoxidase or immunoflorescence techniques in order to determine relative amounts of protein expression in the samples of interest. In this report an RPPA Information Management System (RIMS) is described and made available with open source software. In order to implement the proposed system, we propose a metadata format known as reverse phase protein array markup language (RPPAML). RPPAML would enable researchers to describe, document and disseminate RPPA data. The complexity of the data structure needed to describe the results and the graphic tools necessary to visualize them require a software deployment distributed between a client and a server application. This was achieved without sacrificing interoperability between individual deployments through the use of an open source semantic database, S3DB. This data service backbone is available to multiple client side applications that can also access other server side deployments. The RIMS platform was designed to interoperate with other data analysis and data visualization tools such as Cytoscape. The proposed RPPAML data format hopes to standardize RPPA data. Standardization of data would result in diverse client applications being able to operate on the same set of data. Additionally, having data in a standard format would enable data dissemination and data analysis.

  20. The Engineering Mechanism in Formation of Informational Basis of Analysis of Financial Sustainability of Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chumak Oksana V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at substantiating the mechanism and instruments of financial and accountancy engineering with purpose of formation of information support of analysis of financial sustainability in the enterprise management system. The essence and preconditions of introduction of financial and accountancy engineering are disclosed. Expediency of application of the financial engineering mechanism at enterprise while analyzing financial sustainability has been substantiated. An analysis of methods of formation and use of derivative balance reports was carried out. Models of the conception of mechanisms and instruments of financial and accountancy engineering in analyzing the financial sustainability of enterprise have been suggested. A mega-accounts system in the working plan of the enterprise’s accounts has been recommended. Seven iterations have been provided, which constitute the basis of accounting-analytical support of the accountancy engineering. The information obtained on the basis of the financial and accountancy engineering mechanism allows to carry out real assessment of the enterprise’s financial sustainability.

  1. New Methods for Prosodic Transcription: Capturing Variability as a Source of Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cole

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of prosody in encoding linguistic meaning and in shaping phonetic form requires the analysis of prosodically annotated speech drawn from a wide variety of speech materials. Yet obtaining accurate and reliable prosodic annotations for even small datasets is challenging due to the time and expertise required. We discuss several factors that make prosodic annotation difficult and impact its reliability, all of which relate to 'variability': in the patterning of prosodic elements (features and structures as they relate to the linguistic and discourse context, in the acoustic cues for those prosodic elements, and in the parameter values of the cues. We propose two novel methods for prosodic transcription that capture variability as a source of information relevant to the linguistic analysis of prosody. The first is 'Rapid Prosody Transcription '(RPT, which can be performed by non-experts using a simple set of unary labels to mark prominence and boundaries based on immediate auditory impression. Inter-transcriber variability is used to calculate continuous-valued prosody ‘scores’ that are assigned to each word and represent the perceptual salience of its prosodic features or structure. RPT can be used to model the relative influence of top-down factors and acoustic cues in prosody perception, and to model prosodic variation across many dimensions, including language variety,speech style, or speaker’s affect. The second proposed method is the identification of individual cues to the contrastive prosodic elements of an utterance. Cue specification provides a link between the contrastive symbolic categories of prosodic structures and the continuous-valued parameters in the acoustic signal, and offers a framework for investigating how factors related to the grammatical and situational context influence the phonetic form of spoken words and phrases. While cue specification as a transcription tool has not yet been explored as

  2. Vertical microbial community variability of carbonate-based cones may provide insight into ancient conical stromatolite formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, James; Daille, Leslie; Trivedi, Christopher; Bojanowski, Caitlin; Nunn, Heather; Stamps, Blake; Johnson, Hope; Stevenson, Bradley; Berelson, Will; Corsetti, Frank; Spear, John

    2016-04-01

    Stromatolite morphogenesis is poorly understood, and the process by which microbial mats become mineralized is a primary question in microbialite formation. Ancient conical stromatolites are primarily carbonate-based whereas the few modern analogues in hot springs are either non-mineralized or mineralized by silica. A team from the 2015 International GeoBiology Course investigated carbonate-rich microbial cones from near Little Hot Creek (LHC), Long Valley Caldera, California, to investigate how conical stromatolites might form in a hot spring carbonate system. The cones rise up from a layered microbial mat on the east side of a 45° C pool with very low flow that is super-saturated with respect to CaCO3. Cone structures are 8-30 mm in height, are rigid and do not deform when removed from the pool. Morphological characterization through environmental scanning electronic microscopy revealed that the cone structure is maintained by a matrix of intertwining microbial filaments around carbonate grains. This matrix gives rise to cone-filaments that are arranged vertically or horizontally, and provides further stability to the cone. Preliminary 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated variability of community composition between different vertical levels of the cone. The cone tip had comparatively greater abundance of filamentous cyanobacteria including Leptolingbya, Phormidium and Isosphaera and fewer heterotrophs (e.g. Chloroflexi) compared to the cone bottom. This supports the hypothesis that cone formation may depend on the differential abundance of the microbial community and their potential functional roles. Metagenomic analyses of the cones revealed potential genes related to chemotaxis and motility. Specifically, a genomic bin identified as a member of the genus Isosphaera contained an hmp chemotaxis operon implicated in gliding motility in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme. Isosphaera is a Planctomycete shown to have phototactic capabilities, and may play a role in

  3. Hierarchical Spatial Concept Formation Based on Multimodal Information for Human Support Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Yoshinobu; Inoue, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Hiroyoshi; Taniguchi, Tadahiro

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hierarchical spatial concept formation method based on the Bayesian generative model with multimodal information e.g., vision, position and word information. Since humans have the ability to select an appropriate level of abstraction according to the situation and describe their position linguistically, e.g., "I am in my home" and "I am in front of the table," a hierarchical structure of spatial concepts is necessary in order for human support robots to communicate smoothly with users. The proposed method enables a robot to form hierarchical spatial concepts by categorizing multimodal information using hierarchical multimodal latent Dirichlet allocation (hMLDA). Object recognition results using convolutional neural network (CNN), hierarchical k-means clustering result of self-position estimated by Monte Carlo localization (MCL), and a set of location names are used, respectively, as features in vision, position, and word information. Experiments in forming hierarchical spatial concepts and evaluating how the proposed method can predict unobserved location names and position categories are performed using a robot in the real world. Results verify that, relative to comparable baseline methods, the proposed method enables a robot to predict location names and position categories closer to predictions made by humans. As an application example of the proposed method in a home environment, a demonstration in which a human support robot moves to an instructed place based on human speech instructions is achieved based on the formed hierarchical spatial concept.

  4. Hierarchical Spatial Concept Formation Based on Multimodal Information for Human Support Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinobu Hagiwara

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a hierarchical spatial concept formation method based on the Bayesian generative model with multimodal information e.g., vision, position and word information. Since humans have the ability to select an appropriate level of abstraction according to the situation and describe their position linguistically, e.g., “I am in my home” and “I am in front of the table,” a hierarchical structure of spatial concepts is necessary in order for human support robots to communicate smoothly with users. The proposed method enables a robot to form hierarchical spatial concepts by categorizing multimodal information using hierarchical multimodal latent Dirichlet allocation (hMLDA. Object recognition results using convolutional neural network (CNN, hierarchical k-means clustering result of self-position estimated by Monte Carlo localization (MCL, and a set of location names are used, respectively, as features in vision, position, and word information. Experiments in forming hierarchical spatial concepts and evaluating how the proposed method can predict unobserved location names and position categories are performed using a robot in the real world. Results verify that, relative to comparable baseline methods, the proposed method enables a robot to predict location names and position categories closer to predictions made by humans. As an application example of the proposed method in a home environment, a demonstration in which a human support robot moves to an instructed place based on human speech instructions is achieved based on the formed hierarchical spatial concept.

  5. Leaf phenology and wood formation of white cedar trees (Melia azedarach L. and their responses to climate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritsadapan Palakit

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the response of leaf phenologies and wood increments of Melia azedarach L. on climate variability. The visual estimation indicated the leaf flushing in January-July, the leaf maturation in January-November, and the leaf abscission in May-June and October-December. Monthly wood investigations of the inside bark diameters (IBD indicated an annual-ring formation with the wood increment in February-November and the dormancy in December-January. The outside bark diameter (OBD exhibited growth variations with phases of slow increment in September-October, shrinkage in December-February, and fast increment in March-August. The relationship among monthly climates, leaf phenologies and wood increments, indicated the significant correlations of the soil moisture and the abundances of mature dark green leaves on the IBD, while the OBD was fluctuated due to the direct effect of the IBD and the indirect effect of the soil moisture and mature dark green leaf abundances.

  6. Evaluating risk communication: examining target audience perceptions about four presentation formats for fish consumption health advisory information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, N A; Knuth, B A

    1998-10-01

    Information format can influence the extent to which target audiences understand and respond to risk-related information. This study examined four elements of risk information presentation format. Using printed materials, we examined target audience perceptions about: (a) reading level; (b) use of diagrams vs. text; (c) commanding versus cajoling tone; and (d) use of qualitative vs. quantitative information presented in a risk ladder. We used the risk communication topic of human health concerns related to eating noncommercial Great Lakes fish affected by chemical contaminants. Results from the comparisons of specific communication formats indicated that multiple formats are required to meet the needs of a significant percent of anglers for three of the four format types examined. Advisory text should be reviewed to ensure the reading level is geared to abilities of the target audience. For many audiences, a combination of qualitative and quantitative information, and a combination of diagrams and text may be most effective. For most audiences, a cajoling rather than commanding tone better provides them with the information they need to make a decision about fish consumption. Segmenting audiences regarding information needs and communication formats may help clarify which approaches to take with each audience.

  7. Tutor Computer Formative Teachers' Opinions on the Effective Use of Information Technologies at Schools: Trabzon Province Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Alper; Ursavas, Omer Faruk

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the level of the use of information technology at schools in Trabzon and some evaluations about the problems faced during this process were done considering the formative teachers' opinions. The question which is "What are the opinions of formative teachers about the process of popularizing the…

  8. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, S. K.; Yokelson, R. J.; Burling, I. R.; Meinardi, S.; Simpson, I.; Blake, D. R.; McMeeking, G. R.; Sullivan, A.; Lee, T.; Kreidenweis, S.; Urbanski, S.; Reardon, J.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Johnson, T. J.; Weise, D. R.

    2013-02-01

    In October-November 2011 we measured trace gas emission factors from seven prescribed fires in South Carolina (SC), US, using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) systems and whole air sampling (WAS) into canisters followed by gas-chromatographic analysis. A total of 97 trace gas species were quantified from both airborne and ground-based sampling platforms, making this one of the most detailed field studies of fire emissions to date. The measurements include the first emission factors for a suite of monoterpenes produced by heating vegetative fuels during field fires. The first quantitative FTIR observations of limonene in smoke are reported along with an expanded suite of monoterpenes measured by WAS including α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, camphene, 4-carene, and myrcene. The known chemistry of the monoterpenes and their measured abundance of 0.4-27.9% of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) and ~ 21% of organic aerosol (mass basis) suggests that they impacted secondary formation of ozone (O3), aerosols, and small organic trace gases such as methanol and formaldehyde in the sampled plumes in the first few hours after emission. The variability in the initial terpene emissions in the SC fire plumes was high and, in general, the speciation of the initially emitted gas-phase NMOCs was 13-195% different from that observed in a similar study in nominally similar pine forests in North Carolina ~ 20 months earlier. It is likely that differences in stand structure and environmental conditions contributed to the high variability observed within and between these studies. Similar factors may explain much of the variability in initial emissions in the literature. The ΔHCN/ΔCO emission ratio, however, was found to be fairly consistent with previous airborne fire measurements in other coniferous-dominated ecosystems, with the mean for these studies being 0.90 ± 0.06%, further confirming the value of HCN as a biomass burning tracer. The SC results also

  9. Stated Choice Experiments with Complex Ecosystem Changes: The Effect of Information Formats on Estimated Variances and Choice Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Hoehn, John P.; Lupi, Frank; Kaplowitz, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Stated choice experiments about ecosystem changes involve complex information. This study examines whether the format in which ecosystem information is presented to respondents affects stated choice outcomes. Our analysis develops a utility-maximizing model to describe respondent behavior. The model shows how alternative questionnaire formats alter respondents’ use of filtering heuristics and result in differences in preference estimates. Empirical results from a large-scale stated choice e...

  10. The geovisualisation window of the temporal and spatial variability for Volunteered Geographic Information activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medynska-Gulij, Beata; Myszczuk, Miłosz

    2012-11-01

    This study presents an attempt to design geographical visualisation tools that allow to tackle the immensity of spatial data provided by Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), both in terms of temporal and spatial aspects. In accordance with the assumptions made at the conceptual stage, the final action was the implementation of the window entitled ‘Geovisualisation of the Panoramio.com Activities in District of Poznan 2011’ into the web browser. The concept has been based on a division of the geovisualisation window into three panels, of which the most important - in order to capture spatial variability - have statistical maps at the general level (dot map and choropleth map), while at the detailed level - a dot map on a topographic reference map or tourist map. For two ranges, temporal variability is presented by graphs, while a review of attributes of individual activities of the social website in question is set forward in the table panel. The element that visually interlinks all of the panels is the emphasised individual activity. Problemem podjetym w tych badaniach stało sie wykorzystanie metod z nurtu geograficznej wizualizacji do wskazania cech fenomenu VGI w zakresie zmiennosci czasowo-przestrzennej. Zgodnie z załozeniami poczynionymi w etapie koncepcyjnym finalnym działaniem stało sie zaimplementowanie do przegladarki internetowej okna pod tytułem: ”Geowizualizacja aktywnosci społecznosci Panoramio.com w powiecie poznanskim w 2011 roku”. Koncepcja została oparta na podziale okna geowizualizacji na trzy panele, z których najwazniejsze znaczenie dla uchwycenia zmiennosci przestrzennej na poziomie ogólnym ma kartogram, natomiast na poziomie szczegółowym mapa kropkowa wyswietlana na podkładzie mapy topograficznej lub turystycznej. Zmiennosc czasowa w dwóch zakresach prezentuja wykresy, a przeglad atrybutów poszczególnych aktywnosci prezentowanego portalu społecznosciowego zapewnia tabela. Elementem spajajacym wizualnie wszystkie

  11. RPPAML/RIMS: A metadata format and an information management system for reverse phase protein arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennessy Bryan T

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reverse Phase Protein Arrays (RPPA are convenient assay platforms to investigate the presence of biomarkers in tissue lysates. As with other high-throughput technologies, substantial amounts of analytical data are generated. Over 1000 samples may be printed on a single nitrocellulose slide. Up to 100 different proteins may be assessed using immunoperoxidase or immunoflorescence techniques in order to determine relative amounts of protein expression in the samples of interest. Results In this report an RPPA Information Management System (RIMS is described and made available with open source software. In order to implement the proposed system, we propose a metadata format known as reverse phase protein array markup language (RPPAML. RPPAML would enable researchers to describe, document and disseminate RPPA data. The complexity of the data structure needed to describe the results and the graphic tools necessary to visualize them require a software deployment distributed between a client and a server application. This was achieved without sacrificing interoperability between individual deployments through the use of an open source semantic database, S3DB. This data service backbone is available to multiple client side applications that can also access other server side deployments. The RIMS platform was designed to interoperate with other data analysis and data visualization tools such as Cytoscape. Conclusion The proposed RPPAML data format hopes to standardize RPPA data. Standardization of data would result in diverse client applications being able to operate on the same set of data. Additionally, having data in a standard format would enable data dissemination and data analysis.

  12. Bayesian Hierarchical Structure for Quantifying Population Variability to Inform Probabilistic Health Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Kan; Allen, Bruce C; Wheeler, Matthew W

    2017-10-01

    Human variability is a very important factor considered in human health risk assessment for protecting sensitive populations from chemical exposure. Traditionally, to account for this variability, an interhuman uncertainty factor is applied to lower the exposure limit. However, using a fixed uncertainty factor rather than probabilistically accounting for human variability can hardly support probabilistic risk assessment advocated by a number of researchers; new methods are needed to probabilistically quantify human population variability. We propose a Bayesian hierarchical model to quantify variability among different populations. This approach jointly characterizes the distribution of risk at background exposure and the sensitivity of response to exposure, which are commonly represented by model parameters. We demonstrate, through both an application to real data and a simulation study, that using the proposed hierarchical structure adequately characterizes variability across different populations. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Cycle d'Information/Formation sur l'Environnement d'Automatisme SCHNEIDER - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Pour poursuivre notre connaissance sur l'Environnement d'Automatisme SCHNEIDER afin d'intégrer d'une manière optimale leur gamme d'automates industriels (PLCs) dans notre système de contrôle du LHC, le GUAPI( Groupe des Utilisateurs d'Automates Programmables Industriels du CERN) organise un cycle d'information/formation gratuite dédié aux utilisateurs actuels et potentiels du CERN. Les dates retenues sont les suivantes : Mercredi 26 Mars de 9h à 12h : Contrôleur Logique MICRO-PLC Gamme ZELIO Gamme Nano, Gamme PLC TWIDO. Nota : Cette formation aura lieu au bâtiment 593 /Salle 17 de l'enseignement technique. Elle sera essentiellement assurée par Xavier BONNAUD, Marc DUFFOURNET et Médéric JET de SCHNEIDER qui assurent le support technique et commercial pour le CERN. Le nombre de places étant limité (20), il est demandé aux participants de s'inscrire à l'avance (E-Mail : Raymond.Brun@cern.ch ou tel 76946). Mercredi 9 Avril de 9h à 12h : Solutions redondantes Hot et Warm Standby Mardi 13 Ma...

  14. Cycle d'Information/Formation sur l'Environnement d'Automatisme SCHNEIDER - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Pour poursuivre notre connaissance sur l'Environnement d'Automatisme SCHNEIDER afin d'intégrer d'une manière optimale leur gamme d'automates industriels (PLCs) dans notre système de contrôle du LHC, le GUAPI( Groupe des Utilisateurs d'Automates Programmables Industriels du CERN) organise un cycle d'information/formation gratuite dédié aux utilisateurs actuels et potentiels du CERN. Les dates retenues sont les suivantes : Mercredi 26 Mars de 9h à 12h : Contrôleur Logique MICRO-PLC Gamme ZELIO Gamme Nano, Gamme PLC TWIDO. Nota : Cette formation aura lieu au bâtiment 593 /Salle 17 de l'enseignement technique. Elle sera essentiellement assurée par Xavier BONNAUD, Marc DUFFOURNET et Médéric JET de SCHNEIDER qui assurent le support technique et commercial pour le CERN. Le nombre de places étant limité (20), il est demandé aux participants de s'inscrire à l'avance (E-Mail : Raymond.Brun@cern.ch ou tel 76946). Mercredi 9 Avril de 9h à 12h : Solutions redondantes Hot et Warm Standby Mardi 13...

  15. Joint Source-Channel Decoding of Variable-Length Codes with Soft Information: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Siohan

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia transmission over time-varying wireless channels presents a number of challenges beyond existing capabilities conceived so far for third-generation networks. Efficient quality-of-service (QoS provisioning for multimedia on these channels may in particular require a loosening and a rethinking of the layer separation principle. In that context, joint source-channel decoding (JSCD strategies have gained attention as viable alternatives to separate decoding of source and channel codes. A statistical framework based on hidden Markov models (HMM capturing dependencies between the source and channel coding components sets the foundation for optimal design of techniques of joint decoding of source and channel codes. The problem has been largely addressed in the research community, by considering both fixed-length codes (FLC and variable-length source codes (VLC widely used in compression standards. Joint source-channel decoding of VLC raises specific difficulties due to the fact that the segmentation of the received bitstream into source symbols is random. This paper makes a survey of recent theoretical and practical advances in the area of JSCD with soft information of VLC-encoded sources. It first describes the main paths followed for designing efficient estimators for VLC-encoded sources, the key component of the JSCD iterative structure. It then presents the main issues involved in the application of the turbo principle to JSCD of VLC-encoded sources as well as the main approaches to source-controlled channel decoding. This survey terminates by performance illustrations with real image and video decoding systems.

  16. Joint Source-Channel Decoding of Variable-Length Codes with Soft Information: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, Christine; Siohan, Pierre

    2005-12-01

    Multimedia transmission over time-varying wireless channels presents a number of challenges beyond existing capabilities conceived so far for third-generation networks. Efficient quality-of-service (QoS) provisioning for multimedia on these channels may in particular require a loosening and a rethinking of the layer separation principle. In that context, joint source-channel decoding (JSCD) strategies have gained attention as viable alternatives to separate decoding of source and channel codes. A statistical framework based on hidden Markov models (HMM) capturing dependencies between the source and channel coding components sets the foundation for optimal design of techniques of joint decoding of source and channel codes. The problem has been largely addressed in the research community, by considering both fixed-length codes (FLC) and variable-length source codes (VLC) widely used in compression standards. Joint source-channel decoding of VLC raises specific difficulties due to the fact that the segmentation of the received bitstream into source symbols is random. This paper makes a survey of recent theoretical and practical advances in the area of JSCD with soft information of VLC-encoded sources. It first describes the main paths followed for designing efficient estimators for VLC-encoded sources, the key component of the JSCD iterative structure. It then presents the main issues involved in the application of the turbo principle to JSCD of VLC-encoded sources as well as the main approaches to source-controlled channel decoding. This survey terminates by performance illustrations with real image and video decoding systems.

  17. Identifying the most informative variables for decision-making problems – a survey of recent approaches and accompanying problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pudil, Pavel; Somol, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 4 (2008), s. 37-55 ISSN 0572-3043 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : variable selection * decision making Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/RO/pudil-identifying%20the%20most%20informative%20variables%20for%20decision- making %20problems%20a%20survey%20of%20recent%20approaches%20and%20accompanying%20problems.pdf

  18. MODEL OF FORMATION OF SOCIAL AND PEDAGOGICAL COMPETENCE OF FUTURE TEACHER FOR WORK WITH PUPILS – PARTICIPANTS OF INFORMAL YOUTH ASSOCIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergej Sergejevich Kukulin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The model of formation of social and pedagogical competence of future teacher for work with pupils – participants informal youth association is presented in article. Opening this perspective, authors are guided by the analysis of conditions of realization of this model, namely the following: the developed cultural and educational environment of university which due to use of the principle of democratization of intergroup interaction can be transformed to such form as actions on which interaction with informal youth associations is carried out; flexibility and innovation educational system of university allows to integrate the formal, informal and accompanying education; existence in university of the flexible multicultural educational system functioning according to the principles of variability, cooperation, tolerance. As methodical tools of formation of social and pedagogical competence of future teacher authors consider the methods focused on realization of the principles of variability, freedom and activity in self-determination by the identity of the choice and independent decision-making; maintenances of educational process; partnership, cooperations, cooperation; tolerances, dialogue and understanding.

  19. FORMATION OF STUDENTS’ FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMPETENCE IN THE INFORMATIONAL FIELD OF CROSS CULTURAL INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Vyacheslavovich Tomin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of foreign languages is becoming an integral feature of competitive persona-lity, ability to engage in cross-cultural communication and productive cross-cultural inte-raction, characterized by an adequate degree of tolerance and multi-ethnic competence, the ability for cross-cultural adaptation, critical thinking and creativity. However, the concept of foreign language competence has so far no clear, unambiguous definitions, thereby indicating the complexity and diversity of the phenomenon, which is an integrative, practice-oriented outcome of the wish and ability for intercultural communication. There have been mentioned a variety of requirements, conditions, principles, objectives, means and forms of foreign language competence forming, among which special attention is paid to non-traditional forms of practical training and information field in a cross-cultural interaction. There have been explained the feasibility of their application, which allows solving a complex of series of educational and teaching tasks more efficiently. There have been clarified the term «information field» in cross-cultural interaction, which is a cross-section of internally inherent in every individual «sections» of knowledge, skills, and experience, arising in certain given educational frameworks and forming a communication channel. The resultative indicators of the formation of foreign language competence and ways to improve its effectiveness are presented.

  20. Verbal versus Numerical Probabilities: Does Format Presentation of Probabilistic Information regarding Breast Cancer Screening Affect Women's Comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test whether the format in which women receive probabilistic information about breast cancer and mammography affects their comprehension. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women received pre-assembled randomized packages containing a breast health information brochure, with probabilities presented in either verbal or numeric…

  1. Principals' Personal Variables and Information and Communication Technology Utilization in Federal Capital Territory Senior Secondary Schools, Abuja, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunshola, Roseline Folashade; Adeniyi, Abiodun

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated principals' personal variables and information and communication technology utilization in Federal Capital Territory (FCT) senior secondary schools, Abuja, Nigeria. The study adopted the correlational research design. The study used a sample of 94 senior secondary schools (including public and private) in FCT. Stratified…

  2. The Differences in Career-Related Variables between Temporary and Permanent Employees in Information Technology Companies in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Jinkook; Lim, Beomsik

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in career-related variables, such as career commitment and career satisfaction, based on employment status (temporary vs. permanent employees) and job type (professional vs. nonprofessional employees). With a sample of 302 employees working in information technology companies in Korea, it was…

  3. The trends of modeling the ways of formation, distribution and exploitation of megapolis lands using geo-information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostyantyn Mamonov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The areas of need for ways of modeling the formation, distribution and use of land metropolis using GIS are identified. The article is to define the areas of modeling ways of formation, distribution and use of land metropolis using GIS. In the study, the following objectives are set: to develop an algorithm process data base (Data System creation for pecuniary valuation of land settlements with the use of GIS; to offer process model taking into account the influence of one factor modules using geographic information systems; to identify components of geo providing expert money evaluation of land metropolis; to describe the general procedure for expert money assessment of land and property by using geographic information system software; to develop an algorithm methods for expert evaluation of land. Identified tools built algorithms used for modeling the ways of formation, distribution and use of land metropolis using GIS. Directions ways of modeling the formation, distribution and use of land metropolis using GIS.

  4. Intraoperative non-record-keeping usage of anesthesia information management system workstations and associated hemodynamic variability and aberrancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, David B; Lin, Hung-Mo; Reich, David L

    2012-12-01

    Anesthesia information management system workstations in the anesthesia workspace that allow usage of non-record-keeping applications could lead to distraction from patient care. We evaluated whether non-record-keeping usage of the computer workstation was associated with hemodynamic variability and aberrancies. Auditing data were collected on eight anesthesia information management system workstations and linked to their corresponding electronic anesthesia records to identify which application was active at any given time during the case. For each case, the periods spent using the anesthesia information management system record-keeping module were separated from those spent using non-record-keeping applications. The variability of heart rate and blood pressure were also calculated, as were the incidence of hypotension, hypertension, and tachycardia. Analysis was performed to identify whether non-record-keeping activity was a significant predictor of these hemodynamic outcomes. Data were analyzed for 1,061 cases performed by 171 clinicians. Median (interquartile range) non-record-keeping activity time was 14 (1, 38) min, representing 16 (3, 33)% of a median 80 (39, 143) min of procedure time. Variables associated with greater non-record-keeping activity included attending anesthesiologists working unassisted, longer case duration, lower American Society of Anesthesiologists status, and general anesthesia. Overall, there was no independent association between non-record-keeping workstation use and hemodynamic variability or aberrancies during anesthesia either between cases or within cases. Anesthesia providers spent sizable portions of case time performing non-record-keeping applications on anesthesia information management system workstations. This use, however, was not independently associated with greater hemodynamic variability or aberrancies in patients during maintenance of general anesthesia for predominantly general surgical and gynecologic procedures.

  5. A sensor data format incorporating battery charge information for smartphone-based mHealth applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Rodrigo; Akopian, David; Boppana, Rajendra

    2015-03-01

    Remote health monitoring systems involve energy-constrained devices, such as sensors and mobile gateways. Current data formats for communication of health data, such as DICOM and HL7, were not designed for multi-sensor applications or to enable the management of power-constrained devices in health monitoring processes. In this paper, a data format suitable for collection of multiple sensor data, including readings and other operational parameters is presented. By using the data format, the system management can assess energy consumptions and plan realistic monitoring scenarios. The proposed data format not only outperforms other known data formats in terms of readability, flexibility, interoperability and validation of compliant documents, but also enables energy assessment capability for realistic data collection scenarios and maintains or even reduces the overhead introduced due to formatting. Additionally, we provide analytical methods to estimate incremental energy consumption by various sensors and experiments to measure the actual battery drain on smartphones.

  6. Using satellite-based measurements to explore spatiotemporal scales and variability of drivers of new particle formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    New particle formation (NPF) can potentially alter regional climate by increasing aerosol particle (hereafter particle) number concentrations and ultimately cloud condensation nuclei. The large scales on which NPF is manifest indicate potential to use satellite-based (inherently ...

  7. Information Provision to the Visually Impaired in Alternative Formats in Nigeria: Are Public Libraries Up to the Task?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetoro, 'Niran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Public libraries provide information to all persons and its users are the inhabitants of the community it serves. This may not be the reality in some cases as some category of persons may not be properly served by the public library. This study assesses the provision of information materials in alternative format, in terms of its availability, access and level of use by the visually impaired in public libraries in southwestern Nigeria. The study adopted survey research design. Four (4 public libraries in four states were purposively selected because they are the ones that provide alternative format for the use of a sizable number of the visually impaired. Complete enumeration was used to capture all the 166 registered users of the libraries through the use of observations checklist and interview schedule. Data from 69.2% of the 166 visually impaired persons that were interviewed, and the observations made were analyzed. The result reveals that alternative formats availability were inadequate and, e-resources were not available while access to formats and information desired by the users were limited. Braille is the most utilized format; audio materials and large prints were seldom used. The demand for alternative formats is high but it is not related to level of use of materials. Provision of information materials in alternative formats for the visually impaired in public libraries cannot support the needs of the visually impaired; it requires intervention from all stakeholders. The study recommends improved investment and funding for public libraries and services to persons with disabilities.

  8. Informant Effects on Behavioral and Academic Associations: A Latent Variable Longitudinal Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konold, Timothy R.; Shukla, Kathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancies among informants' ratings of a given child's behavior complicate the study of linkages between child behavior and academic achievement. In the current study, we examined the potential moderating effect of informant type on associations between behavior and two types of achievement in a longitudinal growth model that…

  9. Social Networking Privacy Control: Exploring University Variables Related to Young Adults' Sharing of Personally Identifiable Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Melisa S.

    2014-01-01

    The growth of the Internet, and specifically social networking sites (SNSs) like Facebook, create opportunities for individuals to share private and identifiable information with a closed or open community. Internet crime has been on the rise and research has shown that criminals are using individuals' personal information pulled from social…

  10. Black hole variability and the star formation-active galactic nucleus connection: Do all star-forming galaxies host an active galactic nucleus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickox, Ryan C.; Chen, Chien-Ting J.; Civano, Francesca M.; Hainline, Kevin N.; Mullaney, James R.; Alexander, David M.; Goulding, Andy D.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effect of active galactic nucleus (AGN) variability on the observed connection between star formation and black hole accretion in extragalactic surveys. Recent studies have reported relatively weak correlations between observed AGN luminosities and the properties of AGN hosts, which has been interpreted to imply that there is no direct connection between AGN activity and star formation. However, AGNs may be expected to vary significantly on a wide range of timescales (from hours to Myr) that are far shorter than the typical timescale for star formation (≳100 Myr). This variability can have important consequences for observed correlations. We present a simple model in which all star-forming galaxies host an AGN when averaged over ∼100 Myr timescales, with long-term average AGN accretion rates that are perfectly correlated with the star formation rate (SFR). We show that reasonable prescriptions for AGN variability reproduce the observed weak correlations between SFR and L AGN in typical AGN host galaxies, as well as the general trends in the observed AGN luminosity functions, merger fractions, and measurements of the average AGN luminosity as a function of SFR. These results imply that there may be a tight connection between AGN activity and SFR over galaxy evolution timescales, and that the apparent similarities in rest-frame colors, merger rates, and clustering of AGNs compared to 'inactive' galaxies may be due primarily to AGN variability. The results provide motivation for future deep, wide extragalactic surveys that can measure the distribution of AGN accretion rates as a function of SFR.

  11. Understanding Short-Term Nonmigrating Tidal Variability in the Ionospheric Dynamo Region from SABER Using Information Theory and Bayesian Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, K.; Oberheide, J.

    2017-12-01

    Nonmigrating tidal diagnostics of SABER temperature observations in the ionospheric dynamo region reveal a large amount of variability on time-scales of a few days to weeks. In this paper, we discuss the physical reasons for the observed short-term tidal variability using a novel approach based on Information theory and Bayesian statistics. We diagnose short-term tidal variability as a function of season, QBO, ENSO, and solar cycle and other drivers using time dependent probability density functions, Shannon entropy and Kullback-Leibler divergence. The statistical significance of the approach and its predictive capability is exemplified using SABER tidal diagnostics with emphasis on the responses to the QBO and solar cycle. Implications for F-region plasma density will be discussed.

  12. Optimising the delivery of food allergy information. An assessment of food allergic consumer preferences for different information delivery formats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordouw, J.; Antonides, G.; Cornelisse-Vermaat, J.R.; Pfaff, S.; Niemietz, D.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the preferences of food allergic consumers for different prototype information delivery tools was examined, with the aim of improving informed product choices. Sixty-two self-reported food allergic participants from the Netherlands and Germany were included in the study. Each tested

  13. Input Selection for Return Temperature Estimation in Mixing Loops using Partial Mutual Information with Flow Variable Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Anders; Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2017-01-01

    adgang til data, er ønsker at skabe en datadreven model til kontrol. Grundet den store mængde tilgængelig data anvendes der en metode til valg af inputs kaldet "Partial Mutual Information" (PMI). Denne artikel introducerer en metode til at inkluderer flow variable forsinkelser i PMI. Data fra en...... kontorbygning i Bjerringbro anvendes til analyse. Det vises at "Mutual Information" og et "Generalized Regression Neural Network" begge forbedres ved at anvende flow variabelt forsinkelse i forhold til at anvende konstante delay....

  14. Evidence for Parallel Processing of Sensory Information Controlling Dauer Formation in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, J. H.; Birnby, D. A.; Vowels, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Dauer formation in Caenorhabditis elegans is induced by chemosensation of high levels of a constitutively secreted pheromone. Seven genes defined by mutations that confer a dauer-formation constitutive phenotype (Daf-c) can be congruently divided into two groups by any of three criteria. Group 1 genes (daf-11 and daf-21) are (1) strongly synergistic with group 2 genes for their Daf-c phenotype, (2) incompletely suppressed by dauer-formation defective (Daf-d) mutations in the genes daf-3 and d...

  15. Spinning process variables and polymer solution effects in the die-swell phenomenon during hollow fiber membranes formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira C.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available During hollow fiber spinning many variables are involved whose effects are still not completely clear. However, its understanding is of great interest because the control of these variables may originate membranes with the desired morphologies and physical properties. In this work, the phase inversion process induced by the immersion precipitation technique was applied to prepare hollow fibers membranes. It was verified that some of the variables involved, can promote a visco-elastic polymer solution expansion, called die-swell phenomenon, which is undesired since it may lead to low reproducibility of the permeation properties. The effects of the distance between spinneret and precipitation bath, the bore liquid composition, and the polymer solution composition were analyzed and discussed in order to avoid this phenomenon. According to the results, it was verified that the parameters investigated might promote a delay precipitation, which restrained the visco-elastic expansion.

  16. Adaptive PID formation control of nonholonomic robots without leader's velocity information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dongbin; Sun, Weijie; Sun, Zhendong

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive proportional integral derivative (PID) algorithm to solve a formation control problem in the leader-follower framework where the leader robot's velocities are unknown for the follower robots. The main idea is first to design some proper ideal control law for the formation system to obtain a required performance, and then to propose the adaptive PID methodology to approach the ideal controller. As a result, the formation is achieved with much more enhanced robust formation performance. The stability of the closed-loop system is theoretically proved by Lyapunov method. Both numerical simulations and physical vehicle experiments are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive PID algorithm. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. WinMerger. Visual merging and retrieval of information from ENDF-6 format libraries. Summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paviotti Corcuera, R.

    1998-01-01

    WinMerger is a PC code that will process any library in ENDF-6 format. The system has a display function which allows the user to visualize the reaction data of a specific nuclide and to produce a printed copy of these data. The system allows the user to retrieve and/or combine evaluated data to create a single file of data in the ENDF-6 format, from a number of different files, each of which is in the ENDF-6 format. The user can also create a mini-library from an ENDF-6 format library. The database was developed under a research contract with the IAEA (No. 302F4BRA88840) and is available on diskette from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  18. Synthetic aperture radar ship discrimination, generation and latent variable extraction using information maximizing generative adversarial networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schwegmann, Colin P

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available such as Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery. To aid in the creation of improved machine learning-based ship detection and discrimination methods this paper applies a type of neural network known as an Information Maximizing Generative Adversarial Network. Generative...

  19. RE Data Explorer: Informing Variable Renewable Energy Grid Integration for Low Emission Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sarah L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-08

    The RE Data Explorer, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, is an innovative web-based analysis tool that utilizes geospatial and spatiotemporal renewable energy data to visualize, execute, and support analysis of renewable energy potential under various user-defined scenarios. This analysis can inform high-level prospecting, integrated planning, and policy making to enable low emission development.

  20. The relationship between fasting blood glucose variability and coronary artery collateral formation in type 2 diabetes patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gang; Mahmoudi, Hilda; Chokshi, Binna; Fernandez, Marlena; Kazemi, Vahid; Lamaa, Nader

    2017-09-01

    Coronary collaterals are an alternative source of blood supply to ischemic myocardium. Well-developed coronary collateral arteries in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) limit the size of acute myocardial infarction and improves survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between glycemic variability and coronary collateral formation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and CAD. Consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting procedures were studied. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the association between coronary artery collateral formation graded by Rentrope classification and glycemic variability, measured by coefficient variation of fasting blood glucose. In our study, we retrospectively enrolled 300 patients, of whom 239 were diabetic (age: 70.1±11.9, 56% men) and 61 were nondiabetic (age: 71.5±11.5, 72% men). Diabetic patients were further stratified as follows: those with poor coronary collateral artery development (n=171, age: 69.7±12.4, 55% men) and those with good coronary collateral artery development (n=68, age 71.1±10.8, 59% men) according to the Rentrope classification. Our findings did not show association between glycemic variability and coronary collateral vessels development after controlling for potential confounders (odds ratio: 2.51; 95% confidence interval: 0.57-11.03; P=0.22). The culprit lesion (≥75% stenosis) in the left anterior descending artery and the right coronary artery was more frequent in the good collateral group compared with the poor collateral group (66 vs. 50%, P=0.02; 63 vs. 45%, P=0.01 respectively). Glycemic variability is not associated with coronary collateral artery formation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and CAD.

  1. Communicating asset risk: how name recognition and the format of historic volatility information affect risk perception and investment decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elke U; Siebenmorgen, Niklas; Weber, Martin

    2005-06-01

    An experiment examined how the type and presentation format of information about investment options affected investors' expectations about asset risk, returns, and volatility and how these expectations related to asset choice. Respondents were provided with the names of 16 domestic and foreign investment options, with 10-year historical return information for these options, or with both. Historical returns were presented either as a bar graph of returns per year or as a continuous density distribution. Provision of asset names allowed for the investigation of the mechanisms underlying the home bias in investment choice and other asset familiarity effects. Respondents provided their expectations of future returns, volatility, and expected risk, and indicated the options they would choose to invest in. Expected returns closely resembled historical expected values. Risk and volatility perceptions both varied significantly as a function of the type and format of information, but in different ways. Expected returns and perceived risk, not predicted volatility, predicted portfolio decisions.

  2. Squeezing more information out of time variable gravity data with a temporal decomposition approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Bordoni, A.; Aoudia, A.

    2012-01-01

    an explorative approach based on a suitable time series decomposition, which does not rely on predefined time signatures. The comparison and validation against the fitting approach commonly used in GRACE literature shows a very good agreement for what concerns trends and periodic signals on one side......A measure of the Earth's gravity contains contributions from solid Earth as well as climate-related phenomena, that cannot be easily distinguished both in time and space. After more than 7years, the GRACE gravity data available now support more elaborate analysis on the time series. We propose...... used to assess the possibility of finding evidence of meaningful geophysical signals different from hydrology over Africa in GRACE data. In this case we conclude that hydrological phenomena are dominant and so time variable gravity data in Africa can be directly used to calibrate hydrological models....

  3. Importance of Viral Sequence Length and Number of Variable and Informative Sites in Analysis of HIV Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitsky, Vlad; Moyo, Sikhulile; Lei, Quanhong; DeGruttola, Victor; Essex, M

    2015-05-01

    To improve the methodology of HIV cluster analysis, we addressed how analysis of HIV clustering is associated with parameters that can affect the outcome of viral clustering. The extent of HIV clustering and tree certainty was compared between 401 HIV-1C near full-length genome sequences and subgenomic regions retrieved from the LANL HIV Database. Sliding window analysis was based on 99 windows of 1,000 bp and 45 windows of 2,000 bp. Potential associations between the extent of HIV clustering and sequence length and the number of variable and informative sites were evaluated. The near full-length genome HIV sequences showed the highest extent of HIV clustering and the highest tree certainty. At the bootstrap threshold of 0.80 in maximum likelihood (ML) analysis, 58.9% of near full-length HIV-1C sequences but only 15.5% of partial pol sequences (ViroSeq) were found in clusters. Among HIV-1 structural genes, pol showed the highest extent of clustering (38.9% at a bootstrap threshold of 0.80), although it was significantly lower than in the near full-length genome sequences. The extent of HIV clustering was significantly higher for sliding windows of 2,000 bp than 1,000 bp. We found a strong association between the sequence length and proportion of HIV sequences in clusters, and a moderate association between the number of variable and informative sites and the proportion of HIV sequences in clusters. In HIV cluster analysis, the extent of detectable HIV clustering is directly associated with the length of viral sequences used, as well as the number of variable and informative sites. Near full-length genome sequences could provide the most informative HIV cluster analysis. Selected subgenomic regions with a high extent of HIV clustering and high tree certainty could also be considered as a second choice.

  4. Computed ABC Analysis for Rational Selection of Most Informative Variables in Multivariate Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultsch, Alfred; Lötsch, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    Multivariate data sets often differ in several factors or derived statistical parameters, which have to be selected for a valid interpretation. Basing this selection on traditional statistical limits leads occasionally to the perception of losing information from a data set. This paper proposes a novel method for calculating precise limits for the selection of parameter sets. The algorithm is based on an ABC analysis and calculates these limits on the basis of the mathematical properties of the distribution of the analyzed items. The limits implement the aim of any ABC analysis, i.e., comparing the increase in yield to the required additional effort. In particular, the limit for set A, the "important few", is optimized in a way that both, the effort and the yield for the other sets (B and C), are minimized and the additional gain is optimized. As a typical example from biomedical research, the feasibility of the ABC analysis as an objective replacement for classical subjective limits to select highly relevant variance components of pain thresholds is presented. The proposed method improved the biological interpretation of the results and increased the fraction of valid information that was obtained from the experimental data. The method is applicable to many further biomedical problems including the creation of diagnostic complex biomarkers or short screening tests from comprehensive test batteries. Thus, the ABC analysis can be proposed as a mathematically valid replacement for traditional limits to maximize the information obtained from multivariate research data.

  5. Multiresponse semiparametric regression for modelling the effect of regional socio-economic variables on the use of information technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Wahyu; Wene, Chatrien; Budiantara, I. Nyoman; Permatasari, Erma Oktania

    2017-03-01

    Multiresponse semiparametric regression is simultaneous equation regression model and fusion of parametric and nonparametric model. The regression model comprise several models and each model has two components, parametric and nonparametric. The used model has linear function as parametric and polynomial truncated spline as nonparametric component. The model can handle both linearity and nonlinearity relationship between response and the sets of predictor variables. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the application of the regression model for modeling of effect of regional socio-economic on use of information technology. More specific, the response variables are percentage of households has access to internet and percentage of households has personal computer. Then, predictor variables are percentage of literacy people, percentage of electrification and percentage of economic growth. Based on identification of the relationship between response and predictor variable, economic growth is treated as nonparametric predictor and the others are parametric predictors. The result shows that the multiresponse semiparametric regression can be applied well as indicate by the high coefficient determination, 90 percent.

  6. WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE FORMATION FOR IT-PROJECT OF INFORMATION SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Макарович ЛЕВЫКИН

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The approach for modeling the structure of IT-works project to create an information system as a forest domain ontology. The main features of information technology to manage such IT-projects.

  7. Non-Governmental Organization (NGO Libraries for The Visually Impaired in Nigeria: Alternative Format Use and Perception of Information Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetoro, 'Niran

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria's non-government organization (NGO libraries for the visually impaired has over the years been at the forefront of information services provision to persons with visual impairment. This study adopted a survey research design to investigate use of alternative formats and perceptions of information services to the visually impaired, focusing on two purposively chosen NGO libraries for the visually impaired in Nigeria. Using a complete enumeration approach, data were gathered from 180 users of the libraries through the use of a structured questionnaire with a reliability score (${\\alpha}=0.74$. Data from 112 (62.2% of the 180 administered copies of a questionnaire that were retrieved were analysed. The study found that Braille materials had a high level of utilization ($\\bar{x}=4.46$ and were the most frequently utilized (90.9%. Perception of information services by the visually impaired was positive while use of alternative formats was significantly and positively related to users' perception of information services (r = .041; p < 0.05. The study recommends improved transcription and investment in alternative formats and in e-resources. It also recommends collaborations to widen access as well as constant evaluation of services.

  8. Evaluation of the formation and information received by teachers about nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, M.

    1994-01-01

    The secondary school teachers in Spain have not received the necessary training about nuclear energy, so the pupils do not receive the information the teachers cannot transmit. The Spanish Atomic Forum is engaged in the training and information of teachers and provides books, audio-visual tools, seminars, etc. Experience shows that nuclear acceptance or knowledge is based on information and confidence

  9. 32 CFR Appendix I to Part 275 - Format for Obtaining Basic Identifying Account Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Account Information [Official Letterhead] [Date] Mr./Mrs. XXXXXXXXXX Chief Teller [as appropriate] First.... 3401 et. seq., you are requested to provide the following account information: [Name, address, account... to this request for account information. Under section 3417(c) of the Act, good faith reliance upon...

  10. Monitoring of In-Field Variability for Site Specific Crop Management Through Open Geospatial Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řezník, T.; Lukas, V.; Charvát, K.; Charvát, K., Jr.; Horáková, Š.; Křivánek, Z.; Herman, L.

    2016-06-01

    The agricultural sector is in a unique position due to its strategic importance around the world. It is crucial for both citizens (consumers) and the economy (both regional and global), which, ideally, should ensure that the whole sector is a network of interacting organisations. It is important to develop new tools, management methods, and applications to improve the management and logistic operations of agricultural producers (farms) and agricultural service providers. From a geospatial perspective, this involves identifying cost optimization pathways, reducing transport, reducing environmental loads, and improving the energy balance, while maintaining production levels, etc. This paper describes the benefits of, and open issues arising from, the development of the Open Farm Management Information System. Emphasis is placed on descriptions of available remote sensing and other geospatial data, and their harmonization, processing, and presentation to users. At the same time, the FOODIE platform also offers a novel approach of yield potential estimations. Validation for one farm demonstrated 70% successful rate when comparing yield results at a farm counting 1'284 hectares on one hand and results of a theoretical model of yield potential on the other hand. The presented Open Farm Management Information System has already been successfully registered under Phase 8 of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Architecture Implementation Pilot in order to support the wide variety of demands that are primarily aimed at agriculture and water pollution monitoring by means of remote sensing.

  11. Mapping Variability in the Medusae Fossae Formation: Yardang Morphologies, Fluvial Reworking, and Crater Depth to Diameter Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuller, A. R.; Kerber, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) is a voluminous, fine-grained deposit thought to be of pyroclastic origin. While it contains widespread, well-preserved inverted fluvial features, its pervasive cover of dust means that little is known about its composition, and indirect means must be used to characterize its material properties. This project aims to correlate fluvial features in the Western MFF with other indicators of material strength: yardang morphology and crater depth-to-diameter ratios. For this work, Context Camera (CTX) images were used to map features of fluvial origin (inverted channels, sinuous ridges, alluvial fans). The presence of rounded, meso-yardangs in close proximity to fluvial features was also mapped. Crater depth-diameter (d/D) ratios (for craters 1-512km) were analyzed using a global Mars crater database (Robbins and Hynek, 2012) as a proxy for material strength. Approximately 1400 fluvial segments were mapped, with the most populous cluster located in Aeolis and Zephyria Plana. Rounded meso-yardangs were found to be common in areas that also have fluvial features. In agreement with previous work (Barlow, 1993), MFF craters were found to have a greater d/D ratio (0.0523) than the global mean (0.0511). Ratios between MFF lobes differ significantly, providing insight into the heterogeneity of induration within the formation. The deepest craters are found in Eumenides Dorsum and the shallowest in Aeolis Planum, consistent with a greater degree of induration and reworking in the western part of the formation where the fluvial features and "salt-playa" meso-yardangs are found. It also suggests that Eumenides, which is the tallest MFF outcrop, could also be the least compacted. The presence of long, complex, and sometimes overlapping branching networks imply multiple relative episodes of channel formation. Rounded meso-yardangs, which are associated with salt playa surfaces on Earth, provide additional evidence for the presence of liquid water

  12. Variability of tidal signals in the Brent Delta Front: New observations on the Rannoch Formation, northern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojie; Steel, Ronald J.; Ravnås, Rodmar; Jiang, Zaixing; Olariu, Cornel; Li, Zhiyang

    2016-04-01

    Detailed observations on the Rannoch Formation in several deep Viking Graben wells indicate that the 'classical' wave-dominated Brent delta-front shows coupled storm-tide processes. The tidal signals are of three types: I): alternations of thick cross-laminated sandstone and thin mud-draped sandstone, whereby double mud drapes are prominent but discretely distributed, II): a few tidal bundles within bottomsets and foresets of up to 10 cm-thick sets cross-strata, and III): dm-thick heterolithic lamination showing multiple, well-organized sand-mud couplets. During progradation of the Brent Delta, the Rannoch shoreline system passed upward from 1) a succession dominated by clean-water, storm-event sets and cosets frequently and preferentially interbedded with type I tidal beds, and occasional types II and III tidal deposits, toward 2) very clean storm-event beds less frequently separated by types II and III tidal beds, and then into 3) a thin interval showing muddier storm-event beds mainly alternating with type II tidal beds. It is likely that those variations in preservation bias of storm and tidal beds in each facies succession result from combined effects of 1) the frequency and duration of storms; 2) river discharge; and 3) the absolute and relative strength of tides. Tidal deposits are interpreted as inter-storm, fair-weather deposits, occurred preferentially in longer intermittent fair-weather condition and periods of lower river discharge, and well-pronounced in the distal-reach of delta-front. The formation and preservation of tidal signals between storm beds, indicate that the studied Rannoch Formation was most likely a storm-dominated, tide-influenced delta front 1) near the mouth of a large Brent river, where a significant tidal prism and high tidal range might be expected, and 2) in a setting where there were relatively high sedimentation rates associated with high local subsidence rates, so that the storm waves did not completely rework the inter

  13. Variability in blood and blood component utilization as assessed by an anesthesia information management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Steven M; Savage, Will J; Rothschild, Jim A; Rivers, Richard J; Ness, Paul M; Paul, Sharon L; Ulatowski, John A

    2012-07-01

    Data can be collected for various purposes with anesthesia information management systems. The authors describe methods for using data acquired from an anesthesia information management system to assess intraoperative utilization of blood and blood components. Over an 18-month period, data were collected on 48,086 surgical patients at a tertiary care academic medical center. All data were acquired with an automated anesthesia recordkeeping system. Detailed reports were generated for blood and blood component utilization according to surgical service and surgical procedure, and for individual surgeons and anesthesiologists. Transfusion hemoglobin trigger and target concentrations were compared among surgical services and procedures, and between individual medical providers. For all patients given erythrocytes, the mean transfusion hemoglobin trigger was 8.4 ± 1.5, and the target was 10.2 ± 1.5 g/dl. Variation was significant among surgical services (trigger range: 7.5 ± 1.2-9.5 ± 1.1, P = 0.0001; target range: 9.1 ± 1.2-11.3 ± 1.4 g/dl, P = 0.002), surgeons (trigger range: 7.2 ± 0.7-9.8 ± 1.0, P = 0.001; target range: 8.8 ± 0.9-11.8 ± 1.3 g/dl, P = 0.001), and anesthesiologists (trigger range: 7.2 ± 0.8-9.6 ± 1.2, P = 0.001; target range: 9.0 ± 0.9-11.7 ± 1.3 g/dl, P = 0.0004). The use of erythrocyte salvage, fresh frozen plasma, and platelets varied threefold to fourfold among individual surgeons compared with their peers performing the same surgical procedure. The use of data acquired from an anesthesia information management system allowed a detailed analysis of blood component utilization, which revealed significant variation among surgical services and surgical procedures, and among individual anesthesiologists and surgeons compared with their peers. Incorporating these methods of data acquisition and analysis into a blood management program could reduce unnecessary transfusions, an outcome that may increase patient safety and reduce costs.

  14. Incorporating Blended Format Cybersecurity Education into a Community College Information Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Cheryl D.

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of this project is to expand cybersecurity curriculum. This was accomplished by developing six new courses. The curriculum for each course utilized a common online course for all class formats including web-enhanced, hybrid, or online. In this article, we will discuss the online components used, faculty professional development, and…

  15. Information entropy method and the description of echo hologram formation in gaseous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnaeva, G. I.; Nefediev, L. A.; Akhmedshina, E. N.

    2018-02-01

    The effect of collisions with a change in velocity of gas particles, on the value of information entropy, is associated with the spectral structure of the echo hologram’s response, where its temporal form is considered. It is shown that collisions with a change in gas particle velocity increase the ‘parasitical’ information, on the background of which the information contained in the temporary shape of the object laser pulse is lost.

  16. CCN Activity, Variability and Influence on Droplet Formation during the HygrA-Cd Campaign in Athens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Bougiatioti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations (cm−3 at five levels of supersaturation between 0.2–1%, together with remote sensing profiling and aerosol size distributions, were performed at an urban background site of Athens during the Hygroscopic Aerosols to Cloud Droplets (HygrA-CD campaign. The site is affected by local emissions and long-range transport, as portrayed by the aerosol size, hygroscopicity and mixing state. Application of a state-of-the-art droplet parameterization is used to link the observed size distribution measurements, bulk composition, and modeled boundary layer dynamics with potential supersaturation, droplet number, and sensitivity of these parameters for clouds forming above the site. The sensitivity is then used to understand the source of potential droplet number variability. We find that the importance of aerosol particle concentration levels associated with the background increases as vertical velocities increase. The updraft velocity variability was found to contribute 58–90% (68.6% on average to the variance of the cloud droplet number, followed by the variance in aerosol number (6–32%, average 23.2%. Therefore, although local sources may strongly modulate CCN concentrations, their impact on droplet number is limited by the atmospheric dynamics expressed by the updraft velocity regime.

  17. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES AS COMPONENT OF FUNCTIONAL AND SUBSTANTIAL MODEL OF FORMATION PREDICTIVECOMPETENCE OF FUTURE MASTERS OF PRIMARY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Kinesheva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Considerd the structure and the maintenance of the model of formation of predictive competence of future masters of primary education by means of information technologies.Revealed the purposes, the main methodological approaches and the principles to the organization of this process. The effectiveness of this model provided by the system of pedagogical conditions: formation of motivational-value treatment to future predictive activity; determination of understanding the existing dependence between the level of predictive competence and level of the general professional competence of future masters of primary education through introduction of a special course «Predictive activity in system of management of primary education»; innovative information and communication the educational environment; integration of a special course «Predictive activity in system of management of primary education», production, pre-graduation practices. The realization of the specified pedagogical conditions is planning to enable due to specially created information and education environment, presented by innovative forms, methods and means which are relative. Defined the following structural components (motivational-value, pregnant, technological and personal, criteria (motivational-value, cognitive, operational-activity, reflexive, the indicators and levels (advanced, sufficient and basic formation of predictive competence of future masters of primary education. The educational process constructed on the basis of this model allows to reach desirable result: to create predictive competence at future masters of primary education.

  18. Quantifying the variability of financial disclosure information reported by authors presenting research at multiple sports medicine conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, Kolawole A; Ju, Brian; Miller, Christopher P; Whang, Peter; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2011-11-01

    In the study reported here, we compared self-reported industry relationships of authors who attended 3 major orthopedic sports medicine conferences during a single calendar year. Our goal was to calculate the variability between disclosure information over time. A significant percentage of authors who attended these meetings were inconsistent in submitting their disclosure information. In addition, most authors with irregularities had more than 1 discrepancy. We believe that the vast majority of the observed discrepancies did not result from intentional deception on the part of the authors but instead from ongoing confusion regarding which industry relationships should be acknowledged for particular meetings (some specialty societies require that all relationships be divulged, whereas others require only those affiliations directly applicable to research being presented). In the absence of a uniform disclosure policy that is widely adopted by many specialty societies, these findings suggest that the disclosure process will continue to be plagued by inconsistent reporting of financial conflicts of interest.

  19. Undermining the state? Informal mining and trajectories of state formation in Eastern Mindanao, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, B.L.P.

    2015-01-01

    Building on critical perspectives on the state and the informal economy, this article provides an analysis of the "state of the state" on the eastern Mindanao mineral frontier. In the first instance, the author explains that the massive expansion of informal small-scale gold mining, instead of

  20. Formation of the integrated system of the marketing information as the tool of perfection of marketing activity of innovative high school

    OpenAIRE

    D. Bogdanov

    2014-01-01

    The author proves necessity of formation of the integrated system of the marketing information of innovative high school, considers methodical aspects formation of the integrated system of the marketing information of innovative high school, develops structure of the integrated system of the marketing information of innovative high school X and makes recommendations about management of efficiency of the integrated system of the marketing information in innovative high school.

  1. IMPROVING TEACHING MATHEMATICS USING MODERN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN FORMATION MATHEMATICAL COMPETENCE REQUIRED FUTURE SKIPPERS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gudyreva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to consideration of issues related to identifying the potential for teaching mathematics using network (Internet technology and the introduction of elements of distance learning into educational process of higher educational establishments of the sea profile, as well as achievement of formation of mathematical competence of students of the University generally, and of the University's Maritime profile, in particular. Based on the analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature highlights the factors that influence the increase of efficiency of independent work of students of higher educational institutions and on the formation of steady skills of self-education that ultimately leads to quality of formation of mathematical competence of a student. Specific features of teaching mathematics at the University of the sea profile. The description of the project (complex sites "KSMA. Higher mathematics navigators", who developed and used in the Kherson state Maritime Academy in the teaching of mathematics and the organization of individual techniques of distance learning, shows the simplicity and accessibility of working with complex sites, as well as the simplicity and accessibility of design "personal website", but in fact complex sites, by a teacher of any discipline of higher education. Shown, also a training process with the use of the project "KSMA. Higher mathematics navigators", analyzes the experience of teaching the course "Higher mathematics" in a higher educational institution of the marine profile with the use of a personal website, a teacher and shown positive results in students mastery of basic mathematical competencies.

  2. Informal social reactions to college women's disclosure of intimate partner violence: associations with psychological and relational variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Katie M; Dardis, Christina M; Sylaska, Kateryna M; Gidycz, Christine A

    2015-01-01

    This researchers assessed informal (e.g., friends, family) social reactions to college women's (N = 139) disclosure of intimate partner violence (IPV) within their current romantic relationships and associated psychological (i.e., posttraumatic stress symptoms [PTSS] and global psychological distress symptoms) and relational (i.e., intentions to leave the abusive relationship) variables. Women completed confidential surveys, which assessed current partner abuse, psychological and relational variables, and three types of social reactions from informal supports to disclosure of IPV: positive (e.g., believing, validating the victim), negative (e.g., disbelieving, blaming the victim), and leaving (i.e., being told to end the relationship) reactions. At the bivariate level, negative social reactions to women's disclosure were related to increases in global psychological distress, PTSS, and leaving intentions; positive social reactions to disclosure related only to increases in PTSS; and being told to leave the relationship related to increases in PTSS and leaving intentions. In the regression analyses, after controlling for abuse severity, negative social reactions were significantly related to global psychological distress and PTSS, and being told to leave significantly related to leaving intentions and PTSS. Mechanisms for these relationships and implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Model selection for semiparametric marginal mean regression accounting for within-cluster subsampling variability and informative cluster size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chung-Wei; Chen, Yi-Hau

    2018-03-13

    We propose a model selection criterion for semiparametric marginal mean regression based on generalized estimating equations. The work is motivated by a longitudinal study on the physical frailty outcome in the elderly, where the cluster size, that is, the number of the observed outcomes in each subject, is "informative" in the sense that it is related to the frailty outcome itself. The new proposal, called Resampling Cluster Information Criterion (RCIC), is based on the resampling idea utilized in the within-cluster resampling method (Hoffman, Sen, and Weinberg, 2001, Biometrika 88, 1121-1134) and accommodates informative cluster size. The implementation of RCIC, however, is free of performing actual resampling of the data and hence is computationally convenient. Compared with the existing model selection methods for marginal mean regression, the RCIC method incorporates an additional component accounting for variability of the model over within-cluster subsampling, and leads to remarkable improvements in selecting the correct model, regardless of whether the cluster size is informative or not. Applying the RCIC method to the longitudinal frailty study, we identify being female, old age, low income and life satisfaction, and chronic health conditions as significant risk factors for physical frailty in the elderly. © 2018, The International Biometric Society.

  4. Information Sources as Explanatory Variables for the Belgian Health-Related Risk Perception of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyncke, Bart; Perko, Tanja; Van Gorp, Baldwin

    2017-03-01

    The media play an important role in risk communication, providing information about accidents, both nearby and far away. Each media source has its own presentation style, which could influence how the audience perceives the presented risk. This study investigates the explanatory power of 12 information sources (traditional media, new media, social media, and interpersonal communication) for the perceived risk posed by radiation released from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant on respondents' own health and that of the population in general. The analysis controlled for attitude toward nuclear energy, gender, education, satisfaction with the media coverage, and duration of attention paid to the coverage. The study uses a large empirical data set from a public opinion survey, which is representative for the Belgian population with respect to six sociodemographic variables. Results show that three information sources are significant regressors of perceived health-related risk of the nuclear accident: television, interpersonal communication, and the category of miscellaneous online sources. More favorable attitudes toward nuclear power, longer attention to the coverage, and higher satisfaction with the provided information lead to lower risk perception. Taken together, the results suggest that the media can indeed have a modest influence on how the audience perceives a risk. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Seismic data are rich in information about subsurface formations and fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfour, Mohammed; Yoon, Wang Jung; Kim, Dongshin [Geophysical Prospecting Lab, Energy & Resources Eng., Dept., Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Hwan [Petroleum Engineering Lab, Energy & Resources Eng., Dept., Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-08

    Seismic attributes are defined as any measured or computed information derived from seismic data. Throughout the last decades extensive work has been done in developing variety of mathematical approaches to extract maximum information from seismic data. Nevertheless, geoscientists found that seismic is still mature and rich in information. In this paper a new seismic attribute is introduced. Instantaneous energy seismic attribute is an amplitude based attribute that has the potential to emphasize anomalous amplitude associated with hydrocarbons. Promising results have been obtained from applying the attribute on seismic section traversing hydrocarbon filled sand from Alberta, Canada.

  6. Tools and methods of the formation of the armed violence’ information component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bader

    2016-10-01

    Thus, we can state that the informational component of the armed violence is gradually approaching such theoretically grounded phenomenon as «consistent war» This is a system of outreach and psychological tools, which are aimed at the creation of public awareness, and are conducted using media information, culture, arts and other (psychotropic, psychotronic tools during a long time according to the carefully developed scenarios.

  7. Formative evaluation of Hospital Information System According to ISO 9241-10: A case study from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes Mirabootalebi1

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, different information systems are operated in hospitals in Iran to manage the admission,discharge, radiology, pharmacy, accounting and other procedures. Inappropriate HIS system causes wasting of time,consumption of more energy and increasing the costs.Methodology: This study was conducted in Dr. Ali Shariati Hospital in Iran. We employed Isometric FormativeEvaluation questionnaire to analyze the hospital information system. Also, interviewing method was applied tocomplete information from departments' officials.Results: From 101 people under investigation in this study, it was agreed on 27 people (26.7% suitability for taskcriteria, 46 people (45.5% by controllability criteria, 27 people (26.7% to suitability for individualization criteria,69 people (68.3% to suitability for learning criteria, 41 people (40.6% by error tolerant criteria, 46 people (45.5%by self description criteria, 53 people (52.5% by conformity whit user expectation of Hospital Information Systemin Dr. Ali Shariati Hospital.Conclusion: Findings indicate Hospital Information System criteria are not efficient. It is necessary either to usenationally applicable software in information system of Medical Sciences Universities across the country ordifferent software having international standards of medical information should be used.

  8. What is the phase variable in superconductors ?: theory of superconductivity based on the spin-vortex formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Hiroyasu

    2013-01-01

    When Schrödinger solved the Schrödinger equation for the hydrogen atom, he assumed the single-valuedness of the electronic wave function. Thereafter, this assumption has been one of the fundamental postulates of quantum mechanics. When wave functions are multi-component, however, the imposing of the single-valued condition may become nontrivial. The spin-degree-of-freedom of electron makes electronic wave functions two-component. When spin-vortices are created by the conduction electrons and they move in the self-consistent field with the spin-vortices, the twisting of the spin basis occurs; then, the imposing of the single-valued condition becomes nontrivial, and a vector potential is induced. As a consequence, the effective vector potential becomes the sum of the vector potential from the induced one and that originates from the electric current. This effective vector potential is gauge invariant and the persistent current is generated by it. In the present work, we argue that if interactions that are omitted in the BCS reduced Hamiltonian are included, spin-vortices may be generated upon the application of a magnetic field. Then, the vector potential is induced and provides with the phase variable, θ, of the electron pair amplitude. The appearance of the spin-vortex provides with a new origin of θ; it originates from the induced gauge potential. This origin is compatible with the superselection rule for charge in contrast to the currently-accepted origin.

  9. Television advertisement format and the provision of risk information about prescription drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinert, Lewis H; Schommer, Jon C

    2005-06-01

    Considerable attention has been afforded to analyzing the content of and assessing consumers' reaction to print direct-to-consumer drug ads, but not so for televised ads. To determine whether advertisements with different risk severity and risk presentation would significantly affect viewers' (1) recall of information contained in the advertisement, (2) evaluation of the advertisement, and (3) perceptions of the advertised product's risks. Data were collected from a sample of 135 first-year pharmacy students at a Midwestern college of pharmacy. After viewing 1 of the 6 advertisements designed for this study, participants were asked to complete a self-administered survey. Chi-square and analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. A 2x3 between subjects design was used to test the effects of 2 levels of risk severity (high- vs low-risk severity) and 3 levels of risk presentation (original ad containing integrated risk message, deintegrated risk message/dual modality using male voice-over, deintegrated risk message/dual modality using female voice-over). Results of analysis of variance procedures revealed that deintegrating risk information by placing it at the end of the advertisement and the use of captions in addition to oral messages (dual modality) (1) improved the recall of general and specific side effect information, (2) led to a perception that the advertisement had greater informational content, (3) resulted in lower Advertisement Distraction, and (4) lessened cognitive and affective aspects of information overload for the advertisement containing the high-risk severity medication. However, this pattern of findings was not found for the low-risk severity medication. Alternative methods for presenting risk information in direct-to-consumer ads affected some aspects of information recall and advertisement evaluation, but were not shown to affect risk perceptions regarding the advertised products.

  10. A review and assessment of variable density ground water flow effects on plume formation at UMTRA project sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    A standard assumption when evaluating the migration of plumes in ground water is that the impacted ground water has the same density as the native ground water. Thus density is assumed to be constant, and does not influence plume migration. This assumption is valid only for water with relatively low total dissolved solids (TDS) or a low difference in TDS between water introduced from milling processes and native ground water. Analyses in the literature suggest that relatively minor density differences can significantly affect plume migration. Density differences as small as 0.3 percent are known to cause noticeable effects on the plume migration path. The primary effect of density on plume migration is deeper migration than would be expected in the arid environments typically present at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites, where little or no natural recharge is available to drive the plume into the aquifer. It is also possible that at some UMTRA Project sites, a synergistic affect occurred during milling operations, where the mounding created by tailings drainage (which created a downward vertical gradient) and the density contrast between the process water and native ground water acted together, driving constituents deeper into the aquifer than either process would alone. Numerical experiments were performed with the U.S. Geological Survey saturated unsaturated transport (SUTRA) model. This is a finite-element model capable of simulating the effects of variable fluid density on ground water flow and solute transport. The simulated aquifer parameters generally are representative of the Shiprock, New Mexico, UMTRA Project site where some of the highest TDS water from processing has been observed

  11. Introduction. The formation of the Hungarian Information Society in the last ten years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Sinka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hungary was an example to follow as one of the initiators of the change that ultimately resulted in the elimination of the Soviet dependence, as well as in the democratization of Eastern-Central European countries. The iron curtain pulled down in 1989 opened up the country to the world. The comfortable protection was suddenly replaced by the new challenges of the global market economy and culture. The forming of the Hungarian information society could have brought one of the most radical changes among these. The present paper studies the successes and failures of the development of the Hungarian information society in the last decade on the basis of the research report (MITJ, 2008 prepared by ITTK (Information Society and Trend Research Centre http://ittk.hu/english/index.html

  12. Formation and Maintenance of Robust Long-Term Information Storage in the Presence of Synaptic Turnover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fauth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A long-standing problem is how memories can be stored for very long times despite the volatility of the underlying neural substrate, most notably the high turnover of dendritic spines and synapses. To address this problem, here we are using a generic and simple probabilistic model for the creation and removal of synapses. We show that information can be stored for several months when utilizing the intrinsic dynamics of multi-synapse connections. In such systems, single synapses can still show high turnover, which enables fast learning of new information, but this will not perturb prior stored information (slow forgetting, which is represented by the compound state of the connections. The model matches the time course of recent experimental spine data during learning and memory in mice supporting the assumption of multi-synapse connections as the basis for long-term storage.

  13. Assessment of the quality and variability of health information on chronic pain websites using the DISCERN instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckley Norman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Internet is used increasingly by providers as a tool for disseminating pain-related health information and by patients as a resource about health conditions and treatment options. However, health information on the Internet remains unregulated and varies in quality, accuracy and readability. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of pain websites, and explain variability in quality and readability between pain websites. Methods Five key terms (pain, chronic pain, back pain, arthritis, and fibromyalgia were entered into the Google, Yahoo and MSN search engines. Websites were assessed using the DISCERN instrument as a quality index. Grade level readability ratings were assessed using the Flesch-Kincaid Readability Algorithm. Univariate (using alpha = 0.20 and multivariable regression (using alpha = 0.05 analyses were used to explain the variability in DISCERN scores and grade level readability using potential for commercial gain, health related seals of approval, language(s and multimedia features as independent variables. Results A total of 300 websites were assessed, 21 excluded in accordance with the exclusion criteria and 110 duplicate websites, leaving 161 unique sites. About 6.8% (11/161 websites of the websites offered patients' commercial products for their pain condition, 36.0% (58/161 websites had a health related seal of approval, 75.8% (122/161 websites presented information in English only and 40.4% (65/161 websites offered an interactive multimedia experience. In assessing the quality of the unique websites, of a maximum score of 80, the overall average DISCERN Score was 55.9 (13.6 and readability (grade level of 10.9 (3.9. The multivariable regressions demonstrated that website seals of approval (P = 0.015 and potential for commercial gain (P = 0.189 were contributing factors to higher DISCERN scores, while seals of approval (P = 0.168 and interactive multimedia (P = 0.244 contributed to

  14. The neural bases of the short-term storage of verbal information are anatomically variable across individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feredoes, Eva; Tononi, Giulio; Postle, Bradley R

    2007-10-10

    What are the precise brain regions supporting the short-term retention of verbal information? A previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study suggested that they may be topographically variable across individuals, occurring, in most, in regions posterior to prefrontal cortex (PFC), and that detection of these regions may be best suited to a single-subject (SS) approach to fMRI analysis (Feredoes and Postle, 2007). In contrast, other studies using spatially normalized group-averaged (SNGA) analyses have localized storage-related activity to PFC. To evaluate the necessity of the regions identified by these two methods, we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to SS- and SNGA-identified regions throughout the retention period of a delayed letter-recognition task. Results indicated that rTMS targeting SS analysis-identified regions of left perisylvian and sensorimotor cortex impaired performance, whereas rTMS targeting the SNGA-identified region of left caudal PFC had no effect on performance. Our results support the view that the short-term retention of verbal information can be supported by regions associated with acoustic, lexical, phonological, and speech-based representation of information. They also suggest that the brain bases of some cognitive functions may be better detected by SS than by SNGA approaches to fMRI data analysis.

  15. Making comparative performance information more comprehensible: an experimental evaluation of the impact of formats on consumer understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damman, Olga C; De Jong, Anco; Hibbard, Judith H; Timmermans, Danielle R M

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to investigate how different presentation formats influence comprehension and use of comparative performance information (CPI) among consumers. An experimental between-subjects and within-subjects design with manipulations of CPI presentation formats. We enrolled both consumers with lower socioeconomic status (SES)/cognitive skills and consumers with higher SES/cognitive skills, recruited through an online access panel. Respondents received fictitious CPI and completed questions about interpretation and information use. Between subjects, we tested (1) displaying an overall performance score (yes/no); (2) displaying a small number of quality indicators (5 vs 9); and (3) displaying different types of evaluative symbols (star ratings, coloured dots and word icons vs numbers and bar graphs). Within subjects, we tested the effect of a reduced number of healthcare providers (5 vs 20). Data were analysed using descriptive analysis, analyses of variance and paired-sampled t tests. A total of 902 (43%) respondents participated. Displaying an overall performance score and the use of coloured dots and word icons particularly enhanced consumer understanding. Importantly, respondents provided with coloured dots most often correctly selected the top three healthcare providers (84.3%), compared with word icons (76.6% correct), star ratings (70.6% correct), numbers (62.0%) and bars (54.2%) when viewing performance scores of 20 providers. Furthermore, a reduced number of healthcare providers appeared to support consumers, for example, when provided with 20 providers, 69.5% correctly selected the top three, compared with 80.2% with five providers. Particular presentation formats enhanced consumer understanding of CPI, most importantly the use of overall performance scores, word icons and coloured dots, and a reduced number of providers displayed. Public report efforts should use these formats to maximise impact on consumers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  16. The Use of Informational Formats to Implement APA Ethical Principles in Collecting Classroom Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolly, John P.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Providing more information about experimental studies than required under the ethical principles formulated by the American Psychological Association can result in data bias on a specific task; overall, however, the implementation of ethical principles has little effect on data collected in classroom settings. (RL)

  17. About formation methodology for assessing the effectiveness of the use of information systems in the management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepetiukha Aleksandr Evgenevich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A key element is the automation of electronic document management system. Result innovations in management can be achieved, if such a system would be effective. The authors have developed a system of indicators and assess the effectiveness of the procedure for forming an automated information system workflow.

  18. Artificial Neural Network to Predict Vine Water Status Spatial Variability Using Multispectral Information Obtained from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete, Tomas; Ortega-Farías, Samuel; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Bardeen, Matthew

    2017-10-30

    Water stress, which affects yield and wine quality, is often evaluated using the midday stem water potential (Ψ stem ). However, this measurement is acquired on a per plant basis and does not account for the assessment of vine water status spatial variability. The use of multispectral cameras mounted on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is capable to capture the variability of vine water stress in a whole field scenario. It has been reported that conventional multispectral indices (CMI) that use information between 500-800 nm, do not accurately predict plant water status since they are not sensitive to water content. The objective of this study was to develop artificial neural network (ANN) models derived from multispectral images to predict the Ψ stem spatial variability of a drip-irrigated Carménère vineyard in Talca, Maule Region, Chile. The coefficient of determination (R²) obtained between ANN outputs and ground-truth measurements of Ψ stem were between 0.56-0.87, with the best performance observed for the model that included the bands 550, 570, 670, 700 and 800 nm. Validation analysis indicated that the ANN model could estimate Ψ stem with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.1 MPa, root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.12 MPa, and relative error (RE) of -9.1%. For the validation of the CMI, the MAE, RMSE and RE values were between 0.26-0.27 MPa, 0.32-0.34 MPa and -24.2-25.6%, respectively.

  19. Artificial Neural Network to Predict Vine Water Status Spatial Variability Using Multispectral Information Obtained from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Poblete

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Water stress, which affects yield and wine quality, is often evaluated using the midday stem water potential (Ψstem. However, this measurement is acquired on a per plant basis and does not account for the assessment of vine water status spatial variability. The use of multispectral cameras mounted on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV is capable to capture the variability of vine water stress in a whole field scenario. It has been reported that conventional multispectral indices (CMI that use information between 500–800 nm, do not accurately predict plant water status since they are not sensitive to water content. The objective of this study was to develop artificial neural network (ANN models derived from multispectral images to predict the Ψstem spatial variability of a drip-irrigated Carménère vineyard in Talca, Maule Region, Chile. The coefficient of determination (R2 obtained between ANN outputs and ground-truth measurements of Ψstem were between 0.56–0.87, with the best performance observed for the model that included the bands 550, 570, 670, 700 and 800 nm. Validation analysis indicated that the ANN model could estimate Ψstem with a mean absolute error (MAE of 0.1 MPa, root mean square error (RMSE of 0.12 MPa, and relative error (RE of −9.1%. For the validation of the CMI, the MAE, RMSE and RE values were between 0.26–0.27 MPa, 0.32–0.34 MPa and −24.2–25.6%, respectively.

  20. A Geographic Information-Assisted Temporal Mixture Analysis for Addressing the Issue of Endmember Class and Endmember Spectra Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenliang Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Spectral mixture analysis (SMA is a common approach for parameterizing biophysical fractions of urban environment and widely applied in many fields. For successful SMA, the selection of endmember class and corresponding spectra has been assumed as the most important step. Thanks to the spatial heterogeneity of natural and urban landscapes, the variability of endmember class and corresponding spectra has been widely considered as the profound error source in SMA. To address the challenging problems, we proposed a geographic information-assisted temporal mixture analysis (GATMA. Specifically, a logistic regression analysis was applied to analyze the relationship between land use/land covers and surrounding socio-economic factors, and a classification tree method was used to identify the present status of endmember classes throughout the whole study area. Furthermore, an ordinary kriging analysis was employed to generate a spatially varying endmember spectra at all pixels in the remote sensing image. As a consequence, a fully constrained temporal mixture analysis was conducted for examining the fractional land use land covers. Results show that the proposed GATMA achieved a promising accuracy with an RMSE of 6.81%, SE of 1.29% and MAE of 2.6%. In addition, comparative analysis result illustrates that a significant accuracy improvement has been found in the whole study area and both developed and less developed areas, and this demonstrates that the variability of endmember class and endmember spectra is essential for unmixing analysis.

  1. Variability in the Perception of Informed Consent for IV-tPA during TeleStroke Consultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Elizabeth Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the perception of informed consent among various raters for thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke patients receiving IV-tPA.METHODS: Twenty randomly selected videotaped telestroke consultations of acute stroke patients administered IV-tPA were retrospectively reviewed. Adequacy of informed consent was reviewed by 5 raters: a neurologist and emergency physician who routinely treat stroke, a medical risk management paralegal, a bioethicist, and a lay person. Raters assessed the quality of the informed consent presentation by the treating physician and the degree of understanding demonstrated by the patient/family authorizing consent. Factors associated with adequacy of consent were analyzed. RESULTS: Consent was rated as adequately understood by the patient-family in 78.6% cases. Agreement between all 5 raters with regard to the patient-family understanding of consent was poor and also between the subgroups of non-physician and physician (all k< 0.20. Similarly, the quality of the physician consent process was poor for agreement between all 5 raters (k=0.07 or between the subgroup of the 3 non-physician raters (k=-0.06 and fair between the 2 physician raters (k=0.24. The legal reviewer and the bioethicist rated the physician consent process as being of lower quality than did the two physicians and the layperson. CONCLUSION: Despite high variability in the perception of informed consent among raters in this time-sensitive clinical situation, almost 80% of patients were rated by all reviewers as having adequate understanding of risks and benefits of tPA. This suggests the need for a standardized but brief tPA consent process that includes patient/family demonstration of understanding.

  2. PROBLEMS OF ICT-BASED TOOLS ESTIMATION IN THE CONTEXT OF INFORMATION SOCIETY FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shyshkina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the problems of improvement of quality of implementation and use of e-learning tools which arise in terms of increasing quality and accessibility of education. It is determined that those issues are closely linked to specific scientific and methodological approaches to evaluation of quality, selection and use of ICT-based tools in view of emergence of promising information technological platforms of these resources implementation and delivery.

  3. [Essence, goals, formation of information field and general methodology of the development of a business plan for stomatology institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalov, R Kh; Pavlovskiĭ, L N

    2005-12-01

    A private stomatology clinics (institution) can not operate in market system of management with benefit without clear guiding lines and a real business plan. Entrepreneurs meet many different issues during organizing stomatology business, as follows: what categories of population will address to the clinics, what financial resources an entrepreneur we need to realize a project, does the project justify itself economically etc? A business plan is created to answer the questions mentioned above. The article considers essence, goals, formation of information field and general methodology of the development of a business plan for stomatology institutions.

  4. Cycle d'Information/Formation sur l'Environnement d'Automatisme SCHNEIDER - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    Raymond Brun

    2005-01-01

    Trois présentions techniques sur les nouveautés Schneider 2004/2005 dédiées aux utilisateurs CERN auront lieu dans les locaux de l'enseignement technique, bâtiment 593 salle 13. Les dates retenues sont les suivantes : 1) Mercredi 2 mars 2005 de 9h à 12h : UNITY-PRO => Présentation et démonstration. Nouveauté 2005 Plate forme matérielle Premium & Quantum, Atelier de programmation UNITY-Pro Présentation générale Démonstration. Cette formation aura lieu au bâtiment 593 dans une salle de l'enseignement technique. Elle sera essentiellement animée par Xavier BONNAUD, Marc DUFFOURNET et Luc PLANTIER de SCHNEIDER qui assurent le support technique et commercial pour le CERN. Le nombre de places étant limité (20), il est demandé aux participants de s'inscrire à l'avance (E-mail : Raymond.Brun@cern.ch ou tél 76946). 2...

  5. Technical Training: Cycle d'Information/Formation sur l'Environnement d'Automatisme SCHNEIDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Raymond Brun

    2005-01-01

    Après la présention technique du 2 mars 2005 sur UNITY-Pro, deux autres présentations sur les nouveautés Schneider 2004/2005, dédiées aux utilisateurs CERN, auront lieu dans les locaux de l'enseignement technique (bât. 593, salle 13) aux dates suivantes : Mercredi 13 avril de 9h à 12h : Gamme Dialogue Homme-Machine (HMI) => Présentation et démonstration. Nouveaux terminaux tactiles Gamme XBT-G Logiciel de configuration visio-Designer Factory-Cast-HMI Distributed HMI Smart IPC (PC-Indusriel avec écran tactile rackable) Mercredi 11 Mai de 9h à 12h : Gamme Entrées/Sorties => Présentation et démonstration ADVANTIS (STB, OTB, ...) TWIDO (Nouvel UC et Connexion Ethernet) Nota : Ces formations, essentiellement techniques et pratiques, sont destinées aux personnes du CERN qui : ·  veulent connaître les nouvelles possibilités o...

  6. Evaluations of the Spitzenkandidaten: The Role of Information and News Exposure in Citizens’ Preference Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katjana Gattermann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2014 European Parliament (EP elections were characterised by a novel element in European Union (EU politics. For the first time, the major European party families put forward top candidates for President of the European Commission, the so-called Spitzenkandidaten. This paper tests whether this innovation had the potential to—at least partially—alleviate the alleged accountability deficit. We rely on original survey data to assess citizens’ preferences for each of the main Spitzenkandidaten: Jean-Claude Juncker, Martin Schulz, and Guy Verhofstadt. Our research is guided by three questions: what explains whether citizens formulate a preference for a certain Spitzenkandidat? Which factors are responsible for variations in such preferences? And, are these explanations moderated by citizens’ political awareness? We show that three factors enable citizens to formulate a preference for the Spitzenkandidaten: news exposure, general EU political information, and campaign-specific information about the Spitzenkandidaten. Furthermore, we demonstrate that only the most knowledgeable citizens are able to use party cues in their evaluations of the Spitzenkandidaten. The implications of our findings are discussed with reference to the EU’s democratic deficit debate.

  7. AREN - A non-governmental organization acting in public formation and information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauna, Traian; Anghelescu, Serban Mihnea

    1998-01-01

    The Romanian Association for Nuclear Energy - AREN, founded eight years ago as non-governmental and non-profit organization, is deploying its activity on a voluntary basis. The association comprises 248 fellows, as physical persons, 17 juridical supporting fellows and eight honorary fellows, outstanding personalities with special contributions in promoting Romanian nuclear power development, 'Ionel Purica' - prize winners. AREN co-operates with other domestic NGO's and other sister organizations from abroad, is a collective member of the General Association of Romanian Engineers and is affiliated to European Nuclear Society (ENS). For specialist and public information AREN is publishing and disseminating the following four publications: 1 - 'Energia Nucleara' (Nuclear Energy) journal; 2 - the bulletin 'Nucleus' brought from ENS and translated in Romanian language; 3 - the news 'NUC NET', adopted, worked up and translated in Romanian; 4 - the periodic bulletin 'Nuclear News'. Yearly, AREN organizes the 'Nuclear Energy Days' and the biennial International Symposium of Nuclear Energy (SIEN). (authors)

  8. Techniques for Representation of Regional Clusters in Geographical In-formation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana REVEIU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of visualization techniques adapted for regional clusters presentation in Geographic Information Systems. Clusters are groups of companies and insti-tutions co-located in a specific geographic region and linked by interdependencies in providing a related group of products and services. The regional clusters can be visualized by projecting the data into two-dimensional space or using parallel coordinates. Cluster membership is usually represented by different colours or by dividing clusters into several panels of a grille display. Taking into consideration regional clusters requirements and the multilevel administrative division of the Romania’s territory, I used two cartograms: NUTS2- regions and NUTS3- counties, to illustrate the tools for regional clusters representation.

  9. Formative (measurement)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassott, G.; Henseler, Jörg; Cooper, C.; Lee, N.; Farrell, A.

    2015-01-01

    When using measurement models with multiple indicators, researchers need to decide about the epistemic relationship between the latent variable and its indicators. In this article, we describe the nature, the estimation, the characteristics, and the validity assessment of formative measurement

  10. Extracting information on the spatial variability in erosion rate stored in detrital cooling age distributions in river sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jean; Gemignani, Lorenzo; van der Beek, Peter

    2018-03-01

    One of the main purposes of detrital thermochronology is to provide constraints on the regional-scale exhumation rate and its spatial variability in actively eroding mountain ranges. Procedures that use cooling age distributions coupled with hypsometry and thermal models have been developed in order to extract quantitative estimates of erosion rate and its spatial distribution, assuming steady state between tectonic uplift and erosion. This hypothesis precludes the use of these procedures to assess the likely transient response of mountain belts to changes in tectonic or climatic forcing. Other methods are based on an a priori knowledge of the in situ distribution of ages to interpret the detrital age distributions. In this paper, we describe a simple method that, using the observed detrital mineral age distributions collected along a river, allows us to extract information about the relative distribution of erosion rates in an eroding catchment without relying on a steady-state assumption, the value of thermal parameters or an a priori knowledge of in situ age distributions. The model is based on a relatively low number of parameters describing lithological variability among the various sub-catchments and their sizes and only uses the raw ages. The method we propose is tested against synthetic age distributions to demonstrate its accuracy and the optimum conditions for it use. In order to illustrate the method, we invert age distributions collected along the main trunk of the Tsangpo-Siang-Brahmaputra river system in the eastern Himalaya. From the inversion of the cooling age distributions we predict present-day erosion rates of the catchments along the Tsangpo-Siang-Brahmaputra river system, as well as some of its tributaries. We show that detrital age distributions contain dual information about present-day erosion rate, i.e., from the predicted distribution of surface ages within each catchment and from the relative contribution of any given catchment to the

  11. Extracting information on the spatial variability in erosion rate stored in detrital cooling age distributions in river sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Braun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the main purposes of detrital thermochronology is to provide constraints on the regional-scale exhumation rate and its spatial variability in actively eroding mountain ranges. Procedures that use cooling age distributions coupled with hypsometry and thermal models have been developed in order to extract quantitative estimates of erosion rate and its spatial distribution, assuming steady state between tectonic uplift and erosion. This hypothesis precludes the use of these procedures to assess the likely transient response of mountain belts to changes in tectonic or climatic forcing. Other methods are based on an a priori knowledge of the in situ distribution of ages to interpret the detrital age distributions. In this paper, we describe a simple method that, using the observed detrital mineral age distributions collected along a river, allows us to extract information about the relative distribution of erosion rates in an eroding catchment without relying on a steady-state assumption, the value of thermal parameters or an a priori knowledge of in situ age distributions. The model is based on a relatively low number of parameters describing lithological variability among the various sub-catchments and their sizes and only uses the raw ages. The method we propose is tested against synthetic age distributions to demonstrate its accuracy and the optimum conditions for it use. In order to illustrate the method, we invert age distributions collected along the main trunk of the Tsangpo–Siang–Brahmaputra river system in the eastern Himalaya. From the inversion of the cooling age distributions we predict present-day erosion rates of the catchments along the Tsangpo–Siang–Brahmaputra river system, as well as some of its tributaries. We show that detrital age distributions contain dual information about present-day erosion rate, i.e., from the predicted distribution of surface ages within each catchment and from the relative contribution of

  12. Entanglement enhancement through multirail noise reduction for continuous-variable measurement-based quantum-information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yung-Chao; Wu, Shin-Tza

    2017-09-01

    We study theoretically the teleportation of a controlled-phase (cz) gate through measurement-based quantum-information processing for continuous-variable systems. We examine the degree of entanglement in the output modes of the teleported cz-gate for two classes of resource states: the canonical cluster states that are constructed via direct implementations of two-mode squeezing operations and the linear-optical version of cluster states which are built from linear-optical networks of beam splitters and phase shifters. In order to reduce the excess noise arising from finite-squeezed resource states, teleportation through resource states with different multirail designs will be considered and the enhancement of entanglement in the teleported cz gates will be analyzed. For multirail cluster with an arbitrary number of rails, we obtain analytical expressions for the entanglement in the output modes and analyze in detail the results for both classes of resource states. At the same time, we also show that for uniformly squeezed clusters the multirail noise reduction can be optimized when the excess noise is allocated uniformly to the rails. To facilitate the analysis, we develop a trick with manipulations of quadrature operators that can reveal rather efficiently the measurement sequence and corrective operations needed for the measurement-based gate teleportation, which will also be explained in detail.

  13. Matrix-Inversion-Free Compressed Sensing With Variable Orthogonal Multi-Matching Pursuit Based on Prior Information for ECG Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yih-Chun; Tsai, Pei-Yun; Huang, Ming-Hao

    2016-05-19

    Low-complexity compressed sensing (CS) techniques for monitoring electrocardiogram (ECG) signals in wireless body sensor network (WBSN) are presented. The prior probability of ECG sparsity in the wavelet domain is first exploited. Then, variable orthogonal multi-matching pursuit (vOMMP) algorithm that consists of two phases is proposed. In the first phase, orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm is adopted to effectively augment the support set with reliable indices and in the second phase, the orthogonal multi-matching pursuit (OMMP) is employed to rescue the missing indices. The reconstruction performance is thus enhanced with the prior information and the vOMMP algorithm. Furthermore, the computation-intensive pseudo-inverse operation is simplified by the matrix-inversion-free (MIF) technique based on QR decomposition. The vOMMP-MIF CS decoder is then implemented in 90 nm CMOS technology. The QR decomposition is accomplished by two systolic arrays working in parallel. The implementation supports three settings for obtaining 40, 44, and 48 coefficients in the sparse vector. From the measurement result, the power consumption is 11.7 mW at 0.9 V and 12 MHz. Compared to prior chip implementations, our design shows good hardware efficiency and is suitable for low-energy applications.

  14. Estimating regional spatial and temporal variability of PM(2.5) concentrations using satellite data, meteorology, and land use information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Paciorek, Christopher J; Koutrakis, Petros

    2009-06-01

    Studies of chronic health effects due to exposures to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters meteorologic information to estimate ground-level PM(2.5) concentrations. We developed a two-stage generalized additive model (GAM) for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency PM(2.5) concentrations in a domain centered in Massachusetts. The AOD model represents conditions when AOD retrieval is successful; the non-AOD model represents conditions when AOD is missing in the domain. The AOD model has a higher predicting power judged by adjusted R(2) (0.79) than does the non-AOD model (0.48). The predicted PM(2.5) concentrations by the AOD model are, on average, 0.8-0.9 microg/m(3) higher than the non-AOD model predictions, with a more smooth spatial distribution, higher concentrations in rural areas, and the highest concentrations in areas other than major urban centers. Although AOD is a highly significant predictor of PM(2.5), meteorologic parameters are major contributors to the better performance of the AOD model. GOES aerosol/smoke product (GASP) AOD is able to summarize a set of weather and land use conditions that stratify PM(2.5) concentrations into two different spatial patterns. Even if land use regression models do not include AOD as a predictor variable, two separate models should be fitted to account for different PM(2.5) spatial patterns related to AOD availability.

  15. How did formative research inform the development of a home-based neonatal care intervention in rural Ghana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Z; Manu, A; Tawiah-Agyemang, C; Gyan, T; Turner, K; Weobong, B; Ten Asbroek, A H A; Kirkwood, B R

    2008-12-01

    Formative research is often used to inform intervention design, but the design process is rarely reported. This study describes how an integrated home visit intervention for newborns in Ghana was designed. As a first step in the design process, the known intervention parameters were listed, information required to refine the intervention was then identified and a formative research strategy designed. The strategy included synthesizing available data, collecting data on newborn care practices in homes and facilities, on barriers and facilitators to adopting desired behaviors and on practical issues such as whom to include in the intervention. The data were used to develop an intervention plan through workshops with national and international stakeholders and experts. The intervention plan was operationalized by district level committees. This included developing work plans, a creative brief for the materials and completing a community volunteer inventory. The intervention was then piloted and the intervention materials were finalized. The design process took over a year and was iterative. Throughout the process, literature was reviewed to identify the best practice. The intervention focuses on birth preparedness, using treated bednets in pregnancy, early and exclusive breastfeeding, thermal care, special care for small babies and prompt care seeking for newborns with danger signs. The need for a problem-solving approach was identified to help ensure behavior change. A subset of behaviors were already being performed adequately, or were the focus of other interventions, but were important to reinforce in the visits. These include attending antenatal care and care seeking for danger signs in pregnancy. On the basis of the intervention content, the timing of newborn deaths and the acceptability of visits, two antenatal and three visits in the first week of life (days 1, 3 and 7) were planned. Several household members were identified to include in the visits as they

  16. Investigation of the Effect of Tool Edge Geometry upon Cutting Variables, Tool Wear and Burr Formation Using Finite Element Simulation — A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartkulvanich, Partchapol; Al-Zkeri, Ibrahim; Yen, Yung-Chang; Altan, Taylan

    2004-06-01

    This paper summarizes some of the progress made on FEM simulations of metal cutting processes conducted at the Engineering Research Center (ERC/NSM). Presented research focuses on the performance of various cutting edge geometries (hone and chamfer edges) for different tool materials and specifically on: 1) the effect of round and chamfer edge geometries on the cutting variables in machining carbon steels and 2) the effect of the edge hone size upon the flank wear and burr formation behavior in face milling of A356-T6 aluminum alloy. In the second task, an innovative design of edge preparation with varying hone size around the tool nose is also explored using FEM. In order to model three-dimensional conventional turning and face milling with two-dimensional orthogonal cutting simulations, 2D simulation cross-sections consisting of the cutting speed direction and chip flow direction are selected at different locations along the tool nose radius. Then the geometries of the hone and chamfer edges and their associated tool angles as well as uncut chip thickness are determined on these planes and employed in cutting simulations. The chip flow direction on the tool rake face are obtained by examining the wear grooves on the experimental inserts or estimated by using Oxley's approximation theory of oblique cutting. Simulation results are compared with the available experimental results (e.g. cutting forces) both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  17. Investigation of the effect of tool edge geometry upon cutting variables, tool wear and burr formation using finite element simulation - A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartkulvanich, Partchapol; Al-Zkeri, Ibrahim; Yen Yungchang; Altan, Taylan

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes some of the progress made on FEM simulations of metal cutting processes conducted at the Engineering Research Center (ERC/NSM). Presented research focuses on the performance of various cutting edge geometries (hone and chamfer edges) for different tool materials and specifically on: 1) the effect of round and chamfer edge geometries on the cutting variables in machining carbon steels and 2) the effect of the edge hone size upon the flank wear and burr formation behavior in face milling of A356-T6 aluminum alloy. In the second task, an innovative design of edge preparation with varying hone size around the tool nose is also explored using FEM.In order to model three-dimensional conventional turning and face milling with two-dimensional orthogonal cutting simulations, 2D simulation cross-sections consisting of the cutting speed direction and chip flow direction are selected at different locations along the tool nose radius. Then the geometries of the hone and chamfer edges and their associated tool angles as well as uncut chip thickness are determined on these planes and employed in cutting simulations. The chip flow direction on the tool rake face are obtained by examining the wear grooves on the experimental inserts or estimated by using Oxley's approximation theory of oblique cutting. Simulation results are compared with the available experimental results (e.g. cutting forces) both qualitatively and quantitatively

  18. Information from geology: Implications for soil formation and rehabilitation in the post coal mining environment, Bowen Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spain, A.V.; Esterle, J.; McLennan, T.P.T.

    1995-01-01

    The coal mining industry is likely to disturb as much as 60,000 ha of the Bowen Basin up to the year 2000. While comprising only a small proportion of the approximately 32,000 km 2 of the Bowen Basin, this considerable area will eventually need to be rehabilitated by creating appropriate land forms with a stabilizing and self-sustaining cover of vegetation. The job of restoring the disturbed area will fall to the practitioners of rehabilitation science. This paper briefly outlines the actual and potential significance of geological information to rehabilitation practice in the open-cut coal mining industry of the Bowen Basin. It focuses particularly on the problems of soil formation and the consequent limitations to ecosystem development due to the nature of the overburden materials and the environment. Lastly, it describes some of the distinctive features of the mine-soils of the area. Geological information can assist in the identification, classification, description and behaviour of post-mining materials. Potential inputs are not restricted to these and there is scope for wider inputs to management of the mining environment although the interface with biology requires further development. (author). 4 figs., 31 refs

  19. Presenting risk information to people with diabetes: evaluating effects and preferences for different formats by a web-based randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Adrian; Thomas, Richard; Williams, Rhys; Ellner, Andrew L; Brown, Polly; Elwyn, Glyn

    2006-11-01

    Web-based patient information is widespread and information on the benefits and risks of treatments is often difficult to understand. We therefore evaluated different risk presentation formats - numerical, graphical and others - addressing the pros and cons of tight control versus usual treatment approaches for diabetes. Randomised controlled trial. Online. Publicity disseminated via Diabetes UK. People with diabetes or their carers. Control group information based on British Medical Journal 'Best Treatments'. Four intervention groups received enhanced information resources: (1) detailed numerical information (absolute/relative risk, numbers-needed-to-treat); (2) 'anchoring' to familiar risks or descriptions; (3) graphical (bar charts, thermometer scales, crowd figure formats); (4) combination of 1-3. Decision conflict scale (DCS, a measure of uncertainty); satisfaction with information; further free text responses for qualitative content analysis. Seven hundred and ten people visited the website and were randomised. Five hundred and eight completed the questionnaire for quantitative data. Mean DCS scores ranged from 2.12 to 2.24 for the five randomisation groups, indicating neither clear delay or vacillation about decisions (usually DCS>2.5) nor tending to make decisions (usually DCSOnline evaluation of different risk representation formats was feasible. There was a lack of intervention effects on quantitative outcomes, perhaps reflecting already well-informed participants from the Diabetes UK patient organisation. The large qualitative dataset included many comments about what participants found helpful as formats for communicating risk information. These findings assist the design of online decision aids and the representation of risk information. The challenge is to provide more information, in appropriate and clear formats, but without risking information overload. Interactive web designs hold much promise to achieve this.

  20. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akagi, S. K.; Yokelson, R. J.; Burling, I. R.; Meinardi, S.; Simpson, I.; Blake, D. R.; McMeeking, G. R.; Sullivan, A.; Lee, T.; Kreidenweis, S.; Urbanski, S.; Reardon, J.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Johnson, T. J.; Weise, D. R.

    2013-02-01

    In October-November 2011 we measured the trace gas emission factors from 7 prescribed fires in South Carolina, U.S. using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) systems and whole air sampling (WAS) into canisters followed by gas-chromatographic analyses. The fires were intended to emulate high-intensity burns as they were lit during the dry season and in most cases represented stands that had not been treated with prescribed burns in 10+ years, if at all. A total of 97 trace gas species are reported here from both airborne and ground-based platforms making this one of the most detailed field studies of fire emissions to date. The measurements included the first data for a suite of monoterpene compounds emitted via distillation of plant tissues during real fires. The known chemistry of the monoterpenes and their measured abundance of ~0.40% of CO (molar basis), ~3.9% of NMOC (molar basis), and ~21% of organic aerosol (mass basis), suggests that they impacted post-emission formation of ozone, aerosol, and small organic trace gases such as methanol and formaldehyde in the sampled plumes. The variability in the terpene emissions in South Carolina (SC) fire plumes was high and, in general, the speciation of the emitted gas-phase non-methane organic compounds was surprisingly different from that observed in a similar study in nominally similar pine forests in North Carolina ~20 months earlier. It is likely that the slightly different ecosystems, time of year and the precursor variability all contributed to the variability in plume chemistry observed in this study and in the literature. The ΔHCN/ΔCO emission ratio, however, is fairly consistent at 0.9 ± 0.06 % for airborne fire measurements in coniferous-dominated ecosystems further confirming the value of HCN as a good biomass burning indicator/tracer. The SC results also support an earlier finding that C3-C4 alkynes may be of use as biomass burning indicators on the time-scale of

  1. Teacher‟s informational and communicational competence formation in the context of Ukraine‟s integration into the European education area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandra Kuzenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Teachers informational and communicational competence formation in the context ofukraine’s integration into the European education area Abstract The article deals with theproblems of forming informational and communicational competence of students-futureteachers. The importance of ICT technologies in provision of modern system of educationfunctioning in optimization of educational process of students of higher education institutionsand the formation of skills of future teachers to solve professional problems through the use ofinformational and communicational technologies are revealed.Key words: informational and communicational technology (ICT, ICT competence,pedagogical activity.

  2. Formation of cognitive structures in conditioned-reflex behavior in monkeys: Relationship with type of visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudkin, K N; Chueva, I V

    2009-02-01

    The characteristics of learning processes and long-term memory (LTM) were studied in rhesus macaques discriminating visual stimuli (geometrical figures of different shapes, sizes, and orientations, and with different spatial relationships between image components). Trained monkeys were tested for the ability to perform invariant recognition after stimulus transformation, i.e., changes in size, shape, number of objects, and spatial relationships. Analysis of behavioral characteristics (correct solutions, refusals to decide, motor response times) revealed differences associated with the type of visual information. When monkeys discriminated between black and white geometrical figures of different shapes and orientations, as well as black-and-white figures with different shapes or orientations, the learning time was short and transformation of the stimuli had no effect on correct solutions: there was complete transfer of learning. When monkeys discriminated figures of different sizes or complex images with different spatial relationships, the learning time was significantly greater. Changes in the size and shape of figures led to significant reductions in correct solutions and significant increases in refusals to solve the task and in motor reaction times. Invariance of discrimination in this case appeared after additional training. The results obtained here showed that in conditioned reflex learning, the sensory processing of stimuli has the result that discriminatory features are formed in LTM, i.e., cognitive structures (functional neurophysiological mechanisms), these supporting the classification of visual images. The temporal conditioned link of the executive reaction is established with these. Their formation is determined by the type of sensory information and the existence in LTM of separate subsystems for spatial and non-spatial information.

  3. Informing a Behavior Change Communication Strategy: Formative Research Findings From the Scaling Up Nutrition Movement in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodish, Stephen; Aburto, Nancy; Dibari, Filippo; Brieger, William; Agostinho, Saozinha P; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2015-09-01

    Nutrition interventions targeting the first 1000 days show promise to improve nutritional status, but they require effective implementation. Formative research is thus invaluable for developing such interventions, but there have been few detailed studies that describe this phase of work within the Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) movement. To inform a stunting prevention intervention in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique, by describing the sociocultural landscape and elucidating characteristics related to young child food, illness, and health. This formative research utilized a rapid assessment procedures (RAP) approach with 3 iterative phases that explored local perceptions and behaviors around food and illness among the Macua, Mwani, and Maconde ethnic groups. Ethnographic methods, including in-depth interviews, direct observations, free lists, and pile sorts, were used to collect data from community leaders, caregivers, and children 6 to 23 months. Data were analyzed drawing from grounded theory and cultural domain analysis. Geographic differences drive sociocultural characteristics amid 3 ethnic groups that allow for segmentation of the population into 2 distinct audiences for behavior change communications. These 2 communities have similar classification systems for children's foods but different adult dietary patterns. Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement did not fall into the existing food classification systems of either community, and participants preferred its promotion through community leader channels. Community members in both groups have little recognition of and perceived severity toward nutrition-related illnesses. Within Cabo Delgado, the cultural heterogeneity yields substantial differences related to food, illness, and health that are necessary to consider for developing an effective nutrition intervention. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. The Valence of Self-Generated (Status Updates) and Other-Generated (Wall-Posts) Information Determines Impression Formation on Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal-Stott, Harriet E. S.; Dicks, Rea E.; Fielding, Lois S.

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether self-generated (status updates) or other-generated (wall-posts) information on Facebook influenced the impression formed of the target individual. Along with examining reliance on particular types of information, we explored the valence (positive/ neutral/ negative) of the information, as reliance on self-generated or other-generated information may depend on whether self-presentation is perceived (i.e., presenting oneself positively / not negatively). Self-presentation may be perceived if the targets have positive/ neutral statuses, while negative statuses would indicate a lack of self-presentation. In line with previous research, participants should rely on other-generated information (wall-posts) to form an impression when participants are viewed to have self-presented (positive / neutral status updates), as this information could be viewed as unreliable. Forty participants rated nine Facebook profiles where statuses and wall-posts portrayed personality traits varying in valence. Each profile consisted of a neutral profile photo, three status updates (all positive, negative, or neutral) and three wall-posts (all positive, negative, or neutral). Materials were established in two pilots. Impression formation was measured as perceived social, task, and physical attractiveness of the target individual. Participants also ranked the profiles for likeability. Supporting our expectations, other-generated information (wall-posts) dominated impression formation for social attractiveness when self-generated information (status updates) was positive/ neutral. Task attractiveness was affected by information valence, regardless of source (self or other). Despite the inclusion of neutral photos, physical attractiveness was affected by self-generated information, with negative statuses lowering physical attractiveness. We suggest that these findings have implications for impression formation beyond the Facebook setting. The 557 traits analyzed in Pilot 1 are

  5. Novel, Anti-hTNF-α Variable New Antigen Receptor Formats with Enhanced Neutralizing Potency and Multifunctionality, Generated for Therapeutic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obinna C. Ubah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis has significantly improved over the last decade with the clinical availability of anti-TNF-α biologics. Despite this undoubted treatment success, a combination of acquired resistance together with an increased risk of systemic complications, means that a significant number of patients either fail to find a suitable targeted therapy or frustratingly discover that an approach that did work is no longer efficacious. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new class of super-neutralizing anti-TNF-α biologics formats, the building blocks of which were originally derived as variable new antigen receptor (VNAR domains from an immunized nurse shark. These parental small, stable VNAR monomers recognize and neutralize tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, in cell-based assays, at nanomolar concentrations. However, the simple, single-chain molecular architecture of VNARs allows for easy and multiple reformatting options. Through reformatting, we achieved a 50,000-fold enhancement in in vitro efficacy with super-neutralizing fusion proteins able to block TNF-α induced cytotoxicity in the 2–5 pM range while retaining other functionality through the addition of fusion proteins known to extend serum half-life in vivo. In an in vitro intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction efficacy model, the lead VNAR domains, restored barrier function and prevented paracellular flux with comparable efficacy to adalimumab (Humira®. In addition, all multivalent VNAR constructs restored trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER to approximately 94% of the untreated control. Reformatted VNAR domains should be considered as a new class of biologic agents for the treatment of hTNF-α driven diseases; either used systemically with appropriate half-life extension or alternatively where site-specific delivery of small and stable neutralizers

  6. Elucidating tectonic events and processes from variably tectonized conglomerate clast detrital geochronology: examples from the Hongliuhe Formation in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleven, Nathan; Lin, Shoufa; Davis, Donald; Xiao, Wenjiao; Guilmette, Carl

    2017-04-01

    This work expands upon detrital zircon geochronology with a sampling and analysis strategy dating granitoid conglomerate clasts that exhibit differing degrees of internal ductile deformation. As deformation textures within clastic material reflect the variation and history of tectonization in the source region of a deposit, we outline a dating methodology that can provide details of the provenance's tectonomagmatic history from deformation-relative age distributions. The method involves bulk samples of solely granitoid clasts, as they are representative of the magmatic framework within the provenance. The clasts are classified and sorted into three subsets: undeformed, slightly deformed, and deformed. LA-ICPMS U-Pb geochronology is performed on zircon separates of each subset. Our case study, involving the Permian Hongliuhe Formation in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, analyzes each of the three clast subsets, as well as sandstone detrital samples, at three stratigraphic levels to yield a profile of the unroofed provenance. The age spectra of the clast samples exhibit different, wider distributions than sandstone samples, considered an effect of proximity to the respective provenance. Comparisons of clast data to sandstone data, as well as comparisons between stratigraphic levels, yield indications of key tectonic processes, in addition to the typical characteristics provided by detrital geochronology. The clast data indicates a minimal lag time, implying rapid exhumation rates, whereas sandstone data alone would indicate a 90 m.y. lag time. Early Paleozoic arc building episodes appear as Ordovician peaks in sandstone data, and Silurian-Devonian peaks in clast data, indicating a younging of magmatism towards the proximal provenance. A magmatic hiatus starts in the Devonian, correlating with the latest age of deformed clasts, interpreted as timing of collisional tectonics. Provenance interpretation using the correlations seen between the clast and sandstone

  7. Environmental variables, remote sensing and geographical information systems applied to the study of Rhodnius prolixus distribution in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guhl, Felipe

    2010-01-01

    A data base of the entomological survey performer during the Chagas Disease National Control Programme (CHDNCP) in 1997 - 2001 and temporal satellite images masp containing 57 environmental variables were used to build Rhodnius prolixus dispersion predictive maps in Colombia, based on temporal images, Fourier analyses and a discriminative multivaried statistical analyses of the variables studied. The maps show the dispersion of this species and its implication on the Chagas disease transmission in Colombia. A clear division in the predictive dispersion of R. prolixus in two geographical zones was found: one area in the southeast of the Eastern Cordillera associated with the environmental variables used in the present study and a second zone in the Andean Valleys, East of the Eastern Cordillera not much defined by the same variables. This would suggest that the Southwest Region. of Colombia presents a tendency to a wider dispersion of R. prolixus associated to other variables like human intervention. Sylvatic populations of R. prolixus were found recently in Attalea butyracea palm trees in this Region of the Eastern Planes demonstrating the prediction of the presence of this species.

  8. From the teachers' eyes: An ethnographic-case study on developing models of Informal Formative Assessments (IFA) and understanding the challenges to effective implementation in science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen, Asli

    The emphasis on socio-cultural theories of learning has required the understanding of multi-dimensional, dynamic and social nature of acquiring the scientific knowledge and practices. Recent policy documents suggest a focus on formative and dynamic assessment practices that will help understand and improve the complex nature of scientific learning in classrooms. This study focuses on teachers' use of "Informal Formative Assessments (IFA)" aimed at improving students' learning and teachers' frequent recognition of students' learning process. The study was designed as an ethnographic case study of four middle school teachers and their students at a local charter school. The data of the study included (a) teachers' responses to history of teaching questionnaire (b) video and audio records of teachers' assessment practices during two different scientific projects (c) video and audio records of ethnographic interviews with teachers during their reflections on their practices, and (d) field notes taken by the researcher to understand the assessment culture of the school. The analytical tools from sociolinguistics (e.g., transcripts and event maps) were prepared and discourse analysis based in an ethnographic perspective was used to analyze the data. Moreover, Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) was also introduced as an alternative data analysis framework for understanding the role of division of labor among the elements of the community on the challenges and the outcomes of IFA practices. The findings from the analysis of the classroom discourse showed three different types of IFA cycles: connected, non-connected, and repeating. The analysis of the teachers' reflections showed that the effectiveness of these cycles did not only depend on whether the cycles were connected, but also on other variables such as the phase of the lessons and student's identities and abilities. Teachers' reflections during researcher-teacher meetings on the concept and the aims of IFA

  9. Latina high school students figured world of STEM: Identity formation in formal and informal communities of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, Minosca Victoria

    In the United States, the education and skill levels of the American population are not measuring up to the growing demands of the STEM workplace. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) (2007) projects that over the next 20 years, there will be an estimated shortage of 21 million skilled workers. STEM professions (those in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics), will continue to lead this workforce growth. However, fewer students are majoring in these areas of critical need, particularly women and minorities. Only a small fraction of U.S.-born scientists and engineers training to fill these positions are members of underrepresented minorities (Latino, Black, and American Indian/Native Alaskan students), yet this same population is expected to experience the greatest growth over the next several decades. Using qualitative methods, I explore the role formal and informal communities of practice play in either motivating or hindering Latinas' interest in STEM career. I use the narratives of 16 low-income, urban Latina high school seniors to provide a counternarrative as to the reasons for these underrepresentation. Teachers in the U.S. play a significant role in the reproduction of the culturally prototypical conception of math and science students; the best and brightest in the school. Teachers' role in positioning Latina students in honors/gifted programs based on their perceptions of students' characteristics and their recommendations for placement in honors classes/ programs, STEM extracurricular activities and summer programs are critical to Latina's "good student" identity formation which has a significant role in their motivation or erasure of STEM identities. Latinas in this study strongly identified with their school and were very concerned in maintaining their good student identities. They defined academic success based on the grades they obtained and the colleges they were accepted into. I propose an identity model, L-STEM which highlight the power

  10. THE FORMATION OF THE CONTOUR OF THE DOCUMENTED AND REAL FLIGHT SAFETY IN THE SYSTEM OF THE INFORMATION PROVISION OF SAFETY OF FLIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. Bachkalo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the principles and mechanisms of formation of the contour of the real safety of flights and contour of the documented safety, allowing us to obtain information to control fligh safety. The proposed approach can be used in the algorithms of active on-board flight safety management system for the implementation of information support to the crew in flight and automatic control of flight safety.

  11. Comparing the validity of informant and self-reports of personality using laboratory indices of emotional responding as criterion variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lynne; Liu, Huiting; Huggins, Ashley A; Katz, Andrea C; Zvolensky, Michael J; Shankman, Stewart A

    2016-09-01

    Personality traits relate to risk for psychopathology and can inform predictions about treatment outcome. In an effort to obtain a comprehensive index of personality, informant reports of personality are sometimes obtained in addition to self-reports of personality. However, there is limited research comparing the validity of self- and informant reports of personality, particularly among those with internalizing psychopathology. This is important given that informants may provide an additional (and perhaps different) perspective on individuals' personality. The present study therefore compared how both reports of positive affectivity (PA) and negative affectivity (NA) relate to psychophysiological and subjective measures of emotional responding to positive and negative stimuli. Given that our sample (n = 117) included individuals with no history of psychopathology, as well as individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) and/or panic disorder (PD), we were also able to explore whether these internalizing diagnoses moderated the association between personality reports and measures of emotional responding. Informant-reported PA predicted physiological responses to positive stimuli (but not negative). Informant-reported NA predicted physiological responses to negative stimuli (but not positive). Self-reported personality did not predict physiological responding, but did predict subjectively measured emotional responding (NA for negative responding, PA for positive responding). Diagnoses of internalizing psychopathology (PD or MDD) did not moderate these associations. Results suggest self- and informant reports of personality may each provide valid indices of an individual's emotional response tendencies, but predict different aspects of those tendencies. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  12. Comparing the Validity of Informant- and Self-reports of Personality Using Laboratory Indices of Emotional Responding as Criterion Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lynne; Liu, Huiting; Huggins, Ashley A.; Katz, Andrea C.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Shankman, Stewart A.

    2016-01-01

    Personality traits relate to risk for psychopathology and can inform predictions about treatment outcome. In an effort to obtain a comprehensive index of personality, informant-reports of personality are sometimes obtained in addition to self-reports of personality. However, there is limited research comparing the validity of self- and informant-reports of personality, particularly among those with internalizing psychopathology. This is important given that informants may provide an additional (and perhaps different) perspective on individuals’ personality. The present study therefore compared how both reports of positive affectivity (PA) and negative affectivity (NA) relate to psychophysiological and subjective measures of emotional responding to positive and negative stimuli. Given that our sample (n = 117) included individuals with no history of psychopathology, as well as individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) and/or panic disorder (PD), we were also able to explore whether these internalizing diagnoses moderated the association between personality reports and measures of emotional responding. Informant-reported PA predicted physiological responses to positive stimuli (but not negative). Informant reported NA predicted physiological responses to negative stimuli (but not positive). Self-reported personality did not predict physiological responding, but did predict subjectively measured emotional responding (NA for negative responding; PA for positive responding). Diagnoses of internalizing psychopathology (PD or MDD) did not moderate these associations. Results suggest self- and informant-reports of personality may each provide valid indices of an individual’s emotional response tendencies, but predict different aspects of those tendencies. PMID:27273802

  13. Formation of information culture of personality in the process of teaching mathematics within the discipline «managerial methods of decision making»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Владимировна Морозова

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains structural elements of the methodology for formation of personal information culture in the study of mathematics for the specialty «State and municipal management» (on the subject «Methods of decision-making».

  14. How Students Search: Information Seeking and Electronic Resource Use. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, eighth in a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. This study focused on the searching behavior of higher education students as they attempted to locate electronic…

  15. Estimating risks of radiotherapy complications as part of informed consent: the high degree of variability between radiation oncologists may be related to experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakespeare, Thomas Philip; Dwyer, Mary; Mukherjee, Rahul; Yeghiaian-Alvandi, Roland; Gebski, Val

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Estimating the risks of radiotherapy (RT) toxicity is important for informed consent; however, the consistency in estimates has not been studied. This study aimed to explore the variability and factors affecting risk estimates (REs). Methods and Materials: A survey was mailed to Australian radiation oncologists, who were asked to estimate risks of RT complications given 49 clinical scenarios. The REs were assessed for association with oncologist experience, subspecialization, and private practice. Results: The REs were extremely variable, with a 50-fold median variability. The least variability (sevenfold) was for estimates of late, small intestinal perforation/obstruction after a one-third volume received 50 Gy with concurrent 5-fluorouracil (RE range 5-35%). The variation between the smallest and largest REs in 17 scenarios was ≥100-fold. The years of experience was significantly associated with REs of soft/connective-tissue toxicity (p=0.01) but inversely associated with estimates of neurologic/central nervous system toxicity (p=0.08). Ninety-six percent of respondents believed REs were important to RT practice; only 24% rated evidence to support their estimates as good. Sixty-seven percent believed national/international groups should pursue the issue further. Conclusion: Enormous variability exists in REs for normal tissue complications due to RT that is influenced by the years of experience. Risk estimation is perceived as an important issue without a good evidence base. Additional studies are strongly recommended

  16. Assessing the risk for dengue fever based on socioeconomic and environmental variables in a geographical information system environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khormi, Hassan M; Kumar, Lalit

    2012-05-01

    An important option in preventing the spread of dengue fever (DF) is to control and monitor its vector (Aedes aegypti) as well as to locate and destroy suitable mosquito breeding environments. The aim of the present study was to use a combination of environmental and socioeconomic variables to model areas at risk of DF. These variables include clinically confirmed DF cases, mosquito counts, population density in inhabited areas, total populations per district, water access, neighbourhood quality and the spatio-temporal risk of DF based on the average, weekly frequency of DF incidence. Out of 111 districts investigated, 17 (15%), covering a total area of 121 km2, were identified as of high risk, 25 (22%), covering 133 km2, were identified as of medium risk, 18 (16%), covering 180 km2, were identified as of low risk and 51 (46%), covering 726 km2, were identified as of very low risk. The resultant model shows that most areas at risk of DF were concentrated in the central part of Jeddah county, Saudi Arabia. The methods used can be implemented as routine procedures for control and prevention. A concerted intervention in the medium- and high-risk level districts identified in this study could be highly effective in reducing transmission of DF in the area as a whole.

  17. Examining Music Teachers' Self-Confidence Levels in Using Information and Communication Technologies for Education Based on Measurable Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Deniz Beste Çevik

    2017-01-01

    Rapid developments and innovations in technology have impact on individuals. The use of technology for one's daily life has become a necessity; therefore, the development and popularization of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) is use as a tool for solving educational problems. Because educational technologies play a major role both…

  18. Options to Improve the Quality of Wind Generation Output Forecasting with the Use of Available Information as Explanatory Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Magulski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of wind generation, besides its positive aspects related to the use of renewable energy, is a challenge from the point of view of power systems’ operational security and economy. The uncertain and variable nature of wind generation sources entails the need for the for the TSO to provide adequate reserves of power, necessary to maintain the grid’s stable operation, and the actors involved in the trading of energy from these sources incur additional of balancing unplanned output deviations. The paper presents the results of analyses concerning the options to forecast a selected wind farm’s output exercised by means of different methods of prediction, using a different range of measurement and forecasting data available on the farm and its surroundings. The analyses focused on the evaluation of forecast errors, and selection of input data for forecasting models and assessment of their impact on prediction quality improvement.

  19. Surfing wave climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Antonio; Losada, Iñigo J.; Méndez, Fernando J.

    2014-10-01

    International surfing destinations are highly dependent on specific combinations of wind-wave formation, thermal conditions and local bathymetry. Surf quality depends on a vast number of geophysical variables, and analyses of surf quality require the consideration of the seasonal, interannual and long-term variability of surf conditions on a global scale. A multivariable standardized index based on expert judgment is proposed for this purpose. This index makes it possible to analyze surf conditions objectively over a global domain. A summary of global surf resources based on a new index integrating existing wave, wind, tides and sea surface temperature databases is presented. According to general atmospheric circulation and swell propagation patterns, results show that west-facing low to middle-latitude coasts are more suitable for surfing, especially those in the Southern Hemisphere. Month-to-month analysis reveals strong seasonal variations in the occurrence of surfable events, enhancing the frequency of such events in the North Atlantic and the North Pacific. Interannual variability was investigated by comparing occurrence values with global and regional modes of low-frequency climate variability such as El Niño and the North Atlantic Oscillation, revealing their strong influence at both the global and the regional scale. Results of the long-term trends demonstrate an increase in the probability of surfable events on west-facing coasts around the world in recent years. The resulting maps provide useful information for surfers, the surf tourism industry and surf-related coastal planners and stakeholders.

  20. Comparing Building and Neighborhood-Scale Variability of CO₂ and O₃ to Inform Deployment Considerations for Low-Cost Sensor System Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier-Oxandale, Ashley; Coffey, Evan; Thorson, Jacob; Johnston, Jill; Hannigan, Michael

    2018-04-26

    The increased use of low-cost air quality sensor systems, particularly by communities, calls for the further development of best-practices to ensure these systems collect usable data. One area identified as requiring more attention is that of deployment logistics, that is, how to select deployment sites and how to strategically place sensors at these sites. Given that sensors are often placed at homes and businesses, ideal placement is not always possible. Considerations such as convenience, access, aesthetics, and safety are also important. To explore this issue, we placed multiple sensor systems at an existing field site allowing us to examine both neighborhood-level and building-level variability during a concurrent period for CO₂ (a primary pollutant) and O₃ (a secondary pollutant). In line with previous studies, we found that local and transported emissions as well as thermal differences in sensor systems drive variability, particularly for high-time resolution data. While this level of variability is unlikely to affect data on larger averaging scales, this variability could impact analysis if the user is interested in high-time resolution or examining local sources. However, with thoughtful placement and thorough documentation, high-time resolution data at the neighborhood level has the potential to provide us with entirely new information on local air quality trends and emissions.

  1. Overall information needs of early-stage prostate cancer patients over a decade: highly variable and remarkably stable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman-Stewart, Deb; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Brundage, Michael D; Siemens, D Robert

    2009-04-01

    To assess the stability of information needs of early-stage prostate cancer patients by comparing needs in the same location, at two time points, almost 10 years apart. Two groups of patients were surveyed (first, 1996; second, 2005) to identify retrospectively their information needs in the diagnosis-to-treatment-decision time interval. Both sampling cohorts were men diagnosed in one location in Canada within the previous 2 years. Participants rated the importance of getting answers to each of 92 questions (organized in eight categories) using four options: essential, desired, no opinion, or avoid. For each essential and desired question, respondents also indicated the reason(s) they wanted the question addressed: to understand, decide, plan, or other. The two groups had similar response rates: 38 (68%) in 1996 and 130 (70%) in 2005. They also had similar ages, marital status, or education. Both groups rated means of: 49 questions "essential" with wide ranges across respondents (12-90 vs 0-92 questions); 73 questions as "essential"/"desired"; and two questions to "avoid". At both times, every question was essential to some participants but only six (in 1996) and 12 (in 2005) questions were essential to over 80% of participants. In both groups, the most frequent reason for essential questions was for understanding (mean number of questions 34 vs 36), followed by decision making (means 13 vs 19), and then planning (means 10 vs 15). We have demonstrated reliably that, although many patients want a lot of information, the range in amount and in exact details varies considerably across individuals. Systematic patient education is needed, therefore, but it must be individualized.

  2. 76 FR 76174 - Request for Information on the State of the Offshore Renewable Energy Industry-Auction Format...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... ``Multiple Factor Auctions,'' in which non- financial considerations are taken into account at the outset. If... tends to award leases to developers with good financial backing. Because the winning bidders would need... variations of the package auction format merit consideration for leasing packages of lots for offshore...

  3. Concept of formation of agricultural and ecological information control subsystem for the programme aimed at eliminating the after effects of the Chernobyl nuclear power station failure in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravel', V.I.; Prosyannikov, E.V.; Zenin, A.G.; Vishnyakov, V.A.; Prosyannikova, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    A concept of formation of agricultural and ecological information control subsystem is presented. The subsystem is considered to perform information and control functions. To the information function refer: processing of initial data; input of data and modification in the data base; presentation of information; mapping of radioactive contamination; calculation of soil radioactive index. To the control function belong: possibility of utilization of agricultural products; estimation of possible utilization of arable lands; estimation of necessary of decontamination; estimation of necessity of agrochemical measures; taking decisions as to the change of agricultural technology; taking decisions as to the use of meat and milk by the population. A conceptual model the agricultural soil radioecological data base is presented. 10 refs.; 1 figs

  4. Variables associated with seeking information from doctors and the internet after exposure to direct-to-consumer advertisements for prescription medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Joshua; Teichman, Chaim

    2014-01-01

    This study examines variables associated with seeking information from doctors, the Internet, and a combination of both doctors and Internet after exposure to direct-to-consumer advertisements. Data were analyzed from 462 college students. Younger age, women, and health insurance were associated with greater odds for doctor; women, subjective norms, intentions, and greater time since seen doctor were associated with greater odds for Internet; and African American, Hispanic, subjective norms, intentions, and health insurance were associated with greater odds for both doctor and Internet. Marketers of direct-to-consumer advertisements can use these findings for tailoring and targeting direct-to-consumer advertisements.

  5. Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyard, Pierre.

    1981-01-01

    The fear for nuclear energy and more particularly for radioactive wastes is analyzed in the sociological context. Everybody agree on the information need, information is available but there is a problem for their diffusion. Reactions of the public are analyzed and journalists, scientists and teachers have a role to play [fr

  6. How the Source of Word-of-Mouth Influences Information Processing in the Formation of Brand Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Kristiina; Tarkiainen, Anssi; Sundqvist, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    Word-of-mouth (WOM) can be a powerful, persuasive source of information, but relatively little is understood about how consumers utilize information in service evaluations and how the source of WOM (e.g. friends, family) affects attitudes. The importance of WOM is acknowledged in the services context; however, the research field of higher…

  7. Information on scientific and technological co-operation between the CMEA member countries in radioactive waste burial in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolpygo, V.K.

    1984-02-01

    Research on radioactive waste treatment and disposal constitutes an important area of cooperation between the CMEA member countries. An important part in cooperation has been assigned to the study of systems for disposing radioactive waste of all kinds in geological formations. The cooperation which was initiated in 1971 was realized within the two research programmes scheduled for subsequent periods, viz. for 1971 to 1975, and from 1976 to 1983. Programme work for 1971 to 1975 included three major fields of research: theoretical and experimental research, scientific and technological research and methodological research. As regards methodological research and results of work by the plan for 1976 to 1983, comprehensive research on the methods of disposing radioactive waste in geological formations has been practically completed and documents relating to the industrial introduction of these methods have been prepared. The results of research renders it possible to properly organize from the standpoint of methodology surveying, designing of schematic diagrams and structures of all facilities involving the burial of radioactive waste in geological formations, the evaluation of suitability of the sanitary protection zone from the standpoint of environmental protection and the rational use of natural resources. The drawing of prognostic charts and the development of recommendations on the use of interior of the earth for burying radioactive waste make it possible for the planning bodies, ministries and agencies to evaluate the possibilities for underground burial of radioactive waste in selecting a site and in designing and construction of new nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities

  8. Information on energy in Africa and the need for training; L'information sur l'energie en Afrique et le besoin de formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, C.J. [South African National Energy Association, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2003-06-01

    Statistical energy data coming from Africa is of poor quality and often incomplete. Adequate training is important to enhance the competency of those responsible for compiling energy data. The author began by explaining the importance of collecting information in order to ensure optimum utilization of resources and to support economic growth. There is a link between energy use and economic development. It is generally agreed that only national governments have the responsibility and authority for the compilation of national energy data. Lack of training and lack of resources to conduct required studies are the two main problems associated with energy information systems. Adequate training (formal and informal) is required for personnel operating in both the lower spheres and the higher echelons. The author focused mainly on the need to provide proper training to energy statisticians. 3 refs.

  9. Comparison of patient comprehension of rapid HIV pre-test fundamentals by information delivery format in an emergency department setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Melissa A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two trials were conducted to compare emergency department patient comprehension of rapid HIV pre-test information using different methods to deliver this information. Methods Patients were enrolled for these two trials at a US emergency department between February 2005 and January 2006. In Trial One, patients were randomized to a no pre-test information or an in-person discussion arm. In Trial Two, a separate group of patients were randomized to an in-person discussion arm or a Tablet PC-based video arm. The video, "Do you know about rapid HIV testing?", and the in-person discussion contained identical Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-suggested pre-test information components as well as information on rapid HIV testing with OraQuick®. Participants were compared by information arm on their comprehension of the pre-test information by their score on a 26-item questionnaire using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results In Trial One, 38 patients completed the no-information arm and 31 completed the in-person discussion arm. Of these 69 patients, 63.8% had twelve years or fewer of formal education and 66.7% had previously been tested for HIV. The mean score on the questionnaire for the in-person discussion arm was higher than for the no information arm (18.7 vs. 13.3, p ≤ 0.0001. In Trial Two, 59 patients completed the in-person discussion and 55 completed the video arms. Of these 114 patients, 50.9% had twelve years or fewer of formal education and 68.4% had previously been tested for HIV. The mean score on the questionnaire for the video arm was similar to the in-person discussion arm (20.0 vs. 19.2; p ≤ 0.33. Conclusion The video "Do you know about rapid HIV testing?" appears to be an acceptable substitute for an in-person pre-test discussion on rapid HIV testing with OraQuick®. In terms of adequately informing ED patients about rapid HIV testing, either form of pre-test information is preferable than for patients

  10. Analysis of morpho-agronomic and climatic variables in successive agricultural years provides novel information regarding the phenological cycle of Jatropha in conditions of the Brazilian cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domiciano, Gisele P; Alves, Alexandre A; Laviola, Bruno G; Albrecht, Julio C

    2014-12-01

    Phenological studies can provide information that enables the understanding of the dynamics of plants and how these dynamics are related to the biotic and abiotic environment. In order to study the phenological phases of Jatropha during two agricultural years, agronomic and climatic variables, such as temperature and rainfall, were evaluated. Data for each variable in each year and each genotype were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the differences were tested at 5% probability by F test. In addition, the correlation of growth behavior and reproductive development of two Jatropha accessions (CNPAE-102 and CNPAE-169) as a function of time elapsed after the start of the phenological cycle with climatic variables were analyzed through Pearson's correlation. It was found that: (i) the resuming of plant growth by producing new branches and flowers of both genotypes coincides with the start of the rainy season, (ii) the flowering may be related to the increase in temperature and rainfall; (iii) the number of inflorescences per plant and number of female flowers determine the number of green fruits, (iv) the environmental changes are responsible for the delimitation of phenophases; and finally that (v) the responses to phenological changes are genotype-dependent.

  11. Analysis of morpho-agronomic and climatic variables in successive agricultural years provides novel information regarding the phenological cycle of Jatropha in conditions of the Brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GISELE P. DOMICIANO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenological studies can provide information that enables the understanding of the dynamics of plants and how these dynamics are related to the biotic and abiotic environment. In order to study the phenological phases of Jatropha during two agricultural years, agronomic and climatic variables, such as temperature and rainfall, were evaluated. Data for each variable in each year and each genotype were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA and the differences were tested at 5% probability by F test. In addition, the correlation of growth behavior and reproductive development of two Jatropha accessions (CNPAE-102 and CNPAE-169 as a function of time elapsed after the start of the phenological cycle with climatic variables were analyzed through Pearson's correlation. It was found that: (i the resuming of plant growth by producing new branches and flowers of both genotypes coincides with the start of the rainy season, (ii the flowering may be related to the increase in temperature and rainfall; (iii the number of inflorescences per plant and number of female flowers determine the number of green fruits, (iv the environmental changes are responsible for the delimitation of phenophases; and finally that (v the responses to phenological changes are genotype-dependent.

  12. Impact of Variable-Density Flow on the Value-of-Information from Pressure and Concentration Data for Saline Aquifer Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S.; Williams, J. R.; Juanes, R.; Kang, P. K.

    2017-12-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is becoming an important solution for ensuring sustainable water resources and mitigating saline water intrusion in coastal aquifers. Accurate estimates of hydrogeological parameters in subsurface flow and solute transport models are critical for making predictions and managing aquifer systems. In the presence of a density difference between the injected freshwater and ambient saline groundwater, the pressure field is coupled to the spatial distribution of salinity distribution, and therefore experiences transient changes. The variable-density effects can be quantified by a mixed convection ratio between two characteristic types of convection: free convection due to density contrast, and forced convection due to a hydraulic gradient. We analyze the variable-density effects on the value-of-information of pressure and concentration data for saline aquifer characterization. An ensemble Kalman filter is used to estimate permeability fields by assimilating the data, and the performance of the estimation is analyzed in terms of the accuracy and the uncertainty of estimated permeability fields and the predictability of arrival times of breakthrough curves in a realistic push-pull setting. This study demonstrates that: 1. Injecting fluids with the velocity that balances the two characteristic convections maximizes the value of data for saline aquifer characterization; 2. The variable-density effects on the value of data for the inverse estimation decrease as the permeability heterogeneity increases; 3. The advantage of joint inversion of pressure and concentration data decreases as the coupling effects between flow and transport increase.

  13. Facies interpretations and lateral variability based on correlation of conventional core in the Logan canyon and Mississauga formations of the Scotian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, D.J.W. [Geological Survey of Canada (Canada); Gould, K.M.; Pe-Piper, G. [Saint Mary' s University (Canada)], email: 075353g@acadiau.ca

    2011-07-01

    In the Lower Cretaceous of the Scotian Basin in Canada, sediment facies have been interpreted mostly using vertical successions of rock. However, other studies show that the lateral extent and variability of sediment facies must be understood to assess reservoir extent and connectivity. The aim of this paper is to present the investigation of two areas of the Scotian Basin. In each area, a regional correlation was performed using gamma ray well logs and the lithology, sedimentary and biogenic structures were determined for 67 different cores. It was found that the determination of facies and vertical successions was useful for comparing and correlating across multiple wells. In addition it was shown that gamma logs are effective for regional correlation but can only correlate major changes. This paper demonstrated that gamma logs are useful for performing facies interpretations and determining lateral variability.

  14. Capturing the role of awareness and information search processes on Choice Set Formation in Models of Activity-Travel Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Individuals choose locations for conducting specific activities generally under limited information conditions and update their mental map during traveling and implementing activities. In an earlier study, we proposed a Bayesian belief network to model an individual's mental map and spatial

  15. Identifying preferred format and source of exercise information in persons with multiple sclerosis that can be delivered by health-care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmonth, Yvonne C; Adamson, Brynn C; Balto, Julia M; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Molina-Guzman, Isabel M; Finlayson, Marcia; Riskin, Barry J; Motl, Robert W

    2017-10-01

    There is increasing recognition of the benefits of exercise in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), yet the MS population does not engage in sufficient amounts of exercise to accrue health benefits. There has been little qualitative inquiry to establish the preferred format and source for receiving exercise information from health-care providers among persons with MS. We sought to identify the desired and preferred format and source of exercise information for persons with MS that can be delivered through health-care providers. Participants were adults with MS who had mild or moderate disability and participated in a range of exercise levels. All participants lived in the Midwest of the United States. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis. Two themes emerged, (i) approach for receiving exercise promotion and (ii) ideal person for promoting exercise. Persons with MS want to receive exercise information through in-person consultations with health-care providers, print media and electronic media. Persons with MS want to receive exercise promotion from health-care providers with expertise in MS (ie neurologists) and with expertise in exercise (eg physical therapists). These data support the importance of understanding how to provide exercise information to persons with MS and identifying that health-care providers including neurologists and physical therapists should be involved in exercise promotion. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Non-Markovian dynamics, decoherence and entanglement in dissipative quantum systems with applications to quantum information theory of continuous variable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoerhammer, C.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, non-Markovian dynamics, decoherence and entanglement in dissipative quantum systems are studied. In particular, applications to quantum information theory of continuous variable systems are considered. The non-Markovian dynamics are described by the Hu-Paz-Zhang master equation of quantum Brownian motion. In this context the focus is on non-Markovian effects on decoherence and separability time scales of various single- mode and two-mode continuous variable states. It is verified that moderate non-Markovian influences slow down the decay of interference fringes and quantum correlations, while strong non-Markovian effects resulting from an out-of-resonance bath can even accelerate the loss of coherence, compared to predictions of Markovian approximations. Qualitatively different scenarios including exponential, Gaussian or algebraic decay of the decoherence function are analyzed. It is shown that partial recurrence of coherence can occur in case of non-Lindblad-type dynamics. The time evolution of quantum correlations of entangled two-mode continuous variable states is examined in single-reservoir and two-reservoir models, representing noisy correlated or uncorrelated non-Markovian quantum channels. For this purpose the model of quantum Brownian motion is extended. Various separability criteria for Gaussian and non-Gaussian continuous variable systems are applied. In both types of reservoir models moderate non-Markovian effects prolong the separability time scales. However, in these models the properties of the stationary state may differ. In the two-reservoir model the initial entanglement is completely lost and both modes are finally uncorrelated. In a common reservoir both modes interact indirectly via the coupling to the same bath variables. Therefore, new quantum correlations may emerge between the two modes. Below a critical bath temperature entanglement is preserved even in the steady state. A separability criterion is derived, which depends

  17. Impact of effectiveness information format on patient choice of therapy and satisfaction with decisions about chronic disease medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Charlotte Gry; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Nexøe, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Risk communication is an integral part of shared decision-making in health care. In the context of interventions for chronic diseases it represents a particular challenge for all health practitioners. By using two different quantitative formats to communicate risk level and effectiven......BACKGROUND: Risk communication is an integral part of shared decision-making in health care. In the context of interventions for chronic diseases it represents a particular challenge for all health practitioners. By using two different quantitative formats to communicate risk level...... therapy when the benefits of long-term intervention are presented in terms of prolongation of life (POL) in months compared to the absolute risk reduction (ARR). We hypothesise that patients presented with POL will be more satisfied with the communication and confident in their decision, suggesting...... understanding of the time-related term. METHODS/DESIGN: In 2009 a sample of 328 general practitioners (GPs) in the Region of Southern Denmark was invited to participate in a primary care-based clinical trial among patients making real-life clinical decisions together with their GP. Interested GPs were cluster...

  18. The MACHO Project LMC Variable Star Inventory. VIII. The Recent Star Formation History of the Large Magellanic Cloud from the Cepheid Period Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcock, C.; Allsman, R.A.; Alves, D.R.; Axelrod, T.S.; Becker, A.C.; Bennett, D.P.; Bersier, D.F.; Cook, K.H.; Freeman, K.C.; Griest, K.; Guern, J.A.; Lehner, M.; Marshall, S.L.; Minniti, D.; Peterson, B.A.; Pratt, M.R.; Quinn, P.J.; Rodgers, A.W.; Stubbs, C.W.

    1999-01-01

    We present an analysis of the period distribution of about 1800 Cepheids in the LMC, based on data obtained by the MACHO microlensing experiment and on a previous catalog by C. H. Payne Gaposchkin. Using stellar evolution and pulsation models, we construct theoretical period-frequency distributions that are compared with the observations. These models reveal that a significant burst of star formation has occurred recently in the LMC (∼1.15x10 8 yr). We also show that during the last ∼10 8 yr, the main center of star formation has been propagating from southeast to northwest along the bar. We find that the evolutionary masses of Cepheids are still smaller than pulsation masses by ∼7% and that the red edge of the Cepheid instability strip could be slightly bluer than indicated by theory. There are approximately 600 Cepheids with periods below ∼2.5 days that cannot be explained by evolution theory. We suggest that they are anomalous Cepheids and that a number of these stars are double-mode Cepheids. copyright copyright 1999. The American Astronomical Society

  19. Informe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egon Lichetenberger

    1950-10-01

    Full Text Available Informe del doctor Egon Lichetenberger ante el Consejo Directivo de la Facultad, sobre el  curso de especialización en Anatomía Patológica patrocinado por la Kellogg Foundation (Departamento de Patología

  20. Linking Automatic Evaluation to Mood and Information Processing Style: Consequences for Experienced Affect, Impression Formation, and Stereotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartrand, Tanya L.; van Baaren, Rick B.; Bargh, John A.

    2006-01-01

    According to the feelings-as-information account, a person's mood state signals to him or her the valence of the current environment (N. Schwarz & G. Clore, 1983). However, the ways in which the environment automatically influences mood in the first place remain to be explored. The authors propose that one mechanism by which the environment…

  1. Learning Styles, Online Content Usage and Exam Performance in a Mixed-Format Introductory Computer Information Systems Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Guido; O'Connell, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between learning styles, online content usage and exam performance in an undergraduate introductory Computer Information Systems class comprised of both online video tutorials and in-person classes. Our findings suggest that, across students, (1) traditional learning style classification methodologies do not predict…

  2. Formation of copper nanoparticles in mordenite s with variable SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} molar ratios under redox treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petranovskii, V.; Avalos, M. [UNAM, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22800 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Stoyanov, E. [University of California, Department of Chemistry, Riverside, 92521 California (United States); Gurin, V. [Belarusian State University, Research Institute for Physical Chemical Problems, Minsk 220080 (Belarus); Katada, N. [Tottori University, Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Tottori 680-8552 (Japan); Hernandez, M. A. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Departamento de Investigacion en Zeolitas, Ciudad Universitaria, Puebla (Mexico); Pestryakov, A. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Chavez R, F.; Zamorano U, R. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Departamento de Fisica, Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Portillo, R., E-mail: vitalii@cnyn.unam.mx [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Ciudad Universitaria, Puebla (Mexico)

    2013-05-01

    A series of protonated copper-containing mordenite s with different SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} molar ratios (MR) in the range of 10{<=}MR{<=}206 was prepared by ion exchange in copper nitrate aqueous solution. The electron paramagnetic resonance of hydrated copper Mordenite s series testifies of several Cu{sup 2+} ion sites. Hydrogen reduction of copper ions incorporated into the mordenite s was shown to lead to different reduced copper species including small metallic particles inter alia. The structural properties and acidity of mordenite s were characterized. The optical appearance of the copper particles showed strong but nonmonotonic dependence on the MR value, in line with the variation in acidity of this series of mordenite s. Correlations between mordenite properties and the formation of different reduced copper species are discussed. (Author)

  3. Variability of Listeria monocytogenes strains in biofilm formation on stainless steel and polystyrene materials and resistance to peracetic acid and quaternary ammonium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poimenidou, Sofia V; Chrysadakou, Marilena; Tzakoniati, Aikaterini; Bikouli, Vasiliki C; Nychas, George-John; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2016-11-21

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen able to tolerate adverse conditions by forming biofilms or by deploying stress resistant mechanisms, and thus manages to survive for long periods in food processing plants. This study sought to investigate the correlation between biofilm forming ability, tolerance to disinfectants and cell surface characteristics of twelve L. monocytogenes strains. The following attributes were evaluated: (i) biofilm formation by crystal violet staining method on polystyrene, and by standard cell enumeration on stainless steel and polystyrene; (ii) hydrophobicity assay using solvents; (iii) minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and biofilm eradication concentration (BEC) of peracetic acid (PAA) and quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), and (iv) resistance to sanitizers (PAA 2000ppm; QACs 500ppm) of biofilms on polystyrene and stainless steel. After 72h of incubation, higher biofilm levels were formed in TSB at 20°C, followed by TSB at 37°C (P=0.087) and diluted TSB 1/10 at both 20 (P=0.005) and 37°C (P=0.004). Cells grown at 30°C to the stationary phase had significant electron donating nature and a low hydrophobicity, while no significant correlation of cell surface properties to biofilm formation was observed. Strains differed in MIC PAA and BEC PAA by 24- and 15-fold, respectively, while a positive correlation between MIC PAA and BEC PAA was observed (P=0.02). The MIC QACs was positively correlated with the biofilm-forming ability on stainless steel (P=0.03). Regarding the impact of surface type, higher biofilm populations were enumerated on polystyrene than on stainless steel, which were also more tolerant to disinfectants. Among all strains, the greatest biofilm producer was a persistent strain with significant tolerance to QACs. These results may contribute to better understanding of L. monocytogenes behavior and survival on food processing surfaces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Review of nutrition labeling formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, C J; Wyse, B W; Parent, C R; Hansen, R G

    1991-07-01

    This article examines nutrition labeling history as well as the findings of nine research studies of nutrition labeling formats. Nutrition labeling regulations were announced in 1973 and have been periodically amended since then. In response to requests from consumers and health care professionals for revision of the labeling system, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a three-phase plan for reform of nutrition labeling in 1990. President Bush signed the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act in November 1990. Literature analysis revealed that only nine studies with an experimental design have focused on nutrition labeling since 1971. Four were conducted before 1975, which was the year that nutrition labeling was officially implemented, two were conducted in 1980, and three were conducted after 1986. Only two of the nine studies supported the traditional label format mandated by the Code of Federal Regulations, and one study partially supported it. Four of the nine studies that evaluated graphic presentations of nutrition information found that consumer comprehension of nutrition information was improved with a graphic format for nutrition labeling: three studies supported the use of bar graphs and one study supported the use of a pie chart. Full disclosure (ie, complete nutrient and ingredient labeling) was preferred by consumers in two of the three studies that examined this variable. The third study supported three types of information disclosure dependent upon socioeconomic class. In those studies that tested graphics, a bar graph format was significantly preferred and showed better consumer comprehension than the traditional format.

  5. Horizontal Variability of Water and Its Relationship to Cloud Fraction near the Tropical Tropopause: Using Aircraft Observations of Water Vapor to Improve the Representation of Grid-scale Cloud Formation in GEOS-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkirk, Henry B.; Molod, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale models such as GEOS-5 typically calculate grid-scale fractional cloudiness through a PDF parameterization of the sub-gridscale distribution of specific humidity. The GEOS-5 moisture routine uses a simple rectangular PDF varying in height that follows a tanh profile. While below 10 km this profile is informed by moisture information from the AIRS instrument, there is relatively little empirical basis for the profile above that level. ATTREX provides an opportunity to refine the profile using estimates of the horizontal variability of measurements of water vapor, total water and ice particles from the Global Hawk aircraft at or near the tropopause. These measurements will be compared with estimates of large-scale cloud fraction from CALIPSO and lidar retrievals from the CPL on the aircraft. We will use the variability measurements to perform studies of the sensitivity of the GEOS-5 cloud-fraction to various modifications to the PDF shape and to its vertical profile.

  6. Paleoclimatic information from deuterium and oxygen-18 in C-14 dated North Saharian groundwaters; groundwater formation in the past

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonntag, C.; Muennich, K.O.; Junghans, C.

    1978-01-01

    A statistical presentation of C-14 groundwater ages for various regions of the Northern Sahara reflects the alternating sequence of humid and arid periods in the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Groundwaters older than 20000 y B.P. are found all over the Sahara. Isoline-presentation of the Continental Effect in deuterium and oxygen-18 of Saharian groundwater is similar to the one in modern European groundwater. This similarity proves the Western Drift influence when in the past winter rains were sufficient for groundwater formation in the Sahara (great pluvial). The postpluvial humid phases of the Sahara during the Holocene were probably of decreasing importance from west to east. The lower deuterium excess d = delta D - 8 x delta 18 O observed in old Saharian groundwaters is interpreted to be due to a lower moisture deficit of the air over the ocean during the last ice-age. Extremely high D- and O-18 contents of modern groundwater in the Sahel zone south of the Sahara are probably due to summer rain originating from tropical rain forest evapotranspiration. (orig.) [de

  7. Airborne submicron particulate (PM1) pollution in Shanghai, China: chemical variability, formation/dissociation of associated semi-volatile components and the impacts on visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yang; Chen, Jianmin; Hu, Dawei; Wang, Lin; Yang, Xin; Wang, Xinming

    2014-03-01

    Hourly mass concentrations of water-soluble ions in PM1 and gasses (NH3, HNO3, HCl) were on-line measured with a Monitor for AeRosols and Gases Analyzer (MARGA) in Shanghai from Oct. 1 to Nov. 16, 2012. During the field campaign, 7 haze episodes (total 157 h) were identified. 845 h were identified as non-haze periods, excluding fog events and wet precipitation. The average mass concentration of PM1 and total water-soluble ions (TWSI) in PM1 in haze episodes were 78.9 ± 29.9 μg/m(3) and 47.2 ± 17.2 μg/m(3), 3.11 times (from 1.49 to 4.06 times) and 3.28 times (1.96 to 4.34 times) as those in non-haze periods, respectively. TWSI accounted for 60.4 ± 18.8% of PM1 mass loading in the whole campaign. With the ascending PM1 mass concentration from 2.5 to 125.0 μg/m(3) from non-haze periods to haze episodes, average contribution of TWSI to PM1 mass loading decreased from 86.1% to 54.2%, while different species altered. Contribution of NO3(-) increased from 14.0% to 26.8%, while SO4(2-) decreased from 39.5% to 15.0% and NH4(+) remained around 13.7%. Relationship of visibility with PM1 and TWSI was addressed in specific RH ranges. It was found that hourly TWSI mass concentration showed better correlation with visibility. Formation/dissociation of semi-volatiles (NH4NO3 and NH4Cl) was also investigated and demonstrated. NH4NO3 and NH4Cl tended to partition into gas phase in non-haze periods. Particularly, strong dissociation from 11:00 LT to 17:00 LT was observed. In haze episodes, HNO3 and HCl tended to react with NH3 to form particulate matters. Interestingly, we found that formation/dissociation of NH4NO3 and NH4Cl exerted great impacts on visibility. Excluding the strong dissociation hours (11:00 LT to 17:00 LT) in correlation analysis of PM1 and visibility, correlation coefficients (R(2)) increased from 0.5762 to 0.7738 at RHPM1 under high RH condition and contributed to visibility degradation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Model of adaptive dialogue in intelligent information systems for the formation of a given set of competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Инесса Анатольевна Воробьёва

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To implement the adaptive dialogue with a wide range of subjects in the most rational use of the composition of different types of models of complex information dialog procedures which may be prepared by combining them in various ways. The article defined this operation on the graph dialogue procedures (GFC, which allows the synthesis of the Count of GFC policy, taking into account the linguistic aspect. What is included in the GFC lists messages that are exchanged between the system and the subject of the dialogue process.

  9. Effect of variable power levels on the yield of total aerosol mass and formation of aldehydes in e-cigarette aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, I G; Kistler, K A; Stewart, E W; Paolantonio, A R

    2016-03-01

    The study objective was to determine the effect of variable power applied to the atomizer of refillable tank based e-cigarette (EC) devices. Five different devices were evaluated, each at four power levels. Aerosol yield results are reported for each set of 25 EC puffs, as mass/puff, and normalized for the power applied to the coil, in mass/watt. The range of aerosol produced on a per puff basis ranged from 1.5 to 28 mg, and, normalized for power applied to the coil, ranged from 0.27 to 1.1 mg/watt. Aerosol samples were also analyzed for the production of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein, as DNPH derivatives, at each power level. When reported on mass basis, three of the devices showed an increase in total aldehyde yield with increasing power applied to the coil, while two of the devices showed the opposite trend. The mass of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein produced per gram of total aerosol produced ranged from 0.01 to 7.3 mg/g, 0.006 to 5.8 mg/g, and acrolein from EC aerosols from specific devices, and were compared to estimated exposure from consumption of cigarettes, to occupational and workplace limits, and to previously reported results from other researchers. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Contours, 2ft Contour Information in AutoCAD & ArcInfo formats. AutoCAD contains cut line information. NAD83, Nevada State Plane, West Zone, US Foot. Broken into Township, Range, and Section Grids, Published in 2006, City of Carson City Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Contours dataset current as of 2006. 2ft Contour Information in AutoCAD & ArcInfo formats. AutoCAD contains cut line information. NAD83, Nevada State Plane, West...

  11. Features of formation spirituality pictures of the world in youth in in the era of information-highlytechnological scientific and technical progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Polishchuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In clause necessity of formation of a spiritual picture of the world, anthropocosmos at young generation at the present stage of development much crisis world and, including, the Ukrainian society is proved. In the article the necessity of formation of anthropocosmos-spiritual picture of the world at young generation at the present stage of development bagalicious the world and, in particular, of the Ukrainian society. The proposed definition of new terms: anthropocosmos is a spiritual picture of the world, anthropocosmic spirituality, anthropocosmic worldview and other anthropocentric concepts and definitions in contemporary philosophical and pedagogical discourse. The presented model of the formation of anthropocosmos-spiritual worldview of the young generation in the information and high-tech scientific and technical progress and the author’s interpretation of its philosophical, educational, pedagogical and spiritual essence. It is proved, that having generated in consciousness of the young man a anthropocosmos-spiritual picture of the world, will allow it in conditions of inevitable crash in the near future of a human civilization, if it will not solve present global-civilizational crises and will not avoid geocosmic accidents, to understand sense space-ekzoplanete lives which will be esclusivi, and, therefore, crisis-free, conflict-free, comprehensive and meaningful, anthropocosmos-highly spiritual (divine M. Berdyaev, and, therefore, progressive and virtually eternal as the life of society, which is composed of such anthropocosmos educated individuals. Solved zagalnoosvitnioi sense anthropocosmos spiritual world picture, which is to solve the problem of the choice of life strategies of mankind, the search for new ways of civilization development, in particular, resettlement anthropocosmos-conscious part of humanity for exoplanets space with the aim of preserving the gene pool of humanity and creation of human cosmically

  12. Una metodología para la predicción espacial de una variable escalar georeferenciada basada en su información y la de una variable funcional / A methodology for the spatial prediction of a scalar variable geographically referenced based on its information and a functional variable

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Pérez, Luis Antonio

    2012-01-01

    En geoestadística se resuelve el problema de predicción espacial de una variable aleatoria, vector aleatorio o variable aleatoria funcional cuando se tiene la información de un proceso estocástico (o campo aleatorio) univariado, multivariado o funcional, respectivamente. En este trabajo se combinan algunas técnicas geoestadísticas multivariadas y funcionales con el objetivo de proponer un predictor espacial de una variable aleatoria escalar cuando se dispone simultáneamente de realizaciones d...

  13. Surface plasmon resonance analysis shows an IgG-isotype-specific defect in ABO blood group antibody formation in patients with common variable immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bernhard Fischer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID is the most common clinically severe primary immunodeficiency and comprises a heterogeneous group of patients with recurrent severe bacterial infections due to the failure to produce IgG antibodies after exposure to infectious agents and immunization. Diagnostic recommendations for antibody failure include assessment of isoagglutinins. We have readdressed this four decades old but still accepted recommendation with up to date methodology.Methods: Anti-A/B IgM- and IgG-antibodies were measured by Diamed-ID Micro Typing, surface plasmon resonance (SPR using the Biacore® device and flow cytometry.Results: When Diamed-ID Micro Typing was used, CVID patients (n=34 showed IgG- and IgM-isoagglutinins that were comparable to healthy volunteers (n=28, while all XLA patients (n=8 had none. Anti-A/B IgM-antibodies were present in more than 2/3 of the CVID patients and showed binding kinetics comparable to anti-A/B IgM-antibodies from healthy individuals. A correlation could be found in CVID patients between levels of anti-A/B IgM-antibodies and levels of serum IgM and PnP-IgM-antibodies. In contrast in CVID patients as a group ABO antibodies were significantly decreased when assessed by SPR, which correlated with levels of switched memory, non-switched memory and naïve B cells, but all CVID patients had low/undetectable anti-A/B IgG-antibodies.Conclusion: These results indicate that conventional isoagglutinin assessment and assessment of anti-A/B IgM antibodies are not suited for the diagnosis of impaired antibody production in CVID. Examination of anti-A/B IgG antibodies by SPR provides a useful method for the diagnosis of IgG antibody failure in all CVID patients studied, thus indicating an important additional rationale to start immunoglobulin replacement therapy early in these patients, before post-infectious sequelae develop.

  14. The Single Sex Debate for Girls in Science: a Comparison Between Two Informal Science Programs on Middle School Students' STEM Identity Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Roxanne M.; Nzekwe, Brandon; Molyneaux, Kristen J.

    2013-10-01

    Currently, there are policy debates regarding the efficacy and legality of single sex formal and informal education programs. This issue is particularly poignant in science education due to the historical marginalization of women in these fields. This marginalization has resulted in women being positioned as a stigmatized group within many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) related fields. Research points to adolescence as the age where this sense of marginalization begins to develop. As a result, policy responses have utilized various frameworks such as: increased access for women, changing pedagogy to address women's learning styles, changing the language and culture of science to prevent marginalization of stigmatized groups, and finally exploring the role that individual identity plays in the marginalization of women. This study adds to the policy debate as it applies to single sex education by comparing middle school participants' STEM identity formation during two informal science learning environments (an all girls' STEM camp and a co-educational STEM camp). Additionally, this study focuses on the influence of camp activities within two informal science education programs: particularly the provision of role models and authentic STEM research activities, as means to improve STEM identity and make these fields relevant to the lives of middle school students. The results indicate that both camps improved girls' STEM identities. These findings suggest that the single sex environment is not as important to STEM identity as the pedagogy used within the program.

  15. Process informed accurate compact modelling of 14-nm FinFET variability and application to statistical 6T-SRAM simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xingsheng; Reid, Dave; Wang, Liping; Millar, Campbell; Burenkov, Alex; Evanschitzky, Peter; Baer, Eberhard; Lorenz, Juergen; Asenov, Asen

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a TCAD based design technology co-optimization (DTCO) process for 14nm SOI FinFET based SRAM, which employs an enhanced variability aware compact modeling approach that fully takes process and lithography simulations and their impact on 6T-SRAM layout into account. Realistic double patterned gates and fins and their impacts are taken into account in the development of the variability-aware compact model. Finally, global process induced variability and local statistical var...

  16. Variability Bugs:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean

    . Although many researchers suggest that preprocessor-based variability amplifies maintenance problems, there is little to no hard evidence on how actually variability affects programs and programmers. Specifically, how does variability affect programmers during maintenance tasks (bug finding in particular......)? How much harder is it to debug a program as variability increases? How do developers debug programs with variability? In what ways does variability affect bugs? In this Ph.D. thesis, I set off to address such issues through different perspectives using empirical research (based on controlled...... experiments) in order to understand quantitatively and qualitatively the impact of variability on programmers at bug finding and on buggy programs. From the program (and bug) perspective, the results show that variability is ubiquitous. There appears to be no specific nature of variability bugs that could...

  17. Effet du format de structuration de l’information sur la créativité de la présentation personnelle de l’étudiant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Loisy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available L’objet de ce travail est de proposer un cadre pédagogique qui aide l’étudiant à concevoir une démarche individuelle pour l’élaboration d’un projet professionnel personnalisé créatif et adapté tout au long de la vie. L’état de l’art sur l’activité de conception et sa caractéristique créative nous permettent de justifier la mise en place d’un scénario dans lequel les étudiants conçoivent des instruments. Nous proposons la conception progressive de différentes productions dont les formats varient (une boîte physique, une carte mentale et un e-portfolio pour susciter une démarche de réflexion personnelle. L’analyse des réponses à des questionnaires et des productions de 96 étudiants ayant suivi ce scénario consolide l’intérêt de leur réalisation : on constate une grande variabilité dans les productions tant au plan des individus que dans les formats utilisés.The purpose of this study is to propose a pedagogical framework that helps students develop an individual approach in designing a lifelong creative and personalized path. The state of the art on designing activities and on creativity enables us to establish a scenario in which students design their tools. We suggest designing various elements using a wide range of media (a box, a mental map and an e-portfolio in order to enhance personal reflexion. 96 students each produced three elements and answered a questionnaire. The data analysis helps explore the purpose of each of the elements required. There is a high variability between elements both from the point of view of the media used and the individuals.juin 2011

  18. Short timescale variability in the faint sky variability survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Rueda, L.; Groot, P.J.; Augusteijn, T.; Nelemans, G.A.; Vreeswijk, P.M.; Besselaar, E.J.M. van den

    2006-01-01

    We present the V-band variability analysis of the Faint Sky Variability Survey (FSVS). The FSVS combines colour and time variability information, from timescales of 24 minutes to tens of days, down to V = 24. We find that �1% of all point sources are variable along the main sequence reaching �3.5%

  19. Collective variables and dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, R.

    1984-09-01

    This is an introduction to some basic concepts of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We emphasize in particular the relevant entropy relative to a given set of collective variables, the meaning of the projection method in the Liouville space, its use to establish the generalized transport equations for these variables, and the interpretation of dissipation in the framework of information theory

  20. The nebular variables

    CERN Document Server

    Glasby, John S

    1974-01-01

    The Nebular Variables focuses on the nebular variables and their characteristics. Discussions are organized by type of nebular variable, namely, RW Aurigae stars, T Orionis stars, T Tauri stars, and peculiar nebular objects. Topics range from light variations of the stars to their spectroscopic and physical characteristics, spatial distribution, interaction with nebulosity, and evolutionary features. This volume is divided into four sections and consists of 25 chapters, the first of which provides general information on nebular variables, including their stellar associations and their classifi

  1. Genetic variability and differentiation among populations of the Azorean endemic gymnosperm Juniperus brevifolia: baseline information for a conservation and restoration perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís; Elias, Rui B; Moura, Mónica; Meimberg, Harald; Dias, Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    The Azorean endemic gymnosperm Juniperus brevifolia (Seub.) Antoine is a top priority species for conservation in Macaronesia, based on its ecological significance in natural plant communities. To evaluate genetic variability and differentiation among J. brevifolia populations from the Azorean archipelago, we studied 15 ISSR and 15 RAPD markers in 178 individuals from 18 populations. The average number of polymorphic bands per population was 65 for both ISSR and RAPD. The majority of genetic variability was found within populations and among populations within islands, and this partitioning of variability was confirmed by AMOVA. The large majority of population pairwise F(ST) values were above 0.3 and below 0.6. The degree of population genetic differentiation in J. brevifolia was relatively high compared with other species, including Juniperus spp. The genetic differentiation among populations suggests that provenance should be considered when formulating augmentation or reintroduction strategies.

  2. About hidden influence of predictor variables: Suppressor and mediator variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Boško

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper procedure for researching hidden influence of predictor variables in regression models and depicting suppressor variables and mediator variables is shown. It is also shown that detection of suppressor variables and mediator variables could provide refined information about the research problem. As an example for applying this procedure, relation between Atlantic atmospheric centers and air temperature and precipitation amount in Serbia is chosen. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007

  3. Pulsating variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The study of stellar pulsations is a major route to the understanding of stellar structure and evolution. At the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) the following stellar pulsation studies were undertaken: rapidly oscillating Ap stars; solar-like oscillations in stars; 8-Scuti type variability in a classical Am star; Beta Cephei variables; a pulsating white dwarf and its companion; RR Lyrae variables and galactic Cepheids. 4 figs

  4. Resiliencia y Variables Asociadas en Cuidadores Informales de Pacientes con Alzheimer/Resilience and Associated Variables in Informal Caregivers of Alzheimer Patients/Resiliência e Variáveis Associadas em Cuidadores Informais de Pacientes com Alzheimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ara Mercedes Cerquera Córdoba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La resiliencia es una variable protectora ante el rol del cuidador, por ello, este estudio pretende identificar la relación entre la resiliencia y la sobrecarga, la depresión, la percepción de apoyo social y estrategias de afrontamiento. Se trata de un estudio transversal de alcance correlacional que contó con una muestra de 101 cuidadores, evaluados por medio de los instrumentos Zarit, mos, ider, Coping, la Escala de Resiliencia de Wagnild y Young. Se identificaron correlaciones positivas estadísticamente significativas entre apoyo social y solución de problemas como estrategia de afrontamiento y resiliencia, y correlaciones egativas con depresión, evidenciando en estos resultados los factores protectores y de riesgo que pueden aportar a la creación de futuros programas de intervención.

  5. Program ECSX4 (version 78-1): conversion of experimentally measured cross-section data from the four-center-exchange (X-4) format to the Livermore ECSIL format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.; Perkins, S.T.

    1978-01-01

    A computer code called ECSX4 converts experimentally measured cross-section data from the four-center-exchange (X-4) format to the Livermore Experimental Cross-Section Information Library (ECSIL) format. The major advantage of this program is that it converts the variable format and dimensioned data of the X-4 format to the fixed-field format and consistent set of units of the ECSIL format. This consistency greatly simplifies the subsequent use of the data for cross-section evaluations. 2 figures, 3 tables

  6. Understanding Brown Dwarf Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of brown dwarf variability continue to find that roughly half of all brown dwarfs are variable. While variability is observed amongst all types of brown dwarfs, amplitudes are typically greatest for L-T transition objects. In my talk I will discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are responsible for the observed variability. I will particularly focus on comparing and contrasting the effects of changes in atmospheric thermal profile and cloud opacity. The two different mechanisms will produce different variability signatures and I will discuss the extent to which the current datasets constrain both mechanisms. By combining constraints from studies of variability with existing spectral and photometric datasets we can begin to construct and test self-consistent models of brown dwarf atmospheres. These models not only aid in the interpretation of existing objects but also inform studies of directly imaged giant planets.

  7. Classification and quantitation of milk powder by near-infrared spectroscopy and mutual information-based variable selection and partial least squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Tan, Chao; Lin, Zan; Wu, Tong

    2018-01-01

    Milk is among the most popular nutrient source worldwide, which is of great interest due to its beneficial medicinal properties. The feasibility of the classification of milk powder samples with respect to their brands and the determination of protein concentration is investigated by NIR spectroscopy along with chemometrics. Two datasets were prepared for experiment. One contains 179 samples of four brands for classification and the other contains 30 samples for quantitative analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for exploratory analysis. Based on an effective model-independent variable selection method, i.e., minimal-redundancy maximal-relevance (MRMR), only 18 variables were selected to construct a partial least-square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model. On the test set, the PLS-DA model based on the selected variable set was compared with the full-spectrum PLS-DA model, both of which achieved 100% accuracy. In quantitative analysis, the partial least-square regression (PLSR) model constructed by the selected subset of 260 variables outperforms significantly the full-spectrum model. It seems that the combination of NIR spectroscopy, MRMR and PLS-DA or PLSR is a powerful tool for classifying different brands of milk and determining the protein content.

  8. Cognitive Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Children's thinking is highly variable at every level of analysis, from neural and associative levels to the level of strategies, theories, and other aspects of high-level cognition. This variability exists within people as well as between them; individual children often rely on different strategies or representations on closely related problems…

  9. Comparison of alphabetical versus categorical display format for medication order entry in a simulated touch screen anesthesia information management system: an experiment in clinician-computer interaction in anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Anil A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anesthesia information management system (AIMS records should be designed and configured to facilitate the accurate and prompt recording of multiple drugs administered coincidentally or in rapid succession. Methods We proposed two touch-screen display formats for use with our department’s new EPIC touch-screen AIMS. In one format, medication “buttons” were arranged in alphabetical order (i.e. A-C, D-H etc.. In the other, buttons were arranged in categories (Common, Fluids, Cardiovascular, Coagulation etc.. Both formats were modeled on an iPad screen to resemble the AIMS interface. Anesthesia residents, anesthesiologists, and Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (n = 60 were then asked to find and touch the correct buttons for a series of medications whose names were displayed to the side of the entry screen. The number of entries made within 2 minutes was recorded. This was done 3 times for each format, with the 1st format chosen randomly. Data were analyzed from the third trials with each format to minimize differences in learning. Results The categorical format had a mean of 5.6 more drugs entered using the categorical method in two minutes than the alphabetical format (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.5 to 6.8, P  Conclusions The use of touch-screen user interfaces in healthcare is increasingly common. Arrangement of drugs names in a categorical display format in the medication order-entry touch screen of an AIMS can result in faster data entry compared to an alphabetical arrangement of drugs. Results of this quality improvement project were used in our department’s design of our final intraoperative electronic anesthesia record. This testing approach using cognitive and usability engineering methods can be used to objectively design and evaluate many aspects of the clinician-computer interaction in electronic health records.

  10. ENDF/B Format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    This document is a brief user's description of the format of ENDF/B, the evaluated neutron nuclear data library of the US National Nuclear Data Center. This summary is an aid to customers of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section when receiving data retrievals in ENDF/B format. For more detailed information the report BNL-50274 (ENDF-102) should be consulted. (author)

  11. Nutritional value of foods sold in vending machines in a UK University: Formative, cross-sectional research to inform an environmental intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanla; Papadaki, Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    Vending machine use has been associated with low dietary quality among children but there is limited evidence on its role in food habits of University students. We aimed to examine the nutritional value of foods sold in vending machines in a UK University and conduct formative research to investigate differences in food intake and body weight by vending machine use among 137 University students. The nutrient content of snacks and beverages available at nine campus vending machines was assessed by direct observation in May 2014. Participants (mean age 22.5 years; 54% males) subsequently completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess vending machine behaviours and food intake. Self-reported weight and height were collected. Vending machine snacks were generally high in sugar, fat and saturated fat, whereas most beverages were high in sugar. Seventy three participants (53.3%) used vending machines more than once per week and 82.2% (n 60) of vending machine users used them to snack between meals. Vending machine accessibility was positively correlated with vending machine use (r = 0.209, P = 0.015). Vending machine users, compared to non-users, reported a significantly higher weekly consumption of savoury snacks (5.2 vs. 2.8, P = 0.014), fruit juice (6.5 vs. 4.3, P = 0.035), soft drinks (5.1 vs. 1.9, P = 0.006), meat products (8.3 vs. 5.6, P = 0.029) and microwave meals (2.0 vs. 1.3, P = 0.020). No between-group differences were found in body weight. Most foods available from vending machines in this UK University were of low nutritional quality. In this sample of University students, vending machine users displayed several unfavourable dietary behaviours, compared to non-users. Findings can be used to inform the development of an environmental intervention that will focus on vending machines to improve dietary behaviours in University students in the UK. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stellar formation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddish, V C

    1978-01-01

    Stellar Formation brings together knowledge about the formation of stars. In seeking to determine the conditions necessary for star formation, this book examines questions such as how, where, and why stars form, and at what rate and with what properties. This text also considers whether the formation of a star is an accident or an integral part of the physical properties of matter. This book consists of 13 chapters divided into two sections and begins with an overview of theories that explain star formation as well as the state of knowledge of star formation in comparison to stellar structure

  13. ENDF/B format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.A.; Lemmel, H.D.

    1986-09-01

    This document is a brief user's description of the format of ENDF/B. This format, originally designed for the US Evaluated Nuclear Data File, is recommended for international use. This summary is an aid to customers of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section when receiving data retrievals in ENDF/B format. For more detailed information the report BNL-NCS-50496 (ENDF 102) should be consulted. An Appendix to the present document gives a summary of the format differences between ENDF/B-4 and ENDF/B-5. (author)

  14. Galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.; Di Cintio, A.; Dvorkin, I.

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  15. Seroma formation after surgery for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi Mandana

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seroma formation is the most frequent postoperative complication after breast cancer surgery. We carried out a study to investigate the effect of various demographic, clinical and therapeutic variables on seroma formation. Patients and methods A retrospective cross sectional study of patients who underwent surgical therapy for breast cancer with either modified radical mastectomy (MRM or breast preservation (BP was carried out. The demographic data and clinical information were extracted from case records. Seroma formation was studied in relation to age, type of surgery, tumor size, nodal involvement, preoperative chemotherapy, surgical instrument (electrocautery or scalpel, use of pressure garment, and duration of drainage. The multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate odds ratios. Results A total of 158 patients with breast cancer were studied. The mean age of the patients was 46.3 years (SD ± 11.9. Seventy-three percent underwent modified radical mastectomy and the remaining 27% received breast preservation surgery. Seroma occurred in 35% of patients. In multivariate logistic regression analysis an association of postoperative seroma formation was noted with modified radical mastectomy (OR = 2.83, 95% CI 1.01–7.90, P = 0.04. No other factor studied was found to significantly effect the seroma formation after breast cancer surgery. Conclusion The findings suggest that the type of surgery is a predicting factor for seroma formation in breast cancer patients.

  16. Variable stator radial turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogo, C.; Hajek, T.; Chen, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    A radial turbine stage with a variable area nozzle was investigated. A high work capacity turbine design with a known high performance base was modified to accept a fixed vane stagger angle moveable sidewall nozzle. The nozzle area was varied by moving the forward and rearward sidewalls. Diffusing and accelerating rotor inlet ramps were evaluated in combinations with hub and shroud rotor exit rings. Performance of contoured sidewalls and the location of the sidewall split line with respect to the rotor inlet was compared to the baseline. Performance and rotor exit survey data are presented for 31 different geometries. Detail survey data at the nozzle exit are given in contour plot format for five configurations. A data base is provided for a variable geometry concept that is a viable alternative to the more common pivoted vane variable geometry radial turbine.

  17. Socio-hydrological model to inform community adaptation to seasonal drought and climate variability in rural agricultural watersheds in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, S. V.; Johnson, M. S.; Morillas, L.; McDaniels, T.; Romero Valpreda, J.; Allen, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Climate variability and seasonal droughts associated with ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) and increasing water demand due to growing population are leading to serious water conflicts in the wet-dry tropics of Central America. Integrated methods are needed to understand the linkages of these complex socio-hydrological systems and design reliable adaption strategies in a period of global change. With increasing pressure on surface and groundwater resources during long annual dry seasons, rural agricultural communities suffer water shortages, especially in those years preceded by wet seasons with lower rainfall (and reduced groundwater recharge). To support community resilience to rainfall variability and droughts, we conducted a combination of fieldwork (development of hydrologic monitoring system and local stakeholder cooperation), and hydrological modeling for two watersheds with a shared aquifer (Potrero and Caimital) in Northwestern Costa Rica. The agricultural land use of the region and the many rural villages that draw directly on their local water resource and live in close interaction with their watersheds necessitated a socio-hydrological systems approach. In this talk we present results from our hydrologic modeling, for which we used the WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning) model and locally recorded data. With the integrated water supply and demand features of the WEAP model, we were able to synthesize both the hydrological system and the societal system (specifically, household and agricultural water use), and show feedbacks such as that water use tends to increase during the dry season, likely exacerbating water shortages issues. Further, applying a range of ENSO related rainfall scenarios to the model demonstrated that community adaptation will become in particular important in response to lower water availability in future El Niño years. In collaboration with local stakeholders, we identified a set of feasible adaptation strategies to seasonal

  18. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  19. [Indicators, variables and obstacles to the life cycle of scientific and technical information in health. Experiences of the Centro Nacional de Información y Documentación en Salud in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Chapula, C A

    1987-01-01

    Indicators, variables and barriers to scientific and technical health information have been detected and described by CENIDS in Mexico within the life cycle of the information production model, covering the phases of: a) generation; b) institutionalization; c) maintenance/development; and d) distribution/dissemination. Emphasis is placed on the important role that play social, economic, demographic, and political factors of each developing country to conform their ideal information life cycle. After an analysis of the existing Mexican situation, and a short description of CENIDS' structure, organization, functions and services, CENIDS' short-term and mid-term projects, and suggestions for further research lines to improve the current situation in Mexico are also given.

  20. THE EFFECT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ORIENTATION, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, STRATEGIC PLANNING TO COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES WITH BUSINESS PERFORMANCE AS INTERVENING VARIABLES: EMPIRICAL STUDY FOOD PROCESSING SMES IN NORTH SULAWESI.

    OpenAIRE

    Billy Josef Anis; Budiman Christiananta; Lena Ellitan.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of Entrepreneurship Orientation, Information Technology, Strategic Planning, to Business Performance and Competitive Advantage of micro and small entrepreneurs of food processing industry in North Sulawesi. In the case of the existence of micro and small entrepreneurs in this area, especially the processed food processing industry being studied, micro and small entrepreneurs are expected to build their ability to compete more and give quality value to ...

  1. MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING SYSTEM OF PUBLIC OFF-BUDGET FUNDS AS AN INFORMATIONAL BASIS FOR PUBLIC INSURANCE MECHANISMS FORMATION (CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL COMPULSORY MEDICAL INSURANCE FUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly A. Kozlov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article justifies the introduced proposals for a management accounting of theFederal Compulsory Medical InsuranceFund formation and the characteristics and principles of management accounting forms for the analysis of the territorialcompulsory medical insurance programs.

  2. Variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.; Wenzel, W.; Fernie, J.D.; Percy, J.R.; Smak, J.; Gascoigne, S.C.B.; Grindley, J.E.; Lovell, B.; Sawyer Hogg, H.B.; Baker, N.; Fitch, W.S.; Rosino, L.; Gursky, H.

    1976-01-01

    A critical review of variable stars is presented. A fairly complete summary of major developments and discoveries during the period 1973-1975 is given. The broad developments and new trends are outlined. Essential problems for future research are identified. (B.R.H. )

  3. Comparison of alphabetical versus categorical display format for medication order entry in a simulated touch screen anesthesia information management system: an experiment in clinician-computer interaction in anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, Anil A; Dexter, Franklin; Tucker, Peter; Todd, Michael M

    2012-05-29

    Anesthesia information management system (AIMS) records should be designed and configured to facilitate the accurate and prompt recording of multiple drugs administered coincidentally or in rapid succession. We proposed two touch-screen display formats for use with our department's new EPIC touch-screen AIMS. In one format, medication "buttons" were arranged in alphabetical order (i.e. A-C, D-H etc.). In the other, buttons were arranged in categories (Common, Fluids, Cardiovascular, Coagulation etc.). Both formats were modeled on an iPad screen to resemble the AIMS interface. Anesthesia residents, anesthesiologists, and Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (n = 60) were then asked to find and touch the correct buttons for a series of medications whose names were displayed to the side of the entry screen. The number of entries made within 2 minutes was recorded. This was done 3 times for each format, with the 1st format chosen randomly. Data were analyzed from the third trials with each format to minimize differences in learning. The categorical format had a mean of 5.6 more drugs entered using the categorical method in two minutes than the alphabetical format (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.5 to 6.8, P < 0.0001). The findings were the same regardless of the order of testing (i.e. alphabetical-categorical vs. categorical - alphabetical) and participants' years of clinical experience. Most anesthesia providers made no (0) errors for most trials (N = 96/120 trials, lower 95% limit 73%, P < 0.0001). There was no difference in error rates between the two formats (P = 0.53). The use of touch-screen user interfaces in healthcare is increasingly common. Arrangement of drugs names in a categorical display format in the medication order-entry touch screen of an AIMS can result in faster data entry compared to an alphabetical arrangement of drugs. Results of this quality improvement project were used in our department's design of our final intraoperative electronic

  4. Dealing with Uncertainty: Readers' Memory for and Use of Conflicting Information from Science Texts as Function of Presentation Format and Source Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadtler, Marc; Scharrer, Lisa; Brummernhenrich, Benjamin; Bromme, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Past research has shown that readers often fail to notice conflicts in text. In our present study we investigated whether accessing information from multiple documents instead of a single document might alleviate this problem by motivating readers to integrate information. We further tested whether this effect would be moderated by source…

  5. Does a Formal Wiki Event Contribute to the Formation of a Network of Practice? A Social Capital Perspective on the Potential for Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Martin; Littlejohn, Allison; Rienties, Bart

    2018-01-01

    Informal learning in blended and online settings plays an increasingly important role in the continuous professional development of individuals. Yet, how do individuals engage into these types of activities? We argue that social capital theory can provide valuable insights into how people behave and decide to take part in (in)formal learning.…

  6. The Dilemmas of Formulating Theory-Informed Design Guidelines for a Video Enhanced Rubric for the Formative Assessment of Complex Skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackermans, Kevin; Rusman, Ellen; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Specht, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Learners aiming to master a complex skill may benefit from the combina-tion of abstract information found in a text-based analytical rubric and con-crete information provided by a video modeling example. In this paper, we address the design dilemmas of combining video modeling examples and rubrics

  7. The Dilemmas of Formulating Theory-Informed Design Guidelines for a Video Enhanced Rubric (for the Formative Assessment of Complex Skills)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackermans, Kevin; Rusman, Ellen; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Specht, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Learners aiming to master a complex skill may benefit from the combina-tion of abstract information found in a text-based analytical rubric and con-crete information provided by a video modeling example. In this paper, we address the design dilemmas of combining video modeling examples and rubrics

  8. Detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation along the north and east margins of the Piceance Basin, western Colorado, using measured sections and drill hole information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents two detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado, constructed from eight detailed measured sections, fourteen core holes, and two rotary holes. The Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin contains the world’s largest known oil shale deposit with more than 1.5 billion barrels of oil in place. It was deposited in Lake Uinta, a long-lived saline lake that once covered much of the Piceance Basin and the Uinta Basin to the west. The cross sections extend across the northern and eastern margins of the Piceance Basin and are intended to aid in correlating between surface sections and the subsurface in the basin.

  9. Full likelihood analysis of genetic risk with variable age at onset disease--combining population-based registry data and demographic information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Pitkäniemi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In genetic studies of rare complex diseases it is common to ascertain familial data from population based registries through all incident cases diagnosed during a pre-defined enrollment period. Such an ascertainment procedure is typically taken into account in the statistical analysis of the familial data by constructing either a retrospective or prospective likelihood expression, which conditions on the ascertainment event. Both of these approaches lead to a substantial loss of valuable data. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: Here we consider instead the possibilities provided by a Bayesian approach to risk analysis, which also incorporates the ascertainment procedure and reference information concerning the genetic composition of the target population to the considered statistical model. Furthermore, the proposed Bayesian hierarchical survival model does not require the considered genotype or haplotype effects be expressed as functions of corresponding allelic effects. Our modeling strategy is illustrated by a risk analysis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D in the Finnish population-based on the HLA-A, HLA-B and DRB1 human leucocyte antigen (HLA information available for both ascertained sibships and a large number of unrelated individuals from the Finnish bone marrow donor registry. The heterozygous genotype DR3/DR4 at the DRB1 locus was associated with the lowest predictive probability of T1D free survival to the age of 15, the estimate being 0.936 (0.926; 0.945 95% credible interval compared to the average population T1D free survival probability of 0.995. SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed statistical method can be modified to other population-based family data ascertained from a disease registry provided that the ascertainment process is well documented, and that external information concerning the sizes of birth cohorts and a suitable reference sample are available. We confirm the earlier findings from the same data concerning the HLA-DR3

  10. Reconsidering formative measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Roy D; Breivik, Einar; Wilcox, James B

    2007-06-01

    The relationship between observable responses and the latent constructs they are purported to measure has received considerable attention recently, with particular focus on what has become known as formative measurement. This alternative to reflective measurement in the area of theory-testing research is examined in the context of the potential for interpretational confounding and a construct's ability to function as a point variable within a larger model. Although these issues have been addressed in the traditional reflective measurement context, the authors suggest that they are particularly relevant in evaluating formative measurement models. On the basis of this analysis, the authors conclude that formative measurement is not an equally attractive alternative to reflective measurement and that whenever possible, in developing new measures or choosing among alternative existing measures, researchers should opt for reflective measurement. In addition, the authors provide guidelines for researchers dealing with existing formative measures. Copyright 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Professional Development through Formative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsibande, Rejoice; Garraway, James

    2011-01-01

    Formative evaluation and its associated methodology of reflection on practice are used extensively in academic staff development. In reflecting on formative evaluation processes in both more traditional and newer programmes conducted at a university of technology, a number of variables reported in the literature were observed to have influenced…

  12. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Florida 1995-1997 maps in portable document format (pdf) and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014187)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ESI data characterize coastal environments and wildlife by their sensitivity to spilled oil. The ESI data include information for three main components: shoreline...

  13. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: North Slope, Alaska, Volume 1, geographic information systems data, Volume 2, maps in portable document format (NODC Accession 0014928)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ESI data characterize the marine and coastal environments and wildlife by their sensitivity to spilled oil. The ESI data include information for three main...

  14. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  15. Usage Record Format Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsen, J.K.; Muller-Pfeerkorn, R

    2013-01-01

    For resources to be shared, sites must be able to exchange basic accounting and usage data in a common format. This document describes a common format which enables the exchange of basic accounting and usage data from different resources. This record format is intended to facilitate the sharing of usage information, particularly in the area of the accounting of jobs, computing, memory, storage and cloud usage but with a structure that allows an easy extension to other resources. This document describes the Usage Record components both in natural language form and annotated XML. This document does not address how these records should be used, nor does it attempt to dictate the format in which the accounting records are stored. Instead, it denes a common exchange format. Furthermore, nothing is said regarding the communication mechanisms employed to exchange the records, i.e. transport layer, framing, authentication, integrity, etc.

  16. PCF File Format.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoreson, Gregory G [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    PCF files are binary files designed to contain gamma spectra and neutron count rates from radiation sensors. It is the native format for the GAmma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) package [1]. It can contain multiple spectra and information about each spectrum such as energy calibration. This document outlines the format of the file that would allow one to write a computer program to parse and write such files.

  17. Internal variables in thermoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Berezovski, Arkadi

    2017-01-01

    This book describes an effective method for modeling advanced materials like polymers, composite materials and biomaterials, which are, as a rule, inhomogeneous. The thermoelastic theory with internal variables presented here provides a general framework for predicting a material’s reaction to external loading. The basic physical principles provide the primary theoretical information, including the evolution equations of the internal variables. The cornerstones of this framework are the material representation of continuum mechanics, a weak nonlocality, a non-zero extra entropy flux, and a consecutive employment of the dissipation inequality. Examples of thermoelastic phenomena are provided, accompanied by detailed procedures demonstrating how to simulate them.

  18. Non-Markovian dynamics, decoherence and entanglement in dissipative quantum systems with applications to quantum information theory of continuous variable systems; Nicht-Markovsche Dynamik, Dekohaerenz und Verschraenkung in dissipativen Quantensystemen mit Anwendung in der Quanteninformationstheorie von Systemen kontinuierlicher Variablen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoerhammer, C.

    2007-11-26

    In this thesis, non-Markovian dynamics, decoherence and entanglement in dissipative quantum systems are studied. In particular, applications to quantum information theory of continuous variable systems are considered. The non-Markovian dynamics are described by the Hu-Paz-Zhang master equation of quantum Brownian motion. In this context the focus is on non-Markovian effects on decoherence and separability time scales of various single- mode and two-mode continuous variable states. It is verified that moderate non-Markovian influences slow down the decay of interference fringes and quantum correlations, while strong non-Markovian effects resulting from an out-of-resonance bath can even accelerate the loss of coherence, compared to predictions of Markovian approximations. Qualitatively different scenarios including exponential, Gaussian or algebraic decay of the decoherence function are analyzed. It is shown that partial recurrence of coherence can occur in case of non-Lindblad-type dynamics. The time evolution of quantum correlations of entangled two-mode continuous variable states is examined in single-reservoir and two-reservoir models, representing noisy correlated or uncorrelated non-Markovian quantum channels. For this purpose the model of quantum Brownian motion is extended. Various separability criteria for Gaussian and non-Gaussian continuous variable systems are applied. In both types of reservoir models moderate non-Markovian effects prolong the separability time scales. However, in these models the properties of the stationary state may differ. In the two-reservoir model the initial entanglement is completely lost and both modes are finally uncorrelated. In a common reservoir both modes interact indirectly via the coupling to the same bath variables. Therefore, new quantum correlations may emerge between the two modes. Below a critical bath temperature entanglement is preserved even in the steady state. A separability criterion is derived, which depends

  19. FORMATION OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE IN THE INFORMATION TRAINING ENVIRONMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION AND THE PRINCIPLES OF SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla B. Nisilevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work timeliness of use of information and computer technologies is emphasized when forming communicative competence in a foreign language in higher education institution. Besides, as a methodological basis of the information training environment the principles of social constructivism are analyzed. The training Moodle shell program entirely meets requirements of educational process and the virtual educational environment as well, and it is also the most sensible modern system of distance learning as a whole and to foreign languages in particular.

  20. Social information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Barros Campos

    Full Text Available Based on Erving Goffman's work, the article aims to discuss a definition of information centered on the type conveyed by individuals in a multimodal way, encompassing language and body in situations of co-presence, where face-to-face interaction occurs, and influencing inter-subjective formation of the self. Six types of information are highlighted: material information, expressive information, ritualized information, meta-information, strategic information, and information displays. It is argued that the construction of this empirical object tends to dissolve the tension among material, cognitive and pragmatic aspects, constituting an example of the necessary integration among them. Some vulnerable characteristics of the theory are critically mentioned and it is suggested that the concept of information displays could provide a platform to approach the question of the interaction order in its relations with the institutional and social orders, and consequently, to reassess the scope of the notion of social information analyzed.

  1. THE GENESIS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN PHYSICS EDUCATION: FROM IT-SUPPORT OF STUDYING TO THE FORMATION OF THE KEY AND THE SUBJECT COMPETENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola V. Holovko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the peculiarities of the process of the implementation of the information and communication technologies in teaching Physics, the development of the computer didactic provision are specified on the basis of the historical and methodological analysis. The development of the scientific fundamentals and the tools of their implementation in the homeland theory and methodology of teaching Physics, the impact of the formation of the computer-oriented environment as well as the qualitative change in the academic process subjects’ role are demonstrated. The necessity of the further didactic researches on the abovementioned issue because of the priority of the computer-oriented technologies in the formation of the key and the subject competences of the comprehensive and high school pupils in the process of Physics teaching are actualized.

  2. The Single Sex Debate for Girls in Science: A Comparison between Two Informal Science Programs on Middle School Students' STEM Identity Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Roxanne M.; Nzekwe, Brandon; Molyneaux, Kristen J.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, there are policy debates regarding the efficacy and legality of single sex formal and informal education programs. This issue is particularly poignant in science education due to the historical marginalization of women in these fields. This marginalization has resulted in women being positioned as a stigmatized group within many…

  3. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet among employees in South West England: Formative research to inform a web-based, work-place nutrition intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Papadaki

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Improvement in the consumption of several Mediterranean diet components is needed to increase adherence in this sample of adults. The findings have the potential to inform the development of a web-based intervention that will focus on these foods to promote the Mediterranean diet in work-place settings in South West England.

  4. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN EDUCATION: THE SYNTHESIS OF TRADITIONAL FORMAT AND E-LEARNING (AN EXPERIENCE OF DEVELOPING A NEW MODEL OF A LECTURE COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla L. Nazarenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Russian system of education is undergoing a process of modernization where ICT play a decisive role. It presupposes not only providing advanced technical equipment but also integrating technologies into a traditional teaching and learning process based on a well-developed and scholarly-proven methodology. A sound didactic solution is the introduction of an element of e-learning for structuring and monitoring students’ autonomous active study.A lecture course in a traditional format can be transformed into a mode of blended learning via combining classroom face-to-face teaching with students’ self-preparation in an interactive learning environment to enhance the efficacy the educational process. An experience of such a transformation is considered. 

  5. Biomass Gasifier ''Tars'': Their Nature, Formation, and Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, T. A.; Evans, R. J. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Abatzaglou, N. (Kemestrie, Inc.)

    1998-11-01

    The main purpose of this review is to update the information on gasification tar, the most cumbersome and problematic parameter in any gasification commercialization effort. The work aims to present to the community the scientific and practical aspects of tar formation and conversion (removal) during gasification as a function of the various technological and technical parameters and variables.

  6. Variability in human body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The range of variability found among homogeneous groups is described and illustrated. Those trends that show significantly marked differences between sexes and among a number of racial/ethnic groups are also presented. Causes of human-body size variability discussed include genetic endowment, aging, nutrition, protective garments, and occupation. The information is presented to aid design engineers of space flight hardware and equipment.

  7. Development of a dual luciferase activity and fluorescamine protein assay adapted to a 384 micro-well plate format: Reducing variability in human luciferase transactivation cell lines aimed at endocrine active substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Jennifer; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2018-01-01

    There is a need to adapt cell bioassays to 384-well and 1536-well formats instead of the traditional 96-well format as high-throughput screening (HTS) demands increase. However, the sensitivity and performance of the bioassay must be re-verified in these higher micro-well plates, and verification of cell health must also be HT (high-throughput). We have adapted two commonly used human breast luciferase transactivation cell bioassays, the recently re-named estrogen agonist/antagonist screening VM7Luc4E2 cell bioassay (previously designated BG1Luc4E2) and the androgen/glucocorticoid screening MDA-kb2 cell bioassay, to 384-well formats for HTS of endocrine-active substances (EASs). This cost-saving adaptation includes a fast, accurate, and easy measurement of protein amount in each well via the fluorescamine assay with which to normalize luciferase activity of cell lysates without requiring any transfer of the cell lysates. Here we demonstrate that by accounting for protein amount in the cell lysates, antagonistic agents can easily be distinguished from cytotoxic agents in the MDA-kb2 and VM7Luc4E2 cell bioassays. Additionally, we demonstrate via the fluorescamine assay improved interpretation of luciferase activity in wells along the edge of the plate (the so-called “edge effect”), thereby increasing usable wells to the entire plate, not just interior wells.

  8. Variable collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richey, J.B.; McBride, T.R.; Covic, J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention describes an automatic variable collimator which controls the width and thickness of X-ray beams in X-ray diagnostic medical equipment, and which is particularly adapted for use with computerized axial tomographic scanners. A two-part collimator is provided which shapes an X-ray beam both prior to its entering an object subject to radiographic analysis and after the attenuated beam has passed through the object. Interposed between a source of radiation and the object subject to radiographic analysis is a first or source collimator. The source collimator causes the X-ray beam emitted by the source of radiation to be split into a plurality of generally rectangular shaped beams. Disposed within the source collimator is a movable aperture plate which may be used to selectively vary the thickness of the plurality of generally rectangular shaped beams transmitted through the source collimator. A second or receiver collimator is interposed between the object subject to radiographic analysis and a series of radiation detectors. The receiver collimator is disposed to receive the attenuated X-ray beams passing through the object subject to radiographic analysis. Located within the receiver collimator are a plurality of movable aperture plates adapted to be displaced relative to a plurality of fixed aperture plates for the purpose of varying the width and thickness of the attenuated X-ray beams transmitted through the object subject to radiographic analysis. The movable aperture plates of the source and receiver collimators are automatically controlled by circuitry which is provided to allow remote operation of the movable aperture plates

  9. Is Information Enough? User Responses to Seasonal Climate Forecasts in Southern Africa. Report to the World Bank, AFTE1-ENVGC. Adaptation to Climate Change and Variability in Sub{sub S}aharan Africa, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Karen; Sygna, Linda; Naess, Lars Otto; Kingamkono, Robert; Hochobeb, Ben

    2000-05-01

    Since the mid-1980s, long-lead climate forecasts have been developed and used to predict the onset of El Nino events and their impact on climate variability. This report discusses user responses to seasonal climate forecasts in southern Africa, with an emphasis on small-scale farmers in Namibia and Tanzania. The study examines how farmers received and used the forecasts in the agricultural season of 1997/1998. It also summarises a workshop on user responses to seasonal forecasts in southern Africa. Comparison of case studies across south Africa revealed differences in forecast dissemination strategies and in the capacity to respond to extreme events. However, improving these strategies and the capacity to respond to the forecasts would yield net profit to agriculture in southern Africa. In anticipation of potential changes in the frequency or magnitude of extreme events associated with global climate change, there clearly is a need for improved seasonal forecasts and improved information dissemination.

  10. Isothermal Martensite Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo

    Isothermal (i.e. time dependent) martensite formation in steel was first observed in the 40ies of the XXth century and is still treated as an anomaly in the description of martensite formation which is considered as a-thermal (i.e. independent of time). Recently, the clarification of the mechanism...... of lattice strains provided fundamental information on the state of stress in the material and clarified the role of the strain energy on martensite formation. Electron backscatter diffraction revealed that the microstructure of the material and the morphology of martensite were independent on the cooling...... leading to isothermal kinetics acquired new practical relevance because of the identification of isothermal martensite formation as the most likely process responsible for enhanced performances of sub-zero Celsius treated high carbon steel products. In the present work, different iron based alloys...

  11. Cement Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including...... an overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in cement production, is provided. Clinker formations by solid state reactions, solid−liquid and liquid......−liquid reactions are discussed, as are the influences of particles sizes on clinker phase formation. Furthermore, a mechanism for clinker phase formation in an industrial rotary kiln reactor is outlined....

  12. Star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references

  13. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof...... is important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function...

  14. Confounding of three binary-variables counterfactual model

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jingwei; Hu, Shuang

    2011-01-01

    Confounding of three binary-variables counterfactual model is discussed in this paper. According to the effect between the control variable and the covariate variable, we investigate three counterfactual models: the control variable is independent of the covariate variable, the control variable has the effect on the covariate variable and the covariate variable affects the control variable. Using the ancillary information based on conditional independence hypotheses, the sufficient conditions...

  15. Comet formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J.

    2014-07-01

    There has been vast progress in our understanding of planetesimal formation over the past decades, owing to a number of laboratory experiments as well as to refined models of dust and ice agglomeration in protoplanetary disks. Coagulation rapidly forms cm-sized ''pebbles'' by direct sticking in collisions at low velocities (Güttler et al. 2010; Zsom et al. 2010). For the further growth, two model approaches are currently being discussed: (1) Local concentration of pebbles in nebular instabilities until gravitational instability occurs (Johansen et al. 2007). (2) A competition between fragmentation and mass transfer in collisions among the dusty bodies, in which a few ''lucky winners'' make it to planetesimal sizes (Windmark et al. 2012a,b; Garaud et al. 2013). Predictions of the physical properties of the resulting bodies in both models allow a distinction of the two formation scenarios of planetesimals. In particular, the tensile strength (i.e, the inner cohesion) of the planetesimals differ widely between the two models (Skorov & Blum 2012; Blum et al. 2014). While model (1) predicts tensile strengths on the order of ˜ 1 Pa, model (2) results in rather compactified dusty bodies with tensile strengths in the kPa regime. If comets are km-sized survivors of the planetesimal-formation era, they should in principle hold the secret of their formation process. Water ice is the prime volatile responsible for the activity of comets. Thermophysical models of the heat and mass transport close to the comet-nucleus surface predict water-ice sublimation temperatures that relate to maximum sublimation pressures well below the kPa regime predicted for formation scenario (2). Model (1), however, is in agreement with the observed dust and gas activity of comets. Thus, a formation scenario for cometesimals involving gravitational instability is favored (Blum et al. 2014).

  16. Small-scale variability in tropical tropopause layer humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, E. J.; Ueyama, R.; Pfister, L.; Karcher, B.; Podglajen, A.; Diskin, G. S.; DiGangi, J. P.; Thornberry, T. D.; Rollins, A. W.; Bui, T. V.; Woods, S.; Lawson, P.

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in statistical parameterizations of cirrus cloud processes for use in global models are highlighting the need for information about small-scale fluctuations in upper tropospheric humidity and the physical processes that control the humidity variability. To address these issues, we have analyzed high-resolution airborne water vapor measurements obtained in the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment over the tropical Pacific between 14 and 20 km. Using accurate and precise 1-Hz water vapor measurements along approximately-level aircraft flight legs, we calculate structure functions spanning horizontal scales ranging from about 0.2 to 50 km, and we compare the water vapor variability in the lower (about 14 km) and upper (16-19 km) Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL). We also compare the magnitudes and scales of variability inside TTL cirrus versus in clear-sky regions. The measurements show that in the upper TTL, water vapor concentration variance is stronger inside cirrus than in clear-sky regions. Using simulations of TTL cirrus formation, we show that small variability in clear-sky humidity is amplified by the strong sensitivity of ice nucleation rate to supersaturation, which results in highly-structured clouds that subsequently drive variability in the water vapor field. In the lower TTL, humidity variability is correlated with recent detrainment from deep convection. The structure functions indicate approximately power-law scaling with spectral slopes ranging from about -5/3 to -2.

  17. Por uma ciência formativa e indiciária: proposta epistemológica para a ciência da informação Formative science and indicial science: epistemological proposal for information science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliany Alvarenga de Araújo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflexão epistemológica sobre a Ciência da Informação como “fazer científico” que se estrutura na Ciência Moderna, em termos teóricos e metodológicos e nas Tecnologias daInformação, em termos aplicados. Tal configuração possibilitou o surgimento desta ciência, porém consideramos que a mesma não garantirá à mesma o pleno desenvolvimento comocampo de conhecimento consistente e moderno. A Ciência Moderna, enquanto visão e prática científica encontra-se esgotada e as Tecnologias de Informação são apenas mecanismos autoregulados que funcionam segundo princípios de automatismos. A partir destas considerações propomos o conceito de ciência formativa (Bachelard, 1996 e o paradigma indiciário (Ginzburg, 1991 como bases teóricas e metodológicas para uma epistemologia da Ciência da Informação. O conceito de ciência formativa se baseia no principio dos três estados do espírito científico e nas condições psicológicas do progresso científico e o paradigma indiciário propõe a intuição (empírica e racional como base metodológica para o fazer científico.Epistemological reflections on the Information Science as scientific field that if structure in the context of modern science, in theoretical and methodological terms and technologies of the information in applied terms. Such configuration made possible the sprouting of this science; however we consider that the same one will not guarantee to this science the full development as field of consistent and modern knowledge. Modern Science, while scientific practical vision and meets depleted and the information technologies are only auto-regulated mechanisms that function according to principles of automatisms. To leave of these considerations we propols the concept of Formative Science (Bachelard, 1996 and the Indiciario Paradigm (1991 with epistemological basis for the Information Science. The concept of formative science if a base on the principles of tree

  18. Variable stars in the classroom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Bajo, F [Departamento de Electronica e IngenierIa Electromecanica, Escuela de IngenierIas Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda de Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Vaquero, J M [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Politecnica, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2006-05-01

    Variable stars offer interesting possibilities from the point of view of educational applications, from the experimental collection of data to analysis to obtain physical information. In this paper, brightness measurements of two periodic variable stars easily accessible with small telescopes are presented and analysed. This practical experiment is highly appropriate for educational use in undergraduate physics and astrophysics laboratories and allows students to approximate scientific research.

  19. Variable stars in the classroom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Bajo, F; Vaquero, J M

    2006-01-01

    Variable stars offer interesting possibilities from the point of view of educational applications, from the experimental collection of data to analysis to obtain physical information. In this paper, brightness measurements of two periodic variable stars easily accessible with small telescopes are presented and analysed. This practical experiment is highly appropriate for educational use in undergraduate physics and astrophysics laboratories and allows students to approximate scientific research

  20. Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabuncu, Metin

    2009-01-01

    Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)

  1. Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabuncu, Metin

    2009-10-29

    Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)

  2. Formative versus reflective measurement: an illustration using work-family balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwart, Thomas; Konradt, Udo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to propose the formative measurement approach that can be used in various constructs of applied psychology. To illustrate this approach, the authors will (a) discuss the distinction between commonly used principal-factor (reflective) measures in comparison to the composite (formative) latent variable model, which is often applied in other disciplines such as marketing or engineering, and (b) point out the advantages and limitations of formative specifications using the example of the work-family balance (WFB) construct. Data collected from 2 large cross-sectional field studies confirm the reliability and validity of formative WFB measures as well as its predictive value regarding criteria of WFB (i.e., job satisfaction, family satisfaction, and life satisfaction). Last, the specific informational value of each formative indicator will be demonstrated and discussed in terms of practical implications for the assessment in different psychological fields.

  3. Free-format RPG IV

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This how-to guide offers a concise and thorough introduction to the increased productivity, better readability, and easier program maintenance that comes with the free-format style of programming in RPG IV. Although free-format information is available in IBM manuals, it is not separated from everything else, thereby requiring hours of tedious research to track down the information needed. This book provides everything one needs to know to write RPG IV in the free-format style, and author Jim Martin not only teaches rules and syntax but also explains how this new style of coding has the pot

  4. Longitudinal Research with Latent Variables

    CERN Document Server

    van Montfort, Kees; Satorra, Albert

    2010-01-01

    This book combines longitudinal research and latent variable research, i.e. it explains how longitudinal studies with objectives formulated in terms of latent variables should be carried out, with an emphasis on detailing how the methods are applied. Because longitudinal research with latent variables currently utilizes different approaches with different histories, different types of research questions, and different computer programs to perform the analysis, the book is divided into nine chapters. Starting from some background information about the specific approach, short history and the ma

  5. Understanding and using quality information for quality improvement : The effect of information presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijnenberg, N.C.; Hendriks, M.; Delnoij, D.; De Veer, A.J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Wagner, C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine how information presentation affects the understanding and use of information for quality improvement. Design An experimental design, testing 22 formats, and showing information on patient safety culture. Formats differed in visualization, outcomes and benchmark information.

  6. Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolak, Morris

    2018-04-01

    Modern observational techniques are still not powerful enough to directly view planet formation, and so it is necessary to rely on theory. However, observations do give two important clues to the formation process. The first is that the most primitive form of material in interstellar space exists as a dilute gas. Some of this gas is unstable against gravitational collapse, and begins to contract. Because the angular momentum of the gas is not zero, it contracts along the spin axis, but remains extended in the plane perpendicular to that axis, so that a disk is formed. Viscous processes in the disk carry most of the mass into the center where a star eventually forms. In the process, almost as a by-product, a planetary system is formed as well. The second clue is the time required. Young stars are indeed observed to have gas disks, composed mostly of hydrogen and helium, surrounding them, and observations tell us that these disks dissipate after about 5 to 10 million years. If planets like Jupiter and Saturn, which are very rich in hydrogen and helium, are to form in such a disk, they must accrete their gas within 5 million years of the time of the formation of the disk. Any formation scenario one proposes must produce Jupiter in that time, although the terrestrial planets, which don't contain significant amounts of hydrogen and helium, could have taken longer to build. Modern estimates for the formation time of the Earth are of the order of 100 million years. To date there are two main candidate theories for producing Jupiter-like planets. The core accretion (CA) scenario supposes that any solid materials in the disk slowly coagulate into protoplanetary cores with progressively larger masses. If the core remains small enough it won't have a strong enough gravitational force to attract gas from the surrounding disk, and the result will be a terrestrial planet. If the core grows large enough (of the order of ten Earth masses), and the disk has not yet dissipated, then

  7. The scientific production and the formation of the data sciences of the information of the Facultad Politécnica de la Universidad Nacional de Asunción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilce Noemi Sena Correa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to determine the factors affecting scientific productivity and the relationship with the academic training of professors in the career of Information Sciences at the Facultad Politécnica de la Universidad Nacional de Asunción, between the years 2009-2013. The same part of the implementation of a system of questionnaires aimed at obtaining information and indicators on the potential of each country in research and teaching. The system consists of three types of questionnaires: institutional questionnaire, human resources questionnaire and questionnaire research projects. The variables studied were: researchers, professors, research projects, scientific production, functions, research, bibliometric indicators of scientific production and scientific communication. The results revealed that: that most of the teaching staff are Paraguayans grade professors (81%, and low productivity, is directly related to this segment of the population. This situation generally agrees with the university model that prevails in Paraguay, which is the "transmitter of knowledge" instead of "generating the same". Thus teaching and administrative activities take precedence over the investigative work; the lack of an adequate policy incentives, discourages research.

  8. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S

    2008-01-01

    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  9. Galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribbin, J.

    1979-01-01

    The current debate on the origin and evolution of galaxies is reviewed and evidence to support the so-called 'isothermal' and 'adiabatic' fluctuation models considered. It is shown that new theories have to explain the formation of both spiral and elliptical galaxies and the reason for their differences. It is stated that of the most recent models the best indicates that rotating spiral galaxies are formed naturally when gas concentrates in the centre of a great halo and forms stars while ellipticals are explained by later interactions between spiral galaxies and merging, which can cancel out the rotation while producing an elliptical galaxy in which the stars, coming from two original galaxies, follow very elliptical, anisotropic orbits. (UK)

  10. Habit formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S; Graybiel, Ann M

    2016-03-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network.

  11. Habit formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S.; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network. PMID:27069378

  12. What Do They Understand? Using Technology to Facilitate Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitten, Carolyn; Jacobbe, Tim; Jacobbe, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Formative assessment is so important to inform teachers' planning. A discussion of the benefits of using technology to facilitate formative assessment explains how four primary school teachers adopted three different apps to make their formative assessment more meaningful and useful.

  13. Adolescent Girls’ STEM Identity Formation and Media Images of STEM Professionals: Considering the Influence of Contextual Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Jocelyn

    2017-01-01

    Popular media have played a crucial role in the construction, representation, reproduction, and transmission of stereotypes of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professionals, yet little is known about how these stereotypes influence STEM identity formation. Media images of STEM professionals may be important sources of information about STEM and may be particularly salient and relevant for girls during adolescence as they actively consider future personal and professional identities. This article describes gender-stereotyped media images of STEM professionals and examines theories to identify variables that explain the potential influence of these images on STEM identity formation. Understanding these variables is important for expanding current conceptual frameworks of science/STEM identity to better determine how and when cues in the broader sociocultural context may affect adolescent girls’ STEM identity. This article emphasizes the importance of focusing on STEM identity relevant variables and STEM identity status to explain individual differences in STEM identity formation. PMID:28603505

  14. Adolescent Girls' STEM Identity Formation and Media Images of STEM Professionals: Considering the Influence of Contextual Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Jocelyn

    2017-01-01

    Popular media have played a crucial role in the construction, representation, reproduction, and transmission of stereotypes of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professionals, yet little is known about how these stereotypes influence STEM identity formation. Media images of STEM professionals may be important sources of information about STEM and may be particularly salient and relevant for girls during adolescence as they actively consider future personal and professional identities. This article describes gender-stereotyped media images of STEM professionals and examines theories to identify variables that explain the potential influence of these images on STEM identity formation. Understanding these variables is important for expanding current conceptual frameworks of science/STEM identity to better determine how and when cues in the broader sociocultural context may affect adolescent girls' STEM identity. This article emphasizes the importance of focusing on STEM identity relevant variables and STEM identity status to explain individual differences in STEM identity formation.

  15. Classification and prediction of port variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina Serrano, B.

    2016-07-01

    Many variables are included in planning and management of port terminals. They can beeconomic, social, environmental and institutional. Agent needs to know relationshipbetween these variables to modify planning conditions. Use of Bayesian Networks allowsfor classifying, predicting and diagnosing these variables. Bayesian Networks allow forestimating subsequent probability of unknown variables, basing on know variables.In planning level, it means that it is not necessary to know all variables because theirrelationships are known. Agent can know interesting information about how port variablesare connected. It can be interpreted as cause-effect relationship. Bayesian Networks can beused to make optimal decisions by introduction of possible actions and utility of theirresults.In proposed methodology, a data base has been generated with more than 40 port variables.They have been classified in economic, social, environmental and institutional variables, inthe same way that smart port studies in Spanish Port System make. From this data base, anetwork has been generated using a non-cyclic conducted grafo which allows for knowingport variable relationships - parents-children relationships-. Obtained network exhibits thateconomic variables are – in cause-effect terms- cause of rest of variable typologies.Economic variables represent parent role in the most of cases. Moreover, whenenvironmental variables are known, obtained network allows for estimating subsequentprobability of social variables.It has been concluded that Bayesian Networks allow for modeling uncertainty in aprobabilistic way, even when number of variables is high as occurs in planning andmanagement of port terminals. (Author)

  16. Observing System Simulations for Small Satellite Formations Estimating Bidirectional Reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Gatebe, Charles K.; de Weck, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) gives the reflectance of a target as a function of illumination geometry and viewing geometry, hence carries information about the anisotropy of the surface. BRDF is needed in remote sensing for the correction of view and illumination angle effects (for example in image standardization and mosaicing), for deriving albedo, for land cover classification, for cloud detection, for atmospheric correction, and other applications. However, current spaceborne instruments provide sparse angular sampling of BRDF and airborne instruments are limited in the spatial and temporal coverage. To fill the gaps in angular coverage within spatial, spectral and temporal requirements, we propose a new measurement technique: Use of small satellites in formation flight, each satellite with a VNIR (visible and near infrared) imaging spectrometer, to make multi-spectral, near-simultaneous measurements of every ground spot in the swath at multiple angles. This paper describes an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) to evaluate the proposed concept and select the optimal formation architecture that minimizes BRDF uncertainties. The variables of the OSSE are identified; number of satellites, measurement spread in the view zenith and relative azimuth with respect to solar plane, solar zenith angle, BRDF models and wavelength of reflection. Analyzing the sensitivity of BRDF estimation errors to the variables allow simplification of the OSSE, to enable its use to rapidly evaluate formation architectures. A 6-satellite formation is shown to produce lower BRDF estimation errors, purely in terms of angular sampling as evaluated by the OSSE, than a single spacecraft with 9 forward-aft sensors. We demonstrate the ability to use OSSEs to design small satellite formations as complements to flagship mission data. The formations can fill angular sampling gaps and enable better BRDF products than currently possible.

  17. Observing system simulations for small satellite formations estimating bidirectional reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Gatebe, Charles K.; Weck, Olivier de

    2015-12-01

    The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) gives the reflectance of a target as a function of illumination geometry and viewing geometry, hence carries information about the anisotropy of the surface. BRDF is needed in remote sensing for the correction of view and illumination angle effects (for example in image standardization and mosaicing), for deriving albedo, for land cover classification, for cloud detection, for atmospheric correction, and other applications. However, current spaceborne instruments provide sparse angular sampling of BRDF and airborne instruments are limited in the spatial and temporal coverage. To fill the gaps in angular coverage within spatial, spectral and temporal requirements, we propose a new measurement technique: use of small satellites in formation flight, each satellite with a VNIR (visible and near infrared) imaging spectrometer, to make multi-spectral, near-simultaneous measurements of every ground spot in the swath at multiple angles. This paper describes an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) to evaluate the proposed concept and select the optimal formation architecture that minimizes BRDF uncertainties. The variables of the OSSE are identified; number of satellites, measurement spread in the view zenith and relative azimuth with respect to solar plane, solar zenith angle, BRDF models and wavelength of reflection. Analyzing the sensitivity of BRDF estimation errors to the variables allow simplification of the OSSE, to enable its use to rapidly evaluate formation architectures. A 6-satellite formation is shown to produce lower BRDF estimation errors, purely in terms of angular sampling as evaluated by the OSSE, than a single spacecraft with 9 forward-aft sensors. We demonstrate the ability to use OSSEs to design small satellite formations as complements to flagship mission data. The formations can fill angular sampling gaps and enable better BRDF products than currently possible.

  18. Surveying Low-Mass Star Formation with the Submillimeter Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Large astronomical surveys yield important statistical information that can’t be derived from single-object and small-number surveys. In this talk I will review two recent surveys in low-mass star formation undertaken by the Submillimeter Array (SMA): a millimeter continuum survey of disks surrounding variably accreting young stars, and a complete continuum and molecular line survey of all protostars in the nearby Perseus Molecular Cloud. I will highlight several new insights into the processes by which low-mass stars gain their mass that have resulted from the statistical power of these surveys.

  19. Imaging Variable Stars with HST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, M.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of astronomical sources, ranging from objects in our solar system to objects in the early Universe, have revolutionized our knowledge of the Universe its origins and contents. I highlight results from HST observations of variable stars obtained during the past twenty or so years. Multiwavelength observations of numerous variable stars and stellar systems were obtained using the superb HST imaging capabilities and its unprecedented angular resolution, especially in the UV and optical. The HST provided the first detailed images probing the structure of variable stars including their atmospheres and circumstellar environments. AAVSO observations and light curves have been critical for scheduling of many of these observations and provided important information and context for understanding of the imaging results of many variable sources. I describe the scientific results from the imaging observations of variable stars including AGBs, Miras, Cepheids, semiregular variables (including supergiants and giants), YSOs and interacting stellar systems with a variable stellar components. These results have led to an unprecedented understanding of the spatial and temporal characteristics of these objects and their place in the stellar evolutionary chains, and in the larger context of the dynamic evolving Universe.

  20. The format of things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørnø, Rasmus Leth

    this conception is identified as “the Format of Things.” The format is embedded in our everyday thinking. In relation to design,it is found in the name taken by the design community, that is human-computer interaction (HCI), and it is mirrored in the desktop metaphor, wherein information is conceived...... available. It consists of philosophical considerations on matters of relevance for the design of interfaces. It takes the position that the graphical user interfaces of computers (the Desktop Metaphor or Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointers [‘WIMP’]) that ordinarily come to mind for most people are cognates......The development of novel interfaces is one of the most important current design challenges for the intellectual, cultural and cognitive evolution of human imagination and knowledge work. Unfortunately, the thinking surrounding this design challenge is heavily mired in conceptions that harbor...

  1. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  2. What is a Good Piece of Information Systems Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelø, Morten Thanning

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Epistemology, field formation, information systems research, paradigms, research fields.......Keywords: Epistemology, field formation, information systems research, paradigms, research fields....

  3. Textural variability of ordinary chondrite chondrules: Implications of their formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinovieva, N. G.; Mitreikina, O. B.; Granovsky, L. B.

    1994-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microprobe examination of the Raguli H3-4, Saratov L3, and Fucbin L5-6 ordinary chondrites and the analysis of preexisted data on other meteorites have shown that the variety of textural types of chondrules depends on the chemical composition of the chondrules. The comparison of bulk-rock chemistries of the chondrules by major components demonstrates that they apparently fall, like basic-ultrabasic rock, into groups of dunitic and pyroxenitic composition. This separation is further validated by the character of zoning in chondrules of the intermediate, peridotitic type. The effect is vividly demonstrated by the 'chondrule-in-chondrule' structure.

  4. Formative assessment: a student perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D A; Guinea, A I; McCarthy, W H

    1994-09-01

    An educator's view would be that formative assessment has an important role in the learning process. This study was carried out to obtain a student perspective of the place of formative assessment in the curriculum. Final-year medical students at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital took part in four teaching sessions, each structured to integrate teaching with assessment. Three assessment methods were used; the group objective structured clinical examination (G-OSCE), structured short answer (SSA) questions and a pre/post-test multiple choice questionnaire (MCQ). Teaching sessions were conducted on the subject areas of traumatology, the 'acute abdomen', arterial disorders and cancer. Fifty-five students, representing 83% of those who took part in the programme, responded to a questionnaire where they were asked to rate (on a 5-point Likert scale) their response to general questions about formative assessment and 13 specific questions concerning the comparative value of the three assessment modalities. Eighty-nine per cent of respondents felt that formative assessment should be incorporated into the teaching process. The SSA assessment was regarded as the preferred modality to reinforce previous teaching and test problem-solving skills. The MCQ was the least favoured assessment method. The effect size variable between the total scores for the SSA and MCQ was 0.64. The variable between G-OSCE and SSA/MCQ was 0.26 and 0.33 respectively. Formative assessment is a potentially powerful method to direct learning behaviour. Students should have input into the methods used.

  5. PAVLOV: An Information Retrieval Program for the Analysis of Learning Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldergaard, Paul M.

    1967-01-01

    PAVLOV (Paired Associate Verbal Learning Organizational Vehicle) is a Fortran coded program designed to facilitate the analysis of learning data. The program analyzes four classes of information parameters, list order, data format, and data. Utilizing this input, the program performs an in-depth measurement of several dependent variables for each…

  6. Variable importance in latent variable regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kvalheim, O.M.; Arneberg, R.; Bleie, O.; Rajalahti, T.; Smilde, A.K.; Westerhuis, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The quality and practical usefulness of a regression model are a function of both interpretability and prediction performance. This work presents some new graphical tools for improved interpretation of latent variable regression models that can also assist in improved algorithms for variable

  7. Inform@ed space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter; Olsen, Kasper Nefer

    2001-01-01

    Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001.......Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001....

  8. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.K.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with 13 C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system

  9. Determinants for gallstone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Monsted; Sorensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    . Gallstone incidence was assessed through repeated ultrasound examinations. Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, self-rated health, lifestyle variables, blood lipids, and use of female sex hormones were measured at the baseline examination. Statistical analyses included logistic regression. Based...... re-examination were followed-up completely (mean 11.6 years, N = 2848). The overall cumulative incidence of gallstones was 0.60% per year. Independent positive determinants for incident gallstones were age, female sex, non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol, and gallbladder polyps...... associations were found for blood pressure, smoking, alcohol consumption, HDL cholesterol, or triglycerides in meta-analyses. Conclusions: Age, female sex, BMI, non-HDL cholesterol, and polyps are independent determinants for gallstone formation. Incident gallstones and the metabolic syndrome share common risk...

  10. Coordinated Formation Control of Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicles for Pipeline Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbo Xiang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the control problem of inspecting underwater pipeline on the seabed, with coordinated multiple autonomous underwater vehicles in a formation. Based on the leader-follower strategy, the dedicated nonlinear path following controller is rigorously built on Lyapunov-based design, driving a fleet of vehicles onto assigned parallel paths elevated and offset from the underwater pipeline, while keeping a triangle formation to capture complete 3D images for inspection. Due to the spatial-temporal decoupling characteristics of individual path following controller, the velocities of the followers can be adapted in the coordinated control level, only relying on the information of generalized along-path length from the leader, in order to build the desired formation. Thus, the communication variable broadcast from the leader is kept to a minimum, which is feasible under the severely constraints of acoustic communication bandwidth. Simulation results illustrate the efficiency of coordinated formation controller proposed for underwater pipeline inspection.

  11. Understanding and using quality information for quality improvement: the effect of information presentation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijnenberg, N.C.; Hendriks, M.; Delnoij, D.M.J.; Veer, A.J.E. de; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Wagner, C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine how information presentation affects the understanding and use of information for quality improvement. Design: An experimental design, testing 22 formats, and showing information on patient safety culture. Formats differed in visualization, outcomes and benchmark

  12. Investment Portfolio Formation Using Multi-criteria evaluation Method MULTIMOORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilius Vaišvilas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Information that has to be analyzed by investors is complicated and can be interpreted differently by different people, which is why choosing what should be added to the investment portfolio is complicated task. Complexity grows substantially when there are more alternatives to choose from. Multi – criteria evaluation method can be used to choose the best alternatives. Multi–criteria evaluation method MULTIMOORA is not subjective because there is no need to decide ratio of any given variable that is evaluated. MULTIMOORA consists of: formation of ratio system, application of multi – criteria evaluation method as well as investment evaluation and ranking. Purpose of this article is to apply multi – criteria evaluation method MULTIMOORA for the formation and management of investment portfolio from stocks of the Baltic stock market companies. Methods used in the analysis for the article: analysis of scientific literature, statistical analysis, organization and comparison of data, idealization, calculations of MULTIMOORA.

  13. Terrestrial planet formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids.

  14. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  15. Effectiveness of Variable Message Signs on Driving Behavior Based on a Driving Simulation Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuedong Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Variable message signs (VMSs, as one of the important ITS devices, provide real-time traffic information of road network to drivers in order to improve route choice and relieve the traffic congestion. In this study, the effectiveness of VMS on driving behavior was tested based on a driving simulation experiment. A road network with three levels of VMS location to route-diverging intersection and three types of VMS information format was designed in a high fidelity driving simulator platform. Fifty-two subjects who were classified by driver age, gender, and vocation successfully completed this experiment. The experimental results showed that driver characteristics, VMS location, and information format profoundly influence driving behaviors. Based on the research findings, it is suggested that VMS would be positioned between 150 m and 200 m upstream of the diverging point to balance the VMS effects on traffic safety and operation and the graphic information VMS format is better than the format with text massage only.

  16. Information manager vol 10

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Library _info_Sc_ 1

    The Perception of Librarians As Sources Of Information On HIV/AIDS By ... the librarian is confined to the library. ... is to offer information services that can assist information users to meet their needs at the right time and in the right format. ... relationships (Sande and Volbering,1992). ..... Education for Students: A Proposal for.

  17. Exchange rate variability, market activity and heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Rime, Dagfinn; Sucarrat, Genaro

    2007-01-01

    We study the role played by geographic and bank-size heterogeneity in the relation between exchange rate variability and market activity. We find some support for the hypothesis that increases in short-term global interbank market activity, which can be interpreted as due to variation in information arrival, increase variability. However, our results do not suggest that local short-term activity increases variability. With respect to long-term market activity, which can be interpreted as a me...

  18. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ; SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and

  19. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ;SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and can

  20. Gowdy phenomenology in scale-invariant variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Lars; Elst, Henk van; Uggla, Claes

    2004-01-01

    The dynamics of Gowdy vacuum spacetimes is considered in terms of Hubble-normalized scale-invariant variables, using the timelike area temporal gauge. The resulting state space formulation provides for a simple mechanism for the formation of 'false' and 'true spikes' in the approach to the singularity, and a geometrical formulation for the local attractor

  1. An Adaptable Seismic Data Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischer, Lion; Smith, James; Lei, Wenjie; Lefebvre, Matthieu; Ruan, Youyi; de Andrade, Elliott Sales; Podhorszki, Norbert; Bozdağ, Ebru; Tromp, Jeroen

    2016-11-01

    We present ASDF, the Adaptable Seismic Data Format, a modern and practical data format for all branches of seismology and beyond. The growing volume of freely available data coupled with ever expanding computational power opens avenues to tackle larger and more complex problems. Current bottlenecks include inefficient resource usage and insufficient data organization. Properly scaling a problem requires the resolution of both these challenges, and existing data formats are no longer up to the task. ASDF stores any number of synthetic, processed or unaltered waveforms in a single file. A key improvement compared to existing formats is the inclusion of comprehensive meta information, such as event or station information, in the same file. Additionally, it is also usable for any non-waveform data, for example, cross-correlations, adjoint sources or receiver functions. Last but not least, full provenance information can be stored alongside each item of data, thereby enhancing reproducibility and accountability. Any data set in our proposed format is self-describing and can be readily exchanged with others, facilitating collaboration. The utilization of the HDF5 container format grants efficient and parallel I/O operations, integrated compression algorithms and check sums to guard against data corruption. To not reinvent the wheel and to build upon past developments, we use existing standards like QuakeML, StationXML, W3C PROV and HDF5 wherever feasible. Usability and tool support are crucial for any new format to gain acceptance. We developed mature C/Fortran and Python based APIs coupling ASDF to the widely used SPECFEM3D_GLOBE and ObsPy toolkits.

  2. Evaluating evaluation as a communication process. What role for formative evaluation in ICT-based knowledge acquisition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    USEILLE Philippe

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how formative evaluation as a communication process contributes to knowledge acquisition in using ICT (Information and Communication Technologies. Previous studies, especially in the field of education and training, have shown that formative evaluation plays a crucial part in the learning process because it contributes to learning to learn. Through formative evaluation, the learner becomes aware of errors and can adjust learning strategies to the situation. In addition, formative evaluation provides the teaching side with significant and useful information. Consequently, ICT researches have developed a wide range of solutions for this specific purpose. It is however difficult to check the efficiency of these tools by considering the effects of ICT in the knowledge acquisition process. I suggest that formative evaluation includes also a communication system that has an effect on the learning process. This study tackles the issue by proposing an alternative approach to formative evaluation that considers it as both a learning and a communication process. The study is based on SADT (Structure Analysis and Design Technique that provides a suitable description for the whole complex communication process. It allows a rigorous understanding and identification of the variables of evaluation as a communication process in order to take care of an ICT frame. Finally, this article outlines a multidisciplinary method to evaluate formative evaluation by focusing on the validity facets of the communication process. Keywords: formative evaluation, communication process, validity criteria, ICT training context.

  3. Variable mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontela, Paula Caitano; Prestes, Renata Bernardy; Forgiarini, Luiz Alberto; Friedman, Gilberto

    2017-01-01

    To review the literature on the use of variable mechanical ventilation and the main outcomes of this technique. Search, selection, and analysis of all original articles on variable ventilation, without restriction on the period of publication and language, available in the electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE®, and PubMed, by searching the terms "variable ventilation" OR "noisy ventilation" OR "biologically variable ventilation". A total of 36 studies were selected. Of these, 24 were original studies, including 21 experimental studies and three clinical studies. Several experimental studies reported the beneficial effects of distinct variable ventilation strategies on lung function using different models of lung injury and healthy lungs. Variable ventilation seems to be a viable strategy for improving gas exchange and respiratory mechanics and preventing lung injury associated with mechanical ventilation. However, further clinical studies are necessary to assess the potential of variable ventilation strategies for the clinical improvement of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.

  4. The Role of Information Technology as Moderating Variable and Internal Control Effectiveness as intervening in the Relationship between Human Resource Competency and Internal Auditor Service Quality on of Report

    OpenAIRE

    Haliah, Hamid,Irdam

    2015-01-01

    in general, this research is intended to investigate factors that effect quality of report of local government in west Sulawesi province, Indonesia. Human resource competence and quality of services of internal auditor have indirect effect through the effectiveness of internal control to the quality of the report. These results indicate that the effectiveness of internal control serves as an intervening variable on the relationship of competence of human resources and internal auditor service...

  5. Specific plant induced biofilm formation in Methylobacterium species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Priscilla B.; Dourado, Manuella N.; Quecine, Maria C.; Andreote, Fernando D.; Araújo, Welington L.; Azevedo, João L.; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline A.

    2011-01-01

    Two endophytic strains of Methylobacterium spp. were used to evaluate biofilm formation on sugarcane roots and on inert wooden sticks. Results show that biofilm formation is variable and that plant surface and possibly root exudates have a role in Methylobacterium spp. host recognition, biofilm formation and successful colonization as endophytes. PMID:24031703

  6. Marketing in Admissions: The Information System Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, O. Douglas; Timmerman, Ed

    1982-01-01

    A marketing information system approach for college admissions is outlined that includes objectives, information needs and sources, a data collection format, and information evaluation. Coordination with other institutional information systems is recommended. (MSE)

  7. AEROSOL VARIABILITY OBSERVED WITH RPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Altstädter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To observe the origin, vertical and horizontal distribution and variability of aerosol particles, and especially ultrafine particles recently formed, we plan to employ the remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS Carolo-P360 "ALADINA" of TU Braunschweig. The goal of the presented project is to investigate the vertical and horizontal distribution, transport and small-scale variability of aerosol particles in the atmospheric boundary layer using RPAS. Two additional RPAS of type MASC of Tübingen University equipped with turbulence instrumentation add the opportunity to study the interaction of the aerosol concentration with turbulent transport and exchange processes of the surface and the atmosphere. The combination of different flight patterns of the three RPAS allows new insights in atmospheric boundary layer processes. Currently, the different aerosol sensors are miniaturized at the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig and together with the TU Braunschweig adapted to fit into the RPAS. Moreover, an additional meteorological payload for measuring temperature, humidity and turbulence properties is constructed by Tübingen University. Two condensation particle counters determine the total aerosol number with a different lower detection threshold in order to investigate the horizontal and vertical aerosol variability and new particle formation (aerosol particles of some nm diameter. Further the aerosol size distribution in the range from about 0.300 to ~5 μm is given by an optical particle counter.

  8. Genetic variability in local Brazilian horse lines using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A C M; Paiva, S R; Albuquerque, M S M; Egito, A A; Santos, S A; Lima, F C; Castro, S T; Mariante, A S; Correa, P S; McManus, C M

    2012-04-10

    Genetic variability at 11 microsatellite markers was analyzed in five naturalized/local Brazilian horse breeds or genetic groups. Blood samples were collected from 328 animals of the breeds Campeira (Santa Catarina State), Lavradeira (Roraima State), Pantaneira (Pantanal Mato-Grossense), Mangalarga Marchador (Minas Gerais State), as well as the genetic group Baixadeiro (Maranhão State), and the exotic breeds English Thoroughbred and Arab. We found significant genetic variability within evaluated microsatellite loci, with observed heterozygosis varying between 0.426 and 0.768 and polymorphism information content values of 0.751 to 0.914. All breeds showed high inbreeding coefficients and were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The smallest genetic distance was seen between the Pantaneira and Arab breeds. The principal component analyzes and Bayesian approach demonstrated that the exotic breeds have had a significant influence on the genetic formation of the local breeds, with introgression of English Throroughbred in Pantaneira and Lavradeira, as well as genetic proximity between the Arab, Pantaneira and Mangalarga Marchador populations. This study shows the need to conserve traits acquired by naturalized horse breeds over centuries of natural selection in Brazil due to the genetic uniqueness of each group, suggesting a reduced gene flow between them. These results reinforce the need to include these herds in animal genetic resource conservation programs to maximize the genetic variability and conserve useful allele combinations.

  9. Continuous-variable quantum homomorphic signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Shang, Tao; Liu, Jian-wei

    2017-10-01

    Quantum cryptography is believed to be unconditionally secure because its security is ensured by physical laws rather than computational complexity. According to spectrum characteristic, quantum information can be classified into two categories, namely discrete variables and continuous variables. Continuous-variable quantum protocols have gained much attention for their ability to transmit more information with lower cost. To verify the identities of different data sources in a quantum network, we propose a continuous-variable quantum homomorphic signature scheme. It is based on continuous-variable entanglement swapping and provides additive and subtractive homomorphism. Security analysis shows the proposed scheme is secure against replay, forgery and repudiation. Even under nonideal conditions, it supports effective verification within a certain verification threshold.

  10. Cataclysmic Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, Coel

    2001-01-01

    Cataclysmic variable stars are the most variable stars in the night sky, fluctuating in brightness continually on timescales from seconds to hours to weeks to years. The changes can be recorded using amateur telescopes, yet are also the subject of intensive study by professional astronomers. That study has led to an understanding of cataclysmic variables as binary stars, orbiting so closely that material transfers from one star to the other. The resulting process of accretion is one of the most important in astrophysics. This book presents the first account of cataclysmic variables at an introductory level. Assuming no previous knowledge of the field, it explains the basic principles underlying the variability, while providing an extensive compilation of cataclysmic variable light curves. Aimed at amateur astronomers, undergraduates, and researchers, the main text is accessible to those with no mathematical background, while supplementary boxes present technical details and equations.

  11. Formation of planetary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahic, A.

    1982-01-01

    It seemed appropriate to devote the 1980 School to the origin of the solar system and more particularly to the formation of planetary systems (dynamic accretion processes, small bodies, planetary rings, etc...) and to the physics and chemistry of planetary interiors, surface and atmospheres (physical and chemical constraints associated with their formation). This Summer School enabled both young researchers and hard-nosed scientists, gathered together in idyllic surroundings, to hold numerous discussions, to lay the foundations for future cooperation, to acquire an excellent basic understanding, and to make many useful contacts. This volume reflects the lectures and presentations that were delivered in this Summer School setting. It is aimed at both advanced students and research workers wishing to specialize in planetology. Every effort has been made to give an overview of the basic knowledge required in order to gain a better understanding of the origin of the solar system. Each article has been revised by one or two referees whom I would like to thank for their assistance. Between the end of the School in August 1980 and the publication of this volume in 1982, the Voyager probes have returned a wealth of useful information. Some preliminary results have been included for completeness

  12. Remote Sensing Information Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote Sensing Information Gateway, a tool that allows scientists, researchers and decision makers to access a variety of multi-terabyte, environmental datasets and to subset the data and obtain only needed variables, greatly improving the download time.

  13. Ultrasonic variables affecting inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenheiser, C.E.; Whiting, A.R.; McElroy, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    There are many variables which affect the detection of the effects and reproducibility of results when utilizing ultrasonic techniques. The most important variable is the procedure, as this document specifies, to a great extent, the controls that are exercised over the other variables. The most important variable is personnel with regards to training, qualification, integrity, data recording, and data analysis. Although the data is very limited, these data indicate that, if the procedure is carefully controlled, reliability of defect detection and reproducibility of results are both approximately 90 percent for reliability of detection, this applies to relatively small defects as reliability increases substantially as defect size increases above the recording limit. (author)

  14. Rates of star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    It is illustrated that a theoretical understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies depends on an understanding of star formation, and especially of the factors influencing the rate of star formation. Some of the theoretical problems of star formation in galaxies, some approaches that have been considered in models of galaxy evolution, and some possible observational tests that may help to clarify which processes or models are most relevant are reviewed. The material is presented under the following headings: power-law models for star formation, star formation processes (conditions required, ways of achieving these conditions), observational indications and tests, and measures of star formation rates in galaxies. 49 references

  15. Why adult formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Justinek

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article argues that the primary aim of adult formation is comprehensive personality development which is supposed to ensure quality existence in modern world. The article also suggests that formarion is a permanent process. Justinek puts special emphasis on adult formation methodology and defines fundamental formation styles which encourage independent action in individuals. Justinek differentiates between formation and education. methods and concludes that formation methods are related to the emotional sphere of personality, and education methods mostly to the rational. Justinek believes that formation of adults is based primarily on appropriate formation methodology.

  16. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Crable

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production.

  17. Quantification of variability in trichome patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina eGreese

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While pattern formation is studied in various areas of biology, little is known about the intrinsic noise leading to variations between individual realizations of the pattern. One prominent example for de novo pattern formation in plants is the patterning of trichomes on Arabidopsis leaves, which involves genetic regulation and cell-to-cell communication. These processes are potentially variable due to , e.g., the abundance of cell components or environmental conditions. To elevate the understanding of the regulatory processes underlying the pattern formation it is crucial to quantitatively analyze the variability in naturally occurring patterns. Here, we review recent approaches towards characterization of noise on trichome initiation. We present methods for the quantification of spatial patterns, which are the basis for data-driven mathematical modeling and enable the analysis of noise from different sources. Besides the insight gained on trichome formation, the examination of observed trichome patterns also shows that highly regulated biological processes can be substantially affected by variability.

  18. Risk assessment of groundwater level variability using variable Kriging methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2015-04-01

    Assessment of the water table level spatial variability in aquifers provides useful information regarding optimal groundwater management. This information becomes more important in basins where the water table level has fallen significantly. The spatial variability of the water table level in this work is estimated based on hydraulic head measured during the wet period of the hydrological year 2007-2008, in a sparsely monitored basin in Crete, Greece, which is of high socioeconomic and agricultural interest. Three Kriging-based methodologies are elaborated in Matlab environment to estimate the spatial variability of the water table level in the basin. The first methodology is based on the Ordinary Kriging approach, the second involves auxiliary information from a Digital Elevation Model in terms of Residual Kriging and the third methodology calculates the probability of the groundwater level to fall below a predefined minimum value that could cause significant problems in groundwater resources availability, by means of Indicator Kriging. The Box-Cox methodology is applied to normalize both the data and the residuals for improved prediction results. In addition, various classical variogram models are applied to determine the spatial dependence of the measurements. The Matérn model proves to be the optimal, which in combination with Kriging methodologies provides the most accurate cross validation estimations. Groundwater level and probability maps are constructed to examine the spatial variability of the groundwater level in the basin and the associated risk that certain locations exhibit regarding a predefined minimum value that has been set for the sustainability of the basin's groundwater resources. Acknowledgement The work presented in this paper has been funded by the Greek State Scholarships Foundation (IKY), Fellowships of Excellence for Postdoctoral Studies (Siemens Program), 'A simulation-optimization model for assessing the best practices for the

  19. Variable volume combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  20. Variability: A Pernicious Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis of greater male variability in test results is discussed in its historical context, and reasons feminists have objected to the hypothesis are considered. The hypothesis acquires political importance if it is considered that variability results from biological, rather than cultural, differences. (SLD)

  1. Reinforcing Saccadic Amplitude Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…

  2. POVMs and hidden variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stairs, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Recent results by Paul Busch and Adan Cabello claim to show that by appealing to POVMs, non-contextual hidden variables can be ruled out in two dimensions. While the results of Busch and Cabello are mathematically correct, interpretive problems render them problematic as no hidden variable proofs

  3. Interdependence Among Organizational Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    The interrelationship between a set of organizational variables was investigated at 14 work organizations within a company. The variables were production, quality, costs, job satisfaction of operatives, job satisfaction of supervisors, work anxiety, accidents, absence, labor turnover, and industrial unrest. (Author)

  4. Pattern formation in optical resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, C O; Larionova, Ye

    2007-01-01

    We review pattern formation in optical resonators. The emphasis is on 'particle-like' structures such as vortices or spatial solitons. On the one hand, similarities impose themselves with other fields of physics (condensed matter, phase transitions, particle physics, fluds/super fluids). On the other hand the feedback is led by the resonator mirrors to bi- and multi-stability of the spatial field structure, which is the basic ingredient for optical information processing. The spatial dimension or the 'parallelism' is the strength of optics compared to electronics (and will have to be employed to fully use the advantages optics offers in information processing). But even in the 'serial' processing tasks of telecoms (e.g. information buffering) spatial resonator solitons can do better than the schemes proposed so far-including 'slow light'. Pattern formation in optical resonators will likely be the key to brain-like information processing like cognition, learning and association; to complement the precise but limited algorithmic capabilities of electronic processing. But even in the short term it will be useful for solving serial optical processing problems. The prospects for technical uses of pattern formation in resonators are one motivation for this research. The fundamental similarities with other fields of physics, on the other hand, inspire transfer of concepts between fields; something that has always proven fruitful for gaining deeper insights or for solving technical problems

  5. Continuous-Variable Entanglement Swapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Marshall

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a very brief overview of entanglement swapping as it relates to continuous-variable quantum information. The technical background required is discussed and the natural link to quantum teleportation is established before discussing the nature of Gaussian entanglement swapping. The limitations of Gaussian swapping are introduced, along with the general applications of swapping in the context of to quantum communication and entanglement distribution. In light of this, we briefly summarize a collection of entanglement swapping schemes which incorporate a non-Gaussian ingredient and the benefits of such schemes are noted. Finally, we motivate the need to further study and develop such schemes by highlighting requirements of a continuous-variable repeater.

  6. Biological variability of glycated hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Federica; Dolci, Alberto; Mosca, Andrea; Panteghini, Mauro

    2010-11-11

    The measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) has a pivotal role in monitoring glycemic state in diabetic patients. Furthermore, the American Diabetes Association has recently recommended the use of HbA(1c) for diabetes diagnosis, but a clear definition of the clinically allowable measurement error is still lacking. Information on biological variability of the analyte can be used to achieve this goal. We systematically reviewed the published studies on the biological variation of HbA(1c) to check consistency of available data in order to accurately define analytical goals. The nine recruited studies were limited by choice of analytic methodology, population selection, protocol application and statistical analyses. There is an urgent need to determine biological variability of HbA(1c) using a specific and traceable assay, appropriate protocol and appropriate statistical evaluation of data. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Human-Assisted Machine Information Exploitation: a crowdsourced investigation of information-based problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Sue E.; Vanni, Michelle; Caylor, Justine; Hoye, Jeff

    2017-05-01

    The Human-Assisted Machine Information Exploitation (HAMIE) investigation utilizes large-scale online data collection for developing models of information-based problem solving (IBPS) behavior in a simulated time-critical operational environment. These types of environments are characteristic of intelligence workflow processes conducted during human-geo-political unrest situations when the ability to make the best decision at the right time ensures strategic overmatch. The project takes a systems approach to Human Information Interaction (HII) by harnessing the expertise of crowds to model the interaction of the information consumer and the information required to solve a problem at different levels of system restrictiveness and decisional guidance. The design variables derived from Decision Support Systems (DSS) research represent the experimental conditions in this online single-player against-the-clock game where the player, acting in the role of an intelligence analyst, is tasked with a Commander's Critical Information Requirement (CCIR) in an information overload scenario. The player performs a sequence of three information processing tasks (annotation, relation identification, and link diagram formation) with the assistance of `HAMIE the robot' who offers varying levels of information understanding dependent on question complexity. We provide preliminary results from a pilot study conducted with Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) participants on the Volunteer Science scientific research platform.

  8. Littérature scientifique et formation à l'information, la situation des bioingénieurs à Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (ULg (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pochet, B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scholarly publication and education in Information Literacy within the bioengineering curriculum, the Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (ULg case. A review. This article is based on a doctoral study on the role of scientific literature in the teaching of bioengineering at Gembloux. It is essentially a summary incorporating recent advances in Information Literacy. Data analysis indicates that the bioengineers working at Gembloux publish at least as much as research as other scientists in Belgium. These bioengineers choose to publish articles in journals with a high impact factor, preferring to read articles rather than books and using all the electronic resources available to them. Their fields of research, and reading, go beyond the bounds of agronomy in the strictest sense. The bioengineering courses provided at Gembloux are based on the concept of Information Literacy. This concept refers to a set of skills that allow individuals to recognize an information need and enable them to locate, evaluate and use the required information. The area of Information Literacy has evolved over the last two decades. The scope of education of this area goes well beyond the bounds of the library. In addition to intellectual skills, Information Literacy also involves social and cultural skills. These include an understanding of media and new information technologies, without being reduced to technical or technological skills. At Gembloux, education in Information Literacy is included in the student's timetable. It incorporates the production of scientific papers and is based on a methodological approach with its own didactic and specific content.

  9. Towards Web-based representation and processing of health information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, S.; Mioc, Darka; Yi, X.L.

    2009-01-01

    facilitated the online processing, mapping and sharing of health information, with the use of HERXML and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) services. It brought a new solution in better health data representation and initial exploration of the Web-based processing of health information. Conclusion: The designed......Background: There is great concern within health surveillance, on how to grapple with environmental degradation, rapid urbanization, population mobility and growth. The Internet has emerged as an efficient way to share health information, enabling users to access and understand data....... For the representation of health information through Web-mapping applications, there still lacks a standard format to accommodate all fixed (such as location) and variable (such as age, gender, health outcome, etc) indicators in the representation of health information. Furthermore, net-centric computing has not been...

  10. Variability of Massive Young Stellar Objects in Cygnus-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nancy H.; Hora, J. L.; Smith, H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Young stellar objects (YSOs) are stars in the process of formation. Several recent investigations have shown a high rate of photometric variability in YSOs at near- and mid-infrared wavelengths. Theoretical models for the formation of massive stars (1-10 solar masses) remain highly idealized, and little is known about the mechanisms that produce the variability. An ongoing Spitzer Space Telescope program is studying massive star formation in the Cygnus-X region. In conjunction with the Spitzer observations, we have conducted a ground-based near-infrared observing program of the Cygnus-X DR21 field using PAIRITEL, the automated infrared telescope at Whipple Observatory. Using the Stetson index for variability, we identified variable objects and a number of variable YSOs in our time-series PAIRITEL data of DR21. We have searched for periodicity among our variable objects using the Lomb-Scargle algorithm, and identified periodic variable objects with an average period of 8.07 days. Characterization of these variable and periodic objects will help constrain models of star formation present. This work is supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 0754568 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  11. Free-format RPG IV the express guide to learning free format

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Focusing strictly on teaching free-format RPG programming methods, this book will help programmers wishing to upgrade their skills   This how-to guide offers a concise and thorough introduction to the increased productivity, better readability, and easier program maintenance that comes with the free-format style of programming in RPG IV. Although free-format information is available in IBM manuals, it is not separated from everything else, requiring hours of tedious research to track down the information needed. This book provides everything you need to know to write RPG IV in the free-format

  12. New Skills, New Jobs: Return Migration, Skill Transfers, and Business Formation in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Jacqueline Maria; Wassink, Joshua

    2016-11-01

    Numerous studies have documented a high propensity for self-employment and business formation among return migrants relative to non-migrants. The literature points to the importance of remitted savings, migration duration, and number and types of jobs abroad for business formation upon return. Implicit in this scholarship is the assumption that migrants acquire not only financial capital, but also human capital, which expands their opportunities upon return. Empirical work has demonstrated how the transfer of formal human capital, such as language skills and professional credentials, influences the mobility pathways of professional return migrants. More recent research has also found that the transfer of informal human capital, such as social and technical skills learned on the job, shape the mobility pathways of return migrants with little schooling. Absent from this scholarship, however, are studies that directly test the relationship between the transfer of informal human capital and the odds of business formation among return migrants. In this paper, we address this gap. Using a multidimensional skills variable, which includes social, technical, and English language competences, we measure and test the relationship between skill acquisition and transfer and business formation among return migrants. Drawing on findings from a survey of 200 return migrants and 200 non-migrants in Mexico, we show that return migrants who successfully acquire and transfer new skills across the migratory circuit often leverage their new knowledge to launch businesses. Our findings have wide implications for how social scientists conceptualize and measure human capital formation across the migratory circuit.

  13. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  14. Eternity Variables to Simulate Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, WH; Boiten, EA; Moller, B

    2002-01-01

    Simulation of specifications is introduced as a unification and generalization of refinement mappings, history variables, forward simulations, prophecy variables, and backward simulations. Eternity variables are introduced as a more powerful alternative for prophecy variables and backward

  15. Canadian Government Electronic Information Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Kirsti

    1993-01-01

    Examines development and evolution of Canadian government information policy in response to issues of preservation of data, information industry involvement in government data development and marketing, role of Crown copyright, and public access to government information in electronic formats. Six key information policy instruments are also…

  16. Debris Disks: Probing Planet Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Wyatt, Mark C.

    2018-01-01

    Debris disks are the dust disks found around ~20% of nearby main sequence stars in far-IR surveys. They can be considered as descendants of protoplanetary disks or components of planetary systems, providing valuable information on circumstellar disk evolution and the outcome of planet formation. The debris disk population can be explained by the steady collisional erosion of planetesimal belts; population models constrain where (10-100au) and in what quantity (>1Mearth) planetesimals (>10km i...

  17. Variable Attitude Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Variable Attitude Test Stand designed and built for testing of the V-22 tilt rotor aircraft propulsion system, is used to evaluate the effect of aircraft flight...

  18. Several complex variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Topics discussed include the elementary of holomorphic functions of several complex variables; the Weierstrass preparation theorem; meromorphic functions, holomorphic line bundles and divisors; elliptic operators on compact manifolds; hermitian connections; the Hodge decomposition theorem. ( author)

  19. Variable-Rate Premiums

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — These interest rates are used to value vested benefits for variable rate premium purposes as described in PBGC's regulation on Premium Rates (29 CFR Part 4006) and...

  20. Variable Pricing Feasibility Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ...) and Willard Bishop Consulting (Barrington, IL) to evaluate the practicality of using a variable pricing system within DeCA to maintain an average of 30 percent customer savings and lower appropriated fund costs...

  1. Evolution of variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.A.

    1986-08-01

    Throughout the domain of the H R diagram lie groupings of stars whose luminosity varies with time. These variable stars can be classified based on their observed properties into distinct types such as β Cephei stars, δ Cephei stars, and Miras, as well as many other categories. The underlying mechanism for the variability is generally felt to be due to four different causes: geometric effects, rotation, eruptive processes, and pulsation. In this review the focus will be on pulsation variables and how the theory of stellar evolution can be used to explain how the various regions of variability on the H R diagram are populated. To this end a generalized discussion of the evolutionary behavior of a massive star, an intermediate mass star, and a low mass star will be presented. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Calculus of one variable

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Stanley I

    1986-01-01

    Calculus of One Variable, Second Edition presents the essential topics in the study of the techniques and theorems of calculus.The book provides a comprehensive introduction to calculus. It contains examples, exercises, the history and development of calculus, and various applications. Some of the topics discussed in the text include the concept of limits, one-variable theory, the derivatives of all six trigonometric functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, and infinite series.This textbook is intended for use by college students.

  3. Software Testing Requires Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2003-01-01

    Software variability is the ability of a software system or artefact to be changed, customized or configured for use in a particular context. Variability in software systems is important from a number of perspectives. Some perspectives rightly receive much attention due to their direct economic...... impact in software production. As is also apparent from the call for papers these perspectives focus on qualities such as reuse, adaptability, and maintainability....

  4. Suspended graphene variable capacitor

    OpenAIRE

    AbdelGhany, M.; Mahvash, F.; Mukhopadhyay, M.; Favron, A.; Martel, R.; Siaj, M.; Szkopek, T.

    2016-01-01

    The tuning of electrical circuit resonance with a variable capacitor, or varactor, finds wide application with the most important being wireless telecommunication. We demonstrate an electromechanical graphene varactor, a variable capacitor wherein the capacitance is tuned by voltage controlled deflection of a dense array of suspended graphene membranes. The low flexural rigidity of graphene monolayers is exploited to achieve low actuation voltage in an ultra-thin structure. Large arrays compr...

  5. FORMATION CONSTANTS AND THERMODYNAMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Metal complexes, Schiff base ligand, Formation constant, DFT calculation ... best values for the formation constants of the proposed equilibrium model by .... to its positive charge distribution and the ligand deformation geometry.

  6. Information and Informality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Magnus; Segerstéen, Solveig; Svensson, Cathrin

    2011-01-01

    leaders on the basis of their possession of reliable knowledge in technical as well as organizational domains. The informal leaders engaged in interpretation and brokering of information and knowledge, as well as in mediating strategic values and priorities on both formal and informal arenas. Informal...... leaders were thus seen to function on the level of the organization as a whole, and in cooperation with formal leaders. Drawing on existing theory of leadership in creative and professional contexts, this cooperation can be specified to concern task structuring. The informal leaders in our study...... contributed to task structuring through sensemaking activities, while formal leaders focused on aspects such as clarifying output expectations, providing feedback, project structure, and diversity....

  7. Memory, expectation formation and scheduling choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, P.R.; Peer, S.; Dekker, T.

    2015-01-01

    Limited memory capacity, retrieval constraints and anchoring are central to expectation formation processes. We develop a model of adaptive expectations where individuals are able to store only a finite number of past experiences of a stochastic state variable. Retrieval of these experiences is

  8. Expectation formation in dynamic market experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemeijer, P.

    2009-01-01

    People often make mistakes when predicting economic variables such as prices. It is important to understand how these predictions are formed, since people's expectations have a large impact on the development and stability of economic systems. In this thesis the expectation formation of individuals

  9. Information Driven Ecohydrologic Self-Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. Ruddell

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Variability plays an important role in the self-organized interaction between vegetation and its environment, yet the principles that characterize the role of the variability in these interactions remain elusive. To address this problem, we study the dependence between a number of variables measured at flux towers by quantifying the information flow between the different variables along with the associated time lag. By examining this network of feedback loops for seven ecosystems in different climate regions, we find that: (1 the feedback tends to maximize information production in the entire system, and the latter increases with increasing variability within the whole system; and (2 variables that participate in feedback exhibit moderated variability. Self-organization arises as a tradeoff where the ability of the total system to maximize information production through feedback is limited by moderate variability of the participating variables. This relationship between variability and information production leads to the emergence of ordered organization.

  10. Theory of aurora formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Akira.

    1975-04-01

    A new theory of aurora formation is presented based on Alfven wave-electron interaction. The theory explains consistently 1) the electron acceleration process, 2) the formation of auroral layers and 3) the long wave formation in the longitudinal direction. (auth.)

  11. Information adaptation the interplay between Shannon information and semantic information in cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Haken, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    This monograph demonstrates the interplay between Shannon information and semantic information in cognition. It shows that Shannon’s information acts as driving force for the formation of semantic information; and vice versa, namely, that semantic information participates in the formation of Shannonian information. The authors show that in cognition, Shannonian and semantic information are interrelated as two aspects of a cognitive process termed as information adaptation. In the latter the mind/brain adapts to the environment by the deflating and/or inflating of the information conveyed by the environment. In the process of information adaptation, quantitative variations in Shannon’s information entail different meanings while different meanings affect the quantity of information. The book illustrates the above conceptually and mathematically by reference to three cognitive processes: pattern recognition, face learning and the recognition of a moving object.

  12. Respiratory variability preceding and following sighs: a resetter hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlemincx, Elke; Van Diest, Ilse; Lehrer, Paul M; Aubert, André E; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2010-04-01

    Respiratory behavior is characterized by complex variability with structured and random components. Assuming that both a lack of variability and too much randomness represent suboptimal breathing regulation, we hypothesized that sighing acts as a resetter inducing structured variability. Spontaneous breathing was measured in healthy persons (N=42) during a 20min period of quiet sitting using the LifeShirt(®) System. Four blocks of 10 breaths with a 50% window overlap were determined before and after spontaneous sighs. Total respiratory variability of minute ventilation was measured using the coefficient of variation and structured (correlated) variability was quantified using autocorrelation. Towards a sigh, total variability gradually increased without concomittant changes in correlated variability, suggesting that randomness increased. After a sigh, correlated variability increased. No changes in variability were found in comparable epochs without intermediate sighs. We conclude that a sigh resets structured respiratory variability, enhancing information processing in the respiratory system. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Using variable combination population analysis for variable selection in multivariate calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yong-Huan; Wang, Wei-Ting; Deng, Bai-Chuan; Lai, Guang-Bi; Liu, Xin-bo; Ren, Da-Bing; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Fan, Wei; Xu, Qing-Song

    2015-03-03

    Variable (wavelength or feature) selection techniques have become a critical step for the analysis of datasets with high number of variables and relatively few samples. In this study, a novel variable selection strategy, variable combination population analysis (VCPA), was proposed. This strategy consists of two crucial procedures. First, the exponentially decreasing function (EDF), which is the simple and effective principle of 'survival of the fittest' from Darwin's natural evolution theory, is employed to determine the number of variables to keep and continuously shrink the variable space. Second, in each EDF run, binary matrix sampling (BMS) strategy that gives each variable the same chance to be selected and generates different variable combinations, is used to produce a population of subsets to construct a population of sub-models. Then, model population analysis (MPA) is employed to find the variable subsets with the lower root mean squares error of cross validation (RMSECV). The frequency of each variable appearing in the best 10% sub-models is computed. The higher the frequency is, the more important the variable is. The performance of the proposed procedure was investigated using three real NIR datasets. The results indicate that VCPA is a good variable selection strategy when compared with four high performing variable selection methods: genetic algorithm-partial least squares (GA-PLS), Monte Carlo uninformative variable elimination by PLS (MC-UVE-PLS), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and iteratively retains informative variables (IRIV). The MATLAB source code of VCPA is available for academic research on the website: http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/authors/498750. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Soil variability in engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessia, Giovanna

    2014-05-01

    Natural geomaterials, as soils and rocks, show spatial variability and heterogeneity of physical and mechanical properties. They can be measured by in field and laboratory testing. The heterogeneity concerns different values of litho-technical parameters pertaining similar lithological units placed close to each other. On the contrary, the variability is inherent to the formation and evolution processes experienced by each geological units (homogeneous geomaterials on average) and captured as a spatial structure of fluctuation of physical property values about their mean trend, e.g. the unit weight, the hydraulic permeability, the friction angle, the cohesion, among others. The preceding spatial variations shall be managed by engineering models to accomplish reliable designing of structures and infrastructures. Materon (1962) introduced the Geostatistics as the most comprehensive tool to manage spatial correlation of parameter measures used in a wide range of earth science applications. In the field of the engineering geology, Vanmarcke (1977) developed the first pioneering attempts to describe and manage the inherent variability in geomaterials although Terzaghi (1943) already highlighted that spatial fluctuations of physical and mechanical parameters used in geotechnical designing cannot be neglected. A few years later, Mandelbrot (1983) and Turcotte (1986) interpreted the internal arrangement of geomaterial according to Fractal Theory. In the same years, Vanmarcke (1983) proposed the Random Field Theory providing mathematical tools to deal with inherent variability of each geological units or stratigraphic succession that can be resembled as one material. In this approach, measurement fluctuations of physical parameters are interpreted through the spatial variability structure consisting in the correlation function and the scale of fluctuation. Fenton and Griffiths (1992) combined random field simulation with the finite element method to produce the Random

  15. Pulsating red variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitelock, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The observational characteristics of pulsating red variables are reviewed with particular emphasis on the Miras. These variables represent the last stage in the evolution of stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). A large fraction of the IRAS sources in the Bulge are Mira variables and a subset of these are also OH/IR sources. Their periods range up to 720 days, though most are between 360 and 560 days. At a given period those stars with the highest pulsation amplitudes have the highest mass-loss rates; this is interpreted as evidence for a causal connection between mass-loss and pulsation. It is suggested that once an AGB star has become a Mira it will evolve with increasing pulsation amplitude and mass-loss, but with very little change of luminosity or logarithmic period. 26 refs

  16. Climatological variability in regional air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, J.D.; Trexler, E.C. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Although some air pollution modeling studies examine events that have already occurred (e.g., the Chernobyl plume) with relevant meteorological conditions largely known, most pollution modeling studies address expected or potential scenarios for the future. Future meteorological conditions, the major pollutant forcing function other than emissions, are inherently uncertain although much relevant information is contained in past observational data. For convenience in our discussions of regional pollutant variability unrelated to emission changes, we define meteorological variability as short-term (within-season) pollutant variability and climatological variability as year-to-year changes in seasonal averages and accumulations of pollutant variables. In observations and in some of our simulations the effects are confounded because for seasons of two different years both the mean and the within-season character of a pollutant variable may change. Effects of climatological and meteorological variability on means and distributions of air pollution parameters, particularly those related to regional visibility, are illustrated. Over periods of up to a decade climatological variability may mask or overstate improvements resulting from emission controls. The importance of including climatological uncertainties in assessing potential policies, particularly when based partly on calculated source-receptor relationships, is highlighted

  17. Resiliencia y variables sociodemograficas

    OpenAIRE

    Calero Martinez, Edgar David

    2015-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se aborda la definición de una de las variables dentro de lo que se denomina Capital psicológico positivo, la Resiliencia, sus principales características y algunas de las variables socio demográficas que en el estudio pretenden ver el nivel de relación existente entre cada una de ellas (indirecta o directamente) en el proceso resiliente de una persona para posteriores discusiones y su implicación dentro de la gestión empresarial y sus direcciones futuras.

  18. Demanda Variável e Lucratividade em Empresas Prestadoras de Serviços: um estudo de caso no setor de tecnologia da informaçãoVariable Demand and Profitability in Service Companies: a case study in the information technology sectorDemanda Variable y Rentabilidad en Empresas Prestadoras de Servicios: un estudio de caso en el sector de tecnología de la información

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIBEIRO, Rodolfo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOAdministrar um cenário de demanda variável é particularmente desafiador em uma empresa de serviços, pois geralmente essas empresas possuem uma maior parcela de custos fixos. O artigo estuda como uma empresa prestadora de serviços administra sua variabilidade de demanda e a relação com a lucratividade da organização. Além disso, buscou-se levantar quais alternativas são utilizadas para minimizar o impacto de uma demanda variável na rentabilidade da empresa. Para isso, foi realizado um estudo de caso único, com uma empresa brasileira prestadora de serviços de tecnologia da informação. O estudo sugere que alternativas como a subcontratação de terceiros para cobrir picos de demanda pode ter benefícios apenas no curto prazo, derrubando a lucratividade da empresa em períodos mais longos. Algumas opções são levantadas, como a internacionalização de funcionários e o investimento na formação de mão-de-obra própria.ABSTRACTManaging a variable demand scenario is particularly challenging on services organizations because services companies usually have a major part of fixed costs. The article studies how a services organization manages its demand variability and its relation with the organization´s profitability. Moreover, the study searched for alternatives used to reduce the demand variability’s impact on the profitability of the company. The research was based on a case study with a Brazilian services provider on information technology business. The study suggests that alternatives like using outsourced employees to cover demand peaks may bring benefits only on short term, reducing the profitability of the company on long term. Some options are revealed, like the internationalization of employees and the investment on developing its own workforce.RESUMENAdministrar un contexto de demanda variable es especialmente desafiador en una empresa de servicios, pues generalmente ellas tienen muchos costos fijos. El art

  19. Information Space, Information Field, Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ya. Tsvetkov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes information space, information field and information environment; shows that information space can be natural and artificial; information field is substantive and processual object and articulates the space property; information environment is concerned with some object and acts as the surrounding in relation to it and is considered with regard to it. It enables to define information environment as a subset of information space. It defines its passive description. Information environment can also be defined as a subset of information field. It corresponds to its active description.

  20. Biological Sampling Variability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-11-08

    There are many sources of variability that exist in the sample collection and analysis process. This paper addresses many, but not all, sources of variability. The main focus of this paper was to better understand and estimate variability due to differences between samplers. Variability between days was also studied, as well as random variability within each sampler. Experiments were performed using multiple surface materials (ceramic and stainless steel), multiple contaminant concentrations (10 spores and 100 spores), and with and without the presence of interfering material. All testing was done with sponge sticks using 10-inch by 10-inch coupons. Bacillus atrophaeus was used as the BA surrogate. Spores were deposited using wet deposition. Grime was coated on the coupons which were planned to include the interfering material (Section 3.3). Samples were prepared and analyzed at PNNL using CDC protocol (Section 3.4) and then cultured and counted. Five samplers were trained so that samples were taken using the same protocol. Each sampler randomly sampled eight coupons each day, four coupons with 10 spores deposited and four coupons with 100 spores deposited. Each day consisted of one material being tested. The clean samples (no interfering materials) were run first, followed by the dirty samples (coated with interfering material). There was a significant difference in recovery efficiency between the coupons with 10 spores deposited (mean of 48.9%) and those with 100 spores deposited (mean of 59.8%). There was no general significant difference between the clean and dirty (containing interfering material) coupons or between the two surface materials; however, there was a significant interaction between concentration amount and presence of interfering material. The recovery efficiency was close to the same for coupons with 10 spores deposited, but for the coupons with 100 spores deposited, the recovery efficiency for the dirty samples was significantly larger (65

  1. INTER-EXAMINER VARIABILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To establish whether inter-examiner variability is still a significant factor for the undergraduate orthopaedic clinical ... D. The scores for each student were tabulated and the range, mean, and pass rate determined for each of the examiners. ... has not the heart to reject the man”, consistently gave higher scores (1).

  2. Several real variables

    CERN Document Server

    Kantorovitz, Shmuel

    2016-01-01

    This undergraduate textbook is based on lectures given by the author on the differential and integral calculus of functions of several real variables. The book has a modern approach and includes topics such as: •The p-norms on vector space and their equivalence •The Weierstrass and Stone-Weierstrass approximation theorems •The differential as a linear functional; Jacobians, Hessians, and Taylor's theorem in several variables •The Implicit Function Theorem for a system of equations, proved via Banach’s Fixed Point Theorem •Applications to Ordinary Differential Equations •Line integrals and an introduction to surface integrals This book features numerous examples, detailed proofs, as well as exercises at the end of sections. Many of the exercises have detailed solutions, making the book suitable for self-study. Several Real Variables will be useful for undergraduate students in mathematics who have completed first courses in linear algebra and analysis of one real variable.

  3. Variability in GPS sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauncey, DL; King, EA; Bignall, HE; Lovell, JEJ; Kedziora-Chudczer, L; Tzioumis, AK; Tingay, SJ; Macquart, JP; McCulloch, PM

    2003-01-01

    Flux density monitoring data at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz is presented for a sample of 33 southern hemisphere GPS sources, drawn from the 2.7 GHz Parkes survey. This monitoring data, together with VLBI monitoring data, shows that a small fraction of these sources, similar to10%, vary. Their variability falls

  4. All Those Independent Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Merle L.

    This paper presents a case study of a sixth grade remedial math class which illustrates the thesis that only the "experimental attitude," not the "experimental method," is appropriate in the classroom. The thesis is based on the fact that too many independent variables exist in a classroom situation to allow precise measurement. The case study…

  5. Variable speed generators

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    With the deregulation of electrical energy production and distribution, says Boldea (Polytechnical Institute, Timisoara, Romania) producers are looking for ways to tailor their electricity for different markets. Variable-speed electric generators are serving that purpose, up to the 400 megavolt ampere unit size, in Japan since 1996 and Germany sinc

  6. Canonical Information Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2015-01-01

    is replaced by the information theoretical, entropy based measure mutual information, which is a much more general measure of association. We make canonical information analysis feasible for large sample problems, including for example multispectral images, due to the use of a fast kernel density estimator......Canonical correlation analysis is an established multivariate statistical method in which correlation between linear combinations of multivariate sets of variables is maximized. In canonical information analysis introduced here, linear correlation as a measure of association between variables...... for entropy estimation. Canonical information analysis is applied successfully to (1) simple simulated data to illustrate the basic idea and evaluate performance, (2) fusion of weather radar and optical geostationary satellite data in a situation with heavy precipitation, and (3) change detection in optical...

  7. A novel variable selection approach that iteratively optimizes variable space using weighted binary matrix sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bai-chuan; Yun, Yong-huan; Liang, Yi-zeng; Yi, Lun-zhao

    2014-10-07

    In this study, a new optimization algorithm called the Variable Iterative Space Shrinkage Approach (VISSA) that is based on the idea of model population analysis (MPA) is proposed for variable selection. Unlike most of the existing optimization methods for variable selection, VISSA statistically evaluates the performance of variable space in each step of optimization. Weighted binary matrix sampling (WBMS) is proposed to generate sub-models that span the variable subspace. Two rules are highlighted during the optimization procedure. First, the variable space shrinks in each step. Second, the new variable space outperforms the previous one. The second rule, which is rarely satisfied in most of the existing methods, is the core of the VISSA strategy. Compared with some promising variable selection methods such as competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), Monte Carlo uninformative variable elimination (MCUVE) and iteratively retaining informative variables (IRIV), VISSA showed better prediction ability for the calibration of NIR data. In addition, VISSA is user-friendly; only a few insensitive parameters are needed, and the program terminates automatically without any additional conditions. The Matlab codes for implementing VISSA are freely available on the website: https://sourceforge.net/projects/multivariateanalysis/files/VISSA/.

  8. Tides and Decadal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the mechanisms by which oceanic tides and decadal variability in the oceans are connected. We distinguish between variability caused by tides and variability observed in the tides themselves. Both effects have been detected at some level. The most obvious connection with decadal timescales is through the 18.6-year precession of the moon's orbit plane. This precession gives rise to a small tide of the same period and to 18.6-year modulations in the phase and amplitudes of short-period tides. The 18.6-year "node tide" is very small, no more than 2 cm anywhere, and in sea level data it is dominated by the ocean's natural Variability. Some authors have naively attributed climate variations with periods near 19 years directly to the node tide, but the amplitude of the tide is too small for this mechanism to be operative. The more likely explanation (Loder and Garrett, JGR, 83, 1967-70, 1978) is that the 18.6-y modulations in short-period tides, especially h e principal tide M2, cause variations in ocean mixing, which is then observed in temperature and other climatic indicators. Tidally forced variability has also been proposed by some authors, either in response to occasional (and highly predictable) tidal extremes or as a nonlinear low-frequency oscillation caused by interactions between short-period tides. The former mechanism can produce only short-duration events hardly more significant than normal tidal ranges, but the latter mechanism can in principle induce low-frequency oscillations. The most recent proposal of this type is by Keeling and Whorf, who highlight the 1800-year spectral peak discovered by Bond et al. (1997). But the proposal appears contrived and should be considered, in the words of Munk et al. (2002), "as the most likely among unlikely candidates."

  9. Stages of ores formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Deposit formation (especially endogenous) is the complicated, multi-stage and long process. Establishment of deposit formation succession, age-specific correlations of minerals and aggregates have a high importance at solving genetic questions. Studying of minerals correlations and mineral aggregates, succession of their crystallization and other observations let restore the history of deposit formation, pick up in it different on duration and physical and chemical conditions stages

  10. Planet formation in Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Thebault, Ph.; Haghighipour, N.

    2014-01-01

    Spurred by the discovery of numerous exoplanets in multiple systems, binaries have become in recent years one of the main topics in planet formation research. Numerous studies have investigated to what extent the presence of a stellar companion can affect the planet formation process. Such studies have implications that can reach beyond the sole context of binaries, as they allow to test certain aspects of the planet formation scenario by submitting them to extreme environments. We review her...

  11. THE BLACK HOLE FORMATION PROBABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, Drew; Piro, Anthony L.; Ott, Christian D., E-mail: dclausen@tapir.caltech.edu [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Mailcode 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A longstanding question in stellar evolution is which massive stars produce black holes (BHs) rather than neutron stars (NSs) upon death. It has been common practice to assume that a given zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass star (and perhaps a given metallicity) simply produces either an NS or a BH, but this fails to account for a myriad of other variables that may effect this outcome, such as spin, binarity, or even stochastic differences in the stellar structure near core collapse. We argue that instead a probabilistic description of NS versus BH formation may be better suited to account for the current uncertainties in understanding how massive stars die. We present an initial exploration of the probability that a star will make a BH as a function of its ZAMS mass, P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}). Although we find that it is difficult to derive a unique P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}) using current measurements of both the BH mass distribution and the degree of chemical enrichment by massive stars, we demonstrate how P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}) changes with these various observational and theoretical uncertainties. We anticipate that future studies of Galactic BHs and theoretical studies of core collapse will refine P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}) and argue that this framework is an important new step toward better understanding BH formation. A probabilistic description of BH formation will be useful as input for future population synthesis studies that are interested in the formation of X-ray binaries, the nature and event rate of gravitational wave sources, and answering questions about chemical enrichment.

  12. THE BLACK HOLE FORMATION PROBABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, Drew; Piro, Anthony L.; Ott, Christian D.

    2015-01-01

    A longstanding question in stellar evolution is which massive stars produce black holes (BHs) rather than neutron stars (NSs) upon death. It has been common practice to assume that a given zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass star (and perhaps a given metallicity) simply produces either an NS or a BH, but this fails to account for a myriad of other variables that may effect this outcome, such as spin, binarity, or even stochastic differences in the stellar structure near core collapse. We argue that instead a probabilistic description of NS versus BH formation may be better suited to account for the current uncertainties in understanding how massive stars die. We present an initial exploration of the probability that a star will make a BH as a function of its ZAMS mass, P BH (M ZAMS ). Although we find that it is difficult to derive a unique P BH (M ZAMS ) using current measurements of both the BH mass distribution and the degree of chemical enrichment by massive stars, we demonstrate how P BH (M ZAMS ) changes with these various observational and theoretical uncertainties. We anticipate that future studies of Galactic BHs and theoretical studies of core collapse will refine P BH (M ZAMS ) and argue that this framework is an important new step toward better understanding BH formation. A probabilistic description of BH formation will be useful as input for future population synthesis studies that are interested in the formation of X-ray binaries, the nature and event rate of gravitational wave sources, and answering questions about chemical enrichment

  13. The Black Hole Formation Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Drew; Piro, Anthony L.; Ott, Christian D.

    2015-02-01

    A longstanding question in stellar evolution is which massive stars produce black holes (BHs) rather than neutron stars (NSs) upon death. It has been common practice to assume that a given zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass star (and perhaps a given metallicity) simply produces either an NS or a BH, but this fails to account for a myriad of other variables that may effect this outcome, such as spin, binarity, or even stochastic differences in the stellar structure near core collapse. We argue that instead a probabilistic description of NS versus BH formation may be better suited to account for the current uncertainties in understanding how massive stars die. We present an initial exploration of the probability that a star will make a BH as a function of its ZAMS mass, P BH(M ZAMS). Although we find that it is difficult to derive a unique P BH(M ZAMS) using current measurements of both the BH mass distribution and the degree of chemical enrichment by massive stars, we demonstrate how P BH(M ZAMS) changes with these various observational and theoretical uncertainties. We anticipate that future studies of Galactic BHs and theoretical studies of core collapse will refine P BH(M ZAMS) and argue that this framework is an important new step toward better understanding BH formation. A probabilistic description of BH formation will be useful as input for future population synthesis studies that are interested in the formation of X-ray binaries, the nature and event rate of gravitational wave sources, and answering questions about chemical enrichment.

  14. Data format translation routines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burris, R.D.

    1981-02-01

    To enable the effective connection of several dissimilar computers into a network, modification of the data being passed from one computer to another may become necessary. This document describes a package of routines which permit the translation of data in PDP-8 formats to PDP-11 or DECsystem-10 formats or from PDP-11 format to DECsystem-10 format. Additional routines are described which permit the effective use of the translation routines in the environment of the Fusion Energy Division (FED) network and the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT) data base

  15. Exploring Opponent Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Rasmussen, Majken; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    of how the opponent format and relationships impact a game are almost absent in current research. Thus, this paper aims to elucidate how the perception of a competition differs, depending on the opponent format, by presenting a game mechanic framework. The paper furthermore presents an interactive...... football-training platform, as well as games designed to explore the different opponent formats. The games are qualitatively evaluated to illuminate the qualities of and distinctions between different types of opponent formats, proposed by the framework terminology....

  16. Dynamic statistical information theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In recent years we extended Shannon static statistical information theory to dynamic processes and established a Shannon dynamic statistical information theory, whose core is the evolution law of dynamic entropy and dynamic information. We also proposed a corresponding Boltzmman dynamic statistical information theory. Based on the fact that the state variable evolution equation of respective dynamic systems, i.e. Fokker-Planck equation and Liouville diffusion equation can be regarded as their information symbol evolution equation, we derived the nonlinear evolution equations of Shannon dynamic entropy density and dynamic information density and the nonlinear evolution equations of Boltzmann dynamic entropy density and dynamic information density, that describe respectively the evolution law of dynamic entropy and dynamic information. The evolution equations of these two kinds of dynamic entropies and dynamic informations show in unison that the time rate of change of dynamic entropy densities is caused by their drift, diffusion and production in state variable space inside the systems and coordinate space in the transmission processes; and that the time rate of change of dynamic information densities originates from their drift, diffusion and dissipation in state variable space inside the systems and coordinate space in the transmission processes. Entropy and information have been combined with the state and its law of motion of the systems. Furthermore we presented the formulas of two kinds of entropy production rates and information dissipation rates, the expressions of two kinds of drift information flows and diffusion information flows. We proved that two kinds of information dissipation rates (or the decrease rates of the total information) were equal to their corresponding entropy production rates (or the increase rates of the total entropy) in the same dynamic system. We obtained the formulas of two kinds of dynamic mutual informations and dynamic channel

  17. Track formation. Principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnin, M.

    1978-01-01

    The principles and technical aspects of track formation in insulating solids are first described. The characteristics of dialectic track detection are discussed from the technical point of view: the nature of the detectors, the chemical treatment, the sensitivity and the environmental conditions of use. The applications are reviewed. The principle of each type of applied research is described and then the applications are listed. When used as a detector, nuclear tracks can provide valuable information in a number of fields: element content determination and wrapping, imaging, radiation dosimetry, environmental studies, technological uses and miscellaneous other applications. The track-formation process can also be used for making well-defined holes; this method allows other applications which are also described. Finally, some possible future applications are mentioned. (author)

  18. Complex Formation Control of Large-Scale Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new formation framework of large-scale intelligent autonomous vehicles is developed, which can realize complex formations while reducing data exchange. Using the proposed hierarchy formation method and the automatic dividing algorithm, vehicles are automatically divided into leaders and followers by exchanging information via wireless network at initial time. Then, leaders form formation geometric shape by global formation information and followers track their own virtual leaders to form line formation by local information. The formation control laws of leaders and followers are designed based on consensus algorithms. Moreover, collision-avoiding problems are considered and solved using artificial potential functions. Finally, a simulation example that consists of 25 vehicles shows the effectiveness of theory.

  19. Imaging Brain Development: Benefiting from Individual Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Sharda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human brain development is a complex process that evolves from early childhood to young adulthood. Major advances in brain imaging are increasingly being used to characterize the developing brain. These advances have further helped to elucidate the dynamic maturational processes that lead to the emergence of complex cognitive abilities in both typical and atypical development. However, conventional approaches involve categorical group comparison models and tend to disregard the role of widespread interindividual variability in brain development. This review highlights how this variability can inform our understanding of developmental processes. The latest studies in the field of brain development are reviewed, with a particular focus on the role of individual variability and the consequent heterogeneity in brain structural and functional development. This review also highlights how such heterogeneity might be utilized to inform our understanding of complex neuropsychiatric disorders and recommends the use of more dimensional approaches to study brain development.

  20. Travel time variability and rational inattention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Jiang, Gege

    2017-01-01

    This paper sets up a rational inattention model for the choice of departure time for a traveler facing random travel time. The traveler chooses how much information to acquire about the travel time out-come before choosing departure time. This reduces the cost of travel time variability compared...

  1. On the concept of a linguistic variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerre, E.

    1996-01-01

    The concept of a linguistic variable plays a crucial role in the representation of imprecise knowledge in information sciences. A variable is called linguistic as soon as its values are linguistic terms rather than numerical ones. The power of daily communication and common sense reasoning lies in the use of such linguistic values. Even when exact numerical values are available, experts tend to transform these values into linguistic ones. A physician will usually translate a numerical measurement of a blood pressure into linguistic specifications such as normal, very high, too low... Zadeh has argued that the set of values for a linguistic variable assumes a more-or-less fixed structure. Starting from an atomic value and its antonym all remaining values are constructed using logical connectives on the one hand and linguistic hedges on the other hand. In this paper we will describe how to represent the value set of a linguistic variable in general and of linguistic hedges in particular

  2. XML-based DICOM data format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cong; Yao, Zhihong

    2010-04-01

    To enhance the readability, improve the structure, and facilitate the sharing of digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) files, this research proposed one kind of XML-based DICOM data format. Because XML Schema offers great flexibility for expressing constraints on the content model of elements, we used it to describe the new format, thus making it consistent with the one originally defined by DICOM. Meanwhile, such schemas can be used in the creation and validation of the XML-encoded DICOM files, acting as a standard for data transmission and sharing on the Web. Upon defining the new data format, we started with representing a single data element and further improved the whole data structure with the method of modularization. In contrast to the original format, the new one possesses better structure without loss of related information. In addition, we demonstrated the application of XSLT and XQuery. All of the advantages mentioned above resulted from this new data format.

  3. Heart rate variability in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javorka, K; Lehotska, Z; Kozar, M; Uhrikova, Z; Kolarovszki, B; Javorka, M; Zibolen, M

    2017-09-22

    Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in newborns is influenced by genetic determinants, gestational and postnatal age, and other variables. Premature infants have a reduced HRV. In neonatal HRV evaluated by spectral analysis, a dominant activity can be found in low frequency (LF) band (combined parasympathetic and sympathetic component). During the first postnatal days the activity in the high frequency (HF) band (parasympathetic component) rises, together with an increase in LF band and total HRV. Hypotrophy in newborn can cause less mature autonomic cardiac control with a higher contribution of sympathetic activity to HRV as demonstrated by sequence plot analysis. During quiet sleep (QS) in newborns HF oscillations increase - a phenomenon less expressed or missing in premature infants. In active sleep (AS), HRV is enhanced in contrast to reduced activity in HF band due to the rise of spectral activity in LF band. Comparison of the HR and HRV in newborns born by physiological vaginal delivery, without (VD) and with epidural anesthesia (EDA) and via sectio cesarea (SC) showed no significant differences in HR and in HRV time domain parameters. Analysis in the frequency domain revealed, that the lowest sympathetic activity in chronotropic cardiac chronotropic regulation is in the VD group. Different neonatal pathological states can be associated with a reduction of HRV and an improvement in the health conditions is followed by changes in HRV what can be use as a possible prognostic marker. Examination of heart rate variability in neonatology can provide information on the maturity of the cardiac chronotropic regulation in early postnatal life, on postnatal adaptation and in pathological conditions about the potential dysregulation of cardiac function in newborns, especially in preterm infants.

  4. Variable Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, T.; Iwashita, Y.; Kyoto U.; Kumada, M.; NIRS, Chiba; Spencer, C.M.; SLAC

    2007-01-01

    A permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) is one of the candidates for the final focus lens in a linear collider. An over 120 T/m strong variable permanent magnet quadrupole is achieved by the introduction of saturated iron and a 'double ring structure'. A fabricated PMQ achieved 24 T integrated gradient with 20 mm bore diameter, 100 mm magnet diameter and 20 cm pole length. The strength of the PMQ is adjustable in 1.4 T steps, due to its 'double ring structure': the PMQ is split into two nested rings; the outer ring is sliced along the beam line into four parts and is rotated to change the strength. This paper describes the variable PMQ from fabrication to recent adjustments

  5. On Complex Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Khurshid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this paper, it is shown that a complex multivariate random variable  is a complex multivariate normal random variable of dimensionality if and only if all nondegenerate complex linear combinations of  have a complex univariate normal distribution. The characteristic function of  has been derived, and simpler forms of some theorems have been given using this characterization theorem without assuming that the variance-covariance matrix of the vector  is Hermitian positive definite. Marginal distributions of  have been given. In addition, a complex multivariate t-distribution has been defined and the density derived. A characterization of the complex multivariate t-distribution is given. A few possible uses of this distribution have been suggested.

  6. Technological Capability's Predictor Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Maciel Reichert

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the factors that influence in configuration of the technological capability of companies in sectors with medium-low technological intensity. To achieve the goal proposed in this article a survey was carried out. Based on the framework developed by Lall (1992 which classifies firms in basic, intermediate and advanced level of technological capability; it was found that the predominant technological capability is intermediate, with 83.7% of respondent companies (plastics companies in Brazil. It is believed that the main contribution of this study is the finding that the dependent variable named “Technological Capability” can be explained at a rate of 65% by six variables: development of new processes; selection of the best equipment supplier; sales of internally developed new technology to third parties; design and manufacture of equipment; study of the work methods and perform inventory control; and improvement of product quality.

  7. Esencialismo, su Impacto en la Percepción de Similitud y el Uso de Diferente Tipo de Información en la Formación de Impresión Essentialism, its Impact on Similarity Perception, and the Use of Different Type of Information in the Formation of Impression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Calquin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio examina el impacto del esencialismo psicológico (Medin, 1989 en la percepción de similitud y en el uso diferencial de información para formarse una impresión de ejemplares y categorías sociales. Noventa magallánicos (edad M = 21,6; 68,7% mujeres, elegidos accidentalmente, fueron medidos en esencialismo para luego solicitarles inferencias sobre grupos y personas (del endo y el exogrupo, evaluando la similitud percibida y teniendo la opción de utilizar su propia información (proyección o información típica (estereotipo para describirlos. El diseño utilizado fue no experimental, transversal, correlacional y mixto, con variables intragrupo (similitud, tipo de información e intergrupo (esencialismo, que fueron medidas mediante las escalas de esencialismo psicológico, percepción de similitud y proyección social y la utilización de información estereotípica. Los resultados apoyan la existencia de diferencias entre los esencialistas en la dirección de percibir mayor similitud y en el uso de proyección social hacia el endogrupo, mientras que no se observaron diferencias en el uso de la información estereotípica.This research examines the impact of essentialism (Medin, 1989 on the perception of similarity and the differential use of information in order to form an impression about social categories and person targets. Ninety people (age M = 21.6; 68.7% women of an accidental sample from the region of Magallanes, Chile, were tested on essentialism, and then later asked about inferences regarding groups and people from in-group and out-group, thus assessing the perceived similarity and having the option of using their own information (projection or typical information (stereotype to describe them. A non-experimental, correlational design (within variable: similarity, type of information; between variable: essentialism was used. All the participants were measured with the psychological essentialism scale, similarity

  8. Variable Kernel Density Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Terrell, George R.; Scott, David W.

    1992-01-01

    We investigate some of the possibilities for improvement of univariate and multivariate kernel density estimates by varying the window over the domain of estimation, pointwise and globally. Two general approaches are to vary the window width by the point of estimation and by point of the sample observation. The first possibility is shown to be of little efficacy in one variable. In particular, nearest-neighbor estimators in all versions perform poorly in one and two dimensions, but begin to b...

  9. TEC variability over Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, B.; Alazo, K.; Rodriguez, M.; Calzadilla, A.

    2003-01-01

    The variability of total electron content (TEC) measured over Havana using ATS-6, SMS-1 and GOES-3 geosynchronous satellite signals has been investigated for low, middle and high solar activity periods from 1974 to 1982. The obtained results show that standard deviation is smooth during nighttime hours and maximum at noon or postnoon hours. Strong solar activity dependence of standard deviation with a maximum values during HSA has been found. (author)

  10. Peran Information Conciousness dan Nutrient Information dalam Meningkatkan Kinerja Individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niken Wahyu Wilujeng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze nutrient information and information consciousness as factors that influence employee’s performance and job satisfication as intervening variable for finance employee in Brawijaya University. By employing Partial Least Square technique, it was indicated that nutrient information and information consciousness have positive effect to job satisfication, while job satisfication can also fully mediate nutrient information and information consciousness to employee’s performance. This research also indicated that information consciousness and nutrient information are factors that influence finance employee’s performance through intelectual emphasis.

  11. Articulatory variability in cluttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartinger, Mariam; Mooshammer, Christine

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the articulatory processes of the hasty and mumbled speech in cluttering, the kinematic variability was analysed by means of electromagnetic midsagittal articulography. In contrast to persons with stuttering, those with cluttering improve their intelligibility by concentrating on their speech task. Variability has always been an important criterion in comparable studies of stuttering and is discussed in terms of the stability of the speech motor system. The aim of the current study was to analyse the spatial and temporal variability in the speech of three persons with cluttering (PWC) and three control speakers. All participants were native speakers of German. The speech material consisted of repetitive CV syllables and loan words such as 'emotionalisieren', because PWC have the severest problems with long words with a complex syllable structure. The results showed a significantly higher coefficient of variation for PWC in loan word production, both in the temporal and in the spatial domain, whereas the means of displacements and durations did not differ between groups. These findings were discussed in terms of the effects of the linguistic complexity, since for the syllable repetition task, no significant differences between PWC and controls were found. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Formation of multiple networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    we introduce the first network formation model for multiple networks. Network formation models are among the most popular tools in traditional network studies, because of both their practical and theoretical impact. However, existing models are not sufficient to describe the generation of multiple...

  13. Formation of nuclear security culture in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Gavryliuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Issues of nuclear security culture formation are considered in the article. Information on establishing and ac-tivity of Working Group for formation and development of nuclear security culture being held during 2010 – 2013 is given. An issue of regulation of activity on formation and development of nuclear security culture is il-lustrated. Analysis of the survey results regarding efficiency assessment of the work aimed to form and develop of nuclear security culture of nuclear facilities is carried out. The results show that the nuclear security culture of the most of nuclear facilities in Ukraine has been formed and is at the stage of development.

  14. Formation of nuclear security culture in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilyuk, V.Yi.; Gavrilyuk-Burakova, A.V.; Drapej, S.S.; Parkhomenko, V.V.; Proskuryin, D.V.; Romanova, O.P.

    2014-01-01

    Issues of nuclear security culture formation are considered in the article. Information on establishing and activity of Working Group for formation and development of nuclear security culture being held during 2010 - 2013 is given. An issue of regulation of activity on formation and development of nuclear security culture is illustrated. Analysis of the survey results regarding efficiency assessment of the work aimed to form and develop of nuclear security culture of nuclear facilities is carried out. The results show that the nuclear security culture of the most of nuclear facilities in Ukraine has been formed and is at the stage of development

  15. From Sermon Formation to Preacher Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaarden, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    today is less about exercising the authority of an office and more about embodying authenticity. I argue that traditional homiletic education can benefit from implementing a learner-centered approach to teaching moving from sermon formation towards preacher formation, in order to develop and train...... preachers. This involves a learning strategy to ministry where theological skills, pastoral competences, and own personality are interwoven. Teaching here means facilitating a room of learning where teacher’s power and control is reduced, allowing the preacher to reflect upon own practice without being...... judged, evaluated, or critiqued. In this paper, I explain how a learner-centered approach to education works in practice and show how pastors experience the teaching method and the congregations’ positive response to their improvements. I shall present the results of a focus-group interview with pastors...

  16. Formation and decay of hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, B.

    1992-09-01

    The mechanisms involved in hot nuclei formation and decay and their eventual connexion with fundamental properties of nuclear matter are discussed, i.e. its equation of state is considered. After a brief review of the reactions in which hot nuclei can be formed, the variables which are used to describe them, the corresponding theoretical descriptions and their limits when extreme states are reached are discussed. Experimental evidences for hot nuclei formation are presented, with the corresponding decay properties used as signatures. (R.P.) 64 refs.; 25 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. Bibliographic information interchange with data independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, L.F.P. de

    1980-01-01

    A technique for bibliographic information processing, at the standardized interchange format ISO 2709 or ANSI Z39.2, which allows to obtain programs with data independence is developed. A format definition language and manipulation commands which enable data storage and retrieval at the logical level are specified. With this technique it is possible to implement programs which can accept data from any information system, reducing, therefore, the requirements of a common bibliographic information interchange format. (Author) [pt

  18. Ergonomics: The Forgotten Variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, L. Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    Defines ergonomics and discusses design and environmental considerations. Suggests work-space requirements for: tables, chairs, monitor height, ambient noise and light, electricity, and environmental hazards. Includes sources for additional information related to ergonomic design. (AEF)

  19. PUBLIC EDUCATIONAL POLITICS IN SOUTH KOREA IN THE FORMATION OF THE INFORMATION SOCIETY POLÍTICAS EDUCATIVAS PÚBLICAS EN COREA DEL SUR EN LA FORMACIÓN DE LA SOCIEDAD DE LA INFORMACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia González Pérez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The target of this article is to study and to analyze the public educational politics of the Information Society in South Korea from the end of last century until nowadays. To see the translation of these politics in concrete performances inside the Korean educational system and especially in the primary and secondary education, will allow us to extend the panorama and the approach to this distant region. For this we are going to extract the main conceptual keys and the factors that are going to propitiate this development of the information society in South Korea. The empirical evidence indicates the existence of a wide grade of changeability between the politics that on Information Society are defined and are applied in different countries, showing likewise that the orientation of this politics have experienced changes on time and space.El objetivo de este artículo es estudiar y analizar las políticas educativas públicas de la sociedad de la información en Corea del Sur desde finales del siglo pasado hasta nuestros días. Ver la traducción de estas políticas en actuaciones concretas dentro del sistema educativo coreano y especialmente en la educación primaria y secundaria nos permitirá ampliar el panorama y el acercamiento a esta región tan lejana. Para ello se van a extraer las principales claves conceptuales y los factores que van a propiciar este desarrollo de la sociedad de la información en Corea del sur.La evidencia empírica señala la existencia de un amplio grado de variabilidad entre las políticas que sobre Sociedad de la información se definen y se aplican en diferentes países, mostrando así mismo que la orientación de esas políticas han experimentado variaciones significativas en el tiempo y en el espacio.

  20. Time, Cost, Information Seeking Skills and Format of Resources Present Barriers to Information Seeking by Primary Care Practitioners in a Research Environment. A review of: Andrews James E., Kevin A. Pearce, Carol Ireson, and Margaret M. Love. “Information‐Seeking Behaviors of Practitioners in a Primary Care Practice‐Based Research Network (PBRN.” Journal of the Medical Library Association 93.2 (Apr. 2005: 206‐12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2007-09-01

    by 5%. Themain barriers to information seeking were lack of time (76%, cost (33%, information seeking skills (25%, and format of information sources (22%. The use of EBM resources was fairly low, while there was a high preference for ready reference and interpersonal sources. When compared with print information resources, the use ofonline resources was moderate. A significant correlation was found between use of online sources and use of print sources, namely, that practitioners who used online sources more frequently, also soughtinformation from print sources more frequently, with the inverse being true for those who sought information less frequently from either electronic or print sources.Conclusion – Primary care practitioners in this rural PBRN used print and interpersonal sources more than online sources. Practitioners who are more likely to use print sources are also more likely to seek online information. Librarians working in PBRN environments will need to identify interventions that address barriers such as time, cost, and information‐seeking skills.

  1. Individual Movement Variability Magnitudes Are Explained by Cortical Neural Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haar, Shlomi; Donchin, Opher; Dinstein, Ilan

    2017-09-13

    Humans exhibit considerable motor variability even across trivial reaching movements. This variability can be separated into specific kinematic components such as extent and direction that are thought to be governed by distinct neural processes. Here, we report that individual subjects (males and females) exhibit different magnitudes of kinematic variability, which are consistent (within individual) across movements to different targets and regardless of which arm (right or left) was used to perform the movements. Simultaneous fMRI recordings revealed that the same subjects also exhibited different magnitudes of fMRI variability across movements in a variety of motor system areas. These fMRI variability magnitudes were also consistent across movements to different targets when performed with either arm. Cortical fMRI variability in the posterior-parietal cortex of individual subjects explained their movement-extent variability. This relationship was apparent only in posterior-parietal cortex and not in other motor system areas, thereby suggesting that individuals with more variable movement preparation exhibit larger kinematic variability. We therefore propose that neural and kinematic variability are reliable and interrelated individual characteristics that may predispose individual subjects to exhibit distinct motor capabilities. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neural activity and movement kinematics are remarkably variable. Although intertrial variability is rarely studied, here, we demonstrate that individual human subjects exhibit distinct magnitudes of neural and kinematic variability that are reproducible across movements to different targets and when performing these movements with either arm. Furthermore, when examining the relationship between cortical variability and movement variability, we find that cortical fMRI variability in parietal cortex of individual subjects explained their movement extent variability. This enabled us to explain why some subjects

  2. Register of Education and Training Activities in Librarianship, Information Science and Archives = Inventaire des activites de formation dans le domaine de la bibliotheconomie, des sciences de l'information et de l'archivistique = Inventario de las actividades de formacion en la esfera de la bibliotecologia, las ciencias de la informacion y la archivologia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grolier, Eric, Comp.

    This register provides information on information science, librarianship, documentation, and archival science training activities conducted outside regular university courses organized by specialized schools. Based on a December 1980 UNESCO questionnaire survey, the register includes seminars, refresher courses, continuing education courses, and…

  3. Information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Wendell; Corker, Kevin

    1990-01-01

    Primary Flight Display (PFD) information management and cockpit display of information management research is presented in viewgraph form. The information management problem in the cockpit, information management burdens, the key characteristics of an information manager, the interface management system handling the flow of information and the dialogs between the system and the pilot, and overall system architecture are covered.

  4. Information technologies in technical education

    OpenAIRE

    Кравченя, Э. М.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of researches is working out of the concept of filling of discipline «Information and computer technologies in formation» the first step of higher education entered into curricula was at engineering-pedagogical faculty BNTU. It is shown that as a result of discipline studying there is an expansion of outlook and formation at students of technical college of independent thinking in the field of modern and perspective information technology.

  5. Insights into the variability of nucleated amyloid polymerization by a minimalistic model of stochastic protein assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eugène, Sarah, E-mail: Sarah.Eugene@inria.fr; Doumic, Marie, E-mail: Philippe.Robert@inria.fr, E-mail: Marie.Doumic@inria.fr [INRIA de Paris, 2 Rue Simone Iff, CS 42112, 75589 Paris Cedex 12 (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005 Paris (France); Xue, Wei-Feng, E-mail: W.F.Xue@kent.ac.uk [School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NJ (United Kingdom); Robert, Philippe, E-mail: Philippe.Robert@inria.fr [INRIA de Paris, 2 Rue Simone Iff, CS 42112, 75589 Paris Cedex 12 (France)

    2016-05-07

    Self-assembly of proteins into amyloid aggregates is an important biological phenomenon associated with human diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Amyloid fibrils also have potential applications in nano-engineering of biomaterials. The kinetics of amyloid assembly show an exponential growth phase preceded by a lag phase, variable in duration as seen in bulk experiments and experiments that mimic the small volumes of cells. Here, to investigate the origins and the properties of the observed variability in the lag phase of amyloid assembly currently not accounted for by deterministic nucleation dependent mechanisms, we formulate a new stochastic minimal model that is capable of describing the characteristics of amyloid growth curves despite its simplicity. We then solve the stochastic differential equations of our model and give mathematical proof of a central limit theorem for the sample growth trajectories of the nucleated aggregation process. These results give an asymptotic description for our simple model, from which closed form analytical results capable of describing and predicting the variability of nucleated amyloid assembly were derived. We also demonstrate the application of our results to inform experiments in a conceptually friendly and clear fashion. Our model offers a new perspective and paves the way for a new and efficient approach on extracting vital information regarding the key initial events of amyloid formation.

  6. Earth formation porosity log

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D.; Smith, M.P.; Schultz, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for determining the porosity of earth formations in the vicinity of a cased well borehole is described, comprising the steps of: irradiating the earth formations in the vicinity of the cased well borehole with fast neutrons from a source of fast neutrons passed into the borehole; and generating a signal representative of the fast neutron population present in the well borehole at a location in the borehole, the signal is functionally related to the porosity of the earth formations in the vicinity of the borehole

  7. Manuel UNIMARC format bibliographique

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    This manual is the French translation of the second edition of UNIMARC Manual: bibliographic format published in English in 1994 and completed by 5 updates published from 1996 to 2005. This 5th French edition is composite. It reproduces identically a part of the 4th edition published in 2002 and, for the fields of the format modified in the Update 5, it offers a new more structured presentation. This is a handbook dedicated to French-speaking users of the UNIMARC format for bibliographic descriptions.

  8. Universal formats for nonlinear ordinary differential systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, E.H.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that very general nonlinear ordinary differential systems (embracing all that arise in practice) may, first, be brought down to polynomial systems (where the nonlinearities occur only as polynomials in the dependent variables) by introducing suitable new variables into the original system; second, that polynomial systems are reducible to ''Riccati systems,'' where the nonlinearities are quadratic at most; third, that Riccati systems may be brought to elemental universal formats containing purely quadratic terms with simple arrays of coefficients that are all zero or unity. The elemental systems have representations as novel types of matrix Riccati equations. Different starting systems and their associated Riccati systems differ from one another, at the final elemental level, in order and in initial data, but not in format

  9. Understanding Solar Cycle Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R. H.; Schüssler, M., E-mail: cameron@mps.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2017-07-10

    The level of solar magnetic activity, as exemplified by the number of sunspots and by energetic events in the corona, varies on a wide range of timescales. Most prominent is the 11-year solar cycle, which is significantly modulated on longer timescales. Drawing from dynamo theory, together with the empirical results of past solar activity and similar phenomena for solar-like stars, we show that the variability of the solar cycle can be essentially understood in terms of a weakly nonlinear limit cycle affected by random noise. In contrast to ad hoc “toy models” for the solar cycle, this leads to a generic normal-form model, whose parameters are all constrained by observations. The model reproduces the characteristics of the variable solar activity on timescales between decades and millennia, including the occurrence and statistics of extended periods of very low activity (grand minima). Comparison with results obtained with a Babcock–Leighton-type dynamo model confirm the validity of the normal-mode approach.

  10. Sectoral use of climate information in Europe: A synoptic overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bruno Soares

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Society can benefit from usable climate information to better prepare and adapt to the risks and opportunities posed by climate variability and change. An adequate and effective provision of climate information – from historical observations through to seasonal forecasts, and multi-decadal climate change projections – is critical to inform planning and decision-making in climate-sensitive sectors. Central to this are the end-users of climate information and a growing emphasis on tailored climate information and services shaped by user needs. However, knowledge about the use of climate information across European economic sectors is limited. This paper identifies the spectrum of sectoral information requirements across a number of sectors including agriculture, forestry, energy, water, tourism, insurance, health, emergency services and transport sectors, drawing from an online survey (n = 462 and interviews with (potential users of climate information (n = 80. This analysis reveals shared opportunities across sectors including the potential application of decadal climate predictions. In addition, common barriers and enablers to the uptake of climate information were also noted including the format of the information provided, the need for compatibility with existing in-house systems, and the perceived credibility and trust of information providers. This analysis also points towards a perceived increasing fragmentation of available information and the desire amongst end-users for a European body able to centralise and coordinate climate data. We highlight some of the current factors that still need to be adequately addressed in order to enhance the uptake and application of climate information in decision-making across European economic sectors. Keywords: User needs, Climate information, Decision-making, Climate services, Europe

  11. The AMMA information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Laurence; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Cloché, Sophie; Mière, Arnaud; Moulaye, Oumarou; Ramage, Karim; Favot, Florence; Boulanger, Damien

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA) programme, several tools have been developed in order to boost the data and information exchange between researchers from different disciplines. The AMMA information system includes (i) a user-friendly data management and dissemination system, (ii) quasi real-time display websites and (iii) a scientific paper exchange collaborative tool. The AMMA information system is enriched by past and ongoing projects (IMPETUS, FENNEC, ESCAPE, QweCI, ACASIS, DACCIWA...) addressing meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, extreme events, health, adaptation of human societies... It is becoming a reference information system on environmental issues in West Africa. (i) The projects include airborne, ground-based and ocean measurements, social science surveys, satellite data use, modelling studies and value-added product development. Therefore, the AMMA data portal enables to access a great amount and a large variety of data: - 250 local observation datasets, that cover many geophysical components (atmosphere, ocean, soil, vegetation) and human activities (agronomy, health). They have been collected by operational networks since 1850, long term monitoring research networks (CATCH, IDAF, PIRATA...) and intensive scientific campaigns; - 1350 outputs of a socio-economics questionnaire; - 60 operational satellite products and several research products; - 10 output sets of meteorological and ocean operational models and 15 of research simulations. Data documentation complies with metadata international standards, and data are delivered into standard formats. The data request interface takes full advantage of the database relational structure and enables users to elaborate multicriteria requests (period, area, property, property value…). The AMMA data portal counts about 900 registered users, and 50 data requests every month. The AMMA databases and data portal have been developed and are operated jointly by SEDOO and

  12. The AMMA information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Laurence; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Cloché, Sophie; Eymard, Laurence; Mastrorillo, Laurence; Moulaye, Oumarou; Ramage, Karim; Favot, Florence; Roussot, Odile

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA) programme, several tools have been developed in order to facilitate and speed up data and information exchange between researchers from different disciplines. The AMMA information system includes (i) a multidisciplinary user-friendly data management and dissemination system, (ii) report and chart archives associated with display websites and (iii) a scientific paper exchange system. The AMMA information system is enriched by several previous (IMPETUS...) and following projects (FENNEC, ESCAPE, QweCI, DACCIWA…) and is becoming a reference information system about West Africa monsoon. (i) The AMMA project includes airborne, ground-based and ocean measurements, satellite data use, modelling studies and value-added product development. Therefore, the AMMA database user interface enables to access a great amount and a large variety of data: - 250 local observation datasets, that cover many geophysical components (atmosphere, ocean, soil, vegetation) and human activities (agronomy, health). They have been collected by operational networks from 1850 to present, long term monitoring research networks (CATCH, IDAF, PIRATA...) or scientific campaigns; - 1350 outputs of a socio-economics questionnaire; - 60 operational satellite products and several research products; - 10 output sets of meteorological and ocean operational models and 15 of research simulations. All the data are documented in compliance with metadata international standards, and delivered into standard formats. The data request user interface takes full advantage of the data and metadata base relational structure and enables users to elaborate easily multicriteria data requests (period, area, property, property value…). The AMMA data portal counts around 800 registered users and process about 50 data requests every month. The AMMA databases and data portal have been developed and are operated jointly by SEDOO and ESPRI in France

  13. Cosmology and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    Implications of the massive halos and ''missing mass'' for galaxy formation are addressed; it is suggested that this mass consists of ''Population III'' stars that formed before the galaxies did. 19 references

  14. Fracturing formations in wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daroza, R A

    1964-05-15

    This well stimulation method comprises introducing through the well bore a low-penetrating, dilatant fluid, and subjecting the fluid to sufficient pressure to produce fractures in the formation. The fluid is permitted to remain in contact with the formation so as to become diluted by the formation fluids, and thereby lose its properties of dilatancy. Also, a penetrating fluid, containing a propping agent suspended therein, in introduced into contact with the fractures at a pressure substantially reduced with respect to that pressure which would have been required, prior to the fracturing operation performed using the low-penetrating dilatant fluid. The propping agent is deposited within the fractures, and thereafter, fluid production is resumed from the fractured formation. (2 claims)

  15. Star formation: Cosmic feast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaringi, Simone

    2017-03-01

    Low-mass stars form through a process known as disk accretion, eating up material that orbits in a disk around them. It turns out that the same mechanism also describes the formation of more massive stars.

  16. Plant Formate Dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Markwell

    2005-01-10

    The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

  17. Neuronal variability during handwriting: lognormal distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery I Rupasov

    Full Text Available We examined time-dependent statistical properties of electromyographic (EMG signals recorded from intrinsic hand muscles during handwriting. Our analysis showed that trial-to-trial neuronal variability of EMG signals is well described by the lognormal distribution clearly distinguished from the Gaussian (normal distribution. This finding indicates that EMG formation cannot be described by a conventional model where the signal is normally distributed because it is composed by summation of many random sources. We found that the variability of temporal parameters of handwriting--handwriting duration and response time--is also well described by a lognormal distribution. Although, the exact mechanism of lognormal statistics remains an open question, the results obtained should significantly impact experimental research, theoretical modeling and bioengineering applications of motor networks. In particular, our results suggest that accounting for lognormal distribution of EMGs can improve biomimetic systems that strive to reproduce EMG signals in artificial actuators.

  18. Information Crisis

    CERN Document Server

    Losavio, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Information Crisis discusses the scope and types of information available online and teaches readers how to critically assess it and analyze potentially dangerous information, especially when teachers, editors, or other information gatekeepers are not available to assess the information for them. Chapters and topics include:. The Internet as an information tool. Critical analysis. Legal issues, traps, and tricks. Protecting personal safety and identity. Types of online information.

  19. Solar variability and clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2000-01-01

    Satellite observations have revealed a surprising imprint of the 11- year solar cycle on global low cloud cover. The cloud data suggest a correlation with the intensity of Galactic cosmic rays. If this apparent connection between cosmic rays and clouds is real, variations of the cosmic ray flux caused by long-term changes in the solar wind could have a significant influence on the global energy radiation budget and the climate. However a direct link between cosmic rays and clouds has not been unambiguously established and, moreover, the microphysical mechanism is poorly understood. New experiments are being planned to find out whether cosmic rays can affect cloud formation, and if so how. (37 refs).

  20. Variable selection in multivariate calibration based on clustering of variable concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhnia, Maryam; Karimi, Sadegh

    2016-01-01

    Recently we have proposed a new variable selection algorithm, based on clustering of variable concept (CLoVA) in classification problem. With the same idea, this new concept has been applied to a regression problem and then the obtained results have been compared with conventional variable selection strategies for PLS. The basic idea behind the clustering of variable is that, the instrument channels are clustered into different clusters via clustering algorithms. Then, the spectral data of each cluster are subjected to PLS regression. Different real data sets (Cargill corn, Biscuit dough, ACE QSAR, Soy, and Tablet) have been used to evaluate the influence of the clustering of variables on the prediction performances of PLS. Almost in the all cases, the statistical parameter especially in prediction error shows the superiority of CLoVA-PLS respect to other variable selection strategies. Finally the synergy clustering of variable (sCLoVA-PLS), which is used the combination of cluster, has been proposed as an efficient and modification of CLoVA algorithm. The obtained statistical parameter indicates that variable clustering can split useful part from redundant ones, and then based on informative cluster; stable model can be reached. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.