WorldWideScience

Sample records for var amyloliquefaciens strain

  1. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain...

  2. 77 FR 2910 - Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens Strain D747; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance; Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens Strain D747; Exemption From the Requirement of a... establishment of an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain D747 (formerly known as Bacillus subtilis variant amyloliquefaciens strain D747). This document is...

  3. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SUBSP. plantarum PROBIOTIC STRAINS AS PROTEASE PRODUCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Маtseliukh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteases from probiotic strains of the genus Bacillus, just like the antibiotics, bacteriocins and other hydrolytic enzymes, are one of the main factors that determine their biological activity. The aim of this work was to study the synthesis and biochemical properties of proteases from two strains Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM B-5139 and UCM B-5140 that included in the probiotic Endosporin. The cultivation of strains was carried out in flasks under rotating for two days. The influence of physico-chemical parameters of the reaction medium on proteolytic activity was studied on partially purified protease preparations. Lytic activity was determined by turbidimetric method. On the second day of cultivation B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM В-5139 and UCM В-5140 synthesized the metal-dependent peptidase and serine protease, respectively. The optimum conditions of their action were the following: temperature 37–40 °C and pH 6.5–7.0. Isolated proteases are able to lyse the living cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Thus we demonstrated that B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM B-5140 and UCM B-5139, included in the probiotic veterinary preparation Endosporin, produced proteolytic enzymes that hydrolyze the native insoluble proteins (elastin, fibrin and collagen. These enzymes belong to the group of neutral metal-dependent and serine proteases. They are active under physiological conditions against gram-positive bacteria and yeasts. The application of these proteases in biotechnology is considered.

  4. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain 629, an Endophyte from Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SantAnna, Brena M M; Marbach, Phellippe P A; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; De Souza, Jorge T; Roque, Milton R A; Queiroz, Artur T L

    2015-11-19

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain 629 is an endophyte isolated from Theobroma cacao L. Here, we report the draft genome sequence (3.9 Mb) of B. amyloliquefaciens strain 629 containing 16 contigs (3,903,367 bp), 3,912 coding sequences, and an average 46.5% G+C content. Copyright © 2015 SantAnna et al.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence for the Fusarium Head Blight Antagonist Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain TrigoCor 1448

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Beth A.; Ramaiya, Preethi; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Kumar, Ravi; Crinklaw, Austin; Jolkovsky, Eliana; Crane, Julia M.; Bergstrom, Gary C; Rey, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    We present the complete genome sequence for Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TrigoCor 1448 (ATCC 202152), a bacterial biological control agent for Fusarium head blight in wheat. We compare it to its closest relative, B. amyloliquefaciens strain AS43.3.

  6. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain 32a as a source of lipopeptides for biocontrol of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Abdallah, D; Frikha-Gargouri, O; Tounsi, S

    2015-07-01

    A Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain, designated 32a, was used to identify new compounds active against Agrobacterium tumefaciens and to evaluate their efficiency to control crown gall on carrot discs. Based on PCR-assays, four gene clusters were shown to direct the synthesis of the cyclic lipopeptides surfactin, iturin A, bacillomycin D and fengycin. Mass spectrometry analysis of culture supernatant led to the identification of these secondary metabolites, except bacillomycin, with heterogeneous mixture of homologues. Antimicrobial assays using lipopeptides-enriched extract showed a strong inhibitory activity against several bacterial and fungal strains, including Ag. tumefaciens. Biological control assays on carrot discs using both 32a spores and extract resulted in significant protection against crown gall disease, similar to that provided by the reference antagonistic strain Agrobacterium rhizogenes K1026. In contrast to all active compounds against Ag. tumefaciens that are of proteinaceous nature, this work enables for the first time to correlate the strong protective effect of B. amyloliquefaciens strain 32a towards crown gall disease with the production of a mixture of lipopeptides. The findings could be useful for growers and nursery men who are particularly interested in the biocontrol of the crown gall disease. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Characterization of a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain for reduction of citrulline accumulation during soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiran; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Fang, Fang

    2016-10-01

    To reduce the amount of citrulline produced by arginine-consuming bacteria in the moromi mash during soy sauce production. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JY06, a salt-tolerant strain with high arginine consumption ability and low citrulline accumulation capacity, was isolated from moromi mash. The concentration of citrulline was decreased from 26.8 to 5.1 mM and ethyl carbamate in soy sauce, after sterilization, decreased from 97 to 17 μg kg(-1) when B. amyloliquefaciens JY06 was added during fermentation. The aroma of the sauce was improved by increasing the ester content. B. amyloliquefaciens JY06 is a beneficial bacterium that can be used in soy sauce fermentation to eliminate ethyl carbonate and enhance the flavor of the sauce.

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain BH072, Isolated from Honey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Xin; de Jong, Anne; Zhou, Zhijiang; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-01-01

    The genome of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BH072, isolated from a honey sample and showing strong antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens, is 4.07 Mb and harbors 3,785 coding sequences (CDS). Several gene clusters for nonribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and a complete gene

  9. Deciphering the conserved genetic loci implicated in plant disease control through comparative genomics of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad J Hossain

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To understand the growth-promoting and disease-inhibiting activities of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR strains, the genomes of 12 Bacillus subtilis group strains with PGPR activity were sequenced and analyzed. These B. subtilis strains exhibited high genomic diversity, whereas the genomes of B. amyloliquefaciens strains (a member of the B. subtilis group are highly conserved. A pairwise BLASTp matrix revealed that gene family similarity among Bacillus genomes ranges from 32- 90%, with 2,839 genes within the core genome of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum. Comparative genomic analyses of B. amyloliquefaciens strains identified genes that are linked with biological control and colonization of roots and/or leaves, including 73 genes uniquely associated with subsp. plantarum strains that have predicted functions related to signaling, transportation, secondary metabolite production, and carbon source utilization. Although B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strains contain gene clusters that encode many different secondary metabolites, only polyketide biosynthetic clusters that encode difficidin and macrolactin are conserved within this subspecies. To evaluate their role in plant pathogen biocontrol, genes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis were deleted in B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strain, revealing that difficidin expression is critical in reducing the severity of disease, caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria in tomato plants. This study defines genomic features of PGPR strains and links them with biocontrol activity and with host colonization.

  10. Chemosensitization of Fusarium graminearum to Chemical Fungicides Using Cyclic Lipopeptides Produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain JCK-12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihyun Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB caused by infection with Fusarium graminearum leads to enormous losses to crop growers, and may contaminate grains with a number of Fusarium mycotoxins that pose serious risks to human and animal health. Antagonistic bacteria that are used to prevent FHB offer attractive alternatives or supplements to synthetic fungicides for controlling FHB without the negative effects of chemical management. Out of 500 bacterial strains isolated from soil, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 showed strong antifungal activity and was considered a potential source for control strategies to reduce FHB. B. amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 produces several cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs including iturin A, fengycin, and surfactin. Iturin A inhibits spore germination of F. graminearum. Fengycin or surfactin alone did not display any inhibitory activity against spore germination at concentrations less than 30 μg/ml, but a mixture of iturin A, fengycin, and surfactin showed a remarkable synergistic inhibitory effect on F. graminearum spore germination. The fermentation broth and formulation of B. amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 strain reduced the disease incidence of FHB in wheat. Furthermore, co-application of B. amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 and chemical fungicides resulted in synergistic in vitro antifungal effects and significant disease control efficacy against FHB under greenhouse and field conditions, suggesting that B. amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 has a strong chemosensitizing effect. The synergistic antifungal effect of B. amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 and chemical fungicides in combination may result from the cell wall damage and altered cell membrane permeability in the phytopathogenic fungi caused by the CLP mixtures and subsequent increased sensitivity of F. graminearum to fungicides. In addition, B. amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 showed the potential to reduce trichothecenes mycotoxin production. The results of this study indicate that B. amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 could

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain Co1-6, a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; White, Richard A; Erschen, Sabine; Spanberger, Nora; El-Arabi, Tarek F; Jansson, Janet K; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-13

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against plant-pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9-Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties. Copyright © 2015 Köberl et al.

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain Co1-6, a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis

    OpenAIRE

    K?berl, Martina; White, Richard A; Erschen, Sabine; Spanberger, Nora; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against plant-pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9-Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties.

  13. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; Spanberger, Nora; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-13

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activities against plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9 Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties.

  14. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the biocontrol strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 as response to biofilm formation analyzed by RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröber, Magdalena; Verwaaijen, Bart; Wibberg, Daniel; Winkler, Anika; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2016-08-10

    The strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) and biocontrol agent known to keep infections of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) by the phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani down. Several mechanisms, including the production of secondary metabolites possessing antimicrobial properties and induction of the host plant's systemic resistance (ISR), were proposed to explain the biocontrol effect of the strain. B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is able to form plaques (biofilm-like structures) on plant roots and this feature was discussed to be associated with its biocontrol properties. For this reason, formation of B. amyloliquefaciens biofilms was studied at the transcriptional level using high-throughput sequencing of whole transcriptome cDNA libraries from cells grown under biofilm-forming conditions vs. planktonic growth. Comparison of the transcriptional profiles of B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 under these growth conditions revealed a common set of highly transcribed genes mostly associated with basic cellular functions. The lci gene, encoding an antimicrobial peptide (AMP), was among the most highly transcribed genes of cells under both growth conditions suggesting that AMP production may contribute to biocontrol. In contrast, gene clusters coding for synthesis of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties were only moderately transcribed and not induced in biofilm-forming cells. Differential gene expression revealed that 331 genes were significantly up-regulated and 230 genes were down-regulated in the transcriptome of B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 under biofilm-forming conditions in comparison to planktonic cells. Among the most highly up-regulated genes, the yvqHI operon, coding for products involved in nisin (class I bacteriocin) resistance, was identified. In addition, an operon whose products play a role in fructosamine metabolism was enhanced in its transcription. Moreover, genes involved in the production of the extracellular

  15. Comparative Genomics of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strains Reveals a Core Genome with Traits for Habitat Adaptation and a Secondary Metabolites Rich Accessory Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassaad Belbahri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Gram positive, non-pathogenic endospore-forming soil inhabiting prokaryote Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens processes wide biocontrol abilities and numerous strains have been reported to suppress diverse bacterial, fungal and fungal-like pathogens. Knowledge about strain level biocontrol abilities is warranted to translate this knowledge into developing more efficient biocontrol agents and bio-fertilizers. Ever-expanding genome studies of B. amyloliquefaciens are showing tremendous increase in strain-specific new secondary metabolite clusters which play key roles in the suppression of pathogens and plant growth promotion. In this report, we have used genome mining of all sequenced B. amyloliquefaciens genomes to highlight species boundaries, the diverse strategies used by different strains to promote plant growth and the diversity of their secondary metabolites. Genome composition of the targeted strains suggest regions of genomic plasticity that shape the structure and function of these genomes and govern strain adaptation to different niches. Our results indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens: (i suffer taxonomic imprecision that blurs the debate over inter-strain genome diversity and dynamics, (ii have diverse strategies to promote plant growth and development, (iii have an unlocked, yet to be delimited impressive arsenal of secondary metabolites and products, (iv have large number of so-called orphan gene clusters, i.e., biosynthetic clusters for which the corresponding metabolites are yet unknown, and (v have a dynamic pan genome with a secondary metabolite rich accessory genome.

  16. Comparative Genomics of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strains Reveals a Core Genome with Traits for Habitat Adaptation and a Secondary Metabolites Rich Accessory Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belbahri, Lassaad; Chenari Bouket, Ali; Rekik, Imen; Alenezi, Faizah N; Vallat, Armelle; Luptakova, Lenka; Petrovova, Eva; Oszako, Tomasz; Cherrad, Semcheddine; Vacher, Sébastien; Rateb, Mostafa E

    2017-01-01

    The Gram positive, non-pathogenic endospore-forming soil inhabiting prokaryote Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens processes wide biocontrol abilities and numerous strains have been reported to suppress diverse bacterial, fungal and fungal-like pathogens. Knowledge about strain level biocontrol abilities is warranted to translate this knowledge into developing more efficient biocontrol agents and bio-fertilizers. Ever-expanding genome studies of B. amyloliquefaciens are showing tremendous increase in strain-specific new secondary metabolite clusters which play key roles in the suppression of pathogens and plant growth promotion. In this report, we have used genome mining of all sequenced B. amyloliquefaciens genomes to highlight species boundaries, the diverse strategies used by different strains to promote plant growth and the diversity of their secondary metabolites. Genome composition of the targeted strains suggest regions of genomic plasticity that shape the structure and function of these genomes and govern strain adaptation to different niches. Our results indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens: (i) suffer taxonomic imprecision that blurs the debate over inter-strain genome diversity and dynamics, (ii) have diverse strategies to promote plant growth and development, (iii) have an unlocked, yet to be delimited impressive arsenal of secondary metabolites and products, (iv) have large number of so-called orphan gene clusters, i.e., biosynthetic clusters for which the corresponding metabolites are yet unknown, and (v) have a dynamic pan genome with a secondary metabolite rich accessory genome.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens EBL11, a New Strain of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Isolated from Rice Rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinghuan; Greenfield, Paul; Jin, Decai

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain EBL11 is a bacterium that can promote plant growth by inhibiting the growth of fungi on plant surfaces and providing nutrients as a nonchemical biofertilizer. The estimated genome of this strain is 4.05 Mb in size and harbors 3,683 coding genes (CDSs). PMID:25059875

  18. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains as potential protective starter cultures for the production of Bikalga, an alkaline fermented food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compaor, C.S.; Nielsen, D.S.; Sawadogo-Lingani, H.

    2013-01-01

    and fungi. Antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus was produced in H. sabdariffa seed-based medium. PCR results revealed that the isolates have potential for the lipopeptides iturin, fengycin, surfactin, the polyketides difficidin, macrolactin, bacillaene and the dipeptide bacilysin production. Ultra....... They produced several lipopeptide antibiotics and showed good potential for biological control of Bikalga. Significance and Impact of the Study: Pathogenic bacteria often occur in spontaneous food fermentations. This is the first report to identify indigenous B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains...... as potential protective starter cultures for safeguarding Bikalga....

  19. Potential of a new strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BUZ-14 as a biocontrol agent of postharvest fruit diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, H; Marco, P; Blanco, D; Oria, R; Venturini, M E

    2017-05-01

    The biocontrol potential of the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BUZ-14 was tested against the main postharvest diseases of orange, apple, grape and stone fruit. After characterizing the temperature and pH growth curves of strain BUZ-14, its in vitro antifungal activity was determined against Botrytis cinerea, Monilinia fructicola, M. laxa, Penicillium digitatum, P. expansum and P. italicum. Subsequently, in vivo activity was tested against these pathogens by treating fruit with cells, endospores and cell-free supernatants. The in vitro results showed that BUZ-14 inhibited the growth of all the pathogens tested corresponding to the least susceptible species, P. italicum, and the most susceptible, M. laxa. In vivo tests corroborated these results as most of the treatments decreased the incidence of brown rot in stone fruit from 100% to 0%, establishing 10 7  CFU mL -1 as the minimum inhibitory concentration. For the Penicillium species a preventive treatment inhibited P. digitatum and P. italicum growth in oranges and reduced P. expansum incidence in apples from 100% to 20%. Finally, it has been demonstrated that BUZ-14 was able to survive and to control brown rot in peaches stored at cool temperatures, making it a very suitable biocontrol agent for application during the post-harvest storage and marketing of horticultural products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular typing of wine yeast strains Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masneuf-Pomarède, I; Le Jeune, C; Durrens, P; Lollier, M; Aigle, M; Dubourdieu, D

    2007-01-01

    The Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum yeasts are associated with spontaneous fermentation of must. Some strains were shown to be enological yeasts of interest in different winemaking processes. The molecular typing of S. bayanus var. uvarum at the strain level has become significant for wine microbiologists. Four microsatellite loci were defined from the exploration of genomic DNA sequence of S. bayanus var. uvarum. The 40 strains studied were homozygote for the locus considered. The discriminating capacity of the microsatellite method was found to be equal to that of karyotypes analysis. Links between 37 indigenous strains with the same geographic origin could be established through the analysis of microsatellite patterns. The analysis of microsatellite polymorphism is a reliable method for wine S. bayanus var. uvarum strains and their hybrids with Saccharomyces cerevisiae identification in taxonomic, ecological studies and winemaking applications.

  1. Reassessment of phenotypic traits for Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum wine yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masneuf-Pomarède, Isabelle; Bely, Marina; Marullo, Philippe; Lonvaud-Funel, Aline; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2010-04-30

    Among Saccharomyces yeast, S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus var. uvarum are related species, sharing the same ecosystem in sympatry. The physiological and technological properties of a large collection of genetically-identified S. bayanus var. uvarum wine strains were investigated in a biometric study and their fermentation behavior was compared at 24 degrees C and 13 degrees C. The variability of the phenotypic traits was considered at both intraspecific and interspecific levels. Low ethanol tolerance at 24 degrees C and production of high levels of 2-phenylethanol and its acetate were clearly revealed as discriminative technological traits, distinguishing the S. bayanus var. uvarum strains from S. cerevisiae. Although some S. bayanus var. uvarum strains produced very small amounts of acetic acid, this was not a species-specific trait, as the distribution of values was similar in both species. Fermentation kinetics at 24 degrees C showed that S. bayanus var. uvarum maintained a high fermentation rate after Vmax, with low nitrogen requirements, but stuck fermentations were observed at later stages. In contrast, a shorter lag phase compared with S.cerevisiae, higher cell viability, and the ability to complete alcoholic fermentation at 13 degrees C confirmed the low-temperature adaptation trait of S.bayanus var. uvarum. This study produced a phenotypic characterization data set for a collection of S. bayanus var. uvarum strains, thus paving the way for industrial developments using this species as a new genetic resource. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6-enriched bio-organic fertilizer suppressed Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jun; Ruan, Yunze; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Jian; Waseem, Raza; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2013-04-24

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJN-6 is an important plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which can produce secondary metabolites antagonistic to several soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the ability of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) containing NJN-6 strain to promote the growth and suppress Fusarium wilt of banana plants was evaluated in a pot experiment. The results showed that the application of BIO significantly decreased the incidence of Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants compared to that for the organic fertilizer (OF). To determine the beneficial mechanism of the strain, the colonization of NJN-6 strain on banana roots was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plant growth-promoting hormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin A3 (GA3), along with antifungal lipopeptides iturin A, were detected when the NJN-6 strain was incubated in both Landy medium with additional l-tryptophan and in root exudates of banana plants. In addition, some antifungal volatile organic compounds and iturin A were also detected in BIO. In summary, strain NJN-6 could colonize the roots of banana plants after the application of BIO and produced active compounds which were beneficial for the growth of banana plants.

  3. Biocontrol traits and antagonistic potential of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJZJSB3 against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a causal agent of canola stem rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuncheng; Yuan, Jun; Raza, Waseem; Shen, Qirong; Huang, Qiwei

    2014-10-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJZJSB3 has shown antagonism of several phytopathogens in vitro, especially Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Both the broth culture and cell suspension of strain NJZJSB3 could completely protect the detached leaves of canola (Brassica napus) from S. sclerotiorum infection. In pot experiments, the application of strain NJZJSB3 cell suspension (10(8) CFU/ml) decreased the disease incidence by 83.3%, a result similar to commercially available fungicide (Dimetachlone). In order to investigate the potential biocontrol mechanisms of strain NJZJSB3, the nonvolatile antifungal compounds it produces were identified as iturin homologs using HPLC-ESI-MS. Antifungal volatile organic compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The detected volatiles toluene, phenol, and benzothiazole showed antifungal effects against S. sclerotiorum in chemical control experiments. Strain NJZJSB3 also produced biofilm, siderophores and cell-wall-degrading enzymes (protease and β-1,3-glucanase). These results suggest that strain NJZJSB3 can be a tremendous potential agent for the biological control of sclerotinia stem rot.

  4. Effect of organic fertilizers prepared from organic waste materials on the production of antibacterial volatile organic compounds by two biocontrol Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Waseem; Wei, Zhong; Ling, Ning; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-06-10

    Three organic fertilizers made of different animal and plant waste materials (BOFs) were evaluated for their effects on the production of antibacterial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by two Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains SQR-9 and T-5 against the tomato wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (RS). Both strains could produce VOCs that inhibited the growth and virulence traits of RS; however, in the presence of BOFs, the production of antibacterial VOCs was significantly increased. The maximum inhibition of growth and virulence traits of RS by VOCs of T-5 and SQR-9 was determined at 1.5% BOF2 and 2% BOF3, respectively. In case of strain T-5, 2-nonanone, nonanal, xylene, benzothiazole, and butylated hydroxy toluene and in case of strain SQR-9, 2-nonanone, nonanal, xylene and 2-undecanone were the main antibacterial VOCs whose production was increased in the presence of BOFs. The results of this study reveal another significance of using organic fertilizers to improve the antagonistic activity of biocontrol agents against phytopathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Response of tomato wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum to the volatile organic compounds produced by a biocontrol strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Waseem; Ling, Ning; Yang, Liudong; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-04-22

    It is important to study the response of plant pathogens to the antibiosis traits of biocontrol microbes to design the efficient biocontrol strategies. In this study, we evaluated the role of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by a biocontrol strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR-9 on the growth and virulence traits of tomato wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (RS). The VOCs of SQR-9 significantly inhibited the growth of RS on agar medium and in soil. In addition, the VOCs significantly inhibited the motility traits, production of antioxidant enzymes and exopolysaccharides, biofilm formation and tomato root colonization by RS. The strain SQR-9 produced 22 VOCs, but only nine VOCs showed 1-11% antibacterial activity against RS in their corresponding amounts; however, the consortium of all VOCs showed 70% growth inhibition of RS. The proteomics analysis showed that the VOCs of SQR-9 downregulated RS proteins related to the antioxidant activity, virulence, carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, protein folding and translation, while the proteins involved in the ABC transporter system, amino acid synthesis, detoxification of aldehydes and ketones, methylation, protein translation and folding, and energy transfer were upregulated. This study describes the significance and effectiveness of VOCs produced by a biocontrol strain against tomato wilt pathogen.

  6. Development of Jerusalem artichoke resource for efficient one-step fermentation of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) using a novel strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NX-2S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yibin; Sha, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yatao; Xu, Zongqi; Li, Sha; Lei, Peng; Xu, Zheng; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to develop non-food fermentation for the cost-effective production of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) using a novel strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NX-2S. The new isolate assimilated inulin more efficiently than other carbohydrates from Jerusalem artichoke, without hydrolytic treatment. To investigate the effect of inulin on γ-PGA production, the transcript levels of γ-PGA synthetase genes (pgsB, pgsC, pgsA), regulatory genes (comA, degQ, degS), and the glutamic acid biosynthesis gene (glnA) were analyzed; inulin addition upregulated these key genes. Without exogenous glutamate, strain NX-2S could produce 6.85±0.22g/L of γ-PGA during fermentation. Exogenous glutamate greatly enhances the γ-PGA yield (39.4±0.38g/L) and productivity (0.43±0.05g/L/h) in batch fermentation. Our study revealed a potential method of non-food fermentation to produce high-value products. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Efficient gene replacements in ku70 disruption strain of Aspergillus chevalieri var. intermedius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus chevalieri var. intermedius is a dominant filamentous fungal species in Fuzhuan tea and is associated with the quality and health benefits of this tea. The sexual or asexual reproduction of this fungus depends on the osmotic pressure of the tea. Efforts to enhance the beneficial effects of A. chevalieri var. intermedius are hampered by difficulties in disrupting its genes. To address this issue, we identified the A. chevalieri var. intermedius homolog (Acku70 of human Ku70 and generated an Acku70 disruption strain (ΔAcku70, aiming to improve the gene replacement efficiency. ΔAcku70 grew at a slightly lower rate in vitro than the wild-type strain; however, the two strains exhibited similar sensitivity to temperature, osmotic pressure and the effects of ethyl methane sulphonate and H2O2. The replacement efficiency of veA and flbA dramatically increased in ΔAcku70 compared to that in the wild type. The efficiency of flbA replacement increased from 2.6% to 80%, whereas the frequency of veA disruption increased from 15.2% to 83.9% and from 30.8% to 86.8%. Thus, ΔAcku70 is suitable for use as a type strain for large-scale functional genomic analysis of A. chevalieri var. intermedius.

  8. Developing methods and strains for genetic studies in the Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarek, Nicolas; Louis, Edward J; Cullin, Christophe; Aigle, Michel

    2004-10-30

    For years, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used as a model organism to gain insight into complex biological processes. The study of closely related yeast species may be critical for understanding the molecular mechanism of evolution. Among those species, S. bayanus var. uvarum could be particularly pertinent because of the availability of its genome sequence. However, to date, in that species genetic studies are problematical due to the lack of standard strains collection and genetic methods. Here, we have developed heterothallic S. bayanus var. uvarum strains and obtained stable haploid strains. We further used UV-induced mutation and gene disruption to create a collection of auxotrophic derivatives. Finally, we have elaborated or improved methods to cultivate cells, obtain zygotes and spores and to transform this species. All these tools can now be used by the scientific community to study the biology of this species. copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. In vitro inhibitory effect of miltefosine against strains of Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum and Sporothrix spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Malaquias, Angela Donato Maia; Caetano, Erica Pacheco; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Lima, Rita Amanda Chaves de; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Silva, Natalya Fechine; Alencar, Lucas Pereira de; Monteiro, André Jalles; Camargo, Zoilo Pires de; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2014-04-01

    Miltefosine (MIL), originally developed for use in cancer chemotherapy, has been shown to have important antifungal activity against several pathogenic fungi. Our aim in this study was to determine the in vitro activity of MIL against the dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum and Sporothrix spp. This was done using the broth microdilution method. MIL had an in vitro inhibitory effect against all strains of H. capsulatum var. capsulatum and Sporothrix spp. analyzed. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) varied from 0.25 μg/ml to 2 μg/ml for H. capsulatum var. capsulatum in the filamentous phase and from 0.125 μg/ml to 1 μg/ml in the yeast phase. The MIC interval for Sporothrix spp. in the filamentous phase was 0.25-2 μg/ml. The minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) were ≤4 μg/ml for isolates of both analyzed species. This study demonstrates that MIL has an antifungal effect in vitro against two potentially pathogenic fungi and that more studies should be performed in order to evaluate its applicability in vivo.

  10. Bacillusin A, an antibacterial macrodiolide from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the organic extracts of a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain (AP183) led to the discovery of a new macrocyclic polyene antibiotic, bacillusin A (1). Its structure was assigned by interpretation of NMR and MS spectroscopic data as a novel macrodiolide composed of dimer...

  11. Salad dressing spoilage by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens with gas formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Signori Pereira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract B. amyloliquefaciens is a Gram-positive, aerobic, motile rod, often found in soil, which has been described as a plant growth promoter and is used in several industrial processes. This study reports an episode involving the gassy spoilage of salad dressing caused by B. amyloliquefaciens in a production facility located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Nine B. amyloliquefaciens strains were isolated from spoiled salad dressings, the sugar used as a raw material in the manufacture and from the production plant. A genotypic analysis of the isolates by Rep-PCR generated eight band profiles grouped in five Rep-PCR clusters. When re-inoculated into fresh salad dressing three B. amyloliquefaciens isolates belonging to the Rep-PCR clusters A, D and E were able to reproduce the gassy spoilage process, whereas the isolates belonging to the Rep-PCR clusters B and C did not produce any visible spoilage, suggesting that these isolates were not directly involved in the spoilage process. The predominant Rep-PCR cluster, cluster A, included strains isolated from barbecue and passion fruit seed salad dressings and from sugar (raw material, suggesting it is a common source of contamination for such salad dressings.

  12. Effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as a probiotic strain on growth performance, cecal microflora, and fecal noxious gas emissions of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sonia Tabasum; Islam, Manirul; Mun, Hong-Seok; Sim, Hyeon-Ju; Kim, Ye-Jin; Yang, Chul-Ju

    2014-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens probiotic (BAP) as a direct-fed microbial on growth performance, cecal microflora, serum immunoglobulin levels, and fecal noxious gas emissions of broiler chickens. A total of 400 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment diets formulated to supply 0, 1, 5, 10, and 20 g/kg of BAP and were fed for 35 d. Each treatment had 8 replicate pens with 10 birds per replicate. On completion of the growth trial, fecal samples were collected, and ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions were measured. Increasing concentration of BAP had positive linear effect on the ADG of broilers (P < 0.05) throughout the experimental period, with the highest values being observed in broilers offered 20 g/kg of BAP. The ADFI increased linearly (P < 0.02) with the inclusion of BAP during the overall experimental period (d 0 to 35). Providing BAP had a negative linear effect on FCR from d 0 to 21 and d 0 to 35 (P < 0.01). Supplementation with BAP did not affect cecal Lactobacillus and Bacillus content, but exerted negative linear effect on cecal Escherichia coli (P < 0.05) with increasing the level of BAP in broiler diets. Additionally, BAP modified immune response of broilers by linearly increasing serum IgG and IgA (P < 0.01). Dietary BAP resulted in decreased fecal NH3 emissions at 0 (linear, P < 0.001), 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h of incubation (linear, P < 0.05; quadratic, P < 0.01). Supplementation of BAP exerted negative linear and quadratic effects on fecal emissions of H2S (P < 0.001) throughout the incubation period except at 48 h, and the optimum effect was found when BAP was provided at 5 g/kg of diet. Based on these results, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens could be suggested as a potential feed additive of broiler diets. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as prophylactic treatment for Clostridium difficile-associated disease in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeraerts, S; Ducatelle, R; Haesebrouck, F; Van Immerseel, F

    2015-08-01

    Probiotics might offer an attractive alternative for standard antibiotic therapy to treat Clostridium difficile infections (CDI). We specifically selected a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain for its high in vitro antibacterial activity against C. difficile and tested its efficacy to prevent CDI in a mouse model. B. amyloliquefaciens supernatant was tested against a large collection of C. difficile strains using an agar well diffusion test. B. amyloliquefaciens was orally administered to C57BL/6 mice in which CDI was induced using C. difficile VPI 10463, and its effect was compared with control mice receiving no treatment and mice receiving Saccharomyces boulardii. Mice were followed up daily for signs of disease including weight loss. At necropsy, the colon was collected and subjected to histopathological analysis. C. difficile toxin A/B levels and colon weight/length and colon/body weight ratios were calculated. B. amyloliquefaciens supernatant was able to inhibit the growth of all C. difficile strains. Results of the in vivo trial indicated a significant weight loss for untreated and S. boulardii-treated mice as compared to B. amyloliquefaciens-treated mice. C. difficile toxin A and B levels were significantly higher for untreated and S. boulardii-treated mice than B. amyloliquefaciens-treated mice. A significantly lower degree of colon damage was detected for B. amyloliquefaciens-treated mice as compared to untreated and S. boulardii-treated mice, based on histopathological analysis, colon weight/length and colon/body weight ratios. Administration of B. amyloliquefaciens was successful in preventing CDI in a mouse model. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Control of postharvest soft rot caused by Erwinia carotovora of vegetables by a strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and its potential modes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yancun; Li, Pengxia; Huang, Kaihong; Wang, Yuning; Hu, Huali; Sun, Ya

    2013-03-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc), the causal agent of bacterial soft rot, is one of the destructive pathogens of postharvest vegetables. In this study, a bacterial isolate (BGP20) from the vegetable farm soil showed strong antagonistic activity against Ecc in vitro, and its twofold cell-free culture filtrate showed excellent biocontrol effect in controlling the postharvest bacterial soft rot of potatoes at 25 °C. The anti-Ecc metabolites produced by the isolate BGP20 had a high resistance to high temperature, UV-light and protease K. Based on the colonial morphology, cellular morphology, sporulation, and partial nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA and gyrB gene, the isolate BGP20 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum. Further in vivo assays showed that the BGP20 cell culture was more effective in controlling the postharvest bacterial soft rot of green peppers and Chinese cabbages than its twofold cell-free culture filtrate. In contrast, the biocontrol effect and safety of the BGP20 cell culture were very poor on potatoes. In the wounds of potatoes treated with both the antagonist BGP20 and the pathogen Ecc, the viable count of Ecc was 31,746 times that of BGP20 at 48 h of incubation at 25 °C. But in the wounds of green peppers, the viable count of BGP20 increased 182.3 times within 48 h, and that of Ecc increased only 51.3 %. In addition, the treatment with both BGP20 and Ecc induced higher activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) than others in potatoes. But the same treatment did not induce an increase of PAL activity in green peppers. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the isolate BGP20 is a promising candidate in biological control of postharvest bacterial soft rot of vegetables, but its main mode of action is different among various vegetables.

  15. Whole genome shotgun sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TF28, a biocontrol entophytic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shumei; Jiang, Wei; Li, Jing; Meng, Liqiang; Cao, Xu; Hu, Jihua; Liu, Yushuai; Chen, Jingyu; Sha, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TF28 is a biocontrol endophytic bacterium that is capable of inhibition of a broad range of plant pathogenic fungi. The strain has the potential to be developed into a biocontrol agent for use in agriculture. Here we report the whole-genome shotgun sequence of the strain. The genome size of B. amyloliquefaciens TF28 is 3,987,635 bp which consists of 3754 protein-coding genes, 65 tandem repeat sequences, 47 minisatellite DNA, 2 microsatellite DNA, 63 tRNA, 7rRNA, 6 sRNA, 3 prophage and CRISPR domains.

  16. Production of thermostable multiple enzymes from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens KUB29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Kubendran; Aathika, Salma; Periyasamy, Karthik; Manickam Periyaraman, Premkumar; Palaniyandi, Shanmugam; Subramanian, Sivanesan

    2018-01-16

    A strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens KUB29 was identified by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing (Genbank: MF772779.1). Production of thermostable protease, amylase and lipase were done by the isolated strain. The produced enzymes were partially purified by ammonium precipitation followed by dialysis process. Protease and lipase enzymes are effectively used in bio-oil extraction from proteinaceous sample followed by transesterification to produce methyl ester. Amylase enzyme is widely used in food and laundry industry. The produced enzymes are active at thermophilic condition of 55 °C. Use of these enzymes in biofuel production process will make the process cleaner and greener.

  17. Induction of strain-transcendent antibodies to placental-type isolates with VAR2CSA DBL3 or DBL5 recombinant proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathaway Marianne J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy associated malaria is a severe clinical syndrome associated with sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta. Placental binding is mediated by VAR2CSA, which adheres to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA. VAR2CSA is a large and polymorphic protein that has six Duffy binding-like (DBL domains. There is still limited understanding as to how effective individual VAR2CSA domains are at generating inhibitory antibodies or the number of domain variants needed for universal vaccine coverage. Methods To investigate the immunogenic properties of single domain VAR2CSA recombinant proteins, rats or rabbits were immunized with five of the six VAR2CSA domains produced in Pichia pastoris. Immune plasma was analysed against a geographically diverse panel of CSA-binding lab lines to assess antibody breadth and inhibitory activity. Results Of the five domains, DBL3, and to a lesser extent DBL5, induced antibodies that cross-reacted on five diverse CSA-binding parasite lines by flow cytometry. By comparison, anti-DBL6 antibodies were highly strain-specific and anti-DBL1 and anti-DBL4 antibodies were poorly reactive by flow cytometry. From this series of recombinant proteins, adhesion-blocking activity was restricted to a single rat immunized against a DBL4 recombinant protein. Conclusions Single domain VAR2CSA recombinant proteins produced in P. pastoris had limited efficacy in eliciting adhesion blocking antibody responses, but VAR2CSA DBL3 and DBL5 domains contain strain-transcendent epitopes that can be targeted by vaccination and may have application for vaccine development.

  18. New biotypes of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae E9 strain with altered conidial germination, obtained by exposition to gamma radiation; Novos biotipos de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin com germinacao alterada de conidios, obtidos pela exposicao a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.G.; Oliveira, N.T.; Luna Alves Lima, E.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Micologia

    1997-12-31

    Conidia produced by a wild strain (E9) of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae var anisopliae were exposed to gamma radiation in order to obtain new biotypes. At the 390 Gy dose there were obtained 48 colonies (MaE). On complete medium, 5 colonies (MaE 01, MaE 10, MaE 15, MaE 40) presented morphological changes in color while the colony MaE 24 lost its esporulation capacity. Twenty six colonies presented mycelial growth significantly different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation. Twelve colonies showed average of conidial germination different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation on liquid minimum medium at 25 deg C. The colony MaE started germination precociously after 5 hours of incubation. (author) 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  19. Genomic Signatures of Strain Selection and Enhancement in Bacillus atrophaeus var. globigii, a Historical Biowarfare Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    individual sequencing reads are indicated as a blackened box. In one case (position 259001 in ATCC 9372-1) an initial false-negative due to the formation of...has been proposed as a potential metal -binding site with particular affinity for Cu2+ [49]. Binding of Cu2+ (or another divalent metal ) at this site...potentially mimic the binding of a metal cation in the loop containing H101, resulting in altered sporulation of the strains due to a change in the

  20. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis Reveals Evolutional Traits for Adaptation to Plant-Associated Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Yang, Dongqing; Kendall, Joshua R. A.; Borriss, Rainer; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis and its sister species B. amyloliquefaciens comprise an evolutionary compact but physiologically versatile group of bacteria that includes strains isolated from diverse habitats. Many of these strains are used as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in agriculture and a plant-specialized subspecies of B. amyloliquefaciens—B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum, has recently been recognized, here we used 31 whole genomes [including two newly sequenced PGPR strains: B. amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 isolated from Musa sp. (banana) and B. subtilis HJ5 from Gossypium sp. (cotton)] to perform comparative analysis and investigate the genomic characteristics and evolution traits of both species in different niches. Phylogenomic analysis indicated that strains isolated from plant-associated (PA) habitats could be distinguished from those from non-plant-associated (nPA) niches in both species. The core genomes of PA strains are more abundant in genes relevant to intermediary metabolism and secondary metabolites biosynthesis as compared with those of nPA strains, and they also possess additional specific genes involved in utilization of plant-derived substrates and synthesis of antibiotics. A further gene gain/loss analysis indicated that only a few of these specific genes (18/192 for B. amyloliquefaciens and 53/688 for B. subtilis) were acquired by PA strains at the initial divergence event, but most were obtained successively by different subgroups of PA stains during the evolutional process. This study demonstrated the genomic differences between PA and nPA B. amyloliquefaciens and B. subtilis from different niches and the involved evolutional traits, and has implications for screening of PGPR strains in agricultural production. PMID:28066362

  1. [blaVIM-2 gene detection in metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated in an intensive care unit in Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Armando; de Waard, Jacobus; Araque, María

    2009-08-01

    Ten Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporin and carbapenems were studied to determine the presence of genes that mediate the production of metallo-beta-lactamases. These strains were isolated from patients with nosocomial infection at the Intensive Care Unit of the Complejo Hospitalario "Ruiz y Paéz" of Ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar State, Venezuela, from 2003 to 2006. In all isolates a metallo-enzyme activity was detected by using the double disk synergism test. PCR amplification of genes encoding the families IMP, VIM and SPM metallo-beta-lactamases showed the presence of a blaVIM gene in all strains studied. DNA sequencing revealed that all isolates showed the presence of blaVIM-2. These results suggest that it is necessary to keep these strains under epidemiologic surveillance, establish laboratory strategies for opportune detection and the implementation of new policies to ensure the appropriate use of antibiotics in this institution.

  2. Characterization of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DA12 Showing Potent Antifungal Activity against Mycotoxigenic Fusarium Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to develop a biological control agent against mycotoxigenic Fusarium species, we isolated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain DA12 from soil and explored its antimicrobial activities. DA12 was active against the growth of mycotoxigenic F. asiaticum, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum, and F. verticillioides both in vitro and in planta (maize. Further screening using dual culture extended the activity range of strain DA12 against other fungal pathogens including Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum coccodes, Endothia parasitica, Fusarium oxysporum, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, and Rhizoctonia solani. The butanol extract of the culture filtrate of B. amyloliquefaciens DA12 highly inhibited the germination of F. graminearum macroconidia with inhibition rate 83% at a concentration of 31.3 μg/ml and 100% at a concentration of 250 μg/ml. The antifungal metabolite from the butanol extract was identified as iturin A by thin layer chromatography-bioautography. In addition, volatile organic compounds produced by DA12 were able to inhibit mycelial growth of various phytopathogenic fungi. The volatile compounds were identified as 2-heptanone, 5-methyl heptanone and 6-methyl heptanone by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. These results indicate that the antagonistic activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DA12 was attributable to iturin A and volatile heptanones, and the strain could be used as a biocontrol agent to reduce the development of Fusarium diseases and mycotoxin contamination of crops.

  3. Characterization of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DA12 Showing Potent Antifungal Activity against Mycotoxigenic Fusarium Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Theresa; Park, Dami; Kim, Kihyun; Lim, Seong Mi; Yu, Nan Hee; Kim, Sosoo; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Jung, Kyu Seok; Jang, Ja Yeong; Park, Jong-Chul; Ham, Hyeonheui; Lee, Soohyung; Hong, Sung Kee; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2017-10-01

    In an attempt to develop a biological control agent against mycotoxigenic Fusarium species, we isolated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain DA12 from soil and explored its antimicrobial activities. DA12 was active against the growth of mycotoxigenic F. asiaticum, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum, and F. verticillioides both in vitro and in planta (maize). Further screening using dual culture extended the activity range of strain DA12 against other fungal pathogens including Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum coccodes, Endothia parasitica, Fusarium oxysporum, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, and Rhizoctonia solani. The butanol extract of the culture filtrate of B. amyloliquefaciens DA12 highly inhibited the germination of F. graminearum macroconidia with inhibition rate 83% at a concentration of 31.3 μg/ml and 100% at a concentration of 250 μg/ml. The antifungal metabolite from the butanol extract was identified as iturin A by thin layer chromatography-bioautography. In addition, volatile organic compounds produced by DA12 were able to inhibit mycelial growth of various phytopathogenic fungi. The volatile compounds were identified as 2-heptanone, 5-methyl heptanone and 6-methyl heptanone by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. These results indicate that the antagonistic activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DA12 was attributable to iturin A and volatile heptanones, and the strain could be used as a biocontrol agent to reduce the development of Fusarium diseases and mycotoxin contamination of crops.

  4. Effect of phenolic compounds and osmotic stress on the expression of penicillin biosynthetic genes from Penicillium chrysogenum var. halophenolicum strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaya Ferreira Guedes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenol and phenolic compounds are aromatic pollutants that inhibit biological treatment of wastewaters. Penicillium chrysogenum var. halophenolicum is a halotolerant fungus that previously showed the ability to degrade phenol and resorcinol in high salinity conditions. The presence of the penicillin biosynthetic cluster in P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum was recently described. In this article, we examined the expression of pcbAB, pcbC and penDE, genes responsible for δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase, isopenicillin N synthase and isopenicillin N acyltransferase activities, respectively, in P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum. A quantitative PCR (qPCR approach was used to determine how these genes were expressed in media with 2% and 5.9% NaCl supplemented with phenol, catechol, hydroquinone and resorcinol as the sole carbon source. The effect of salt on the capability of P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum to degrade aromatic compounds was measured using HPLC. qPCR analysis of RNA extracted from P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum indicated that the expression levels of pcbAB, pcbC and penDE decreased in high saline concentrations compared to the levels expressed in media with glucose. High concentrations of salt significantly repress the expression of pcbAB and penDE. The pcbC gene was expressed differentially in catechol containing medium. There was no evident relationship between the expression levels of penicillin biosynthetic genes and yields of penicillin. Meanwhile, the presence of phenol and phenolic compounds seems to positively influence the antibiotic production; high concentrations of salt stimulated penicillin production. These results support the hypothesis that phenol, phenolic compounds and high concentrations of salt could act like a stress factor for P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum resulting in higher yields of β-lactam antibiotic production.

  5. Cloning of a two-component signal transduction system of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans strain BXPF65

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, JWYF; Maynard, Scott; Goodwin, PH

    1998-01-01

    A putative two-component signal transduction system was amplified and cloned from the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans isolate BXPF65. The 620 bp amplified fragment was sequenced and analyzed with the BLAST Enhanced Alignment Utility (BEAUTY). BEAUTY ana...

  6. Difficidin and bacilysin from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 have antibacterial activity against Xanthomonas oryzae rice pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liming; Wu, Huijun; Chen, Lina; Yu, Xinfang; Borriss, Rainer; Gao, Xuewen

    2015-08-13

    Bacterial blight and bacterial leaf streak are serious, economically damaging, diseases of rice caused by the bacteria Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 was shown to possess biocontrol activity against these Xanthomonas strains by producing the antibiotic compounds difficidin and bacilysin. Analyses using fluorescence, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy revealed difficidin and bacilysin caused changes in the cell wall and structure of Xanthomonas. Biological control experiments on rice plants demonstrated the ability of difficidin and bacilysin to suppress disease. Difficidin and bacilysin caused downregulated expression of genes involved in Xanthomonas virulence, cell division, and protein and cell wall synthesis. Taken together, our results highlight the potential of B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 as a biocontrol agent against bacterial diseases of rice, and the utility of difficidin and bacilysin as antimicrobial compounds.

  7. Functional role of an endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in enhancing growth and disease protection of invasive English ivy (Hedera helix L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marcos Antonio; Li, Jai-Yan; Bergen, Marshall; da Silva, Joaquim Manoel; Kowalski, Kurt P.; White, James Francis

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundWe hypothesize that invasive English ivy (Hedera helix) harbors endophytic microbes that promote plant growth and survival. To evaluate this hypothesis, we examined endophytic bacteria in English ivy and evaluated effects on the host plant.MethodsEndophytic bacteria were isolated from multiple populations of English ivy in New Brunswick, NJ. Bacteria were identified as a single species Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. One strain of B. amyloliquefaciens, strain C6c, was characterized for indoleacetic acid (IAA) production, secretion of hydrolytic enzymes, phosphate solubilization, and antibiosis against pathogens. PCR was used to amplify lipopeptide genes and their secretion into culture media was detected by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Capability to promote growth of English ivy was evaluated in greenhouse experiments. The capacity of C6c to protect plants from disease was evaluated by exposing B+ (bacterium inoculated) and B− (non-inoculated) plants to the necrotrophic pathogen Alternaria tenuissima.ResultsB. amyloliquefaciens C6c systemically colonized leaves, petioles, and seeds of English ivy. C6c synthesized IAA and inhibited plant pathogens. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis revealed secretion of antifungal lipopeptides surfactin, iturin, bacillomycin, and fengycin. C6c promoted the growth of English ivy in low and high soil nitrogen conditions. This endophytic bacterium efficiently controlled disease caused by Alternaria tenuissima.ConclusionsThis study suggests that B. amyloliquefaciens plays an important role in enhancing growth and disease protection of English ivy.

  8. Extracellular phytase activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB45 contributes to its plant-growth-promoting effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idriss, Elsorra E; Makarewicz, Oliwia; Farouk, Abdelazim; Rosner, Kristin; Greiner, Ralf; Bochow, Helmut; Richter, Thomas; Borriss, Rainer

    2002-07-01

    Several Bacillus strains belonging to the B. subtilis/amyloliquefaciens group isolated from plant-pathogen-infested soil possess plant-growth-promoting activity [Krebs, B. et al. (1998) J Plant Dis Prot 105, 181-197]. Three out of the four strains investigated were identified as B. amyloliquefaciens and were able to degrade extracellular phytate (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate). The highest extracellular phytase activity was detected in strain FZB45, and diluted culture filtrates of this strain stimulated growth of maize seedlings under phosphate limitation in the presence of phytate. The amino acid sequence deduced from the phytase phyA gene cloned from FZB45 displayed a high degree of similarity to known Bacillus phytases. Weak similarity between FZB45 phytase and B. subtilis alkaline phosphatase IV pointed to a possible common origin of these two enzymes. The recombinant protein expressed by B. subtilis MU331 displayed 3(1)-phytase activity yielding D/L-Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P5 as the first product of phytate hydrolysis. A phytase-negative mutant strain, FZB45/M2, whose phyA gene is disrupted, was generated by replacing the entire wild-type gene on the chromosome of FZB45 with a km::phyA fragment, and culture filtrates obtained from FZB45/M2 did not stimulate plant growth. In addition, the growth of maize seedlings was promoted in the presence of purified phytase and the absence of culture filtrate. These genetic and biochemical experiments provide strong evidence that phytase activity of B. amyloliquefaciens FZB45 is important for plant growth stimulation under phosphate limitation.

  9. Biological Control of Apple Ring Rot on Fruit by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 9001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Han, Li-Rong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Fu, Xuechi; Chen, Xinyi; Zhang, Lixia; Mei, Ruhong; Wang, Qi

    2013-06-01

    Apple ring rot disease, caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug. ex. Fr) Ces. et de Not., is one of the most important diseases on apple fruits. In this study, strain 9001 isolated from healthy apple fruits from an infested orchard was evaluated for its biocontrol activity against apple ring rot in vitro and in vivo. Strain 9001 showed obvious antagonistic activity to B. dothidea YL-1 when plated on potato dextrose agar. Soaking healthy apples in the bacterial suspensions of strain 9001 prior to artificial inoculation of fungal pathogen resulted in a dramatic decrease in disease incidence when compared to the control. Moreover, either field application in the growth season or postharvest treatment of apples from infected orchards with bacterial suspensions of strain 9001 resulted in significantly reduced disease incidence within the storage period for 4 months at room temperature. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and the gyrA gene, strain 9001 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. These results indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens 9001 could be a promising agent in biocontrol of apple ring rot on fruit, which might help to minimize the yield loss of apple fruit during the long postharvest period.

  10. Biological Control of Apple Ring Rot on Fruit by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 9001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple ring rot disease, caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug. ex. Fr Ces. et de Not., is one of the most important diseases on apple fruits. In this study, strain 9001 isolated from healthy apple fruits from an infested orchard was evaluated for its biocontrol activity against apple ring rot in vitro and in vivo. Strain 9001 showed obvious antagonistic activity to B. dothidea YL-1 when plated on potato dextrose agar. Soaking healthy apples in the bacterial suspensions of strain 9001 prior to artificial inoculation of fungal pathogen resulted in a dramatic decrease in disease incidence when compared to the control. Moreover, either field application in the growth season or postharvest treatment of apples from infected orchards with bacterial suspensions of strain 9001 resulted in significantly reduced disease incidence within the storage period for 4 months at room temperature. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and the gyrA gene, strain 9001 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. These results indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens 9001 could be a promising agent in biocontrol of apple ring rot on fruit, which might help to minimize the yield loss of apple fruit during the long postharvest period.

  11. [The age-dependent effect of copper ions on different strains of the wine yeast (Saccharomyces [corrected] cerevisiae var vini)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatirishvili, A F; Machavariani, N A; Menabde, M V

    2008-09-01

    The chronological ageing of wine yeast strains isolated from natural populations and the resistance of cells of different age to copper ions have been studied. In total, 25 wine yeast strains derived from the "Tsolikauri" population of Sviri village (Imereti, West Georgia) were tested. The strains were transferred to the standard (control samples) and the copper sulphate-containing complete media and stored at 2 degrees C temperature. 10, 20 and 30 days after setting up the cultures their resistance to copper ions were examined. Methylene blue dye was used for identification of survived cells. Young strain cultures have revealed different resistance to copper ions. The strains under investigation may be conditionally divided into three morphs, such as: "sensitive" (capable of growing on 1-2 mM medium. 6 strains belong to this group), "mild" (grow on 3-4 mM medium--17 strains and "resistant" (can grow on 5 mM medium, includes 3 strains). The population was found to be polymorphic by the resistance to copper ions. The "sensitive" and "resistant" strains in spite of ageing (10 or 20 days after the onset of culturing) retain their resistance to copper ions, while the "mild" morphs exhibited some degree of variability. In the "aged" (30-day long) cultures strong inhibitory activity of copper ions was apparently observed. In contrast to the others, the resistance was sustained in the "resistant" morphs. The frequency of living cells was defined in the strains grown on the control and copper ion-containing substrates. Survived and died cells were counted. The strains belonged to the sensitive morphs contained high number of died cells--26-30%. The same index was rather low in the other morphs with no difference between them. Further ageing of the cultures (30 days and more) caused so sharp decrease in the liability of the strains, that they completely lose their resistance. Thus, the examined populations of the wine yeast were found to be polymorphic by their lifespan

  12. Use of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens HZ-12 for High-Level Production of the Blood Glucose Lowering Compound, 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), and Nutraceutical Enriched Soybeans via Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Dongbo; Liu, Mengjie; Wei, Xuetuan; Li, Xinmiao; Wang, Qin; Nomura, Christopher T; Chen, Shouwen

    2017-03-01

    1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) is an efficient α-glucosidase inhibitor (α-GI) with potential applications in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. In this study, 16 Bacillus strains were screened for α-GI rate, and the strain HZ-12 with the highest α-GI rate was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens through the analysis of physiological biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence. By LC-MS/Q-TOF analysis, the α-GI component produced by B. amyloliquefaciens HZ-12 was identified as DNJ. Soybean was used as the substrate for the solid-state fermentation; 870 mg/kg DNJ was produced by B. amyloliquefaciens HZ-12 after optimizing the fermentation conditions and media, which was 3.83-fold higher than the initial yield. Also, evaluations of nutraceutical enrichment in the form of anticoagulant activity, antioxidant activity, total nitrogen (TN), and total reducing sugars (TRS) of the B. amyloliquefaciens HZ-12 fermented soybeans were substantially higher than unfermented soybeans. This study provided a promising strain for high-level production of DNJ and produced nutraceutical enriched soybeans by fermentation.

  13. Molecular characterization of a divergent strain of calla lily chlorotic spot virus infecting celtuce (Lactuca sativa var. augustana) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Wu, Xiaoyun; Li, Wenbin; Cheng, Xiaofei

    2018-02-01

    Through sequencing and assembly of small RNAs, an orthotospovirus was identified from a celtuce plant (Lactuca sativa var. augustana) showing vein clearing and chlorotic spots in the Zhejiang province of China. The S, M, and L RNAs of this orthotospovirus were determined to be 3146, 4734, and 8934 nt, respectively, and shared 30.4-72.5%, 43.4-80.8%, and 29.84-82.9% nucleotide sequence identities with that of known orthotospoviruses. The full length nucleoprotein (N) of this orthotospovirus shared highest amino acid sequence identity (90.25%) with that of calla lily chlorotic spot virus isolated from calla lily (CCSV-calla) [China: Taiwan: 2001] and tobacco (CCSV-LJ1) [China: Lijiang: 2014]. Phylogenetic analyses showed that this orthotospovirus is phylogenetically associated with CCSV isolates and clustered with CCSV, tomato zonate spot virus (TZSV), and tomato necrotic spot-associated virus (TNSaV) in a separate sub-branch. These results suggest that this orthotospovirus is a divergent isolate of CCSV and was thus named CCSV-Cel [China: Zhejiang: 2017].

  14. In vitro screening of probiotic properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii and food-borne Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aa Kuhle, Alis; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Jespersen, Lene

    2005-01-01

    to the nontumorigenic porcine jejunal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) was investigated by incorporation of H-3-methionine into the yeast cells and use of liquid scintillation counting. Only few of the food-borne S. cerevisiae strains exhibited noteworthy adhesiveness with the strongest levels of adhesion (13...

  15. The antiplasmodium effects of a traditional South American remedy: Zanthoxylum chiloperone var. angustifolium against chloroquine resistant and chloroquine sensitive strains of Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Cebrian-Torrejon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Zanthoxylum chiloperone var. angustifolium Engl., Rutaceae, is used in traditional medicine to treat fungal and protozoal infections in the central area of South America. Considering the increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum in malarial ridden areas, we explored the anti-plasmodial effects of three compounds isolated from Z. chiloperone. The pyranocoumarin transavicennol and the canthinone alkaloids, canthin-6-one and 5-methoxycanthin-6-one, were found to have IC50 on chloroquine/mefloquine resistant and sensitive strains of P. falciparum of 0.5-2.7, 2.0-5.3 and 5.1-10.4 ƒÊg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the formation of heme adducts by these compounds is described by a novel alternative method based on MS-CID methods. The alkylamide sanshool was also identified, for first time in this plant, in the dichloromethanic and ethanolic extracts and the extracts were found to be notably non-toxic and displayed good anti-plasmodial effects.

  16. Bacilysin from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 has specific bactericidal activity against harmful algal bloom species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liming; Wu, Huijun; Chen, Lina; Xie, Shanshan; Zang, Haoyu; Borriss, Rainer; Gao, Xuewen

    2014-12-01

    Harmful algal blooms, caused by massive and exceptional overgrowth of microalgae and cyanobacteria, are a serious environmental problem worldwide : In the present study, we looked for Bacillus strains with sufficiently strong anticyanobacterial activity to be used as biocontrol agents. Among 24 strains, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 showed the strongest bactericidal activity against Microcystis aeruginosa, with a kill rate of 98.78%. The synthesis of the anticyanobacterial substance did not depend on Sfp, an enzyme that catalyzes a necessary processing step in the nonribosomal synthesis of lipopeptides and polyketides, but was associated with the aro gene cluster that is involved in the synthesis of the sfp-independent antibiotic bacilysin. Disruption of bacB, the gene in the cluster responsible for synthesizing bacilysin, or supplementation with the antagonist N-acetylglucosamine abolished the inhibitory effect, but this was restored when bacilysin synthesis was complemented. Bacilysin caused apparent changes in the algal cell wall and cell organelle membranes, and this resulted in cell lysis. Meanwhile, there was downregulated expression of glmS, psbA1, mcyB, and ftsZ-genes involved in peptidoglycan synthesis, photosynthesis, microcystin synthesis, and cell division, respectively. In addition, bacilysin suppressed the growth of other harmful algal species. In summary, bacilysin produced by B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 has anticyanobacterial activity and thus could be developed as a biocontrol agent to mitigate the effects of harmful algal blooms. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. The complete genome analysis of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UMAF6614 and UMAF6639 reveals genetics features involved in biocontrol activity and bacterial fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Magno, Concepción; Martínez, Pedro; de Vicente, Antonio; Romero, Diego; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; Pérez-García, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains UMAF6614 and UMAF6639 were originally isolated from healthy leaf areas of melon plants naturally infected with the cucurbit powdery mildew fungus Podosphaera fusca. In previous works, we have demonstrated the multifaceted bicontrol activity of these strains based on: i) direct antagonism against fungal and bacterial pathogens of cucurbits, and ii) induction of plant defense mechanisms (ISR) and promotion of plant growth when applied to roots. With the id...

  18. Characterization of amylolysin, a novel lantibiotic from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GA1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Arguelles Arias

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lantibiotics are heat-stable peptides characterized by the presence of thioether amino acid lanthionine and methyllanthionine. They are capable to inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus, the causative agents of food-borne diseases or nosocomial infections. Lantibiotic biosynthetic machinery is encoded by gene cluster composed by a structural gene that codes for a pre-lantibiotic peptide and other genes involved in pre-lantibiotic modifications, regulation, export and immunity. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GA1 was found to produce an antimicrobial peptide, named amylolysin, active on an array of Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin resistant S. aureus. Genome characterization led to the identification of a putative lantibiotic gene cluster that comprises a structural gene (amlA and genes involved in modification (amlM, transport (amlT, regulation (amlKR and immunity (amlFE. Disruption of amlA led to loss of biological activity, confirming thus that the identified gene cluster is related to amylolysin synthesis. MALDI-TOF and LC-MS analysis on purified amylolysin demonstrated that this latter corresponds to a novel lantibiotic not described to date. The ability of amylolysin to interact in vitro with the lipid II, the carrier of peptidoglycan monomers across the cytoplasmic membrane and the presence of a unique modification gene suggest that the identified peptide belongs to the group B lantibiotic. Amylolysin immunity seems to be driven by only two AmlF and AmlE proteins, which is uncommon within the Bacillus genus. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Apart from mersacidin produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains Y2 and HIL Y-85,544728, reports on the synthesis of type B-lantibiotic in this species are scarce. This study reports on a genetic and structural characterization of another representative of the type B lantibiotic in B

  19. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum S499, a rhizobacterium that triggers plant defences and inhibits fungal phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinatto, Giulia; Puopolo, Gerardo; Sonego, Paolo; Moretto, Marco; Engelen, Kristof; Viti, Carlo; Ongena, Marc; Pertot, Ilaria

    2016-11-20

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum S499 is a plant beneficial rhizobacterium with a good antagonistic potential against phytopathogens through the release of active secondary metabolites. Moreover, it can induce systemic resistance in plants by producing considerable amounts of surfactins. The complete genome sequence of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum S499 includes a circular chromosome of 3,927,922bp and a plasmid of 8,008bp. A remarkable abundance in genomic regions of putative horizontal origin emerged from the analysis. Furthermore, we highlighted the presence of genes involved in the establishment of interactions with the host plants at the root level and in the competition with other soil-borne microorganisms. More specifically, genes related to the synthesis of amylolysin, amylocyclicin, and butirosin were identified. These antimicrobials were not known before to be part of the antibiotic arsenal of the strain. The information embedded in the genome will support the upcoming studies regarding the application of B. amyloliquefaciens isolates as plant-growth promoters and biocontrol agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Improved poly-γ-glutamic acid production in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by modular pathway engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun; Gu, Yanyan; Quan, Yufen; Cao, Mingfeng; Gao, Weixia; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Shufang; Yang, Chao; Song, Cunjiang

    2015-11-01

    A Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain with enhanced γ-PGA production was constructed by metabolically engineering its γ-PGA synthesis-related metabolic networks: by-products synthesis, γ-PGA degradation, glutamate precursor synthesis, γ-PGA synthesis and autoinducer synthesis. The genes involved in by-products synthesis were firstly deleted from the starting NK-1 strain. The obtained NK-E7 strain with deletions of the epsA-O (responsible for extracellular polysaccharide synthesis), sac (responsible for levan synthesis), lps (responsible for lipopolysaccharide synthesis) and pta (encoding phosphotransacetylase) genes, showed increased γ-PGA purity and slight increase of γ-PGA titer from 3.8 to 4.15 g/L. The γ-PGA degrading genes pgdS (encoding poly-gamma-glutamate depolymerase) and cwlO (encoding cell wall hydrolase) were further deleted. The obtained NK-E10 strain showed further increased γ-PGA production from 4.15 to 9.18 g/L. The autoinducer AI-2 synthetase gene luxS was deleted in NK-E10 strain and the resulting NK-E11 strain showed comparable γ-PGA titer to NK-E10 (from 9.18 to 9.54 g/L). In addition, we overexpressed the pgsBCA genes (encoding γ-PGA synthetase) in NK-E11 strain; however, the overexpression of these genes led to a decrease in γ-PGA production. Finally, the rocG gene (encoding glutamate dehydrogenase) and the glnA gene (glutamine synthetase) were repressed by the expression of synthetic small regulatory RNAs in NK-E11 strain. The rocG-repressed NK-anti-rocG strain exhibited the highest γ-PGA titer (11.04 g/L), which was 2.91-fold higher than that of the NK-1 strain. Fed-batch cultivation of the NK-anti-rocG strain resulted in a final γ-PGA titer of 20.3g/L, which was 5.34-fold higher than that of the NK-1 strain in shaking flasks. This work is the first report of a systematically metabolic engineering approach that significantly enhanced γ-PGA production in a B. amyloliquefaciens strain. The engineering strategies explored here are

  1. Antagonistic Activities of Novel Peptides from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PT14 against Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Gwon; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Kwon, Kee-Deok; Seo, Chang Ho; Lee, Hyang Burm; Park, Yoonkyung

    2015-12-09

    Bacillus species have recently drawn attention due to their potential use in the biological control of fungal diseases. This paper reports on the antifungal activity of novel peptides isolated from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PT14. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that B. amyloliquefaciens PT14 produces five peptides (PT14-1, -2, -3, -4a, and -4b) that exhibit antifungal activity but are inactive against bacterial strains. In particular, PT14-3 and PT14-4a showed broad-spectrum antifungal activity against Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum. The PT14-4a N-terminal amino acid sequence was identified through Edman degradation, and a BLAST homology analysis showed it not to be identical to any other protein or peptide. PT14-4a displayed strong fungicidal activity with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 3.12 mg/L (F. solani) and 6.25 mg/L (F. oxysporum), inducing severe morphological deformation in the conidia and hyphae. On the other hand, PT14-4a had no detectable hemolytic activity. This suggests PT14-4a has the potential to serve as an antifungal agent in clinical therapeutic and crop-protection applications.

  2. Antibodies to a full-length VAR2CSA immunogen are broadly strain-transcendent but do not cross-inhibit different placental-type parasite isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Avril

    Full Text Available The high molecular weight, multidomain VAR2CSA protein mediating adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta is the leading candidate for a pregnancy malaria vaccine. However, it has been difficult so far to generate strong and consistent adhesion blocking antibody responses against most single-domain VAR2CSA immunogens. Recent advances in expression of the full-length recombinant protein showed it binds with much greater specificity and affinity to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA than individual VAR2CSA domains. This raises the possibility that a specific CSA binding pocket(s is formed in the full length antigen and could be an important target for vaccine development. In this study, we compared the immunogenicity of a full-length VAR2CSA recombinant protein containing all six Duffy binding-like (DBL domains to that of a three-domain construct (DBL4-6 in mice and rabbits. Animals immunized with either immunogen acquired antibodies reacting with several VAR2CSA individual domains by ELISA, but antibody responses against the highly conserved DBL4 domain were weaker in animals immunized with full-length DBL1-6 recombinant protein compared to DBL4-6 recombinant protein. Both immunogens induced cross-reactive antibodies to several heterologous CSA-binding parasite lines expressing different VAR2CSA orthologues. However, antibodies that inhibited adhesion of parasites to CSA were only elicited in rabbits immunized with full-length immunogen and inhibition was restricted to the homologous CSA-binding parasite. These findings demonstrate that partial and full-length VAR2CSA immunogens induce cross-reactive antibodies, but inhibitory antibody responses to full-length immunogen were highly allele-specific and variable between animal species.

  3. Key Impact of an Uncommon Plasmid on Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum S499 Developmental Traits and Lipopeptide Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinatto, Giulia; Franzil, Laurent; Steels, Sébastien; Puopolo, Gerardo; Pertot, Ilaria; Ongena, Marc

    2017-01-01

    The rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum S499 (S499) is particularly efficient in terms of the production of cyclic lipopeptides, which are responsible for the high level of plant disease protection provided by this strain. Sequencing of the S499 genome has highlighted genetic differences and similarities with the closely related rhizobacterium B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42 (FZB42). More specifically, a rare 8008 bp plasmid (pS499) harboring a rap-phr cassette constitutes a major distinctive element between S499 and FZB42. By curing this plasmid, we demonstrated that its presence is crucial for preserving the typical physiology of S499 cells. Indeed, the growth rate and extracellular proteolytic activity were significantly affected in the cured strain (S499 P(-)). Furthermore, pS499 made a significant contribution to the regulation of cyclic lipopeptide production. Surfactins and fengycins were produced in higher quantities by S499 P(-), whereas lower amounts of iturins were detected. In line with the increase in surfactin release, bacterial motility improved after curing, whereas the ability to form biofilm was reduced in vitro. The antagonistic effect against phytopathogenic fungi was also limited for S499 P(-), most probably due to the reduction of iturin production. With the exception of this last aspect, S499 P(-) behavior fell between that of S499 and FZB42, suggesting a role for the plasmid in shaping some of the phenotypic differences observed in the two strains.

  4. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GA1 as a source of potent antibiotics and other secondary metabolites for biocontrol of plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brans Alain

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytopathogenic fungi affecting crop and post-harvested vegetables are a major threat to food production and food storage. To face these drawbacks, producers have become increasingly dependent on agrochemicals. However, intensive use of these compounds has led to the emergence of pathogen resistance and severe negative environmental impacts. There are also a number of plant diseases for which chemical solutions are ineffective or non-existent as well as an increasing demand by consumers for pesticide-free food. Thus, biological control through the use of natural antagonistic microorganisms has emerged as a promising alternative to chemical pesticides for more rational and safe crop management. Results The genome of the plant-associated B. amyloliquefaciens GA1 was sample sequenced. Several gene clusters involved in the synthesis of biocontrol agents were detected. Four gene clusters were shown to direct the synthesis of the cyclic lipopeptides surfactin, iturin A and fengycin as well as the iron-siderophore bacillibactin. Beside these non-ribosomaly synthetised peptides, three additional gene clusters directing the synthesis of the antibacterial polyketides macrolactin, bacillaene and difficidin were identified. Mass spectrometry analysis of culture supernatants led to the identification of these secondary metabolites, hence demonstrating that the corresponding biosynthetic gene clusters are functional in strain GA1. In addition, genes encoding enzymes involved in synthesis and export of the dipeptide antibiotic bacilysin were highlighted. However, only its chlorinated derivative, chlorotetaine, could be detected in culture supernatants. On the contrary, genes involved in ribosome-dependent synthesis of bacteriocin and other antibiotic peptides were not detected as compared to the reference strain B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42. Conclusion The production of all of these antibiotic compounds highlights B. amyloliquefaciens GA1 as

  5. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GA1 as a source of potent antibiotics and other secondary metabolites for biocontrol of plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguelles-Arias, Anthony; Ongena, Marc; Halimi, Badre; Lara, Yannick; Brans, Alain; Joris, Bernard; Fickers, Patrick

    2009-11-26

    Phytopathogenic fungi affecting crop and post-harvested vegetables are a major threat to food production and food storage. To face these drawbacks, producers have become increasingly dependent on agrochemicals. However, intensive use of these compounds has led to the emergence of pathogen resistance and severe negative environmental impacts. There are also a number of plant diseases for which chemical solutions are ineffective or non-existent as well as an increasing demand by consumers for pesticide-free food. Thus, biological control through the use of natural antagonistic microorganisms has emerged as a promising alternative to chemical pesticides for more rational and safe crop management. The genome of the plant-associated B. amyloliquefaciens GA1 was sample sequenced. Several gene clusters involved in the synthesis of biocontrol agents were detected. Four gene clusters were shown to direct the synthesis of the cyclic lipopeptides surfactin, iturin A and fengycin as well as the iron-siderophore bacillibactin. Beside these non-ribosomaly synthetised peptides, three additional gene clusters directing the synthesis of the antibacterial polyketides macrolactin, bacillaene and difficidin were identified. Mass spectrometry analysis of culture supernatants led to the identification of these secondary metabolites, hence demonstrating that the corresponding biosynthetic gene clusters are functional in strain GA1. In addition, genes encoding enzymes involved in synthesis and export of the dipeptide antibiotic bacilysin were highlighted. However, only its chlorinated derivative, chlorotetaine, could be detected in culture supernatants. On the contrary, genes involved in ribosome-dependent synthesis of bacteriocin and other antibiotic peptides were not detected as compared to the reference strain B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42. The production of all of these antibiotic compounds highlights B. amyloliquefaciens GA1 as a good candidate for the development of biocontrol agents.

  6. Solid Culturing of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for α-Amylase Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Gangadharan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen different agroresidues were screened for alpha amylase production using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ATCC 23842. Among them, wheat bran (WB and groundnut oil cake (GOC in mass ratio of 1:1 was proved as the best substrate source. Supplementation with 0.01 M KH2PO4 and 1 % soluble starch enhanced the enzyme yield considerably. Maximum enzyme recovery from the solid mass was obtained when extracted with 0.1 M acetate buffer, pH=5.0. Maximum enzyme titer expressed as units per mass of dry substrate obtained was 62 470 U/g after 72 hours of fermentation at 37 °C by using the above solid substrate mixture (5 g with the initial moisture of 85 % and inoculated with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens of 2·109 CFU/mL.

  7. Bacterial endosymbionts of Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, Ma Patricia V; Azanza, Rhodora V; Vargas, Vanessa Mercee D; Hedreyda, Cynthia T

    2006-11-01

    The study presents evidence in support of the bacterial theory associated with the toxicity of Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum. Bacterial endosymbionts from Philippine P. bahamense var. compressum strain Pbc MZRVA 042595 were isolated and identified via 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Taxonomic diversity of the identified culturable intracellular microbiota associated with Philippine P. bahamense var. compressum was established to be limited to the Phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Major endosymbionts identified included Moraxella spp., Erythrobacter spp., and Bacillus spp., whereas Pseudomonas putida, Micrococcus spp., and Dietzia maris were identified as minor isolates. All identified strains except D. maris, P. putida, and Micrococcus spp. were shown to contain either saxitoxin or neo saxitoxin or both at levels bahamense var. compressum isolated in the Philippines.

  8. Production of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens OG and its metabolites in renewable media: valorisation for biodiesel production and p-xylene decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchegaray, Augusto; Coutte, François; Chataigné, Gabrielle; Béchet, Max; Dos Santos, Ramon H Z; Leclère, Valérie; Jacques, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Biosurfactants are important in many areas; however, costs impede large-scale production. This work aimed to develop a global sustainable strategy for the production of biosurfactants by a novel strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Initially, Bacillus sp. strain 0G was renamed B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum (syn. Bacillus velezensis) after analysis of the gyrA and gyrB DNA sequences. Growth in modified Landy's medium produced 3 main recoverable metabolites: surfactin, fengycin, and acetoin, which promote plant growth. Cultivation was studied in the presence of renewable carbon (as glycerol) and nitrogen (as arginine) sources. While diverse kinetics of acetoin production were observed in different media, similar yields (6-8 g·L-1) were obtained after 72 h of growth. Glycerol increased surfactin-specific production, while arginine increased the yields of surfactin and fengycin and increased biomass significantly. The specific production of fengycin increased ∼10 times, possibly due to a connecting pathway involving arginine and ornithine. Adding value to crude extracts and biomass, both were shown to be useful, respectively, for the removal of p-xylene from contaminated water and for biodiesel production, yielding ∼70 mg·g-1 cells and glycerol, which could be recycled in novel media. This is the first study considering circular bioeconomy to lower the production costs of biosurfactants by valorisation of both microbial cells and their primary and secondary metabolites.

  9. Optimization of Thermostable Alpha-Amylase Production Via Mix Agricultural-Residues and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini RAI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports utilization of mixture of wheat and barley bran (1:1 for the production of thermostable alpha-amylase enzyme through a spore former, heat tolerant strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in solid state fermentation. Maximum yield of alpha-amylase (252.77 U mL-1 was obtained in following optimized conditions, inoculums size 2 mL (2 × 106 CFU/mL, moisture 80%, pH 7±0.02, NaCl (3%, temperature 38±1°C, incubation for 72 h, maltose (1% and tryptone (1%. After SSF crude enzyme was purified via ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange and column chromatography by DEAE Cellulose. Purified protein showed a molecular weight of 42 kDa by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. After purification, purified enzyme was characterized against several enzymes inhibitors such as temperature, NaCl, pH, metal and surfactants. Pure enzyme was highly active over broad temperature (50-70°C, NaCl concentration (0.5-4 M, and pH (6-10 ranges, indicating it’s a thermoactive and alkali-stable nature. Moreover, CaCl2, MnCl2, =-mercaptoethanol were found to stimulate the amylase activity, whereas FeCl3, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, CuCl3 and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA strongly inhibited the enzyme. Moreover, enzyme specificity and thermal stability conformed by degradation of different soluble starch up to 55°C. Therefore, the present study proved that the extracellular alpha-amylase extracted through wheat flour residues by organism B. amyloliquefaciens MCCB0075, both have considerable potential for industrial application owing to its properties.

  10. Construction of energy-conserving sucrose utilization pathways for improving poly-γ-glutamic acid production in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun; Gu, Yanyan; Quan, Yufen; Gao, Weixia; Dang, Yulei; Cao, Mingfeng; Lu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Yi; Song, Cunjiang; Wang, Shufang

    2017-06-06

    Sucrose is an naturally abundant and easily fermentable feedstock for various biochemical production processes. By now, several sucrose utilization pathways have been identified and characterized. Among them, the pathway consists of sucrose permease and sucrose phosphorylase is an energy-conserving sucrose utilization pathway because it consumes less ATP when comparing to other known pathways. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NK-1 strain can use sucrose as the feedstock to produce poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA), a highly valuable biopolymer. The native sucrose utilization pathway in NK-1 strain consists of phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system and sucrose-6-P hydrolase and consumes more ATP than the energy-conserving sucrose utilization pathway. In this study, the native sucrose utilization pathway in NK-1 was firstly deleted and generated the B. amyloliquefaciensstrain. Then four combination of heterologous energy-conserving sucrose utilization pathways were constructed and introduced into the 3Δ strain. Results demonstrated that the combination of cscB (encodes sucrose permease) from Escherichia coli and sucP (encodes sucrose phosphorylase) from Bifidobacterium adolescentis showed the highest sucrose metabolic efficiency. The corresponding mutant consumed 49.4% more sucrose and produced 38.5% more γ-PGA than the NK-1 strain under the same fermentation conditions. To our best knowledge, this is the first report concerning the enhancement of the target product production by introducing the heterologous energy-conserving sucrose utilization pathways. Such a strategy can be easily extended to other microorganism hosts for reinforced biochemical production using sucrose as substrate.

  11. Synergistic effect of Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ameliorates drought stress in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Mishra, Sankalp; Dixit, Vijaykant; Kumar, Manoj; Agarwal, Lalit; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    Two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) Pseudomonas putida NBRIRA and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NBRISN13 with ability to tolerate abiotic stress along with multiple PGP traits like ACC deaminase activity, minerals solubilisation, hormones production, biofilm formation, siderophore activity were evaluated for their synergistic effect to ameliorate drought stress in chickpea. Earlier we have reported both the strains individually for their PGP attributes and stress amelioration in host plants. The present study explains in detail the possibilities and benefits of utilizing these 2 PGPR in consortium for improving the chickpea growth under control and drought stressed condition. In vitro results clearly demonstrate that both the PGPR strains are compatible to each other and their synergistic growth enhances the PGP attributes. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of inoculation of both strains individually and consortia in drought tolerant and sensitive cultivars (BG362 and P1003). The growth parameters were observed significantly higher in consortium as compared to individual PGPR. Colonization of both PGPR in chickpea rhizosphere has been visualized by using gfp labeling. Apart from growth parameters, defense enzymes, soil enzymes and microbial diversity were significantly modulated in individually PGPR and in consortia inoculated plants. Negative effects of drought stress has been ameliorated and apparently seen by higher biomass and reversal of stress indicators in chickpea cultivars treated with PGPR individually or in consortia. Findings from the present study demonstrate that synergistic application has better potential to improve plant growth promotion under drought stress conditions.

  12. Thermus amyloliquefaciens sp. nov., isolated from a hot spring sediment sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tian-Tian; Ming, Hong; Yao, Ji-Cheng; Zhou, En-Min; Park, Dong-Jin; Hozzein, Wael N; Kim, Chang-Jin; Wadaan, Mohammed A M; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic bacterium, designated strain YIM 77409T, was isolated from the Niujie hot spring in the Eryuan county of Dali, Yunnan province, south-west China. Cells of the strain were rod-shaped and colonies were yellow and circular. The strain grew at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and 50-70°C (optimum, 60-65°C). The predominant menaquinone was MK-8 and the DNA G+C content was 66.4 mol%. Major fatty acids (>10 %) were iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0.The polar lipids consisted of one aminophospholipid, one phospholipid and two glycolipids. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain YIM 77409T formed a cluster with Thermus scotoductus DSM 8553T, Thermus antranikianii DSM 12462T, Thermus caliditerrae YIM 77925T and Thermus tengchongensis YIM 77924T, with highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to T. scotoductus DSM 8553T (97.57%). However, DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that strain YIM 77409T should be viewed as a representative of a novel species, as there was only 30.6 ± 1.6% reassociation with T. scotoductus DSM 8553T. On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, as well as the genotypic data, it is proposed that strain YIM 77409T represents a novel species of the genus Thermus, with the name Thermus amyloliquefaciens sp. nov. The type strain is YIM 77409T ( = DSM 25898T = KCTC 32024T).

  13. Enhancing poly-γ-glutamic acid production in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by introducing the glutamate synthesis features from Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun; Quan, Yufen; Gu, Yanyan; Liu, Fenghong; Huang, Xiaozhong; Shen, Haosheng; Dang, Yulei; Cao, Mingfeng; Gao, Weixia; Lu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Yi; Song, Cunjiang; Wang, Shufang

    2017-05-22

    Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a valuable polymer with glutamate as its sole precursor. Enhancement of the intracellular glutamate synthesis is a very important strategy for the improvement of γ-PGA production, especially for those glutamate-independent γ-PGA producing strains. Corynebacterium glutamicum has long been used for industrial glutamate production and it exhibits some unique features for glutamate synthesis; therefore introduction of these metabolic characters into the γ-PGA producing strain might lead to increased intracellular glutamate availability, and thus ultimate γ-PGA production. In this study, the unique glutamate synthesis features from C. glutamicum was introduced into the glutamate-independent γ-PGA producing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NK-1 strain. After introducing the energy-saving NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NADPH-GDH) pathway, the NK-1 (pHT315-gdh) strain showed slightly increase (by 9.1%) in γ-PGA production. Moreover, an optimized metabolic toggle switch for controlling the expression of ɑ-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (ODHC) was introduced into the NK-1 strain, because it was previously shown that the ODHC in C. glutamicum was completely inhibited when glutamate was actively produced. The obtained NK-PO1 (pHT01-xylR) strain showed 66.2% higher γ-PGA production than the NK-1 strain. However, the further combination of these two strategies (introducing both NADPH-GDH pathway and the metabolic toggle switch) did not lead to further increase of γ-PGA production but rather the resultant γ-PGA production was even lower than that in the NK-1 strain. We proposed new metabolic engineering strategies to improve the γ-PGA production in B. amyloliquefaciens. The NK-1 (pHT315-gdh) strain with the introduction of NADPH-GDH pathway showed 9.1% improvement in γ-PGA production. The NK-PO1 (pHT01-xylR) strain with the introduction of a metabolic toggle switch for controlling the expression of ODHC showed 66.2% higher

  14. The Vibrio cholerae var regulon encodes a metallo-β-lactamase and an antibiotic efflux pump, which are regulated by VarR, a LysR-type transcription factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ting Victor Lin

    Full Text Available The genome sequence of V. cholerae O1 Biovar Eltor strain N16961 has revealed a putative antibiotic resistance (var regulon that is predicted to encode a transcriptional activator (VarR, which is divergently transcribed relative to the putative resistance genes for both a metallo-β-lactamase (VarG and an antibiotic efflux-pump (VarABCDEF. We sought to test whether these genes could confer antibiotic resistance and are organised as a regulon under the control of VarR. VarG was overexpressed and purified and shown to have β-lactamase activity against penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems, having the highest activity against meropenem. The expression of VarABCDEF in the Escherichia coli (ΔacrAB strain KAM3 conferred resistance to a range of drugs, but most significant resistance was to the macrolide spiramycin. A gel-shift analysis was used to determine if VarR bound to the promoter regions of the resistance genes. Consistent with the regulation of these resistance genes, VarR binds to three distinct intergenic regions, varRG, varGA and varBC located upstream and adjacent to varG, varA and varC, respectively. VarR can act as a repressor at the varRG promoter region; whilst this repression was relieved upon addition of β-lactams, these did not dissociate the VarR/varRG-DNA complex, indicating that the de-repression of varR by β-lactams is indirect. Considering that the genomic arrangement of VarR-VarG is strikingly similar to that of AmpR-AmpC system, it is possible that V. cholerae has evolved a system for resistance to the newer β-lactams that would prove more beneficial to the bacterium in light of current selective pressures.

  15. Optimization of α-amylase production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens using response surfaces methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hami Kaboosi

    2014-11-01

    α-amylase. The results showed that the RSM applied for optimizing parameters of submerged fermentation condition aimed at producing maximum quantities of α-amylase by B. amyloliquefaciens acts with high efficiency.

  16. Isolation, identification and characterization of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BZ-6, a bacterial isolate for enhancing oil recovery from oily sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wuxing; Wang, Xiaobing; Wu, Longhua; Chen, Mengfang; Tu, Chen; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Over 100 biosurfactant-producing microorganisms were isolated from oily sludge and petroleum-contaminated soil from Shengli oil field in north China. Sixteen of the bacterial isolates produced biosurfactants and reduced the surface tension of the growth medium from 71 to isolates ranged from 39% to 88%. Bacterial isolate BZ-6 was found to be the most efficient strain and the three phases (oil, water and sediment) were separated automatically after the sludge was treated with the culture medium of BZ-6. Based on morphological, physiological characteristics and molecular identification, isolate BZ-6 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The biosurfactant produced by isolate BZ-6 was purified and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. There were four ion peaks representing four different fengycin A homologues. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. dRNA-Seq Reveals Genomewide TSSs and Noncoding RNAs of Plant Beneficial Rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Fan

    Full Text Available Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42 is a representative of Gram-positive plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR that inhabit plant root environments. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms of bacteria-plant symbiosis, we have systematically analyzed the primary transcriptome of strain FZB42 grown under rhizosphere-mimicking conditions using differential RNA sequencing (dRNA-seq. Our analysis revealed 4,877 transcription start sites for protein-coding genes, identified genes differentially expressed under different growth conditions, and corrected many previously mis-annotated genes. We also identified a large number of riboswitches and cis-encoded antisense RNAs, as well as trans-encoded small noncoding RNAs that may play important roles in the gene regulation of Bacillus. Overall, our analyses provided a landscape of Bacillus primary transcriptome and improved the knowledge of rhizobacteria-host interactions.

  18. Impact of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens S13-3 on control of bacterial wilt and powdery mildew in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shoko; Shiraishi, Soma; Kawagoe, Yumi; Mochizuki, Mai; Suzuki, Shunji

    2015-05-01

    Biological control is a non-hazardous technique to control plant diseases. Researchers have explored microorganisms that show high plant-disease control efficiency for use as biological control agents. A single soil application of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain S13-3 suppressed tomato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, a soilborne bacterial pathogen, through production of antibiotics augmented possibly by induction of systemic acquired resistance. Soil application also controlled tomato powdery mildew disease through induction of systemic acquired resistance. S13-3 showing bifunctional activity with a single application to soil may be an innovative biological control agent against bacterial wilt and powdery mildew in tomato. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Total phenolic and flavonoid content and antibacterial activity of Punica granatum L. var. pleniflora flowers (Golnar) against bacterial strains causing foodborne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Arash; Asgarpanah, Jinous; Sadaghiyani, Parisa Nosrati; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2015-10-15

    Flowers of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) var. pleniflora, known as "Golnar" in Iranian traditional medicine have been used for the prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases. In this study, antibacterial activities of ethanol extract of Golnar and its fractions were scientifically evaluated against bacteria causing foodborne diseases including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysantriae, and Salmonella typhi. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract and its fractions were also determined. The antibacterial effect of the ethanol extract and its fractions were primarily evaluated by agar well diffusion and their MIC and MBC were determined by broth macro dilution method. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract and its fractions were measured based on gallic acid and rutin equivalents (GAE and RE), respectively. After evaluation of total phenolic and flavonoid content the chloroform fraction showed the lowest phenolic and flavonoid contents (3.8 mg GAE/g and 1.1 mg RE/g respectively) and the methanol fraction showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents (18.1 mg GEA/g and 3.3 mg RE/g respectively). The total phenolic and flavonoid content was positively associated with the antibacterial activities of the fractions with chloroform extract exhibiting lowest antibacterial activity against E. coli (MIC 25 mg/ml) and the methanol fraction exhibiting the highest antibacterial effect against S. aureus (MIC 0.19 mg/ml). Golnar extract showed antibacterial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria causing food poisoning. Therefore, the extract can be used for prevention or treatment of foodborne diseases or as preservative in the food industry. The methanol fraction with the highest phenolic and flavonoid content showed the highest antibacterial effect. This indicates that the phenolic and flavonoid compounds in the extract can be responsible for the

  20. Importance of prumycin produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SD-32 in biocontrol against cucumber powdery mildew disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keijitsu; Fukuda, Mutsumi; Amaki, Yusuke; Sakaguchi, Takatoshi; Inai, Koji; Ishihara, Atsushi; Nakajima, Hiromitsu

    2017-12-01

    Powdery mildew disease of cucurbits is caused mainly by Podosphaera fusca, which is one of the most important limiting factors in cucurbit production worldwide. Previously we reported that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens biocontrol strain SD-32 produces C 17 bacillomycin D and [Ile 2002]surfactin, and that these metabolites play important roles in SD-32's biocontrol over cucumber gray mold disease. Our further investigation demonstrated that the culture broth and its supernatant suppressed cucumber powdery mildew disease in greenhouse experiments. However, the active principle(s) remained unknown. The active compound was isolated from the culture supernatant after anti-powdery mildew disease activity-guided purification and identified as prumycin. Prumycin significantly suppressed the disease, whereas bacillomycin D and [Ile 2002]surfactin did not. Prumycin did not induce the expression of plant defense genes (PR1a and VSP1), suggesting that it does not act via plant defense response. Light microscopic observations of prumycin-treated cucumber cotyledon suggested that prumycin inhibits the conidial germination of P. fusca. This study demonstrates that prumycin is a major factor in SD-32's suppression of cucumber powdery mildew disease. Our findings shed light for the first time on prumycin's role in biocontrol by Bacillus against this disease. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Enhanced Iron and Selenium Uptake in Plants by Volatile Emissions of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BF06

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs released by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are involved in promoting growth and triggering systemic resistance (ISR in plants. Importantly, the release of VOCs by some PGPR strains confers improved plant uptake of nutrient elements from the soil. However, the underlying mechanisms of VOCs-regulated nutrient acquisition remain elusive. In this study, VOCs were extracted and identified from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (strain BF06 using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. BF06 VOCs exposure significantly promoted the growth and photosynthesis of Arabidopsis plants. To explore how microbial VOCs stimulate growth in plants, gene expression profiles of Arabidopsis seedlings exposed to BF06 VOCs were examined using transcriptomic analyses. In screening differentially expressed genes (DEGs, most upregulated DEGs were found to be related to amino acid transport, iron (Fe uptake and homeostasis, and sulfate transport. Furthermore, BF06 VOCs significantly enhanced Fe absorption in plants under Fe-limited conditions. However, when nitric oxide (NO synthesis was inhibited, BF06 VOCs exposure could not substantially augment Fe acquisition in plants under alkaline stress, indicating that VOCs-mediated plant uptake of Fe was required for induction of root NO accumulation. In addition, BF06 VOCs exposure led to a marked increase in some genes encoding for sulfate transporters, and further increased Se accumulation in plants. Intriguingly, BF06 VOCs exposure failed to increase Se uptake in sultr1;2 mutants, which may indicate that high-level transcription of these sulfate transporters induced by BF06 VOCs was essential for enhancing Se absorption by plants. Taken together, our results demonstrated the potential of VOCs released by this strain BF06 to increase Fe and Se uptake in plants.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism of the yeast Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, E S; Naumov, G I; Barrio, E; Querol, A

    2010-01-01

    Genetic relationships among forty-one strains of Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum isolated in different wine regions of Europe and four wild isolates were investigated by restriction analysis (RFLP) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) with four restriction endonucleases, AluI, DdeI, HinfI and RsaI. No clear correlation between origin and source of isolation of S. bayanus var. uvarum strains and their mtDNA restriction profiles was found. On the whole, the mtDNA of S. bayanus var. uvarum is much less polymorphic than that of S. cerevisiae. This observation is in good agreement with results obtained by electrophoretic karyotyping. Unlike wine S cerevisiae, strains of S. bayanus var. uvarum display a low level of chromosome length polymorphism.

  3. Effect of temperature and pH on polygalacturonase production by pectinolytic bacteria Bacillus licheniformis strain GD2a in submerged medium from Raja Nangka (Musa paradisiaca var. formatypica) banana peel waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widowati, E.; Utami, R.; Mahadjoeno, E.; Saputro, G. P.

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this research were to determine the effect of temperature (45°C, 55°C, 65°C) and pH (5.0; 6.0; 7.0) on the increase of total cell count and polygalacturonase enzyme activity produced from raja nangka banana (Musa paradisiaca var. formatypica) peel waste by pectinolytic bacterial Bacillus licheniformis strain GD2a. This research applied two sample repetition and one analysis repetition. The result showed temperature and pH affect total cell count. The total cell count on 45°C and pH 7 recorded the highest number at 9.469 log cell/ml. Temperature and pH also affected pectin concentration at the end of fermentation. The lowest pectin concentration recorded at 45°C and pH 7 was 0.425 %. The highest enzyme activity recorded at 65°C and pH 7 was 0.204 U/ml. The highest enzyme protein concentration was recorded at 65°C and resulted as 0.310 mg/ml on pH 6. The highest specific activity was 19.527 U/mg at 65°C and pH 7. By this result, could be concluded that optimum condition process on polygalacturonase production was at 65°C and pH 7 because it gave highest enzyme activity result (0,204 U/ml).

  4. Modulation of broilers' caecal microflora and metabolites in response to a potential probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, G T; Zhan, X A; Zhang, L L; Zeng, X F; Chen, A G; Yang, C M

    2018-01-03

    Studies have found that a dietary supplement of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens improved the growth performance, increased the nutrient digestibility of hosts and modulated the intestinal microflora. A total of 360 1-day-old Ross broilers were randomly divided into three treatments: a control group with a basal diet, an antibiotic group with a basal diet and added colistin sulphate, and a probiotics group with a basal diet and added Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The HiSeq high-throughput sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA was used to investigate the differences in birds' caecal microflora, and metabolomics was used to analyse changes in caecal metabolites. Results showed that the supplementation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens significantly improved the BW and ADG compared with the control birds. Results of sequencing indicated that (i) 645, 670, 596 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found in birds supplemented with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens on day 7, 21 and 42, separately, (ii) due to the diversity and relative abundance of the birds' caecal microflora, the OTUs of the caecal microflora clustered according to age and treatment, except on day 42, (iii) among the six predominate families (Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, Lactobacillaceae and Rikenellaceae), the supplementation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens significantly increased Enterobacteriaceae on day 42, (iv) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens increased the relative abundance of Faecalibacterium and Ruminococcus on day 21, increased the Faecalibacterium and Blautia and decreased the Ruminococcus on day 42. The metabolomics of caecal metabolites showed that the dietary Bacillus amyloliquefaciens changed the caecal metabolites involved of amino acid metabolism and glyceride metabolism, and the antibiotics changed the caecal metabolites that were related to carbohydrates and amino acid metabolism on day 21. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Improved Production of 2,3-Butanediol in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by Over-Expression of Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and 2,3-butanediol Dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Taowei; Rao, Zhiming; Zhang, Xian; Xu, Meijuan; Xu, Zhenghong; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-01-01

    Background Previously, a safe strain, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B10-127 was identified as an excellent candidate for industrial-scale microbial fermentation of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD). However, B. amyloliquefaciens fermentation yields large quantities of acetoin, lactate and succinate as by-products, and the 2,3-BD yield remains prohibitively low for commercial production. Methodology/Principal Findings In the 2,3-butanediol metabolic pathway, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the conversion of 3-phosphate glyceraldehyde to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate, with concomitant reduction of NAD+ to NADH. In the same pathway, 2,3-BD dehydrogenase (BDH) catalyzes the conversion of acetoin to 2,3-BD with concomitant oxidation of NADH to NAD+. In this study, to improve 2,3-BD production, we first over-produced NAD+-dependent GAPDH and NADH-dependent BDH in B. amyloliquefaciens. Excess GAPDH reduced the fermentation time, increased the 2,3-BD yield by 12.7%, and decreased the acetoin titer by 44.3%. However, the process also enhanced lactate and succinate production. Excess BDH increased the 2,3-BD yield by 16.6% while decreasing acetoin, lactate and succinate production, but prolonged the fermentation time. When BDH and GAPDH were co-overproduced in B. amyloliquefaciens, the fermentation time was reduced. Furthermore, in the NADH-dependent pathways, the molar yield of 2,3-BD was increased by 22.7%, while those of acetoin, lactate and succinate were reduced by 80.8%, 33.3% and 39.5%, relative to the parent strain. In fed-batch fermentations, the 2,3-BD concentration was maximized at 132.9 g/l after 45 h, with a productivity of 2.95 g/l·h. Conclusions/Significance Co-overexpression of bdh and gapA genes proved an effective method for enhancing 2,3-BD production and inhibiting the accumulation of unwanted by-products (acetoin, lactate and succinate). To our knowledge, we have attained the highest 2,3-BD fermentation yield thus far reported for safe

  6. Improved production of 2,3-butanediol in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by over-expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taowei Yang

    Full Text Available Previously, a safe strain, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B10-127 was identified as an excellent candidate for industrial-scale microbial fermentation of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD. However, B. amyloliquefaciens fermentation yields large quantities of acetoin, lactate and succinate as by-products, and the 2,3-BD yield remains prohibitively low for commercial production.In the 2,3-butanediol metabolic pathway, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH catalyzes the conversion of 3-phosphate glyceraldehyde to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate, with concomitant reduction of NAD(+ to NADH. In the same pathway, 2,3-BD dehydrogenase (BDH catalyzes the conversion of acetoin to 2,3-BD with concomitant oxidation of NADH to NAD(+. In this study, to improve 2,3-BD production, we first over-produced NAD(+-dependent GAPDH and NADH-dependent BDH in B. amyloliquefaciens. Excess GAPDH reduced the fermentation time, increased the 2,3-BD yield by 12.7%, and decreased the acetoin titer by 44.3%. However, the process also enhanced lactate and succinate production. Excess BDH increased the 2,3-BD yield by 16.6% while decreasing acetoin, lactate and succinate production, but prolonged the fermentation time. When BDH and GAPDH were co-overproduced in B. amyloliquefaciens, the fermentation time was reduced. Furthermore, in the NADH-dependent pathways, the molar yield of 2,3-BD was increased by 22.7%, while those of acetoin, lactate and succinate were reduced by 80.8%, 33.3% and 39.5%, relative to the parent strain. In fed-batch fermentations, the 2,3-BD concentration was maximized at 132.9 g/l after 45 h, with a productivity of 2.95 g/l·h.Co-overexpression of bdh and gapA genes proved an effective method for enhancing 2,3-BD production and inhibiting the accumulation of unwanted by-products (acetoin, lactate and succinate. To our knowledge, we have attained the highest 2,3-BD fermentation yield thus far reported for safe microorganisms.

  7. dbVar

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — dbVar is a database of genomic structural variation. It accepts data from all species and includes clinical data. It can accept diverse types of events, including...

  8. Analysis of plant growth-promoting properties of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UCMB5113 using Arabidopsis thaliana as host plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Shashidar; Tarkowská, Danuše; Rolčík, Jakub; Novák, Ondřej; Palmero, David Velázquez; Bejai, Sarosh; Meijer, Johan

    2017-01-01

    This study showed that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UCMB5113 colonizing Arabidopsis roots changed root structure and promoted growth implying the usability of this strain as a novel tool to support sustainable crop production. Root architecture plays a crucial role for plants to ensure uptake of water, minerals and nutrients and to provide anchorage in the soil. The root is a dynamic structure with plastic growth and branching depending on the continuous integration of internal and environmental factors. The rhizosphere contains a complex microbiota, where some microbes can colonize plant roots and support growth and stress tolerance. Here, we report that the rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCMB5113 stimulated the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 by increased lateral root outgrowth and elongation and root-hair formation, although primary root elongation was inhibited. In addition, the growth of the above ground tissues was stimulated by UCMB5113. Specific hormone reporter gene lines were tested which suggested a role for at least auxin and cytokinin signaling during rhizobacterial modulation of Arabidopsis root architecture. UCMB5113 produced cytokinins and indole-3-acetic acid, and the formation of the latter was stimulated by root exudates and tryptophan. The plant growth promotion effect by UCMB5113 did not appear to depend on jasmonic acid in contrast to the disease suppression effect in plants. UCMB5113 exudates inhibited primary root growth, while a semi-purified lipopeptide fraction did not and resulted in the overall growth promotion indicating an interplay of many different bacterial compounds that affect the root growth of the host plant. This study illustrates that beneficial microbes interact with plants in root development via classic and novel signals.

  9. Effects of MreB paralogs on poly-γ-glutamic acid synthesis and cell morphology in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weixia; Zhang, Zhongxiong; Feng, Jun; Dang, Yulei; Quan, Yufen; Gu, Yanyan; Wang, Shufang; Song, Cunjiang

    2016-09-01

    Actin-like MreB paralogs play important roles in cell shape maintenance, cell wall synthesis and the regulation of the D,L-endopeptidases, CwlO and LytE. The gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LL3, is a poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) producing strain that contains three MreB paralogs: MreB, Mbl and MreBH. In B. amyloliquefaciens, CwlO and LytE can degrade γ-PGA. In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that modulating transcript levels of MreB paralogs would alter the synthesis and degradation of γ-PGA. The results showed that overexpression or inhibition of MreB, Mbl or MreBH had distinct effects on cell morphology and the molecular weight of the γ-PGA products. In fermentation medium, cells of mreB inhibition mutant were 50.2% longer than LL3, and the γ-PGA titer increased by 55.7%. However, changing the expression level of mbl showed only slight effects on the morphology, γ-PGA molecular weight and titer. In the mreBH inhibition mutant, γ-PGA production and its molecular weight increased by 56.7% and 19.4%, respectively. These results confirmed our hypothesis that suppressing the expression of MreB paralogs might reduce γ-PGA degradation, and that improving the cell size could strengthen γ-PGA synthesis. This is the first report of enhanced γ-PGA production via suppression of actin-like MreB paralogs. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Optimization of Thermostable Alpha-Amylase Production Via Mix Agricultural-Residues and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini RAI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports utilization of mixture of wheat and barley bran (1:1 for the production of thermostable alpha-amylase enzyme through a spore former, heat tolerant strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in solid state fermentation. Maximum yield of alpha-amylase (252.77 U mL-1 was obtained in following optimized conditions, inoculums size 2 mL (2 × 106 CFU/mL, moisture 80%, pH 7±0.02, NaCl (3%, temperature 38±1°C, incubation for 72 h, maltose (1% and tryptone (1%. After SSF crude enzyme was purified via ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange and column chromatography by DEAE Cellulose. Purified protein showed a molecular weight of 42 kDa by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. After purification, purified enzyme was characterized against several enzymes inhibitors such as temperature, NaCl, pH, metal and surfactants. Pure enzyme was highly active over broad temperature (50-70°C, NaCl concentration (0.5-4 M, and pH (6-10 ranges, indicating it’s a thermoactive and alkali-stable nature. Moreover, CaCl2, MnCl2, =-mercaptoethanol were found to stimulate the amylase activity, whereas FeCl3, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, CuCl3 and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA strongly inhibited the enzyme. Moreover, enzyme specificity and thermal stability conformed by degradation of different soluble starch up to 55°C. Therefore, the present study proved that the extracellular alpha-amylase extracted through wheat flour residues by organism B. amyloliquefaciens MCCB0075, both have considerable potential for industrial application owing to its properties.

  11. Occurrence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as a systemic endophyte of vanilla orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James F; Torres, Mónica S; Sullivan, Raymond F; Jabbour, Rabih E; Chen, Qiang; Tadych, Mariusz; Irizarry, Ivelisse; Bergen, Marshall S; Havkin-Frenkel, Daphna; Belanger, Faith C

    2014-11-01

    We report the occurrence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vanilla orchids (Vanilla phaeantha) and cultivated hybrid vanilla (V. planifolia × V. pompona) as a systemic bacterial endophyte. We determined with light microscopy and isolations that tissues of V. phaeantha and the cultivated hybrid were infected by a bacterial endophyte and that shoot meristems and stomatal areas of stems and leaves were densely colonized. We identified the endophyte as B. amyloliquefaciens using DNA sequence data. Since additional endophyte-free plants and seed of this orchid were not available, additional studies were performed on surrogate hosts Amaranthus caudatus, Ipomoea tricolor, and I. purpurea. Plants of A. caudatus inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens demonstrated intracellular colonization of guard cells and other epidermal cells, confirming the pattern observed in the orchids. Isolations and histological studies suggest that the bacterium may penetrate deeply into developing plant tissues in shoot meristems, forming endospores in maturing tissues. B. amyloliquefaciens produced fungal inhibitors in culture. In controlled experiments using morning glory seedlings we showed that the bacterium promoted seedling growth and reduced seedling necrosis due to pathogens. We detected the gene for phosphopantetheinyl transferase (sfp), an enzyme in the pathway for production of antifungal lipopeptides, and purified the lipopeptide "surfactin" from cultures of the bacterium. We hypothesize that B. amyloliquefaciens is a robust endophyte and defensive mutualist of vanilla orchids. Whether the symbiosis between this bacterium and its hosts can be managed to protect vanilla crops from diseases is a question that should be evaluated in future research. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of Bacillus subtilis strains applicable to natto (fermented soybean) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spore-forming Bacillus strains that produce extracellular poly-'-glutamic acid were screened for their application to natto (fermented soybean food) fermentation. Among the 365 strains, including B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens, which we isolated from rice straw, 59 were capable of fermenting n...

  13. Assessment of the potential of the multi-enzyme producer Bacillus amyloliquefaciens US573 as alternative feed additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat-Khemakhem, Ameny; Blibech, Monia; Boukhris, Ines; Makni, Mohamed; Chouayekh, Hichem

    2017-07-25

    Recently, probiotics have increasingly been used as feed additives in poultry diets as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters fostering resistance development. This study was aimed at assessing the potential of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens US573 as a direct-fed microbial. The US573 strain was found to be free of harmful enzymatic activities and sensitive to antibiotics. In addition, it showed a good acid and bovine bile tolerance, high adhesion efficacy to chicken enterocytes, and an ability to form biofilms, which may favor its survival and persistence in the animal gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, besides the previously described extremely salt-tolerant and highly thermostable phytase, the US573 strain secretes xylanase, β-glucanase and amylase activities useful in neutralizing antinutritional factors and maximizing the absorption of nutrients. The secretion of such enzymes may be responsible for the good performance of the US573 isolate in the digestibility of wheat in vitro. Indeed, using the vegetative cells, a yield of wheat dry matter digestibility of approximately 48% was achieved, which is slightly lower than the commercial feed additive Rovabio used as a reference (56.73% digestibility). The obtained results illustrate the potential of US573 strain as a promising direct-fed microbial candidate for application in the poultry industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Optimization of carboxymethylcellulase production from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SS35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shuchi; Moholkar, Vijayanand S; Goyal, Arun

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we have attempted optimization of production of enzyme carboxymethylcellulase or endoglucanase from the bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SS35. Optimization has been carried out in two stages using statistical experimental design, viz. medium optimization and optimization of fermentation parameters. For medium optimization, Plackett-Burman design followed by central composite design (CCD) was used, while for optimization of fermentation parameters one-variable-at-a-time method followed by CCD was used. Carbon and nitrogen sources in the medium have been revealed to be the significant factors for enzyme production (carboxymethylcellulose 18.05 g/L; yeast extract 8 g/L and peptone 2 g/L). The inorganic salts have been found to be insignificant components of medium. Optimum fermentation parameters for optimized medium were: initial medium pH 5.65, incubation temperature = 40 °C, shaking speed = 120 rpm, and inoculum size = 6.96 %, v/v. Interestingly, the influence of all four parameters was almost independent with no interlinks. Secondly, the overall effect of all parameters was also low, as indicated by linear, square and interaction regression coefficients that were at least one order of magnitude lower than the intercept in the model equation. These results essentially meant that medium components dominate overall enzyme production process in comparison to fermentation parameters.

  15. Isolation and Characterization of a Broad Spectrum Bacteriocin from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RX7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Boon Lim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We isolated a Bacillus strain, RX7, with inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes from soil and identified it as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The inhibitory activity was stable over a wide range of pH and was fully retained after 30 min at 80°C, after which it decreased gradually at higher temperatures. The activity was sensitive to the proteolytic action of α-chymotrypsin, proteinase-K, and trypsin, indicating its proteinaceous nature. This bacteriocin was active against a broad spectrum of bacteria and the fungus Candida albicans. Direct detection of antimicrobial activity on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel suggested an apparent molecular mass of approximately 5 kDa. Ammonium sulfate precipitation and anion-exchange and gel permeation chromatography integrated with reverse phase-high-performance liquid chromatography were used for bacteriocin purification. Automated N-terminal Edman degradation of the purified RX7 bacteriocin recognized the first 15 amino acids as NH2-X-Ala-Trp-Tyr-Asp-Ile-Arg-Lys-Leu-Gly-Asn-Lys-Gly-Ala, where the letter X in the sequence indicates an unknown or nonstandard amino acid. Based on BLAST similarity search and multiple alignment analysis, the obtained partial sequence showed high homology with the two-peptide lantibiotic haloduracin (HalA1 from Bacillus halodurans, although at least two amino acids differed between the sequences. A time-kill study demonstrated a bactericidal mode of action of RX7 bacteriocin.

  16. Secondary metabolites from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens isolated from soil can kill Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boottanun, Patcharaporn; Potisap, Chotima; Hurdle, Julian G; Sermswan, Rasana W

    2017-12-01

    Bacillus species are Gram-positive bacteria found in abundance in nature and their secondary metabolites were found to possess various potential activities, notably antimicrobial. In this study, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N2-4 and N3-8 were isolated from soil and their metabolites could kill Burkholderia pseudomallei, a Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium also found in soil in its endemic areas. Moreover, the metabolites were able to kill drug resistant isolates of B. pseudomallei and also inhibit other pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii but not the non-pathogenic Burkholderia thailandensis, which is closely related to B. pseudomallei. Since the antimicrobial activity of N3-8 was not partially decreased or abolished when treated with proteolytic enzymes or autoclaved, but N2-4 was, these two strains should have produced different compounds. The N3-8 metabolites with antimicrobial activity consisted of both protein and non-protein compounds. The inhibition spectrum of the precipitated proteins compared to the culture supernatant indicated a possible synergistic effect of the non-protein and peptide compounds of N3-8 isolates against other pathogens. When either N2-4 or N3-8 isolates was co-cultured with B. pseudomallei the numbers of the bacteria decreased by 5 log10 within 72 h. Further purification and characterization of the metabolites is required for future use of the bacteria or their metabolites as biological controls of B. pseudomallei in the environment or for development as new drugs for problematic pathogenic bacteria.

  17. Pectin Enhances Bio-Control Efficacy by Inducing Colonization and Secretion of Secondary Metabolites by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQY 162 in the Rhizosphere of Tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wu

    Full Text Available Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is a plant-beneficial Gram-positive bacterium involved in suppressing soil-borne pathogens through the secretion of secondary metabolites and high rhizosphere competence. Biofilm formation is regarded as a prerequisite for high rhizosphere competence. In this work, we show that plant extracts affect the chemotaxis and biofilm formation of B. amyloliquefaciens SQY 162 (SQY 162. All carbohydrates tested induced the chemotaxis and biofilm formation of the SQY 162 strain; however, the bacterial growth rate was not influenced by the addition of carbohydrates. A strong chemotactic response and biofilm formation of SQY 162 were both induced by pectin through stimulation of surfactin synthesis and transcriptional expression of biofilm formation related matrix genes. These results suggested that pectin might serve as an environmental factor in the stimulation of the biofilm formation of SQY 162. Furthermore, in pot experiments the surfactin production and the population of SQY 162 in the rhizosphere significantly increased with the addition of sucrose or pectin, whereas the abundance of the bacterial pathogen Ralstonia decreased. With increased production of secondary metabolites in the rhizosphere of tobacco by SQY 162 and improved colonization density of SQY 162 in the pectin treatment, the disease incidences of bacterial wilt were efficiently suppressed. The present study revealed that certain plant extracts might serve as energy sources or environmental cues for SQY 162 to enhance the population density on tobacco root and bio-control efficacy of tobacco bacterial wilt.

  18. Microbial interactions for enhancement of α-amylase production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 04BBA15 and Lactobacillus fermentum 04BBA19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Tatsinkou Fossi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interactions occurring between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and two thermostable α-amylase producing strains (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 04BBA15 and Lactobacillus fermentum 04BBA19 were analyzed by comparing their growth patterns obtained in isolation with those obtained in mixture. The difference between the patterns was assessed using analysis of variance (ANOVA in order to measure how much the growth of an organism was affected by other. The results showed two types of interactions in mixed culture; commensalism between S. cerevisiae and B. amyloliquefaciens 04BBA15 and mutualism between S. cerevisiae and L. fermentum 04BBA19. In mixed culture, the α-amylase production increased significantly compared to that observed in monoculture (P < 0.05. Response surface optimization of fermentation parameters in mixed cultures (initial yeast to bacteria ratio 1.125, temperature 33.5 °C, pH 5.5 resulted in about 1.8 fold higher enzyme production than that observed in the unoptimized fermentation.

  19. Effects of temperature, water activity and gas atmosphere on mycelial growth of tempe fungi Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus and R. microsporus var. oligosporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.Z.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus and var. oligosporus are used in the manufacture of various Asian fermented foods (tempe, black oncom, sufu). In view of solid-substrate fermentation (SSF) control, mycelial growth of strains of both varieties was tested for sensitivity to fluctuations of

  20. [Comparison between alpha-amylase from B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maassen, A

    1991-01-01

    Two sequence-homologous alpha-amylases from B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis were studied with respect to their stability against heat denaturation and were compared with respect to common structure-stabilizing principles. The investigated alpha-amylases were isolated from culture broth of B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis. The molecular parameters (molecular weight and isoelectric point) are similar. The thermostability was determined by changes of the protein structure (changes of the fluorescence emission spectra). At pH 5.0 the thermostable alpha-amylase from B. licheniformis showed a rate of denaturation which was achieved by the thermolabile alpha-amylase from B. amyloliquefaciens at a temperature 15 degrees lower. The alpha-amylase from B. licheniformis exhibits a marked stability also at the alkaline pH-range in contrast to the alpha-amylase from B. amyloliquefaciens. From measurements in the presence of EDTA and Ca2+ follows that both enzymes are stabilized by binding of calcium ions. An analysis of preferred amino acid exchanges between the two sequence-homologous alpha-amylases showed correspondences and differences to the well-known diagram of ARGOS. Possibly an increased thermic stability can already be achieved by special amino acid exchanges without significant changes in the protein structure.

  1. (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kumasi: Cita Printing Press Ltd. Okorie, J.U. (1983). A Guide to Livestock Production in Nigeria. Cambridge: McMillan. Osei, S.A. and Dei, H.K. (1998). The nutritive value of raw Mucuna pruriens (var utilis) for broiler finishers. Ghana Journal Agricultural Science, 31: 55-59. Osei, S.A., Atuahene, C.C., Donkoh, A., Kwateng, K., ...

  2. Whole transcriptomic analysis of the plant-beneficial rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 during enhanced biofilm formation regulated by maize root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Yang, Dongqing; Wang, Dandan; Miao, Youzhi; Shao, Jiahui; Zhou, Xuan; Xu, Zhihui; Li, Qing; Feng, Haichao; Li, Shuqing; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2015-09-07

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) with outstanding abilities to enhance plant growth and to control soil-borne diseases. Root exudates is known to play important roles in plant-microbe interactions. To explore the rhizosphere interactions and plant-beneficial characteristics of SQR9, the complete genome sequence as well as the transcriptome in response to maize root exudates under biofilm-forming conditions were elucidated. Maize root exudates stimulated SQR9 biofilm formation in liquid culture, which is known to be positively correlated with enhanced root colonization. Transcriptional profiling via RNA-sequencing of SQR9 under static conditions indicated that, at 24 h post-inoculation, root exudates stimulated the expression of metabolism-relevant genes, while at 48 h post-inoculation, genes related to extracellular matrix production (tapA-sipW-tasA operon) were activated by root exudates. The individual components in maize root exudates that stimulated biofilm formation included glucose, citric acid, and fumaric acid, which either promoted the growth of SQR9 cells or activated extracellular matrix production. In addition, numerous groups of genes involved in rhizosphere adaptation and in plant-beneficial traits, including plant polysaccharide utilization, cell motility and chemotaxis, secondary antibiotics synthesis clusters, and plant growth promotion-relevant, were identified in the SQR9 genome. These genes also appeared to be induced by the maize root exudates. Enhanced biofilm formation of B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 by maize root exudates could mainly be attributed to promoting cell growth and to inducing extracellular matrix production. The genomic analysis also highlighted the elements involved in the strain's potential as a PGPR. This study provides useful information for understanding plant-rhizobacteria interactions and hence for promoting the agricultural applications of this strain.

  3. Acetylation and deacetylation for sucralose preparation by a newly isolated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WZS01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Chen, Liang; Lou, Bo; Bai, Yanbing; Yu, Xinjun; Zhao, Man; Wang, Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Sucralose is a non-nutritive artificial sweetener used in a broad range of foods and beverages. In the present study, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WZS01 was isolated, identified, and used as a catalyst both in regioselective acylation and deacetylation for sucralose preparation. Bacterial cells were immobilized on polyurethane foam and utilized to synthesize sucrose-6-acetate regioselectively. The yield of sucrose-6-acetate was >95% with 60 mM sucrose after 22 h of reaction. Free cells could hydrolyze 75 mM sucralose-6-acetate to produce sucralose with >99% yield after 24 h of reaction. B. amyloliquefaciens WZS01 could be considered a potential biocatalyst for sucralose preparation. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LL3, which exhibits glutamic acid-independent production of poly-γ-glutamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Weitao; Cao, Mingfeng; Song, Cunjiang; Xie, Hui; Liu, Li; Yang, Chao; Feng, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Jin, Yinghong; Du, Yang; Wang, Shufang

    2011-07-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is one of most prevalent Gram-positive aerobic spore-forming bacteria with the ability to synthesize polysaccharides and polypeptides. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of B. amyloliquefaciens LL3, which was isolated from fermented food and presents the glutamic acid-independent production of poly-γ-glutamic acid.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LL3, Which Exhibits Glutamic Acid-Independent Production of Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid▿

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Weitao; Cao, Mingfeng; Song, Cunjiang; Xie, Hui; Liu, Li; Yang, Chao; Feng, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Jin, Yinghong; Du, Yang; Wang, Shufang

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is one of most prevalent Gram-positive aerobic spore-forming bacteria with the ability to synthesize polysaccharides and polypeptides. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of B. amyloliquefaciens LL3, which was isolated from fermented food and presents the glutamic acid-independent production of poly-γ-glutamic acid.

  6. High levels of antibodies to multiple domains and strains of VAR2CSA correlate with the absence of placental malaria in Cameroonian women living in an area of high Plasmodium falciparum transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutterrow, Yeung L; Avril, Marion; Singh, Kavita

    2012-01-01

    Placental malaria, caused by sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, is associated with increased risk of maternal morbidity and poor birth outcomes. The parasite antigen VAR2CSA (variant surface antigen 2-chondroitin sulfate A) is expressed on infected...... erythrocytes and mediates binding to chondroitin sulfate A, initiating inflammation and disrupting homeostasis at the maternal-fetal interface. Although antibodies can prevent sequestration, it is unclear whether parasite clearance is due to antibodies to a single Duffy binding-like (DBL) domain...

  7. Characterization of natural hybrids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Jeune, Christine; Lollier, Marc; Demuyter, Catherine; Erny, Claude; Legras, Jean-Luc; Aigle, Michel; Masneuf-Pomarède, Isabelle

    2007-06-01

    Nine yeast strains were isolated from spontaneous fermentations in the Alsace area of France, during the 1997, 1998 and 1999 grape harvests. Strains were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the MET2 gene, delta-PCR, and microsatellite patterns. Karyotypes and MET2 fragments of the nine strains corresponded to mixed chromosomal bands and restriction patterns for both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum. They also responded positively to amplification with microsatellite primers specific to both species and were demonstrated to be diploid. However, meiosis led to absolute nonviability of their spores on complete medium. All the results demonstrated that the nine yeast strains isolated were S. cerevisiaexS. bayanus var. uvarum diploid hybrids. Moreover, microsatellite DNA analysis identified strains isolated in the same cellar as potential parents belonging to S. bayanus var. uvarum and S. cerevisiae.

  8. 77 FR 745 - Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens Strain D747; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... Clinical Microbiology (9th edition) mentions that dried food, such as spices, milk powder, and grains...(b)(4). The Codex Alimentarius is a joint U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health.... Springer, New York. ] 3. Murray, P.R, et al., Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Washington, DC: ASM Press...

  9. Epidemiological aspects of Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruma, Midori; Kano, Rui; Sugita, Takashi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Hiruma, Masataro

    2012-12-01

    Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii is a rare anthropophilic dermatophyte isolated around the world from tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea pedis and tinea unguium. In this study, the isolation rate of T. rubrum var. raubitschekii was studied in 200 cases of tinea pedis and tinea unguium in Japan. The 200 clinical isolates were shown to be of downy type as their colonies on Sabouraud's dextrose agar were white to cream, suede-like to downy, with a yellow-brown to wine-red reverse, and they produced few macroconidia. The type strain of T. rubrum var. raubitschekii (CBS 100084) and one clinical isolate (KMU 8337; isolated at Kanazawa) of downy type tested positive for urease, but the reference strain of T. rubrum (CBS 392.58) and the remaining 199 clinical isolates tested negative. Further epidemiological investigations are required to study human cases of infection with the granular type of T. rubrum and T. rubrum var. raubitschekii in Japan. © 2012 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  10. var. puiggarianum (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Gauna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionó Batrachospermum atrum var. puiggarianum por primera vez en la provincia de Buenos Aires. La identificación de las muestras se basó en el análisis de la morfología microscópica y en el número cromosómico de cada una de las generaciones de su ciclo de vida bajo cultivo. Los talos se estudiaron con microscopio óptico, y la cariología, por medio de la técnica de carmín acético. El ciclo de vida presentó tres generaciones: una gametofítica haploide, una carposporófitica diploide que originó la última fase Chantransia diploide. Los talos gametófitos estuvieron formados por verticilos separados por zonas internodales, cada uno de ellos constituidos por ramas primarias densamente comprimidas. Entre éstas se observaron ramas portadoras de espermatangios y de carpogonios. Las zonas internodales estuvieron constituidas por células corticales y axiales. Los carposporófitos ovoideos estuvieron formados por filamentos gonimoblásticos portadores de carposporangios terminales. El estado Chantransia se caracterizó por presentar filamentos cortos con pocas células. El material estudiado presentó un número haploide n = 4 y diploide 2n = 8.

  11. EFEITO FUNGITÓXICO DO ÓLEO DE NIM SOBRE Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum e Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álison Bruno da Silva Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Plague control is based almost exclusively on application of chemical substances, however these products are toxic to men and animals and cause odd effects on environment quality. In Plague Integrated Management (PIM, the use of selected insecticides and entomopathogenic fungi should be considered as one viable strategy for plague control in agriculture. This work aimed to evaluate, in laboratory, the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae with the oil of Nim. The addition of the product was made to the potato-dextrose-agar medium still liquid (±45°C, in a way that the final concentration obeyed 50% of the producer's recommendation. After fungi inoculation, the dishes were incubated in a cimatized room at 28°C, photophase of 12 hours and relative humidity of 75±5% for 12 day period. The number of conidia per colonie was counted with a Neubauer chamber. Statistic delineament was entirely in random, with two treatments (PDA with insecticide, and a control group (PDA without insecticide, and 9 repetitions for each treatment. The results showed that the insecticide inhibited conidial production in Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae strains when compared to the control group. The diameter of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum colonies suffered significative reduction in its size, compared to control. The tested insecticide, in the concentration and formulation used, presented compatibility with the tested strains.

  12. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Claessens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4% yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  13. Glutamic acid independent production of poly-γ-glutamic acid by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LL3 and cloning of pgsBCA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mingfeng; Geng, Weitao; Liu, Li; Song, Cunjiang; Xie, Hui; Guo, Wenbin; Jin, Yinghong; Wang, Shufang

    2011-03-01

    A new glutamic acid independent poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) producing strain, which was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LL3 by analysis of 16S rDNA and gyrase subunit A gene (gyrA), was isolated from fermented food. The product had a molecular weight of 470, 801 and l-glutamate monomer content of 98.47%. The pre-optimal medium, based on single-factor tests and orthogonal design, contained 50 g/L sucrose, 2g/L (NH(4))(2)SO(4), 0.6g/L MgSO(4), and provided well-balanced changes in processing parameters and a γ-PGA yield of 4.36 g/L in 200 L system. The γ-PGA synthetase genes pgsBCA were cloned from LL3, and successfully expressed by pTrcLpgs vector in Escherichia coli JM109, resulting the synthesis of γ-PGA without glutamate. This study demonstrates the designedly improved yield of γ-PGA in 200 L system and the first report of pgsBCA from glutamic acid independent strain, which will benefit the metabolized mechanism investigation and the wide-ranging application of γ-PGA. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The dtd gene from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens encodes a putative D-tyrosyl-tRNATyr deacylase and is a selectable marker for Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraskina, Natalia V; Butov, Ivan A; Yomantas, Yurgis A V; Stoynova, Nataliya V

    2015-02-01

    Genetically engineered microbes are of high practical importance due to their cost-effective production of valuable metabolites and enzymes, and the search for new selectable markers for genetic manipulation is of particular interest. Here, we revealed that the soil bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens A50 is tolerant to the non-canonical amino acid D-tyrosine (D-Tyr), in contrast to the closely related Bacillus strain B. subtilis 168, which is a widely used "domesticated" laboratory strain. The gene responsible for resistance to D-Tyr was identified. The resistance was associated with the activity of a potential D-tyrosyl-tRNA(Tyr) deacylase. Orthologs of this enzyme are capable of hydrolyzing the ester bond and recycling misacetylated D-aminoacyl-tRNA molecules into free tRNAs and D-amino acids. This gene, yrvI (dtd), is applicable as a convenient, small selectable marker for non-antibiotic resistance selection in experiments aimed at genome editing of D-Tyr-sensitive microorganisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibition of Bacillus cereus Growth and Toxin Production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 in Fermented Soybean Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jeong Seon; Choi, Hye Sun

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium that has been isolated from contaminated fermented soybean food products and from the environment. B. cereus produces diarrheal and emetic toxins and has caused many outbreaks of foodborne diseases. In this study, we investigated whether B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7, isolated from rice doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste), a traditional Korean fermented soybean food, shows antimicrobial activity against B. cereus and regulates its toxin gene expression. B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus and inhibited the expression of B. cereus toxin-related genes (groEL, nheA, nheC, and entFM). We also found that addition of water extracts of soybean and buckwheat soksungjang (Korean fermented soybean paste made in a short time) fermented with B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 significantly reduced the growth and toxin expression of B. cereus. These results indicate that B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 could be used to control B. cereus growth and toxin production in the fermented soybean food industry. Our findings also provide a basis for the development of candidate biological control agents against B. cereus to improve the safety of fermented soybean food products.

  16. Metabolomic Profiles of Aspergillus oryzae and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens During Rice Koji Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Eun Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice koji, used early in the manufacturing process for many fermented foods, produces diverse metabolites and enzymes during fermentation. Using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS, ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography linear trap quadrupole ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS, and multivariate analysis we generated the metabolite profiles of rice koji produced by fermentation with Aspergillus oryzae (RK_AO or Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (RK_BA for different durations. Two principal components of the metabolomic data distinguished the rice koji samples according to their fermenter species and fermentation time. Several enzymes secreted by the fermenter species, including α-amylase, protease, and β-glucosidase, were assayed to identify differences in expression levels. This approach revealed that carbohydrate metabolism, serine-derived amino acids, and fatty acids were associated with rice koji fermentation by A. oryzae, whereas aromatic and branched chain amino acids, flavonoids, and lysophospholipids were more typical in rice koji fermentation by B. amyloliquefaciens. Antioxidant activity was significantly higher for RK_BA than for RK_AO, as were the abundances of flavonoids, including tricin, tricin glycosides, apigenin glycosides, and chrysoeriol glycosides. In summary, we have used MS-based metabolomics and enzyme activity assays to evaluate the effects of using different microbial species and fermentation times on the nutritional profile of rice koji.

  17. Transcriptomic profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fan, Ben

    2012-06-21

    AbstractBackgroundPlant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates.ResultsBacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a well-studied Gram-positive PGPR. To obtain a comprehensive overview of FZB42 gene expression in response to maize root exudates, microarray experiments were performed. A total of 302 genes representing 8.2% of the FZB42 transcriptome showed significantly altered expression levels in the presence of root exudates. The majority of the genes (261) was up-regulated after incubation of FZB42 with root exudates, whereas only 41 genes were down-regulated. Several groups of the genes which were strongly induced by the root exudates are involved in metabolic pathways relating to nutrient utilization, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and polyketides.ConclusionsHere we present a transcriptome analysis of the root-colonizing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates. The 302 genes identified as being differentially transcribed are proposed to be involved in interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants.

  18. Efisiensi Penggunaan Energi Metabolis Ransum Berbasis Onggok yang Difermentasi Bacillus amyloliquefaciens pada Ayam Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wizna

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-fermented tapioca by-products (onggok on the metabolism energy differences in the diets to the performance of broilers. Eighty unsexed three day old broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 20 pens (four chicks/pen. This experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with four dietary treatments (3000, 2900, 2800 and 2700 kkal/kg for broilers of energy metabolism in diets and five replications. Measured variables were feed consumption, average body weight gain, feed conversion, carcass percentage, abdominal fat percentage and income over feed cost (IOFC. Results of the experiment indicated that feed consumption, average body weight gain, feed conversion, carcass percentage, abdominal fat percentage and income over feed cost (IOFC were not affected (P>0.05 by levels of metabolism energy in the diets for broilers. In conclusion, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-fermented tapioca by-products (onggok can be included up to 40% with energy metabolism 2700 kkal/kg in broilers diets and improved the efficiency of metabolizable energy.

  19. Transesterification Synthesis of Chloramphenicol Esters with the Lipase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fengying; Li, Lingmeng; Lin, Lin; He, Dannong; Chen, Jingwen; Wei, Wei; Wei, Dongzhi

    2017-09-19

    This work presents a synthetic route to produce chloramphenicol esters by taking advantage the high enantio- and regio-selectivity of lipases. A series of chloramphenicol esters were synthesized using chloramphenicol, acyl donors of different carbon chain length and lipase Lip BA (lipase cloned from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ). Among acyl donors with different carbon chain lengths, vinyl propionate was found to be the best. The influences of different organic solvents, reaction temperature, reaction time, enzyme loading and water content on the synthesis of the chloramphenicol esters were studied. The synthesis of chloramphenicol propionate (0.25 M) with 4.0 g L -1 of Lip BA loading gave a conversion of ~98% and a purity of ~99% within 8 h at 50 °C in 1,4-dioxane as solvent. The optimum mole ratio of vinyl propionate to chloramphenicol was increased to 5:1. This is the first report of B. amyloliquefaciens lipase being used in chloramphenicol ester synthesis and a detailed study of the synthesis of chloramphenicol propionate using this reaction. The high enzyme activity and selectivity make lipase Lip BA an attractive catalyst for green chemical synthesis of molecules with complex structures.

  20. Transesterification Synthesis of Chloramphenicol Esters with the Lipase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengying Dong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a synthetic route to produce chloramphenicol esters by taking advantage the high enantio- and regio-selectivity of lipases. A series of chloramphenicol esters were synthesized using chloramphenicol, acyl donors of different carbon chain length and lipase LipBA (lipase cloned from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Among acyl donors with different carbon chain lengths, vinyl propionate was found to be the best. The influences of different organic solvents, reaction temperature, reaction time, enzyme loading and water content on the synthesis of the chloramphenicol esters were studied. The synthesis of chloramphenicol propionate (0.25 M with 4.0 g L−1 of LipBA loading gave a conversion of ~98% and a purity of ~99% within 8 h at 50 °C in 1,4-dioxane as solvent. The optimum mole ratio of vinyl propionate to chloramphenicol was increased to 5:1. This is the first report of B. amyloliquefaciens lipase being used in chloramphenicol ester synthesis and a detailed study of the synthesis of chloramphenicol propionate using this reaction. The high enzyme activity and selectivity make lipase LipBA an attractive catalyst for green chemical synthesis of molecules with complex structures.

  1. Atividade antibacteriana do extrato bruto de Bacillus amyloliquefaciens frente a diferentes indicadores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. SCHULZ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente estudo teve como objetivo obter um extrato bruto de Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, padronizado pela dosagem de proteínas, e quantificar sua atividade antibacteriana pelo halo de inibição do crescimento de Listeria monocytogenes NCTC 098630, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027. O extrato bruto de Bacillus amyloliquefaciens somente apresentou atividade antibacteriana frente Listeria monocytogenes NCTC 098630. Constatou-se que a concentração responsável por 50% da máxima atividade antibacteriana foi 29,22 g do extrato bruto, com um halo de inibição de aproximadamente 4 mm.

  2. A Trojan-Horse Peptide-Carboxymethyl-Cytidine Antibiotic from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebryakova, Marina; Tsibulskaya, Darya; Mokina, Olga; Kulikovsky, Alexey; Nautiyal, Manesh; Van Aerschot, Arthur; Severinov, Konstantin; Dubiley, Svetlana

    2016-12-07

    Microcin C and related antibiotics are Trojan-horse peptide-adenylates. The peptide part is responsible for facilitated transport inside the sensitive cell, where it gets processed to release a toxic warhead-a nonhydrolyzable aspartyl-adenylate, which inhibits aspartyl-tRNA synthetase. Adenylation of peptide precursors is carried out by MccB THIF-type NAD/FAD adenylyltransferases. Here, we describe a novel microcin C-like compound from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The B. amyloliquefaciens MccB demonstrates an unprecedented ability to attach a terminal cytidine monophosphate to cognate precursor peptide in cellular and cell free systems. The cytosine moiety undergoes an additional modification-carboxymethylation-that is carried out by the C-terminal domain of MccB and the MccS enzyme that produces carboxy-SAM, which serves as a donor of the carboxymethyl group. We show that microcin C-like compounds carrying terminal cytosines are biologically active and target aspartyl-tRNA synthetase, and that the carboxymethyl group prevents resistance that can occur due to modification of the warhead. The results expand the repertoire of known enzymatic modifications of peptides that can be used to obtain new biological activities while avoiding or limiting bacterial resistance.

  3. Unraveling Aspects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Mediated Enhanced Production of Rice under Biotic Stress of Rhizoctonia solani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Suchi; Bist, Vidisha; Srivastava, Sonal; Singh, Poonam C.; Trivedi, Prabodh K.; Asif, Mehar H.; Chauhan, Puneet S.; Nautiyal, Chandra S.

    2016-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a necrotrophic fungi causing sheath blight in rice leading to substantial loss in yield. Excessive and persistent use of preventive chemicals raises human health and environment safety concerns. As an alternative, use of biocontrol agents is highly recommended. In the present study, an abiotic stress tolerant, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (SN13) is demonstrated to act as a biocontrol agent and enhance immune response against R. solani in rice by modulating various physiological, metabolic, and molecular functions. A sustained tolerance by SN13 primed plant over a longer period of time, post R. solani infection may be attributed to several unconventional aspects of the plants’ physiological status. The prolonged stress tolerance observed in presence of SN13 is characterized by (a) involvement of bacterial mycolytic enzymes, (b) sustained maintenance of elicitors to keep the immune system induced involving non-metabolizable sugars such as turanose besides the known elicitors, (c) a delicate balance of ROS and ROS scavengers through production of proline, mannitol, and arabitol and rare sugars like fructopyranose, β-D-glucopyranose and myoinositol and expression of ferric reductases and hypoxia induced proteins, (d) production of metabolites like quinazoline and expression of terpene synthase, and (e) hormonal cross talk. As the novel aspect of biological control this study highlights the role of rare sugars, maintenance of hypoxic conditions, and sucrose and starch metabolism in B. amyloliquefaciens (SN13) mediated sustained biotic stress tolerance in rice. PMID:27200058

  4. Antibacterial polyketides from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens associated with edible red seaweed Laurenciae papillosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Thilakan, Bini; Raola, Vamshi Krishna; Joy, Minju

    2017-03-01

    Heterotrophic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens associated with edible red seaweed, Laurenciae papillosa was used to isolate antibacterial polyketide compounds. Antibacterial activity studies integrated with the outcome obtained by polyketide synthetase (pks) coding genes established that seaweed-affiliated bacterial flora had a wide-ranging antibacterial activities and potential natural product diversity, which proved that the bacterium is valuable reservoir of novel bioactive metabolites. Bioactivity-guided isolation of 3-(octahydro-9-isopropyl-2H-benzo[h]chromen-4-yl)-2-methylpropyl benzoate and methyl 8-(2-(benzoyloxy)-ethyl)-hexahydro-4-((E)-pent-2-enyl)-2H-chromene-6-carboxylate of polyketide origin, with activity against human opportunistic food pathogenic microbes, have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of B. amyloliquefaciens. Structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that hydrophobic descriptor of the polyketide compounds significantly contribute towards its antibacterial activity. Seaweed-associated microorganisms were shown to represent a potential source of antimicrobial compounds for food and health benefits. The antibacterial polyketide compounds described in the present study may find potential applications in the food industry to reduce food-borne pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of quercetin derived of natural extract from red onion ocañera (allilium strain l and red apple (pyrus malus l var. red delicius in palm oil refined industrial type continuous warm conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golda Meyer Torres

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The research was based on the assessment of the quercetin antioxidant capacity existing in red apple (Pyrus malus L var. red delicious and ocañera red onion (Allilium cepa L. Then, antioxidant concentration was calculated by a standard curve of commercial quercetin (HPLC concentration ≥98% using spectrophotometry at 415 nm and dropped concentrations of 0.0955 mg/g in onion extract and 0.0144mg/g in apple extract. The antioxidant capacity of each extract was evaluated over industrial samples of industrial RDB (Refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil without antioxidant in order to observe the effect they had over peroxide creation. Actually, samples were treated in continuous heating for two, four and six hours and recording variables performance like acidity, iodine and peroxide index. Also, a sample of oil without antioxidant was evaluated adding pure commercial quercetin at 0.18 mg/g and a control sample of RBD palm oil added with commercial antioxidant (TBHQ, BHT. Finally, the outcome got by ANOVA analysis (Pvalue= 0.028, significance level of 5% on peroxide index formation calculated in mequivO2/kg highlighted the time of exposition than quercetin concentration in 0.0144 mg/g, hence a result alike the sample of oil added with commercial antioxidant.

  6. Effects of volatile organic compounds produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens on the growth and virulence traits of tomato bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Waseem; Wang, Jichen; Wu, Yuncheng; Ling, Ning; Wei, Zhong; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-09-01

    The production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by microbes is an important characteristic for their selection as biocontrol agents against plant pathogens. In this study, we identified the VOCs produced by the biocontrol strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens T-5 and evaluated their impact on the growth and virulence traits of tomato bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. The results showed that the VOCs of strain T-5 significantly inhibited the growth of R. solanacearum in agar medium and in soil. In addition, VOCs significantly inhibited the motility traits, root colonization, biofilm formation, and production of antioxidant enzymes and exopolysaccharides by R. solanacearum. However, no effect of VOCs on the production of hydrolytic enzymes by R. solanacearum was observed. The strain T-5 produced VOCs, including benzenes, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes, acids, and one furan and naphthalene compound; among those, 13 VOCs showed 1-10 % antibacterial activity against R. solanacearum in their produced amounts by T-5; however, the consortium of all VOCs produced on agar medium, in sterilized soil, and in natural soil showed 75, 62, and 85 % growth inhibition of R. solanacearum, respectively. The real-time PCR analysis further confirmed the results when the expression of different virulence- and metabolism-related genes in R. solanacearum cells was decreased after exposure to the VOCs of strain T-5. The results of this study clearly revealed the significance of VOCs in the control of plant pathogens. This information would help to better comprehend the microbial interactions mediated by VOCs in nature and to develop safer strategies to control plant disease.

  7. Genetic diversity study of the yeast Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum reveals introgressed subtelomeric Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, Elena S; Naumov, Gennadi I; Michailova, Yulia V; Martynenko, Nikolay N; Masneuf-Pomarède, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Intraspecies polymorphism of the yeast Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum was studied using the polymerase chain reaction with a microsatellite primer (GTG)(5). Sixty-nine strains of different origins were analyzed. There existed a correlation between PCR patterns of the strains and the source of their isolation: the type of wine and the particular winemaking region. Southern hybridization analysis revealed for the first time introgression between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. bayanus var. uvarum. Two strains isolated from alcoholic beverages in Hungary and identified by genetic analysis as S. bayanus var. uvarum were found to harbor a number of S. cerevisiae subtelomeric sequences: Y', SUC, RTM and MAL. Copyright © 2010 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Clarification of the Antagonistic Effect of the Lipopeptides Produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BPD1 against Pyricularia oryzae via In Situ MALDI-TOF IMS Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hung Liao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study tried to clarify the antagonistic effect of the lipopeptides secreted by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BPD1 (Ba-BPD1 against Pyricularia oryzae Cavara (PO. To determine the major antifungal lipopeptides effective against PO, single and dual cultures were carried out in solid-state media. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time of flight imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF IMS was used to identify the most effective lipopeptide in situ. Meanwhile, the morphology of pathogen fungi treated with lipopeptides was observed via the SEM. Of the three lipopeptide families, surfactin, iturin, and fengycin, the last was identified as the most effective for inhibiting mycelium growth and conidial germination of PO. The conidia and hyphae of fengycin-treated PO were shown to become deformed and tumorous under exposure. This study provides insights into the antagonistic effect of Ba-BPD1 against fungal phytopathogens. Such insights are helpful in the development of reagents for biological control applications.

  9. A statistical approach for the production of thermostable and alklophilic alpha-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens KCP2 under solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Vimal S; Trivedi, Ujjval B; Patel, Kamlesh C

    2015-04-01

    The bacterial strain producing thermostable, alklophilic alpha-amylase was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens KCP2 using 16S rDNA gene sequencing data (NCBI Accession No: KF112071). Medium components were optimized through the statistical approach for the synthesis of alpha-amylase by the organism under solid-state fermentation using wheat bran as the substrate. The medium components influencing the enzyme production were identified using a two-level fractional factorial Plackett-Burman design. Among the various variables screened, starch, ammonium sulphate and calcium chloride were found to be most significant medium components. The optimum levels of these significant parameters were determined employing the response surface Central Composite design which significantly increased the enzyme production with the supplementation of starch 0.01 g, ammonium sulphate 0.2 g and 5 mM calcium chloride in the production medium. Temperature and pH stability of the alpha-amylase suggested its wide application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  10. Cloning of the repertoire of individual Plasmodium falciparum var genes using transformation associated recombination (TAR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Gaida

    Full Text Available One of the major virulence factors of the malaria causing parasite is the Plasmodium falciparum encoded erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1. It is translocated to It the membrane of infected erythrocytes and expressed from approximately 60 var genes in a mutually exclusive manner. Switching of var genes allows the parasite to alter functional and antigenic properties of infected erythrocytes, to escape the immune defense and to establish chronic infections. We have developed an efficient method for isolating VAR genes from telomeric and other genome locations by adapting transformation-associated recombination (TAR cloning, which can then be analyzed and sequenced. For this purpose, three plasmids each containing a homologous sequence representing the upstream regions of the group A, B, and C var genes and a sequence homologous to the conserved acidic terminal segment (ATS of var genes were generated. Co-transfection with P. falciparum strain ITG2F6 genomic DNA in yeast cells yielded 200 TAR clones. The relative frequencies of clones from each group were not biased. Clones were screened by PCR, as well as Southern blotting, which revealed clones missed by PCR due to sequence mismatches with the primers. Selected clones were transformed into E. coli and further analyzed by RFLP and end sequencing. Physical analysis of 36 clones revealed 27 distinct types potentially representing 50% of the var gene repertoire. Three clones were selected for sequencing and assembled into single var gene containing contigs. This study demonstrates that it is possible to rapidly obtain the repertoire of var genes from P. falciparum within a single set of cloning experiments. This technique can be applied to individual isolates which will provide a detailed picture of the diversity of var genes in the field. This is a powerful tool to overcome the obstacles with cloning and assembly of multi-gene families by simultaneously cloning each member.

  11. Cloning of the repertoire of individual Plasmodium falciparum var genes using transformation associated recombination (TAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaida, Annette; Becker, Marion M; Schmid, Christoph D; Bühlmann, Tobias; Louis, Edward J; Beck, Hans-Peter

    2011-03-07

    One of the major virulence factors of the malaria causing parasite is the Plasmodium falciparum encoded erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). It is translocated to It the membrane of infected erythrocytes and expressed from approximately 60 var genes in a mutually exclusive manner. Switching of var genes allows the parasite to alter functional and antigenic properties of infected erythrocytes, to escape the immune defense and to establish chronic infections. We have developed an efficient method for isolating VAR genes from telomeric and other genome locations by adapting transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning, which can then be analyzed and sequenced. For this purpose, three plasmids each containing a homologous sequence representing the upstream regions of the group A, B, and C var genes and a sequence homologous to the conserved acidic terminal segment (ATS) of var genes were generated. Co-transfection with P. falciparum strain ITG2F6 genomic DNA in yeast cells yielded 200 TAR clones. The relative frequencies of clones from each group were not biased. Clones were screened by PCR, as well as Southern blotting, which revealed clones missed by PCR due to sequence mismatches with the primers. Selected clones were transformed into E. coli and further analyzed by RFLP and end sequencing. Physical analysis of 36 clones revealed 27 distinct types potentially representing 50% of the var gene repertoire. Three clones were selected for sequencing and assembled into single var gene containing contigs. This study demonstrates that it is possible to rapidly obtain the repertoire of var genes from P. falciparum within a single set of cloning experiments. This technique can be applied to individual isolates which will provide a detailed picture of the diversity of var genes in the field. This is a powerful tool to overcome the obstacles with cloning and assembly of multi-gene families by simultaneously cloning each member.

  12. Rheological, emulsifying and thermostability properties of two exopolysaccharides produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LPL061.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuzhu; Liu, Enqi; Liu, Lisha; Zhang, Bao; Wang, Yang; Gui, Meng; Wu, Ruiyun; Li, Pinglan

    2015-01-22

    The rheological, emulsification, thermostability and certain physicochemical properties of two purified exopolysaccharides from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LPL061 were studied. EPS1 showed entangled spider mesh structure that composed of dense rope with homogeneous hexagonal particles under scanning electron microscopy. EPS2 had a porous sponge structure with uniform cylindrical particles. The two exopolysaccharides showed higher intrinsic viscosity and better emulsification activity with sunflower seed oil, rice oil, olive oil and peanut oil compared to guar gum. EPS1 is the most promising one for applications in the industry, as it had high intrinsic viscosity, apparent viscosity and thermostablity in aqueous solution, dense entangled structure and good emulsification activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative Digital Gene Expression Analysis of the Arabidopsis Response to Volatiles Emitted by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Ting Hao

    Full Text Available Some plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR regulated plant growth and elicited plant basal immunity by volatiles. The response mechanism to the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens volatiles in plant has not been well studied. We conducted global gene expression profiling in Arabidopsis after treatment with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 volatiles by Illumina Digital Gene Expression (DGE profiling of different growth stages (seedling and mature and tissues (leaves and roots. Compared with the control, 1,507 and 820 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in leaves and roots at the seedling stage, respectively, while 1,512 and 367 DEGs were identified in leaves and roots at the mature stage. Seventeen genes with different regulatory patterns were validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Numerous DEGs were enriched for plant hormones, cell wall modifications, and protection against stress situations, which suggests that volatiles have effects on plant growth and immunity. Moreover, analyzes of transcriptome difference in tissues and growth stage using DGE profiling showed that the plant response might be tissue-specific and/or growth stage-specific. Thus, genes encoding flavonoid biosynthesis were downregulated in leaves and upregulated in roots, thereby indicating tissue-specific responses to volatiles. Genes related to photosynthesis were downregulated at the seedling stage and upregulated at the mature stage, respectively, thereby suggesting growth period-specific responses. In addition, the emission of bacterial volatiles significantly induced killing of cells of other organism pathway with up-regulated genes in leaves and the other three pathways (defense response to nematode, cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation and trichoblast differentiation with up-regulated genes were significantly enriched in roots. Interestingly, some important alterations in the expression of growth-related genes, metabolic pathways, defense response

  14. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens COMO POTENCIAL BIOCONSERVANTE DE ALIMENTOS: DETERMINAÇÃO DO PERFIL DE PROTEÍNAS E AMINOGRAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. SCHULZ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Avaliou-se o perfil de proteínas em gel de poliacrilamida e o aminograma do extrato bruto de Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. O extrato bruto de Bacillus amyloliquefaciens foi obtido por precipitação, centrifugação, diálise e esterilização por filtração. Como microrganismo indicador foi utilizado Listeria monocytogenes NCTC 098630 a 105 UFC/mL. Na determinação da composição global de aminoácidos em eletroforese SDS (10%/PAGE (7,5 a 20% foram constatadas seis bandas com pesos moleculares aparentes de: 14,8; 20; 29; 30; 34 e 56,2 kDa e composto principalmente de aminoácidos hidrofóbicos (não polares, incluindo a prolina (446,77 ppm, leucina (11,03 ppm, valina (6,27 ppm, isoleucina (4,59 ppm, alanina (2,91 ppm e glicina (1,87 ppm. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que o extrato bruto de Bacillus amyloliquefaciens é composto principalmente de proteases e outras enzimas bacteriolíticas.

  15. New family of pectinase genes PGU1b-PGU3b of the pectinolytic yeast Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, G I; Shalamitskiy, M Yu; Naumova, E S

    2016-03-01

    Using yeast genome databases and literature data, we have conducted a phylogenetic analysis of pectinase PGU genes from Saccharomyces strains assigned to the biological species S. arboricola, S. bayanus (var. uvarum), S. cariocanus, S. cerevisiae, S. kudriavzevii, S. mikatae, S. paradoxus, and hybrid taxon S. pastorianus (syn. S. carlsbergensis). Single PGU genes were observed in all Saccharomyces species, except S. bayanus. The superfamily of divergent PGU genes has been documented in S. bayanus var. uvarum for the first time. Chromosomal localization of new PGU1b, PGU2b, and PGU3b genes in the yeast S. bayanus var. uvarum has been determined by molecular karyotyping and Southern hybridization.

  16. Viral dsRNA in the wine yeast Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivannikova, Yuliya V; Naumova, Elena S; Naumov, Gennadi I

    2007-01-01

    The presence of viral dsRNA (L and M fractions) in the cryophilic yeast Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum is documented here for the first time. Sixty-eight strains of different origins were analyzed. Most of them did not carry dsRNA; the L fraction was found in seven strains, while 11 strains had both L and M fractions. The size of the L fraction was invariable (4.5 kb), as in the cultured yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast to L-dsRNA, the M fraction varied in size from ca. 1.2 to 1.8 kb. In total, seven different M-dsRNA types were recognized (M1-M3 and M8-M11), predominantly among French wine strains of S. bayanus var. uvarum. Phenotypic analysis revealed that the M-dsRNAs found were cryptic and may represent mutant forms of killer plasmids.

  17. Probiotic Activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii Against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Rajkowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diarrhoea is associated with a modification of the intestinal microflora and colonization of pathogenic bacteria. Tests were performed for seven probiotic yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, designated for the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea. To check their possible effectiveness against diarrhoea of different etiologies, the activity against a variety of human pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria was investigated in vitro. In mixed cultures with S. cerevisiae var. boulardii, a statistically significant reduction was observed in the number of cells of Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, by even 55.9 % in the case of L. monocytogenes compared with bacterial monocultures. The influence of yeasts was mostly associated with the shortening of the bacterial lag phase duration, more rapid achievement of the maximum growth rates, and a decrease by 4.4–57.1 % (L. monocytogenes, P. aeruginosa, or an increase by 1.4–70.6 % (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella Typhimurium in the exponential growth rates. Another issue included in the research was the ability of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii to bind pathogenic bacteria to its cell surface. Yeasts have shown binding capacity of E. coli, S. Typhimurium and additionally of S. aureus, Campylobacter jejuni and E. faecalis. However, no adhesion of L. monocytogenes and P. aeruginosa to the yeast cell wall was noted. The probiotic activity of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii against human pathogens is related to a decrease in the number of viable and active cells of bacteria and the binding capacity of yeasts. These processes may limit bacterial invasiveness and prevent bacterial adherence and translocation in the human intestines.

  18. [Electron microscope study of "Bacillus thuringiensis" var. "Israelensis" sporulation and crystal biogenesis (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, J F; de Barjac, H

    1982-01-01

    The sporulation and crystal development of Bacillus thuringiensis serotype H-14 was described for a wild spore- and crystal-forming strain and for a mutant crystal but non spore-forming strain. The special nature of the israelensis var. consisted in the composite structure of the crystal, made of a number of components differing in size, shape and electron density. The components were formed in a single inclusion or sometimes separately inside the same bacterial cell.

  19. Antitumor activity of bacterial exopolysaccharides from the endophyte Bacillus amyloliquefaciens sp. isolated from Ophiopogon japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Tao; Yuan, Qiang; Shan, LE-Tian; Lin, Mei-Ai; Cheng, Dong-Qing; Li, Chang-Yu

    2013-06-01

    The endophytic bacterium, MD-b1, was isolated from the medicinal plant Ophiopogon japonicas and identified as the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens sp. with 99% similarity based on the partial sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. Exopolysaccharides were extracted from the endophyte for the evaluation of its antitumor activity against gastric carcinoma cell lines (MC-4 and SGC-7901). 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and microscopy were performed to estimate the cell viability and morphological changes of the MC-4 and SGC-7901 cells following treatment with the exopolysaccharides at 14, 22 and 30 μg/μl. The results revealed that the exopolysaccharides displayed concentration-dependent inhibitory effects against the MC-4 and SGC-7901 cells, with an IC50 of 19.7 and 26.8 μg/μl, respectively. The exopolysaccharides also induced morphological abnormalities in the cells. These effects indicated the the exopolysaccharides had an antitumoral mechanism of action associated with the mitochondrial dysfunction of the treated cells. This is the first study to investigate the endophytic microorganism isolated from O. japonicas and also the first discovery of such antitumoral exopolysaccharides derived from the genus Bacillus. This provides a promising and reproducible natural product source with high therapeutic value for anticancer treatment, thereby facilitating the development of new anticancer agents.

  20. Protective effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens against infections of Citrus aurantium seedlings by Phoma tracheiphila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai-Grami, L; Ben Slimane, I; Mnari-Hattab, M; Rezgui, S; Aouani, M A; Hajlaoui, M R; Limam, F

    2014-02-01

    Isolate TEB1 an antagonistic endophytic bacterium, obtained from citrus leaves and identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by 16S rDNA sequencing, was used for the biological control of mal secco disease of Citrus aurantium seedlings caused by the mitosporic fungus Phoma tracheiphila. The isolate TEB1 exhibited a good in vitro activity against P. tracheiphila in dual cultures as well as with the well diffusion method. C. aurantium seedlings watered with a suspension of TEB1 cells showed a reduction of 53.61 and 48.63% in disease severity and incidence, respectively. A PCR test with specific primers was performed 365 days after inoculation and P. tracheiphila was detected along the whole stem in inoculated control plant while no amplification product was obtained in TEB1 treated seedlings. Molecular analysis of TEB1 revealed a positive amplification of fenD and ituC genes responsible of the biosynthesis of fengycin and iturin lipopeptides, respectively. Moreover, observations by optical microscope showed that TEB1 reduced by 55% the germination of P. tracheiphila conidia and exhibited a marked effect on mycelia structure. Data suggest that lipopeptides produced by the bacterium interact with the cytoplasmic membrane of the fungus causing pore formation. TEB1 appears a potential candidate for the biological control of citrus mal secco disease.

  1. Unraveling aspects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens mediated enhanced production of rice under biotic stress of Rhizoctonia solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchi eSrivastava

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani (RS is a necrotrophic fungi causing sheath blight in rice leading to substantial loss in yield. Excessive and persistent use of preventive chemicals raises human health and environment safety concerns. As an alternative, use of biocontrol agents is highly recommended. In the present study an abiotic stress tolerant, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (SN13 is demonstrated to act as a biocontrol agent and enhance immune response against RS in rice by modulating various physiological, metabolic and molecular functions. A sustained tolerance by SN13 primed plant over a longer period of time, post RS infection may be attributed to several unconventional aspects of the plants’ physiological status. The prolonged stress tolerance observed in presence of SN13 is characterized by (a involvement of bacterial mycolytic enzymes, (b sustained maintenance of elicitors to keep the immune system induced involving non-metabolizable sugars such as turanose besides the known elicitors, (c a delicate balance of ROS and ROS scavengers through production of proline, mannitol and arabitol and rare sugars like fructopyranose, β-d glucopyranose and myoinositol and expression of ferric reductases and hypoxia induced proteins, (d production of metabolites like quinozoline and expression of terpene synthase and (e hormonal cross talk. As the novel aspect of biological control this study highlights the role of rare sugars, maintenance of hypoxic conditions, and sucrose and starch metabolism in Bacillus amyloliquifaciens (SN13 mediated sustained biotic stress tolerance in rice.

  2. Biocontrol mechanism by root-associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumitra ePaul Chowdhury

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42 is a gram-positive model bacterium for unraveling plant-microbe interactions in Bacilli. In addition, FZB42 is used commercially as biofertilizer and biocontrol agent in agriculture. Genome analysis of FZB42 revealed that nearly 10% of the FZB42 genome is devoted to synthesizing antimicrobial metabolites and their corresponding immunity genes. However, recent investigations in planta demonstrated that - except surfactin - the amount of such compounds found in vicinity of plant roots is relatively low, making doubtful a direct function in suppressing competing microflora including plant pathogens. These metabolites have been also suspected to induce changes within the rhizosphere microbial community, which might affect environment and plant health. However, sequence analysis of rhizosphere samples revealed only marginal changes in the root microbiome, suggesting that secondary metabolites are not the key factor in protecting plants from pathogenic microorganisms. On the other hand, adding FZB42 to plants compensate, at least in part, changes in the community structure caused by the pathogen, indicating an interesting mechanism of plant protection by beneficial Bacilli.Sub-lethal concentrations of cyclic lipopeptides and volatiles produced by plant-associated Bacilli trigger pathways of induced systemic resistance (ISR, which protect plants against attacks of pathogenic microbes, viruses and nematodes. Stimulation of ISR by bacterial metabolites is likely the main mechanism responsible for biocontrol action of FZB42.

  3. Evidence that the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii may have evolved in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia P Litvintseva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the species of fungi that cause disease in mammals, including Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (serotype A, are exogenous and non-contagious. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is associated worldwide with avian and arboreal habitats. This airborne, opportunistic pathogen is profoundly neurotropic and the leading cause of fungal meningitis. Patients with HIV/AIDS have been ravaged by cryptococcosis--an estimated one million new cases occur each year, and mortality approaches 50%. Using phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, we present evidence that C. neoformans var. grubii may have evolved from a diverse population in southern Africa. Our ecological studies support the hypothesis that a few of these strains acquired a new environmental reservoir, the excreta of feral pigeons (Columba livia, and were globally dispersed by the migration of birds and humans. This investigation also discovered a novel arboreal reservoir for highly diverse strains of C. neoformans var. grubii that are restricted to southern Africa, the mopane tree (Colophospermum mopane. This finding may have significant public health implications because these primal strains have optimal potential for evolution and because mopane trees contribute to the local economy as a source of timber, folkloric remedies and the edible mopane worm.

  4. A markerless gene replacement method for B. amyloliquefaciens LL3 and its use in genome reduction and improvement of poly-γ-glutamic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Gao, Weixia; Feng, Jun; Zhang, Chi; He, Yulian; Cao, Mingfeng; Li, Qiang; Sun, Yang; Yang, Chao; Song, Cunjiang; Wang, Shufang

    2014-11-01

    We herein adapted a markerless gene replacement method by combining a temperature-sensitive plasmid pKSV7 with a counterselectable marker, the upp gene encoding uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTase), for the poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA)-producing strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LL3. Deletion of the upp gene conferred LL3 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistance. Sensitivity to 5-FU was restored when LL3 Δupp was transformed with pKSV7-based deletion plasmid which carries a functional allele of the upp gene of Bacillus subtilis 168. These observations allowed us to adapt a two-step plasmid integration and excision strategy to perform markerless deletion of genes of interest. Deletion plasmid harboring a mutant allele of the target gene was first integrated in the genome by culturing cells under nonpermissive conditions for pKSV7 replication. Single-crossover recombinants were then grown without antibiotics to aid the second recombinational event. 5-FU was used to select for double-crossover recombinants with plasmid evicted from the chromosome. The resulting recombinants either harbored the wild-type or mutated allele of the target gene and could be identified by PCR and DNA sequencing. Using this method, we successively removed the amyA gene and a 47-kb fragment of the bae cluster from the genome of LL3, with higher efficiency compared with previous reports. We also investigated the effects of a transcriptional regulator, RocR, on γ-PGA production and cell growth. Specific γ-PGA production of the rocR mutant was increased by 1.9-fold, which represents a new way to improve γ-PGA production.

  5. Antagonistic mechanism of iturin A and plipastatin A from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens S76-3 from wheat spikes against Fusarium graminearum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Dong Gong

    Full Text Available Controlling toxigenic Fusarium graminearum (FG is challenging. A bacterial strain (S76-3, identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens that was isolated from diseased wheat spikes in the field displayed strong antifungal activity against FG. Reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analyses revealed that S76-3 produced three classes of cyclic lipopeptides including iturin, plipastatin and surfactin. Each class consisted of several different molecules. The iturin and plipastatin fractions strongly inhibited FG; the surfactin fractions did not. The most abundant compound that had antagonistic activity from the iturin fraction was iturin A (m/z 1043.35; the most abundant active compound from the plipastatin fraction was plipastatin A (m/z 1463.90. These compounds were analyzed with collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry. The two purified compounds displayed strong fungicidal activity, completely killing conidial spores at the minimal inhibitory concentration range of 50 µg/ml (iturin A and 100 µg/ml (plipastatin A. Optical and fluorescence microscopy analyses revealed severe morphological changes in conidia and substantial distortions in FG hyphae treated with iturin A or plipastatin A. Iturin A caused leakage and/or inactivation of FG cellular contents and plipastatin A caused vacuolation. Time-lapse imaging of dynamic antagonistic processes illustrated that iturin A caused distortion and conglobation along hyphae and inhibited branch formation and growth, while plipastatin A caused conglobation in young hyphae and branch tips. Transmission electron microscopy analyses demonstrated that the cell walls of conidia and hyphae of iturin A and plipastatin A treated FG had large gaps and that their plasma membranes were severely damaged and separated from cell walls.

  6. arXiv Observation of the $\\varXi^{-}_{b}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Baszczyk, Mateusz; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Bordyuzhin, Igor; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Déléage, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Funk, Wolfgang; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, Vladimir; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hombach, Christoph; Hopchev, P H; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kosmyntseva, Alena; Kozachuk, Anastasiia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Tenglin; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Morgunova, Olga; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Mussini, Manuel; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Thi Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Nogay, Alla; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vicente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sadykhov, Elnur; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubert, Konstantin; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevens, Holger; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Toriello, Francis; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhang, Yu; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2017-09-10

    The observation of the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is reported, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb detector in $pp$ collisions at centre-of-mass energies of $7$ and $8~\\mathrm{TeV}$. The production rate of $\\varXi_{b}^{-}$ baryons detected in the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is measured relative to that of $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}$ baryons using the decay $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda$. Integrated over the $b$-baryon transverse momentum $p_{\\rm T}<25~\\mathrm{GeV/}c $ and rapidity $2.0 < y < 4.5$, the measured ratio is \\begin{equation*} \\frac{f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}}{f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}}\\frac{\\mathcal{B}(\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-})}{\\mathcal{B}(\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda)}=(4.19\\pm 0.29~(\\mathrm{stat})\\pm0.14~(\\mathrm{syst}))\\times 10^{-2}, \\end{equation*}where $f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}$ and $f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}$ are the fragmentation fractions of $b\\to\\varXi_{...

  7. Identification of strain isolated from dates (Phœnix dactylifera L.) for enhancing very high gravity ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djelal, Hayet; Chniti, Sofien; Jemni, Monia; Weill, Amélie; Sayed, Walaa; Amrane, Abdeltif

    2017-04-01

    Ethanol production from by-products of dates in very high gravity was conducted in batch fermentation using two yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, as well as a native strain: an osmophilic strain of bacteria which was isolated for the first time from the juice of dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.). The phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S ribosomal RNA and gyrB sequence and physiological analysis indicated that the strain identified belongs to the genus of Bacillus, B. amyloliquefaciens. The ethanol yields produced from the syrup of dates (175 g L -1 and 360 g L -1 of total sugar) were 40.6% and 29.5%, respectively. By comparing the ethanol production by the isolated bacteria to that obtained using Z. rouxii and S. cerevisiae, it can be concluded that B. amyloliquefaciens was suitable for ethanol production from the syrup of dates and can consume the three types of sugar (glucose, fructose, and sucrose). Using Z. rouxii, fructose was preferentially consumed, while glucose was consumed only after fructose depletion. From this, B. amyloliquefaciens was promising for the bioethanol industry. In addition, this latter showed a good tolerance for high sugar concentration (36%), allowing ethanol production in batch fermentation at pH 5.0 and 28 °C in date syrup medium. Promising ethanol yield produced to sugar consumed were observed for the two osmotolerant microorganisms, Z. rouxii and B. amyloliquefaciens, nearly 32-33%, which were further improved when they were cocultivated, leading to an ethanol to glucose yield of 42-43%.

  8. [The taxonomic study of the strain Bacillus sp. UCM B-7404--phytopathogenic fungae antagonist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, D A; Klochko, V V; Zelena, L B; Reva, O M; Dragovoz, I V; Avdeeva, L V

    2015-01-01

    The polyphasic taxonomic analysis of strain Bacillus sp. UCM B-7404 active against phytopathogenic fungi and producing extracellular phytohormones, lytic enzymes and lipopeptide antifungal compounds has been carried out. The basic cell wall fatty acids presented by branched iso- and anteiso- C15:0 and C17:0 acids, contained 65-77% of the average pool. Phylogenetic assay of 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics proved the attachment of strain Bacillus sp. UCM B-7404 to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum.

  9. VarR controls colonization and virulence in the marine macroalgal pathogen Nautella italica R11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eGardiner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence to suggest that macroalgae (seaweeds are susceptible to infectious disease. However, to date, little is known about the mechanisms that facilitate the colonization and virulence of microbial seaweed pathogens. One well-described example of a seaweed disease is the bleaching of the red alga Delisea pulchra, which can be caused by the bacterium Nautella italica R11, a member of the Roseobacter clade. This pathogen contains a unique luxR-type gene, varR, which we hypothesize controls its colonization and virulence. We show here that a varR knock-out strain is deficient in its ability to cause disease in D. pulchra and is defective in biofilm formation and attachment to a common algal polysaccharide. Moreover complementation of the varR gene in trans can restore these functions to the wild type levels. Proteomic analysis of bacterial cells in planktonic and biofilm growth highlight the potential importance of nitrogen scavenging, mobilization of energy reserves, and stress resistance in the biofilm lifestyle of N. italica R11. Moreover, we show that VarR regulates the expression of a specific subset of biofilm-associated proteins. Taken together these data suggest that VarR controls colonization and persistence of N. italica R11 on the surface of a macroalgal host and that it is an important regulator of virulence.

  10. Pathogenicity of local Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-03

    Jan 3, 2011 ... enzymes of entomopathogenic fungi: Synthesis in culture on cuticle. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 48: 85-95. Niassy et al. 33. St-Leger RJ, Joshi L, Bidokha MJ, Rizza NW, Roberts DW (1996). Characterization and Ultrastructural Localization of Chitinases from. Metarhizium anisopliae, M. flavoviride, and Beauveria ...

  11. FCH_Enveliopsis_nudicaulis_var_corrugata_19850520

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Ash Meadows sunray (Enceliopsis nudicaulis var. corrugata) occur.

  12. 4D-Var Developement at GMAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, Joanna S.; Todling, Ricardo; Akkraoui, Amal El

    2014-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Offce (GMAO) is currently using an IAU-based 3D-Var data assimilation system. GMAO has been experimenting with a 3D-Var-hybrid version of its data assimilation system (DAS) for over a year now, which will soon become operational and it will rapidly progress toward a 4D-EnVar. Concurrently, the machinery to exercise traditional 4DVar is in place and it is desirable to have a comparison of the traditional 4D approach with the other available options, and evaluate their performance in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) DAS. This work will also explore the possibility for constructing a reduced order model (ROM) to make traditional 4D-Var computationally attractive for increasing model resolutions. Part of the research on ROM will be to search for a suitably acceptable space to carry on the corresponding reduction. This poster illustrates how the IAU-based 4D-Var assimilation compares with our currently used IAU-based 3D-Var.

  13. Insights into the molecular basis of biocontrol of Brassica pathogens by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UCMB5113 lipopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Shashidar; Ongena, Marc; Debois, Delphine; De Pauw, Edwin; Chen, Kunling; Bejai, Sarosh; Meijer, Johan

    2017-10-17

    Certain micro-organisms can improve plant protection against pathogens. The protective effect may be direct, e.g. due to antibiotic compounds, or indirect, by priming of plant defence as induced systemic resistance (ISR). The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UCMB5113 shows potential for disease management of oilseed rape. To investigate the mode of action of this protection, especially in relation to jasmonic acid-dependent ISR, Bacillus UCMB5113 was tested with Arabidopsis thaliana mutants and several important fungal pathogens of Brassica species. Secreted lipopeptide fractions from Bacillus UCMB5113, together with synthetic peptide mimics, were evaluated for their effects on fungal phytopathogens and A. thaliana . The structures of secreted lipopeptides were analysed using mass spectrometry. Plant mutants and reporter lines were used to identify signalling steps involved in disease suppression by lipopeptides. In plate tests Bacillus UCMB5113 and lipopeptide extracts suppressed growth of several fungal pathogens infecting Brassica plants. Separation of secreted lipopeptides using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed several fractions that inhibited fungal growth. Analysis by mass spectrometry identified the most potent compounds as novel linear forms of antifungal fengycins, with synthetic peptide mimics confirming the biological activity. Application of the lipopeptide extracts on Arabidopsis roots provided systemic protection against Alternaria brassicicola on leaves. Arabidopsis signalling mutants and PDF1.2 and VSP2 promoter-driven GUS lines indicated that the lipopeptide fraction involved jasmonic-acid-dependent host responses for suppression of fungal growth indicative of ISR. The ability of Bacillus UCMB5113 to counteract pathogens using both antagonistic lipopeptides and through ISR provides a promising tool for sustainable crop production.

  14. The antibacterial activity of E. coli bacteriophage lysin lysep3 is enhanced by fusing the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens bacteriophage endolysin binding domain D8 to the C-terminal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Gu, Jingmin; Lv, Meng; Guo, Zhimin; Yan, Guangmou; Yu, Ling; Du, Chongtao; Feng, Xin; Han, Wenyu; Sun, Changjiang; Lei, Liancheng

    2017-05-01

    Bacteriophage endolysin is one of the most promising antibiotic substitutes, but in Gram-negative bacteria, the outer membrane prevents the lysin from hydrolyzing peptidoglycans and blocks the development of lysin applications. The prime strategy for new antibiotic substitutes is allowing lysin to access the peptidoglycan from outside of the bacteria by reformation of the lysin. In this study, the novel Escherichia coli (E. coli) phage lyase lysep3, which lacks outside-in catalytic ability, was fused with the N-terminal region of the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens lysin including its cell wall binding domain D8 through the best manner of protein fusion based on the predicted tertiary structure of lysep3-D8 to obtain an engineered lysin that can lyse bacteria from the outside. Our results showed that lysep3-D8 could lyse both Gramnegative and Gram-positive bacteria, whereas lysep3 and D8 have no impact on bacterial growth. The MIC of lysep3-D8 on E. coli CVCC1418 is 60 μg/ml; lysep3-D8 can inhibit the growth of bacteria up to 12 h at this concentration. The bactericidal spectrum of lysep3-D8 is broad, as it can lyse of all of 14 E. coli strains, 3 P. aeruginosa strains, 1 Acinetobacter baumannii strain, and 1 Streptococcus strain. Lysep3-D8 has sufficient bactericidal effects on the 14 E. coli strains tested at the concentration of 100 μg/ml. The cell wall binding domain of the engineered lysin can destroy the integrity of the outer membrane of bacteria, thus allowing the catalytic domain to reach its target, peptidoglycan, to lyse the bacteria. Lysep3-D8 can be used as a preservative in fodder to benefit the health of animals. The method we used here proved to be a successful exploration of the reformation of phage lysin.

  15. Hygrocin C from marine-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSGAA 0027 inhibits biofilm formation in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SCSGAB0082 isolated from South China Sea gorgonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Nong, Xu-Hua; Amin, Muhammad; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2018-02-01

    Several ansamycins have been reported to inhibit bacterial biofilm formation and accelerate the eradication of developed biofilms, but little is known about the effect of hygrocin C, an ansamycin, on bacterial biofilm formation. Here, hygrocin C was isolated from the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSGAA 0027 and reported for the first time to be capable of inhibiting the biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SCSGAB0082 with the production of anti-microbial lipopeptides from South China Sea gorgonian Subergorgia suberosa at concentrations of less than minimum inhibitory concentrations. Moreover, hygrocin C also promoted the eradication of developed biofilms, affected the biofilm architecture, and lowered the extracellular polymeric matrix formation, cell motility, and surface hydrophobicity in B. amyloliquefaciens, which was in accordance with the inhibition of biofilm formation. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed that hygrocin C altered the transcripts of several genes associated with bacterial chemotaxis and flagellar, two-component system and the synthesis of arginine and histidine, which are important for bacterial biofilm formation. In conclusion, hygrocin C could be used as a potential biofilm inhibitor against S. aureus and B. amyloliquefaciens. But further genetic investigations are needed to provide more details for elucidation of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the effects of hygrocin C on B. amyloliquefaciens biofilm formation.

  16. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53, a potent biocontrol agent resists Rhizoctonia disease on Chinese cabbage through hormonal and antioxidants regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Mo; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-10-01

    The fungus Rhizoctonia solani is one of the causal agents of numerous diseases that affect crop growth and yield. The aim of this present investigation was to identify a biocontrol agent that acts against R. solani and to determine the agent's protective effect through phytohormones and antioxidant regulation in experimentally infected Chinese cabbage plants. Four rhizospheric soil bacterial isolates GR53, GR169, GR786, and GR320 were tested for their antagonistic activity against R. solani. Among these isolates, GR53 significantly suppressed fungal growth. GR53 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum by phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence. The biocontrol activity of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 was tested in Chinese cabbage plants under controlled conditions. Results showed that R. solani inhibited plant growth (length, width, fresh and dry weight of leaves) by reducing chlorophyll and total phenolic content, as well as by increasing the levels of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid, and DPPH scavenging activity. By regulating the levels of these compounds, the co-inoculation of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 heightened induced systemic resistance in infected Chinese cabbage, effectively mitigating R. solani-induced damaging effects and improving plant growth. The results obtained from this study suggest that B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 is an effective biocontrol agent to prevent the damage caused by R. solani in Chinese cabbage plants.

  17. Genetic Diversity and Pathogenic Variation of Common Blight Bacteria (Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli and X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans) Suggests Pathogen Coevolution with the Common Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkandawire, Alexander B C; Mabagala, Robert B; Guzmán, Pablo; Gepts, Paul; Gilbertson, Robert L

    2004-06-01

    ABSTRACT Common bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli and X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans, is one of the most important diseases of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in East Africa and other bean-growing regions. Xanthomonad-like bacteria associated with CBB in Malawi and Tanzania, East Africa, and in Wisconsin, U.S., were characterized based on brown pigment production, pathogenicity on common bean, detection with an X. campestris pv. phaseoli- or X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans-specific PCR primer pair, and repetitive element polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses. The common bean gene pool (Andean or Middle American) from which each strain was isolated also was determined. In Malawi, X. campestris pv. phaseoli and X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans were isolated predominantly from Andean or Middle American beans, respectively. In Tanzania, X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans was most commonly isolated, irrespective of gene pool; whereas, in Wisconsin, only X. campestris pv. phaseoli was isolated from Andean red kidney beans. Three rep-PCR fingerprints were obtained for X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains; two were unique to East African strains, whereas the other was associated with strains collected from all other (mostly New World) locations. RFLP analyses with repetitive DNA probes revealed the same genetic diversity among X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains as did rep-PCR. These probes hybridized with only one or two fragments in the East African strains, but with multiple fragments in the other X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains. East African X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains were highly pathogenic on Andean beans, but were significantly less pathogenic on Middle American beans. In contrast, X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains from New World locations were highly pathogenic on beans of both gene pools. Together, these results indicate the

  18. Seed-borne endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 produces gibberellins and regulates endogenous phytohormones of Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Raheem; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Kang, Sang-Mo; Yun, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-09-01

    Some microorganisms are adapted to an endophytic mode, living symbiotically with plants through vertical transmission in seeds. The role of plant growth-promoting endophytes has been well studied, but those of seed-associated endophytic bacteria are less understood. The current study aimed to isolate and identify bacterial endophytes associated with rice (Oryza sativa L. 'Jin so mi') seeds, their potential to produce gibberellins (GAs), and role in improving host-plant physiology. The isolated bacterial endophyte RWL-1 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by using 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The pure culture of B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1, supplied with deuterated internal standards, was subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectrometric selected ion monitoring (GC-MS/SIM) for quantification of GAs. Results showed the presence of GAs in various quantities (ng/mL) viz., GA20 (17.88 ± 4.04), GA36 (5.75 ± 2.36), GA24 (5.64 ± 2.46), GA4 (1.02 ± 0.16), GA53 (0.772 ± 0.20), GA9 (0.12 ± 0.09), GA19 (0.093 ± 0.13), GA5 (0.08 ± 0.04), GA12 (0.014 ± 0.34), and GA8 (0.013 ± 0.01). Since endogenous seed GAs are essential for prolonged seed growth and subsequent plant development, we used exogenous GA3 as a positive control and water as a negative control for comparative analysis of the application of B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 to rice plants. The growth parameters of rice plants treated with endophytic bacterial cell application was significantly increased compared to the plants treated with exogenous GA3 and water. This was also revealed by the significant up-regulation of endogenous GA1 (17.54 ± 2.40 ng), GA4 (310 ± 5.41 ng), GA7 (192.60 ± 3.32 ng), and GA9 (19.04 ± 2.49 ng) as compared to results of the positive and negative control treatments. Rice plants inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 exhibited significantly higher endogenous salicylic acid (1615.06 ± 10.81 μg), whereas

  19. Sub-grouping of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 var genes based on sequence analysis of coding and non-coding regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavstsen, Thomas; Salanti, Ali; Jensen, Anja T R

    2003-01-01

    -grouped into three major groups (group A, B and C) and two intermediate groups B/A and B/C representing transitions between the three major groups. The best defined var group, group A, comprises telomeric genes transcribed towards the telomere encoding PfEMP1s with complex domain structures different from the 4...... and organization of the 3D7 PfEMP1 repertoire was investigated on the basis of the complete genome sequence. METHODS: Using two tree-building methods we analysed the coding and non-coding sequences of 3D7 var and rif genes as well as var genes of other parasite strains. RESULTS: var genes can be sub......-domain type dominant of groups B and C. Two sequences belonging to the var1 and var2 subfamilies formed independent groups. A rif subgroup transcribed towards the centromere was found neighbouring var genes of group A such that the rif and var 5' regions merged. This organization appeared to be unique...

  20. Hybrid VAR compensator with improved efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Burlaka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern electrical networks thyristor-switched capacitors (TSC are most used devices for VAR compensation. These devices don’t contain rotating parts and mechanical contacts, provide a stepwise control of reactive power and no generation of harmonics to the network. However, with the help of TSC it’s not possible to ensure smooth control of reactive power and capacitor banks (CB are exposed to the negative impact of higher harmonic components of the network voltage. Hybrid VAR compensator don’t have such drawbacks. It consists of active filter (AF and capacitor bank with discrete regulation. The main drawback of such systems is the necessity of accessing all six terminals of CB, while most of them are manufactured with three terminals, internally delta-connected. In the article, the topology and control system of hybrid VAR compensator free from beforementioned drawback, is proposed. The control system provides operating modes of overcompensation or undercompensation reactive power. VAR distribution regulator performs redistribution of reactive power between active filter and capacitor banks with the condition to minimize active filter’s power. Scheme of the hybrid VAR compensator, which includes a three-phase three-terminal delta-connected capacitor banks, is shown. Proposed approach allows to provide smooth control of reactive power, isolate the capacitor bank from harmonic currents and use a more effective low-voltage power components

  1. Urease gene of Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruma, Midori; Kano, Rui; Sugita, Takashi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Hiruma, Masataro

    2013-02-01

    The recent description (in GenBank) of a urease-encoding gene from Trichophyton rubrum provides an opportunity to compare this species to the highly similar T. rubrum var. raubitschekii. Therefore, the corresponding genomic DNA was recovered from T. rubrum var. raubitschekii, and the sequence and expression were compared for this urease gene in urease-positive and -negative isolates of T. rubrum and T. rubrum var. raubitschekii. The sequence (2371 bp) of the T. rubrum var. raubitschekii urease gene revealed the presence of three exons. Except for a three-amino acid insertion, the predicted proteins were identical, but demonstrated protein identity of approximately 70% compared to an Arthroderma gypseum homolog. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed the presence of a corresponding transcript in both urease-positive T. rubrum var. raubitschekii isolates examined; the same analysis did not detect this transcript in urease-negative isolates of T. rubrum. © 2012 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  2. Genetic variability and population structure of the mushroom Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengran Zhao

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of 123 wild strains of Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis, which were collected from nine geographical locations in Yumin, Tuoli, and Qinghe counties in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China, was analysed using two molecular marker systems (inter-simple sequence repeat and start codon targeted. At the variety level, the percentage of polymorphic loci and Nei's gene diversity index for P. eryngii var. tuoliensis was 96.32% and 0.238, respectively. At the population level, Nei's gene diversity index ranged from 0.149 to 0.218 with an average of 0.186, and Shannon's information index ranged from 0.213 to 0.339 with an average of 0.284. These results revealed the abundant genetic variability in the wild resources of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis. Nei's gene diversity analysis indicated that the genetic variance was mainly found within individual geographical populations, and the analysis of molecular variance revealed low but significant genetic differentiation among local and regional populations. The limited gene flow (Nm = 1.794 was inferred as a major reason for the extent of genetic differentiation of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis. The results of Mantel tests showed that the genetic distance among geographical populations of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis was positively correlated with the geographical distance and the longitudinal distances (rGo = 0.789 and rLn = 0.873, respectively, which indicates that geographical isolation is an important factor for the observed genetic differentiation. Nine geographical populations of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis were divided into three groups according to their geographical origins, which revealed that the genetic diversity was closely related to the geographical distribution of this wild fungus.

  3. Antioxidant properties and global metabolite screening of the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Suprama; Timson, David J; Annapure, Uday S

    2017-07-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii is the only yeast species with probiotic properties. It is considered to have therapeutic significance in gastrointestinal disorders. In the present study, a comparative physiological study between this yeast and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (BY4742) was performed by evaluating two prominent traits of probiotic species, responses to different stress conditions and antioxidant capacity. A global metabolite profile was also developed aiming to identify which therapeutically important secondary metabolites are produced. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii showed no significant difference in growth patterns but greater stress tolerance compared to S. cerevisiae. It also demonstrated a six- to 10-fold greater antioxidant potential (judged by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay), with a 70-fold higher total phenolic content and a 20-fold higher total flavonoid content in the extracellular fraction. These features were clearly differentiated by principal component analysis and further indicated by metabolite profiling. The extracellular fraction of the S. cerevisiae var. boulardii cultures was found to be rich in polyphenolic metabolites: vanillic acid, cinnamic acid, phenyl ethyl alcohol (rose oil), erythromycin, amphetamine and vitamin B6 , which results in the antioxidant capacity of this strain. The present study presents a new perspective for differentiating the two genetically related strains of yeast, S. cerevisiae and S. cerevisiae var. boulardii by assessing their metabolome fingerprints. In addition to the correlation of the phenotypic properties with the secretory metabolites of these two yeasts, the present study also emphasizes the potential to exploit S. cerevisiae var. boulardii in the industrial production of these metabolites. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelinsis (Bti) on Culex and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory based experiments were conducted using Bacillus thuringiensis var israelinsis (Bti) to establish ... In some countries Bacillus thuringiensis var israelinsis (Bti) is used as a means of controlling mosquitoes ...... israelinsis and Bacillus sphaericus formulations against Afrotropical anophelines in western Kenya.

  5. Isolation of anteiso-C17, iso-C17, iso-C16, and iso-C15 bacillomycin D from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SD-32 and their antifungal activities against plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keijitsu; Ishihara, Atsushi; Nakajima, Hiromitsu

    2014-02-19

    Two new cyclic lipopeptides (3 and 4) were isolated from the culture filtrate of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain SD-32, together with two known metabolites, iso-C15 and iso-C16 bacillomycin D (1 and 2). Spectroscopic and chemical analyses identified the structures of the new compounds 3 and 4 as anteiso-C17 bacillomycin D, cyclic (l-Asn-d-Tyr-d-Asn-l-Pro-l-Glu-d-Ser-l-Thr-3-amino-14-methylhexadecanoic acid) and iso-C17 bacillomycin D, cyclic (l-Asn-d-Tyr-d-Asn-l-Pro-l-Glu-d-Ser-l-Thr-3-amino-15-methylhexadecanoic acid), respectively. The absolute configuration of C-3 in the β-amino fatty acid was determined to be R on the basis of the CD spectrum of its dinitrophenyl-p-methoxyaniline derivative. The activities of compounds 1-4 were evaluated against 13 plant pathogens: the activities of anteiso- and iso-C17 bacillomycin D (3 and 4) were almost the same and stronger than those of iso-C15 and iso-C16 bacillomycin D (1 and 2); iso-C15 bacillomycin D (1) was weakest. Compounds 2-4 inhibited the growth of all fungi tested; however, Pythium aphanidermatum was not inhibited at all by any of the compounds. Furthermore, compounds 1-4 at concentrations of 80, 40, 30, and 30 μM, respectively, inhibited completely the Botrytis cinerea infection in cucumber leaf.

  6. Bolívar, educador de pueblos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Hernández de Alba

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Una tarde del mes de septiembre de 1810, en la residencia de la calle Grafton, hogar del Precursor don Francisco de Miranda, el Embajador de la Capitanía General de Venezuela en Londres, Coronel don Simón Bolívar, escucha entusiasmado de labios del fogoso innovador de la pedagogía, don José Lancaster, la exposición de su nuevo sistema educativo Con esa su vivacidad característica caen sobre Bolívar las nuevas inolvidables impresiones que un día se harán palpables dentro del pensamiento educativo del gran Libertador.

  7. Haavelmo's Probability Approach and the Cointegrated VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    dependent residuals, normalization, reduced rank, model selection, missing variables, simultaneity, autonomy and iden- ti…cation. Speci…cally the paper discusses (1) the conditions under which the VAR model represents a full probability formulation of a sample of time-series observations, (2...

  8. Bioethanol production by immobilized Sacharomyces cerevisiae var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the immobilization of Sacharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus yeast cells for bioethanol production from corn meal hydrolyzates. For this purpose the biocompatible polymers such as polyvinil alcohol (PVA) and Ca-alginate were assessed. The parameters of ethanol ...

  9. Volatiles Of Lysimachia Paridiformis Var. Stenophylla, Lysimachia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stenophylla, accounting for 89.17% of the total volatile fraction. The main constituents were ethanol (13.58%), and β-ionone (8.05%). linalool and β-ionone were the main aroma constituents in L. paridiformis var. Stenophylla. Twenty-one compounds were identified in the leaves of L. fortumei, accounting for 94.72% of the ...

  10. Bolívar no fue volteriano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Aguilera

    1961-07-01

    Full Text Available Al comentar la personalidad religiosa de Bolívar, se refieren algunos escritores a la influencia filosófica que sobre su inteligencia ejerció el enciclopedista Voltaire. La frecuencia con que se cita este nombre me ha inducido a indagar cuidadosamente el fundamento de aquella afirmación.

  11. Plant regeneration of Senecio hypochionaeus var. argaeus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-05-02

    May 2, 2011 ... Turkey. E-mail: haticecolgecen@gmail.com or colgecen@karaelmas.edu.tr. Accepted 28 April, 2011. Senecio genus includes taxa that can be used for agricultural, pharmacological, ... var. argaeus is an endemic species in Turkey. .... their pappus region by cutting, and the other group of seeds was.

  12. Bioethanol production by immobilized Sacharomyces cerevisiae var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-04

    Feb 4, 2009 ... Bioethanol production by immobilized Sacharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus cells. Marica Rakin1*, Ljiljana Mojovic1, Svetlana Nikolic1 Maja Vukasinovic1 and Viktor Nedovic2. 1Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy Karnegijeva 4,. 11000 ...

  13. What is Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujadas Salvà, Antonio J.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, a problematic taxon described from Algeciras (Cádiz, S Spain is here identified after studying the original material of Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. It is considered to be the same as O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley and better included, as a variety, under O. gracilis Sm. The new combination O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas is consequently proposed. It mainly parasites Ulex (Fabaceae in the western Mediterranean Region (Iberian Peninsula and NW Africa.Se identifica Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, un taxon conflictivo descrito de Algeciras (Cádiz, sur de España, a partir del análisis del material original de Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. Se considera que es lo mismo que O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley, y se incluye en O. gracilis Sm. con rango varietal. Se propone la nueva combinación O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas. Parasita principalmente a especies del género Ulex (Fabaceae en la Región Mediterránea Occidental (Península Ibérica y noroeste de África.

  14. [Arbuscular mycorrhizae in Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nong; Xia, Conglong; Jiang, Bei; Bai, Zhichuan; Liu, Guangming; Ma, Xiaokuang

    2009-07-01

    To study the infection situation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, as well as the mycorrhizal structures of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis, and the main types and quantities of AMF spores in rhizosphere soil. The arbuscular mycorrhizal of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis were detected by Phillips and Hayman staining. At the same time, some AMF spores were accessed by Gendemann's Wet-screening method and identified by their morphological characteristics. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi could infect the roots of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and formed arbuscular mycorrhizal. Infection rate was from 35.3% to 98.6%, indicating that infection strength was strong. From 10 soil samples collected in Yunnan, 11 Acaulospor species, 7 Glomus species, 3 Gigaspora species and 3 Scutellospora species were isolated and identified, including Acaulospora appendicola, A. brieticulata, A. excavata, A. foveata, A. lacunosa, A. laevis, A. koskei, A. myriocarpa, A. polonica, A. rehmii, A. scrobiculata, Glomus albidum, G. ambisporum, G. deserticola, G. fragarioides, G. luteum, G. microaggregatum, G. multiforum, Gigaspora albida, G. margarita, G. ramisporophora, Scutellospora calospora, S. pellucida and S. gilmorei. Among them, Acaulospora brieticulata was advantage species. AMF may be a potent biological resource which can stimulate the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

  15. Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum in dove's (Columbia livia) excreta in Bolívar state, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermeño, Julman R; Hernández, Isabel; Cabello, Ismery; Orellán, Yida; Cermeño, Julmery J; Albornoz, Rosa; Padrón, Elba; Godoy, Gerardo

    2006-01-01

    Dove's excreta samples from state Bolívar several places in Venezuela, were evaluated to determine the presence of primary pathogen fungi in dove's excreta. Filamentous fungi such as: Aspergillus spp (31.1%), Mucor spp (20.2%), Penicillium spp (9.5%) and Fusarium spp (6.7%) were the most frequently isolated strains. Species such as Candida albicans (4.1%), Cryptococcus albidus and Rhodotorula spp (2.7%), C. neoformans var neoformans (1.4%), Trichosporum asahii (1.4%), Curvularia, Microsporum and Phoma as well as Histoplasma capsulatum (1.3%) were less frecuently isolated. This study shows the presence of C. neoformans and H. capsulatum in dove's excreta from Bolívar state, it remarks infection risk with these pathogens fungi and the necessity to avoid accumulation of dove's excreta.

  16. Plant growth promoting effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H-2-5 on crop plants and influence on physiological changes in soybean under soil salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ji; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kang, Sang-Mo; You, Young-Hyun; Jeong, Eun-Ju; Kim, Jong-Guk; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-07-01

    This study was aimed to identify plant growth-promoting bacterial isolates from soil samples and to investigate their ability to improve plant growth and salt tolerance by analysing phytohormones production and phosphate solubilisation. Among the four tested bacterial isolates (I-2-1, H-1-4, H-2-3, and H-2-5), H-2-5 was able to enhance the growth of Chinese cabbage, radish, tomato, and mustard plants. The isolated bacterium H-2-5 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H-2-5 based on 16S rDNA sequence and phylogenetic analysis. The secretion of gibberellins (GA4, GA8, GA9, GA19, and GA20) from B. amyloliquefaciens H-2-5 and their phosphate solubilisation ability may contribute to enhance plant growth. In addition, the H-2-5-mediated mitigation of short term salt stress was tested on soybean plants that were affected by sodium chloride. Abscisic acid (ABA) produced by the H-2-5 bacterium suppressed the NaCl-induced stress effects in soybean by enhancing plant growth and GA4 content, and by lowering the concentration of ABA, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and proline. These results suggest that GAs, ABA production, and the phosphate solubilisation capacity of B. amyloliquefaciens H-2-5 are important stimulators that promote plant growth through their interaction and also to improve plant growth by physiological changes in soybean at saline soil.

  17. Transposon mutagenesis of the plant-associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum FZB42 revealed that the nfrA and RBAM17410 genes are involved in plant-microbe-interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiharjo, Anto; Chowdhury, Soumitra Paul; Dietel, Kristin; Beator, Barbara; Dolgova, Olga; Fan, Ben; Bleiss, Wilfrid; Ziegler, Jörg; Schmid, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Borriss, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum FZB42 represents the prototype of Gram-positive plant growth promoting and biocontrol bacteria. In this study, we applied transposon mutagenesis to generate a transposon library, which was screened for genes involved in multicellular behavior and biofilm formation on roots as a prerequisite of plant growth promoting activity. Transposon insertion sites were determined by rescue-cloning followed by DNA sequencing. As in B. subtilis, the global transcriptional regulator DegU was identified as an activator of genes necessary for swarming and biofilm formation, and the DegU-mutant of FZB42 was found impaired in efficient root colonization. Direct screening of 3,000 transposon insertion mutants for plant-growth-promotion revealed the gene products of nfrA and RBAM_017140 to be essential for beneficial effects exerted by FZB42 on plants. We analyzed the performance of GFP-labeled wild-type and transposon mutants in the colonization of lettuce roots using confocal laser scanning microscopy. While the wild-type strain heavily colonized root surfaces, the nfrA mutant did not colonize lettuce roots, although it was not impaired in growth in laboratory cultures, biofilm formation and swarming motility on agar plates. The RBAM17410 gene, occurring in only a few members of the B. subtilis species complex, was directly involved in plant growth promotion. None of the mutant strains were affected in producing the plant growth hormone auxin. We hypothesize that the nfrA gene product is essential for overcoming the stress caused by plant response towards bacterial root colonization.

  18. Antagonistic effects of Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens against Macrophomina phaseolina: SEM study of fungal changes and UV-MALDI-TOF MS analysis of their bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M J; Brandan, C Pérez; Petroselli, G; Erra-Balsells, R; Audisio, M C

    2016-01-01

    The antifungal effect of Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis PGPMori7 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PGPBacCA1 was evaluated against Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. Cell suspension (CS), cell-free supernatant (CFS) and the lipopeptide fraction (LF) of PGPMori7 and PGPBacCA1 were screened against three different M. phaseolina strains. CS exhibited the highest inhibitory effect (around 50%) when compared to those of CFS and LF, regardless of the fungal strain studied. The synthesis of lipopeptides was studied by UV-MALDI TOF. Chemical analysis of Bacillus metabolite synthesis revealed that surfactin and iturin were mainly produced in liquid medium. Potential fengycin was also co-produced when both Bacillus were cultivated in solid medium. In co-culture assays, the bacterial colony-fungal mycelium interface at the inhibition zone was evaluated by both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-MALDI TOF, the former to determine the structural changes on M. phaseolina cells and the latter to identify the main bioactive molecules involved in the inhibitory effect. PGPBacCA1 produced surfactin, iturin and fengycin in the inhibition zone while PGPMori7 only produced these metabolites within its colony and not in the narrow inhibition zone. Interestingly, SEM revealed that PGPBacCA1 induced damage in M. phaseolina sclerotia, generating a fungicidal effect as no growth was observed when normal growth conditions were reestablished. In turn, PGPMori7 inhibited the growth of the Macrophomina mycelium without fungal injury, resulting only in a fungistatic activity. From these results, it was determined that the two bacilli significantly inhibited the growth of an important phytopathogenic fungus by at least two different mechanisms: lipopeptide synthesis and competition among microorganisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Toxicological assessment of nattokinase derived from Bacillus subtilis var. natto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Bradley J; English, J Caroline

    2016-02-01

    Subtilisin NAT, commonly known as "nattokinase," is a fibrinolytic enzyme produced by the bacterial strain B. subtilis var. natto, which plays a central role in the fermentation of soybeans into the popular Japanese food natto. Recent studies have reported on the potential anticoagulatory and antihypertensive effects of nattokinase administration in humans, with no indication of adverse effects. To evaluate the safety of nattokinase in a more comprehensive manner, several GLP-compliant studies in rodents and human volunteers have been conducted with the enzyme product, NSK-SD (Japan Bio Science Laboratory Co., Ltd., Japan). Nattokinase was non-mutagenic and non-clastogenic in vitro, and no adverse effects were observed in 28-day and 90-day subchronic toxicity studies conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats at doses up to 167 mg/kg-day and 1000 mg/kg-day, respectively. Mice inoculated with 7.55 × 10(8) CFU of the enzyme-producing bacterial strain showed no signs of toxicity or residual tissue concentrations of viable bacteria. Additionally consumption of 10 mg/kg-day nattokinase for 4 weeks was well tolerated in healthy human volunteers. These findings suggest that the oral consumption of nattokinase is of low toxicological concern. The 90-day oral subchronic NOAEL for nattokinase in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats is 1000 mg/kg-day, the highest dose tested. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Bioactive peptides identified in thornback ray skin's gelatin hydrolysates by proteases from Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassoued, Imen; Mora, Leticia; Barkia, Ahmed; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Nasri, Moncef; Toldrá, Fidel

    2015-10-14

    Thornback ray skin gelatin has been hydrolyzed with two different proteases in order to obtain peptides with ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activity. Hydrolysates with protease from Bacillus subtilis A26 (TRGH-A26) displayed ACE inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 0.94 μg/μL whereas Neutrase® hydrolysate from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (TRGH-Neutrase) showed an IC50 value of 2.07 μg/μL. Regarding antioxidant activity, IC50 values of 1.98 and 21.2 μg/μL in TRGH-A26 and TRGH-Neutrase, respectively, were obtained using the DPPH radical-scavenging assay. The most active fractions identified by size-exclusion chromatography were further purified by RP-HPLC and analysed using nanoESI-LC-MS/MS to identify the sequence of the peptides. APGAP was the most active peptide inTRGH-A26 for ACE inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 170 μM, whereas GIPGAP showed the best ACE inhibitory activity in TRGH-Neutrase sample with an IC50 value of 27.9 μM. The highest antioxidant activity was identified in peptide AVGAT, showing a 33% of activity at 3mg/mL using the DPPH radical-scavenging assay. The obtained results proved the potential of thornback ray skin gelatin hydrolysates as a source of bioactive peptides. This study describes a peptidomic approach for the identification of ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant peptides generated from thornback ray gelatin (Raja clavata) hydrolysates from Bacillus subtilis A26 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Neutrase® enzymes and expose the potential of thornback ray gelatin hydrolysate as a source of bioactive peptides. In this sense, the decrease of systolic blood pressure is one of the main measurements considered in public health for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, stroke and even end-stage renal disease. Traditionally, synthetic drugs such as captopril and enalapril have been used as ACE inhibitors despite their secondary effects, but the finding of new sources for the generation of natural bioactive peptides such as

  1. Antifungal effect of volatile organic compounds produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CPA-8 against fruit pathogen decays of cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotor-Vila, A; Teixidó, N; Di Francesco, A; Usall, J; Ugolini, L; Torres, R; Mari, M

    2017-06-01

    The present work focuses on the antifungal effect of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CPA-8 against Monilinia laxa, M. fructicola and Botrytis cinera, three postharvest fruit pathogens of sweet cherry fruit. VOCs were evaluated with a double petri dish assay against mycelial and colony growth of target pathogens. For this purpose, CPA-8 was grown on different media and cultured for 24 and 48 h at 30 °C before assays. Data showed that mycelial growth inhibition was higher when CPA-8 was grown on Tryptone Soya Agar (TSA) while no differences were generally observed when CPA-8 was cultured for either, 24 and 48 h. Moreover, no effects were observed on colony growth. The main volatile compounds emitted by CPA-8 were identified by solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-gas chromatography as 1,3 pentadiene, acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone) and thiophene. Pure compounds were also tested in vitro on mycelial growth inhibition and their EC50 values against the three pathogens were estimated. Thiophene was the most effective VOC, showing more than 82% suppression of mycelial growth at the highest concentration (1.35 μL/mL headspace) and EC50 values ranging from 0.06 to 6.67 μL/mL headspace. Finally, the effectiveness of thiophene and CPA-8 VOCs was evaluated against artificially inoculated cherry fruits. Among the target pathogens, M. fructicola was clearly controlled by CPA-8 with less than 25% of rotten fruits compared to the control (65% disease incidence) and for all pathogens, less than 37.5% of CPA-8 treated decayed fruits produced spores (disease sporulation). Otherwise, pure thiophene showed no effect against any pathogen on disease incidence and disease sporulation. The results indicated that VOCs produced by B. amyloliquefaciens CPA-8 could develop an additive antifungal effect against postharvest fruit pathogens on stone fruit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis list: Su(var)205 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Su(var)205 Adult,Embryo,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3.../target/Su(var)205.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/c...olo/Su(var)205.Adult.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(v...ar)205.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)205.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience

  3. Functional analysis of sirtuin genes in multiple Plasmodium falciparum strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J Merrick

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of severe human malaria, employs antigenic variation to avoid host immunity. Antigenic variation is achieved by transcriptional switching amongst polymorphic var genes, enforced by epigenetic modification of chromatin. The histone-modifying 'sirtuin' enzymes PfSir2a and PfSir2b have been implicated in this process. Disparate patterns of var expression have been reported in patient isolates as well as in cultured strains. We examined var expression in three commonly used laboratory strains (3D7, NF54 and FCR-3 in parallel. NF54 parasites express significantly lower levels of var genes compared to 3D7, despite the fact that 3D7 was originally a clone of the NF54 strain. To investigate whether this was linked to the expression of sirtuins, genetic disruption of both sirtuins was attempted in all three strains. No dramatic changes in var gene expression occurred in NF54 or FCR-3 following PfSir2b disruption, contrasting with previous observations in 3D7. In 3D7, complementation of the PfSir2a genetic disruption resulted in a significant decrease in previously-elevated var gene expression levels, but with the continued expression of multiple var genes. Finally, rearranged chromosomes were observed in the 3D7 PfSir2a knockout line. Our results focus on the potential for parasite genetic background to contribute to sirtuin function in regulating virulence gene expression and suggest a potential role for sirtuins in maintaining genome integrity.

  4. Functional analysis of sirtuin genes in multiple Plasmodium falciparum strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Catherine J; Jiang, Rays H Y; Skillman, Kristen M; Samarakoon, Upeka; Moore, Rachel M; Dzikowski, Ron; Ferdig, Michael T; Duraisingh, Manoj T

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of severe human malaria, employs antigenic variation to avoid host immunity. Antigenic variation is achieved by transcriptional switching amongst polymorphic var genes, enforced by epigenetic modification of chromatin. The histone-modifying 'sirtuin' enzymes PfSir2a and PfSir2b have been implicated in this process. Disparate patterns of var expression have been reported in patient isolates as well as in cultured strains. We examined var expression in three commonly used laboratory strains (3D7, NF54 and FCR-3) in parallel. NF54 parasites express significantly lower levels of var genes compared to 3D7, despite the fact that 3D7 was originally a clone of the NF54 strain. To investigate whether this was linked to the expression of sirtuins, genetic disruption of both sirtuins was attempted in all three strains. No dramatic changes in var gene expression occurred in NF54 or FCR-3 following PfSir2b disruption, contrasting with previous observations in 3D7. In 3D7, complementation of the PfSir2a genetic disruption resulted in a significant decrease in previously-elevated var gene expression levels, but with the continued expression of multiple var genes. Finally, rearranged chromosomes were observed in the 3D7 PfSir2a knockout line. Our results focus on the potential for parasite genetic background to contribute to sirtuin function in regulating virulence gene expression and suggest a potential role for sirtuins in maintaining genome integrity.

  5. Deletion of genes involved in glutamate metabolism to improve poly-gamma-glutamic acid production in B. amyloliquefaciens LL3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; He, Yulian; Gao, Weixia; Feng, Jun; Cao, Mingfeng; Yang, Chao; Song, Cunjiang; Wang, Shufang

    2015-02-01

    Here, we attempted to elevate poly-gamma-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) production by modifying genes involved in glutamate metabolism in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LL3. Products of rocR, rocG and gudB facilitate the conversion from glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate in Bacillus subtillis. The gene odhA is responsible for the synthesis of a component of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl coenzyme A. In-frame deletions of these four genes were performed. In shake flask experiments the gudB/rocG double mutant presented enhanced production of γ-PGA, a 38 % increase compared with wild type. When fermented in a 5-L fermenter with pH control, the γ-PGA yield of the rocR mutant was increased to 5.83 g/L from 4.55 g/L for shake flask experiments. The gudB/rocG double mutant produced 5.68 g/L γ-PGA compared with that of 4.03 g/L for the wild type, a 40 % increase. Those results indicated the possibility of improving γ-PGA production by modifying glutamate metabolism, and identified potential genetic targets to improve γ-PGA production.

  6. Cardenolide glycosides from Elaeodendron australe var. integrifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Mark S; Towerzey, Leanne; Pham, Ngoc B; Hyde, Edward; Wadi, Sao Khemar; Guymer, Gordon P; Quinn, Ronald J

    2014-02-01

    Extracts from dried leaf and stems of Elaeodendron australe var. integrifolium (Celastraceae) collected in South East Queensland, Australia, were active in an assay that measured Ca(2+) driven expression of IL-2/luciferase designed to identify inhibitors of the ICRAC channel. Bioassay-guided isolation using C18 and polyamide column chromatography, HPLC (Phenyl and C18) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) led to the isolation of digitoxigenin (1) and three cardenolide glycosides, glucoside 2, quinovoside 3 and the new natural product xyloside 4, as the active components with low nM activity in the reporter assay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Deterioration of expanded polystyrene caused by Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglia, Valeria C; Kuhar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    An expanded-polystyrene factory located in northern Buenos Aires reported unusual dark spots causing esthetic damage in their production. A fungal strain forming black-olive colonies on extract malt agar medium was isolated from the damaged material and identified as Aureobasidium pullullans var. melanogenum. This fungus is particularly known for its capacity to produce hydrolytic enzymes and a biodegradable extracellular polysaccharide known as pullulan, which is used in the manufacture of packaging material for food and medicine. Laboratory tests were conducted to characterize its growth parameters. It was found that the organism was resistant to a wide range of pHs but did not survive at temperatures over 65°C. The proposed action plan includes drying of the material prior to packaging and disinfection of the machinery used in the manufacturing process and of the silos used for raw material storage. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Narcissus tazzeta var. chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Gang; Zou, Qingcheng; Guo, Deping; Zhuang, Xiaoying; Yu, Xiaolin; Xiang, Xun; Cao, Jiashu

    2007-09-01

    Phytoene synthase (PSY), as a key regulatory enzyme for carotene biosynthesis, plays an important role in regulating color formation in many species. In the present study, a protocol was developed for the transformation of Narcissus tazzeta var chinensis using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA1301 plasmid which contained an antisense phytoene synthase gene, a reporter beta-glucuronidase gene and a selectable marker hygromycin phosphotransferase gene. Effects of some factors on efficiency of transformation and regeneration were examined. Preculture of the explants for 6 days before inoculation enhanced the transient GUS expression. The addition of acetosyringone (AS) at 100 micromol l(-1) for inoculation and a period of 3 days co-cultivation yielded efficient transient GUS expression. Transformants were obtained through selection on MS medium containing 5 mg l(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.1 mg l(-1)alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 40 mg l(-1) hygromycin. The transformation frequency was 1.24% based on PCR analysis of gus gene. One or two copies of transgene were demonstrated in different transformations by Southern blotting analyses. Northern blotting results confirmed that the transcription of the endogenous psy gene in transgenic plants was inhibited or silenced. The method reported here provides new opportunities for improvement of quality traits of Narcissus tazzeta via genetic transformation.

  9. Chemical composition of essential oil of Psidium cattleianum var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the essential oil composition of Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum from South Africa. The essential oils were extracted by ... The presence of many terpenic and ester compounds is thought to contribute to the unique flavor of the P. cattleianum var. lucidum leaves. Keywords: Psidium ...

  10. Larvicidal Activity of Isodon japonicus var. glaucocalyx (Maxim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from Isodon japonicus var. glaucocalyx (Maxim.) H.W.Li ... Keywords: Isodon japonicus var. glaucocalyx, Aedes aegypti, Larvicidal activity, Mosquito, Essential oil. Tropical Journal of ..... 48.6 µg/mL; G. scabra leaves, LC50 = 98.6. µg/mL; G. silvatica ...

  11. Immunogenic Properties of Ricinus Communis Var Minor Seed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immunogenic properties of Ricinus communis var minor seed was determined after feeding 7 healthy virgin albino white rabbits with varying doses of 0.5g – 0.9g dried ground Ricinus communis var minor seed included in their feed (5g/100g body weight). Booster doses of the same weight were further administered ...

  12. VaR Methodology Application for Banking Currency Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Armeanu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available VaR has become the standard measure that financial analysts use to quantify market risk. VaR measures can have many applications, such as in risk management, to evaluate the performance of risk takers and for regulatory requirements, and hence it is very important to develop methodologies that provide accurate estimates. In particular, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision at the Bank for International Settlements imposes to financial institutions such as banks and investment firms to meet capital requirements based on VaR estimates. In this paper we determine VaR for a banking currency portfolio and respect rules of National Bank of Romania regarding VaR report.

  13. Chromosomal rearrangements between serotype A and D strains in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Sun

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a major human pathogenic fungus that can cause meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised hosts. It contains two divergent varieties, var. grubii (serotype A and var. neoformans (serotype D, as well as hybrids (serotype AD between these two varieties. In this study, we investigated the extent of chromosomal rearrangements between the two varieties, estimated the effects of chromosomal rearrangements on recombination frequencies, and surveyed the potential polymorphisms of the rearrangements among natural strains of the three serotypes. Through the analyses of two sequenced genomes from strains H99 (representing var. grubii and JEC21 (representing var. neoformans, we revealed a total of 32 unambiguous chromosome rearrangements, including five translocations, nine simple inversions, and 18 complex rearrangements. Our analyses identified that overall, rearranged regions had recombination frequencies about half of those around syntenic regions. Using a direct PCR screening strategy, we examined the potential polymorphisms of 11 rearrangements among 64 natural C. neoformans strains from five countries. We found no polymorphism within var. neoformans and very limited polymorphism within var. grubii. However, strains of serotype AD showed significant polymorphism, consistent with their hybrid origins coupled with differential loss of heterozygosity. We discuss the implications of these results on the genome structure, ecology, and evolution of C. neoformans.

  14. Influence of temperature and pH on Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum growth; impact of a wine yeast interspecific hybridization on these parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Audrey; Strehaiano, Pierre; Taillandier, Patricia

    2005-10-25

    The species Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum possesses interesting enological characteristics but produces high concentration of volatile fermentative compounds not desirable in Sauvignon blanc wines. Interspecific hybrids between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. bayanus var. uvarum were made in order to join the main parental advantages. Two hybrids were selected on the basis of their fermentation characteristics and their karyotypes, i.e. they have a different mitochondrial DNA. In order to produce these hybrids as active dry yeast to be used as starter in wine-making, their optimal environmental conditions for growth, i.e. temperature and pH, were determined as the objective of our work. Using a two-level factorial design it was found that the two parental strains have different optimal temperature but for the two strains, pH does not have a significant influence on growth. The influence of temperature on biomass productivity for hybrid strains were strictly identical, so we suppose that the main genes coding for temperature sensitivity were not contained in mitochondrial DNA, but in nuclear DNA. Moreover the reactions of hybrid strains to the temperature variations were similar to the one of S. bayanus var. uvarum. This latter strain could have a majority of genes responsible of temperature sensitivity dominant in comparison with those of the strain S. cerevisiae.

  15. Chemical diversity of volatiles of Teucrium orientale L. var. orientale, var. puberulens, and var. glabrescens determined by simultaneous GC-FID and GC/MS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozek, Gulmira; Ozek, Temel; Dinç, Muhittin; Doǧu, Süleyman; Başer, Kemal H C

    2012-06-01

    In the present work, three varieties of Teucrium orientale, var. orientale, var. puberulens, and var. glabrescens, were collected and investigated for chemical composition of the oils. Subsequent gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed high abundance of sesquiterpenes in the essential oils analyzed. All the oils contained β-caryophyllene (22.6, 8.5, and 6.3%, resp.) and hexadecanoic acid (7.9, 12.8, and 13.1%). Germacrene D (24.6 and 33.4%) and bicyclogermacrene (6.7 and 8.5%) were found to be the main constituents of var. orientale and var. puberulens, respectively. The high percentages of β-cubebene (26.9%), α-cubebene (9.0%), and α-copaene (7.2%) established the diversity of var. glabrescens. The qualitative difference between the essential oils allowed the differentiation between the varieties in agreement with the morphological observations described in Flora of Turkey for each variety studied. In addition, a cluster analysis of twelve Teucrium taxa based on the essential-oil composition has been carried out. Hovewer, the analysis did not clearly reflect the infrageneric classification of the genus, it largely confirmed the relationships between the infraspecific taxa of Teucrium orientale and T. chamaedrys. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  16. The impact of the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani and its beneficial counterpart Bacillus amyloliquefaciens on the indigenous lettuce microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin eErlacher

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce belongs to the most commonly raw eaten food worldwide and its microbiome plays an important role for both human and plant health. Yet, little is known about the impact of potentially occurring pathogens and beneficial inoculants of the indigenous microorganisms associated with lettuce. To address this question we studied the impact of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani and the biological control agent Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 on the indigenous rhizosphere and phyllosphere community of greenhouse-grown lettuce at two plant stages. The rhizosphere and phyllosphere gammaproteobacterial microbiomes of lettuce plants showed clear differences in their overall and core microbiome composition as well as in corresponding diversity indices. The rhizosphere was dominated by Xanthomonadaceae (48% and Pseudomonadaceae (37% with Rhodanobacter, Pseudoxanthomonas, Dokdonella, Luteimonas, Steroidobacter, Thermomonas as core inhabitants, while the dominating taxa associated to phyllosphere were Pseudomonadaceae (54%, Moraxellaceae (16% and Enterobacteriaceae (25% with Alkanindiges, Pantoea and a group of Enterobacteriaceae unclassified at genus level. The preferential occurrence of enterics in the phyllosphere was the most significant difference between both habitats. Additional enhancement of enterics on the phyllosphere was observed in bottom rot diseased lettuce plants, while Acinetobacter and Alkanindiges were identified as indicators of healthy plants. Interestingly, the microbial diversity was enhanced by treatment with both the pathogen, and the co-inoculated biological control agent. The highest impact and bacterial diversity was found by Rhizoctonia inoculation, but FZB42 lowered the impact of Rhizoctonia on the microbiome. This study shows that the indigenous microbiome shifts as a consequence to pathogen attack but FZB42 can compensate these effects, which supports their role as biocontrol agent and suggests a novel mode of

  17. Statistical optimization of culture conditions for milk-clotting enzyme production by bacillus amyloliquefaciens using wheat bran-an agro-industry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weibing; He, Xiaoling; Liu, Hongna; Guo, Huiyuan; Ren, Fazheng; Wen, Pengcheng

    2013-12-01

    In order to improve the production of the milk-clotting enzyme under submerged fermentation, two statistical methods were applied to optimize the culture conditions of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens D4 using wheat bran as nutrient source. First, initial pH, agitation speed, and fermentation time were shown to have significant effects on D4 enzyme production using the Plackett-Burman experimental design. Subsequently, optimal conditions were obtained using the Box-Behnken method, which were as follows: initial pH 7.57, agitation speed 241 rpm, fermentation time 53.3 h. Under these conditions, the milk-clotting enzyme production was remarkably enhanced. The milk-clotting enzyme activity reached 1996.9 SU/mL, which was 2.92-fold higher than that of the initial culture conditions, showing that the Plackett-Burman design and Box-Behnken response surface method are effective to optimize culture conditions. The research can provide a reference for full utilization of wheat bran and the production of milk-clotting enzyme by B. amyloliquefaciens D4 under submerged fermentation.

  18. Efficacy of protected sodium butyrate, a protected blend of essential oils, their combination, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spore suspension against artificially induced necrotic enteritis in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerzsele, A; Szeker, K; Csizinszky, R; Gere, E; Jakab, C; Mallo, J J; Galfi, P

    2012-04-01

    Necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens leads to serious economical losses to the poultry industry. There is a growing need to find effective, nontoxic, antibiotic alternatives to prevent and cure the disease. In our study, the efficacy of protected sodium butyrate at 1.5 g/kg (BP70), a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spore suspension with 10(9) cfu/g (BAL; Ecobiol), a protected blend of essential oils (1%) at 1.5 g/kg (EO), and a combination of sodium butyrate with essential oils (1%) protected with vegetable fat at 1.5 g/kg (BP70+EO; Natesse) was investigated in an artifical C. perfringens-infection model. Body weight gain, gross pathological and histopathological lesion scores, villus lengths, and villus length:crypt depth ratio was determined and compared with the control group. Broilers infected with C. perfringens and treated with essential oils or the combination of sodium butyrate and essential oils showed significantly better BW gain (P crypt depth ratio (P < 0.001), and decreased gross pathological and histopathological lesion scores (P < 0.05) compared with the control. Sodium butyrate alone and B. amyloliquefaciens spore suspension had no beneficial effects on the course of the disease in this study. According to our results, the protected combination of sodium butyrate and essential oils, as well as the protected essential oils, can be potential candidates for the prevention and treatment of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

  19. Efficacy of pressure-assisted thermal processing, in combination with organic acids, against Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores suspended in deionized water and carrot puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratphitagsanti, Wannasawat; De Lamo-Castellvi, Silvia; Balasubramaniam, V M; Yousef, Ahmed Elmeleigy

    2010-01-01

    Effect of organic acids (acetic, citric, and lactic; 100 mM, pH 5) on spore inactivation by pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP; 700 MPa and 105 degrees C), high pressure processing (HPP; 700 MPa, 35 degrees C), and thermal processing (TP; 105 degrees C, 0.1 MPa) was investigated. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores were inoculated into sterile organic acid solutions to obtain a final concentration of approximately 1.3 x 10(8) CFU/mL. B. amyloliquefaciens spores were inactivated to undetectable levels with or without organic acids after 3 min PATP holding time. At a shorter PATP treatment time (approximately 2 min), the inactivation was greater when spores were suspended in citric and acetic acids than in lactic acid or deionized water. Presence of organic acids during PATP resulted in 33% to 80% germination in the population of spores that survived the treatment. In contrast to PATP, neither HPP nor TP, for up to 5 min holding time with or without addition of organic acids, was sporicidal. In a separate set of experiments, carrot puree was tested, as a low-acid food matrix, to study spore recovery during extended storage following PATP. Results showed that organic acids were effective in inhibiting spore recovery in treated carrot puree during extended storage (up to 28 d) at 32 degrees C. In conclusion, addition of some organic acids provided significant lethality enhancement (P puree.

  20. Bacillus nakamurai sp. nov., a black-pigment-producing strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Saunders, Lauren P; Schisler, David A; Leathers, Timothy D; Naeem, Naveed; Cohan, Frederick M; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2016-08-01

    Two isolates of a Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium were identified during a survey of the Bacillus diversity of the Agriculture Research Service Culture Collection. These strains were originally isolated from soil and have a phenotype of producing a dark pigment on tryptic soy agar. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that these strains were related most closely to Bacillus subtilis subsp. inaquosorum (99.7 % similarity) and Bacillus axarquiensis (99.7 %). In phenotypic characterization, the novel strains were found to grow between 17 and 50 °C and can tolerate up to 9 % (w/v) NaCl. Furthermore, the strains grew in media of pH 5.5-10 (optimal growth at pH 7.0-8.0). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 (34.8 %) and iso-C15 : 0 (21.9 %). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. A draft genome of both strains was completed. The DNA G+C content was 43.8 mol%. A phylogenomic analysis on the core genome of these two new strains and all members of the Bacillus subtilis group revealed these two strains formed a distinct monophyletic clade with the nearest neighbour Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. DNA-DNA relatedness studies using in silico DNA-DNA hybridizations showed the two strains were conspecific (93.8 %), while values with all other species (Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus nakamurai sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain NRRL B-41091T (=CCUG 68786T).

  1. Bello y Bolívar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gómez Hoyos

    1965-09-01

    Full Text Available Hay dos nombres en la historia de América, aprestigiados por la fama, y asociados, sin previo acuerdo y por caminos diferentes, a una empresa común y a una vocación conjunta, integradora de la libertad en sus dos formas sustantivas: la intelectual y la política. Bello y Bolívar componen aquel binomio egregio que confluye en un designio heroico de acción humana intensa, fecunda e ilimitada, con la persuación luminosa de que la cultura y la independencia son procesos orientados a la dicha de sus compatriotas y al triunfo del espíritu.

  2. selected strains of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    3-day-old radish, Raphanus sativus L var. Osaka 40 nichi, seedlings. After hatching, the larvae were also fed on 2-3-day-old radish seedlings in larval boxes until pupation, after which pupae were returned to adult cages for emergence. The procedure for establishing the two insecticide-selected strains of KOBII are.

  3. The alcoholic fermentative efficiency of indigenous yeast strains of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The alcoholic fermentative efficiency of indigenous yeast strains of different origin on orange juice. ... S. cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus (from orange juice) were examined on orange juice (Citrus sinensis). The quality of the wine produced on the basis of the acidity, ash content, vitamin C and the alcohol content were assayed.

  4. A preliminary linkage map using spotted melanic laboratory strains ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sección Genética Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias, UdelaR, Iguá 4225, CP 11400 Montevideo, Uruguay. [Gutiérrez M. L. and García G. 2011 A preliminary linkage map using spotted melanic laboratory strains of the livebearing fish. Phalloceros caudimaculatus var. reticulata (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae). J. Genet.

  5. Housing and the Great Recession : a VAR accounting exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel E. Henly; Alexander L. Wolman

    2011-01-01

    We use a vector autoregression (VAR) for the components of gross domestic product (GDP) to conduct some sectoral and temporal accounting for the current recession. It is obvious that housing played an important role in the current recession, but residential investment declined for two years before GDP declined. According to the VAR, the level of GDP in the second quarter of 2009---the trough of the decline in GDP---was close to but above the level implied by the estimated sequence of VAR inno...

  6. ClinVar data parsing [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This software repository provides a pipeline for converting raw ClinVar data files into analysis-friendly tab-delimited tables, and also provides these tables for the most recent ClinVar release. Separate tables are generated for genome builds GRCh37 and GRCh38 as well as for mono-allelic variants and complex multi-allelic variants. Additionally, the tables are augmented with allele frequencies from the ExAC and gnomAD datasets as these are often consulted when analyzing ClinVar variants. Overall, this work provides ClinVar data in a format that is easier to work with and can be directly loaded into a variety of popular analysis tools such as R, python pandas, and SQL databases.

  7. VAr reserve concept applied to a wind power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Larger percentages of wind power penetration translate into more demanding requirements from the grid codes; for example voltage support at the point of connection has been introduced recently by several grid codes from around the world, making it important to analyze this control when applied...... to wind power plants. This paper proposes two different VAr reserve control strategies for a wind power plant. The amount of dynamic VAr available most of the operation time, makes the wind power plant (WPP) a good candidate to include a VAr reserve management system. Two different ways of implementing...... a VAr management system are proposed and analyzed. Such a reactive power reserve may be provided by the wind power plant since the amount of reactive power installed for most active power working points exceeds the demand required by the grid operator. Basically, this overrated reactive power capacity...

  8. Recovery plan for Chorizanthe robusta var. robusta (Robust Spineflower)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Current Status: Chorizanthe robusta var. robusta (robust spineflower), which is federally endangered, is restricted to sandy soils along the coast and near-coastal...

  9. Phytochemical and termiticidal study of Lantana camara var. aculeata leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajesh K; Verma, Suman K

    2006-09-01

    Extracts of Lantana camara var. aculeata leaves were studied for their phytochemical constituents and termiticidal effects against adult termite workers. The 5% chloroform extract was found to be significantly effective against termite workers.

  10. Allelopathic activities of Jasminum officinale f. var. grandiflorum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allelopathic activities of Jasminum officinale f. var. grandiflorum (Linn.) Kob.: Inhibition effects on germination, seed imbibition, and α-amylase activity induction of Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.

  11. An orientin derivative isolated from Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos,Freddy A.; Castellanos, Leonardo; López, César; Palacios, Lizeth; Duque, Carmenza; Pacheco, Ricardo; Guzmán, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Passiflora tripartita var. mollisima (banana passion fruit) is an edible fruit widespread in the Andean highlands of Colombia and Ecuador. The fruit is used for juices as well as for the sedative properties of the leaves. As a contribution to the chemical characterization of this species, a new compound, 4'- methoxyluteolin-8-C-6”acetylglucopyranoside, was isolated from the ethanolic extract of Passiflora tripartita var. mollisima leaves and identified by spectroscopical data (NMR, MS, UV).

  12. Orientation of the Fiscal Policy in Tunisia: Structural VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissem Khanfir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to indicate the orientation of fiscal policy in Tunisia, using the structural budget balance, during the period 1972-2014. For this purpose, we estimate a structural VAR model consisting of the fiscal deficit to current GDP ratio and the volume of economic activity represented by the real GDP. We estimate bivariate structural VAR in order to decompose fiscal deficit fluctuations into different disturbances.

  13. Da abort ikke var en sag for kvinden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Annette Østergaard

    2013-01-01

    Case fra tiden før 1973, hvor der ikke var fri abort i Danmark. Sagen er fundet i Mødrehjælpens arkiv og giver som andre sager indblik i kvindens situation. Led i serien: Nyt i arkivet.......Case fra tiden før 1973, hvor der ikke var fri abort i Danmark. Sagen er fundet i Mødrehjælpens arkiv og giver som andre sager indblik i kvindens situation. Led i serien: Nyt i arkivet....

  14. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Balu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  15. Impact of different water activities (aw adjusted by solutes on high pressure high temperature inactivation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eSevenich

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been conducted to comprehend the mechanisms of high pressure (HP inactivation of spores in aqueous systems but for food model systems these information are scarce. In these systems spores can interact with ingredients which could lead to retarded inactivation, which can cause a problem for the sterilization process. The protective mechanism of a reduced a_W-value is still unclear. HP processing might prove valuable to overcome protective effects of solutes and achieve shorter process times for sterilization under HP. To gain insight into the underlying mechanisms five a_W-values (0.9, 0.92, 0.94, 0.96, 1 were adjusted with 2 different solutes (NaCl, sucrose. Solutions were inoculated with spores of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and treated at 105,110°C and115°C at 600 MPa. A thermal inactivation was conducted at the same temperatures for a compraison with the high pressure data. The influence of high pressure high temperature treatment on the inactivation, the DPA-release and membrane constitution was assessed by plate count, HPLC and flow cytometry. The results show that during HP treatments sucrose and salt both have a protective effect, in which the influence of sucrose on the retarded inactivation is higher. The threshold aw, which is 0.94, here salt and sucrose have a significant influence on the inactivation. The comparison of thermal (105-115°C and high pressure and high temperature (600 MPa, 105-115°C treated samples showed that the time needed to achieve a 4-5 log inactivation can be reduced at 600 MPa.The release of dipicolinic acid (DPA is the rate limiting step of the inactivation and therefore monitoring the release is of great interest. The DPA-release is slowed is slowed down in high concentrated solutions (e.g. sucrose, salt in comparison to aw 1. Maybe as shown for vegetative microorganism the solutes can interact with membranes, e.g. inner spore membrane. FCM (flow cytometry measurement data show a similar

  16. Impact of different water activities (a w) adjusted by solutes on high pressure high temperature inactivation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevenich, Robert; Reineke, Kai; Hecht, Philipp; Fröhling, Antje; Rauh, Cornelia; Schlüter, Oliver; Knorr, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Much research has been conducted to comprehend the mechanisms of high pressure (HP) inactivation of spores in aqueous systems but for food model systems these information are scarce. In these systems spores can interact with ingredients which then could possibly lead to retarded or reduced inactivation, which can cause a problem for the sterilization process. The protective mechanism of a reduced a w-value is still unclear. HP processing might prove valuable to overcome protective effects of solutes and achieve shorter process times for sterilization under HP. To gain insight into the underlying mechanisms five a w-values (0.9, 0.92, 0.94, 0.96, 1) were adjusted with two different solutes (NaCl, sucrose). Solutions were inoculated with spores of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and treated at 105, 110, and 115°C at 600 MPa. Further a thermal inactivation was conducted at the same temperatures for a comparison with the HP data. Afterward, the influence of HP high temperature treatment on the inactivation, the dipicolinic acid (DPA)-release and membrane constitution was assessed by plate count, HPLC and flow cytometry (FCM). The results show that during HP treatments sucrose and salt both have a protective effect, in which the influence of sucrose on the retarded inactivation is higher. The threshold water activities (a w), which is 0.94, here salt and sucrose have a significant influence on the inactivation. The comparison of thermal (105-115°C) and HP and high temperature (600 MPa, 105-115°C) treated samples showed that the time needed to achieve a 4-5 log10 inactivation is reduced from 45 (a w = 1) to 75 (a w = 0.9) min at 105°C to 3 (a w = 1) to 15 (a w = 0.9) minutes at 600 MPa and 105°C. The release of DPA is the rate limiting step of the inactivation and therefore monitoring the release is of great interest. The DPA-release is slowed down in high concentrated solutions (e.g., sucrose, salt) in comparison to a w 1. Since there is a difference in the way the

  17. Diversity and characterization of ramie-degumming strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwen Duan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ramie (Boehmeria nivea and Boehmeria tenacissima is a widely used fiber crop. Traditional water retting or chemical boiling method performed in order to extract ramie fiber seriously pollute the environment and severely damage the fiber, so biological method is the general trend of the fiber-extracting industry. Some strains (687, involving 26 genera and 43 species, were collected from the three samples, which produce hydrolyzed circles in the selective culture medium in order to detect the degumming effect and to compare the enzyme activity. Among these strains, 13 of them did not produce cellulase and had a ramie decreasing weight rate above 25 %, which were regarded as efficient ramie-degumming strains named from R1 to R13. R1 to R13 belonged to Amycolata autotrobutylicun, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium acetobutylicum, Bacillus subtilis, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Bacteroides finegoldii, Streptomyces lividans, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Clostridium acetobutylicum, Pseudomonas brassicacearum, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus licheniformis, Pectobacterium wasabiae respectively. Bacteroides sp., Rhizobium sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were firstly reported to be used in ramie-degumming. At the same time, the pectinase was the key enzyme in the ramie-degumming process.

  18. Efek Antijamur Minyak Atsiri Jahe Merah (Zingiber officinale Var. Rubrum terhadap Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermina Karuna Atmaja

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Candida albicans infections is increasing in the society. Therefore, an effective and affordable antifungal drug with minimal side effect is needed. Ginger (Zingiber officinale is a traditional herb which has an antifungal effect in its volatile oil. Objective: To investigate antifungal effect of volatile oil from Zingiber officinale var rubrum against C. albicans in vitro, to determine the optimum concentration, and finally to determine the correlation between the various concentrations of the oil and the inhibition zone. Material and method: Strain C. albicans tested was obtained from the Department of Parasitology, Medical Faculty, University of Indonesia. Volatile oil of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum was produced from water and steam distillation of fresh ginger in BALLITRO, Bogor. Concentrations of the volatile oil used were 100%, 50%, 25%, 12,5% 6.25%, 3.125%, 1.56% and 0.78%. Methods used were colony counting and disk diffusion method (by using 6 mm blank disk. The specimens were divided into two groups, treatment group (C. albicans with application of volatile oil and control group (C. albicans without application of volatile oil. Result: There was a significant decrease in the amount of C. albicans colonies from 3.125% to 6.25% of concentration. The amount of C. albicans colonies at concentration 6.25% was also significantly lower than in the control group. Moreover, there was strong and positive correlation between the concentration of the volatile oil and the inhibition zone. Conclusion: Volatile oil from Zingiber officinale var. rubrum has an antifungal effect against C. albicans in vitro with optimum concentration at 6.25%. Increasing concentrations of the oil correlates with increasing inhibition zome.

  19. EVALUATION OF THE VIABILITY OF PLEUROTUS SPP. STRAINS AFTER LIQUID NITROGEN CRYOPRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara-Herrera Isabel

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Viability of 6 mushroom strains of the Pleurotus genus (2 from P. djamor var. djamor, 1 from P. ostreatus var. ostreatus, 2 from P. ostreatus var. columbinus and 1 from P. pulmonarius after liquid nitrogen cryopreservation (-196º was evaluated. The contact time for the mycelia of these strains with the cryoprotectant (glycerol was studied 1, 2 and 3 hours before freezing. We also tested the effect of different times (5, 10 and 15 minutes and temperatures (30, 45 and 60ºC of the thawing system for mycelial recovery. The results showed a marked tendency toward faster mycelial recovery when samples were thawed at 30ºC, while at 60ºC no recovery was observed. A change in thawing and contact times with the cryoprotectant did not affect the results significantly, as the thawing temperature and strain employed affected.

  20. Plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria versus pathogenic infections: an example of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheem Shahzad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogenic attacks are one of the major threats to the growth and productivity of crop plants. Currently, instead of synthetic fungicides, the use of plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes has been considered intriguingly eco-friendly in nature. Here, we aimed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antagonistic approach by using seed-borne endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 against pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The results revealed significant suppression of pathogenic fungal growth by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vitro. Further to this, we inoculated tomato plants with RWL-1 and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in the root zone. The results showed that the growth attributes and biomass were significantly enhanced by endophytic-inoculation during disease incidence as compared to F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici infected plants. Under pathogenic infection, the RWL-1-applied plants showed increased amino acid metabolism of cell wall related (e.g., aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine (Ser, and proline (Pro as compared to diseased plants. In case of endogenous phytohormones, significantly lower amount of jasmonic acid (JA and higher amount of salicylic acid (SA contents was recorded in RWL-1-treated diseased plants. The phytohormones regulation in disease incidences might be correlated with the ability of RWL-1 to produce organic acids (e.g., succinic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and citric acid during the inoculation and infection of tomato plants. The current findings suggest that RWL-1 inoculation promoted and rescued plant growth by modulating defense hormones and regulating amino acids. This suggests that bacterial endophytes could be used for possible control of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in an eco-friendly way.

  1. Statistical optimization of medium components for milk-clotting enzyme production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens D4 using wheat Bran-an agro-industry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weibing; He, Xiaoling; Liu, Hongna; Guo, Huiyuan; Ren, Fazheng; Gao, Weidong; Wen, Pengcheng

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, two statistical methods were applied to optimize medium components to improve the production of the milk-clotting enzyme by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens D4. First, wheat bran juice, skim milk powder, and Na2HPO4 were shown to have significant effects on D4 enzyme production using the Plackett-Burman experimental design. Subsequently, an optimal medium was obtained using the Box-Behnken method, which consisted of 3.31 g/l of skim milk powder, 5.0 g/l of sucrose, 0.1 g/l of FeSO4·7H2O, 0.1 g/l of MgSO4·7H2O, 0.1 g/l of MnSO4·2H2O, 0.1 g/l of ZnSO4·7H2O, 1.52 g/l of Na2HPO4, and 172.45 g/l of wheat bran juice. With this optimal medium, the milk-clotting enzyme production was remarkably enhanced. The milk-clotting enzyme activity reached 3,326.7 SU/ml after incubation of 48 h, which was 1.76-fold higher than that of the basic medium, showing that the Plackett-Burman design and Box-Behnken response surface method are effective to optimize medium components, and B. amyloliquefaciens D4 possessed a high rennet-producing capacity in the optimal medium.

  2. Inhibitory efficacy of cyclo(L-leucyl-L-prolyl) from mangrove rhizosphere bacterium-Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (MMS-50) toward cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowrishankar, Shanmugaraj; Poornima, Balan; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2014-05-01

    Since Streptococcus mutans is the principal etiologic agent causing dental caries, by encompassing an array of unique virulence traits, emerging treatment strategies that specifically target the virulence of this pathogen may be promising as alternative approaches compared to conventional antibiotic therapy. In this perspective, we investigated chloroform extract of cell-free culture supernatant from mangrove rhizosphere bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (MMS-50) in terms of anticariogenic properties of S. mutans, without suppressing its viability. Crude chloroform extract of MMS-50 was subjected to column and high performance liquid chromatographic techniques to obtain the active fraction (AF), and MMS-50 AF was used for all further assays. GC-MS and FT-IR were carried out to identify the major components present in MMS-50 AF. Comparative gene expression analysis of some biofilm-forming and virulence genes (vicR, comDE, gtfC, and gbpB) was done by real-time PCR. Cyclo(L-leucyl-L-prolyl) was found to be the chief compound in MMS-50 AF responsible for bioactivity. The minimum and maximum inhibitory concentrations of MMS-50 AF against S. mutans were found to be 100 and 250 μg/mL, respectively. Anti-virulence assays performed using below-sub-MIC levels of MMS-50 AF (30 μg/mL) resulted in significant reduction in adherence (68%), acid production, acid tolerance, glucan synthesis (32%), biofilm formation (53.5%) and cell surface hydrophobicity, all devoid of affecting its viability. The micrographs of CLSM and SEM further confirmed the antibiofilm and anti-virulence efficacies of MMS-50 AF. Expression data showed significant reduction in expression of all studied virulence genes. Thus, the current study unveils the anticariogenic potential of cyclo(L-leucyl-L-prolyl) from B. amyloliquefaciens, as well as its suitability as a novel and alternative anticariogenic agent against dental caries. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All

  3. Plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria versus pathogenic infections: an example ofBacillus amyloliquefaciensRWL-1 andFusarium oxysporumf. sp.lycopersiciin tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Raheem; Khan, Abdul Latif; Bilal, Saqib; Asaf, Sajjad; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Fungal pathogenic attacks are one of the major threats to the growth and productivity of crop plants. Currently, instead of synthetic fungicides, the use of plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes has been considered intriguingly eco-friendly in nature. Here, we aimed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antagonistic approach by using seed-borne endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 against pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici . The results revealed significant suppression of pathogenic fungal growth by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vitro. Further to this, we inoculated tomato plants with RWL-1 and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in the root zone. The results showed that the growth attributes and biomass were significantly enhanced by endophytic-inoculation during disease incidence as compared to F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici infected plants. Under pathogenic infection, the RWL-1-applied plants showed increased amino acid metabolism of cell wall related (e.g., aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine (Ser), and proline (Pro)) as compared to diseased plants. In case of endogenous phytohormones, significantly lower amount of jasmonic acid (JA) and higher amount of salicylic acid (SA) contents was recorded in RWL-1-treated diseased plants. The phytohormones regulation in disease incidences might be correlated with the ability of RWL-1 to produce organic acids (e.g., succinic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and citric acid) during the inoculation and infection of tomato plants. The current findings suggest that RWL-1 inoculation promoted and rescued plant growth by modulating defense hormones and regulating amino acids. This suggests that bacterial endophytes could be used for possible control of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in an eco-friendly way.

  4. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 repressed plant miR846 to induce systemic resistance via jasmonic acid-dependent signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shanshan; Jiang, Haiyang; Ding, Ting; Xu, Qianqian; Chai, Wenbo; Cheng, Beijiu

    2017-11-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a kind of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that activates induced systemic resistance (ISR) in Arabidopsis. Blocking in cyclic lipopeptides and 2,3-butanediol synthesis of FZB42, which were proved to be involved in priming ISR, resulted in abolishment of plant defense responses. To further clarify the ISR activated by PGPR at miRNA level, sRNA libraries from Arabidopsis leaves after root-irrigated with FZB42, FZB42ΔsfpΔalsS and control were constructed and sequenced. After fold-change selection, promoter analysis and target prediction, miR846-5p and miR846-3p from the same precursor were selected as candidate ISR-associated miRNA. miR846, belongs to non-conserved miRNAs, specifically exists in Arabidopsis and its function in plant defense response remains unclear. The disease severities of transgenic Arabidopsis overexpression miR846 (OEmiR846) and knockdown miR846 (STTM846) against Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 suggested that the miR846 expression level in Arabidopsis was negatively correlated with disease resistance. Moreover, miR846 in Arabidopsis Col-0 was repressed after methyl jasmonate treatment. In addition, jasmonic acid (JA) signaling related genes were up-regulated in STTM846 and stomatal apertures of STTM846 were also less than Arabidopsis Col-0 after methyl jasmonate treatment. Furthermore, the disease resistance of STTM846 transgenic Arabidopsis against pstDC3000 was blocked by adding JA biosynthetic inhibitor diethyldiethiocarbamic acid (DIECA). Taken together, our results suggested that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 inoculation suppressed miR846 expression to induce Arabidopsis systemic resistance via JA-dependent signaling pathway. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Malonylome analysis of rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 reveals involvement of lysine malonylation in polyketide synthesis and plant-bacteria interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ben; Li, Yu-Long; Li, Lei; Peng, Xiao-Jun; Bu, Chen; Wu, Xiao-Qin; Borriss, Rainer

    2017-02-10

    Using the combination of affinity enrichment and high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis, we performed a large-scale lysine malonylation analysis in the model representative of Gram-positive plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. Altogether, 809 malonyllysine sites in 382 proteins were identified. The bioinformatic analysis revealed that lysine malonylation occurs on the proteins involved in a variety of biological functions including central carbon metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism, NAD(P) binding and translation machinery. A group of proteins known to be implicated in rhizobacterium-plant interaction were also malonylated; especially, the enzymes responsible for antibiotic production including polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthases (NRPSs) were highly malonylated. Furthermore, our analysis showed malonylation occurred on proteins structure with higher surface accessibility and appeared to be conserved in many bacteria but not in archaea. The results provide us valuable insights into the potential roles of lysine malonylation in governing bacterial metabolism and cellular processes. Although in mammalian cells some important findings have been discovered that protein malonylation is related to basic metabolism and chronic disease, few studies have been performed on prokaryotic malonylome. In this study, we determined the malonylation profiles of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42, a model organism of Gram-positive plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. FZB42 is known for the extensive investigations on its strong ability of producing antimicrobial polyketides and its potent activities of stimulating plant growth. Our analysis shows that malonylation is highly related to the polyketide synthases and the proteins involved bacterial interactions with plants. The results not only provide one of the first malonylomes for exploring the biochemical nature of bacterial proteins, but also shed light on

  6. Toxins Produced by Valsa mali var. mali and Their Relationship with Pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Valsa mali var. mali (Vmm, the causal agent of apple tree canker disease, produces various toxic compounds, including protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxyacetophenone, 3-(p-hydroxyphenylpropanoic acid and phloroglucinol. Here, we examined the relationship between toxin production and the pathogenicity of Vmm strains and determined their bioactivities in several assays, for further elucidating the pathogenesis mechanisms of Vmm and for developing new procedures to control this disease. The toxins were quantified with the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method, and the results showed that the strain with attenuated virulence produced low levels of toxins with only three to four kinds of compounds being detectable. In contrast, higher amounts of toxins were produced by the more aggressive strain, and all five compounds were detected. This indicated a significant correlation between the pathogenicity of Vmm strains and their ability to produce toxins. However, this correlation only existed in planta, but not in vitro. During the infection of Vmm, protocatechuic acid was first detected at three days post inoculation (dpi, and the others at seven or 11 dpi. In addition, all compounds produced noticeable symptoms on host plants at concentrations of 2.5 to 40 mmol/L, with protocatechuic acid being the most effective compound, whereas 3-(p-hydroxyphenylpropanoic acid or p-hydroxybenzoic acid were the most active compounds on non-host plants.

  7. Peimisine and peiminine production by endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. isolated from Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Hou, Kai; Gao, Feng; Hu, Bo; Chen, Que; Wu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Steroidal alkaloids, as the major biologically active components in Bulbus Fritillariae, possess a variety of toxicological and pharmacological effects on humans. The objective of this work was to determine whether endophytic fungi isolated from fresh bulbs of Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabensis can produce one or more alkaloids like its host plant. Four classical reagents including Wagner's, iodine-potassium iodide, Mayer's and improved Dragendorff's were used for primary screening. Then thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) were employed to identify the fermentation products of the selected strains. The results showed that extract from one stain (WBS007) has positive reactions in process of primary screening. A further TLC scan and HPLC-ELSD showed that strain WBS007 had two components with the same TLC relative front (Rf) value and HPLC retention time (RT) as authentic peimisine and peiminine. In addition, strain WBS007 was identified as Fusarium sp. based on phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences. Thus, strain WBS007 produced the bioactive ingredient peimisine and peiminine, as does its host plant, and could be used for the production of peimisine and peiminine by fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Análisis morfológico y toxicológico de cultivos de Pseudo-nitzschia pungens var. pungens (Bacillariophyceae Morphological and toxicological analysis of cultures of Pseudo-nitzschia pungens var. pungens (Bacillariophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia A. Sar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de un proyecto de monitoreo de especies de diatomeas nocivas llevado a cabo en el área norte del Golfo San Matías (Provincia de Río Negro, Argentina hemos encontrado a Pseudo-nitzschia pungens (Grunow ex. P.T. Cleve Hasle var. pungens y establecido cultivos monoclonales de esta variedad. Las cepas aisladas a partir de muestras tomadas con red, provenientes de Las Grutas y Piedras Coloradas (Golfo San Matías, fueron cultivadas en medio F/2 con adición de silicatos, y mantenidas a 20 ºC con luz continua, blanca, fría. Los cultivos fueron analizados mediante Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Resolución (HPLC para determinar si la variedad aislada era productora de ácido domoico (DA en el área bajo estudio. Material procedente de campo y de cultivo fue estudiado con microscopios óptico y electrónico de barrido. Una comparación con los taxa más allegados, P . pungens var. cingulata Villac y P . multiseries (Hasle Hasle, y datos sobre la morfología fina del material procedente de los cultivos, son presentados y discutidos. A pesar de que P . pungens var. pungens ha sido reportada como productora de ácido domoico, los resultados del análisis para detección de las toxinas fueron negativos para las cultivos chequeados.In the framework of a project of monitoring of harmful diatom species carried out in the Northern area of the Golfo San Matías (Provincia de Río Negro, Argentina we found and established cultures of Pseudo-nitzschia pungens (Grunow ex. P.T. Cleve Hasle var. pungens . The strains isolated from net phytoplankton samples obtained in Las Grutas and Piedras Coloradas, (Golfo San Matías were cultured in F/2 medium, with silica added, and maintained at 20 ºC, under continuous light supplied by cool-white fluorescent tubes. Cultures were essayed for domoic acid (DA by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Materials from field and cultures were studied with light and scanning electron microscopy. Comparison

  9. Characterization of mycolytic enzymes of Bacillus strains and their bio-protection role against Rhizoctonia solani in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Manoj Kumar; Robert, Amrita Shalini; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Kumar, Sudheer; Pandey, Akhilesh Kumar; Srivastava, Alok K; Arora, Dilip K

    2012-09-01

    Four antagonists bacteria namely, Bacillus megaterium MB3, B. subtilis MB14, B. subtilis MB99 and B. amyloliquefaciens MB101 were able to produce chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase and protease in different range with the presence of Rhizoctonia solani cell wall as a carbon source. Amplification of chitinase (chiA) gene of 270 bp and β-1, 3-glucanase gene of 415 bp was given supportive evidence at molecular level of antibiosis. After in vitro screening, all antagonists were tested against R. solani under greenhouse conditions. Root treatment of Bacillus strains showed superior defense during pathogen suppression in terms of chitinase, glucanase, peroxidase, poly phenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity and total phenolic content in leaves of tomato. All these enzymes accumulated high in tomato leaves as compared to roots. Pathogenesis-related proteins and defense-related enzymes accumulation was directly correlated with plant protection and greenhouse results indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens MB101- and B. subtilis MB14-treated plants offered 69.76 and 61.51 % disease reductions, respectively, over the infected control. These results established that these organisms have the potential to act as biocontrol agents. This study could be highlighted a mutual importance of liquid formulation of antagonistic Bacillus spp. against root associated sclerotia former pathogen R. solani.

  10. Targeting the Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii Cell Wall Using Lectins: Study of the Carbohydrate-Binding Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamella de Brito Ximenes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is considered to be the major cause of cryptococcosis in immunosuppressed patients. Understanding cell wall glycoproteins using lectins is of medical interest and can contribute to specific therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the carbohydrates on the cell wall of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii clinical isolates, using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-lectin binding protocol. Thirty yeast strains stocked in the culture collection were cultivated for 2 days at 30 °C with shaking. Cells were obtained by centrifugation, washed in phosphate-buffered saline, and a suspension of 107 cells/mL was obtained. To determine the binding profile of lectins, concanavalin A (Con A, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA, Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I, and peanut agglutinin (PNA conjugated to fluorescein were used. All the tested clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii were intensely stained by WGA, moderately stained by Con A, and weakly stained by PNA and UEA-I. Thus, Cryptococcus can be detected in clinical specimens such as blood and cerebrospinal fluid using the fluorescent lectin WGA, which may be considered as an option for detection in cases of suspected cryptococcosis with low laboratory sensitivity. Future applications may be developed using this basic tool.

  11. The effects of a partitioned var gene repertoire of Plasmodium falciparum on antigenic diversity and the acquisition of clinical immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arinaminpathy Nimalan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum exploits antigenic diversity and within-host antigenic variation to evade the host's immune system. Of particular importance are the highly polymorphic var genes that encode the family of cell surface antigens PfEMP1 (Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1. It has recently been shown that in spite of their extreme diversity, however, these genes fall into distinct groups according to chromosomal location or sequence similarity, and that recombination may be confined within these groups. Methods This study presents a mathematical analysis of how recombination hierarchies affect diversity, and, by using simple stochastic simulations, investigates how intra- and inter-genic diversity influence the rate at which individuals acquire clinical immunity. Results The analysis demonstrates that the partitioning of the var gene repertoire has a limiting effect on the total diversity attainable through recombination and that the limiting effect is strongly influenced by the respective sizes of each of the partitions. Furthermore, by associating expression of one of the groups with severe malaria it is demonstrated how a small number of infections can be sufficient to protect against disease despite a seemingly limitless number of possible non-identical repertoires. Conclusion Recombination hierarchies within the var gene repertoire of P. falciparum have a severe effect on strain diversity and the process of acquiring immunity against clinical malaria. Future studies will show how the existence of these recombining groups can offer an evolutionary advantage in spite of their restriction on diversity.

  12. Acidic-alkaline ferulic acid esterase from Chaetomium thermophilum var. dissitum: Molecular cloning and characterization of recombinant enzyme expressed in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dotsenko, Gleb; Tong, Xiaoxue; Pilgaard, Bo

    2016-01-01

    A novel ferulic acid esterase encoding gene CtFae, was successfully cloned from a highly esterase active strain of the thermophile ascomycetous fungus Chaetomium thermophilum var. dissitum; the gene was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris KM71H. The recombinant enzyme (CtFae) was purified...

  13. Rhizobium capsici sp. nov., isolated from root tumor of a green bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var. grossum) plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yao; Hung, Mei-Hua; Hameed, Asif; Liu, You-Cheng; Hsu, Yi-Han; Wen, Cheng-Zhe; Arun, A B; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Kämpfer, Peter; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2015-03-01

    A novel, Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped, aerobic and motile bacterium, designated strain CC-SKC2(T), was isolated from the root tumor of a green bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var. grossum) plant in Taiwan. Cells were positive for oxidase and catalase activities and exhibited growth at 25-37 °C, pH 4.0-9.0 and tolerated NaCl concentrations up to 4.0 % (w/v). Strain CC-SKC2(T) is able to trigger nodulation in soybean (Glycine max Merr.), but not in Capsicum annuum var. grossum, red bean (Vigna angularis), sesbania (Sesbania roxburghii Merr.) or alfalfa (Medicago varia Martin.). The novel strain shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Rhizobium rhizoryzae KCTC 23652(T) and Rhizobium straminoryzae CC-LY845(T) (both 97.5 %) followed by Rhizobium lemnae L6-16(T) (97.3 %), Rhizobium pseudoryzae KCTC 23294(T) (97.1 %), and Rhizobium paknamense NBRC 109338(T) (97.0 %), whereas other Rhizobium species shared Rhizobium species. The major fatty acids in strain CC-SKC2(T) were C16:0, C19:0 cyclo ω8c, C14:0 3-OH and/or C16:1 iso I and C18:1 ω7c and/or C18:1 ω6c. The polyamine pattern showed predominance of spermidine and moderate amounts of sym-homospermidine. The predominant quinone system was ubiquinone (Q-10) and the DNA G+C content was 60.5 mol%. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic evidence presented here, strain CC-SKC2(T) is proposed to represent a novel species within the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium capsici sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CC-SKC2(T) (=BCRC 80699(T) = JCM 19535(T)).

  14. ESTUDIO DE INOCUIDAD DE Salmonella enterica, SUBESPECIE enterica, SEROTIPO ENTERITIDIS, VAR. DANYSZ, LISINA NEGATIVA EN POLLOS PARRILLEROS

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez A., Natalia; Práctica privada.; Icochea D’A., Eliana; Laboratorio de Patología Aviar, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Calle E., Sonia; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Noé M., Norma; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.

    2012-01-01

    The Salmonella enterica, serotipe Enteritidis, var Danysz, negative lysine is used as a component in a product for biological control of rodents. The present study evaluated the innocuosness of the strain in 120 1-day old Cobb Vantress broiler chicks of both sexes. They were divided into 3 groups: Group A was fed at 5, 6 and 7 days of age with a commercial broiler feed containing 20% of the rat poison, Group B received 1 ml containing 108 CFU of the bacteria in the crop at 8 days of age, and ...

  15. EFFECTS OF MONETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA - A VAR APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how monetary policy decisions affect inflation and other economic variables is particularly important. In this paper we consider the implications of monetary policy under the inflation targeting regime in Romania, based on an autoregressive vector method including recursive VAR and structural VAR (SVAR. Therefore, we focus on assessing the extent and persistence of monetary policy effects on gross domestic product (GDP, price level, extended monetary aggregate (M3 and exchange rate. The main results of VAR analysis reflect a negative response of consumer price index (CPI, GDP and M3 and positive nominal exchange rate behaviour to a monetary policy shock, and also a limited impact of a short-term interest rate shock in explaining the consumer prices, production and exchange rate fluctuations.

  16. Extremum Seeking Control of Smart Inverters for VAR Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Daniel; Negrete-Pincetic, Matias; Stewart, Emma; Auslander, David, M; Callaway, Duncan

    2015-09-04

    Reactive power compensation is used by utilities to ensure customer voltages are within pre-defined tolerances and reduce system resistive losses. While much attention has been paid to model-based control algorithms for reactive power support and Volt Var Optimization (VVO), these strategies typically require relatively large communications capabilities and accurate models. In this work, a non-model-based control strategy for smart inverters is considered for VAR compensation. An Extremum Seeking control algorithm is applied to modulate the reactive power output of inverters based on real power information from the feeder substation, without an explicit feeder model. Simulation results using utility demand information confirm the ability of the control algorithm to inject VARs to minimize feeder head real power consumption. In addition, we show that the algorithm is capable of improving feeder voltage profiles and reducing reactive power supplied by the distribution substation.

  17. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Ricinus communis var. carmencita leaf extract and its antibacterial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Sunita; Sett, Arghya; Bora, Utpal

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we report synthesis of silver nanoparticles (RcAgNPs) from silver nitrate solution using methanolic leaf extract of Ricinus communis var. carmencita. The polyphenols present in the leaves reduce Ag++ ions to Ag0 followed by a color change. Silver nanoparticle formation was ensured by surface plasmon resonance between 400 nm to 500 nm. Crystallinity of the synthesized nanoparticles was confirmed by UHRTEM, SAED and XRD analysis. The capping of phytochemicals and thermal stability of RcAgNPs were assessed by FTIR spectra and TGA analysis, respectively. It also showed antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative strains. RcAgNPs were non-toxic against normal cell line (mouse fibroblast cell line L929) at lower concentrations (80 µg ml-1).

  18. Comparative genomics of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii associated with meningitis in HIV infected and uninfected patients in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy N Day

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The vast burden of cryptococcal meningitis occurs in immunosuppressed patients, driven by HIV, and is caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. We previously reported cryptococcal meningitis in Vietnam arising atypically in HIV uninfected, apparently immunocompetent patients, caused by a single amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP cluster of C. neoformans var. grubii (VNIγ. This variant was less common in HIV infected individuals; it remains unclear why this lineage is associated with apparently immunocompetent patients. To study this host tropism we aimed to further our understanding of clinical phenotype and genomic variation within Vietnamese C. neoformans var. grubii. After performing MLST on C. neoformans clinical isolates we identified 14 sequence types (STs; ST5 correlated with the VNIγ cluster. We next compared clinical phenotype by lineage and found HIV infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis caused by ST5 organisms were significantly more likely to have lymphadenopathy (11% vs. 4%, p = 0.05 Fisher's exact test and higher blood lymphocyte count (median 0.76 versus 0.55 X109 cells/L, p = 0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test. Furthermore, survivors of ST5 infections had evidence of worse disability outcomes at 70 days (72.7% (40/55 in ST5 infections versus 57.1% (52/91 non-ST5 infections (OR 2.11, 95%CI 1.01 to 4.41, p = 0.046. To further investigate the relationship between strain and disease phenotype we performed genome sequencing on eight Vietnamese C. neoformans var. grubii. Eight genome assemblies exhibited >99% nucleotide sequence identity and we identified 165 kbp of lineage specific to Vietnamese isolates. ST5 genomes harbored several strain specific regions, incorporating 19 annotated coding sequences and eight hypothetical proteins. These regions included a phenolic acid decarboxylase, a DEAD-box ATP-dependent RNA helicase 26, oxoprolinases, a taurine catabolism dioxygenase, a zinc finger protein, membrane transport

  19. Comparative genomics of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii associated with meningitis in HIV infected and uninfected patients in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jeremy N; Qihui, Seet; Thanh, Lam Tuan; Trieu, Phan Hai; Van, Anh Duong; Thu, Nha Hoang; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Lan, Nguyen P H; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Ashton, Philip M; Thwaites, Guy E; Boni, Maciej F; Wolbers, Marcel; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Tan, Patrick B O; Baker, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    The vast burden of cryptococcal meningitis occurs in immunosuppressed patients, driven by HIV, and is caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. We previously reported cryptococcal meningitis in Vietnam arising atypically in HIV uninfected, apparently immunocompetent patients, caused by a single amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) cluster of C. neoformans var. grubii (VNIγ). This variant was less common in HIV infected individuals; it remains unclear why this lineage is associated with apparently immunocompetent patients. To study this host tropism we aimed to further our understanding of clinical phenotype and genomic variation within Vietnamese C. neoformans var. grubii. After performing MLST on C. neoformans clinical isolates we identified 14 sequence types (STs); ST5 correlated with the VNIγ cluster. We next compared clinical phenotype by lineage and found HIV infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis caused by ST5 organisms were significantly more likely to have lymphadenopathy (11% vs. 4%, p = 0.05 Fisher's exact test) and higher blood lymphocyte count (median 0.76 versus 0.55 X109 cells/L, p = 0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test). Furthermore, survivors of ST5 infections had evidence of worse disability outcomes at 70 days (72.7% (40/55) in ST5 infections versus 57.1% (52/91) non-ST5 infections (OR 2.11, 95%CI 1.01 to 4.41), p = 0.046). To further investigate the relationship between strain and disease phenotype we performed genome sequencing on eight Vietnamese C. neoformans var. grubii. Eight genome assemblies exhibited >99% nucleotide sequence identity and we identified 165 kbp of lineage specific to Vietnamese isolates. ST5 genomes harbored several strain specific regions, incorporating 19 annotated coding sequences and eight hypothetical proteins. These regions included a phenolic acid decarboxylase, a DEAD-box ATP-dependent RNA helicase 26, oxoprolinases, a taurine catabolism dioxygenase, a zinc finger protein, membrane transport proteins

  20. THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA SALINA) LETHALITY OF Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    OpenAIRE

    O.T. TÜZÜN, E. GÜRKAN, F. HIRLAK,

    2015-01-01

    This work covers up the bio-activities of the five fractions obtained from the ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Cruciferae).Key Words: Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

  1. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for

  2. Acacia polyphylla var. rhytidocarpa (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae, un nuevo taxon de Bolivia y Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico Arce, María de Lourdes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Acacia polyphylla var. rhytidocarpa, a new taxon for Bolivia and Brazil is described and illustrated.Se describe e ilustra Acacia polyphylla var. rhytidocarpa, taxon nuevo para Bolivia y Brasil.

  3. Terpenoids and sterols from Nepeta cataria L. var. citriodora (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Barbara; Modnicki, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Isolation and GC/MS quantitative determination of ursolic acid in the herb of Nepeta cataria var. citriodora have been performed. The content of this compound was in the range 0.95-1.30%. Daucosterol (beta-sitosterol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside) was also isolated from the plant, in addition to small amounts of beta-sitosterol, campesterol, alpha-amyrin and beta-amyrin. The content and composition of essential oil in samples of the Nepeta cataria var. citriodora herb have been analysed as well.

  4. Penyerbukan Pada Rambutan (Nepheuum Lappaceum L. Var. Lappaceum)

    OpenAIRE

    UJI, TAHAN

    1987-01-01

    TAHAN UJI.1987.Pollination in Nephelium lappaceum L. var.lappaceum. Suppl.Berita Biologi. 3 : 31 - 34.Inflorescence morphology,flowering biology and insect visitors of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. var.lappaceum) were observed in Semboja, East Kalimantan.Rambutan is dioeceous plant and cross pollinated by insect.It was showed that in isolated inflorescence failed to produce fruits.Six species of bees i.e. Apisindica,Trigone itama,T. nitidiventris. T. canifronsT.irridipenis and T.atripes ar...

  5. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia following probiotic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. Appel-da-Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are commonly prescribed as an adjuvant in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile. We report the case of an immunocompromised 73-year-old patient on chemotherapy who developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia in a central venous catheter during treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis with the probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Fungemia was resolved after interruption of probiotic administration without the need to replace the central venous line. Keywords: Saccharomyces, Probiotics, Fungemia, Critical illness, Clostridium difficile

  6. The influence of nitrate nitrogen on the peroxidase activity in tissues of Betula pendula Roth var. pendula and B. pendula var. carelica (Mercklin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Nikerova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the peroxidase activity during the period of active cambial growth in two forms of 8-year-old Silver birch trees with different degrees of manifestation of wood grain figure: Betula pendula var. pendula and Betula pendula var. carelica. We selected leaves from short shoots and leaves from long shoots, small roots, xylem and phloem for the analysis. It was determined that peroxidase activity in B. pendula var. carelica was higher than in B. pendula var. pendula. The more the degree of manifestation of wood grain figure was in Betula pendula var. carelica, the more the peroxidase activity in xylem was. It was suggested that local violation of cambial activity in Betula pendula var. carelica leads to increased quantity of reative oxygen species and it can enhance the peroxidase activity. To identify the response of birch plants under the excess of nitrogen fertilizers, we studied the influence of nitrate on the peroxidase activity. This investigation was made for the first time. Application of nitrate had led to the increase in the peroxidase activity in xylem and phloem only in Betula pendula var. carelica. In Betula pendula var. pendula the peroxidase activity in xylem and phloem has not changed under the application of nitrogen fertilizers. Application of KNO3 gave multidirectional changes in leaves in both forms. Peroxidase activity in B. pendula var. pendula increased, but activity of the enzyme in B. pendula var. carelica decreased.

  7. Plasmodium falciparum variability and immune evasion proceed from antigenicity of consensus sequences from DBL6ε; generalization to all DBL from VAR2CSA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Deloron

    Full Text Available We studied all consensus sequences within the four least 'variable blocks' (VB present in the DBL6ε domain of VAR2CSA, the protein involved in the adhesion of infected red blood cells by Plasmodium falciparum that causes the Pregnancy-Associated Malaria (PAM. Characterising consensus sequences with respect to recognition of antibodies and percentage of responders among pregnant women living in areas where P. falciparum is endemic allows the identification of the most antigenic sequences within each VB. When combining these consensus sequences among four serotypes from VB1 or VB5, the most often recognized ones are expected to induce pan-reactive antibodies recognizing VAR2CSA from all plasmodial strains. These sequences are of main interest in the design of an immunogenic molecule. Using a similar approach than for DBL6ε, we studied the five other DBL and the CIDRpam from VAR2CSA, and again identified VB segments with highly conserved consensus sequences. In addition, we identified consensus sequences in other var genes expressed by non-PAM parasites. This finding paves the way for vaccine design against other pathologies caused by P. falciparum.

  8. Strain Gage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    HITEC Corporation developed a strain gage application for DanteII, a mobile robot developed for NASA. The gage measured bending forces on the robot's legs and warned human controllers when acceptable forces were exceeded. HITEC further developed the technology for strain gage services in creating transducers out of "Indy" racing car suspension pushrods, NASCAR suspension components and components used in motion control.

  9. Impacts of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the impact of bio-larvicides- Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) and B. sphaericus (Bs) on anopheline mosquito larval densities in four selected areas of Lusaka urban district. Larval densities were determined using a standard WHO protocol at each study area prior to and after larviciding.

  10. IMPACT DE METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE VAR ACRIDUM, SUR LES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deux investigations ont porté sur l'impact direct du champignon Metarhizium anisopliae var acridum (IMI-91609 :souche de Zonocerus variegatus) sur la mortalité et sur son impact indirect sur la progéniture de deux hyménoptères : Anagyrus lopezi (De Santis) (Hymenoptera : Encyrtidea) utilisé dans la lutte biologique ...

  11. stressed tobacco (Nicotiana rustica L. var. Souffi) seedlings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    edoja

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... While salinity effects have been largely documented in crop plants, little data are available on Nicotiana rustica species (snuff tobacco), mainly nitrogen metabolism changes. Here, tobacco (N. rustica L. var. Souffi) seedlings were grown for one month on control medium, and then exposed for seven days to.

  12. (Var. Robusta) accessions from the founder gene pool evaluated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-04

    Feb 4, 2009 ... RAPD profiles of genomic DNA from different coffea canephora (Var. robusta accessions amplified using primer. UBC 186 in a 2% agarose ...... Genome 39: 1102-1108. Fang DQ, Roose ML (1997). Identification of closely related citrus cultivars with inter-simple sequence repeat markers. Theor. Appl. Genet.

  13. The response of Trifolium africanum (Ser.) var. glabellum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of a glasshouse trial show that Trifolium africanum var. glabellum has considerable potential for use in radical veld improvement. Trifolium africanum outyielded T. repens cv. Ladino in acid, P fixing soils (Farningham series). Both species produced significantly higher yields on Longlands than on Farningham soil ...

  14. Chemical composition of essential oil from Psidium cattleianum var.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rajuc

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... ~40 m on latitude (29 48′S) and longitude (30 56′E). Extraction of the essential oil. The essential oil from dried leaves of P. cattleianum var. lucidum was extracted using a modification of an established procedure. (Denny, 1989). Briefly, 100 g of milled leaves were hydrodistilled in a Clevenger apparatus.

  15. Larvicidal Activity of Isodon japonicus var. glaucocalyx (Maxim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The essential oil of I. japonicus var. glaucocalyx aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromaotography-mas spectrometry (GC-MS). The activity of the essential oil was evaluated, using World Health Organization (WHO) procedures, against the fourth ...

  16. Pitfalls in VAR based return decompositions: A clarification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard; Tanggaard, Carsten

    Based on Chen and Zhao's (2009) criticism of VAR based return de- compositions, we explain in detail the various limitations and pitfalls involved in such decompositions. First, we show that Chen and Zhao's interpretation of their excess bond return decomposition is wrong: the residual component...

  17. Tissue culture in Pinus caribaea Mor. var. Hondurensis barr. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tissue culture in Pinus caribaea Mor. var. Hondurensis barr. ... However, different degrees of greening were observed in some of the cultures (both compact and friable type). Thus ... Anatomical studies indicated that the differences between the compact and friable calluses were in the distribution of the meristematic cells.

  18. Growth and provenance variation of Pinus caribaea var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 21 provenances and sources of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis were tested in 48 provenance / progeny trials in Brazil, South Africa, and Venezuela. Growth rates in Brazil and Venezuela were quite promising, and were less encouraging in Colombia. In Brazil and Venezuela, heights were around 12 m and mean ...

  19. Chemical composition of essential oil from Psidium cattleianum var.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rajuc

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... The aim of this study was to investigate the essential oil composition of Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum from South Africa. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and the components were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the chemical ...

  20. Experimental poisoning by Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii in buffalo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira-Filho, José C.; Carmo, Priscila M.S.; Iversen, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Five male 6-8 month-old Murrah buffalo calves were orally dosed with the fresh aerial parts of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii at doses of 1, 3, 4, 5 and 10g/kg body weight (bw) (similar to 1-10mg macrocyclic trichothecenes/kg/bw). The B. megapotamica used for the experiment was harvested on a...

  1. Molt disruption and mortality of Locusta migratoria var. manilensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and RH-5849 at dose rates between 37.5-75 ppm. Initial studies of the insecticidal effects of these insect growth regulators on L. migratoria manilensis show them to be very potent locust control agents. Key words: Insect growth regulators, Locusta migratoria var. manilensis (Meyen), biological control, sustainability.

  2. Polymorphic microsatellite markers in Taxus chinensis var. mairei ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei is an endemic evergreen conifer in China. It is the most widely distributed species in the genus. Taxus and primarily occurs south of the Yangtze river (Zhou et al. 2009). It is noteworthy that this species is considered an important source for the production of taxol, which is used in the treatment of ...

  3. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie (Combretaceae ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie (Combretaceae) is moderate sized multipurpose hard wood tree of dry deciduous forests with drooping branches and yellow to brownish-yellow flowers. it is endemic to Rajasthan and is considered to be a threatened tree of the region due to over exploitation for timber ...

  4. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divan, Deepak [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Moghe, Rohit [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Tholomier, Damien [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  5. Amanitin and phallotoxin concentration in Amanita phalloides var. alba mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ertugrul; Yilmaz, Ismail; Sinirlioglu, Zeynep Aydin; Karahan, Selim; Bayram, Recep; Yaykasli, Kursat Oguz; Colakoglu, Serdar; Saritas, Ayhan; Severoglu, Zeki

    2013-12-15

    Although rarely seen, Amanita phalloides var. alba, a variety of A. phalloides type mushrooms, causes mushroom poisoning resulting in death. Since it is frequently confused with some edible mushrooms due to its white colored cap and macroscopic appearance, it becomes important in toxicological terms. Knowledge of the toxin amount contained in this mushroom type is invaluable in the treatment of cases involving poisoning. In this study, we examined the toxin levels of various parts of the A. phalloides var. alba mushroom growing Duzce region of Turkey. Toxin analyses were carried out for A. phalloides var. alba, which were collected from the forests Duzce region of Turkey in 2011, as a whole and also separately in its spore, pileus, gills, stipe and volva parts. The alpha amanitin, beta amanitin, gamma amanitin, phalloidin and phallacidine analyses of the mushrooms were carried out using the RP-HPLC method. A genetic analysis of the mushroom showed that it had similar genetic characteristics as A. phalloides and was a variety of it. The lowest toxins quantity was detected in spores, volva and stipe among all parts of the mushroom. The maximum amount of amatoxins was measured in the gills. The pileus also contained a high amount of amatoxins. Generally, amatoxins and phallotoxin concentrations were lower as compared to A. phalloides, but interestingly all toxins other than gamma toxin were higher in the spores of A. phalloides var. alba. The amount of toxin in all of its parts had sufficient concentrations to cause death. With this study, the amatoxin and phallotoxin concentrations in A. phalloides var. alba mushroom and in its parts have been revealed in detail for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. AÇÃO ANTILISTERIAL DO EXTRATO BRUTO DE Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens EM DIFERENTES CONCENTRAÇÕES DE PROTEÍNA, pH E SAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. PEREIRA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O elevado índice de morbidade em função da contaminação dos alimentos tem aumentado a necessidade de metodologias alternativas para conservação dos mesmos. Nesse sentido, essa pesquisa teve por objetivo: (1 otimizar a ação antilisterial do extrato bruto produzido por Bacillus amyloliquefaciens em diferentes concentrações proteicas, pH e sal; (2 avaliar a ação do extrato bruto otimizado em ostras artificialmente contaminadas com Listeria monocytogenes. A ação do extrato bruto em diferentes concentrações de proteína (0,0; 5,0; 40; 80 µg/mL sobre o inóculo de 106 UFC.mL-1 de Listeria monocytogenes foi verificada em caldo TSB-YE previamente ajustado para pH 4,0 e 8,0 e concentrações de NaCl de 0; 2,5 e 4,5 % p/v. Os ensaios foram realizados à temperatura de 25ºC em estufa DBO. Para determinar a recuperação microbiana, realizaram-se contagens de Listeria monocytogenes a cada 4 h, por até 50 h. Dos tratamentos testados, a combinação de 80 g/mL de proteína do extrato bruto, pH 4,0 e 4,5 % de NaCl mostrou melhor performance quanto a atividade antimicrobiana, chegando a uma redução de até 5 ciclos logarítmicos de Listeria monocytogenes. Quando testada a ação do tratamento conjunto de 80 g/mL de extrato bruto, pH 4,0 e 4,5 % de NaCl sobre carne de ostra, obteve-se uma redução no número de Listeria monocytogenes de aproximadamente 3 ciclos logarítmicos, (3,0x106 para 1,5x103 UFC.mL-1, após 24 h de incubação a 25ºC. Esses resultados indicam a possível utilização do antimicrobiano produzido por Bacillus amyloliquefaciens como conservador de alimentos.

  7. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, M.; Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Jonker, H.H.; Choi, Y.H.; Verpoorte, R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids,

  8. De zoetwatergetijde-dotter van de Biesbosch en de Oude Maas: Caltha palustris L. var. araneosa, var. nov

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1971-01-01

    In tidal freshwater swamps c.q. river banks in the Biesbosch and Oude Maas (tidal level difference ca. 2 m), 51°45’ N, 4°30’-4°35’ E, a special ecological race of Caltha palustris L. occurs, here newly described as var. araneosa. Its tall, erect, multiflorous stem is characterized by elbow-like

  9. Metabolic network model guided engineering ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway to improve ascomycin production in Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. ascomyceticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junhua; Wang, Cheng; Song, Kejing; Wen, Jianping

    2017-10-03

    Ascomycin is a 23-membered polyketide macrolide with high immunosuppressant and antifungal activity. As the lower production in bio-fermentation, global metabolic analysis is required to further explore its biosynthetic network and determine the key limiting steps for rationally engineering. To achieve this goal, an engineering approach guided by a metabolic network model was implemented to better understand ascomycin biosynthesis and improve its production. The metabolic conservation of Streptomyces species was first investigated by comparing the metabolic enzymes of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) with those of 31 Streptomyces strains, the results showed that more than 72% of the examined proteins had high sequence similarity with counterparts in every surveyed strain. And it was found that metabolic reactions are more highly conserved than the enzymes themselves because of its lower diversity of metabolic functions than that of genes. The main source of the observed metabolic differences was from the diversity of secondary metabolism. According to the high conservation of primary metabolic reactions in Streptomyces species, the metabolic network model of Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. ascomyceticus was constructed based on the latest reported metabolic model of S. coelicolor A3(2) and validated experimentally. By coupling with flux balance analysis and using minimization of metabolic adjustment algorithm, potential targets for ascomycin overproduction were predicted. Since several of the preferred targets were highly associated with ethylmalonyl-CoA biosynthesis, two target genes hcd (encoding 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase) and ccr (encoding crotonyl-CoA carboxylase/reductase) were selected for overexpression in S. hygroscopicus var. ascomyceticus FS35. Both the mutants HA-Hcd and HA-Ccr showed higher ascomycin titer, which was consistent with the model predictions. Furthermore, the combined effects of the two genes were evaluated and the strain HA

  10. VAR2CSA expression on the surface of placenta-derived Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magistrado, Pamela; Salanti, Ali; Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise G

    2008-01-01

    intervillous space and parasite antigens. Both placental and chondroitin sulphate A-selected parasites have high-level transcripts of a unique var gene named var2csa. However, VAR2CSA has not been consistently found by proteomic analysis of placental parasites. Contrary to this, we found VAR2CSA expressed...

  11. Foco de leishmaniasis en El Hobo, municipio de El Carmen de Bolívar, Bolívar, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Cortés

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Se describen las características epidemiológica e importancia de la especies de Lutzomyia presentes en un foco de leishmaniasis en la vereda El Hobo Carmen de Bolívar, departamento de Bolívar. Objetivos. Obtener un conocimiento preliminar de la transmisión de leishmaniasis en la vereda El Hobo Carmen de Bolívar. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron datos epidemiológicos y se realizaron capturas de flebótomos con trampas CDC y cebo humano en la vereda El Hobo. Para establecer la sero prevalencia de leishmaniasis visceral canina se hizo un estudio en perros mediante la técnica de inmunofluorescencia indirecta. Resultados. Se capturaron nueve especies de Lutzomyia: L. trinidadensis, L. evansi, L .cayennensis, L. venezuelensis, L. gomezi,L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, y L. walkeri. Las especie de mayor importancia por sus implicaciones en la transmisión de leishmaniasis cutánea y visceral fueron L. gomezi, y L. evansi respectivamente. Se reporta por primera vez para Bolívar especimenes de L. venezuelensis, L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, y L. walkeri. Se determinó una prevalencia de leishmaniasis visceral del 36% en los caninos estudiados. Según los reportes epidemiológicos, en el 2002 en el municipio de Carmen de Bolívar la leishmaniasis cutánea mostró un aumento del 40% y la leishmaniasis visceral canina del 80% de los casos con respecto al 2001, debido al brote presentado en la vereda El Hobo Conclusiones. Los resultados determinan a la vereda El Hobo como una zona de riesgo potencial de transmisión de leishmaniasis cutánea y visceral.

  12. Differential expression of var gene groups is associated with morbidity caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection in Tanzanian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottmann, Matthias; Lavstsen, Thomas; Mugasa, Joseph Paschal

    2006-01-01

    The var gene family of Plasmodium falciparum encodes the variant surface antigen Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). PfEMP1 is considered an important pathogenicity factor in P. falciparum infection because it mediates cytoadherence to host cell endothelial receptors. var...... for children with clinical malaria than for children with asymptomatic infections. The var group C and var1-like transcript abundances were similar between the three sample groups. A transcript abundance pattern similar to that for var group A was observed for var2csa and var3-like genes. These results suggest...

  13. An In Vivo and In Vitro Model of Plasmodium falciparum Rosetting and Autoagglutination Mediated by varO, a Group A var Gene Encoding a Frequent Serotype▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigan-Womas, Inès; Guillotte, Micheline; Le Scanf, Cécile; Igonet, Sébastien; Petres, Stéphane; Juillerat, Alexandre; Badaut, Cyril; Nato, Farida; Schneider, Achim; Lavergne, Anne; Contamin, Hugues; Tall, Adama; Baril, Laurence; Bentley, Graham A.; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2008-01-01

    In the Saimiri sciureus monkey, erythrocytes infected with the varO antigenic variant of the Plasmodium falciparum Palo Alto 89F5 clone bind uninfected red blood cells (rosetting), form autoagglutinates, and have a high multiplication rate, three phenotypic characteristics that are associated with severe malaria in human patients. We report here that varO parasites express a var gene having the characteristics of group A var genes, and we show that the varO Duffy binding-like 1α1 (DBL1α1) domain is implicated in the rosetting of both S. sciureus and human erythrocytes. The soluble varO N-terminal sequence (NTS)-DBL1α1 recombinant domain, produced in a baculovirus-insect cell system, induced high titers of antibodies that reacted with varO-infected red blood cells and disrupted varO rosettes. varO parasites were culture adapted in vitro using human erythrocytes. They formed rosettes and autoagglutinates, and they had the same surface serotype and expressed the same varO gene as the monkey-propagated parasites. To develop an in vitro model with highly homogeneous varO parasites, rosette purification was combined with positive selection by panning with a varO NTS-DBL1α1-specific mouse monoclonal antibody. The single-variant, clonal parasites were used to analyze seroprevalence for varO at the village level in a setting where malaria is holoendemic (Dielmo, Senegal). We found 93.6% (95% confidence interval, 89.7 to 96.4%) seroprevalence for varO surface-reacting antibodies and 86.7% (95% confidence interval, 82.8 to 91.6%) seroprevalence for the recombinant NTS-DBL1α1 domain, and virtually all permanent residents had seroconverted by the age of 5 years. These data imply that the varO model is a relevant in vivo and in vitro model for rosetting and autoagglutination that can be used for rational development of vaccine candidates and therapeutic strategies aimed at preventing malaria pathology. PMID:18809668

  14. An in vivo and in vitro model of Plasmodium falciparum rosetting and autoagglutination mediated by varO, a group A var gene encoding a frequent serotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigan-Womas, Inès; Guillotte, Micheline; Le Scanf, Cécile; Igonet, Sébastien; Petres, Stéphane; Juillerat, Alexandre; Badaut, Cyril; Nato, Farida; Schneider, Achim; Lavergne, Anne; Contamin, Hugues; Tall, Adama; Baril, Laurence; Bentley, Graham A; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2008-12-01

    In the Saimiri sciureus monkey, erythrocytes infected with the varO antigenic variant of the Plasmodium falciparum Palo Alto 89F5 clone bind uninfected red blood cells (rosetting), form autoagglutinates, and have a high multiplication rate, three phenotypic characteristics that are associated with severe malaria in human patients. We report here that varO parasites express a var gene having the characteristics of group A var genes, and we show that the varO Duffy binding-like 1alpha(1) (DBL1alpha(1)) domain is implicated in the rosetting of both S. sciureus and human erythrocytes. The soluble varO N-terminal sequence (NTS)-DBL1alpha(1) recombinant domain, produced in a baculovirus-insect cell system, induced high titers of antibodies that reacted with varO-infected red blood cells and disrupted varO rosettes. varO parasites were culture adapted in vitro using human erythrocytes. They formed rosettes and autoagglutinates, and they had the same surface serotype and expressed the same varO gene as the monkey-propagated parasites. To develop an in vitro model with highly homogeneous varO parasites, rosette purification was combined with positive selection by panning with a varO NTS-DBL1alpha(1)-specific mouse monoclonal antibody. The single-variant, clonal parasites were used to analyze seroprevalence for varO at the village level in a setting where malaria is holoendemic (Dielmo, Senegal). We found 93.6% (95% confidence interval, 89.7 to 96.4%) seroprevalence for varO surface-reacting antibodies and 86.7% (95% confidence interval, 82.8 to 91.6%) seroprevalence for the recombinant NTS-DBL1alpha(1) domain, and virtually all permanent residents had seroconverted by the age of 5 years. These data imply that the varO model is a relevant in vivo and in vitro model for rosetting and autoagglutination that can be used for rational development of vaccine candidates and therapeutic strategies aimed at preventing malaria pathology.

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of a Human Cytomegalovirus Strain AD169 Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clone

    OpenAIRE

    Ostermann, Eleonore; Spohn, Michael; Indenbirken, Daniela; Brune, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    The complete sequence of the human cytomegalovirus strain AD169 (variant ATCC) cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (AD169-BAC, also known as HB15 or pHB15) was determined. The viral genome has a length of 230,290?bp and shows 52 nucleotide differences compared to a previously sequenced AD169varATCC clone.

  16. Penicillium donkii sp. nov. and some observations on sclerotial strains of Penicillium funiculosum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, Amelia C.

    1973-01-01

    A description and drawings of a new species of Penicillium, P. donkii, are presented. Penicillium purpurogenum Stoll var. rubri-sclerotium Thom is considered a synonym of P. funiculosum Thom. Some observations are recorded, especially in connection with the cultural appearance of sclerotial strains

  17. Evaluation of indigenous bacterial strains for biocontrol of the frogeye leaf spot of soya bean caused by Cercospora sojina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, E; Carmona, M A; Scandiani, M M; García, A F; Luque, A G; Correa, O S; Balestrasse, K B

    2012-08-01

    Assessment of biological control of Cercospora sojina, causal agent of frogeye leaf spot (FLS) of soya bean, using three indigenous bacterial strains, BNM297 (Pseudomonas fluorescens), BNM340 and BNM122 (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens). From cultures of each bacterial strain, cell suspensions and cell-free supernatants were obtained and assayed to determine their antifungal activity against C. sojina. Both mycelial growth and spore germination in vitro were more strongly inhibited by bacterial cell suspensions than by cell-free supernatants. The Bacillus strains BNM122 and BNM340 inhibited the fungal growth to a similar degree (I ≈ 52-53%), while cells from P. fluorescens BNM297 caused a lesser reduction (I ≈ 32-34%) in the fungus colony diameter. The foliar application of the two Bacillus strains on soya bean seedlings, under greenhouse conditions, significantly reduced the disease severity with respect to control soya bean seedlings and those sprayed with BNM297. This last bacterial strain was not effective in controlling FLS in vivo. Our data demonstrate that the application of antagonistic bacteria may be a promising and environmentally friendly alternative to control the FLS of soya bean.   To our knowledge, this is the first report of biological control of C. sojina by using native Bacillus strains. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Plant growth-promoting bacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NBRISN13 modulates gene expression profile of leaf and rhizosphere community in rice during salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar; Srivastava, Suchi; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Seem, Karishma; Mishra, Aradhana; Sopory, Sudhir Kumar

    2013-05-01

    Growth and productivity of rice and soil inhabiting microbial population is negatively affected by soil salinity. However, some salt resistant, rhizosphere competent bacteria improve plant health in saline stress. Present study evaluated the effect of salt tolerant Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NBRISN13 (SN13) inoculation on rice plants in hydroponic and soil conditions exposed to salinity. SN13 increased plant growth and salt tolerance (NaCl 200 mM) and expression of at least 14 genes under hydroponic and soil conditions in rice. Among these 14 genes 4 (NADP-Me2, EREBP, SOSI, BADH and SERK1) were up-regulated and 2 (GIG and SAPK4) repressed under salt stress in hydroponic condition. In greenhouse experiment, salt stress resulted in accumulation of MAPK5 and down-regulation of the remaining 13 transcripts was observed. SN13 treatment, with or without salt gave similar expression for all tested genes as compared to control. Salt stress caused changes in the microbial diversity of the rice rhizosphere and stimulated population of betaine-, sucrose-, trehalose-, and glutamine-utilizing bacteria in salt-treated rice rhizosphere (SN13 + salt). The observations imply that SN13 confers salt tolerance in rice by modulating differential transcription in a set of at least 14 genes. Stimulation of osmoprotectant utilizing microbial population as a mechanism of inducing salt tolerance in rice is reported for the first time in this study to the best of our knowledge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 on lettuce growth and health under pathogen pressure and its impact on the rhizosphere bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Soumitra Paul; Dietel, Kristin; Rändler, Manuela; Schmid, Michael; Junge, Helmut; Borriss, Rainer; Hartmann, Anton; Grosch, Rita

    2013-01-01

    The soil-borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is responsible for crop losses on a wide range of important crops worldwide. The lack of effective control strategies and the increasing demand for organically grown food has stimulated research on biological control. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the rhizosphere competence of the commercially available inoculant Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 on lettuce growth and health together with its impact on the indigenous rhizosphere bacterial community in field and pot experiments. Results of both experiments demonstrated that FZB42 is able to effectively colonize the rhizosphere (7.45 to 6.61 Log 10 CFU g(-1) root dry mass) within the growth period of lettuce in the field. The disease severity (DS) of bottom rot on lettuce was significantly reduced from severe symptoms with DS category 5 to slight symptom expression with DS category 3 on average through treatment of young plants with FZB42 before and after planting. The 16S rRNA gene based fingerprinting method terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) showed that the treatment with FZB42 did not have a major impact on the indigenous rhizosphere bacterial community. However, the bacterial community showed a clear temporal shift. The results also indicated that the pathogen R. solani AG1-IB affects the rhizosphere microbial community after inoculation. Thus, we revealed that the inoculant FZB42 could establish itself successfully in the rhizosphere without showing any durable effect on the rhizosphere bacterial community.

  20. Cotton fertilization using PGPR Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and compost: Impact on insect density and cotton yield in North Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiery B. Charles Alavo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work has compared the effects of the biofertilizer Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 with that of compost for cotton production. The population dynamics of pests and predators have been studied in order to check whether the use of both fertilization materials can contribute to pest management in cotton. Three treatments were considered: (i dressing of seeds in rhizobacteria suspension, (ii introduction of rhizobacterial suspension directly in the pocket, same time with the seeds, and (iii fertilization with compost. The study was carried out in northwest Benin (West Africa. Results showed that cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii, pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, leaf roller, Sylepta derogata, and cotton bugs, Dysdercus sp. are the major insect pests encountered in the experimental plots. Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, was present but under the economic threshold. The coccinellid predators, Cheilomenes spp., occurred in the experimental plots and almost suppressed aphid proliferation. Other natural enemies such as chrysopids and ant species also occurred and probably contributed to maintain the cotton bollworm under the economic threshold. The treatment with seeds dressed with the rhizobacteria suspension yielded 39% more cotton compared to the compost fertilization. The use of both fertilization materials without application of chemicals can contribute to pest management in cotton.

  1. The Antibiosis Action and Rice-Induced Resistance, Mediated by a Lipopeptide from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B014, in Controlling Rice Disease Caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu Bin; Xu, Shi Ru; Zhang, Rui Ning; Liu, Yuan; Zhou, Ren Chao

    2016-04-28

    In the present study, a lipopeptide (named AXLP14) antagonistic to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) was obtained from the culture supernatant of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B014. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that AXLP14 consisted of surfactin homologs. The minimum inhibition concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of AXLP14 against Xoo were determined to be 1.25 and 2.50 mg/ml, respectively. At a concentration of 0.613 mg/ml, AXLP14 strongly inhibited the formation of Xoo biofilm. AXLP14 also inhibited the motility of Xoo in a concentration-dependent manner. Applying AXLP14 to rice seedlings significantly reduced the incidence and severity of disease caused by Xoo. In Xoo-infected rice seedlings, AXLP14 strongly and continuously up-regulated the expression of both OsNPR1 and OsWRKY45. In addition, AXLP14 effectively inhibited the Xoo-induced up-regulation of the expression of the abscisic acid biosynthesis gene OsNECD3 and the abscisic acid signalingresponsive gene OsLip9, indicating that AXLP14 may protect rice against Xoo-induced disease by enhancing salicylic acid defense and interfering with the abscisic acid response to virulence.

  2. Antimycobacterial Activity of Constituents from Foeniculum vulgare Var. Dulce Grown in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rayo Camacho-Corona

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay guided fractionation of an antimycobacterial extract of Foeniculum vulgare var dulce (Apiaceae led to the isolation and characterization of 5-hydroxyfurano-coumarin. The chemical structure of this compound was elucidated by 1H and 13C (1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy. In addition, the active fractions were analyzed by GC-MS and seventy eight compounds were identified; the major compounds were 1,3-benzenediol, 1-methoxycyclohexene, o-cymene, sorbic acid, 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, estragole, limonene-10-ol and 3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one. Twenty compounds identified in the active fractions were tested against one sensitive and three MDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the Alamar Blue microassay. Compounds that showed some degree of antimycobacterial activity against all strains tested were the following: linoleic acid (MIC 100 µg/mL, oleic acid (MIC 100 µg/mL, 1,3-benzenediol (MIC 100–200 µg/mL, undecanal (MIC 50–200 µg/mL, and 2,4-undecadienal (MIC 25–50 µg/mL, the last being the most active compound. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of 5-hydroxy-furanocoumarin in F. vulgare.

  3. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field.

  4. Static Var Compensator Project for the SPS Electrical Network

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives a progress report on the Static Var Compensator project BEF2 for the SPS electrical network. Following a market survey and a call for tenders, a contract has been awarded to ABB Sweden and the project is now in the phase of detailed performance studies, system design and ordering of the main electrical components. This progress report describes the electrical design, summarises the results of the harmonic filter design studies, discusses the interfacing of the control- and communication system and explains the mechanical layout of the Static Var Compensator and as well as the project co-ordination with the feeding BE substation renovation project. Finally, the project planning is presented and critical paths are evaluated.

  5. BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF GLAUCIUM GRANDIFLORUM VAR. GRANDIFLORUM

    OpenAIRE

    A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU, A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU

    2013-01-01

    Türkiye'nin 3 farklı bölgesinden toplanan Glaucium grandiflorum Boiss. et Huet var. grandiflorum örneklerinin toprak üstü kısımlarından elde edilen alkaloit ekstreleri ve bu ekstrelerden elde edilen majör alkaloitler allokriptopin, protopİn, (+)-izokoridin, (+)-korİdin üzerinde brİne shrimp lethality testi yapılarak sitotoksisiteleri İncelenmiştir. Glaucium grandiflorum var. grandiflorum türünün 3 örneği de önemli oranda sitotoksik aktİvite göstermiştir. Allokriptopin, protopin, (+)-izok...

  6. Network-Cognizant Design of Decentralized Volt/VAR Controllers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Kyri A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bernstein, Andrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhao, Changhong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-03

    This paper considers the problem of designing decentralized Volt/VAR controllers for distributed energy resources (DERs). The voltage-reactive power characteristics of individual DERs are obtained by solving a convex optimization problem, where given performance objectives (e.g., minimization of the voltage deviations from a given profile) are specified and stability constraints are enforced. The resultant Volt/VAR characteristics are network-cognizant, in the sense that they embed information on the location of the DERs and, consequently, on the effect of reactive-power adjustments on the voltages throughout the feeder. Bounds on the maximum voltage deviation incurred by the controllers are analytically established. Numerical results are reported to corroborate the technical findings.

  7. VaR: Exchange Rate Risk and Jump Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Ying Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the Poisson jumps and exchange rate risk, this paper provides an analytical VaR to manage market risk of international portfolios over the subprime mortgage crisis. There are some properties in the model. First, different from past studies in portfolios valued only in one currency, this model considers portfolios not only with jumps but also with exchange rate risk, that is vital for investors in highly integrated global financial markets. Second, in general, the analytical VaR solution is more accurate than historical simulations in terms of backtesting and Christoffersen's independence test (1998 for small portfolios and large portfolios. In other words, the proposed model is reliable not only for a portfolio on specific stocks but also for a large portfolio. Third, the model can be regarded as the extension of that of Kupiec (1999 and Chen and Liao (2009.

  8. Environmental straits of Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii in the city of Santos, SP, Brazil Amostras ambientais de Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii na cidade de Santos, SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Bianchi Soares

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This study involved a total of 116 samples, 79 taken from pigeon droppings and 37 of atmospheric air taken close to accumulations of excrement. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii was isolated from 11 (13.9% of these samples. Other species of Cryptococcus were also isolated from these samples, such as C. albidus (12.6% and C. laurentii (8.9%. C. neoformans was not isolated from the air samples, though C. albidus (5.4% was. All the strains of C. neoformans were found to belong to the A serotype (C. neoformans var. grubii. In regard to the studies with the antifungal agents 5-fluorocytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B and voriconazole, by means of the microdilution method (EUCAST, we point out that one sample demonstrated resistance to fluconazole, this being especially significant because this is an environmental strain.Analisaram-se 116 amostras, sendo 79 de fezes de pombos e 37 de ar atmosférico de regiões com acúmulo de fezes. Isolou-se Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans de 11 (13.9% destas amostras. Outras espécies de Cryptococcus também foram isoladas destas amostras tais como C. laurentii (8.9% e C. albidus (12.6 %, o qual também foi isolado de amostras do ar (5.4 %. Todas as amostras de C. neoformans foram sorotipo A (C. neoformans var. grubii. Em relação à avaliação do perfil de sensibilidade às drogas antifúngicas (5-fluorocitosina, fluconazol, itraconazol, anfotericina B e voriconazol pelo método da microdiluição (EUCAST, 2002, destacou-se a presença de uma amostra com valor de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM elevado para fluconazol, sendo de grande significância, uma vez tratar-se de isolado ambiental.

  9. REDESCUBRIMIENTO DE MYRRHINIUM ATROPURPUREUM VAR. OCTANDRUM (MYRTACEAE: MYRTINAE EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARRA-O. CARLOS

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se documenta el redescubrimiento de Myrrhinium atropurpureum var. octandrum(Myrteae DC., Myrtaceae, taxón prácticamente desconocido en Colombia. Se presentala descripción del taxón, así como notas sobre su distribución en Colombia, elhábitat en que se desarrolla y su posible estatus dentro de las categorías de la ListaRoja de la UICN.

  10. ANTIPROLIFERATIVE PROTEIN FROM TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA L. VAR ANGUINA (L.) HAINES

    OpenAIRE

    CHURIYAH; WAHONO SUMARYONO

    2010-01-01

    Three proteins were isolated from plant parts of Trichosanthes cucumerina L. var anguina (L.) Haines, they were TF2 from fruit, TS3 from seed and TR3 from root with molecular masses (Mr) approximately 16 - 64 kDa on SDS-PAGE characterization. The proteins were extracted with Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS), then they were precipitated using 80% saturated ammonium sulphate continued with the dialysis using cellophane. The dialysate was fractionated through gel filtration chromatography. T...

  11. Achieving Parsimony in Bayesian VARs with the Horseshoe Prior

    OpenAIRE

    Follett, Lendie; Yu, Cindy

    2017-01-01

    In the context of a vector autoregression (VAR) model, or any multivariate regression model, the number of relevant predictors may be small relative to the information set available from which to build a prediction equation. It is well known that forecasts based off of (un-penalized) least squares estimates can overfit the data and lead to poor predictions. Since the Minnesota prior was proposed (Doan et al. (1984)), there have been many methods developed aiming at improving prediction perfor...

  12. Porcine sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes scabiel var suis ) in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 102 (28.6%) of 357 pigs in Ibadan yielded evidence of infection with Sarcoptes scabiei var suis. Of 89 weaners, 15.7% showed positive infection as opposed to 31% of 113 piglets, 18.4% of 125 sows and 26.7% of 30 boars. The parasite was mush higher in samples from pre-weaning pigs than in samples from any ...

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang-Fu; Liu, Xiang-Jiang; Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Hu, Shao-Na; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) were sequenced. Comparison of these two mitochondrial genomes revealed that the mtDNAs of these two common carp varieties were remarkably similar in genome length, gene order and content, and AT content. However, size variation between these two mitochondrial genomes presented here showed 39 site differences in overall length. About 2 site differences were located in rRNAs, 3 in tRNAs, 3 in the control region, 31 in protein-coding genes. Thirty-one variable bases in the protein-coding regions between the two varieties mitochondrial sequences led to three variable amino acids, which were mainly located in the protein ND5 and ND4.

  14. Efficacy of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in the control of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxins production on pistachio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahmoshteh, Fatemeh; Siciliano, Ilenia; Banani, Houda; Hamidi-Esfahani, Zohreh; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Spadaro, Davide

    2017-08-02

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera) is an important nut for its economic, nutritional and health aspects but it can be contaminated by aflatoxigenic fungi in the field and during storage. Biological control could be considered as an alternative to chemical treatment. In this study, we evaluated the antifungal and anti-mycotoxigenic capability of two Bacillus spp. both in vitro and on pistachio kernels. In in vitro conditions, both strains were able to reduce the mycelial growth and they were able to degrade the four aflatoxins during the first three days after inoculation. AFG1 and AFG2 were rapidly degraded within two days of incubation with the bacterial strains. No aflatoxin was found in the bacterial cell walls, permitting exclusion of mycotoxin adsorption and hypothesis of an in vitro biodegradation as a mode of action. The cultivar of pistachio most susceptible to fungal colonization was 'Ahmad-Aghaei', selected among four main Iranian cultivars. A. parasiticus was able to grow and produce aflatoxins on pistachios, but at longer inoculation periods, a natural decrease of aflatoxins was registered. Both strains were able to reduce the fungal incidence and number of spores on pistachio with a stronger effect during the first 5dpi. The effect on aflatoxin content in vivo was less pronounced than in vitro, with a maximum effect at 8dpi. At longer times, there was a contrasting effect due to the lower activity of Bacillus spp. in stationary phase and higher growth of Aspergillus species. This consideration could explain the lack of aflatoxin reduction at 12dpi. Both bacterial strains showed good antifungal activity and aflatoxin reduction in in vitro conditions and on pistachio kernels. Altogether, these results indicate that Bacillus species could be considered as potential biocontrol agents to combat toxigenic fungal growth and subsequent aflatoxin contamination of nuts and agricultural crops in practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Effects of the dietary supplementation of mixed probiotic spores of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 54A, and Bacillus pumilus 47B on growth, innate immunity and stress responses of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong Thy, Ho Thi; Tri, Nguyen Nhu; Quy, Ong Moc; Fotedar, Ravi; Kannika, Korntip; Unajak, Sasimanas; Areechon, Nontawith

    2017-01-01

    The study used the mixed probiotics of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 54A and B. pumilus 47B isolated from striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) intestine aiming to stimulate growth performance, innate immunity, stress tolerance of striped catfish. The average weight gain (AWG), specific growth rate (SGR), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were analyzed after fish were fed the mixture of probiotics (B. amyloliquefaciens 54A and B. pumilus 47B) at concentrations of 1 × 108, 3 × 108, and 5 × 108 CFU g-1 feed for 90 days. Immunity parameters, survival rate of fish challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri and ammonia tolerance were also investigated. The amounts of B. amyloliquefaciens and B. pumilus were counted and identified by specific primer pairs of Ba1-F/Ba1-R, and 16-F/Bpu-R to confirm the presence of probiotics in fish intestine. The AWG (476.6 ± 7.81 g fish-1) of fish fed probiotics at 5 × 108 CFU g-1 was significant higher than the control (390 ± 25.7 g fish-1) after 90 days of feeding, but there was no significant (P > 0.05) effect of probiotics on FCR and SGR. Fish fed diet containing probiotics at 5 × 108 CFU g-1 also expressed resistance to E. ictaluri infection and higher immune parameters such as phagocytic activity, respiratory bursts, and lysozyme activity than the control. Stress response with ammonia showed significantly lower mortality rate (25%, 20% and 27%) of fish fed probiotics at all three levels of 1, 3 and 5 × 108 CFU g-1 than the fish fed control diet (75%). The study also demonstrated that the probiotics survived in the intestine of striped catfish after 90 days of feeding. Therefore, the dietary supplementation of a mixture of B. amyloliquefaciens and B. pumilus at 5 × 108 CFU g-1 can be used to improve the health and growth rate of striped catfish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis list: Su(var)3-7 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Su(var)3-7 Adult,Embryo,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3.../target/Su(var)3-7.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)3-7.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)3-7.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/c...olo/Su(var)3-7.Adult.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(v...ar)3-7.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)3-7.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience

  17. Using ClinVar as a Resource to Support Variant Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Steven M.; Riggs, Erin R.; Maglott, Donna R.; Lee, Jennifer M.; Azzariti, Danielle R.; Niehaus, Annie; Ramos, Erin M.; Martin, Christa L.; Landrum, Melissa J.; Rehm, Heidi L.

    2016-01-01

    ClinVar is a freely accessible, public archive of reports of the relationships among genomic variants and phenotypes. To facilitate evaluation of the clinical significance of each variant, ClinVar aggregates submissions of the same variant, displays supporting data from each submission, and determines if the submitted clinical interpretations are conflicting or concordant. The unit describes how to (1) identify sequence and structural variants of interest in ClinVar with by multiple searching approaches, including Variation Viewer and (2) understand the display of submissions to ClinVar and the evidence supporting each interpretation. By following this protocol, ClinVar users will be able to learn how to incorporate the wealth of resources and knowledge in ClinVar into variant curation and interpretation. PMID:27037489

  18. Using ClinVar as a Resource to Support Variant Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Steven M; Riggs, Erin R; Maglott, Donna R; Lee, Jennifer M; Azzariti, Danielle R; Niehaus, Annie; Ramos, Erin M; Martin, Christa L; Landrum, Melissa J; Rehm, Heidi L

    2016-04-01

    ClinVar is a freely accessible, public archive of reports of the relationships among genomic variants and phenotypes. To facilitate evaluation of the clinical significance of each variant, ClinVar aggregates submissions of the same variant, displays supporting data from each submission, and determines if the submitted clinical interpretations are conflicting or concordant. The unit describes how to (1) identify sequence and structural variants of interest in ClinVar by multiple searching approaches, including Variation Viewer and (2) understand the display of submissions to ClinVar and the evidence supporting each interpretation. By following this protocol, ClinVar users will be able to learn how to incorporate the wealth of resources and knowledge in ClinVar into variant curation and interpretation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Structural insight into epitopes in the pregnancy-associated malaria protein VAR2CSA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Andersen

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy-associated malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites binding specifically to chondroitin sulfate A in the placenta. This sequestration of parasites is a major cause of low birth weight in infants and anemia in the mothers. VAR2CSA, a polymorphic multi-domain protein of the PfEMP1 family, is the main parasite ligand for CSA binding, and identification of protective antibody epitopes is essential for VAR2CSA vaccine development. Attempts to determine the crystallographic structures of VAR2CSA or its domains have not been successful yet. In this study, we propose 3D models for each of the VAR2CSA DBL domains and we show that regions in the fold of VAR2CSA inter-domain 2 and a PfEMP1 CIDR domain seem to be homologous to the EBA-175 and Pk alpha-DBL fold. This suggests that ID2 could be a functional domain. We also identify regions of VAR2CSA present on the surface of native VAR2CSA by comparing reactivity of plasma containing anti-VAR2CSA antibodies in peptide array experiments before and after incubation with native VAR2CSA. By this method we identify conserved VAR2CSA regions targeted by antibodies that react with the native molecule expressed on infected erythrocytes. By mapping the data onto the DBL models we present evidence suggesting that the S1+S2 DBL sub-domains are generally surface-exposed in most domains, whereas the S3 sub-domains are less exposed in native VAR2CSA. These results comprise an important step towards understanding the structure of VAR2CSA on the surface of CSA-binding infected erythrocytes.

  20. Comparison between 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation methods for the simulation of a heavy rainfall case in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Vincenzo; Maiello, Ida; Capozzi, Vincenzo; Budillon, Giorgio; Ferretti, Rossella

    2017-08-01

    This work aims to provide a comparison between three dimensional and four dimensional variational data assimilation methods (3D-Var and 4D-Var) for a heavy rainfall case in central Italy. To evaluate the impact of the assimilation of reflectivity and radial velocity acquired from Monte Midia Doppler radar into the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model, the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) is used.The two methods are compared for a heavy rainfall event that occurred in central Italy on 14 September 2012 during the first Special Observation Period (SOP1) of the HyMeX (HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment) campaign. This event, characterized by a deep low pressure system over the Tyrrhenian Sea, produced flash floods over the Marche and Abruzzo regions, where rainfall maxima reached more than 150 mm 24 h-1.To identify the best QPF, nine experiments are performed using 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation techniques. All simulations are compared in terms of rainfall forecast and precipitation measured by the gauges through three statistical indicators: probability of detection (POD), critical success index (CSI) and false alarm ratio (FAR). The assimilation of conventional observations with 4D-Var method improves the QPF compared to 3D-Var. In addition, the use of radar measurements in 4D-Var simulations enhances the performances of statistical scores for higher rainfall thresholds.

  1. Comparison between 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation methods for the simulation of a heavy rainfall case in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mazzarella

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to provide a comparison between three dimensional and four dimensional variational data assimilation methods (3D-Var and 4D-Var for a heavy rainfall case in central Italy. To evaluate the impact of the assimilation of reflectivity and radial velocity acquired from Monte Midia Doppler radar into the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF model, the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF is used.The two methods are compared for a heavy rainfall event that occurred in central Italy on 14 September 2012 during the first Special Observation Period (SOP1 of the HyMeX (HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment campaign. This event, characterized by a deep low pressure system over the Tyrrhenian Sea, produced flash floods over the Marche and Abruzzo regions, where rainfall maxima reached more than 150 mm 24 h−1.To identify the best QPF, nine experiments are performed using 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation techniques. All simulations are compared in terms of rainfall forecast and precipitation measured by the gauges through three statistical indicators: probability of detection (POD, critical success index (CSI and false alarm ratio (FAR. The assimilation of conventional observations with 4D-Var method improves the QPF compared to 3D-Var. In addition, the use of radar measurements in 4D-Var simulations enhances the performances of statistical scores for higher rainfall thresholds.

  2. Validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis in Valsa mali var. mali using real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhiyuan; Ke, Xiwang; Huang, Dingxuan; Gao, Xiaoning; Voegele, Ralf T; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

    2013-09-01

    Valsa mali var. mali (Vmm), is the predominant species of apple valsa canker in China. Modern analysis of genes involved in virulence or pathogenicity usually implicate gene expression analysis most often performed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). However, for relative gene expression analysis pertinent reference genes have to be validated before using them as internal reference. This has not been reported for Vmm, so far. Therefore, eight commonly used housekeeping genes (ACT, CYP, EF1-α, G6PDH, GAPDH, L13, TUB, and UBQ) were cloned and evaluated for their expression stability by geNorm and NormFinder. Overall, all of the candidate reference genes were found to be suitable for gene expression analysis. After analysis of 10 samples from different strains and abiotic stress treatments, G6PDH appeared to be the most suitable reference gene, whereas GAPDH was the least suitable. Moreover, taking G6PDH combined with L13 or CYP as reference genes, improved the reliability of RT-qPCR significantly. The influence of the reference system on expression data was demonstrated by analyzing Vmmpg-1 encoding an endo-polygalacturonase gene. Pectinases are considered key pathogenicity factors for this fungus. In order to better understand the role of pectinases in pathogenicity of Vmm, RT-qPCR was used for expression analysis. Our results may provide a guideline for future studies on gene expression of V. mali var. mali by using RT-qPCR.

  3. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Confers Tolerance to Various Abiotic Stresses and Modulates Plant Response to Phytohormones through Osmoprotection and Gene Expression Regulation in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Tiwari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Being sessile in nature, plants have to withstand various adverse environmental stress conditions including both biotic and abiotic stresses. Comparatively, abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, high temperature, and cold pose major threat to agriculture by negatively impacting plant growth and yield worldwide. Rice is one of the most widely consumed staple cereals across the globe, the production and productivity of which is also severely affected by different abiotic stresses. Therefore, several crop improvement programs are directed toward developing stress tolerant rice cultivars either through marker assisted breeding or transgenic technology. Alternatively, some known rhizospheric competent bacteria are also known to improve plant growth during abiotic stresses. A plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NBRI-SN13 (SN13 was previously reported by our lab to confer salt stress tolerance to rice seedlings. However, the present study investigates the role of SN13 in ameliorating various abiotic stresses such as salt, drought, desiccation, heat, cold, and freezing on a popular rice cv. Saryu-52 under hydroponic growth conditions. Apart from this, seedlings were also exogenously supplied with abscisic acid (ABA, salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and ethephon (ET to study the role of SN13 in phytohormone-induced stress tolerance as well as its role in abiotic and biotic stress cross-talk. All abiotic stresses and phytohormone treatments significantly affected various physiological and biochemical parameters like membrane integrity and osmolyte accumulation. SN13 also positively modulated stress-responsive gene expressions under various abiotic stresses and phytohormone treatments suggesting its multifaceted role in cross-talk among stresses and phytohormones in response to PGPR. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on detailed analysis of plant growth promotion and stress alleviation by a

  4. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis to control filarial vector Culex pipiens pallens and its antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Hatem; Hongjie, Li; Yanmei, Ding; Baoting, Yu; El-Shakh, Ahmed; Abbas, Ghulam; Jianchu, Mo

    2017-11-01

    Culex pipiens pallens are the most common mosquito's vector in Asia. In order to protect the people from diseases, the anti-mosquito population is necessary that uses safe and new bio-pesticides such as bacteria-AgNPs. In our report, we used two kinds of bacteria to synthesize silver nanoparticles to examine the toxic effect on the larvae and pupae of Cx. pipiens pallens and also used as antimicrobial activity. The biosynthesis of AgNPs and its characterization was carried out by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, TEM, SEM, and EDX. The larvicidal and pupicidal assays revealed that the lethal concentration LC50 values of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-AgNPs were 0.72 ppm (I), 0.73 ppm (II), 0.69 ppm (III), 1.16 ppm (IV), and 4.18 (Pupae), while LC50 values of Bacillus subtilis-AgNPs were 0.60 ppm (I), 0.62 ppm (II), 0.21 ppm (III), 0.28 ppm (IV), and 3.46 ppm (Pupae) after 72 h of exposure. Antibacterial activity test of AgNPs reveals better results against rice pathogenic bacteria than bacteria alone. Thus, bacteria-mediated silver nanoparticles have a rapid effect on vector mosquito and microbial pathogen suggesting savings of energy and resources. Hence, bacteria-AgNPs may be used in the future as an effective weapon to control vector mosquito and harmful bacteria.

  5. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Confers Tolerance to Various Abiotic Stresses and Modulates Plant Response to Phytohormones through Osmoprotection and Gene Expression Regulation in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Shalini; Prasad, Vivek; Chauhan, Puneet S; Lata, Charu

    2017-01-01

    Being sessile in nature, plants have to withstand various adverse environmental stress conditions including both biotic and abiotic stresses. Comparatively, abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, high temperature, and cold pose major threat to agriculture by negatively impacting plant growth and yield worldwide. Rice is one of the most widely consumed staple cereals across the globe, the production and productivity of which is also severely affected by different abiotic stresses. Therefore, several crop improvement programs are directed toward developing stress tolerant rice cultivars either through marker assisted breeding or transgenic technology. Alternatively, some known rhizospheric competent bacteria are also known to improve plant growth during abiotic stresses. A plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NBRI-SN13 (SN13) was previously reported by our lab to confer salt stress tolerance to rice seedlings. However, the present study investigates the role of SN13 in ameliorating various abiotic stresses such as salt, drought, desiccation, heat, cold, and freezing on a popular rice cv. Saryu-52 under hydroponic growth conditions. Apart from this, seedlings were also exogenously supplied with abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethephon (ET) to study the role of SN13 in phytohormone-induced stress tolerance as well as its role in abiotic and biotic stress cross-talk. All abiotic stresses and phytohormone treatments significantly affected various physiological and biochemical parameters like membrane integrity and osmolyte accumulation. SN13 also positively modulated stress-responsive gene expressions under various abiotic stresses and phytohormone treatments suggesting its multifaceted role in cross-talk among stresses and phytohormones in response to PGPR. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on detailed analysis of plant growth promotion and stress alleviation by a PGPR in rice

  6. Limited prevalence of gaffkaemia (Aerococcus viridans var. homari) isolated from wild-caught European lobsters Homarus gammarus in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbing, P D; Pond, M J; Peeler, E; Small, H J; Greenwood, S J; Verner-Jeffreys, D

    2012-08-27

    Gaffkaemia, caused by Aerococcus viridans var. homari, causes fatal infections in Homarus spp. (clawed lobsters). Despite its high economic significance to the lobster fisheries in the USA and northern Europe, data on its prevalence in captured and wild populations, particularly in Europe, is scarce. Following an outbreak of gaffkaemia in a European lobster holding facility in South Wales (UK), a base-line survey was conducted for gaffkaemia in wild populations of European lobster Homarus gammarus around the coast of England and Wales. In addition, isolates recovered from the original outbreak and the survey were typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and compared with previously characterised isolates from the USA, UK and Canada. Locally caught H. gammarus were sampled at 30 sites from around the coast of England and Wales between March 2006 and October 2008. Results confirmed that the prevalence of gaffkaemia in populations of H. gammarus was low, with only 9 positive isolates recovered from 952 samples examined. PFGE analysis showed that the isolates from the outbreak investigation shared the same pulsotype as A. viridans var. homari isolates from the USA, Norway and Canada, as well as an isolate (NCIMB 1119) reportedly recovered from an outbreak of European lobsters in England in the 1960s. This confirms earlier studies that suggest virulent strains of A. viridans var. homari show very limited geographical or temporal genetic variation and were introduced into the UK with American lobsters H. americanus.

  7. A new phenolic glycoside from Spiraea prunifolia var. simpliciflora twigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Wan; Suh, Won Se; Kim, Chung Sub; Kim, Ki Hyun; Lee, Kang Ro

    2015-11-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the methanol extract from the twigs of Spiraea prunifolia var. simpliciflora (Rosaceae) using column chromatography led to the isolation of a new phenol glycoside, 1-O-(E)-caffeoyl-2-O-p-(E)-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranose (1), together with 16 known phenolic compounds (2-17). The structure of this new compound was elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data including 1D, 2D nuclear magnetic resonance and HR-FAB-MS data. The isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines in vitro using the sulforhodamine B bioassay.

  8. Biotransformation of patchoulol by Cunninghamella echinulata var. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fangfang; Liao, Kangsheng; Liu, Yuhong; Zhang, Zhenbiao; Guo, Dean; Su, Ziren; Liu, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Biocatalysis of patchoulol (PA) was performed by the fungus Cunninghamella echinulata var. elegans. Eight metabolites (1-8) including four new compounds were obtained, and their structures were elucidated as (5R,8S)-5,8 dihydroxypatchoulol (1), (5R*,9R*)-5,9 dihydroxypatchoulol (2), (6S*, 9S*)-6,9 dihydroxypatchoulol (3), and (4R*)-4 hydroxypatchoulol (4) by spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Five new schinortriterpenoids from Schisandra propinqua var. propinqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wen-Ping; Hu, Kun; Liu, Miao; Li, Xing-Ren; Chen, Rong; Li, Xiao-Nian; Du, Xue; Puno, Pema-Tenzin; Sun, Han-Dong

    2018-02-14

    Five new schinortriterpenoids, propinqtrilactones A and B (1 and 2) with rare lancischiartane scaffold, and propindilactones V-X (3-5), were isolated from the stems and leaves of Schisandra propinqua var. propinqua. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analysis. The absolute configurations of 1-5 were determined by CD methods, X-ray diffraction analysis and theoretical calculations. 4 was tested for its cytotoxic activities against five human tumor cell lines. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. A New Languidulane Diterpenoid from Salvia mexicana var. mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cárdenas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available From the aerial parts of Salvia mexicana var. mexicana, two C-10 epimers (α and β of salvimexicanolide were isolated. Our interpretation of the data, especially the 13C NMR, led us to conclude that the previously described 13C-NMR spectrum of the α-epimer was not accurately assigned and it actually corresponds to the β-epimer. The structures proposed for the salvimexicanolides were verified by means of NOESY experiments. Dugesin B, arbutin, naringenin and the mixture of oleanolic and ursolic acids were also isolated from this Salvia spp.

  11. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: zhoujun3264@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: zhaoyouxing@itbb.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Resources of Tropical Crops. Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology. Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences (China)

    2013-09-15

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  12. Molecular analysis of the genes involved in aroma synthesis in the species S. cerevisiae, S. kudriavzevii and S. bayanus var. uvarum in winemaking conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Gamero

    Full Text Available The Saccharomyces genus is the main yeast involved in wine fermentations to play a crucial role in the production and release of aromatic compounds. Despite the several studies done into the genome-wide expression analysis using DNA microarray technology in wine S. cerevisiae strains, this is the first to investigate other species of the Saccharomyces genus. This research work investigates the expression of the genes involved in flavor compound production in three different Saccharomyces species (S. cerevisiae, S. bayanus var. uvarum and S. kudriavzevii under low (12°C and moderate fermentation temperatures (28°C. The global genes analysis showed that 30% of genes appeared to be differently expressed in the three cryophilic strains if compared to the reference strain (mesophilic S. cerevisiae, suggesting a very close cold adaptation response. Remarkable differences in the gene expression level were observed when comparing the three species, S. cerevisiae, S. bayanus var. uvarum and S. kudriavzevii, which will result in different aroma profiles. Knowledge of these differences in the transcriptome can be a tool to help modulate aroma to create wines with the desired aromatic traits.

  13. Molecular analysis of the genes involved in aroma synthesis in the species S. cerevisiae, S. kudriavzevii and S. bayanus var. uvarum in winemaking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero, Amparo; Belloch, Carmela; Ibáñez, Clara; Querol, Amparo

    2014-01-01

    The Saccharomyces genus is the main yeast involved in wine fermentations to play a crucial role in the production and release of aromatic compounds. Despite the several studies done into the genome-wide expression analysis using DNA microarray technology in wine S. cerevisiae strains, this is the first to investigate other species of the Saccharomyces genus. This research work investigates the expression of the genes involved in flavor compound production in three different Saccharomyces species (S. cerevisiae, S. bayanus var. uvarum and S. kudriavzevii) under low (12°C) and moderate fermentation temperatures (28°C). The global genes analysis showed that 30% of genes appeared to be differently expressed in the three cryophilic strains if compared to the reference strain (mesophilic S. cerevisiae), suggesting a very close cold adaptation response. Remarkable differences in the gene expression level were observed when comparing the three species, S. cerevisiae, S. bayanus var. uvarum and S. kudriavzevii, which will result in different aroma profiles. Knowledge of these differences in the transcriptome can be a tool to help modulate aroma to create wines with the desired aromatic traits.

  14. Persistence of Toxic Activity of Fermentation Extracts from Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis after More Than Three Decades of Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Jesús Galán-Wong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the persistence of toxicity of fermentation extracts of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis after more than three decades of storage. For this purpose, a population of Aedes aegypti was established. The mortality rate of 20 spore-crystal extracts purified using the acetone-lactose coprecipitation method was measured and evaluated by bioassays according to a modified WHO protocol. The extracts with the highest mortality rate were determined in triplicate by their LD50 and LD98. All extracts showed toxicity at the highest tested dose (1000 ppm and some, such as strains 3260 and 3501, still killed larvae at doses as low as 0.01 ppm. These data are surprising because no study on the activity of B. thuringiensis toxic proteins after such a long storage time has been reported.

  15. Clinical development of a VAR2CSA-based placental malaria vaccine PAMVAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gbédandé, Komi; Fievet, Nadine; Viwami, Firmine

    2017-01-01

    Background  The antigen VAR2CSA plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) caused by Plasmodium falciparum. A VAR2CSA-based vaccine candidate, PAMVAC, is under development by an EU-funded multi-country consortium (PlacMalVac project). As part of PAMVAC...

  16. Return predictability and intertemporal asset allocation: Evidence from a bias-adjusted VAR model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    We extend the VAR based intertemporal asset allocation approach from Campbell et al. (2003) to the case where the VAR parameter estimates are adjusted for small- sample bias. We apply the analytical bias formula from Pope (1990) using both Campbell et al.'s dataset, and an extended dataset...

  17. Coumarins from Murraya paniculata var. zollingeri endemic to the Timor Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Naoko; Yamada, Hiromi; Ju-ichi, Motoharu; Uji, Tahan; Kinoshita, Takeshi; Ito, Chihiro

    2015-02-01

    Four new coumarins, murrangatin-1'-senecioate (1), 5-methoxypanial (2), mexoticin-2'-senecioate (3) and murralongic acid (4), were isolated from the leaves of Murraya paniculata var. zollingeri, together with 23 known coumarins. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic data. The taxonomic status of M. paniculata var. zollingeri is briefly discussed, along with its similarity to M. paniculata.

  18. Scleria neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis (Cyperaceae, a New Variety from Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind M. Sardesai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new variety of Scleria P. J. Bergius (Cyperaceae S. neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis from Central India is described here with description, line-drawing, photographic illustration and notes. It resembles with S. neesii Kunth var. neesii in overall morphology but differs in having milky white nuts covered with ribbon like hairs on distinct stalk.

  19. The root anchorage ability of Salix alba var. tristis using a pull-out test

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because Salix alba var. tristis has a strong capability of keeping moisture, preventing drought and reducing wind, we selected it as a model species for soil bioengineering research and application in Beijing, China. In this study, we aimed to investigate the soil-reinforcing effects by Salix alba var. tristis. We performed a ...

  20. Mixed meningitis: association of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var lwoffi and Streptococcus faecium.

    OpenAIRE

    Sarma, P. S.; Mohanty, S.

    1995-01-01

    We describe mixed bacterial meningitis in a young man due to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var lwoffi and Streptococcus faecium. The combination of A calcoaceticus var lwoffi and S faecium as aetiology of mixed bacterial meningitis has not been previously reported. The patient recovered completely without neurologic sequelae on chloramphenicol and penicillin.

  1. Inhibitory effects of Fortunella japonica var. margarita and Citrus sunki essential oils on nitric oxide production and skin pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun-Jin; Kim, Sang Suk; Moon, Ji-Young; Oh, Tae-Heon; Baik, Jong Seok; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2010-03-01

    A number of essential oils from citrus peels are claimed to have biological activities. Citrus peel, called 'Jin-Pi', is used in traditional medicine for digestion, severe cold, and fever. However, the antibacterial activities against skin pathogens and anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oils of Citrus sunki (JinGyul) and Fortunella japonica var. margarita (GumGyul) have not yet been described. Therefore, in this study, the essential oils of the citrus species C. sunki (CSE) and F. japonica var. margarita (FJE), both native to the island of Jeju, Korea, were examined for their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities against skin pathogens. Four human skin pathogenic microorganisms, Staphylococcus epidermidis CCARM 3709, Propionibacterium acnes CCARM 0081, Malassezia furfur KCCM 12679, and Candida albicans KCCM 11282, were studied. CSE and FJE exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against most of the pathogenic bacteria and yeast strains that were tested. Interestingly, CSE and FJE even showed antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant S. epidermidis CCARM 3710, S. epidermidis CCARM 3711, P. acnes CCARM9009, and P. acnes CCARM9010 strains. In addition, CSE and FJE reduced the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced secretion of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW 264.7 cells, indicating that they have anti-inflammatory effects. We also analysed the chemical composition of the oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and identified several major components, including dl-limonene (68.18%) and beta-myrcene (4.36%) for CSE, and dl-limonene (61.58%) and carvone (6.36%) for FJE. Taken together, these findings indicate that CSE and FJE have great potential to be used in human skin health applications.

  2. Chemical composition and herbicidal potent of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and cabbage turnip (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes). Saad, I., Rinez, I., Ghezal, N., and Haouala, R. (Tunisia)

    OpenAIRE

    Inès Saad; Imen Rinez; Nadia Ghezal; Rabiaa Haouala

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the phytochemical content and allelopathic potential of two cabbages botanical varieties leaves, ie. cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and cabbage turnip (B. oleracea var. gongylodes). Their aqueous and organic extracts were evaluated on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and one of the most dominant weeds in Tunisia, nettle-leaf goosefoot (Chenopodium murale). Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the smothering potential of the two v...

  3. Global Sensitivity Analysis of the WASIM hydrological model using VARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan Anis, Muhammad; Haghnegahdar, Amin; Razavi, Saman; Wheater, Howard

    2017-04-01

    Sensitivity analysis (SA) aims to identify the key parameters that affect model performance and it plays an important role in model understanding, calibration, and uncertainty quantification. The increasing complexity of physically-based hydrological models warrants application of comprehensive SA methods for an improved and effective application of hydrological modeling. This study aims to provide a comprehensive sensitivity assessment of WaSiM (Richards version 9.03) hydrological model using a novel and efficient global SA technique Variogram Analysis of Response Surface (VARS), at the experimental Schaefertal catchment (1.44 Km2) in lower Harz Mountains Germany. WaSiM is a distributed hydrological model that can simulate surface and sub-surface flows at various spatial and temporal scales. VARS is a variogram-based framework for global SA that can characterize the full spectrum of sensitivity-related information, thereby providing a comprehensive set of "global" sensitivity metrics with minimal computational cost. Our preliminary SA results show that simulated streamflows in WaSim-ETH are most sensitive to precipitation correction factor followed by parameters related to the snowmelt and flow density. We aim to expand this sensitivity assessment by conducting a more comprehensive global SA with more than 70 parameters from various model components corresponding to interception, infiltration, evapotranspiration, snowmelt, and runoff. This will enable us to provide an enhanced understanding of WaSiM structure and identify dominant controls of its behavior that can be utilized to reduce model prediction uncertainty and reduce parameters needed for calibration.

  4. Metabolic and bioactivity insights into Brassica oleracea var. acephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Fernandes, Fátima; Sousa, Carla; Valentão, Patrícia; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B

    2009-10-14

    Seeds of Brassica oleracea var. acephala (kale) were analyzed by HPLC/UV-PAD/MSn-ESI. Several phenolic acids and flavonol derivatives were identified. The seeds of this B. oleracea variety exhibited more flavonol derivatives than those of tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. costata), also characterized in this paper. Quercetin and isorhamnetin derivatives were found only in kale seeds. Oxalic, aconitic, citric, pyruvic, malic, quinic, shikimic, and fumaric acids were the organic acids present in these matrices, malic acid being predominant in kale and citric acid in tronchuda cabbage seeds. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity was determined in aqueous extracts from both seeds. Kale leaves and butterflies, larvae, and excrements of Pieris brassicae reared on kale were also evaluated. Kale seeds were the most effective AChE inhibitor, followed by tronchuda cabbage seeds and kale leaves. With regard to P. brassicae material, excrements exhibited stronger inhibitory capacity. These results may be explained by the presence of sinapine, an analogue of acetylcholine, only in seed materials. A strong concentration-dependent antioxidant capacity against DPPH, nitric oxide, and superoxide radicals was observed for kale seeds.

  5. MODEL NON LINIER GARCH (NGARCH UNTUK MENGESTIMASI NILAI VALUE at RISK (VaR PADA IHSG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I KOMANG TRY BAYU MAHENDRA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In investment, risk measurement is important. One of risk measure is Value at Risk (VaR. There are many methods that can be used to estimate risk based on VaR framework. One of them Non Linier GARCH (NGARCH model. In this research, determination of VaR used NGARCH model. NGARCH model allowed for asymetric behaviour in the volatility such that “good news” or positive return and “bad news” or negative return. Based on calculations of VaR, the higher of the confidence level and the longer the investment period, the risk was greater. Determination of VaR using NGARCH model was less than GARCH model.

  6. Occurrence of Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum along the southern coast of the Baja California Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gárate-Lizárraga, Ismael; González-Armas, Rogelio

    2011-03-01

    As part of a continuing toxic microalgae monitoring program, 22 phytoplankton samples were collected from July to November 2010 at several sampling stations along the southern coast of the Baja California Peninsula. For the first time, the toxic dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum was found along the southeastern and southwestern coasts of the peninsula. P. bahamense var. bahamense was first observed off San José del Cabo, which is an extension of the range of this variety. Both varieties occur as solitary cells. P. bahamense var. compressum occurred at temperatures ranging between 24.5°C and 31°C, whereas var. P.bahamense occurred at 28.5°C to 29°C, indicating its tropical and subtropical nature. Occurrence of P. bahamense var. compressum along this coastline may be related to El Niño 2009-2010. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Empirical analysis on future-cash arbitrage risk with portfolio VaR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongda; Li, Cong; Wang, Weijin; Wang, Ze

    2014-03-01

    This paper constructs the positive arbitrage position by alternating the spot index with Chinese Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) portfolio and estimating the arbitrage-free interval of futures with the latest trade data. Then, an improved Delta-normal method was used, which replaces the simple linear correlation coefficient with tail dependence correlation coefficient, to measure VaR (Value-at-risk) of the arbitrage position. Analysis of VaR implies that the risk of future-cash arbitrage is less than that of investing completely in either futures or spot market. Then according to the compositional VaR and the marginal VaR, we should increase the futures position and decrease the spot position appropriately to minimize the VaR, which can minimize risk subject to certain revenues.

  8. Novel adenovirus encoded virus-like particles displaying the placental malaria associated VAR2CSA antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anne-Marie C; dos Santos Marques Resende, Mafalda; Salanti, Ali

    2017-01-01

    and the CSA binding region of VAR2CSA has been identified as a promising vaccine target against placental malaria. Here we designed adenovirus encoded virus-like particles (VLP) by co-encoding Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) gag and VAR2CSA. The VAR2CSA antigen was fused to the transmembrane (TM......The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum presents antigens on the infected erythrocyte surface that bind human receptors expressed on the vascular endothelium. The VAR2CSA mediated binding to a distinct chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) is a crucial step in the pathophysiology of placental malaria......CSA fused to HA TM-CT was significantly superior in inducing ID1-ID2a specific antibodies after the first immunization. A sequential study was performed to include a comparison to the soluble VAR2CSA protein vaccine, which has entered a phase I clinical trial (NCT02647489). The results revealed...

  9. Insight into Antigenic Diversity of VAR2CSA-DBL5 epsilon Domain from Multiple Plasmodium falciparum Placental Isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnidehou, Sedami; Jessen, Leon Ivar; Gangnard, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    Background: Protection against pregnancy associated malaria (PAM) is associated with high levels of anti-VAR2CSA antibodies. This protection is obtained by the parity dependent acquisition of anti-VAR2CSA antibodies. Distinct parity-associated molecular signatures have been identified in VAR2CSA ...

  10. Optimizing expression of the pregnancy malaria vaccine candidate, VAR2CSA in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narum David L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background VAR2CSA is the main candidate for a vaccine against pregnancy-associated malaria, but vaccine development is complicated by the large size and complex disulfide bonding pattern of the protein. Recent X-ray crystallographic information suggests that domain boundaries of VAR2CSA Duffy binding-like (DBL domains may be larger than previously predicted and include two additional cysteine residues. This study investigated whether longer constructs would improve VAR2CSA recombinant protein secretion from Pichia pastoris and if domain boundaries were applicable across different VAR2CSA alleles. Methods VAR2CSA sequences were bioinformatically analysed to identify the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues at the C-termini of DBL domains and revised N- and C-termimal domain boundaries were predicted in VAR2CSA. Multiple construct boundaries were systematically evaluated for protein secretion in P. pastoris and secreted proteins were tested as immunogens. Results From a total of 42 different VAR2CSA constructs, 15 proteins (36% were secreted. Longer construct boundaries, including the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues, generally improved expression of poorly or non-secreted domains and permitted expression of all six VAR2CSA DBL domains. However, protein secretion was still highly empiric and affected by subtle differences in domain boundaries and allelic variation between VAR2CSA sequences. Eleven of the secreted proteins were used to immunize rabbits. Antibodies reacted with CSA-binding infected erythrocytes, indicating that P. pastoris recombinant proteins possessed native protein epitopes. Conclusion These findings strengthen emerging data for a revision of DBL domain boundaries in var-encoded proteins and may facilitate pregnancy malaria vaccine development.

  11. Concern about the spread of the invader seaweed Caulerpa taxifolia var. distichophylla (Chlorophyta: Caulerpales towards the West Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. MUSCO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The new Australian alien seaweed Caulerpa taxifolia var. distichophylla, after being established along the Turkish Mediterranean coast in 2006, was recorded in Southern Sicily in 2007. Since then local fishermen claimed support to counteract the effects of entanglement of large amounts of the alien strain wrack in their trammel nets, causing the gear to become ineffective. The further northward and westward spread of the new alien strain is supposed to be limited by winter temperature. We present novel data confirming that the new alien strain is fully naturalized in Central Mediterranean and is expanding its range beyond such limit (i.e. the 15°C February isotherm, thus becoming potentially able to colonize the western basin. By means of a preliminary estimation of effects on native polychaete assemblages, and considering some peculiarities of Sicily (mostly linked to its geographical position in the Mediterranean Sea, the risk linked to the increasing range of distribution of the invasive algae is highlighted.

  12. Investigations of multiresistance to antibiotics and chemotherapeutics and extended spectrum beta: Lactamase effect (ESBL test in strains E.coli and salmonella originating from domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišić Dušan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of multiresistance to the effects of antibiotics and chemotherapeutics and extended spectrum beta-lactamase were examined in 45 strains of E. coli and 35 strains of Salmonella. The strains of E. coli originated from several species of domestic animals: dogs, cats, poultry, and cattle, and 30 strains of Salmonella originated from poultry, 4 strains from cattle, and 1 strain from swine. The presence of the following serovarieties was established using serological examinations: Salmonella Enteritidis 17 strains, Salmonella Gallinarum 1 strain, Salmonella Hartford 5 strains, Salmonella Anatum 1 strain, Salmonella Typhimurium 4 strains, Salmonella Agona 1 strain, Salmonella Infantis 1 strain, Salmonella Thompson var. Berlin 1 strain, Salmonella Tennessee 1 strain, Salmonella Senftenberg 1 strain, Salmonella Glostrup 1 strain, and Salmonella Hadar 1 strain. In the examinations of the listed strains we used antibiogram discs of ampicillin, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, cephalexin, cephtriaxon, cephotaxim, cephtazidime, aztreonam, gentamycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, cyprofloxacine, and a combination of sulphamethoxasole and trimethoprim. The lowest prevalence of multiresistance in E. Coli strains to 3 or more antibiotics was established in dogs 20%, and the highest in 60% strains originating from swine. In 62.88% strains of Salmonella we established sensitivity to all applied antibiotics. Resistance was also established in a small number of the examined strains to ampicillin (11 strains, to tetracycline (5 strains, to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (5 strains, to sulphamethoxasole with trimethoprim (5 strains, to gentamycin (3 strains, and to cloramphenicol (1 strain. Of all the examined strains of Salmonella, 6 strains originating from poultry exhibited multiresistence. The presence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase effects examined using the ESBL test, was not established in strains of E. coli and Salmonella strains.

  13. Cyclic Lipopeptides of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum Colonizing the Lettuce Rhizosphere Enhance Plant Defense Responses Toward the Bottom Rot Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Soumitra Paul; Uhl, Jenny; Grosch, Rita; Alquéres, Sylvia; Pittroff, Sabrina; Dietel, Kristin; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Borriss, Rainer; Hartmann, Anton

    2015-09-01

    The commercially available inoculant Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is able to considerably reduce lettuce bottom rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani. To understand the interaction between FZB42 and R. solani in the rhizosphere of lettuce, we used an axenic system with lettuce bacterized with FZB42 and inoculated with R. solani. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that FZB42 could delay the initial establishment of R. solani on the plants. To show which secondary metabolites of FZB42 are produced under these in-situ conditions, we developed an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry-based method and identified surfactin, fengycin, and bacillomycin D in the lettuce rhizosphere. We hypothesized that lipopeptides and polyketides play a role in enhancing the plant defense responses in addition to the direct antagonistic effect toward R. solani and used a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay for marker genes involved in defense signaling pathways in lettuce. A significant higher expression of PDF 1.2 observed in the bacterized plants in response to subsequent pathogen challenge showed that FZB42 could enhance the lettuce defense response toward the fungal pathogen. To identify if surfactin or other nonribosomally synthesized secondary metabolites could elicit the observed enhanced defense gene expression, we examined two mutants of FZB42 deficient in production of surfactin and the lipopetides and polyketides, by expression analysis and pot experiments. In the absence of surfactin and other nonribosomally synthesized secondary metabolites, there was no enhanced PDF 1.2-mediated response to the pathogen challenge. Pot experiment results showed that the mutants failed to reduce disease incidence in lettuce as compared with the FZB42 wild type, indicating, that surfactin as well as other nonribosomally synthesized secondary metabolites play a role in the actual disease suppression and on lettuce

  14. The chondroitin sulfate A-binding site of the VAR2CSA protein involves multiple N-terminal domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Jørgensen, Lars M; Nielsen, Morten A

    2011-01-01

    shown that full-length recombinant VAR2CSA binds specifically to CSA with high affinity, however to date no sub-fragment of VAR2CSA has been shown to interact with CSA with similar affinity or specificity. In this study, we used a biosensor technology to examine the binding properties of a panel...... of truncated VAR2CSA proteins. The experiments indicate that the core of the CSA-binding site is situated in three domains, DBL2X-CIDR(PAM) and a flanking domain, located in the N-terminal part of VAR2CSA. Furthermore, recombinant VAR2CSA subfragments containing this region elicit antibodies with high parasite...

  15. Total lipids and fatty acids of strains of Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pupin Antonio Marcos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two growth stages, conidia (C and mycelium (M, and two media, minimal medium (MM and complete medium (MC, were compared in 10 strains of M. anisopliae, and two strains of M. anisopliae var. majus were similar in percentages of total lipids. Tukey test for average of lipid content in conidia (C and mycelia (M cultured on minimal (MM and complete (MC media showed significant differences between means at the 5% level for mycelia and conidia, indicating variability in total lipid production and storage during growth. Strains 5 and 7, both variety majus, did not present sizable differences from variety anisopliae. For fatty acids, C18:1 and C18:2, oleic and linoleic, respectively, the differences were all highly significant (p= 1% with the highest means being obtained for conidia for fatty acid C18:1 and for myclelia for fatty acid C18:2.

  16. Antagonistic Activities of Bacillus spp. Strains Isolated from Tidal Flat Sediment Towards Anthracnose Pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Hee Han

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is a fungal disease caused by Colletotrichum species that is detrimental to numerous plant species. Anthracnose control with fungicides has both human health and environmental safety implications. Despite increasing public concerns, fungicide use will continue in the absence of viable alternatives. There have been relatively less efforts to search antagonistic bacteria from mudflats harboring microbial diversity. A total of 420 bacterial strains were isolated from mudflats near the western sea of South Korea. Five bacterial strains, LB01, LB14, HM03, HM17, and LB15, were characterized as having antifungal properties in the presence of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. The three Bacillus atrophaeus strains, LB14, HM03, and HM17, produced large quantities of chitinase and protease enzymes, whereas the B. amyloliquefaciens strain LB01 produced protease and cellulase enzymes. Two important antagonistic traits, siderophore production and solubilization of insoluble phosphate, were observed in the three B. atrophaeus strains. Analyses of disease suppression revealed that LB14 was most effective for suppressing the incidence of anthracnose symptoms on pepper fruits. LB14 produced antagonistic compounds and suppressed conidial germination of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. The results from the present study will provide a basis for developing a reliable alternative to fungicides for anthracnose control.

  17. Updates of the HbVar database of human hemoglobin variants and thalassemia mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardine, Belinda; Borg, Joseph; Viennas, Emmanouil; Pavlidis, Cristiana; Moradkhani, Kamran; Joly, Philippe; Bartsakoulia, Marina; Riemer, Cathy; Miller, Webb; Tzimas, Giannis; Wajcman, Henri; Hardison, Ross C; Patrinos, George P

    2014-01-01

    HbVar (http://globin.bx.psu.edu/hbvar) is one of the oldest and most appreciated locus-specific databases launched in 2001 by a multi-center academic effort to provide timely information on the genomic alterations leading to hemoglobin variants and all types of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies. Database records include extensive phenotypic descriptions, biochemical and hematological effects, associated pathology and ethnic occurrence, accompanied by mutation frequencies and references. Here, we report updates to >600 HbVar entries, inclusion of population-specific data for 28 populations and 27 ethnic groups for α-, and β-thalassemias and additional querying options in the HbVar query page. HbVar content was also inter-connected with two other established genetic databases, namely FINDbase (http://www.findbase.org) and Leiden Open-Access Variation database (http://www.lovd.nl), which allows comparative data querying and analysis. HbVar data content has contributed to the realization of two collaborative projects to identify genomic variants that lie on different globin paralogs. Most importantly, HbVar data content has contributed to demonstrate the microattribution concept in practice. These updates significantly enriched the database content and querying potential, enhanced the database profile and data quality and broadened the inter-relation of HbVar with other databases, which should increase the already high impact of this resource to the globin and genetic database community.

  18. BASIC ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES of Ammannia auriculata var. arenaria (LYTHRACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AYBEKE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in order to define some anatomical characteristics of Ammannia auriculata Willd. var. arenaria (Kunth Koehne (Lythraceae to ensure a proper identification of the species and prevent confusion with other plants. Roots, leaves and stems of the plants were fixed in Formalin-Aceto-Alcohol (FAA, stained with various dyes, examined under a microscope and their photos were taken. The microscopic investigations of the plant parts revealed that 1 the leaf anatomy showed partly mezophyte character, the stem and roots beared aquatic characters with a wide aeranchymatic cortex and 2 thick lignified secondary xylem tissue in the roots and stems were located outwards of the stele. The results were compared with those of similar studies.

  19. VAR Analysis of the Monetary Transmission Mechanism in Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlan ATABAEV

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the effects of monetary transmission on real output and price level in Kyrgyzstan which is very important issue for central banks. We analyzed the relationships between the money supply, real output, price level, interest rate, credit and real exchange rate by using the vector autoregression approach (VAR and monthly data for 2003-2011. As a result the interest rate channel remains weak, on the other hand it have been revealed that the credit channel has some affects to real output, the exchange rate channel affects the prices. Exchange rate channel remains still the most effective channel. Based on these results, it can be argued that government can use credit and interest rate channel in increasing real output, and the exchange rate channel in achieving price stability in Kyrgyzstan.

  20. Triterpenoid biosynthesis in tissue cultures of Glycyrrhiza glabra var. glandulifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayabe, S; Takano, H; Fujita, T; Furuya, T; Hirota, H; Takahashi, T

    1990-08-01

    The incorporation of [1-(14)C]acetate and [2(14) C]mevalonate into free and esterified triterpen-3-ols was examined in original plant organs and tissue cultures of Glycyrrhiza glabra var. glandulifera. Both substrates labeled β-amyrin, an oleanane-type triterpene, and cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartanol, both of which are intermediates of phytosterol biosynthesis. The label in esterified triterpenes was distributed mainly in phytosterol intermediates, but not in β-amyrin. The ratio of βamyrin formation among the three triterpenes from [2-(14)C]mevalonate was relatively high in stolon segments and in root cultures, but negligible in callus cultures. Administration of a specific inhibitor of squalene-2, 3-epoxide:cycloartenol (lanosterol) cyclase caused a marked increase of β-amyrin synthesis in root suspension cultures, and of 24-methylenecycloartanol synthesis in cell suspension cultures, from [2-(14)C]mevalonate.

  1. Hot air convective dehydration characteristics of Daucus carota var. Nantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raees-ul Haq

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuses on experimental and theoretical study of air dehydration kinetics of Daucus carota var. Nantes in laboratory scale drying chamber. Steam blanching as a pretreatment was applied prior to dehydration of shreds and the results indicated a gradual decrease in drying time from 2.9 to 5.5% in temperature range of 50–70°C, for steam blanched samples in comparison to untreated carrots. Four different mathematical drying models (Newton, Page, Modified Page and Henderson and Pabis were evaluated for goodness of fit by comparing their respective R2, χ2, and RMSE parameters. Comparison of the statistical parameters led to conclusion that Page model showed a better quality of fit and presents dehydration characteristics in better way to obtain drying curves than any other model.

  2. Tillers induction in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Augusto Ochekoski Mossanek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bactris gasipaes produces heart-of-palm. Peach palm is a perennial crop that has a tillering capacity, being an alternative to illegal extraction. There is a lack of studies about vegetative propagation technics for this species. The present study aimed to analyze different tillering induction methods in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings in four different seasons. The treatments were: 1 stem bending; 2 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of benzylaminopurine; 3 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of gibberellic acid and; 4 stem girdling. The experimental design was random with 4 replicates of 20 plants per treatment. Anatomical analyses were conducted at the stem, and the tillering and mortality of the treated plants were evaluated. It was possible to identify the stem tissues and the meristematic apex site by anatomical analysis. The stem bending treatments were inefficient; but girdling presented potential as tillers inducer.

  3. Utilization of Leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum) for inulinase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasar, Ozden Canli; Erdal, Serkan; Algur, Omer Faruk

    2015-08-18

    Inulinase production by Rhodotorula glutinis was carried out in this study, using leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum) as an alternative carbon source due to its high inulin content and easy availability. Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) design of experiment (DOE) was used to optimize fermentation conditions. For this purpose, five influential factors (leek concentration, pH, incubation temperature, agitation speed, and fermentation time) related to inulinase production were selected at four convenient levels. The results showed that maximum inulinase activity was obtained as 30.89 U/mL, which was close to the predicted result (30.24 U/mL). To validate the obtained results, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed. Consequently, leek has a great potential as an effective and economical carbon source for inulinase production, and the use of Taguchi DOE enhanced enzyme activity about 2.87-fold when compared with the unoptimized condition.

  4. Forecasting Macedonian Business Cycle Turning Points Using Qual Var Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovska Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at assessing the usefulness of leading indicators in business cycle research and forecast. Initially we test the predictive power of the economic sentiment indicator (ESI within a static probit model as a leading indicator, commonly perceived to be able to provide a reliable summary of the current economic conditions. We further proceed analyzing how well an extended set of indicators performs in forecasting turning points of the Macedonian business cycle by employing the Qual VAR approach of Dueker (2005. In continuation, we evaluate the quality of the selected indicators in pseudo-out-of-sample context. The results show that the use of survey-based indicators as a complement to macroeconomic data work satisfactory well in capturing the business cycle developments in Macedonia.

  5. Kloning Gen CRY dari Bacillus turingiensis var. kurstaki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Rahmi Ardiani

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis is an entomopathogenic organism. The pathogenic effect is caused by crystalline protein, δ-endotoxin, which is encoded by the cry gene. The aim of this study was to clone the cry gene from B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki with a genomic library approach. HindIII digested B. thuringiensis total DNA was ligated to HindIII digested of pUC19, and then used to transform Escherichia coli DH5α. Selection of transformans carrying recombinant was done by α-complementation and a recombinant clone containing the cry gene was further screened by non-radioactive hybridization method using a probe synthesized from the conserved region of the published cry genes. The result suggested that two recombinant clones with the insert size of 3.4 kb and 2.0 kb, respectively, carrying the cry gene. Key words: cloning, cry gene, Bacillus thuringiensis

  6. Citogenética de Guazuma ulmifolia var. Ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Tapia-Pastrana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizó una metodología de extendido en superficie y secado al aire para obtener por vez primera el cariotipo somático de una población de Guazuma ulmifolia var. ulmifolia. El número cromosómico diploide 2n = 16 obtenido a partir de meristemos radiculares confirma recuentos anteriores. La fórmula cariotípica fue 14m + 2st con una ligera asimetría (T.F.% = 42,19. La longitud cromosómica total haploide fue de 11,65 µm con un intervalo cromosómico de 1,11 - 2,05 µm. Los organizadores nucleolares asociados a constricciones secundarias ubicados en el par 3 (m y el polimorfismo que exhibe el par 8 (st pueden ser empleados como marcadores citogenéticos en futuros estudios de otras especies y variedades del género.

  7. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Garay Benjamin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB; 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00% and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  8. Effect of two dosages of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum against Rhammatocerus schistocercoides Rehn Efeito de duas dosagens de Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum contra Rhammatocerus schistocercoides Rehn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rodrigues de Faria

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum, strain CG 423, was tested under field conditions against the gregarious grasshopper Rhammatocerus schistocercoides (Rehn (Orthoptera: Acrididae. Conidia formulated in a racemic mixture of soybean oil and kerosene were sprayed under field conditions using an ultralow-volume hand-held atomizer Ulva Plus adjusted to deliver 2.9 L/ha. Bands composed of 2nd instar nymphs were treated with either 5.0x10(12 or 1.0x10(13 viable conidia/ha. The number of insects in each band was estimated at day one following spraying and by the end of the field trial (15 to 16 days post-treatment. Reductions in population size reached, in average, 65.8% and 80.4% for bands treated with the higher and lower dosage, respectively. For both dosages, total mortality rates of insects collected at two days post-application, and kept in cages for 14 days under lab conditions, showed no significant differences as compared to that obtained with insects collected immediately after spraying. Healthy insects were fed to native grasses sprayed on the field with 1.0x10(13 viable conidia/ha. Mortality levels of the nymphs fed on grasses collected two and four days post-application were not affected when compared to nymphs fed on grasses collected immediately following application.O fungo Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum, isolado CG 423, foi avaliado em condições de campo como agente de controle biológico do gafanhoto gregário Rhammatocerus schistocercoides (Rehn (Orthoptera: Acrididae. Conídios formulados em uma mistura racêmica de óleo de soja e querosene foram pulverizados no campo com a utilização de um atomizador rotativo manual Ulva Plus, calibrado para aplicação de 2,9 L/ha. Bandos com ninfas de 2º estádio foram tratados com o equivalente a 5,0x10(12 ou 1,0x10(13 conídios viáveis/ha. O número de insetos em cada bando foi estimado no 1º dia após a aplicação e ao final do experimento (15 a 16 dias ap

  9. A rhizobia strain isolated from root nodule of gymnosperm Podocarpus macrophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, BaoLing; Lü, ChengQun; Wu, Bo; Fan, LiQin

    2007-04-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation of rhizobia and leguminous plants is considered as the most important biologic nitrogen fixation system on earth. Symbiotic nodulation of gymnosperm Podocarpus macrophyllus and rhizobia has never been reported. In this study, 11 endophytic bacteria strains were isolated from root nodules of P. macrophyllus and its variation P. macrophyllus var. maki. The plant infection tests on these strains indicated that the isolated strains could be nodulated on P. macrophyllus plants, and weak nitrogenase activity of nodules was found in acetylene reduction method. According to the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the 11 strains, GXLO 02 was selected as the representative strain. 16S rDNA full-length sequence analysis of GXLO 02 confirmed that the representative strain GXLO 02 belongs to Rhizobium sp.

  10. Yield spreads as predictors of economic activity: a real-time VAR analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kishor, N. Kundan; Koenig, Evan F.

    2010-01-01

    We undertake a real-time VAR analysis of the usefulness of the term spread, the junk-bond spread, the ISM's New Orders Index, and broker/dealer equity for predicting growth in non-farm employment. To get around the "apples and oranges" problem described by Koenig, Dolmas and Piger (2003), we augment each VAR we consider with a flexible state-space model of employment revisions. This methodology produces jobs forecasts consistently superior to those obtained using conventional VAR analysis. Th...

  11. VT-1161 Protects Immunosuppressed Mice from Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Fothergill, Annette W; Garvey, Edward P; Hoekstra, William J; Schotzinger, Robert J; Patterson, Thomas F; Filler, Scott G; Ibrahim, Ashraf S

    2015-12-01

    We studied the efficacy of the investigational drug VT-1161 against mucormycosis. VT-1161 had more potent in vitro activity against Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus than against R. arrhizus var. delemar. VT-1161 treatment demonstrated dose-dependent plasma drug levels with prolonged survival time and lowered tissue fungal burden in immunosuppressed mice infected with R. arrhizus var. arrhizus and was as effective as high-dose liposomal amphotericin B treatment. These results support further development of VT-1161 against mucormycosis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Positive selection of Plasmodium falciparum parasites with multiple var2csa-type PfEMP1 genes during the course of infection in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Adam F; Salanti, Ali; Lavstsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    multiple genes coding for different VAR2CSA proteins, and parasites with >1 var2csa gene appear to be more common in pregnant women with placental malaria than in nonpregnant individuals. We present evidence that, in pregnant women, parasites containing multiple var2csa-type genes possess a selective...... advantage over parasites with a single var2csa gene. Accumulation of parasites with multiple copies of the var2csa gene during the course of pregnancy was also correlated with the development of antibodies involved in blocking VAR2CSA adhesion. The data suggest that multiplicity of var2csa-type genes...

  13. Refusion of zircaloy scraps by VAR (vacuum arc remelting): preliminary results; Fusao de cavacos de zircaloy por VAR: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.A.T.; Mucsi, C.S.; Sato, I.M.; Rossi, J.L.; Martinez, L.G., E-mail: lgallego@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Correa, H.P.S. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Orlando, M.T.D. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Fuel elements and structural components of the core of PWR nuclear reactors are made in zirconium alloys known as Zircaloy. Machining chips and shavings resulting from the manufacturing of these components can not be discarded as scrap, once these alloys are strategic materials for the nuclear area, have high costs and are not produced in Brazil on an industrial bases and, consequently, are imported for the manufacture of nuclear fuel. The reuse of Zircaloy chips has economic, strategic and environmental aspects. In this work is proposed a process for recycling Zircaloy scraps using a VAR (vacuum arc remelting) furnace in order to obtain ingots suitable for the manufacture of components of the reactors. The ingots obtained are being studied in order to verify the influence of processing on composition and microstructure of the remelted material. In this work are presented preliminary results of the composition of obtained ingots compared to start material and the resulting microstructure. (author)

  14. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo expression of the conserved VAR3 (type 3) plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Christian W; Lavstsen, Thomas; Bengtsson, Dominique C

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Members of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) adhesion antigen family are major contributors to the pathogenesis of P. falciparum malaria infections. The PfEMP1-encoding var genes are among the most diverse sequences in nature, but three genes...... of VAR3 expression on the infected erythrocyte surface has never been presented, and var3 genes have been proposed to be transcribed and expressed differently from the rest of the var gene family members. METHODS: In this study, parasites expressing VAR3 PfEMP1 were generated using anti-VAR3 antibodies...... of var3 was investigated. RESULTS: Var3 is transcribed and its protein product expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes. The VAR3-expressing parasites were better recognized by children's IgG than a parasite line expressing a Group B var gene. Two in 130 children showed increased recognition...

  15. The Influence of Sub-Unit Composition and Expression System on the Functional Antibody Response in the Development of a VAR2CSA Based Plasmodium falciparum Placental Malaria Vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten A Nielsen

    Full Text Available The disease caused by Plasmodium falciparum (Pf involves different clinical manifestations that, cumulatively, kill hundreds of thousands every year. Placental malaria (PM is one such manifestation in which Pf infected erythrocytes (IE bind to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA through expression of VAR2CSA, a parasite-derived antigen. Protection against PM is mediated by antibodies that inhibit binding of IE in the placental intervillous space. VAR2CSA is a large antigen incompatible with large scale recombinant protein expression. Vaccines based on sub-units encompassing the functionally constrained receptor-binding domains may, theoretically, circumvent polymorphisms, reduce the risk of escape-mutants and induce cross-reactive antibodies. However, the sub-unit composition and small differences in the borders, may lead to exposure of novel immuno-dominant antibody epitopes that lead to non-functional antibodies, and furthermore influence the folding, stability and yield of expression. Candidate antigens from the pre-clinical development expressed in High-Five insect cells using the baculovirus expression vector system were transitioned into the Drosophila Schneider-2 cell (S2 expression-system compliant with clinical development. The functional capacity of antibodies against antigens expressed in High-Five cells or in S2 cells was equivalent. This enabled an extensive down-selection of S2 insect cell-expressed antigens primarily encompassing the minimal CSA-binding region of VAR2CSA. In general, we found differential potency of inhibitory antibodies against antigens with the same borders but of different var2csa sequences. Likewise, we found that subtle size differences in antigens of the same sequence gave varying levels of inhibitory antibodies. The study shows that induction of a functional response against recombinant subunits of the VAR2CSA antigen is unpredictable, demonstrating the need for large-scale screening in order to identify antigens

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of a Human Cytomegalovirus Strain AD169 Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Eleonore; Spohn, Michael; Indenbirken, Daniela; Brune, Wolfram

    2016-03-31

    The complete sequence of the human cytomegalovirus strain AD169 (variant ATCC) cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (AD169-BAC, also known as HB15 or pHB15) was determined. The viral genome has a length of 230,290 bp and shows 52 nucleotide differences compared to a previously sequenced AD169varATCC clone. Copyright © 2016 Ostermann et al.

  17. Dynamics of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus spores in urban catch basins after simultaneous application against mosquito larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Guidi

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti and Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Lsph are extensively used in mosquito control programs. These biocides are the active ingredients of a commercial larvicide. Quantitative data on the fate of both Bti and Lsph applied together for the control of mosquitoes in urban drainage structures such as catch basins are lacking. We evaluated the dynamics and persistence of Bti and Lsph spores released through their concomitant application in urban catch basins in southern Switzerland. Detection and quantification of spores over time in water and sludge samples from catch basins were carried out using quantitative real-time PCR targeting both cry4A and cry4B toxin genes for Bti and the binA gene for Lsph. After treatment, Bti and Lsph spores attained concentrations of 3.76 (± 0.08 and 4.13 (± 0.09 log ml(-1 in water, then decreased progressively over time, reaching baseline values. For both Bti and Lsph, spore levels in the order of 10(5 g(-1 were observed in the bottom sludge two days after the treatment and remained constant for the whole test period (275 days. Indigenous Lsph strains were isolated from previously untreated catch basins. A selection of those was genotyped using pulsed field gel electrophoresis of SmaI-digested chromosomal DNA, revealing that a subset of isolates were members of the clonal population of strain 2362. No safety issues related to the use of this biopesticide in the environment have been observed during this study, because no significant increase in the number of spores was seen during the long observation period. The isolation of native Lysinibacillus sphaericus strains belonging to the same clonal population as strain 2362 from catch basins never treated with Lsph-based products indicates that the use of a combination of Bti and Lsph for the control of mosquitoes does not introduce non-indigenous microorganisms in this area.

  18. Dynamics of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus spores in urban catch basins after simultaneous application against mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Valeria; Lehner, Angelika; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) and Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Lsph) are extensively used in mosquito control programs. These biocides are the active ingredients of a commercial larvicide. Quantitative data on the fate of both Bti and Lsph applied together for the control of mosquitoes in urban drainage structures such as catch basins are lacking. We evaluated the dynamics and persistence of Bti and Lsph spores released through their concomitant application in urban catch basins in southern Switzerland. Detection and quantification of spores over time in water and sludge samples from catch basins were carried out using quantitative real-time PCR targeting both cry4A and cry4B toxin genes for Bti and the binA gene for Lsph. After treatment, Bti and Lsph spores attained concentrations of 3.76 (± 0.08) and 4.13 (± 0.09) log ml(-1) in water, then decreased progressively over time, reaching baseline values. For both Bti and Lsph, spore levels in the order of 10(5) g(-1) were observed in the bottom sludge two days after the treatment and remained constant for the whole test period (275 days). Indigenous Lsph strains were isolated from previously untreated catch basins. A selection of those was genotyped using pulsed field gel electrophoresis of SmaI-digested chromosomal DNA, revealing that a subset of isolates were members of the clonal population of strain 2362. No safety issues related to the use of this biopesticide in the environment have been observed during this study, because no significant increase in the number of spores was seen during the long observation period. The isolation of native Lysinibacillus sphaericus strains belonging to the same clonal population as strain 2362 from catch basins never treated with Lsph-based products indicates that the use of a combination of Bti and Lsph for the control of mosquitoes does not introduce non-indigenous microorganisms in this area.

  19. Muscle strain treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treatment - muscle strain ... Question: How do you treat a muscle strain ? Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen ( ...

  20. Muscle strain (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  1. Flavonoids and phenolic acids of Nepeta cataria L. var. citriodora (Becker) Balb. (Lamiaceae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Modnicki, Daniel; Tokar, Magdalena; Klimek, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Luteolin 7-O-glucuronide, luteolin 7-O-glucurono-(1-->6)-glucoside, apigenin 7-O-glucuronide as well as free aglycones luteolin and apigenin have been isolated from lemon catnip herb (Nepeta cataria L. var citriodora...

  2. Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx Flavonoids Fraction Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Chun-Jun; Xu, Nai-Yu; Li, Xian-Lun; Xia, Long; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Zhi-Tao; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Chen, Dao-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim.) Hara, belonging to the Labiatae family, is widely used as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor drug for the treatment of different inflammations and cancers. Aim of the Study...

  3. Final Critical Habitat for the Huachuca water umbel (Lilaeopsis schaffneriana var. recurva)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Huachuca water umbel (Lilaeopsis schaffneriana var. recurva) occur based on the...

  4. Final Critical Habitat for the Wenatchee Mountains Checkermallow (Sidalcea oregana var. calva)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Wenatchee Mountains checker-mallow (Sidalcea oregana var. calva) occur based on the...

  5. Final Critical Habitat for the Kincaid's lupine (Lupinus sulphureus (=oreganus) ssp. kincaidii (=var. kincaidii))

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Kincaid's lupine (Lupinus sulphureus (=oreganus) ssp. kincaidii (=var. kincaidii))...

  6. [Mutagenic effects of gamma-rays on Coix lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-xia; Wang, Zhi-an; Yu, Xu-ping

    2007-06-01

    To study the mutagenic effect of gamma-rays on Coix lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen. Physiological and mutagenic effects of gamma-rays on C. lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen dormant seeds were studied. The germination percentage, seeding survival, seeding height and root length of M1 plants and the frequency of chlorophyll mutation in M2 generation were selected as criteria. The gamma-rays showed obvious inhibitory action to the seedling growth, and a strong ability in inducing the chlorophyll mutation. The gamma-rays is one kind of C. lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen effective mutagen. The appropriate dose of gamma-rays is 450 Gy for C. lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen dormant seeds.

  7. Two new eriophyid mite species associated with Clematis terniflora var. mandshurica in China (Acari, Eriophyidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Dong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new eriophyid mite species associated with Clematis terniflora var. mandshurica, namely Aculops jilinensis sp. n. and Phyllocoptes terniflores sp. n., are described. Both species infest the tender leaves of host plants, inducing severe curling and blistering.

  8. First Report of the Virus Diseases in Victory Onion (Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Jin Park

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, a survey was conducted to identify virus diseases on victory onion, Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum grown in Ulleung island located in the East Sea. A total of 61 samples were collected from victory onion in the neighborhood of Seonginbong. The identification of viruses from the samples were carried out by electron microscopy and RT-PCR using primers species specific to GCLV, LYSV, SLV, OYDV and genus specific to Allexivirus, respectively. From sixty-one samples, filamentous rod particles (600-900 nm were detected from four victory onion samples in EM, three samples containing SLV and one sample containing both SLV and Allexivirus in RT-PCR analysis, respectively. Victory onions naturally infected by the viruses were asymptomatic apparently. The viruses detected by RT-PCR were further characterized by the nucleotide sequence analysis of the coat protein region. Three isolates of SLV showed approximately 99% identities in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences, suggesting that they were likely to be the same strain. On the other hand, they showed approximately 75.7~83.7% identities in the nucleotide and 89.2~97.0% in amino acid sequences compared with the previously reported SLV isolates in Allium. The CP gene of the Allexivirus showed approximately 99.2% nucleotide identities and 98.8% amino acid identities with Garlic virus A. However, there was relatively low homology ranging from 60.6% to 81.5% compared with other Allexiviruses (GarV-C, GarV-E, GarV-X, GMbMV, and Shal-X. These data suggested that two viruses, SLV and GarV-A identified from victory onion, are named SLV-Ulleungdo and GarV-A-Ulleungdo, respectively. This is the first report of viruses infecting victory onion.

  9. Several domains from VAR2CSA can induce Plasmodium falciparum adhesion-blocking antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theander Thor G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum can result in several different syndromes with severe clinical consequences for the about 200 million individuals infected each year. During pregnancy, women living in endemic areas become susceptible to malaria due to lack of antibodies against a unique P. falciparum membrane protein, named VAR2CSA. This antigen is not expressed in childhood infections, since it binds chondroitin sulphate A (CSA expressed on the intervillous space in the placenta. A vaccine appears possible because women acquire protective antibodies hindering sequestration in the placenta as a function of parity. A challenge for vaccine development is to design small constructs of this large antigen, which can induce broadly protective antibodies. It has previously been shown that one domain of VAR2CSA, DBL4-FCR3, induces parasite adhesion-blocking antibodies. In this study, it is demonstrated that other domains of VAR2CSA also can induce antibodies with inhibitory activity. Methods All VAR2CSA domains from the 3D7 and HB3 parasites were produced in Baculovirus-transfected insect cells. Groups of three rats per protein were immunized and anti-sera were tested for surface reactivity against infected erythrocytes expressing FCR3 VAR2CSA and for the ability to inhibit FCR3CSA parasite adhesion to CSA. The fine specificity of the immune sera was analysed by VAR2CSA peptide arrays. Results Inhibitory antibodies were induced by immunization with DBL3-HB3 T1 and DBL1-3D7. However, unlike the previously characterised DBL4-FCR3 response the inhibitory response against DBL1-3D7 and DBL3-HB3 T1 was poorly reproduced in the second rounds of immunizations. Conclusion It is possible to induce parasite adhesion-blocking antibodies when immunizing with a number of different VAR2CSA domains. This indicates that the CSA binding site in VAR2CSA is comprised of epitopes from different domains.

  10. The classic European hyperinflations revisited : testing the Cagan model using a cointegrated VAR approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom

    1994-01-01

    I tidligere studier af de klassiske Europæiske hyperinflationer antages det at stød til pengeefterspørgslen er ikke-stationære. I artiklen vises det v.h.a. kointegrationstests at denne antagelse er fejlagtig. Med udgangspunkt i en kointegreret VAR model findes det, at der under de Europæiske...... hyperinflationer var et betragteligt fremadskuende element i agenterne pengeefterspørgsel. Udgivelsesdato: AUG...

  11. Taxonomic study on Japanese Salvia (Lamiaceae): Phylogenetic position of S. akiensis, and polyphyletic nature of S. lutescens var. intermedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Atsuko

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Both Salvia akiensis and S. lutescens (Lamiaceae) are endemic to Japan. Salvia akiensis was recently described in 2014 in the Chugoku (= SW Honshu) region, and each four varieties of S. lutescens distributed allopatrically. Among varieties in S. lutescens, var. intermedia show a disjunctive distribution in the Kanto (=E Honshu) and Kinki (= W Honshu) regions. Recent field studies of S. lutescens var. intermedia revealed several morphological differences between the Kanto and Kinki populations. Here, I evaluated these differences among Salvia lutescens var. intermedia and its allies with morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA (internal and external transcribed spacer regions) and plastid DNA (ycf1-rps15 spacer, rbcL, and trnL-F) sequences. Both morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that S. lutescens var. intermedia from the Kinki region and var. lutescens were closely related to each other. However, var. intermedia from the Kanto region exhibited an association with S. lutescens var. crenata and var. stolonifera, which also grew in eastern Japan, rather than var. intermedia in the Kinki region. These results indicated that S. lutescens var. intermedia is not a taxon with a disjunctive distribution, but a combination of two or more allopatric taxa. Present study also suggested that S. akiensis was most closely related to S. omerocalyx. PMID:28781560

  12. Adaptation of primocane fruiting raspberry plants to environmental factors under the influence of Bacillus strains in Western Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Anatoly A; Shternshis, Margarita V; Chechenina, Nina S; Shpatova, Tatyana V; Lelyak, Anastasya A

    2017-03-01

    In geographical locations with a short vegetative season and continental climate that include Western Siberia, growing primocane fruiting raspberry varieties becomes very important. However, it is necessary to help the plants to overcome the environmental stress factors. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the pre-planting treatment of primocane fruiting raspberry root system with Bacillus strains on the following plant development under variable environmental conditions. In 2012, Bacillus subtilis RCAM В-10641, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RCAM В-10642, and Bacillus licheniformis RCAM В-10562 were used for inoculating the root system of primocane fruiting raspberry cultivar Nedosyagaemaya before planting. The test suspensions were 105 CFU/ml for each bacterial strains. The effects of this treatment on plant growth and crop productivity were estimated in 2012-2015 growing seasons differed by environmental conditions. The pre-planting treatment by the bacterial strains increased the number of new raspberry canes and the number of plant generative organs as well as crop productivity compared to control. In addition, these bacilli acted as the standard humic fertilizer. Variable environmental factors such as air temperature, relative humidity, and winter and spring frosts seriously influenced the plant biological parameters and crop productivity of control plants. At the same time, the pre-planting primocane fruiting root treatment by Bacillus strains decreased the negative effects of abiotic stresses on plants in all years of the research. Of the three strains studied, B. subtilis was shown to reveal the best results in adaptation of primocane fruiting raspberry plants to environmental factors in Western Siberia. For the first time, the role of Bacillus strains in enhancing frost resistance in primocane fruiting raspberry plants was shown. These bacilli are capable of being the basis of multifunctional biological formulations for effective plant and

  13. Valor nutricional e potencial nutracêutico de inflorescências de couve-nabo (Brassica napus var napus) e couve-tronchuda (Brassica oleraceae var costata).

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Batista, Cátia Emanuela Oliveira; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    Na Península Ibérica as verduras (silvestres ou tradicionalmente cultivadas) têm sido alimentos importantes na dieta humana. O valor nutricional de verduras e os seus benefícios para a saúde têm sido reconhecidos como importantes alvos de investigação. Os grelos, inflorescências da couve-nabo (Brassica napus L. var. napus) e os espigos, inflorescências da couve-tronchuda (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC.) são exemplos de espécies tradicionalmente cultivadas e amplamente consumidas nas re...

  14. Morphological diversity between culture strains of a chlorarachniophyte, Lotharella globosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Hirakawa

    Full Text Available Chlorarachniophytes are marine unicellular algae that possess secondary plastids of green algal origin. Although chlorarachniophytes are a small group (the phylum of Chlorarachniophyta contains 14 species in 8 genera, they have variable and complex life cycles that include amoeboid, coccoid, and/or flagellate cells. The majority of chlorarachniophytes possess two or more cell types in their life cycles, and which cell types are found is one of the principle morphological criteria used for species descriptions. Here we describe an unidentified chlorarachniophyte that was isolated from an artificial coral reef that calls this criterion into question. The life cycle of the new strain includes all three major cell types, but DNA barcoding based on the established nucleomorph ITS sequences showed it to share 100% sequence identity with Lotharella globosa. The type strain of L. globosa was also isolated from a coral reef, but is defined as completely lacking an amoeboid stage throughout its life cycle. We conclude that L. globosa possesses morphological diversity between culture strains, and that the new strain is a variety of L. globosa, which we describe as Lotharella globosa var. fortis var. nov. to include the amoeboid stage in the formal description of L. globosa. This intraspecies variation suggest that gross morphological stages maybe lost rather rapidly, and specifically that the type strain of L. globosa has lost the ability to form the amoeboid stage, perhaps recently. This in turn suggests that even major morphological characters used for taxonomy of this group may be variable in natural populations, and therefore misleading.

  15. Hibridação interespecífica entre Gossmum hirsutum L. var. latifolium e G. Herbaceum L. var. africanum Interespecific hybridization between Gossypium hirsutum var. latifolium and G. Herbaceum var. africanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ederaldo José Chiavegato

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi obtida, pelos autores, variabilidade genética para resistência da fibra do algodoeiro a partir da hibridação entre a espécie alotetraplóide cultivada Gossypium hirsutum L. var. latifolium Hutch. e a espécie diplóide selvagem G. herbaceum L. vai. africanum Hutch. A metodologia empregada e as características agronômicas e tecnológicas da fibra do híbrido são descritas e discutidas. Visando à duplicação do número de cromossomos da espécie diplóide, foram realizados nove tratamentos com o alcalóide colchicina, em solução aquosa e em adição com pasta de lanolina, com diferentes concentrações e tempo de ação para o tratamento de sementes, radicelas e gemas apicais: revelou-se mais eficiente o de gemas apicais com colchicina a 1%, em pasta de lanolina, durante 32 horas. Diversos cruzamentos das plantas duplicadas com variedades comerciais de algodoeiro levaram à obtenção de híbrido estéril. A seguir, dois retrocruzamentos foram realizados, sendo que, a partir do primeiro, a fertilidade foi restaurada. Estas plantas, com características agronômicas promissoras, possuem grande variabilidade para resistência da fibra, num nível superior ao de G. hirsutum.Genetic variability was obtained by the authors for fiber strenght in cotton, through hybridization between the cultivated alotetraploid species Gossypium hirsutum L. var. latifolium Hutch. and the wild diploid species G. herbaceum L. africanum Hutch. The underlying methods and the hybrid's characteristics are reported and described. As a first step, the number of chromosomes in the diploid species was duplicated. Nine treatments with aqueous colchicina or colchicina in lanolina paste were carried out, comprising several concentrations and times of application to seeds, radicles and apical buds of the main stem. Success was obtained by treating apical buds with lanolina paste containing 1% colchicina, during 32 hours. Two hundred fourty five crosses between the

  16. Micropropagation of an endangered species Pinus armandii var. Amamiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Ishii

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For micropropagation via organ culture, mature embryos were excised from the seeds of Pinus armandii. Franch. var. amamiana (Koidz. Hatusima, an endangered species only inhabiting the south west islands of Japan. Adventitious buds were induced on the surface of the embryo on 1/2 DCR medium containing BAP, and they grew shoots after subculturing to medium containing activated charcoal or a low concentration of thidiazuron. From the elongated shoots, root primordia and roots were induced in medium containing IBA as an auxine. We found that a low concentration of zeatin or BAP added to the medium was beneficial for plant regeneration of mature embryos of this species. For micropropagation via somatic embryogenesis, embryogenic cell suspensions were induced from a mature and immature seed of P. armandii var. amamiana on MS liquid medium supplemented with 1 ľM 2, 4-D and 3 ľM BAP. The suspensions were incubated in the dark at 250. Induced suspension cells were transferred to ammonium free MS liquid medium supplemented with 1 ľM 2, 4-D, 3 ľM BAP and 30m M L-glutamine and subcultured every 2 weeks. In the other set of the experiment, the induction rate of somatic embryogenesis was high with ammonium free half strength MS medium. In order to develop somatic embryos, the suspension cells were transferred to ammonium free MS medium supplemented with 10 ľM ABA, 0.2% activated charcoal, 10% PEG (MW6000, 30m M L-glutamine and 6% maltose. The cultures were incubated under a 16h light/8h dark photoperiod. After 1-2 months of culture, differentiation of embryos progressed and cotyledonary embryos were obtained. These embryos were transferred on ammonium free MS solid medium under 16 h photoperiod. After 2-3 weeks plantlets with roots and green cotyledons were obtained. Plantlets were transplanted to vermiculite containing modified MS liquid medium in 200 ml culture flasks, then out planted after habituation procedure.

  17. The effect of extract of Punica granatum var. pleniflora for treatment of minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavanji, Shahin; Larki, Behrouz; Bakhtari, Azizollah

    2014-06-01

    Herbal drugs are considered alternative agents and have been used for several years around the world. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is one of the most common problems recognized by dentists and skin specialists. This problem is characterized by recurring, painful, small oral mucosal ulcers with a round or oval aspect that mostly appear in keratinized mucosa, cheeks, and on the surface of the mouth under the tongue. In our experiment, the alcoholic and water extracts of Punica granatum var. pleniflora, P. granatum var. Sweet Alak, and P. granatum var. Saveh Black were tested on minor RAS. The study was carried out using the double-blind method. The study population consisted of 210 participants, of whom 69 were females (32%) and 141 were males (68%). In addition to checking several factors, the pain and the degree of the participant's satisfaction had been determined based on visual analog scale. Data analysis was done in the form of a nonparametric method using Kruskal-Wallis test and SPSS version 20 software. The results show that the alcoholic and water extracts of P. granatum var. pleniflora have a meaningful therapeutic effect on minor RAS. Results from the antioxidant activity and its relation to total phenolics show that P. granatum var. pleniflora and P. granatum var. Sweet Alak are rich in phenols. The water and alcoholic extracts of P. granatum varpleniflora decreased the entire time of complete treatment, and the treatment was meaningfully satisfactory for patients who participated in this experiment.

  18. Feasibility of Stochastic Voltage/VAr Optimization Considering Renewable Energy Resources for Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Salkuti, Surender Reddy

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a stochastic optimization technique for solving the Voltage/VAr control problem including the load demand and Renewable Energy Resources (RERs) variation. The RERs often take along some inputs like stochastic behavior. One of the important challenges i. e., Voltage/VAr control is a prime source for handling power system complexity and reliability, hence it is the fundamental requirement for all the utility companies. There is a need for the robust and efficient Voltage/VAr optimization technique to meet the peak demand and reduction of system losses. The voltages beyond the limit may damage costly sub-station devices and equipments at consumer end as well. Especially, the RERs introduces more disturbances and some of the RERs are not even capable enough to meet the VAr demand. Therefore, there is a strong need for the Voltage/VAr control in RERs environment. This paper aims at the development of optimal scheme for Voltage/VAr control involving RERs. In this paper, Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) method is used to cover full range of variables by maximally satisfying the marginal distribution. Here, backward scenario reduction technique is used to reduce the number of scenarios effectively and maximally retain the fitting accuracy of samples. The developed optimization scheme is tested on IEEE 24 bus Reliability Test System (RTS) considering the load demand and RERs variation.

  19. Working Alliance Inventory applied to Virtual and Augmented Reality (WAI-VAR: Psychometrics and Therapeutic Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eMiragall

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR and Augmented Reality (AR therapies (WAI-VAR. The relationship between the therapeutic alliance with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, Mage= 34.41. Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman’s Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. Not changed patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than improved and recovered patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the therapeutic alliance with therapist (WAI-S and the therapeutic alliance with VR and AR (WAI-VAR, due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the therapeutic alliance with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the therapeutic alliance with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy.

  20. Semi-nonparametric VaR forecasts for hedge funds during the recent crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brio, Esther B.; Mora-Valencia, Andrés; Perote, Javier

    2014-05-01

    The need to provide accurate value-at-risk (VaR) forecasting measures has triggered an important literature in econophysics. Although these accurate VaR models and methodologies are particularly demanded for hedge fund managers, there exist few articles specifically devoted to implement new techniques in hedge fund returns VaR forecasting. This article advances in these issues by comparing the performance of risk measures based on parametric distributions (the normal, Student’s t and skewed-t), semi-nonparametric (SNP) methodologies based on Gram-Charlier (GC) series and the extreme value theory (EVT) approach. Our results show that normal-, Student’s t- and Skewed t- based methodologies fail to forecast hedge fund VaR, whilst SNP and EVT approaches accurately success on it. We extend these results to the multivariate framework by providing an explicit formula for the GC copula and its density that encompasses the Gaussian copula and accounts for non-linear dependences. We show that the VaR obtained by the meta GC accurately captures portfolio risk and outperforms regulatory VaR estimates obtained through the meta Gaussian and Student’s t distributions.

  1. Arundina graminifolia var. revoluta (Arethuseae, Orchidaceae) has fern-type rheophyte characteristics in the leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Eri; Ishikawa, Naoko; Okada, Hiroshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2015-03-01

    Morphological and molecular variation between Arundina graminifolia var. graminifolia and the dwarf variety, A. graminifolia var. revoluta, was examined to assess the validity of their taxonomic characteristics and genetic background for identification. Morphological analysis in combination with field observations indicated that A. graminifolia var. revoluta is a rheophyte form of A. graminifolia characterized by narrow leaves, whereas the other morphological characteristics described for A. graminifolia var. revoluta, such as smaller flowers and short stems, were not always accompanied by the narrower leaf phenotype. Molecular analysis based on matK sequences indicated that only partial differentiation has occurred between A. graminifolia var. graminifolia and A. graminifolia var. revoluta. Therefore, we should consider the rheophyte form an ecotype rather than a variety. Anatomical observations of the leaves revealed that the rheophyte form of A. graminifolia possessed characteristics of the rheophytes of both ferns and angiosperms, such as narrower palisade tissue cells and thinner spongy tissue cells, as well as fewer cells in the leaf-width direction and fewer mesophyll cell layers.

  2. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa M; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Botella, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, M age = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman's Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. "Not changed" patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than "improved" and "recovered" patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the TA with therapist (WAI-S) and the TA with VR and AR (WAI-VAR), due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the TA with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the TA with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy.

  3. ACAT inhibitory activity of exudates from Calocedrus macrolepis var. formosana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Kuan-Jung; Chien, Shih-Chang; Cheng, Wen-Ling; Xiao, Jun-Hong; Wang, Sheng-Yang

    2012-12-01

    Cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is an enzyme controlling cholesterol esterification in cells. Large amounts of cholesterol esters accumulate in macrophages and smooth muscle cells of blood vessel walls resulting in the initial stages of atherosclerosis. Thus, atherosclerosis might be inhibited through inhibition of the activity of ACAT. In the present study, we identified by spectral analysis and chromatographic quantification that ferruginol was the most abundant component of exudates secreted from the wounding site of Calocedrus macrolepis Kurz var. formosana. Results obtained from the cholesterol absorption assay revealed that ferruginol exhibited a significant inhibitory activity on cholesterol absorption in mice macrophages (RAW 264.7 cell). Based on the results from analyzing the ratio of cholesterol esterification, ferruginol dose-dependently suppressed cholesterol esterification and the IC50 value was 2.0 microg/mL. In conclusion, ferruginol revealed strong inhibitory activities that retarded the absorption and esterification of cholesterol in cells. Our finding indicates that ferruginol might possess a potential for development as a pharmaceutical product for preventing arteriosclerosis.

  4. Two New Flavonol Glycosides from Sarcopyramis bodinieri var. delicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Qiu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Detailed chemical investigation of the herb Sarcopyramis bodinieri var. delicate resulted in the isolation of two new flavonol glycosides, namely, isorhamnetin-3-O-(6′′-OE- feruloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (1 and isorhamnetin-3-O-(6′′-O-E-feruloyl-β-Dgalactopyranoside (2. In addition, four known compounds, quercetin-3-O-(6′′-acetyl-β-Dglucopyranoside (3, isorhamnetin-3-O-(6′′-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (4, quercetin-3- O-(6′′-O-E-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (5, and isorhamnetin-3-O-(6′′-O-E-pcoumaroyl- β-D-glucopyranoside (6 were obtained. The structures of the new isolates were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis.

  5. Gene effect and heterosis in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Mendes Medeiros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heterosis has been exploited in Capsicum annuum commercial hybrids; however, the use of heterosis in C. baccatum still remains to be explored, and studies related to the genetics and breeding of this species are scarce. The present study aimed to estimate the combining ability of five parents of C. baccatum var. pendulum , representatives of two distinct types of fruits (namely, lady's finger and cambuci, to calculate heterosis and to evaluate the agronomic potential of the hybrids for yield and fruit quality. The hybrids were produced from a complete diallel without reciprocals. The parents and hybrids were evaluated under field conditions in a randomized block design with three replications, and the following traits were assessed: number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, yield per plant, fruit length, fruit diameter and soluble solids. All traits were significant for general and specific combining ability, indicating that additive and non-additive effects are involved in the genetic control of these traits. The hybrid combinations between the types lady's finger and cambuci provided elongated fruits with smaller diameters and greater weight compared with the parents of the cambuci type. However, these factors did not lead to a significant increase in the yield per plant due to the decreased number of fruits except in hybrid UENF 1616 x UENF 1732. Considering only the parents and hybrids within each type of fruit, the genitor UENF 1624 (lady's finger and the hybrid UENF 1639 x UENF 1732 (cambuci x cambuci stood out for achieving a high yield per plant.

  6. MORFOGÉNESIS IN VITRO DE Pseudotsuga menziesii VAR. glauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Carrillo-Benítez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la respuesta morfogénica a partir de embriones cigóticos cultivados in vitro de semilla almacenada (un año de Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca recolectada en Tlaxcala. Las semillas fueron desinfestadas con detergente y H2O2 (3 % v/v durante 48 h en agitación a 50 rpm, cultivadas en el medio de Murashige y Skoog (1962 sin reguladores. La germinación ocurrió después de siete días y posteriormente subcultivados a un medio MS con 2,4-D (3 mg·L-1 y BA (1 mg·L-1. Con los callos obtenidos en un medio HS se evaluaron tres concentraciones de ABA para promover formación de estructuras embrionarias, presentándose el mejor tratamiento con concentración de 10.0 mg·L-1 (P<.0001. El mejor desarrollo de plántulas se presentó empleando un medio Murashige y Skoog (1962 con sacarosa al 6 %. Se usaron micorrizas para mejor adaptación de plántulas a suelo. No hubo formación de raíces.

  7. Antioxidant activity of Egyptian Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. brevirostris leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghorab, Ahmed H; El-Massry, Khaled F; Marx, Friedhelm; Fadel, Hoda M

    2003-02-01

    Leaves from Eucalvptus camaldulensis var. brevirostris trees, planted in the Nile delta in Egypt, were examined for the antioxidant activity of their nonvolatile compounds. The extracts obtained by ethanol digestion and by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE; CO2 with 15% ethanol) showed the most promising antioxidative activities. In order to identify the most active compounds, both extracts were subjected to a semipreparative reversed-phase HPLC separation, the main fractions were collected, tested for antioxidative activity and analysed by different chromatographical and spectroscopical methods for identification of the most relevant compounds. Gallic and ellagic acid were found to be the prevailing antioxidants in the ethanolic extract. The main two compounds of the SFE extract with antioxidative activity revealed to be flavones. To a high degree of probability they were identified as 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy flavone and 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-8-methyl flavone, respectively. The extracts obtained by ethanoldigestion were dried and administered to rats for toxicity evaluation (up to 3 g/kg body weight). No mortality was observed which indicates a very low lethality of the tested extract.

  8. Micropropagation of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iapichino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is a perennial plant cultivated in the Mediterranean region and the Americas for its edible young flower heads. Although vegetative propagation by offshoots or by "ovoli" (underground dormant axillary buds) has been the primary method of propagation, the potential for the diffusion of diseases and the phenotypic variability can be very high. The propagation of this species by axillary shoot proliferation from in vitro-cultured meristems produces systemic pathogen-free plants and a higher multiplication rate as compared to that obtained by conventional agamic multiplication. Axillary shoot proliferation can be induced from excised shoot apices cultured on Murashige and Skoog agar solidified medium supplemented with various concentrations of cytokinins and auxins, depending on genotype. For the production of virus-free plants, meristems, 0.3-0.8 mm long are excised from shoot apices and surface sterilized. The transfer of artichoke microshoots to a medium lacking cytokinins or with low cytokinin concentration is critical for rooting. Adventitious roots develop within 3-5 weeks after transfer to root induction MS medium containing NAA or IAA at various concentrations. However, in vitro rooting frequency rate is dependent on the genotype and the protocol used. Acclimatization of in vitro microshoots having 3-4 roots is successfully accomplished; plantlets develop new roots in ex vitro conditions and continue to grow.

  9. la Universidad Simón Bolívar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Brand Barajas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación es un estudio de caso sobre la identidad institucional de los docentes de la Universidad Simón Bolívar (USB desde la filosofía, ideario y misión, los cuales la definen como una institución de educación superior privada católica con carisma franciscano. La pregunta central es: ¿cómo se ha identificado el docente con la USB? Los propósitos parten de un análisis de los documentos de la universidad para explicitar la identidad y, a partir de ello, conocer el perfil del docente para explorar cómo se relaciona con la institución. Se tiene como supuesto que la falta de una definición explícita de la identidad institucional por parte de la USB obstaculiza la identificación del docente. El andamiaje teórico se basa en la construcción y reconstrucción colectiva de la identidad institucional.

  10. A New Neolignan from Coix lachryma-jobi var. mayuen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Young; Choi, Chun Whan; Hong, Seong Su; Shin, HyungSeok; Oh, Joa Sub

    2016-02-01

    A new neolignan, named coixide A (1), along with fifteen known compounds, (7R,8S)-3'-demethyl-dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-3'-O-β-glucopyranoside (2), (7R,8)-3'-demethyl-9'-butoxy-dehydrodiconiferyl-3'-O-β-glucopyranoside (3),adenosine (4), 2-O-caffeoyl isocitricacid (5), pseudolaroside A (6), 2-hydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (7), 2-O-β-glucopyranosyl-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (8), 2-O-β-glucopyranosyl-4-hydroxy-7- methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (9), 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-7-hydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (10), p-coumaric acid ethyl ester (11), caffeic acid ethyl ester (12), p-coumaric acid (13), cis-N-p-coumaroyltyramine (14) trans-N-p-coumaroyltyramine (15), and coixol (16) have been isolated from Coix lachryma-jobi var. mayuen. Their chemical structures were elucidated by chemical evidence on the basis of spectroscopic and MS data, and as well as by comparison with those reported.

  11. Three New Clerodane Diterpenes from Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Ho Wu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Three new clerodane diterpenes, (4→2-abeo-cleroda-2,13E-dien-2,14-dioic acid (1, (4→2-abeo-2,13-diformyl-cleroda-2,13E-dien-14-oic acid (2, and 16(R&S- methoxycleroda-4(18,13-dien-15,16-olide (3, were isolated from the unripe fruit of Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula (Annonaceae together with five known compounds (4–8. The structures of all isolates were determined by spectroscopic analysis. The anti-inflammatory activity of the isolates was evaluated by testing their inhibitory effect on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Among the isolated compounds, 16-hydroxycleroda-3,13-dien-15,16-olide (6 and 16-oxocleroda-3,13-dien-15-oic acid (7 showed promising NO inhibitory activity at 10 µg/mL, with 81.1% and 86.3%, inhibition, respectively.

  12. Ortopnea y hemoptisis en un varón joven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Varón de 21 años visitado en urgencias por ortopnea, hemoptisis y disnea. La radiografía detectó redistribución en hemitórax izquierdo, el ecocardiograma una masa intraauricular izquierda que protruía en el ventrículo izquierdo a través de la válvula mitral, produciendo obstrucción crítica, y la tomografía computarizada (TC una masa que ocupaba la aurícula izquierda desde la vena pulmonar superior izquierda (Fig. 1. Por vía transeptal superior se reseca una masa multilobulada de 6 × 7 cm, con base de implantación en el techo auricular (Fig. 2, que se reconstruyó con pericardio autólogo. La histopatología confirma el diagnóstico de leiomiosarcoma de vena pulmonar muy diferenciado. Al paciente se le dio el alta a los siete días.

  13. Effects of Fungicides on the Development of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae Efecto de los Fungicidas sobre el Desarrollo del Hongo Entomopatógeno Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Yáñez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin is an entomopathogenic fungus used for controlling different insect pests. It is most frequently applied to berry fruit crops, where fungicides are also used for disease control. Fungicides: azoxystrobin, benomyl, captan, chlorothalonil, fenhexamid, fludioxonil, iprodione, and metalaxyl in concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 100 mg L-1 were evaluated in this research study. Vegetative growth, conidia germination, and conidia germination tube length were measured on the Qu-M82, Qu-M151b, Qu-M253, Qu-M430, and Qu-M984 Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae fungus strains. Those strains were selected because of their present use against different insect pest in bramble fruits. Vegetative growth was measured through the colony rate growth in agar media, and those reaching up to 50% of the check growth were considered compatible. Results indicate that the benomyl and fenhexamid fungicides were compatible with the five isolates whereas, azoxystrobin and fludioxonil were incompatible. Furthermore, benomyl and fludioxonil reduced conidia germination by 53 and 91%, and germination tube length by 18 and 37%, respectively.Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin es un hongo entomopatógeno que se utiliza para el control de diferentes insectos, uno de sus usos más frecuentes es en frutales menores, donde también se utilizan fungicidas para el control de enfermedades. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto de los fungicidas azoxystrobin, benomil, captan, chlorothalonil, fenhexamid, fludioxonil, iprodione y metalaxil, en concentraciones de 0,01; 0,1; 1; 10 y 100 mg L-1, sobre el crecimiento de la colonia, porcentaje de germinación de conidias y longitud de tubos germinativos de distintas cepas de M. anisopliae var. anisopliae. Las cepas utilizadas fueron Qu-M82, Qu-M151b, Qu-M253, Qu-M430 y Qu-M984, seleccionadas por su uso comercial para el control de diferentes insectos en frutales menores. El

  14. Many globally isolated AD hybrid strains of Cryptococcus neoformans originated in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia P Litvintseva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific and intervarietal hybridization may contribute to the biological diversity of fungal populations. Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast and the most common fungal cause of meningitis in patients with AIDS. Most patients are infected with either of the two varieties of C. neoformans, designated as serotype A (C. neoformans var. grubii or serotype D (C. neoformans var. neoformans. In addition, serotype AD strains, which are hybrids of these two varieties, are commonly isolated from clinical and environmental samples. While most isolates of serotype A and serotype D are haploid, AD strains are diploid or aneuploid, and contain two sets of chromosomes and two mating type alleles, MATa and MATalpha, one from each of the serotypes. The global population of serotype A is dominated by isolates with the MATalpha mating type (Aalpha; however, about half of the globally analyzed AD strains possess the extremely rare serotype A MATa allele (Aa. We previously described an unusual population of serotype A in Botswana, in which 25% of the strains contain the rare MATa allele. Here we utilized two methods, phylogenetic analysis of three genes and genotyping by scoring amplified fragment length polymorphisms, and discovered that AD hybrid strains possessing the rare serotype A MATa allele (genotype AaDalpha cluster with isolates of serotype A from Botswana, whereas AD hybrids that possess the MATalpha serotype A allele (AalphaDa and AalphaDalpha cluster with cosmopolitan isolates of serotype A. We also determined that AD hybrid strains are more resistant to UV irradiation than haploid serotype A strains from Botswana. These findings support two hypotheses: (i AaDalpha strains originated in sub-Saharan Africa from a cross between strains of serotypes A and D; and (ii this fusion produced hybrid strains with increased fitness, enabling the Botswanan serotype A MATa genome, which is otherwise geographically restricted, to survive, emigrate

  15. Effect of intercropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus on the growth, herbage yield and chemical composition of Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi at different harvesting times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, V O A; Dele, P A; Amole, T A; Anele, U Y; Adeoye, S A; Hassan, O A; Olanite, J A; Idowu, O J

    2013-11-15

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of intercropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus on the growth, herbage yield and chemical composition of P. maximum var. Ntchisi at different harvesting times at the Teaching and Research farm, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta in a randomized complete block design. Samples were collected at different harvesting times (8, 10, 12, 14 weeks after planting). The growth parameters which were plant height, leaf length, leaf number and tiller number measured showed that the intercropping of grass with legume were higher than in the sole plot of P. maximum var. Ntchisi. The plant yield was consistently higher (p < 0.05) in intercropped forages than in sole throughout the harvesting times. The crude protein contents of the forages were also higher for the intercropped across the treatments. The values of the fibre components were significantly different (p < 0.05) at different harvesting times and it was increasing as the harvesting time was increasing. From this study, considering the herbage yield and chemical composition of intecropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus, they can be grazed by ruminant animals or harvested at 12 weeks after planting when the quality and quantity will support livestock productivity and can be conserved to be fed to ruminant animals during dry season when feed availability and quality are extremely low.

  16. Enfoques diferentes para medir el valor en riesgo (VaR y su comparación. Aplicaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Martínez Barbeito

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se inicia la ponencia con una sucinta revisión de los conceptos del VAR. A continuación, se consideran y valoran de forma crítica los distintos enfoques para medir el VAR: Delta-Normal; Delta-Gamma; Simulación histórica; Simulación Monte Carlo y Contraste Estrés. Finalmente, se hace referencia a algunas aplicaciones del VAR.

  17. Enfoques diferentes para medir el valor en riesgo (VaR) y su comparación. Aplicaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Josefina Martínez Barbeito; Julio García Villalón

    2005-01-01

    Se inicia la ponencia con una sucinta revisión de los conceptos del VAR. A continuación, se consideran y valoran de forma crítica los distintos enfoques para medir el VAR: Delta-Normal; Delta-Gamma; Simulación histórica; Simulación Monte Carlo y Contraste Estrés. Finalmente, se hace referencia a algunas aplicaciones del VAR.

  18. Biocontrol of geosmin-producing Streptomyces spp. by two Bacillus strains from Chinese liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Yan; Wu, Qun; Du, Hai; Xu, Yan

    2016-08-16

    Streptomyces spp. producing geosmin have been regarded as the most frequent and serious microbial contamination causing earthy off-flavor in Chinese liquor. It is therefore necessary to control the Streptomyces community during liquor fermentation. Biological control, using the native microbiota present in liquor making, appears to be a better solution than chemical methods. The objective of this study was to isolate native microbiota antagonistic toward Streptomyces spp. and then to evaluate the possible action mode of the antagonists. Fourteen Bacillus strains isolated from different Daqu (the fermentation starter) showed antagonistic activity against Streptomyces sampsonii, which is one of the dominant geosmin producers. Bacillus subtilis 2-16 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1-45 from Maotai Daqu significantly inhibited the growth of S. sampsonii by 57.8% and 84.3% respectively, and effectively prevented the geosmin production in the simulated fermentation experiments (inoculation ratio 1:1). To probe the biocontrol mode, the ability of strain 2-16 and 1-45 to produce antimicrobial metabolites and to reduce geosmin in the fermentation system was investigated. Antimicrobial substances were identified as lipopeptides by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/Q-TOF MS) and in vitro antibiotic assay. In addition, strains 2-16 and 1-45 were able to remove 45% and 15% of the geosmin respectively in the simulated solid-state fermentation. This study highlighted the potential of biocontrol, and how the use of native Bacillus species in Daqu could provide an eco-friendly method to prevent growth of Streptomyces spp. and geosmin contamination in Chinese liquor fermentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative ozone responses of cutleaf coneflowers (Rudbeckia laciniata var. digitata, var. ampla) from Rocky Mountain and Great Smoky Mountains National Parks, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Howard S; Johnson, Jennifer; Kohut, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L. var. digitata) is native to Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) and an ozone bioindicator species. Variety ampla, whose ozone sensitivity is less well known, is native to Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO). In the early 2000s, researchers found putative ozone symptoms on var. ampla and rhizomes were sent to Appalachian State University to verify that the symptoms were the result of ozone exposure. In 2011, potted plants were exposed to ambient ozone from May to August. These same plants were grown in open-top chambers (OTCs) in 2012 and 2013, and exposed to charcoal-filtered (CF), non-filtered (NF), elevated ozone (EO), NF+50ppb in 2012 for 47days and NF+30/NF+50ppb ozone in 2013 for 36 and 36days, respectively. Ozone symptoms similar to those found in ROMO (blue-black adaxial stippling) were reproduced both in ambient air and in the OTCs. Both varieties exhibited foliar injury in the OTCs in an exposure-dependent manner, verifying that symptoms resulted from ozone exposure. In two of the three study years, var. digitata appeared more sensitive than var. ampla. Exposure to EO caused reductions in ambient photosynthetic rate (A) and stomatal conductance (gs) for both varieties. Light response curves indicated that ozone reduced A, gs, and the apparent quantum yield while it increased the light compensation point. In CF air, var. ampla had higher light saturated A (18.2±1.04 vs 11.6±0.37μmolm(-2)s(-1)), higher light saturation (1833±166.7 vs 1108±141.7μmolm(-2)s(-1)), and lower Ci/Ca ratio (0.67±0.01 vs 0.77±0.01) than var. digitata. Coneflowers in both Parks are adversely affected by exposure to ambient ozone and if ozone concentrations increase in the Rocky Mountains, greater amounts of injury on var. ampla can be expected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. VARS-TOOL: A Comprehensive, Efficient, and Robust Sensitivity Analysis Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, S.; Sheikholeslami, R.; Haghnegahdar, A.; Esfahbod, B.

    2016-12-01

    VARS-TOOL is an advanced sensitivity and uncertainty analysis toolbox, applicable to the full range of computer simulation models, including Earth and Environmental Systems Models (EESMs). The toolbox was developed originally around VARS (Variogram Analysis of Response Surfaces), which is a general framework for Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) that utilizes the variogram/covariogram concept to characterize the full spectrum of sensitivity-related information, thereby providing a comprehensive set of "global" sensitivity metrics with minimal computational cost. VARS-TOOL is unique in that, with a single sample set (set of simulation model runs), it generates simultaneously three philosophically different families of global sensitivity metrics, including (1) variogram-based metrics called IVARS (Integrated Variogram Across a Range of Scales - VARS approach), (2) variance-based total-order effects (Sobol approach), and (3) derivative-based elementary effects (Morris approach). VARS-TOOL is also enabled with two novel features; the first one being a sequential sampling algorithm, called Progressive Latin Hypercube Sampling (PLHS), which allows progressively increasing the sample size for GSA while maintaining the required sample distributional properties. The second feature is a "grouping strategy" that adaptively groups the model parameters based on their sensitivity or functioning to maximize the reliability of GSA results. These features in conjunction with bootstrapping enable the user to monitor the stability, robustness, and convergence of GSA with the increase in sample size for any given case study. VARS-TOOL has been shown to achieve robust and stable results within 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller sample sizes (fewer model runs) than alternative tools. VARS-TOOL, available in MATLAB and Python, is under continuous development and new capabilities and features are forthcoming.

  1. Synergism Effect of the Essential Oil from Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita and Its Major Components with Fluconazole and Its Influence on Ergosterol Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Nathalia N. R.; Alviano, Celuta S.; Blank, Arie F.; Romanos, Maria Teresa V.; Fonseca, Beatriz B.; Rozental, Sonia; Rodrigues, Igor A.; Alviano, Daniela S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the EO and its major components of Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita, a genetically improved cultivar, against the fluconazole sensitive and resistant strains of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Geraniol presented better results than the EO, with a low MIC (76 μg/mL against C. neoformans and 152 μg/mL against both Candida strains). The combination of EO, linalool, or geraniol with fluconazole enhanced their antifungal activity, especially against the resistant strain (MIC reduced to 156, 197, and 38 μg/mL, resp.). The ergosterol assay showed that subinhibitory concentrations of the substances were able to reduce the amount of sterol extracted. The substances tested were able to reduce the capsule size which suggests they have an important mechanism of action. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated cell wall destruction of C. neoformans after treatment with subinhibitory concentrations. In C. albicans ultrastructure alterations such as irregularities in the membrane, presence of vesicles, and cell wall thickening were observed. The biofilm formation was inhibited in both C. albicans strains at MIC and twice MIC. These results provide further support for the use of O. basilicum EO and its major components as a potential source of antifungal agents. PMID:27274752

  2. Synergism Effect of the Essential Oil from Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita and Its Major Components with Fluconazole and Its Influence on Ergosterol Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia N. R. Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the EO and its major components of Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita, a genetically improved cultivar, against the fluconazole sensitive and resistant strains of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Geraniol presented better results than the EO, with a low MIC (76 μg/mL against C. neoformans and 152 μg/mL against both Candida strains. The combination of EO, linalool, or geraniol with fluconazole enhanced their antifungal activity, especially against the resistant strain (MIC reduced to 156, 197, and 38 μg/mL, resp.. The ergosterol assay showed that subinhibitory concentrations of the substances were able to reduce the amount of sterol extracted. The substances tested were able to reduce the capsule size which suggests they have an important mechanism of action. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated cell wall destruction of C. neoformans after treatment with subinhibitory concentrations. In C. albicans ultrastructure alterations such as irregularities in the membrane, presence of vesicles, and cell wall thickening were observed. The biofilm formation was inhibited in both C. albicans strains at MIC and twice MIC. These results provide further support for the use of O. basilicum EO and its major components as a potential source of antifungal agents.

  3. High level of var2csa transcription by Plasmodium falciparum isolated from the placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise G; Salanti, Ali; Bertin, Gwladys

    2005-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum parasites that bind to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) express unique variant surface antigens that are involved in the placental sequestration that precipitates pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM). Two var gene subfamilies, var1csa and var2csa, have been associated with CSA...... binding. We show here that placental P. falciparum isolates highly transcribed var2csa but not var1csa. var2csa was not transcribed or was only minimally transcribed by parasites isolated from nonpregnant women. Placental parasites that effectively bound to placental chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans...

  4. Analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from avocado seed (Persea americana var. drymifolia) reveals abundant expression of the gene encoding the antimicrobial peptide snakin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina J; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Suárez-Rodríguez, Luis María; Rodríguez-Zapata, Luis C; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Jimenez-Moraila, Beatriz; López-Meza, Joel E; López-Gómez, Rodolfo

    2013-09-01

    Avocado is one of the most important fruits in the world. Avocado "native mexicano" (Persea americana var. drymifolia) seeds are widely used in the propagation of this plant and are the primary source of rootstocks globally for a variety of avocado cultivars, such as the Hass avocado. Here, we report the isolation of 5005 ESTs from the 5' ends of P. americana var. drymifolia seed cDNA clones representing 1584 possible unigenes. These avocado seed ESTs were compared with the avocado flower EST library, and we detected several genes that are expressed either in both tissues or only in the seed. The snakin gene, which encodes an element of the innate immune response in plants, was one of those most frequently found among the seed ESTs, and this suggests that it is abundantly expressed in the avocado seed. We expressed the snakin gene in a heterologous system, namely the bovine endothelial cell line BVE-E6E7. Conditioned media from transfected BVE-E6E7 cells showed antimicrobial activity against strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first study of the function of the snakin gene in plant seed tissue, and our observations suggest that this gene might play a protective role in the avocado seed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical Constituents from Solanum glabratum Dunal var. sepicula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Abdel-Sattar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of screening program of Saudi plants for their potential biological activity, the methanolic extract of Solanum glabratum Dunal var. sepicula as well as its different fractions were tested for its possible cytoxicity in prostate cancer (PC3 and colon cancer (HT29 cell lines using the MTT assay. In the present study, three spirostan saponins and one flavonoid glycoside were isolated from the active n-butanol fraction through a bio-guided fractionation approach. Two new saponin glycosides were identified as 23-β-D-glucopyranosyl (23S, 25R-spirost-5-en-3, 23 diol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2 and (25R-spirost-5-en-3-ol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3]-β-D-galactopyranoside (3. In addition, two known compounds were also isolated and identified as isorhamnetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6 β-D-glucopyranoside (1 and (23S, 25R-spirost-5-en-3, 23 diol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-glucopyranoside (4. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on their MS, one dimensional and extensive two dimensional NMR spectral data. Among the isolated metabolites, compound 3 showed the highest cytotoxic activity in both PC3 and HT29 cell lines with an IC 50 values of 14.8 and 19.5 m g/mL, respectively.

  6. Alastrim, varíola é? Is allastrim small pox?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Teixeira

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de uma controvérsia científica havida em São Paulo entre 1910 e 1913, que opôs dois destacados médicos da cidade: Antonio Carini, diretor do Instituto Pasteur de São Paulo, e Emílio Ribas, diretor do Serviço Sanitário. A questão em jogo era a classificação de uma doença que reinava no estado. Para Carini tratava-se de varíola, para Ribas era uma entidade mórbida chamada de alastrim. A polêmica teve início na Sociedade de Medicina e Cirurgia e, posteriormente, migrou para outros fóruns, incorporando novos personagens. A apresentação e discussão dessa controvérsia objetiva contribuiu para a compreensão do processo de construção e estabilização de um consenso científico no campo das ciências biomédicas.Between 1910 and 1913, two renowned physicians in the city of São Paulo found themselves engaged in a scientific controversy regarding the classification of a disease then assailing the state. Antonio Carini, director of the Instituto Pasteur de São Paulo, believed the illness to be small pox, while Emílio Ribas, director of the Serviço Sanitário, claimed it was allastrim, or milk pox. The controversy started in the Sociedade de Medicina e Cirurgia but later migrated to other forums and came to incorporate other figures as well. This presentation and discussion of the polemic is meant as a contribution to our understanding of the process by which a scientific consensus is constructed and solidified within the field of the biomedical sciences.

  7. A comparison between EDA-EnVar and ETKF-EnVar data assimilation techniques using radar observations at convective scales through a case study of Hurricane Ike (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Feifei; Xu, Dongmei; Xue, Ming; Min, Jinzhong

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the impacts of assimilating radar radial velocity (Vr) data for the simulation of hurricane Ike (2008) with two different ensemble generation techniques in the framework of the hybrid ensemble-variational (EnVar) data assimilation system of Weather Research and Forecasting model. For the generation of ensemble perturbations we apply two techniques, the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) and the ensemble of data assimilation (EDA). For the ETKF-EnVar, the forecast ensemble perturbations are updated by the ETKF, while for the EDA-EnVar, the hybrid is employed to update each ensemble member with perturbed observations. The ensemble mean is analyzed by the hybrid method with flow-dependent ensemble covariance for both EnVar. The sensitivity of analyses and forecasts to the two applied ensemble generation techniques is investigated in our current study. It is found that the EnVar system is rather stable with different ensemble update techniques in terms of its skill on improving the analyses and forecasts. The EDA-EnVar-based ensemble perturbations are likely to include slightly less organized spatial structures than those in ETKF-EnVar, and the perturbations of the latter are constructed more dynamically. Detailed diagnostics reveal that both of the EnVar schemes not only produce positive temperature increments around the hurricane center but also systematically adjust the hurricane location with the hurricane-specific error covariance. On average, the analysis and forecast from the ETKF-EnVar have slightly smaller errors than that from the EDA-EnVar in terms of track, intensity, and precipitation forecast. Moreover, ETKF-EnVar yields better forecasts when verified against conventional observations.

  8. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2010-06-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect.

  9. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect. PMID:22110339

  10. PERHITUNGAN VaR PORTOFOLIO SAHAM MENGGUNAKAN DATA HISTORIS DAN DATA SIMULASI MONTE CARLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAYAN ARTHINI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk (VaR is the maximum potential loss on a portfolio based on the probability at a certain time.  In this research, portfolio VaR values calculated from historical data and Monte Carlo simulation data. Historical data is processed so as to obtain stock returns, variance, correlation coefficient, and variance-covariance matrix, then the method of Markowitz sought proportion of each stock fund, and portfolio risk and return portfolio. The data was then simulated by Monte Carlo simulation, Exact Monte Carlo Simulation and Expected Monte Carlo Simulation. Exact Monte Carlo simulation have same returns and standard deviation  with historical data, while the Expected Monte Carlo Simulation satistic calculation similar to historical data. The results of this research is the portfolio VaR  with time horizon T=1, T=10, T=22 and the confidence level of 95 %, values obtained VaR between historical data and Monte Carlo simulation data with the method exact and expected. Value of VaR from both Monte Carlo simulation is greater than VaR historical data.

  11. Designing a VAR2CSA-based vaccine to prevent placental malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Michal; Duffy, Patrick E

    2015-12-22

    Placental malaria (PM) due to Plasmodium falciparum is a major cause of maternal, fetal and infant mortality, but the mechanisms of pathogenesis and protective immunity are relatively well-understood for this condition, providing a path for vaccine development. P. falciparum parasites bind to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) to sequester in the placenta, and women become resistant over 1-2 pregnancies as they acquire antibodies that block adhesion to CSA. The protein VAR2CSA, a member of the PfEMP1 variant surface antigen family, mediates parasite adhesion to CSA, and is the leading target for a vaccine to prevent PM. Obstacles to PM vaccine development include the large size (∼ 350 kD), high cysteine content, and sequence variation of VAR2CSA. A number of approaches have been taken to identify the combination of VAR2CSA domains and alleles that can induce broadly active antibodies that block adhesion of heterologous parasite isolates to CSA. This review summarizes these approaches, which have examined VAR2CSA fragments for binding activity, antigenicity with naturally acquired antibodies, and immunogenicity in animals for inducing anti-adhesion or surface-reactive antibodies. Two products are expected to enter human clinical studies in the near future based on N-terminal VAR2CSA fragments that have high binding affinity for CSA, and additional proteins preferentially expressed by placental parasites are also being examined for their potential contribution to a PM vaccine. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Value at risk (VaR in uncertainty: Analysis with parametric method and black & scholes simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Banda Ortiz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available VaR is the most accepted risk measure worldwide and the leading reference in any risk management assessment. However, its methodology has important limitations which makes it unreliable in contexts of crisis or high uncertainty. For this reason, the aim of this work is to test the VaR accuracy when is employed in contexts of volatility, for which we compare the VaR outcomes in scenarios of both stability and uncertainty, using the parametric method and a historical simulation based on data generated with the Black & Scholes model. VaR main objective is the prediction of the highest expected loss for any given portfolio, but even when it is considered a useful tool for risk management under conditions of markets stability, we found that it is substantially inaccurate in contexts of crisis or high uncertainty. In addition, we found that the Black & Scholes simulations lead to underestimate the expected losses, in comparison with the parametric method and we also found that those disparities increase substantially in times of crisis. In the first section of this work we present a brief context of risk management in finance. In section II we present the existent literature relative to the VaR concept, its methods and applications. In section III we describe the methodology and assumptions used in this work. Section IV is dedicated to expose the findings. And finally, in Section V we present our conclusions.

  13. [Diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A total of 628 endophytic fungi were isolated from 480 tissue segments of needles and branches of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. According to morphological characteristics and ITS sequences, they represented 43 taxa in 28 genera, of which 10 Hyphomycetes, 20 Coelomycetes, 12 Ascomycetes and 1 unknown fungus. Phomopsis mali was confirmed as the dominant species. In accordance with relative frequency, Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Colletotrichum boninense, C. gloeosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum , Fungal sp., Fusarium lateritium, Glomerella cingulata, Magnaporthales sp. , Nigrospora oryzae, Pestalotiopsis maculiformans, P. microspora, Peyronellaea glomerata and Xylaria sp. 1 were more common in T. chinensis var. mairei. T. chinensis var. mairei were severely infected by endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi were found in 81 percent of plant tissues with a high diversity. Distribution ranges of endophytic fungi were influenced by tissue properties. The colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi in needles were obviously lower than in branches, and kinds of endophytic fungi between branches were more similar than those in needles, thus endophytic fungi had tissue preference. In addition, tissue age influenced the community structure of endophytic fungi. The elder branch tissues were, the higher colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi were. Systematic studying the diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi in T. chinensis var. mairei and clarifying their distribution regularity in plant tissues would offer basic data and scientific basis for their development and utilization. Discussing the presence of fungal pathogens in healthy plant tissues would be of positive significance for source protection of T. chinensis var. mairei.

  14. VAR Portfolio Optimal: Perbandingan Antara Metode Markowitz dan Mean Absolute Deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Agus Sartono

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Portfolio selection method which have been introduced by Harry Markowitz (1952 used variance or deviation standard as a measure of risk. Kanno and Yamazaki (1991 introduced another method and used mean absolute deviation as a measure of risk instead of variance. The Value-at Risk (VaR is a relatively new method to capitalized risk that been used by financial institutions. The aim of this research is compare between mean variance and mean absolute deviation of two portfolios. Next, we attempt to assess the VaR of two portfolios using delta normal method and historical simulation. We use the secondary data from the Jakarta Stock Exchange – LQ45 during 2003. We find that there is a weak-positive correlation between deviation standard and return in both portfolios. The VaR nolmal delta based on mean absolute deviation method eventually is higher than the VaR normal delta based on mean variance method. However, based on the historical simulation the VaR of two methods is statistically insignificant. Thus, the deviation standard is sufficient measures of portfolio risk.Keywords: optimalisasi portofolio, mean-variance, mean-absolute deviation, value-at-risk, metode delta normal, metode simulasi historis

  15. Variable-order sequence modeling improves bacterial strain discrimination for Ion Torrent DNA reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Thomas M; Frith, Martin

    2017-06-12

    Genome sequencing provides a powerful tool for pathogen detection and can help resolve outbreaks that pose public safety and health risks. Mapping of DNA reads to genomes plays a fundamental role in this approach, where accurate alignment and classification of sequencing data is crucial. Standard mapping methods crudely treat bases as independent from their neighbors. Accuracy might be improved by using higher order paired hidden Markov models (HMMs), which model neighbor effects, but introduce design and implementation issues that have typically made them impractical for read mapping applications. We present a variable-order paired HMM that we term VarHMM, which addresses central issues involved with higher order modeling for sequence alignment. Compared with existing alignment methods, VarHMM is able to model higher order distributions and quantify alignment probabilities with greater detail and accuracy. In a series of comparison tests, in which Ion Torrent sequenced DNA was mapped to similar bacterial strains, VarHMM consistently provided better strain discrimination than any of the other alignment methods that we compared with. Our results demonstrate the advantages of higher ordered probability distribution modeling and also suggest that further development of such models would benefit read mapping in a range of other applications as well.

  16. CD36 selection of 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum associated with severe childhood malaria results in reduced VAR4 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hviid Lars

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A subset of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1SM is involved in the cytoadherence of P. falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBC contributing to the pathogenesis of severe disease among young children in malaria endemic areas. The PfEMP1SM are encoded by group A var genes that are composed of a more constrained range of amino acid sequences than groups B and C var genes encoding PfEMP1UM associated with uncomplicated malaria. Also, unlike var genes from groups B and C, those from group A do not have sequences consistent with CD36 binding – a major cytoadhesion phenotype of P. falciparum isolates. Methods A 3D7 PfEMP1SM sub-line (3D7SM expressing VAR4 (PFD1235w/MAL8P1.207 was selected for binding to CD36. The protein expression of this parasite line was monitored by surface staining of iRBC using VAR4-specific antibodies. The serological phenotype of the 3D7SM parasites was determined by flow cytometry using malaria semi-immune and immune plasma and transcription of the 59 var genes in 3D7 were analysed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR using var-specific primers. Results A selection-induced increased adhesion of 3D7SM iRBC to CD36 resulted in a reduced var4 transcription and VAR4 surface expression. Conclusion VAR4 is not involved in CD36 adhesion. The current findings are consistent with the notion that CD36 adhesion is not associated with particular virulent parasite phenotypes, such as those believed to be exhibited by VAR4 expressing parasites.

  17. Fatal encephalitis caused by Dactylaria constricta var. gallopava in a snowy owl chick (Nyctea scandiaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkin, I F; Dixon, D M; Kemna, M E; Danneman, P J; Griffith, J W

    1990-12-01

    Dactylaria constricta var. gallopava (Cooke) Salkin et Dixon was found to cause fatal encephalitis in a 28-day-old, captivity-bred snowy owl chick (Nyctea scandiaca). The previously healthy bird suddenly developed ataxia, severe torticollis, and extensor rigidity of the legs. Since the animal did not improve with antibiotic or vitamin-mineral supplement therapy, the chick was euthanized 5 days after the onset of neurologic signs. At necropsy, all tissues except the brain were grossly normal. Cultures inoculated with blood from the brain and heart yielded a dematiaceous mould that subsequently proved to be D. constricta var. gallopava. This is the first report of natural central nervous system infection caused by D. constricta var. gallopava in a snowy owl.

  18. Oil Price Fluctuations and Output performance in Nigeria : a Var Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail O. Fasanya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of oil price movements on real output growth in Nigeria during the period 1970 to 2011 making use of annual time series data. The empirical analysis rests on dynamic VAR analytical framework. To capture the possible channels reflecting the fluctuations in the oil prices, the model includes money supply, real exchange rate, government spending and inflation. Our findings indicate the lagged effects of the VAR model are not able to capture any significant impact of changes in oil prices, and oil price shocks are therefore not found to contribute directly to output, exchange rate or inflation in the short run but show a positive significant relationship to output growth in the long run. Following the VAR model results, the generalized impulse responses reaffirm the direct link between the net oil price shock and growth, as well as the indirect linkages.

  19. Evaluation of Requirements for Volt/Var Control and Optimization Function in Distribution Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Saaed; Marinelli, Mattia; Silvestro, Federico

    2012-01-01

    To meet the requirement from new visions within “smart grid” and to provide solutions for many challenges that DSOs (Distribution System Operators) are facing today, we need to develop advanced DMS (Distribution Management System) applications. A centralized Volt/Var Control (VVC) is one of the m......To meet the requirement from new visions within “smart grid” and to provide solutions for many challenges that DSOs (Distribution System Operators) are facing today, we need to develop advanced DMS (Distribution Management System) applications. A centralized Volt/Var Control (VVC) is one...... of the most desirable and important functions within Distribution Automation systems and DMSs. The overall Volt/Var control function is concerned with maintaining system voltage profile within a desired range and minimizing system losses by controlling the reactive power flow. The main objective of this paper...

  20. INDUCING RESISTANCE IN COTTON AGAINST COLLETOTRICHUM GOSSYPII VAR. CEPHALOSPORIOIDES WITH ESSENTIAL OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Santos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, baccharis (Baccharis trimera, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, basil (Ocimum basilicum and eucalyptus (Corymbia citriodora in inducing resistance in cotton plants against C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides. The inductive effect of the essential oils was evaluated in plants growing in pots in the environment, which were treated with 1% essential oil at 47 days of age. 24 hours after elicitor treatment the plants were inoculated with a suspension of 1.5 x 105 conidia mL-1 of C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides. Five evaluations were performed disease and calculated the area under the disease progress curve. All essential oils showed potential for inducing resistance against cotton C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides.

  1. RBF neural network prediction on weak electrical signals in Aloe vera var. chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanzhou; Zhao, Jiayin; Wang, Miao

    2008-10-01

    A Gaussian radial base function (RBF) neural network forecast on signals in the Aloe vera var. chinensis by the wavelet soft-threshold denoised as the time series and using the delayed input window chosen at 50, is set up to forecast backward. There was the maximum amplitude at 310.45μV, minimum -75.15μV, average value -2.69μV and Aloe vera var. chinensis respectively. The electrical signal in Aloe vera var. chinensis is a sort of weak, unstable and low frequency signals. A result showed that it is feasible to forecast plant electrical signals for the timing by the RBF. The forecast data can be used as the preferences for the intelligent autocontrol system based on the adaptive characteristic of plants to achieve the energy saving on the agricultural production in the plastic lookum or greenhouse.

  2. [Effect of different plant growth regulators on yield and quality of Angelica dahurica var. formosana development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Kai; Chen, Jun-Wen; Zhai, Juan-Yuan; Shen, Hao; Chen, Li; Wu, Wei

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the effect of plant growth regulators on the growth and quality of Angelica dahurica var. formosana. Five plant growth regulators: chlormequat chloride (CCC), Mepiquat chloride (PIX), Gibberellic acid (GA3), Paclobutrazol (PP333) and Maleic Hydrazide (MH) were sprayed in rosette stage, the effects of these plant growth regulators (PGRs) on the growth, yield and quality of A. dahurica var. formosanaw were observed. The biological traits were first measured and then imperatorin and isoimperatorin contents in roots were determined by HPLC. Low concentration GA3 increased the yield while not influenced the premature bolting rate and the coumarin content. Spraying of GA3 (30 mg x L(-1)) could guarantee the growth and development of A. dahurica var. formosana to have a higher yield and maintain the active ingredients content in the root as well.

  3. [Microscopic identification of tibetan medicinal herb "Songdi" (Saxifraga umbellulata var pectinata)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yao; Zhong, Guo-Yue; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Zhao, Ji-Feng

    2013-03-01

    To establish a method of microscopic identification of Tibetan medicinal herb " Songdi" (Saxifraga umbellulata var. pectinata). The different characteristics and microscopic identification of 4 species of Songdi were compared, including the main variety (Saxifraga umbellulata var. pectinata ) and approximate varieties (S. unguiculata, S. przewalskii and S. tanguTi,) were studied and compared. The botanical anatomy characteristics of Saxifraga umbellulata var. pectinata (including roots, stems, leaves, flowers, stalks and fruits) have been measured. The methods for powder identifications and transverse section of stems root and leaves of four species of Songdi were established. Four species of Songdi can be identified by the growth pattern of basal leaves, type of hair, type of inflorescence, number of flowers, proportion of tissue structures in stem, form of pollen grains.

  4. Tamarix arborea var. arborea and Tamarix parviflora: Two species valued for their adaptability to stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisafi, Francesca; Oddo, Elisabetta; Gargano, Maria Letizia; Inzerillo, Simone; Russo, Gianni; Venturella, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The choice of stress resistant and highly adaptable species is a fundamental step for landscaping and ornamental purposes in arid and coastal environments such as those in the Mediterranean basin. The genus Tamarix L. includes about 90 species with a high endurance of adversity. We investigated the water relations and photosynthetic response of Tamarix arborea (Sieb. ex Ehrenb.) Bge. var. arborea and T. parviflora DC. growing in an urban environment. Both species showed no evidence of drought or salt stress in summer, and appeared to follow two strategies with T. arborea var. arborea investing in high carbon gain at the beginning of the summer, and then reducing photosynthetic activity at the end of the season, and T. parviflora showing lower but constant levels of photosynthetic activity throughout the vegetative season. For landscaping and ornamental purposes, we suggest T. arborea var. arborea when a fast-growing, high-cover species is necessary, and T. parviflora when less-invasive species are required.

  5. The mechanical properties of Acer velutinum var. glabrescens wood growing in different regions of Caspian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fardad golbabaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The major engineering properties of Acer velutinum var. glabrescens wood growing in different regions of Caspian forests (North of Iran was determined. Test materials were selected randomly from Acer velutinum var. glabrescens tree plantation and the test specimens were prepared according to ASTM D-143 standard. Mechanical and physical properties were measured on both green and air-dried samples (12% moisture content. The results of the measurement were statistically analyzed based on randomized block design and factorial experiment. The influence of specimen locations at different stem heights was examined. Based on the results of this study, Significant areas of habitat in the area, Maple Vysr Mazandaran species most resistant of the Maple Sangdeh Frame has the lowest resistance. Keywords: Maple, statice bending, compression parallel to grain, compression perpendicular to grain, tension perpendicular to grain, Acer velutinum var. glabrescens.

  6. Potential for wind extraction from 4D-Var assimilation of aerosols and moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaplotnik, Žiga; Žagar, Nedjeljka

    2017-04-01

    We discuss the potential of the four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) to retrieve the unobserved wind field from observations of atmospheric tracers and the mass field through internal model dynamics and the multivariate relationships in the background-error term for 4D-Var. The presence of non-linear moist dynamics makes the wind retrieval from tracers very difficult. On the other hand, it has been shown that moisture observations strongly influence both tropical and mid-latitude wind field in 4D-Var. We present an intermediate complexity model that describes nonlinear interactions between the wind, temperature, aerosols and moisture including their sinks and sources in the framework of the so-called first baroclinic mode atmosphere envisaged by A. Gill. Aerosol physical processes, which are included in the model, are the non-linear advection, diffusion and sources and sinks that exist as dry and wet deposition and diffusion. Precipitation is parametrized according to the Betts-Miller scheme. The control vector for 4D-Var includes aerosols, moisture and the three dynamical variables. The former is analysed univariately whereas wind field and mass field are analysed in a multivariate fashion taking into account quasi-geostrophic and unbalanced dynamics. The OSSE type of studies are performed for the tropical region to assess the ability of 4D-Var to extract wind-field information from the time series of observations of tracers as a function of the flow nonlinearity, the observations density and the length of the assimilation window (12 hours and 24 hours), in dry and moist environment. Results show that the 4D-Var assimilation of aerosols and temperature data is beneficial for the wind analysis with analysis errors strongly dependent on the moist processes and reliable background-error covariances.

  7. Developments in breeding of Agaricus bisporus var. bisporus: progress made and technical and legal hurdles to take.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Anton S M; Baars, Johan J P; Gao, Wei; Visser, Richard G F

    2017-03-01

    True breeding of button mushrooms has hardly been done in the last decades, despite this species being one of the most cultivated mushrooms worldwide. Research done in the last 20 years has identified and characterised new germplasm and improved our understanding of the genetic base for some traits. A substantial collection of wild-collected strains is now available and partly characterised for a number of important traits such as disease resistance and yield. Most of the variations found in a number of important agronomic traits have a considerable heritability and are thus useful for breeding. Genetic marker technology has also developed considerably for this mushrooms in the last decade and used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for important agronomic traits. This progress has, except for one example, not resulted so far into new commercially varieties. One of the reasons lies in the typical life cycle of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus var. bisporus which hampers breeding. Joint investment is needed to solve technical problems in breeding. Special attention is needed for the protection of new varieties. Due to its typical life cycle, it is very easy to generate so called "look-a-likes" from protected cultivars by screening fertile single spore cultures. A consensus has been reached within the mushroom (breeding) industry to consider this method as the generation of essentially derived varieties as defined in plant breeding.

  8. Quantitative determination of alpha-tocopherol in Pistacia lentiscus, Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, and Pistacia terebinthus by TLC-densitometry and colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivçak, B; Akay, S

    2005-01-01

    A quantitative determination of alpha-tocopherol in Pistacia lentiscus, Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, and Pistacia terebinthus, leaves was established by TLC-densitometry and colorimetry. The highest amount of alpha-tocopherol was found in P. lentiscus var. chia.

  9. Strains and Sprains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... long winter off might lead to a strained calf or thigh muscle. Sprains are caused by injuries, such as twisting your ankle. This kind of injury is common in sports, but can also happen any time you trip or fall. What if I Get a Strain or Sprain? If you get a strain or ...

  10. Obturator internus muscle strains

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Caoimhe; Alkhayat, Abdullah; O'Neill, Pat; Eustace, Stephen; Kavanagh, Eoin

    2017-01-01

    We report 2 cases of obturator internus muscle strains. The injuries occurred in young male athletes involved in kicking sports. Case 1 details an acute obturator internus muscle strain with associated adductor longus strain. Case 2 details an overuse injury of the bilateral obturator internus muscles. In each case, magnetic resonance imaging played a crucial role in accurate diagnosis.

  11. Obturator internus muscle strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Caoimhe; Alkhayat, Abdullah; O'Neill, Pat; Eustace, Stephen; Kavanagh, Eoin

    2017-03-01

    We report 2 cases of obturator internus muscle strains. The injuries occurred in young male athletes involved in kicking sports. Case 1 details an acute obturator internus muscle strain with associated adductor longus strain. Case 2 details an overuse injury of the bilateral obturator internus muscles. In each case, magnetic resonance imaging played a crucial role in accurate diagnosis.

  12. Obturator internus muscle strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caoimhe Byrne, MB BCh, BAO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report 2 cases of obturator internus muscle strains. The injuries occurred in young male athletes involved in kicking sports. Case 1 details an acute obturator internus muscle strain with associated adductor longus strain. Case 2 details an overuse injury of the bilateral obturator internus muscles. In each case, magnetic resonance imaging played a crucial role in accurate diagnosis.

  13. Baculovirus-expressed constructs induce immunoglobulin G that recognizes VAR2CSA on Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Lea; Nielsen, Morten A; Turner, Louise

    2006-01-01

    of infected erythrocytes. Our data show that five of the six VAR2CSA Duffy-binding-like domains are surface exposed and that induction of surface-reactive VAR2CSA-specific IgG depends critically upon antigen conformation. These findings have implications for the development of vaccines against pregnancy...

  14. Growth-Inhibitory and Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (Apple Punice) on Fibrosarcoma Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Sineh Sepehr, Koushan; Baradaran, Behzad; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Yousefi, Bahman; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, Meghdad; Khori, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Punica granatum L. var. granatum (Pomegranate), an herbaceous plant found in Iran, The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects, induction of apoptosis, and the mechanism of cell death of ethanol extract from Punica granatum L. var. spinosa on the mouse fibrosarcoma cell line, WEHI-164.

  15. A study on inhibitory effects of Siğla tree (Liquidambar orientalis Mill. var. orientalis) storax against several bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağdiç, Osman; Ozkan, Gülcan; Ozcan, Musa; Ozçelik, Sami

    2005-06-01

    In this study, Siğla (Liquidambar orientalis Mill.) storax (styrax) was investigated for antibacterial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. brevis, B. cereus, B. megaterium, B. subtilis, Corynebacterium xerosis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica. The storax was dissolved in absolute ethanol and was tested at concentrations of 10.0%, 1.0%, 0.4%, 0.2% and 0.1%. Pure ethanol was used for the control. The antibacterial activity of the Siğla storax was determined by using the agar diffusion method. The growths of A. hydrophila, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. megaterium, E. coli, E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica were not inhibited by any of the concentrations of Siğla storax. The results showed that Siğla storax has antibacterial activity against many bacteria at concentrations of 10.0% and against some bacteria at concentrations of 1.0%, 0.4% and 0.2%. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Influence of intermittent preventive treatment on antibodies to VAR2CSA in pregnant Cameroonian women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Tutterrow, Yeung L; Bobbili, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) and insecticide-treated bed nets are the standard of care for preventing malaria in pregnant women. Since these preventive measures reduce exposure to malaria, their influence on the antibody (Ab) response to the parasite antigen VAR2CSA was evaluated...... in pregnant Cameroonian women exposed to holoendemic malaria. Ab levels to full-length VAR2CSA (FV2), variants of the six Duffy binding like (DBL) domains, and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 were measured longitudinally in 92 women before and 147 women after IPT. As predicted, reduced exposure...

  17. Transient Stability Enhancement in Power System Using Static VAR Compensator (SVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef MOULOUDI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an indirect adaptive fuzzy excitation and static VAR (unit of reactive power, volt-ampere reactive compensator (SVC controller is proposed to enhance transient stability for the power system, which based on input-output linearization technique. A three-bus system, which contains a generator and static VAR compensator (SVC, is considered in this paper, the SVC is located at the midpoint of the transmission lines. Simulation results show that the proposed controller compared with a controller based on tradition linearization technique can enhance the transient stability of the power system under a large sudden fault, which may occur nearly at the generator bus terminal.

  18. Changes in var gene mRNA levels during erythrocytic development in two phenotypically distinct Plasmodium falciparum parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Lavstsen, Thomas; Salanti, Ali

    2007-01-01

    points along the 48 hours intra-erythrocytic cycle for extraction of RNA and for analysis of expression of variant surface antigens by flow cytometry. Total RNA from each parasite sample was extracted and cDNA synthesized. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed using gene-specific primers for all var...... genes. Samples for flow cytometry were labelled with rabbit IgG targeting DBL5epsilon of VAR2CSA and serum IgG from malaria-exposed men and pregnant women. RESULTS: var transcripts were detected at all time points of the intra-erythrocytic cycle by quantitative real-time PCR, although transcription......BACKGROUND: The var multigene family encodes PfEMP1, which are expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes and bind to various host endothelial receptors. Antigenic variation of PfEMP1 plays a key role in malaria pathogenesis, a process partially controlled at the level of var gene...

  19. Selected wild strains of Agaricus bisporus produce high yields of mushrooms at 25°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Pilar; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    To cultivate the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus in warm countries or during summer in temperate countries, while saving energy, is a challenge that could be addressed by using the biological diversity of the species. The objective was to evaluate the yield potential of eight wild strains previously selected in small scale experiments for their ability to produce mature fruiting bodies at 25°C and above. Culture units of 8 kg of compost were used. The yield expressed as weight or number per surface unit and earliness of fruiting were recorded during cultivation in climatic rooms at 17, 25 or 30°C. Only strains of A. bisporus var. burnettii were able to fruit at 30°C. At 25°C they produced the highest yields (27 kg m(-2)) and had best earliness. The yields at 25°C for the strains of A. bisporus var. bisporus ranged from 12 to 16 kg m(-2). The yield ratios 25°C/17°C ranged from 0.8 to 1.2. The variety burnettii originated in the Sonoran Desert in California showed adaptation for quickly producing fruiting bodies at high temperature when humidity conditions were favorable. Strains of the variety bisporus showed interesting potentials for their ability to produce mature fruiting bodies at higher temperature than present cultivars and might be used in breeding programs. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Modulation of gut microbiota by polyphenols from adlay (Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf.) in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingyu; Du, Zhongyao; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Liang; Sun, Jing; Zheng, Xiaonan; Ren, Fazheng

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the beneficial effects of polyphenol extract of adlay (Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf.) (PEA) on gut microbiota in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). Rats were fed HCD containing 1% cholesterol (w/w), with or without a daily intragastric supplement of 200 mg/kg body weight PEA. Results showed that PEA significantly ameliorated increases in serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values and significantly restored high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values. The HCD-induced imbalance of gut microflora was modulated by the consumption of PEA. Most bacterial strains influenced by PEA are related to host lipid metabolism. The abundances of one Erysipelotrichales strains and two Clostridia strains were lower in the PEA group than in the control. Phenolic compounds in PEA were identified by HPLC. The findings indicate that PEA may be a useful dietary supplement in the treatment of elevated cholesterol levels and the imbalanced gut microbial ecology.

  1. La salud reproductiva del varón amenazada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta Fernández

    2014-01-01

    Comentario: El interés mostrado por la comunidad cientifica por esclarecer la realidad de la salud reproductiva en Europa y en otros países occidentales, ha con-ducido a la redacción de una serie de recomendaciones, propuestas por expertes en el campo, que sirvan de orientación para politicas de financiación de la investigación. El debate sobre el deteriora de la salud reproductiva delvarón europeo ha llegado a su fin. Ya nadie duda de que tante los parámetras de medida directa como los indicadores indirectes de la fertilidad masculina manifiestan ese daño. Lo que es realmente novedoso en la propuesta es, de una parte, la vinculación entre el deteriora en salud reproductiva -incluida la caída secular en los niveles de testosterona circulante del varón-y el riesgode enfermedad cardiovascular y diabetes; de otra parte, la presentación formal de una hipótesis etiológica que requiere la investigación de la exposición materno-infantil a contaminantes químicos con actividad hormonal y sugiere una actitud precautoria. Los disruptores endocrinos son componentes de cosméticos, detergentes, medicamentos y alimentes de consumo y uso diario. Mientras sesudos cientificos en toda Europa abordan este asunto tratando de fortalecer la hipótesis, ¿qué corresponde a los sanitarios y responsables de políticas de salud?, lo habituai, informarse e informar. Conocer y trasmitir de forma inteligible recomendaciones en hábites de vida y exposiciones ambien-tales que sirvan para proteger a la población general de un daño que se presume importante. Desafortunadamente las noticias sobre exposición química ambiental llegan más fácilmente a las páginas de ciencia de los diarios nacionales que a las bibliotecas de los sanitarios. El mensaje no parece llegar a los foras adecuados ni en el momente oportuno. Los auto-res del artículo insisten en que el gasto en remedios terapéuticos costosos estaría mejor empleado en orientaciones preventivas. Somos de la opini

  2. Production of exopolysaccharides by selected Bacillus strains: Optimization of media composition to maximize the yield and structural characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malick, Afshan; Khodaei, Nastaran; Benkerroum, Noreddine; Karboune, Salwa

    2017-09-01

    Selected Bacillus strains were investigated for the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) by fermentation in three different culture media: (i) mineral base-medium with added yeast extract (M1), (ii) succinate-containing mineral base-medium with added yeast extract (M2) and (iii) tryptone and yeast extract-containing base-medium (M3). Modest EPS yield of 6.7g/L was recorded for Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 23350 grown on M1, where the EPS produced was characterized by a low MW (<5kDa) and of being mainly glucans. The most significant yield (48.57g/L) was obtained with Bacillus licheniformis 14580 in M2; the EPS produced was 5-30kDa in size and characterized by an exceptionally heterogeneous monosaccharide profile with galactose, fructose and glucose as the predominating monomers. The use of M1 medium for the growth of B. licheniformis 14580 resulted in low yield; however, the obtained heteropolymers EPS were characterized by a higher MW 30-100kDa. The effect of the concentrations of yeast extract, sodium succinate and sucrose on the EPS production by B. licheniformis 14580 were studied using response surface methodology analysis. Greater EPS yields were achieved with increased concentrations of sodium succinate and sucrose and with decreased concentrations of yeast extract in the mineral media. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Choosing Expected Shortfall over VaR in Basel III Using Stochastic Dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); J.A. Jiménez-Martín (Juan-Ángel); E. Maasoumi (Esfandiar); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBank risk managers follow the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) recommendations that recently proposed shifting the quantitative risk metrics system from Value-at-Risk (VaR) to Expected Shortfall (ES). The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (2013, p. 3) noted that: “a

  4. PHOSPHATE NUTRITION EFFECTS ON ALUMINUM AVOIDANCE OF MUCUNA-PRURIENS VAR UTILIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HAIRIAH, K; VANNOORDWIJK, M; STULEN, [No Value; MEIJBOOM, FW; KUIPER, PJC

    The response of roots of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis to aluminium depends on the duration of exposure and the type of experiment. In a short-term study, the usual reduction of root elongation rate by Al was found. In contrast, a study for a longer period of time, 4 weeks, showed a stimulation of

  5. The correct name for Archidendron clypearia (Jack) Nielsen var. casai (Blanco) Nielsen (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Recently Gangopadhyay & Chakrabarty (1993, 1994) proposed the combination Archidendron clypearia (Jack) Nielsen var. montanum (Benth.) Gang. & T. Chakrab. When I compared this to some papers Nielsen wrote (1984 (et al.); 1992) it would seem that this new combination would be identical with A.

  6. Growth and N2 fixation in an Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica stand ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To estimate the N2 fixation ability of the alder (Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica), we examined the seasonal variation in nitrogenase activity of nodules using the acetylene reduction method in an 18-year-old stand naturally regenerated after disturbance by road construction in Japan. To evaluate the contribution of N2 ...

  7. Structural Insight into Epitopes in the Pregnancy-Associated Malaria Protein VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P; Nielsen, MA; Resende, M

    2008-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites binding specifically to chondroitin sulfate A in the placenta. This sequestration of parasites is a major cause of low birth weight in infants and anemia in the mothers. VAR2CSA, a polymorphic multi-domain protein...

  8. Comparison of historically simulated VaR: Evidence from oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, Alexandra [Seminole Canada Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada); Asem, Ebenezer; Gardner, Eldon [Faculty of Management, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB (Canada)

    2008-09-15

    Cabedo and Moya [Cabedo, J.D., Moya, I., 2003. Estimating oil price 'Value at Risk' using the historical simulation approach. Energy Economics 25, 239-253] find that ARMA with historical simulation delivers VaR forecasts that are superior to those from GARCH. We compare the ARMA with historical simulation to the semi-parametric GARCH model proposed by Barone-Adesi et al. [Barone-Adesi, G., Giannopoulos, K., Vosper, L., 1999. VaR without correlations for portfolios of derivative securities. Journal of Futures Markets 19 (5), 583-602]. The results suggest that the semi-parametric GARCH model generates VaR forecasts that are superior to the VaR forecasts from the ARMA with historical simulation. This is due to the fact that GARCH captures volatility clustering. Our findings suggest that Cabedo and Moya's conclusion is mainly driven by the normal distributional assumption imposed on the future risk structure in the GARCH model. (author)

  9. The flexural properties of young Pinus elliottii × Pinus caribaea var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the bending strength and stiffness properties of young Pinus elliottii × P. caribaea var. hondurensis timber from the Southern Cape, South Africa, and to evaluate the predictability of these properties from acoustic measurements on standing trees, logs and their sawn boards.

  10. Improved Likelihood Ratio Tests for Cointegration Rank in the VAR Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boswijk, H. Peter; Jansson, Michael; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    We suggest improved tests for cointegration rank in the vector autoregressive (VAR) model and develop asymptotic distribution theory and local power results. The tests are (quasi-)likelihood ratio tests based on a Gaussian likelihood, but of course the asymptotic results apply more generally...

  11. Aislamiento de poligodial de la corteza de drymis granadensis, var. grandiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Calle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto de éter de petróleo (P Eb = 40-60 "O de la corteza de Drymis granadensis, var. grandiflora, se aisló con 8% de rendimiento, poligodial ( I , un sesquiterpeno conocido, cuya estructura se confirmó por métodos espectroscópicos.

  12. 40 CFR 80.170 - Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... applicable. (i) For a facility which uses in-line meters to measure detergent usage, the total volume of... the hardware and software necessary to review the records. (2) Electronically-generated VAR formula...; (3) For all detergent blending facilities, product transfer documents for all gasoline, detergent and...

  13. High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutterrow, Yeung Lo; Salanti, Ali; Avril, Marion

    2012-01-01

    VAR2CSA mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Naturally acquired antibodies (Ab) to placental parasites at delivery have been associated with improved pregnancy outcomes, but Ab levels and how early i...

  14. Growt var. h, phy Punch ysiolog h as af gy and ffected hy flower d by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    maleic hydrazide on growth, physiology and flowering of spray chrysanthemum var. Punch grown under greenhouse conditions. The research findings are based on the key parameters necessary for regulating the growth of chrysanthemum under protected conditions and hoped to be valuable information for flower growers ...

  15. Ulubelenolide: A New triterpene lactone from Tanacetum chiliophyllum (Fisch. & Mey. var. monocephalum Grierson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Polatoğlu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A further investigation on Tanacetum chilliophyllum var. monocephalum ethyl acetate extract afforded a new triterpene lactone Ulubelenolide (olean-12-ene-3β,10β-olide (1.The structure of (1 was determined with spectral analysis including FTIR, 1H, 13C NMR, APT, DEPT, COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and APCI-MS.

  16. Development of a molecular test to ensure good flowering of Viburnum Opulus Var. Roseum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromwijk, J.A.M.; Noort, van F.R.; Verhoef, N.; Balk, P.; Wordragen, van M.F.

    2013-01-01

    During wintertime Viburnum opulus var. roseum (snowball) shrubs are forced in warm greenhouses to harvest early cut flowers. Early forcing is occasionally unsuccessful. This is probably due to a lack of hours with low temperatures that is needed to break bud dormancy. To gain more insight about the

  17. Anatomical element localization by EDXS in Grevillea exul var. exul under nickel stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabier, J. [Equipe Biomarqueurs et Bioindicateurs Environnementaux, Institut Mediterraneen d' Ecologie et de Paleoecologie, UMR CNRS 6116, Universite de Provence, Case 17, 3 Place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: Jacques.Rabier@univ-provence.fr; Laffont-Schwob, I. [Equipe Biomarqueurs et Bioindicateurs Environnementaux, Institut Mediterraneen d' Ecologie et de Paleoecologie, UMR CNRS 6116, Universite de Provence, Case 17, 3 Place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: Isabelle.Schwob@univ-provence.fr; Notonier, R. [Service commun de microscopie electronique, Universite de Provence, Case 76, 3 Place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: Roger.Notonier@univ-provence.fr; Fogliani, B. [MABioM, Universite de la Nouvelle-Caledonie, BP R4, 98847 Noumea, New Caledonia (France)], E-mail: bfoglian@univ-nc.nc; Bouraima-Madjebi, S. [MABioM, Universite de la Nouvelle-Caledonie, BP R4, 98847 Noumea, New Caledonia (France)], E-mail: bouraima@univ-nc.nc

    2008-12-15

    Grevillea exul var. exul, an endemic serpentinic Proteaceae of New Caledonia, was chosen to study the spatial distribution of Ni because this species supports strong content of metals, which can allow important absorptions thus detectable by microanalysis. Fine transversal sections of axenic G. exul var. exul plants grown during 15 days on nickel sulphate medium were examined by EDXS microanalysis. It showed that in Ni treated plants, Ni was concentrated mostly in the phloem compared to the xylem and the epidermis, either in roots or in the basal part of the stems and was mostly in the epidermis in the upper part of the stems and not detectable in the leaves. This metal took the place of P and K in the treated plants whereas the localization of these macroelements was quite uniform in control sections. We assume that a mechanism of phloem loading is implicated to restrict Ni accumulation in G. exul var. exul. - Ni resistance mechanism in Grevillea exul var. exul plants depends on a basipetal export mechanism.

  18. Stomatogenesis in Gleichenia gigantea, Dicranopteris linearis var. montana and D. splendida (Gleicheniaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, U.; Bhunia, S.

    1984-01-01

    This is the first ever study of the development of stomata in Gleichenia gigantea Wallich ex Hook. (subg. Diplopterygium), Dicranopteris linearis (Burm. f.) Underw. var. montana Holttum and D. splendida (Hand.-Mazz.) Tagawa in detail. In these ferns, as in many polypodioid members, the polocytic

  19. Anti-aging activities of Pyrus pyrifolia var culta plant callus extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    source of anti-aging cosmetic components with skin lightening and regenerating activities. Keywords: P. pyrifolia var. culta, Anti-aging, Callus extract, Skin lightening, Anti-tyrosinase activity,. Melanogenesis, Wound recovery, Procollagen .... the percentage antioxidant activity was calculated using the following equation: %.

  20. Stability Analysis of a Three-Phase Solid-State Var Compensator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The principal component of this device is a three-phase pulse-width-modulated voltage source inverter. A mathematical model of the inverter is derived in d-q referenceframe and then used to examine the stability of the compensator in response to variations in circuit parameters. Keywords: var compensation, inverter, ...

  1. Isoprene derivatives from the leaves and callus cultures of Vaccinium corymbosum var. bluecrop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migas, Piotr; Cisowski, Wojciech; Dembińska-Migas, Wanda

    2005-01-01

    The phytochemical analysis of Vaccinium corymbosum var bluecrop leaves and callus biomass revealed ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, alpha-amyrin and beta-amyrin in both plant materials. Beta-sitosterol was determined only in callus biomass. The structure of isolated compounds was elucidated by TLC co-chromatography with standards and with spectroscopic methods (1H NMR, 13C NMR, EI-MS).

  2. Bolívar ante la política de Cartagena en 1812

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel José Forero

    1961-11-01

    Full Text Available Veintinueve años contaba Simón Bolívar en los días de su llegada a Cartagena. Imaginación ardiente, ojos vivos, ademanes colmados de actividad eran los dones visibles al instante en el futuro Libertador. Traía en el alma un gran dolor.

  3. THE STEERING TOOL OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: CREDIT VAR (VALUE AT RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂRBULESCU MARINELA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the economic capital, in terms of internal management or of application of regulations, financial institutions need to model the probability of future losses on a loan portfolio. This is generally made applying the Credit VaR method. Thus, unexpected losses can be assessed.

  4. Yunis-Varón syndrome caused by biallelic VAC14 mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lines, Matthew A.; Ito, Yoko; Kernohan, Kristin D.; Mears, Wendy; Hurteau-Miller, Julie; Venkateswaran, Sunita; Ward, Leanne; Khatchadourian, Karine; McClintock, Jeff; Bhola, Priya; Campeau, Philippe M.; Boycott, Kym M.; Michaud, Jean; van Kuilenburg, André Bp; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Dyment, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Yunis-Varón syndrome (YVS) is an autosomal recessive disorder comprising skeletal anomalies, dysmorphism, global developmental delay and intracytoplasmic vacuolation in brain and other tissues. All hitherto-reported pathogenic variants affect FIG4, a lipid phosphatase involved in

  5. Impact of different drying trajectories on degradation of nutritional compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Oliviero, T.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This work concerns the degradation of the nutritional compounds glucoraphanin (GR) and vitamin C (Vc), and the inactivation of the enzyme myrosinase (MYR) in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) during drying with air temperatures in the range of 30e60 C. Dynamic optimization is applied to find

  6. Disseminated Nosocomial Fungal Infection by Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanigenum: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bolignano, Giuseppe; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    We report on a rare case of disseminated nosocomial fungal infection due to Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanigenum in a severely traumatized patient. Repeated blood and urine cultures yielded multicellular filamentous hyphal structures of varying size accompanied by budding yeast-like-cells of ellipsoidal morphology. The patient became asymptomatic after fluconazole therapy.

  7. Disseminated nosocomial fungal infection by Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanigenum: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolignano, Giuseppe; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2003-09-01

    We report on a rare case of disseminated nosocomial fungal infection due to Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanigenum in a severely traumatized patient. Repeated blood and urine cultures yielded multicellular filamentous hyphal structures of varying size accompanied by budding yeast-like-cells of ellipsoidal morphology. The patient became asymptomatic after fluconazole therapy.

  8. Potential of 4d-VAR for exigent forecasting of severe weather

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Ross N; Nehrkorn, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Severe storms, tropical cyclones, and associated tornadoes, floods, lightning, and microbursts threaten life and property. Reliable, precise, and accurate alerts of these phenomena can trigger defensive actions and preparations. However, these crucial weather phenomena are difficult to forecast. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of 4d-VAR (four dimensional variational data assimilation) for exigent forecasting (XF) of severe storm precursors and to thereby characterize the probability of a worst-case scenario. 4d-VAR is designed to adjust the initial conditions (IC) of a numerical weather prediction model consistent with the uncertainty of the prior estimate of the IC while at the same time minimizing the misfit to available observations. For XF the same approach is taken but instead of fitting observations, a measure of damage or loss or an equivalent proxy is maximized or minimized. To accomplish this will require development of a specialized cost function for 4d-VAR. When 4d-VAR s...

  9. In vitro clonal propagation of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Mucuna pruriens var. utilis is an important legume cover crop. Almost all the parts of the plant are reported to contain L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-Dopa). Here we report a rapid and reliable method for high fidelity micro-propagation. Auxiliary bud explants from 14-day-old seedlings were cultured on Murashige and ...

  10. Choosing Expected Shortfall Over VaR in Basel III Using Stochastic Dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); J.A. Jiménez-Martín (Juan-Ángel); E. Maasoumi (Esfandiar); M.J. McAleer (Michael); T. Pérez-Amaral (Teodosio)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe compare Value at Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) following a Stochastic Dominance (SD) approach frequently used to order distributions in terms of welfare and in portfolio selection. Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) recommends bank risk managers to shift the

  11. A Vector AutoRegressive (VAR) Approach to the Credit Channel for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an attempt to determine the presence and empirical significance of monetary policy and the bank lending view of the credit channel for Mauritius, which is particularly relevant at these times. A vector autoregressive (VAR) model of order three is used to examine the monetary transmission mechanism using ...

  12. The Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gkogka, E.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Posthumus, M.A.; Beumer, R.R.

    2013-01-01

    The essential oil of the resin of Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia (mastic oil) was studied in vitro against a wide range of foodborne pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms with a diffusion and a dilution method. Furthermore its chemical composition was analyzed by means of Gas Chromatography-Mass

  13. Clinical laboratories collaborate to resolve differences in variant interpretations submitted to ClinVar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Steven M; Dolinsky, Jill S; Knight Johnson, Amy E; Pesaran, Tina; Azzariti, Danielle R; Bale, Sherri; Chao, Elizabeth C; Das, Soma; Vincent, Lisa; Rehm, Heidi L

    2017-10-01

    Data sharing through ClinVar offers a unique opportunity to identify interpretation differences between laboratories. As part of a ClinGen initiative, four clinical laboratories (Ambry, GeneDx, Partners Healthcare Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, and University of Chicago Genetic Services Laboratory) collaborated to identify the basis of interpretation differences and to investigate if data sharing and reassessment resolve interpretation differences by analyzing a subset of variants. ClinVar variants with submissions from at least two of the four participating laboratories were compared. For a subset of identified differences, laboratories documented the basis for discordance, shared internal data, independently reassessed with the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics-Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG-AMP) guidelines, and then compared interpretations. At least two of the participating laboratories interpreted 6,169 variants in ClinVar, of which 88.3% were initially concordant. Laboratories reassessed 242/724 initially discordant variants, of which 87.2% (211) were resolved by reassessment with current criteria and/or internal data sharing; 12.8% (31) of reassessed variants remained discordant owing to differences in the application of the ACMG-AMP guidelines. Participating laboratories increased their overall concordance from 88.3 to 91.7%, indicating that sharing variant interpretations in ClinVar-thereby allowing identification of differences and motivation to resolve those differences-is critical to moving toward more consistent variant interpretations.Genet Med advance online publication 09 March 2017.

  14. Forecasting VaR and ES of stock index portfolio: A Vine copula method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bangzheng; Wei, Yu; Yu, Jiang; Lai, Xiaodong; Peng, Zhenfeng

    2014-12-01

    Risk measurement has both theoretical and practical significance in risk management. Using daily sample of 10 international stock indices, firstly this paper models the internal structures among different stock markets with C-Vine, D-Vine and R-Vine copula models. Secondly, the Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) of the international stock markets portfolio are forecasted using Monte Carlo method based on the estimated dependence of different Vine copulas. Finally, the accuracy of VaR and ES measurements obtained from different statistical models are evaluated by UC, IND, CC and Posterior analysis. The empirical results show that the VaR forecasts at the quantile levels of 0.9, 0.95, 0.975 and 0.99 with three kinds of Vine copula models are sufficiently accurate. Several traditional methods, such as historical simulation, mean-variance and DCC-GARCH models, fail to pass the CC backtesting. The Vine copula methods can accurately forecast the ES of the portfolio on the base of VaR measurement, and D-Vine copula model is superior to other Vine copulas.

  15. Utilizing nanobody technology to target non-immunodominant domains of VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev, Sisse B; Florea, Raluca; Nielsen, Morten A

    2014-01-01

    called Nanobody, which represents the smallest known (15 kDa) intact, native antigen-binding fragment. In this study, we have used the Nanobody technology, an approach new to malaria research, to generate small and functional antibody fragments recognizing unique epitopes broadly distributed on VAR2CSA....

  16. Genetic structure of Hepatica nobilis var. japonica, focusing on within population flower color polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameoka, Shinichiro; Sakio, Hitoshi; Abe, Harue; Ikeda, Hajime; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2017-03-01

    How phenotypic or genetic diversity is maintained in a natural habitat is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. Flower color polymorphism in plants is a common polymorphism. Hepatica nobilis var. japonica on the Sea of Japan (SJ) side of the Japanese mainland exhibits within population flower color polymorphism (e.g., white, pink, and purple), while only white flowers are observed on the Pacific Ocean (PO) side. To determine the relationships between flower color polymorphism, within and among populations, and the genetic structure of H. nobilis var. japonica, we estimated the genetic variation using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. First, we examined whether cryptic lineages corresponding to distinct flower colors contribute to the flower color polymorphisms in H. nobilis var. japonica. In our field observations, no bias in color frequency was observed among populations on Sado Island, a region with high variation in flower color. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) analyses revealed that 18% of the genetic variance was explained by differences among populations, whereas no genetic variation was explained by flower color hue or intensity (0% for both components). These results indicate that the flower color polymorphism is likely not explained by cryptic lineages that have different flower colors. In contrast, populations in the SJ and PO regions were genetically distinguishable. As with the other plant species in these regions, refugial isolation and subsequent migration history may have caused the genetic structure as well as the spatially heterogeneous patterns of flower color polymorphisms in H. nobilis var. japonica.

  17. Effect of acorn burying depth on germination, seedling emergence and development of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werger, M.J.A.; Guo, Ke; Li, Rui

    2001-01-01

    Acorns of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata are often predated by small mammals and birds in natural forests. These animals not only eat the acorns during the acorn ripening season, but also cache and hoard most of the remaining acorns on the forest floor in the soil for their future use. These

  18. Phytochemical Properties and Proximate Composition of Papaya (Carica papaya L. var solo 8 Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adingra Kouassi Martial-Didier

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya is a common tropical fruit used for nutrition as well as medicinal purposes. Apart from fruit, seed, latex and other plant parts of papaya tree have been shown to have medicinal properties. Since, no systematic study has been performed on nutritional analysis of papaya (Carica papaya L. var solo 8 peels. In this study, the proximate composition, mineral element profile and phytochemical composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. var solo 8 peels were investigated. The peels were harvested fresh, dried in an oven at 45°C for 48 hours, ground and analyzed according to standard procedures. Proximate analysis showed high level of proteins (11.67 ± 0.04 %, crude fibre (32.51 ± 0.03 %, carbohydrate (47.33 ± 0.08 %, ash (5.98 ± 0.03 % 0.03 % and fat (2.51 ± 0.13 %. Mineral analysis indicated the papaya (Carica papaya L. var solo 8 peels were specifically rich in potassium and phosphorus. Potassium was found to be the most abundant mineral present in the peels (516.33 ± 0.82 mg/100g. Phytochemical composition showed high level of total phenolic (65.48 ± 0.39 mg (GAE/100 g DW, flavonoids (5.58 ± 0.83 mg (QE/100 g DW and tannins (10.51 ± 0.93 mg (TAE/100 g DW. The methanolic extracts of the papaya (Carica papaya L. var solo 8 peels exhibited the high DPPH radical scavenging activities (81.89 ± 0.14 %.These data indicated that this papaya (Carica papaya L. var solo 8 peels could constitute a potential good source of natural antioxidant for local population.

  19. Photobiont Relationships and Phylogenetic History of Dermatocarpon luridum var. luridum and Related Dermatocarpon Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Kyle M; Beck, Andreas; Stocker-Wörgötter, Elfie; Piercey-Normore, Michele D

    2012-10-10

    Members of the genus Dermatocarpon are widespread throughout the Northern Hemisphere along the edge of lakes, rivers and streams, and are subject to abiotic conditions reflecting both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Little is known about the evolutionary relationships within the genus and between continents. Investigation of the photobiont(s) associated with sub-aquatic and terrestrial Dermatocarpon species may reveal habitat requirements of the photobiont and the ability for fungal species to share the same photobiont species under different habitat conditions. The focus of our study was to determine the relationship between Canadian and Austrian Dermatocarpon luridum var. luridum along with three additional sub-aquatic Dermatocarpon species, and to determine the species of photobionts that associate with D. luridum var. luridum. Culture experiments were performed to identify the photobionts. In addition, the question of the algal sharing potential regarding different species of Dermatocarpon was addressed. Specimens were collected from four lakes in northwestern Manitoba, Canada and three streams in Austria. Three Canadian and four Austrian thalli of D. luridum var. luridum were selected for algal culturing. The nuclear Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) rDNA gene of the fungal partner along with the algal ITS rDNA gene was sequenced to confirm the identity of the lichen/photobiont and afterwards the same data sets were used in phylogenetic analyses to assess algal sharing. The green algal photobiont was identified as Diplosphaera chodatii (Trebouxiophyceae). The phylogenetic analyses of Canadian and Austrian D. luridum var. luridum revealed that ITS sequences are identical despite the vast geographic distance. Phylogenetic placement of D. luridum var. decipiens and D. arnoldianum suggested that a re-examination of the species status might be necessary. This study concluded that additional photobiont culture experiments should be conducted to answer the

  20. Putative DNA G-quadruplex formation within the promoters of Plasmodium falciparum var genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guanine-rich nucleic acid sequences are capable of folding into an intramolecular four-stranded structure called a G-quadruplex. When found in gene promoter regions, G-quadruplexes can downregulate gene expression, possibly by blocking the transcriptional machinery. Here we have used a genome-wide bioinformatic approach to identify Putative G-Quadruplex Sequences (PQS in the Plasmodium falciparum genome, along with biophysical techniques to examine the physiological stability of P. falciparum PQS in vitro. Results We identified 63 PQS in the non-telomeric regions of the P. falciparum clone 3D7. Interestingly, 16 of these PQS occurred in the upstream region of a subset of the P. falciparum var genes (group B var genes. The var gene family encodes PfEMP1, the parasite's major variant antigen and adhesin expressed at the surface of infected erythrocytes, that plays a key role in malaria pathogenesis and immune evasion. The ability of the PQS found in the upstream regions of group B var genes (UpsB-Q to form stable G-quadruplex structures in vitro was confirmed using 1H NMR, circular dichroism, UV spectroscopy, and thermal denaturation experiments. Moreover, the synthetic compound BOQ1 that shows a higher affinity for DNA forming quadruplex rather than duplex structures was found to bind with high affinity to the UpsB-Q. Conclusion This is the first demonstration of non-telomeric PQS in the genome of P. falciparum that form stable G-quadruplexes under physiological conditions in vitro. These results allow the generation of a novel hypothesis that the G-quadruplex sequences in the upstream regions of var genes have the potential to play a role in the transcriptional control of this major virulence-associated multi-gene family.

  1. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla Mak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Li, Jihong; Sang, Yalin; Xing, Shiyan; Wu, Qikui; Liu, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba, a dioecious plant known as a living fossil, is an ancient gymnosperm that stands distinct from other gymnosperms and angiosperms. Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla (G. biloba var. epiphylla), with ovules borne on the leaf blade, is an unusual germplasm derived from G. biloba. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional gene regulators that play critical roles in diverse biological and metabolic processes. Currently, little is known about the miRNAs involved in the key stage of partly epiphyllous ovule germination in G. biloba var. epiphylla. Two small RNA libraries constructed from epiphyllous ovule leaves and normal leaves of G. biloba var. epiphylla were sequenced on an Illumina/Solexa platform. A total of 82 miRNA sequences belonging to 23 families and 53 putative novel miRNAs were identified in the two libraries. Differential expression analysis showed that 25 conserved and 21 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between epiphyllous ovule leaves and normal leaves. The expression patterns of partially differentially expressed miRNAs and the transcript levels of their predicted target genes were validated by quantitative real time RT-PCR. All the expression profiles of the 21 selected miRNAs were similar to those detected by Solexa deep sequencing. Additionally, the transcript levels of almost all the putative target genes of 9 selected miRNAs were opposite to those of the corresponding miRNAs. The putative target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were annotated with Gene Ontology terms related to reproductive process, metabolic process and responding to stimulus. This work presents a broad range of small RNA transcriptome data obtained from epiphyllous ovule and normal leaves of G. biloba var. epiphylla, which may provide insights into the miRNA-mediated regulation in the epiphyllous ovule germination process.

  2. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla Mak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba, a dioecious plant known as a living fossil, is an ancient gymnosperm that stands distinct from other gymnosperms and angiosperms. Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla (G. biloba var. epiphylla, with ovules borne on the leaf blade, is an unusual germplasm derived from G. biloba. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are post-transcriptional gene regulators that play critical roles in diverse biological and metabolic processes. Currently, little is known about the miRNAs involved in the key stage of partly epiphyllous ovule germination in G. biloba var. epiphylla. Two small RNA libraries constructed from epiphyllous ovule leaves and normal leaves of G. biloba var. epiphylla were sequenced on an Illumina/Solexa platform. A total of 82 miRNA sequences belonging to 23 families and 53 putative novel miRNAs were identified in the two libraries. Differential expression analysis showed that 25 conserved and 21 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between epiphyllous ovule leaves and normal leaves. The expression patterns of partially differentially expressed miRNAs and the transcript levels of their predicted target genes were validated by quantitative real time RT-PCR. All the expression profiles of the 21 selected miRNAs were similar to those detected by Solexa deep sequencing. Additionally, the transcript levels of almost all the putative target genes of 9 selected miRNAs were opposite to those of the corresponding miRNAs. The putative target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were annotated with Gene Ontology terms related to reproductive process, metabolic process and responding to stimulus. This work presents a broad range of small RNA transcriptome data obtained from epiphyllous ovule and normal leaves of G. biloba var. epiphylla, which may provide insights into the miRNA-mediated regulation in the epiphyllous ovule germination process.

  3. Antibody responses to the full-length VAR2CSA and its DBL domains in Cameroonian children and teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fodjo, Barriere A Y; Atemnkeng, Njika; Esemu, Livo

    2016-01-01

    levels of antibodies (Ab) to the variant. VAR2CSA is a protein coded for by one of 60 var genes that is expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes (IE) and mediates IE binding to the placenta. The idea that Ab to VAR2CSA are pregnancy-associated was challenged when VAR2CSA-specific Ab were...... reported in children and men. However, the frequency and conditions under which Ab to VAR2CSA are produced outside pregnancy is unclear. This study sought to determine frequency, specificity and level of Ab to VAR2CSA produced in children and whether children with hyperparasitaemia and severe malaria...... villages and 160 children with severe malaria from the city.  Results: Low Ab levels to VAR2CSA were detected in children; however, Ab levels to FV2 in teenagers were rare. Children preferentially recognized DBL2 (56-70%) and DBL4 (50-60%), while multigravidae produced high levels of IgG to DBL3, DBL5...

  4. [Effects of mycorrhizal colonization and medicine quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis inoculated by different foreign AM fungi species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou Nong; Ding, Bo; Feng, Yuan; Qi, Wen-hua; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Dong-qin; Xiang, Jun

    2015-08-01

    After 28 foreign species of AM fungi were inoculated in sterilized soil, the effects of the AM mycorrhizal colonization and the medicine quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed by combination of inoculation test in pot at room temperature and instrumental analysis. The results showed that, compared with control group (CK), the inoculation of foreign AM fungi in the soil influenced the spore density, mycorrhizal infection rate, and colonization intensity of AM fungi in root system of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The inoculation of foreign AM fungi enhanced the mycorrhiza viability of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis by increasing the activity of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in intraradical hyphae. The content of single steroid saponin in rhizome of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis showed variation after P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was inoculated by different foreign species of AM fungi, which was beneficial for increasing the medicine quality; however, the kinds of steroid saponin showed no difference. In a degree, there was a selectivity of symbiosis between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and foreign AM fungi. And we found that the Claroideoglomus claroideum and Racocetra coralloidea were best foreign AM fungi species for cultivating P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis under field condition.

  5. Strain-engineered MOSFETs

    CERN Document Server

    Maiti, CK

    2012-01-01

    Currently strain engineering is the main technique used to enhance the performance of advanced silicon-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Written from an engineering application standpoint, Strain-Engineered MOSFETs introduces promising strain techniques to fabricate strain-engineered MOSFETs and to methods to assess the applications of these techniques. The book provides the background and physical insight needed to understand new and future developments in the modeling and design of n- and p-MOSFETs at nanoscale. This book focuses on recent developments in st

  6. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the strain gauge comprises two reinforcement members positioned on the carrier layer at opposite ends of the measurement grid in the axial direction. The reinforce......The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the strain gauge comprises two reinforcement members positioned on the carrier layer at opposite ends of the measurement grid in the axial direction....... The reinforcement members are each placed within a certain axial distance to the measurement grid with the axial distance being equal to or smaller than a factor times the grid spacing. The invention further relates to a multi-axial strain gauge such as a bi-axial strain gauge or a strain gauge rosette where each...... of the strain gauges comprises reinforcement members. The invention further relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  7. Selective upregulation of a single distinctly structured var gene in chondroitin sulphate A-adhering Plasmodium falciparum involved in pregnancy-associated malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salanti, Ali; Staalsoe, Trine; Lavstsen, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    after selection for adhesion to CSA in vitro. The gene belongs to a highly conserved and common var gene subfamily (var2csa). The var2csa genes are structurally distinct from all other var genes in the parasite genome in lacking both CIDR and DBL-gamma domains. These domains have previously been...

  8. Pramoginių orientacinių varžybų organizavimo poreikis Lietuvos liaudies buities muziejuje

    OpenAIRE

    Morkūnaitė, Rūta

    2013-01-01

    Darbo objektas: pramoginių orientacinių varžybų organizavimo poreikis Lietuvos liaudies buities muziejuje. Darbo tikslas: nustatyti pramoginių orientacinių varžybų organizavimo poreikį Lietuvos liaudies buities muziejuje. Darbo uždaviniai: 1. Pateikti renginių organizavimo sampratą ir klasifikavimą; 2. Apibrėžti sportinių renginių organizavimo ypatumus; 3. Atskleisti pramoginių orientacinių varžybų organizavimo ir formavimo etapus; 4. Ištirti ir įvertinti pramoginių or...

  9. Evidence for globally shared, cross-reacting polymorphic epitopes in the pregnancy-associated malaria vaccine candidate VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avril, Marion; Kulasekara, Bridget R; Gose, Severin O

    2008-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) is characterized by the placental sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IEs) with the ability to bind to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). VAR2CSA is a leading candidate for a pregnancy malaria vaccine, but its large size ( approximately 350 k......Da) and extensive polymorphism may pose a challenge to vaccine development. In this study, rabbits were immunized with individual VAR2CSA Duffy binding-like (DBL) domains expressed in Pichia pastoris or var2csa plasmid DNA and sera were screened on different CSA-binding parasite lines. Rabbit antibodies to three...

  10. Identification of a Major Dimorphic Region in the Functionally Critical N-Terminal ID1 Domain of VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doritchamou, Justin; Sabbagh, Audrey; Jespersen, Jakob S

    2015-01-01

    The VAR2CSA protein of Plasmodium falciparum is transported to and expressed on the infected erythrocyte surface where it plays a key role in placental malaria (PM). It is the current leading candidate for a vaccine to prevent PM. However, the antigenic polymorphism integral to VAR2CSA poses...... a challenge for vaccine development. Based on detailed analysis of polymorphisms in the sequence of its ligand-binding N-terminal region, currently the main focus for vaccine development, we assessed var2csa from parasite isolates infecting pregnant women. The results reveal for the first time the presence...

  11. Penurunan Garam Klorida Air Laut Dengan Memanfaatkan Modifikasi Pati Dari Limbah Bonggol Pisang Ambon (Musa Paradisiaca Var Sapientum)

    OpenAIRE

    Rabbani, Aulia Husna; -, Alimuddin; Saleh, Chairul

    2015-01-01

    The research of desalination the sea water by utilization of the strach bump a “Pisang Ambon (Musa paradisiaca var sapientum)” modification has been done. Modification of starch bump “Pisang Ambon (Musa paradisiaca var sapientum)” had be a ability better than starch bump “Pisang Ambon (Musa paradisiaca var sapientum)” in the levels of chloride. The variation upon which to do to absorb chloride of sea water which are starch, starch been activated NaOH and starch acetate bump of a “Pisang Ambon...

  12. Accumulation of trehalose in the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum var. coprophilum in response to heat or salt stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Helene Friborg; Jensen, B.

    2004-01-01

    The disaccharide trehalose, known to be an effective protectant against various kinds of stress, was observed to accumulate in the cytosol of Chaetomium thermophilum var. coprophilum during heat stress. Trehalose was apparently neither involved in the defence of C. thermophilum var. coprophilum...... against high concentrations of sodium chloride nor directly linked to thermophily. In C. thermophilum var. coprophilum three different trehalose hydrolyzing activities were eluted from a mono Q anion exchange column by sodium chloride concentrations of 0.10, 0.15 and 0.24 M, respectively....

  13. The effect of Debina grapevine indigenous yeast strains of Metschnikowia and Saccharomyces on wine flavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parapouli, Maria; Hatziloukas, Efstathios; Drainas, Constantin; Perisynakis, Angelos

    2010-01-01

    The spontaneous alcoholic fermentation of grape must is a complex microbiological process involving a large number of various yeast species, to which the flavour of every traditional wine is largely attributed. Whilst Saccharomyces cerevisiae is primarily responsible for the conversion of sugar to alcohol, the activities of various non-Saccharomyces species enhance wine flavour. In this study, indigenous yeast strains belonging to Metschnikowia pulcherrima var. zitsae as well as Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated and characterized from Debina must (Zitsa, Epirus, Greece). In addition, these strains were examined for their effect on the outcome of the wine fermentation process when used sequentially as starter cultures. The resulting wine, as analyzed over three consecutive years, was observed to possess a richer, more aromatic bouquet than wine from a commercial starter culture. These results emphasize the potential of employing indigenous yeast strains for the production of traditional wines with improved flavour.

  14. Chitinase producing Bt strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haim B. Gunner; Matthew Zimet; Sarah Berger

    1985-01-01

    Screening of 402 strains of more than 18 varieties of Bacillus thuringiensis showed chitinase to be inducible in virtually every serovar tested. Though the chitinase titre varied among strains, there was a strong correlation between enhanced lethality to spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens), and an increase in...

  15. Radioactivity in a mountain ecosystem: the Haut Bassin du Var; La radioactivite dans un ecosysteme de montagne: le haut bassin du var

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the IPSN realized a study of the radioactive fallout in the mountain area of the Var (France). Today the main radionuclides are the cesium 134 and 137, others disappeared because of their short half-life. In this paper, the artificial radioactivity of soils and sediments is concerned. The study shows a concentration of the contamination in some specific areas, especially in soils abounding in organic matter. The dose measured can not lead to significant exposures. (A.L.B.)

  16. Crecimiento de Plantas de Remolacha (Beta vulgaris L. var. Crosby Egipcia) Bajo Coberturas de Color Growth of Beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. Crosby Egipcia) under Colored Covers

    OpenAIRE

    Fánor Casierra-Posada; José Rogelio Pinto-Correa

    2011-01-01

    La respuesta de las plantas a diferente color en la iluminación, se atribuye a fotorreceptores que conducen a diversas expresiones fenotípicas en diferentes niveles y etapas del desarrollo vegetal. Para determinar si el color de iluminación en que se cultivan las plantas de remolacha (Beta vulgaris L. var. Crosby Egipcia), afecta su crecimiento, rendimiento y calidad, se realizó en Duitama -; Colombia, un estudio bajo coberturas de color azul, rojo o transparente. Para conseguir los colores s...

  17. Production of melatonin by Saccharomyces strains under growth and fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Naranjo, María Isabel; Torija, María Jesús; Mas, Albert; Cantos-Villar, Emma; Garcia-Parrilla, María del Carmen

    2012-10-01

    Melatonin is a bioactive compound that is present in wine because it is contained in vinification grapes and synthesized by yeast during alcoholic fermentation. The purpose of this study was to determine the capacity of various Saccharomyces strains to form melatonin during its growth and alcoholic fermentation. A selection of yeasts including six S. cerevisiae (Lalvin CLOS, Lalvin ICV-D254, Enoferm QA23 Viniferm ARM, Viniferm RVA, and Viniferm TTA), one S. uvarum (Lalvin S6U) and one S. cerevisiae var. bayanus (Uvaferm BC) were tested to determine whether they produce melatonin in yeast extract peptose dextrose and synthetic must media in a variety of conditions. Two S. cerevisiae strains (ARM, and QA23), the S. uvarum and the S. cerevisiae var. bayanus, synthesized melatonin. The conditions in which they did so, however, were different: the QA23 strain produced melatonin best in a medium with a low concentration of reducing sugars and Lalvin S6U and Uvaferm BC required a synthetic must under fermentation conditions. Melatonin synthesis largely depended on the growth phase of the yeasts and the concentration of tryptophan, reducing sugars and the growth medium. These results indicate that melatonin may have a role as a yeast growth signal molecule. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Molecular characterization and antifungal susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans strains collected from a single institution in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejar, Vilma; Tello, Mercedes; García, Ruth; Guevara, José M; Gonzales, Sofia; Vergaray, German; Valencia, Esther; Abanto, Enma; Ortega-Loayza, Alex G; Hagen, Ferry; Gutierrez, Ericson L

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection with a worldwide distribution, mainly caused by Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. To molecularly characterize the mating-types, serotypes, genotypes and antifungal susceptibility profiles of a set of retrospectively isolated C. neoformans strains from Lima, Peru. A set of 32 Cryptococcus spp. strains from the Institute of Tropical Medicine of the National University of San Marcos, Lima, Peru, were included in this retrospective study. Twenty-four strains were isolated from patients, while the remaining 8 were isolated from the environment. Using conventional PCR, 27 (84.4%) of the isolates were identified as C. neoformans var. grubii mating-type alpha and serotype A. Using the AFLP fingerprinting, it was shown that 16 (50%) of the C. neoformans strains were genotype AFLP1, 13 (40.6%) were genotype AFLP1B, 2 (6.3%) were genotype AFLP2, and 1 (3.1%) was found to be a hybrid between both C. neoformans varieties (genotype AFLP3). The antifungal susceptibility profiles for amphotericin B, fluconazole and voriconazole showed that all the 32 C. neoformans are sensitive to these antifungal compounds. In this study we observed that C. neoformans var. grubii (AFLP1 and AFLP1B) and C. neoformans var. neoformans (AFLP2) were the only cryptococcal varieties involved. All strains were found to be sensitive to the antifungals tested, results that are consistent with those found in the international literature. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Caracterización bioquímica de AmiJ33, una amilasa de Bacillus amyloliquefaciens aislada de suelos cultivados con caña de azúcar en la región del Papaloapan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Montor-Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La amilasa (E.C. 3.2.1.1 de Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JJC33M (AmiJ33 fue producida por fermentación sumergida. Se probó el efecto de peptona, extracto de levadura, Ca+2 y glicina en la producción de AmiJ33. El extracto de levadura y Ca+2 tuvieron un efecto positivo sobre la síntesis de AmiJ33. La enzima fue recuperada mediante precipitación a saturación al 60% con (NH42SO4. El peso molecular aproximado de la enzima purificada fue de 50 kDa. Así mismo, se evaluó el efecto del pH y la temperatura sobre la actividad enzimática, concluyendo que los valores más altos de actividad se observaron a pH 6.0 y 80°C, respectivamente. En condiciones ligeramente ácidas (pH 4.0 y 5.0, AmiJ33 mantuvo el 72% de su actividad. AmiJ33 fue estable por 3 h a 40°C, y por 30 min a 45 y 50°C, conservando el 88 y 82% de actividad residual. A 60°C, la actividad disminuyó 40%. La actividad de AmiJ33 se incrementó 50.27% con b- mercaptoetanol, no fue inhibida por EDTA y se inhibió totalmente con SDS.

  20. Herencia de la resistencia a Phoma andina var. Crystalliniformis en tomate Resistance hederabillty of Phoma andina var. Eristalliniformis in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortina Guerrero Hernando Alfonso

    1988-12-01


    dificultades, la resistencia de L. hirsutum a L. esculentum, siempre que no existan efectos pleiotrópicos o de grupos de ligamiento.
    The inheritance of Phoma andina var. erystalliniformis resistanee derived from the wild species, related to tomate, Lyeopersieon hirsutum was studies at "La Selva" ICA's Experiment Station located at Rionegro (Antioquia, between may and september of 1987. The study was done by employing 6 families in which four different resistent L.
    hirsutum accessions and four susceptible L. eseulentum genotypes were used as parents. Each of the families included: the parents, the generations F1 and F2 and backcrosses from the F1 to each one of the parents. The
    researeh was carried out with an complete block design with tree replicates. The plants were scored individually, for some families 60 days after transplanting and for the remaning 80 days after transplantinq, by employing a scale in which 7 means killed plants and O no symtoms. Both, the original and the transformed data were subject the following analysis: mean components by using the scaling test (Mather and Jinks, 1971 and Cavalli test; variance components by employing Mather's methology (Mather y Jinks, 1971; different estimates of heritability and the minimum number of gene pairs differentiating the susceptible and resistent parents.
    In all the studied familles there was an additive variance with high values, a dominance variance close to zero and low environmental variance. The heritability for the resistance was high both in broad and narrow sense, The minimum number of gene pairs differentiating the resistant and susceptible parents was estimated between 3 and 4.
    Based on the aboye, it is possible to introduce in the cultivated tomato Phoma andina resistance, being important determine before to do so, possible deleterous pleitropic
    effects or deletereous linkage groups with the resistant genes.