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Sample records for vapor stems penetrating

  1. Syringe needle skull penetration reduces brain injuries and secondary inflammation following intracerebral neural stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Mou; Dong, Qin; Zhang, Hongtian; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Jianwei; Yang, Zhijun; Xu, Minhui; Xu, Ruxiang

    2017-01-01

    Intracerebral neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation is beneficial for delivering stem cell grafts effectively, however, this approach may subsequently result in brain injury and secondary inflammation. To reduce the risk of promoting brain injury and secondary inflammation, two methods were compared in the present study. Murine skulls were penetrated using a drill on the left side and a syringe needle on the right. Mice were randomly divided into three groups (n=84/group): Group A, receiving...

  2. Syringe needle skull penetration reduces brain injuries and secondary inflammation following intracerebral neural stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mou; Dong, Qin; Zhang, Hongtian; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Jianwei; Yang, Zhijun; Xu, Minhui; Xu, Ruxiang

    2017-03-01

    Intracerebral neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation is beneficial for delivering stem cell grafts effectively, however, this approach may subsequently result in brain injury and secondary inflammation. To reduce the risk of promoting brain injury and secondary inflammation, two methods were compared in the present study. Murine skulls were penetrated using a drill on the left side and a syringe needle on the right. Mice were randomly divided into three groups (n=84/group): Group A, receiving NSCs in the left hemisphere and PBS in the right; group B, receiving NSCs in the right hemisphere and PBS in the left; and group C, receiving equal NSCs in both hemispheres. Murine brains were stained for morphological analysis and subsequent evaluation of infiltrated immune cells. ELISA was performed to detect neurotrophic and immunomodulatory factors in the brain. The findings indicated that brain injury and secondary inflammation in the left hemisphere were more severe than those in the right hemisphere, following NSC transplantation. In contrast to the left hemisphere, more neurotrophic factors but less pro-inflammatory cytokines were detected in the right hemisphere. In addition, increased levels of neurotrophic factors and interleukin (IL)-10 were observed in the NSC transplantation side when compared with the PBS-treated hemispheres, although lower levels of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α were detected. In conclusion, the present study indicated that syringe needle skull penetration vs. drill penetration is an improved method that reduces the risk of brain injury and secondary inflammation following intracerebral NSC transplantation. Furthermore, NSCs have the potential to modulate inflammation secondary to brain injuries.

  3. Paramagnetic particles carried by cell-penetrating peptide tracking of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, a research in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Min; Guo Youmin; Wu Qifei; Yang Junle; Wang Peng; Wang Sicen; Guo Xiaojuan; Qiang Yongqian; Duan Xiaoyi

    2006-01-01

    The ability to track the distribution and differentiation of stem cells by high-resolution imaging techniques would have significant clinical and research implications. In this study, a model cell-penetrating peptide was used to carry gadolinium particles for magnetic resonance imaging of the mesenchymal stem cells. The mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from rat bone marrow by Percoll and identified by osteogenic differentiation in vitro. The cell-penetrating peptides labeled with fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate and gadolinium were synthesized by a solid-phase peptide synthesis method and the relaxivity of cell-penetrating peptide-gadolinium paramagnetic conjugate on 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance was 5.7311 ± 0.0122 mmol -1 s -1 , higher than that of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid gadolinium (p < 0.05). Fluorescein imaging confirmed that this new peptide could internalize into the cytoplasm and nucleus. Gadolinium was efficiently internalized into mesenchymal stem cells by the peptide in a time- or concentration-dependent fashion, resulting in intercellular T1 relaxation enhancement, which was obviously detected by 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging. Cytotoxicity assay and flow cytometric analysis showed the intercellular contrast medium incorporation did not affect cell viability and membrane potential gradient. The research in vitro suggests that the newly constructed peptides could be a vector for tracking mesenchymal stem cells

  4. Cell-Penetrating Peptide as a Means of Directing the Differentiation of Induced-Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaitsuka, Taku; Tomizawa, Kazuhito

    2015-11-06

    Protein transduction using cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) is useful for the delivery of large protein molecules, including some transcription factors. This method is safer than gene transfection methods with a viral vector because there is no risk of genomic integration of the exogenous DNA. Recently, this method was reported as a means for the induction of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, directing the differentiation into specific cell types and supporting gene editing/correction. Furthermore, we developed a direct differentiation method to obtain a pancreatic lineage from mouse and human pluripotent stem cells via the protein transduction of three transcription factors, Pdx1, NeuroD, and MafA. Here, we discuss the possibility of using CPPs as a means of directing the differentiation of iPS cells and other stem cell technologies.

  5. Cell-Penetrating Peptide as a Means of Directing the Differentiation of Induced-Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Kaitsuka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Protein transduction using cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs is useful for the delivery of large protein molecules, including some transcription factors. This method is safer than gene transfection methods with a viral vector because there is no risk of genomic integration of the exogenous DNA. Recently, this method was reported as a means for the induction of induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, directing the differentiation into specific cell types and supporting gene editing/correction. Furthermore, we developed a direct differentiation method to obtain a pancreatic lineage from mouse and human pluripotent stem cells via the protein transduction of three transcription factors, Pdx1, NeuroD, and MafA. Here, we discuss the possibility of using CPPs as a means of directing the differentiation of iPS cells and other stem cell technologies.

  6. AEM/STEM analysis of vapor-deposited multilayered laser targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.A.; Staudhammer, K.P.; Reeves, G.A.; Vesser, L.R.

    1983-01-01

    S(TEM) examinations were made to augment other types of measurements of absolute density. The structure of the 5 μm thick layers of aluminum and gold on aluminum laminate gold substrate was examined to establish film integrity, to characterize the microstructure, as well as to estimate the surface roughness of this multilayer material

  7. Combined HLA matched limbal stem cells allograft with amniotic membrane transplantation as a prophylactic surgical procedure to prevent corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Capozzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine if the use of combined HLA matched limbal stem cells allograft with amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT is a safe and effective prophylactic surgical procedure to prevent corneal graft after penetrating keratoplasty (PK. Methods. We report the case of a 17 years old patient with a history of congenital glaucoma, trabeculectomy and multiple corneal graft rejections, presenting total limbal cell deficiency. To reduce the possibility of graft rejection in the left eye after a new PK, a two step procedure was performed. At first the patient underwent a combined HLA matched limbal stem cells allograft (LAT and AMT and then, 10 months later, a new PK. Results. During 12 months of follow-up, the corneal graft remained stable and smooth, with no sign of graft rejection. Conclusions. In our patient, the prophylactic use of LAT from HLA-matched donors and AMT before PK, may result in a better prognosis of corneal graft survival.

  8. Stem photosynthesis in a desert ephemeral, Eriogonum inflatum : Characterization of leaf and stem CO2 fixation and H2O vapor exchange under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmond, C B; Smith, S D; Gui-Ying, B; Sharkey, T D

    1987-07-01

    The gas exchange characteristics of photosynthetic tissues of leaves and stems of Eriogonum inflatum are described. Inflated stems were found to contain extraordinarily high internal CO 2 concentrations (to 14000 μbar), but fixation of this internal CO 2 was 6-10 times slower than fixation of atmospheric CO 2 by these stems. Although the pool of CO 2 is a trivial source of CO 2 for stem photosynthesis, it may result in higher water-use efficiency of stem tissues. Leaf and stem photosynthetic activities were compared by means of CO 2 fixation in CO 2 response curves, light and temperature response curves in IRGA systems, and by means of O 2 exchange at CO 2 saturation in a leaf disc O 2 electrode system. On an area basis leaves contain about twice the chlorophyll and nitrogen as stems, and are capable of up to 4-times the absolute CO 2 and O 2 exchange rates. However, the stem shape is such that lighting of the shaded side leads to a substantial increase in overall stem photosynthesis on a projected area basis, to about half the leaf rate in air. Stem conductance is lower than leaf conductance under most conditions and is less sensitive to high temperature or high VPD. Under most conditions, the ratio C i /C a is lower in stems than in leaves and stems show greater water-use efficiency (higher ratio assimilation/transpiration) as a function of VPD. This potential advantage of stem photosynthesis in a water limited environment may be offset by the higher VPD conditions in the hotter, drier part of the year when stems are active after leaves have senesced. Stem and leaf photosynthesis were similarly affected by decreasing plant water potential.

  9. Cell-penetrating superoxide dismutase attenuates oxidative stress-induced senescence by regulating the p53-p21Cip1 pathway and restores osteoblastic differentiation in human dental pulp stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park YJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Yoon Jung Choi,1,* Jue Yeon Lee,2,* Chong Pyoung Chung,2 Yoon Jeong Park,1,21Craniomaxillofacial Reconstructive Sciences, Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Research Institute, Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering, Seoul, Republic of Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs have potential applications in tissue regeneration because of their convenient cell harvesting procedures and multipotent capacity. However, the tissue regenerative potential of DPSCs is known to be negatively regulated by aging in long-term culture and under oxidative stress. With an aim of reducing cellular senescence and oxidative stress in DPSCs, an intracellular delivery system for superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 was developed. We conjugated SOD1 with a cell-penetrating peptide known as low-molecular weight protamine (LMWP, and investigated the effect of LMWP-SOD1 conjugates on hydrogen peroxide-induced cellular senescence and osteoblastic differentiation.Results: LMWP-SOD1 significantly attenuated enlarged and flattened cell morphology and increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. Under the same conditions, LMWP-SOD1 abolished activation of the cell cycle regulator proteins, p53 and p21Cip1, induced by hydrogen peroxide. In addition, LMWP-SOD1 reversed the inhibition of osteoblastic differentiation and downregulation of osteogenic gene markers induced by hydrogen peroxide. However, LMWP-SOD1 could not reverse the decrease in odontogenesis caused by hydrogen peroxide.Conclusion: Overall, cell-penetrating LMWP-SOD1 conjugates are effective for attenuation of cellular senescence and reversal of osteoblastic differentiation of DPSCs caused by oxidative stress inhibition. This result suggests potential application in the field of antiaging and tissue engineering to overcome the limitations of senescent stem cells.Keywords: superoxide

  10. STYLET PENETRATION BEHAVIOURS OF FOUR Cicadulina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Feeding from phloem cells, overall probing and probe mean (the average time per probe) were higher ... Key Words: Cicadulina spp., electrical penetration graph, MSV, Zea mays .... wire and alligator clip clamped to the stem of the .... á All measures are in minutes except for frequency of probing; - Main effect not significant.

  11. Mobile vapor recovery and vapor scavenging unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, C.A.; Steppe, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a mobile anti- pollution apparatus, for the recovery of hydrocarbon emissions. It comprises a mobile platform upon which is mounted a vapor recovery unit for recovering vapors including light hydrocarbons, the vapor recovery unit having an inlet and an outlet end, the inlet end adapted for coupling to an external source of hydrocarbon vapor emissions to recover a portion of the vapors including light hydrocarbons emitted therefrom, and the outlet end adapted for connection to a means for conveying unrecovered vapors to a vapor scavenging unit, the vapor scavenging unit comprising an internal combustion engine adapted for utilizing light hydrocarbon in the unrecovered vapors exiting from the vapor recovery unit as supplemental fuel

  12. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  13. Metasploit penetration testing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Monika

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a Cookbook style with recipes explaining the steps for penetration testing with WLAN, VOIP, and even cloud computing. There is plenty of code and commands used to make your learning curve easy and quick.This book targets both professional penetration testers as well as new users of Metasploit, who wish to gain expertise over the framework and learn an additional skill of penetration testing, not limited to a particular OS. The book requires basic knowledge of scanning, exploitation, and the Ruby language.

  14. Penetration testing with Perl

    CERN Document Server

    Berdeaux, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    If you are an expert Perl programmer interested in penetration testing or information security, this guide is designed for you. However, it will also be helpful for you even if you have little or no Linux shell experience.

  15. penetrating abdominal trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gender, mechanism of injury, injury severity scores (ISS), penetrating ... ileus, reduced pulmonary function and loss of muscle mass and function, all of .... pathophysiology and rehabilitation. ... quality of life after surgery for colorectal cancer.

  16. Barrier penetration database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainberg, A.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1978-11-01

    This document is intended to supply the NRC and nuclear power plant licensees with basic data on the times required to penetrate forcibly the types of barriers commonly found in nuclear plants. These times are necessary for design and evaluation of the physical protection system required under 10CFR73.55. Each barrier listed is described in detail. Minor variations in basic barrier construction that result in the same penetration time, are also described

  17. Study on Penetration Characteristics of Tungsten Cylindrical Penetrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Hyun; Lee, Young Shin; Kim, Jae Hoon [Chungnam Nat' l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yong Woon [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    The design of missile require extremely small warheads that must be highly efficient and lethal. The penetration characteristics of each penetrator and the total number of penetrators on the warhead are obvious key factors that influence warhead lethality. The design of the penetrator shape and size are directly related to the space and weight of the warhead. The design of the penetrator L/D was directly related to the space and weight of the warhead. L and D are the length and the diameter of the projectile, respectively. The AUTODYN-3a code was used to study the effect of penetrator penetration. The objective of numerical analysis was to determine the penetration characteristics of penetrator produced by hypervelocity impacts under different initial conditions such as initial velocity, obliquity angle and L/D of penetrator. The residual velocity and residual mass were decreased with increasing initial impact velocity under L/D{<=}4.

  18. Penetration portion shielding structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Katsumi; Narita, Hitoshi; Handa, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Jun; Tozuka, Fumio.

    1994-01-01

    Openings of a plurality of shieldings for penetration members are aligned to each other, and penetration members are inserted from the openings. Then, the openings of the plurality of shielding members are slightly displaced with each other to make the penetration portions into a helical configuration, so that leakage of radiation is reduced. Upon removal of the members, reverse operation is conducted. When a flowable shielding material is used, the penetration portions are constituted with two plates having previously formed openings and pipes for connecting the openings with each other and a vessel covering the entire of them. After passing the penetration members such as a cable, the relative position of the two plates is changed by twisting, to form a helical configuration which reduces radiation leakage. Since they are bent into the helical configuration, shielding performance is extremely improved compared with a case that radiation leakage is caused from an opening of a straight pipe. In addition, since they can be returned to straight pipes, attachment, detachment and maintenance can be conducted easily. (N.H.)

  19. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  20. Skull penetrating wound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Orlandi, Yvei; Junco Martin, Reinel; Rojas Manresa, Jorge; Duboy Limonta, Victor; Matos Herrera, Omar; Saez Corvo, Yunet

    2011-01-01

    The cranioencephalic trauma is common in the emergence centers to care for patients with multiple traumata and it becames in a health problem in many countries. Skull penetrating trauma is located in a special place due to its low frequency. In present paper a case of male patient aged 52 severely skull-injured with penetrating wound caused by a cold steel that remained introduced into the left frontotemporal region. After an imaging study the emergence surgical treatment was applied and patient evolves adequately after 25 days of hospitalization. Nowadays, she is under rehabilitation treatment due to a residual right hemiparesis.(author)

  1. Tumor penetrating peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambet eTeesalu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC, contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular zip code of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is

  2. Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  3. Strategies for Mitigating the Reduction in Economic Value of Variable Generation with Increasing Penetration Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2014-03-03

    In this report, we evaluate individual options that have the potential to stem the decline in the marginal value of variable generation (VG) with increasing penetration levels. We focus only on the effectiveness of mitigation measures for wind and PV.

  4. Antibody tumor penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue. PMID:18541331

  5. Python penetration testing essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Mohit

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Python programmer or a security researcher who has basic knowledge of Python programming and want to learn about penetration testing with the help of Python, this book is ideal for you. Even if you are new to the field of ethical hacking, this book can help you find the vulnerabilities in your system so that you are ready to tackle any kind of attack or intrusion.

  6. Combination downflow-upflow vapor-liquid separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, John H. (Uniontown, OH); Prueter, William P. (Alliance, OH); Eaton, Andrew M. (Alliance, OH)

    1987-03-10

    An improved vapor-liquid separator having a vertically disposed conduit for flow of a mixture. A first, second and third plurality of curved arms penetrate and extend within the conduit. A cylindrical member is radially spaced from the conduit forming an annulus therewith and having perforations and a retaining lip at its upper end.

  7. Combination downflow-upflow vapor-liquid separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, J.H.; Prueter, W.P.; Eaton, A.M.

    1987-03-10

    An improved vapor-liquid separator is described having a vertically disposed conduit for flow of a mixture. A first, second and third plurality of curved arms penetrate and extend within the conduit. A cylindrical member is radially spaced from the conduit forming an annulus therewith and having perforations and a retaining lip at its upper end. 11 figs.

  8. Penetrating ureteral trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo P. Fraga

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this series is to report our experience in managing ureteral trauma, focusing on the importance of early diagnosis, correct treatment, and the impact of associated injuries on the management and morbid-mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 1994 to December 2002, 1487 laparotomies for abdominal trauma were performed and 20 patients with ureteral lesions were identified, all of them secondary to penetrating injury. Medical charts were analyzed as well as information about trauma mechanisms, diagnostic routine, treatment and outcome. RESULTS: All patients were men. Mean age was 27 years. The mechanisms of injury were gunshot wounds in 18 cases (90% and stab wounds in two (10%. All penetrating abdominal injuries had primary indication of laparotomy, and neither excretory urography nor computed tomography were used in any case before surgery. The diagnosis of ureteric injury was made intra-operatively in 17 cases (85%. Two ureteral injuries (10% were initially missed. All patients had associated injuries. The treatment was dictated by the location, extension and time necessary to identify the injury. The overall incidence of complications was 55%. The presence of shock on admission, delayed diagnosis, Abdominal Trauma Index > 25, Injury Severity Score > 25 and colon injuries were associated to a high complication rate, however, there was no statistically significant difference. There were no mortalities in this group. CONCLUSIONS: A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis of ureteral injuries. A thorough exploration of all retroperitoneal hematoma after penetrating trauma should be an accurate method of diagnosis; even though it failed in 10% of our cases.

  9. Market penetration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth R.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Cornforth, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting ethanol for gasoline. This endeavor examines three issues. First, the benefits of ethanol/gasoline blends are examined, and then the technical problems of large-scale implementation of ethanol. Second, ethanol production possibilities are examined in detail from a variety of feedstocks and technologies. The feedstocks are the starch/sugar crops and crop residues, while the technologies are corn wet mill, dry grind, and lignocellulosic fermentation. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows the researchers to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and GHG emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG, is updated which predicts the market penetration of ethanol given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and GHG prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, gasoline prices have a small expansionary impact on the U.S. ethanol industry. Both agricultural producers' income and cost both increase with higher energy prices. If wholesale gasoline is $4 per gallon, the predicted ethanol market penetration attains 53% of U.S. gasoline consumption in 2030. Second, the corn wet mill remains an important industry for ethanol production, because this industry also produces corn oil, which could be converted to biodiesel. Third, GHG prices expand the ethanol industry. However, the GHG price expands the corn wet mill, but has an ambiguous impact on lignocellulosic ethanol. Feedstocks for lignocellulosic fermentation can also be burned with coal to generate electricity. Both industries are quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on ethanol production, but may only increase market penetration by an additional 1% in 2030, which is approximately 6 billion gallons. (author)

  10. Fuel vapor pressure (FVAPRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.E.

    1979-04-01

    A subcode (FVAPRS) is described which calculates fuel vapor pressure. This subcode was developed as part of the fuel rod behavior modeling task performed at EG and G Idaho, Inc. The fuel vapor pressure subcode (FVAPRS), is presented and a discussion of literature data, steady state and transient fuel vapor pressure equations and estimates of the standard error of estimate to be expected with the FVAPRS subcode are included

  11. Study of Penetration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    srecimens fabricated at the AFATL, AISI-01 oil quenched bar stock was used. Three of the projectiles used in the Eglin penetration experiments are shown...in the Mathema- tical Laboratory at Eglin AFB, is essencially a fourth order Runge-Kutta numerical method for solving simultaneous differential...C9G. VEL. X-COMPo (M4/5): d!10. I oil 140. 107. 82. RmCC~kr’ED TIME OF MAXIftjM/MINIM94U COIL VOLTAGE tSI MAX 0040 A 55 *.03J04A 0 0 05ji6 .000634 MIN

  12. Deep penetration calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.L.; Deutsch, O.L.; Booth, T.E.

    1980-04-01

    Several Monte Carlo techniques are compared in the transport of neutrons of different source energies through two different deep-penetration problems each with two parts. The first problem involves transmission through a 200-cm concrete slab. The second problem is a 90 0 bent pipe jacketed by concrete. In one case the pipe is void, and in the other it is filled with liquid sodium. Calculations are made with two different Los Alamos Monte Carlo codes: the continuous-energy code MCNP and the multigroup code MCMG

  13. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  14. Penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biocina, B; Sutlić, Z; Husedzinović, I; Rudez, I; Ugljen, R; Letica, D; Slobodnjak, Z; Karadza, J; Brida, V; Vladović-Relja, T; Jelić, I

    1997-03-01

    Penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds are very common among war casualties. Those injuries require prompt and specific treatment in an aim to decrease mortality and late morbidity. There are a few controversies about the best modality of treatment for such injuries, and there are not many large series of such patients in recent literature. We analysed a group of 259 patients with penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds admitted to our institutions between May 1991 and October 1992. There were 235 (90.7%) patients with thoracic wounds, 14 (5.4%) patients with cardiac, wounds and in 10 (3.7%) patients both heart and lungs were injured. The cause of injury was shrapnel in 174 patients (67%), bullets in 25 patients (9.7%), cluster bomb particles in 45 patients (17.3%) and other (blast etc.) in 15 patients (6%). Patients, 69, had concomitant injuries of various organs. The initial treatment in 164 operated patients was chest drainage in 76 (46.3%) patients, thoracotomy and suture of the lung in 71 (43.2%) patients, lobectomy in 12 (7.3%) patients and pneumonectomy in 5 (3%) patients. Complications include pleural empyema and/or lung abscess in 20 patients (8.4%), incomplete reexpansion of the lung in 10 patients (4.2%), osteomyelitis of the rib in 5 patients (2.1%) and bronchopleural fistula in 1 patient (0.4%). Secondary procedures were decortication in 12 patients, rib resection in 5 patients, lobectomy in 2 patients, pneumonectomy in 4 patients, reconstruction of the chest wall in 2 patients and closure of the bronchopleural fistula in 1 patient. The cardiac chamber involved was right ventricle in 12 patients, left ventricular in 6 patients, right atrium in 7 patients, left atrium in 3 patients, ascending aorta in 2 patients and 1 patient which involved descending aorta, right ventricle and coronary artery (left anterior descending) and inferior vena cava, respectively. The primary procedure was suture in 17 patients (in 10 patients with the additional suture of the

  15. Physical model for vaporization

    OpenAIRE

    Garai, Jozsef

    2006-01-01

    Based on two assumptions, the surface layer is flexible, and the internal energy of the latent heat of vaporization is completely utilized by the atoms for overcoming on the surface resistance of the liquid, the enthalpy of vaporization was calculated for 45 elements. The theoretical values were tested against experiments with positive result.

  16. Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

  17. General well function for soil vapor extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perina, Tomas

    2014-04-01

    This paper develops a well function applicable to extraction of groundwater or soil vapor from a well under the most common field test conditions. The general well function (Perina and Lee, 2006) [12] is adapted to soil vapor extraction and constant head boundary at the top. For groundwater flow, the general well function now applies to an extraction well of finite diameter with uniform drawdown along the screen, finite-thickness skin, and partially penetrating an unconfined, confined, and leaky aquifer, or an aquifer underneath a reservoir. With a change of arguments, the model applies to soil vapor extraction from a vadose zone with no cover or with leaky cover at the ground surface. The extraction well can operate in specified drawdown (pressure for soil vapor) or specified flowrate mode. Frictional well loss is computed as flow-only dependent component of the drawdown inside the extraction well. In general case, the calculated flow distribution is not proportional to screen length for a multiscreen well.

  18. Penetration Tester's Open Source Toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Great commercial penetration testing tools can be very expensive and sometimes hard to use or of questionable accuracy. This book helps solve both of these problems. The open source, no-cost penetration testing tools presented do a great job and can be modified by the user for each situation. Many tools, even ones that cost thousands of dollars, do not come with any type of instruction on how and in which situations the penetration tester can best use them. Penetration Tester's Open Source Toolkit, Third Edition, expands upon existing instructions so that a professional can get the most accura

  19. Physical Penetration Testing: A Whole New Story in Penetration Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; Pieters, Wolter

    2011-01-01

    Physical penetration testing plays an important role in assuring a company that the security policies are properly enforced and that the security awareness of the employees is on the appropriate level. In physical penetration tests the tester physically enters restricted locations and directly

  20. Piezoelectric trace vapor calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkouteren, R. Michael; Gillen, Greg; Taylor, David W.

    2006-01-01

    The design and performance of a vapor generator for calibration and testing of trace chemical sensors are described. The device utilizes piezoelectric ink-jet nozzles to dispense and vaporize precisely known amounts of analyte solutions as monodisperse droplets onto a hot ceramic surface, where the generated vapors are mixed with air before exiting the device. Injected droplets are monitored by microscope with strobed illumination, and the reproducibility of droplet volumes is optimized by adjustment of piezoelectric wave form parameters. Complete vaporization of the droplets occurs only across a 10 deg. C window within the transition boiling regime of the solvent, and the minimum and maximum rates of trace analyte that may be injected and evaporated are determined by thermodynamic principles and empirical observations of droplet formation and stability. By varying solution concentrations, droplet injection rates, air flow, and the number of active nozzles, the system is designed to deliver--on demand--continuous vapor concentrations across more than six orders of magnitude (nominally 290 fg/l to 1.05 μg/l). Vapor pulses containing femtogram to microgram quantities of analyte may also be generated. Calibrated ranges of three explosive vapors at ng/l levels were generated by the device and directly measured by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). These data demonstrate expected linear trends within the limited working range of the IMS detector and also exhibit subtle nonlinear behavior from the IMS measurement process

  1. Improvements to vapor generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Arthur; Monroe, Neil.

    1976-01-01

    A supporting system is proposed for vapor generators of the 'supported' type. Said supporting system is intended to compensate the disparities of thermal expansion due to the differences in the vertical dimensions of the tubes in the walls of the combustion chamber and their collectors compared to that of the balloon tanks and the connecting tube clusters of vaporization, the first one being longer than the second ones. Said system makes it possible to build said combustion chamber higher than the balloon tanks and the tube clusters of vaporization. The capacity of steam production is thus enhanced [fr

  2. Penetration of Photovoltaics in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Giannini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an interesting experiment was completed in Greece concerning photovoltaic penetration into the electricity production sector. Based on the relevant laws and in accordance to the related European directives, an explosive penetration process was completed in less than three years, resulting in a 7% share of photovoltaics in electricity production instead of the previous negligible share. The legislation was based on licensing simplification and generous feed-in-tariffs. This approach transformed photovoltaic technology from a prohibitively expensive to a competitive one. This work aims to summarize the relevant legislation and illustrate its effect on the resulting penetration. A sigmoid-shape penetration was observed which was explained by a pulse-type driving force. The return on investment indicator was proposed as an appropriate driving force, which incorporates feed-in-tariffs and turnkey-cost. Furthermore, the resulting surcharge on the electricity price due to photovoltaic penetration was also analyzed.

  3. Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulates the vapor pressure of gasoline sold at retail stations during the summer ozone season to reduce evaporative emissions from gasoline that contribute to ground-level ozone and diminish the effects of ozone-related health problems.

  4. R-22 vapor explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.P.; Armstrong, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Previous experimental and theoretical studies of R-22 vapor explosions are reviewed. Results from two experimental investigations of vapor explosions in a medium scale R-22/water system are reported. Measurements following the drop of an unrestrained mass of R-22 into a water tank demonstrated the existence of two types of interaction behavior. Release of a constrained mass of R-22 beneath the surface of a water tank improved the visual resolution of the system thus allowing identification of two interaction mechansims: at low water temperatures, R-22/water contact would produce immediate violent boiling; at high water temperatures a vapor film formed around its R-22 as it was released, explosions were generated by a surface wave which initiated at a single location and propagated along the vapor film as a shock wave. A new vapor explosion model is proposed, it suggests explosions are the result of a sequence of three independent steps: an initial mixing phase, a trigger and growth phase, and a mature phase where a propagating shock wave accelerates the two liquids into a collapsing vapor layer causing a high velocity impact which finely fragments and intermixes the two liquids

  5. Deep ocean model penetrator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, T.J.; Burdett, J.R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary trials of experimental model penetrators in the deep ocean have been conducted as an international collaborative exercise by participating members (national bodies and the CEC) of the Engineering Studies Task Group of the Nuclear Energy Agency's Seabed Working Group. This report describes and gives the results of these experiments, which were conducted at two deep ocean study areas in the Atlantic: Great Meteor East and the Nares Abyssal Plain. Velocity profiles of penetrators of differing dimensions and weights have been determined as they free-fell through the water column and impacted the sediment. These velocity profiles are used to determine the final embedment depth of the penetrators and the resistance to penetration offered by the sediment. The results are compared with predictions of embedment depth derived from elementary models of a penetrator impacting with a sediment. It is tentatively concluded that once the resistance to penetration offered by a sediment at a particular site has been determined, this quantity can be used to sucessfully predict the embedment that penetrators of differing sizes and weights would achieve at the same site

  6. Water Vapor Permeation in Plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Paul E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kouzes, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Polyvinyl toluene (PVT) and polystyrene (PS) (referred to as “plastic scintillator”) are used for gamma ray detectors. A significant decrease in radiation detection performance has been observed in some PVT-based gamma-ray detectors in systems in outdoor environments as they age. Recent studies have revealed that plastic scintillator can undergo an environmentally related material degradation that adversely affects gamma ray detection performance under certain conditions and histories. A significant decrease in sensitivity has been seen in some gamma-ray detectors in some systems as they age. The degradation of sensitivity of plastic scintillator over time is due to a variety of factors, and the term “aging” is used to encompass all factors. Some plastic scintillator samples show no aging effects (no significant change in sensitivity over more than 10 years), while others show severe aging (significant change in sensitivity in less than 5 years). Aging effects arise from weather (variations in heat and humidity), chemical exposure, mechanical stress, light exposure, and loss of volatile components. The damage produced by these various causes can be cumulative, causing observable damage to increase over time. Damage may be reversible up to some point, but becomes permanent under some conditions. The objective of this report is to document the phenomenon of permeability of plastic scintillator to water vapor and to derive the relationship between time, temperature, humidity and degree of water penetration in plastic. Several conclusions are documented about the properties of water permeability of plastic scintillator.

  7. Europa Kinetic Ice Penetrator (EKIP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the proposed work is to validate an initial design for a Europa penetrator that can withstand the high g load associated with the expected hypervelocity...

  8. Vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of azides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verevkin, Sergey P.; Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N.; Algarra, Manuel; Manuel Lopez-Romero, J.; Aguiar, Fabio; Enrique Rodriguez-Borges, J.; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We prepared and measured vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpies of 7 azides. → We examined consistency of new and available in the literature data. → Data for geminal azides and azido-alkanes selected for thermochemical calculations. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of some azides have been determined by the transpiration method. The molar enthalpies of vaporization Δ l g H m of these compounds were derived from the temperature dependencies of vapor pressures. The measured data sets were successfully checked for internal consistency by comparison with vaporization enthalpies of similarly structured compounds.

  9. Penetration of Photovoltaics in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenia Giannini; Antonia Moropoulou; Zacharias Maroulis; Glykeria Siouti

    2015-01-01

    Recently, an interesting experiment was completed in Greece concerning photovoltaic penetration into the electricity production sector. Based on the relevant laws and in accordance to the related European directives, an explosive penetration process was completed in less than three years, resulting in a 7% share of photovoltaics in electricity production instead of the previous negligible share. The legislation was based on licensing simplification and generous feed-in-tariffs. This approach ...

  10. Follicular and percutaneous penetration pathways of topically applied minoxidil foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Massoudy, Lida; Patzelt, Alexa; Lademann, Jürgen; Dietz, Ekkehart; Rasulev, Utkur; Garcia Bartels, Natalie

    2010-11-01

    In the past, it was assumed that the intercellular route was the only relevant penetration pathway for topically applied substances. Recent results on follicular penetration emphasize that the hair follicles represent a highly relevant and efficient penetration pathway and reservoir for topically applied substances. This study investigates a selective closure technique of hair follicle orifices in vivo assessing interfollicular and follicular absorption rates of topical minoxidil foam in humans. In delimited skin area, single hair orifices or interfollicular skin were blocked with a microdrop of special varnish-wax-mixture in vivo. Minoxidil foam (5%) was topically applied, and transcutaneous absorption was measured by a new surface ionization mass spectrometry technique in serum. Different settings (open, closed or none of both) enabled to clearly distinguish between interfollicular and follicular penetration of the topically applied minoxidil foam. Five minutes after topical application, minoxidil was detected in blood samples when follicles remained open, whereas with closed follicles 30 min were needed. Highest levels were found first when both pathways were open, followed by open follicles and subsequently by closed follicles. These results demonstrate the high importance of the follicular penetration pathway. Hair follicles are surrounded by a dense network of blood capillaries and dendritic cells and have stem cells in their immediate vicinity, making them ideal targets for drug delivery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Projectile penetration into ballistic gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, M V; Kieser, D C; Shah, S; Kieser, J A

    2014-01-01

    Ballistic gelatin is frequently used as a model for soft biological tissues that experience projectile impact. In this paper we investigate the response of a number of gelatin materials to the penetration of spherical steel projectiles (7 to 11mm diameter) with a range of lower impacting velocities (projectile velocity are found to be linear for all systems above a certain threshold velocity required for initiating penetration. The data for a specific material impacted with different diameter spheres were able to be condensed to a single curve when the penetration depth was normalised by the projectile diameter. When the results are compared with a number of predictive relationships available in the literature, it is found that over the range of projectiles and compositions used, the results fit a simple relationship that takes into account the projectile diameter, the threshold velocity for penetration into the gelatin and a value of the shear modulus of the gelatin estimated from the threshold velocity for penetration. The normalised depth is found to fit the elastic Froude number when this is modified to allow for a threshold impact velocity. The normalised penetration data are found to best fit this modified elastic Froude number with a slope of 1/2 instead of 1/3 as suggested by Akers and Belmonte (2006). Possible explanations for this difference are discussed. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Vaporization of irradiated droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, R.L.; O'Rourke, P.J.; Zardecki, A.

    1986-01-01

    The vaporization of a spherically symmetric liquid droplet subject to a high-intensity laser flux is investigated on the basis of a hydrodynamic description of the system composed of the vapor and ambient gas. In the limit of the convective vaporization, the boundary conditions at the fluid--gas interface are formulated by using the notion of a Knudsen layer in which translational equilibrium is established. This leads to approximate jump conditions at the interface. For homogeneous energy deposition, the hydrodynamic equations are solved numerically with the aid of the CON1D computer code (''CON1D: A computer program for calculating spherically symmetric droplet combustion,'' Los Alamos National Laboratory Report No. LA-10269-MS, December, 1984), based on the implict continuous--fluid Eulerian (ICE) [J. Comput. Phys. 8, 197 (1971)] and arbitrary Lagrangian--Eulerian (ALE) [J. Comput. Phys. 14, 1227 (1974)] numerical mehtods. The solutions exhibit the existence of two shock waves propagating in opposite directions with respect to the contact discontinuity surface that separates the ambient gas and vapor

  13. Vapor liquid fraction determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This invention describes a method of measuring liquid and vapor fractions in a non-homogeneous fluid flowing through an elongate conduit, such as may be required with boiling water, non-boiling turbulent flows, fluidized bed experiments, water-gas mixing analysis, and nuclear plant cooling. (UK)

  14. Heat of vaporization spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Multilayer desorption measurements of various substances adsorbed on a stainless steel substrate are found to exhibit desorption profiles consistent with a zeroth order desorption model. The singleness of the desorption transients together with their narrow peak widths makes the technique ideally suited for a heat of vaporization spectrometer for either substance analysis or identification

  15. Enthalpy of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures: An Inexpensive Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael A.; Letcher, Trevor M.

    2007-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method to determine the enthalpy of vaporization of liquids by measuring vapor pressure as a function of temperature is described. The vapor pressures measured with the stopcock cell were higher than the literature values and those measured with the sidearm rubber septum cell were both higher and lower than literature…

  16. Plutonium in depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, J.P.; Leon-Vintro, L.; Smith, K.; Mitchell, P.I.; Zunic, Z.S.

    2002-01-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) penetrators used in the recent Balkan conflicts have been found to be contaminated with trace amounts of transuranic materials such as plutonium. This contamination is usually a consequence of DU fabrication being carried out in facilities also using uranium recycled from spent military and civilian nuclear reactor fuel. Specific activities of 239+240 Plutonium generally in the range 1 to 12 Bq/kg have been found to be present in DU penetrators recovered from the attack sites of the 1999 NATO bombardment of Kosovo. A DU penetrator recovered from a May 1999 attack site at Bratoselce in southern Serbia and analysed by University College Dublin was found to contain 43.7 +/- 1.9 Bq/kg of 239+240 Plutonium. This analysis is described. An account is also given of the general population radiation dose implications arising from both the DU itself and from the presence of plutonium in the penetrators. According to current dosimetric models, in all scenarios considered likely ,the dose from the plutonium is estimated to be much smaller than that due to the uranium isotopes present in the penetrators. (author)

  17. Domestic Preparedness: Phase 2 Sarin Vapor Challenge and Corn Oil Protection Factor (PF) Testing of Commercial Powered Air Purifying Respirator (PAPR) Systems and Cartridges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Lee E; Lins, Ray; Pappas, Alex G

    2002-01-01

    .... Results indicate that cartridges provide complete penetration resistance against 200 mg/m3 GB challenge concentrations for 60 minutes, but that unacceptably high levels of GB vapor and corn oil...

  18. Types of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are the foundation from which all ... Learn About Stem Cells > Types of Stem Cells Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ ...

  19. Penetration shielding applications of CYLSEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dexheimer, D.T.; Hathaway, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation of penetration and discontinuity shielding is necessary to meet 10CFR20 regulations for ensuring personnel exposures are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Historically, those shielding evaluations have been done to some degree on all projects. However, many early plants used conservative methods due to lack of an economical computer code, resulting in costly penetration shielding programs. With the increased industry interest in cost effectively reducing personnel exposures to meet ALARA regulations and with the development of the CYLSEC gamma transport computer code at Bechtel, a comprehensive effort was initiated to reduce penetration and discontinuity shielding but still provide a prudent degree of protection for plant personnel from radiation streaming. This effort was more comprehensive than previous programs due to advances in shielding analysis technology and increased interest in controlling project costs while maintaining personnel exposures ALARA. Methodology and resulting cost savings are discussed

  20. Vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of linear aliphatic alkanediamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozdeev, Vasiliy A.; Verevkin, Sergey P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We measured vapor pressure of diamines H 2 N-(CH 2 ) n -NH 2 with n = 3 to 12. → Vaporization enthalpies at 298 K were derived. → We examined consistency of new and available in the literature data. → Enthalpies of vaporization show linear dependence on numbers n. → Enthalpies of vaporization correlate linearly with Kovat's indices. - Abstract: Vapor pressures and the molar enthalpies of vaporization of the linear aliphatic alkanediamines H 2 N-(CH 2 ) n -NH 2 with n = (3 to 12) have been determined using the transpiration method. A linear correlation of enthalpies of vaporization (at T = 298.15 K) of the alkanediamines with the number n and with the Kovat's indices has been found, proving the internal consistency of the measured data.

  1. Constrained Vapor Bubble Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Shripad; Plawsky, Joel; Wayner, Peter C., Jr.; Zheng, Ling; Wang, Ying-Xi

    2002-11-01

    Microgravity experiments on the Constrained Vapor Bubble Heat Exchanger, CVB, are being developed for the International Space Station. In particular, we present results of a precursory experimental and theoretical study of the vertical Constrained Vapor Bubble in the Earth's environment. A novel non-isothermal experimental setup was designed and built to study the transport processes in an ethanol/quartz vertical CVB system. Temperature profiles were measured using an in situ PC (personal computer)-based LabView data acquisition system via thermocouples. Film thickness profiles were measured using interferometry. A theoretical model was developed to predict the curvature profile of the stable film in the evaporator. The concept of the total amount of evaporation, which can be obtained directly by integrating the experimental temperature profile, was introduced. Experimentally measured curvature profiles are in good agreement with modeling results. For microgravity conditions, an analytical expression, which reveals an inherent relation between temperature and curvature profiles, was derived.

  2. Prediction of electric vehicle penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The object of this report is to present the current market status of plug-in-electric : vehicles (PEVs) and to predict their future penetration within the world and U.S. : markets. The sales values for 2016 show a strong year of PEV sales both in the...

  3. FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Laboratory Inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WINDES,CONNOR L.; MOORE,DAVID G.

    2000-08-02

    The Federal Aviation Administration Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center currently assesses the capability of various non-destructive inspection (NDI) methods used for analyzing aircraft components. The focus of one such exercise is to evaluate the sensitivity of fluorescent liquid penetrant inspection. A baseline procedure using the water-washable fluorescent penetrant method defines a foundation for comparing the brightness of low cycle fatigue cracks in titanium test panels. The analysis of deviations in the baseline procedure will determine an acceptable range of operation for the steps in the inspection process. The data also gives insight into the depth of each crack and which step(s) of the inspection process most affect penetrant sensitivities. A set of six low cycle fatigue cracks produced in 6.35-mm thick Ti-6Al-4V specimens was used to conduct the experiments to produce sensitivity data. The results will document the consistency of the crack readings and compare previous experiments to find the best parameters for water-washable penetrant.

  4. Industrial Penetration and Internet Intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); Y-C. Wu (Yu-Chieh)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the effect of industrial penetration and internet intensity for Taiwan manufacturing firms, and analyses whether the relationships are substitutes or complements. The sample observations are based on 153,081 manufacturing plants, and covers 26 two-digit industry

  5. Import market penetration in services

    OpenAIRE

    Langhammer, Rolf J.

    1991-01-01

    The EC-1992 programme foresees the complete liberalization of trade in services among member countries. To what extent has import market penetration in the Community already begun in selected service industries? Which EC member countries have been the forerunners to date? The following paper uses a new data base released recently by EUROSTAT in an attempt to answer these and other related questions.

  6. Vapor condensation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Manabu; Hirayama, Fumio; Kurosawa, Setsumi; Yoshikawa, Jun; Hosaka, Seiichi.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention enables to separate and remove 14 C as CO 3 - ions without condensation in a vapor condensation can of a nuclear facility. That is, the vapor condensation device of the nuclear facility comprises (1) a spray pipe for spraying an acidic aqueous solution to the evaporation surface of an evaporation section, (2) a spray pump for sending the acidic aqueous solution to the spray pipe, (3) a tank for storing the acidic aqueous solution, (4) a pH sensor for detecting pH of the evaporation section, (5) a pH control section for controlling the spray pump, depending on the result of the detection of the pH sensor. With such a constitution, the pH of liquid wastes on the vaporization surface is controlled to 7 by spraying an aqueous solution of dilute sulfuric acid to the evaporation surface, thereby enabling to increase the transfer rate of 14 C to condensates to 60 to 70%. If 14 C is separated and removed as a CO 2 gas from the evaporation surface, the pH of the liquid wastes returns to the alkaline range of 9 to 10 and the liquid wastes are returned to a heating section. The amount of spraying the aqueous solution of dilute sulfuric acid can be controlled till the pH is reduced to 5. (I.S.)

  7. The vapor pressures of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

    2013-01-05

    The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 °C.

  8. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  9. Stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jukes, Jojanneke; Both, Sanne; Post, Janine; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Karperien, Marcel; de Boer, Jan; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter defines stem cells and their properties. It identifies the major differences between embryonic and adult stem cells. Stem cells can be defined by two properties: the ability to make identical copies of themselves and the ability to form other cell types of the body. These properties are

  10. [Professor WU Zhongchao's experience of penetration needling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Wang, Bing; Zhou, Yu

    2016-08-12

    Professor WU Zhongchao has unique application of penetration needling in clinical treatment. Professor WU applies penetration needling along meridians, and the methods of penetration needling include self-meridian penetration, exterior-interior meridian penetration, identical-name meridian penetration, different meridian penetration. The meridian differentiation is performed according to different TCM syndromes, locations and natures of diseases and acupoint nature, so as to make a comprehensive assessment. The qi movement during acupuncture is focused. In addition, attention is paid on anatomy and long-needle penetration; the sequence and direction of acupuncture is essential, and the reinforcing and reducing methods have great originality, presented with holding, waiting, pressing and vibrating. Based on classical acupoint, the acupoint of penetration needling is flexible, forming unique combination of acupoints.

  11. Control of penetration zone GMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віталій Петрович Iванов

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of the base metal, shielding medium and the nature of the electrode metal transfer to a great extent determine the penetration area formation in gas-arc welding. It is not always possible to take into account the influence of these factors on penetration front forming within the existing models. The aim of the work was to research the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding. The research of the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding of CrNi austenitic steels was made. The parameters of the regime as well as the kind of the gaseous medium influence on the formation of the penetration zone were studied. The article shows a linear proportional relationship between the electrode feed rate and the size of the base metal plate. The penetration area formation mode for welding in argon and carbon dioxide have been worked out. Diameter, feed rate and the speed of the electrode movement have been chosen as the main input parameters. Multiple regression analysis method was used to make up the modes. The relations of the third order that make it possible to take into account the electrode metal transfer and thermal properties change of the materials to be welded were used. These relationships show quite good agreement with the experimental measurements in the calculation of the fusion zone shape with consumable electrode in argon and carbon dioxide. It was determined that the shape of the melting front curve can be shown as a generalized function in which the front motion parameters depend on feed rate and the diameter of the electrode. Penetration zone growth time is determined by the welding speed and is calculated as a discrete function of the distance from the electrode with the spacing along the movement coordinate. The influence of the mode parameters on the formation of the fusion zone has been investigated and the ways to manage and stabilize the weld pool formation have been identified. The modes can be used to develop

  12. Akon - A Penetrator for Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Geraint

    2016-04-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa is one of the most intriguing objects in our Solar System. This 2000km-wide body has a geologically young solid water ice crust that is believed to cover a global ocean of liquid water. The presence of this ocean, together with a source of heating through tidal forces, make Europa a conceivable location for extraterrestrial life. The science case for exploring all aspects of this icy world is compelling. NASA has selected the Europa Mission (formerly Europa Clipper) to study Europa in detail in the 2020s through multiple flybys, and ESA's JUICE mission will perform two flybys of the body in the 2030s. The US agency has extended to the European Space Agency an invitation to provide a contribution to their mission. European scientists interested in Europa science and exploration are currently organizing themselves, in the framework of a coordinated Europa M5 Inititative to study concurrently the main options for this ESA contribution, from a simple addition of individual instruments to the NASA spacecraft, to a lander to investigate Europa's surface in situ. A high speed lander - a penetrator - is by far the most promising technology to achieve this latter option within the anticipated mass constraints, and studies of such a hard lander, many funded by ESA, are now at an advanced level. An international team to formally propose an Europa penetrator to ESA in response to the anticipated ESA M5 call is growing. The working title of this proposal is Akon (Άκων), named after the highly accurate javelin gifted to Europa by Zeus in ancient Greek mythology. We present plans for the Akon penetrator, which would impact Europa's surface at several hundred metres per second, and travel up to several metres into the moon's subsurface. To achieve this, the penetrator would be delivered to the surface by a dedicated descent module, to be destroyed on impact following release of the penetrator above the surface. It is planned that the instruments to be

  13. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers...... expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project...... with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h....

  14. Pulsed CO2 laser for intra-articular cartilage vaporization and subchondral bone perforation in horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Alan J.; Roth, Jerry E.; Krook, Lennart P.

    1991-05-01

    A pulsed carbon dioxide laser was used to vaporize articular cartilage in four horses, and perforate the cartilage and subchondral bone in four horses. Both intercarpal joints were examined arthroscopically and either a 1 cm cartilage crater or a series of holes was created in the third carpal bone of one joint. The contralateral carpus served as a control. The horses were evaluated clinically for 8 weeks, euthanatized and the joints examined radiographically, grossly, and histologically. Pulsed carbon dioxide laser vaporized cartilage readily but penetrated bone poorly. Cartilage vaporization resulted in no greater swelling, heat, pain on flexion, lameness, or synovial fluid reaction than the sham procedure. Laser drilling resulted in a shallow, charred hole with a tenacious carbon residue, and in combination with the thermal damage to deeper bone, resulted in increased swelling, mild lameness and a low-grade, but persistent synovitis. Cartilage removal by laser vaporization resulted in rapid regrowth with fibrous and fibrovascular tissue and occasional regions of fibrocartilage at week 8. The subchondral bone, synovial membrane, and draining lymph nodes appeared essentially unaffected by the laser cartilage vaporization procedure. Conversely, carbon dioxide laser drilling of subchondral bone resulted in poor penetration, extensive areas of thermal necrosis of bone, and significant secondary damage to the apposing articular surface of the radial carpal bone. The carbon dioxide laser is a useful intraarticular instrument for removal of cartilage and has potential application in inaccessible regions of diarthrodial joints. It does not penetrate bone sufficiently to have application in subchondral drilling.

  15. Mobile Termination and Mobile Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak; Jeon, Doh-Shin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two oppos- ing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that fi...

  16. Mobile termination and mobile penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two opposing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that firm...

  17. Fluorescent penetration crack testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, A.

    1979-01-01

    The same cleaning, penetration, washing, development and evaluation agents are used in this method as for known methods. In order to accelerate or shorten the testing, the drying process is performed only to optical dryness of the material surface by blowing on it with pressurized air, the development by simple pressing into or dusting of the material with the developer and the temperature of the washing water is selected within room temperature range. (RW) [de

  18. HMO penetration and physicians' earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, J; Mitchell, J M

    1999-11-01

    The goal of this study is to estimate whether cross-sectional variations in enrollment in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) affected physicians' earnings and hourly income in 1990. Using data from a nationally representative sample of 4,577 younger physicians (penetration is endogenous and used the instrumental variables approach to obtain unbiased estimates. HMO penetration had a negative and statistically significant impact on physicians earnings in 1990. A doubling of the average level of HMO penetration in the market is estimated to reduce annual earnings by 7% to 10.7%, and hourly earnings by approximately 6% to 9%. It appears that HMOs were successful in reducing physicians' annual and per hour earnings in 1990, presumably through a combination of fewer visits and lower payment rates for people covered by HMOs. Although these results cannot be generalized to all physicians, the experience of a younger cohort of physicians may still be a good indicator of the future effects of HMOs because younger physicians may be more susceptible to market forces than older and more established physicians. Moreover, these results may be somewhat conservative because they reflect market behavior in 1990, several years before the rapid growth and more aggressive market behavior of HMOs in recent years.

  19. Penetrating eye injury in war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L

    1999-11-01

    The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons.

  20. Real-Time Penetrating Particle Analyzer (PAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Ambrosi, G.; Bertucci, B.

    2018-02-01

    The PAN can measure penetrating particles with great precision to study energetic particles, solar activities, and the origin and propagation of cosmic rays. The real-time monitoring of penetrating particles is crucial for deep space human travel.

  1. Heat Loads Due To Small Penetrations In Multilayer Insulation Blankets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Heckle, K. W.; E Fesmire, J.

    2017-12-01

    The main penetrations (supports and piping) through multilayer insulation systems for cryogenic tanks have been previously addressed by heat flow measurements. Smaller penetrations due to fasteners and attachments are now experimentally investigated. The use of small pins or plastic garment tag fasteners to ease the handling and construction of multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets goes back many years. While it has long been understood that penetrations and other discontinuities degrade the performance of the MLI blanket, quantification of this degradation has generally been lumped into gross performance multipliers (often called degradation factors or scale factors). Small penetrations contribute both solid conduction and radiation heat transfer paths through the blanket. The conduction is down the stem of the structural element itself while the radiation is through the hole formed during installation of the pin or fastener. Analytical models were developed in conjunction with MLI perforation theory and Fourier’s Law. Results of the analytical models are compared to experimental testing performed on a 10 layer MLI blanket with approximately 50 small plastic pins penetrating the test specimen. The pins were installed at ∼76-mm spacing inches in both directions to minimize the compounding of thermal effects due to localized compression or lateral heat transfer. The testing was performed using a liquid nitrogen boil-off calorimeter (Cryostat-100) with the standard boundary temperatures of 293 K and 78 K. Results show that the added radiation through the holes is much more significant than the conduction down the fastener. The results are shown to be in agreement with radiation theory for perforated films.

  2. A study on vapor explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, N.; Shoji, M.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out for vapor explosions of molten tin falling in water. For various initial metal temperatures and subcooling of water, transient pressure of the explosions, relative frequency of the explosions and the position where the explosions occur were measured in detail. The influence of ambient pressure was also investigated. From the results, it was concluded that the vapor explosion is closely related to the collapse of a vapor film around the molten metal. (author)

  3. Network Penetration Testing and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brandon F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will focus the on research and testing done on penetrating a network for security purposes. This research will provide the IT security office new methods of attacks across and against a company's network as well as introduce them to new platforms and software that can be used to better assist with protecting against such attacks. Throughout this paper testing and research has been done on two different Linux based operating systems, for attacking and compromising a Windows based host computer. Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu (Linux based penetration testing operating systems) are two different "attacker'' computers that will attempt to plant viruses and or NASA USRP - Internship Final Report exploits on a host Windows 7 operating system, as well as try to retrieve information from the host. On each Linux OS (Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu) there is penetration testing software which provides the necessary tools to create exploits that can compromise a windows system as well as other operating systems. This paper will focus on two main methods of deploying exploits 1 onto a host computer in order to retrieve information from a compromised system. One method of deployment for an exploit that was tested is known as a "social engineering" exploit. This type of method requires interaction from unsuspecting user. With this user interaction, a deployed exploit may allow a malicious user to gain access to the unsuspecting user's computer as well as the network that such computer is connected to. Due to more advance security setting and antivirus protection and detection, this method is easily identified and defended against. The second method of exploit deployment is the method mainly focused upon within this paper. This method required extensive research on the best way to compromise a security enabled protected network. Once a network has been compromised, then any and all devices connected to such network has the potential to be compromised as well. With a compromised

  4. Ethical Dilemmas and Dimensions in Penetration Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Faily, Shamal; McAlaney, John; Iacob, C.

    2015-01-01

    Penetration testers are required to attack systems to evaluate their security, but without engaging in unethical behaviour while doing so. Despite work on hacker values and studies into security practice, there is little literature devoted to the ethical pressures associated with penetration testing. This paper presents several ethical dilemmas and dimensions associated with penetration testing;\\ud these shed light on the ethical positions taken by Penetration testers, and help identify poten...

  5. Nuclear system vaporization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.; Wieloch, A.

    1998-01-01

    A particular case of the hot nuclei de-excitation is the total nuclear dislocation into light particles (n, p, d, t, 3 He and α). Such events were first observed at bombarding energies lower than 100 MeV/nucleon due to high detection performances of the INDRA multidetector. The light system Ar + Ni was studied at several bombarding energies ranging from 32 to 95 MeV/nucleon. The events associated to a total vaporization of the system occur above the energy threshold of ∼ 50 MeV/nucleon. A study of the form of these events shows that we have essentially two sources. The excitation energy of these sources may be determined by means of the kinematic properties of their de-excitation products. A preliminary study results in excitation energy values of the order 10 - 14 MeV/nucleon. The theoretical calculation based on a statistical model modified to take into account high excitation energies and excited levels in the lightest nuclei predicts that the vaporization of the two partner nuclei in the Ar + Ni system takes place when the excitation energy exceeds 12 MeV/nucleon what is qualitatively in agreement with the values deduced from calorimetric analysis

  6. Kali Linux wireless penetration testing essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Alamanni, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This book is targeted at information security professionals, penetration testers and network/system administrators who want to get started with wireless penetration testing. No prior experience with Kali Linux and wireless penetration testing is required, but familiarity with Linux and basic networking concepts is recommended.

  7. Effect of compressibility on the hypervelocity penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W. J.; Chen, X. W.; Chen, P.

    2018-02-01

    We further consider the effect of rod strength by employing the compressible penetration model to study the effect of compressibility on hypervelocity penetration. Meanwhile, we define different instances of penetration efficiency in various modified models and compare these penetration efficiencies to identify the effects of different factors in the compressible model. To systematically discuss the effect of compressibility in different metallic rod-target combinations, we construct three cases, i.e., the penetrations by the more compressible rod into the less compressible target, rod into the analogously compressible target, and the less compressible rod into the more compressible target. The effects of volumetric strain, internal energy, and strength on the penetration efficiency are analyzed simultaneously. It indicates that the compressibility of the rod and target increases the pressure at the rod/target interface. The more compressible rod/target has larger volumetric strain and higher internal energy. Both the larger volumetric strain and higher strength enhance the penetration or anti-penetration ability. On the other hand, the higher internal energy weakens the penetration or anti-penetration ability. The two trends conflict, but the volumetric strain dominates in the variation of the penetration efficiency, which would not approach the hydrodynamic limit if the rod and target are not analogously compressible. However, if the compressibility of the rod and target is analogous, it has little effect on the penetration efficiency.

  8. Development of penetrant materials from used oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Azhar Azmi

    2014-01-01

    This paper described the results of experiment to produce penetrant for nondestructive testing using used engine oil. The used engine oil was obtained from motor vehicle. It was mixed with kerosene at several mix proportion. The penetrability of these mixing were measured and compared with the penetrant available on the market. The results of measurement were explained and discussed. (author)

  9. FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Activities - An Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.G.

    1998-10-20

    The Federal Aviation Administration's Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) is currently characterizing low cycle fatigue specimens that will support the needs of penetrant manufacturers, commercial airline industry and the Federal Aviation Administration. The main focus of this characterization is to maintain and enhance the evaluation of penetrant inspection materials and apply resources to support the aircraft community needs. This paper discusses efforts to-date to document the Wright Laboratory penetrant evaluation process and characterize penetrant brightness readings in the initial set of sample calibration panels using Type 1 penetrant.

  10. Web penetration testing with Kali Linux

    CERN Document Server

    Muniz, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Web Penetration Testing with Kali Linux contains various penetration testing methods using BackTrack that will be used by the reader. It contains clear step-by-step instructions with lot of screenshots. It is written in an easy to understand language which will further simplify the understanding for the user.""Web Penetration Testing with Kali Linux"" is ideal for anyone who is interested in learning how to become a penetration tester. It will also help the users who are new to Kali Linux and want to learn the features and differences in Kali versus Backtrack, and seasoned penetration testers

  11. Chemical vapor composites (CVC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reagan, P.

    1993-01-01

    The Chemical Vapor Composite, CVC trademark , process fabricates composite material by simply mixing particles (powders and or fibers) with CVD reactants which are transported and co-deposited on a hot substrate. A key feature of the CVC process is the control provided by varing the density, geometry (aspect ratio) and composition of the entrained particles in the matrix material, during deposition. The process can fabricate composite components to net shape (± 0.013 mm) on a machined substrate in a single step. The microstructure of the deposit is described and several examples of different types of particles in the matrix are illustrated. Mechanical properties of SiC composite material fabricated with SiC powder and fiber will be presented. Several examples of low cost ceramic composite products will be shown. (orig.)

  12. Iron bromide vapor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, V. B.; Shiyanov, D. V.; Trigub, M. V.; Dimaki, V. A.; Evtushenko, G. S.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the characteristics of a pulsed gas-discharge laser on iron bromide vapor generating radiation with a wavelength of 452.9 nm at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 5-30 kHz. The maximum output power amounted to 10 mW at a PRF within 5-15 kHz for a voltage of 20-25 kV applied to electrodes of the discharge tube. Addition of HBr to the medium produced leveling of the radial profile of emission. Initial weak lasing at a wavelength of 868.9 nm was observed for the first time, which ceased with buildup of the main 452.9-nm line.

  13. Penetration through the Skin Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Benfeldt, Eva; Holmgaard, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    The skin is a strong and flexible organ with barrier properties essential for maintaining homeostasis and thereby human life. Characterizing this barrier is the ability to prevent some chemicals from crossing the barrier while allowing others, including medicinal products, to pass at varying rates......-through diffusion cells) as well as in vivo methods (microdialysis and microperfusion). Then follows a discussion with examples of how different characteristics of the skin (age, site and integrity) and of the penetrants (size, solubility, ionization, logPow and vehicles) affect the kinetics of percutaneous...

  14. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Muhammad U; Zacharias, Nikolaos; Velmahos, George C

    2009-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries. PMID:19374761

  15. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmahos George C

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries.

  16. Penetration testing with Raspberry Pi

    CERN Document Server

    Muniz, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    If you are looking for a low budget, small form-factor remotely accessible hacking tool, then the concepts in this book are ideal for you. If you are a penetration tester who wants to save on travel costs by placing a low-cost node on a target network, you will save thousands by using the methods covered in this book. You do not have to be a skilled hacker or programmer to use this book. It will be beneficial to have some networking experience; however, it is not required to follow the concepts covered in this book.

  17. Correlation Between Cone Penetration Rate And Measured Cone Penetration Parameters In Silty Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows, how a change in cone penetration rate affects the cone penetration measurements, hence the cone resistance, pore pressure, and sleeve friction in silty soil. The standard rate of penetration is 20 mm/s, and it is generally accepted that undrained penetration occurs in clay while...... drained penetration occurs in sand. When lowering the penetration rate, the soil pore water starts to dissipate and a change in the drainage condition is seen. In intermediate soils such as silty soils, the standard cone penetration rate may result in a drainage condition that could be undrained......, partially or fully drained. However, lowering the penetration rate in silty soils has a great significance because of the soil permeability, and only a small change in penetration rate will result in changed cone penetration measurements. In this paper, analyses will be done on data from 15 field cone...

  18. Vapor-droplet flow equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, C.T.

    1975-01-01

    General features of a vapor-droplet flow are discussed and the equations expressing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy for the vapor, liquid, and mixture using the control volume approach are derived. The phenomenological laws describing the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between phases are also reviewed. The results have application to development of water-dominated geothermal resources

  19. Processes Controlling Water Vapor in the Winter Arctic Tropopause Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry B.; Jensen, Eric J.; Padolske, James; Sachse, Glen; Avery, Melody; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Mahoney, Michael J.; Richard, Erik

    2002-01-01

    This work describes transport and thermodynamic processes that control water vapor near the tropopause during the SAGE III-Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE), held during the Arctic 1999/2000 winter season. Aircraft-based water vapor, carbon monoxide, and ozone measurements were analyzed so as to establish how deeply tropospheric air mixes into the Arctic lowermost stratosphere and what the implications are for cloud formation and water vapor removal in this region of the atmosphere. There are three major findings. First, troposphere-to-stratosphere exchange extends into the Arctic stratosphere to about 13 km. Penetration is to similar levels throughout the winter, however, because ozone increases with altitude most rapidly in the early spring, tropospheric air mixes with the highest values of ozone in that season. The effect of this upward mixing is to elevate water vapor mixing ratios significantly above their prevailing stratospheric values of above 5ppmv. Second, the potential for cloud formation in the stratosphere is highest during early spring, with about 20% of the parcels which have ozone values of 300-350 ppbv experiencing ice saturation in a given 10 day period. Third, during early spring, temperatures at the troposphere are cold enough so that 5-10% of parcels experience relative humidities above 100%, even if the water content is as low as 5 ppmv. The implication is that during this period, dynamical processes near the Arctic tropopause can dehydrate air and keep the Arctic tropopause region very dry during early spring.

  20. Vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of aliphatic propanediamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verevkin, Sergey P.; Chernyak, Yury

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We measured vapor pressure of four aliphatic 1,3-diamines. ► Vaporization enthalpies at 298 K were derived. ► We examined consistency of new and available data in the literature. ► A group-contribution method for prediction was developed. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of four aliphatic propanediamines including N-methyl-1,3-propanediamine (MPDA), N,N-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine (DMPDA), N,N-diethyl-1,3-propanediamine (DEPDA) and N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-1,3-propanediamine (4MPDA) were measured using the transpiration method. The vapor pressures developed in this work and reported in the literature were used to derive molar enthalpy of vaporization values at the reference temperature 298.15 K. An internal consistency check of the enthalpy of vaporization was performed for the aliphatic propanediamines studied in this work. A group-contribution method was developed for the validation and prediction vaporization enthalpies of amines and diamines.

  1. STEM Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Fang, Michael; Shauman, Kimberlee

    2015-08-01

    Improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, especially for traditionally disadvantaged groups, is widely recognized as pivotal to the U.S.'s long-term economic growth and security. In this article, we review and discuss current research on STEM education in the U.S., drawing on recent research in sociology and related fields. The reviewed literature shows that different social factors affect the two major components of STEM education attainment: (1) attainment of education in general, and (2) attainment of STEM education relative to non-STEM education conditional on educational attainment. Cognitive and social psychological characteristics matter for both major components, as do structural influences at the neighborhood, school, and broader cultural levels. However, while commonly used measures of socioeconomic status (SES) predict the attainment of general education, social psychological factors are more important influences on participation and achievement in STEM versus non-STEM education. Domestically, disparities by family SES, race, and gender persist in STEM education. Internationally, American students lag behind those in some countries with less economic resources. Explanations for group disparities within the U.S. and the mediocre international ranking of US student performance require more research, a task that is best accomplished through interdisciplinary approaches.

  2. Linguistic Intuitions and Cognitive Penetrability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Devitt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Metalinguistic intuitions play a very large evidential role in both linguistics and philosophy. Linguists think that these intuitions are products of underlying linguistic competence. I call this view “the voice of competence” (“VoC”. Although many philosophers seem to think that metalinguistic intuitions are a priori many may implicitly hold the more scientifically respectable VoC. According to VoC, I argue, these intuitions can be cognitively penetrated by the central processor. But, I have argued elsewhere, VoC is false. Instead, we should hold “the modest explanation” (“ME” according to which these intuitions are fairly unreflective empirical theory-laden central-processor responses to phenomena. On ME, no question of cognitive penetration arises. ME has great methodological significance for the study of language. Insofar as we rely on intuitions as evidence we should prefer those of linguists and philosophers because they are more expert. But, more importantly, we should be seeking other evidence in linguistic usage.

  3. A Citizen's Guide to Vapor Intrusion Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide describes how vapor intrusion is the movement of chemical vapors from contaminated soil and groundwater into nearby buildings.Vapors primarily enter through openings in the building foundation or basement walls.

  4. Vapor pressure measured with inflatable plastic bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Deflated plastic bag in a vacuum chamber measures initial low vapor pressures of materials. The bag captures the test sample vapors and visual observation of the vapor-inflated bag under increasing external pressures yields pertinent data.

  5. Learn About Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Handbook Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Stem Cell Basics Stem cells are the foundation from which ... original cell’s DNA, cytoplasm and cell membrane. About stem cells Stem cells are the foundation of development in ...

  6. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-01-01

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft 3 /min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft 3 /min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm

  7. The lithium vapor box divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R J; Schwartz, J; Myers, R

    2016-01-01

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m −2 , implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. At the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma. (paper)

  8. Design of Fire/Gas Penetration Seals and fire exposure tests for Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor experimental areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalluzzo, S.

    1983-01-01

    A Fire/Gas Penetration Seal is required in every penetration through the walls and ceilings into the Test Cell housing the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), as well as other adjacent areas to protect the TFTR from fire damage. The penetrations are used for field coil lead stems, diagnostics systems, utilities, cables, trays, mechanical devices, electrical conduits, vacuum liner, air conditioning ducts, water pipes, and gas pipes. The function of the Fire/Gas Penetration Seals is to prevent the passage of fire and products of combustion through penetrations for a period of time up to three hours and remain structurally intact during fire exposure. The Penetration Seal must withstand, without rupture, a fire hose water stream directed at the hot surface. There are over 3000 penetrations ranging in size from several square inches to 100 square feet, and classified into 90 different types. The material used to construct the Fire/Gas Penetration Seals consist of a single and a two-component room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) silicone rubber compound. Miscellaneous materials such as alumina silica refractory fibers in board, blanket and fiber forms are also used in the construction and assembly of the Seals. This paper describes some of the penetration seals and the test procedures used to perform the three-hour fire exposure tests to demonstrate the adequacy of the seals

  9. Cable Braid Electromagnetic Penetration Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry K. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langston, William L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Basilio, Lorena I. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, W. A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The model for penetration of a wire braid is rigorously formulated. Integral formulas are developed from energy principles and reciprocity for both self and transfer immittances in terms of potentials for the fields. The detailed boundary value problem for the wire braid is also setup in a very efficient manner; the braid wires act as sources for the potentials in the form of a sequence of line multipoles with unknown coefficients that are determined by means of conditions arising from the wire surface boundary conditions. Approximations are introduced to relate the local properties of the braid wires to a simplified infinite periodic planar geometry. This is used in a simplified application of reciprocity to be able to treat nonuniform coaxial geometries including eccentric interior coaxial arrangements and an exterior ground plane.

  10. Dimers in nucleating vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushnikov, A. A.; Kulmala, M.

    1998-09-01

    The dimer stage of nucleation may affect considerably the rate of the nucleation process at high supersaturation of the nucleating vapor. Assuming that the dimer formation limits the nucleation rate, the kinetics of the particle formation-growth process is studied starting with the definition of dimers as bound states of two associating molecules. The partition function of dimer states is calculated by summing the Boltzmann factor over all classical bound states, and the equilibrium population of dimers is found for two types of intermolecular forces: the Lennard-Jones (LJ) and rectangular well+hard core (RW) potentials. The principle of detailed balance is used for calculating the evaporation rate of dimers. The kinetics of the particle formation-growth process is then investigated under the assumption that the trimers are stable with respect to evaporation and that the condensation rate is a power function of the particle mass. If the power exponent λ=n/(n+1) (n is a non-negative integer), the kinetics of the process is described by a finite set of moments of particle mass distribution. When the characteristic time of the particle formation by nucleation is much shorter than that of the condensational growth, n+2 universal functions of a nondimensional time define the kinetic process. These functions are calculated for λ=2/3 (gas-to-particle conversion in the free molecular regime) and λ=1/2 (formation of islands on surfaces).

  11. Cell penetration to nanofibrous scaffolds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rampichová, Michala; Buzgo, Matej; Chvojka, J.; Prosecká, Eva; Kofroňová, Olga; Amler, Evžen

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2014), s. 36-41 ISSN 1933-6918 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 384311; GA UK(CZ) 626012; GA UK(CZ) 270513; GA UK(CZ) 330611; GA UK(CZ) 648112; GA MZd(CZ) NT12156; GA MŠk(CZ) project IPv6 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : fibrous scaffold * mesenchymal stem cells * Forcespinning (R) Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 4.505, year: 2014

  12. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  13. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fantoni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fantoni & Gerbino (2014 showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP, they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015 would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions, in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top

  14. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project settings are close to ideal, including a very capable national utility company, Electra, a conventional power supply system based on imported heavy fuel and gas oil, and favourable wind conditions with an estimated annual average of 9.3 m/s at the hub height of the wind turbines. With the applied case study assumptions, simulations with WINSYS over the lifetime of the assessed wind power investment show that investments up to 4.2 MW are economically viable. The economic optimum is found at 2.4 MW reaching an internal rate of return of almost 8% p.a. This 2.4 MW of wind power would, together with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h. (Author)

  15. Varieties of cognitive penetration in visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Petra; Newen, Albert

    2014-07-01

    Is our perceptual experience a veridical representation of the world or is it a product of our beliefs and past experiences? Cognitive penetration describes the influence of higher level cognitive factors on perceptual experience and has been a debated topic in philosophy of mind and cognitive science. Here, we focus on visual perception, particularly early vision, and how it is affected by contextual expectations and memorized cognitive contents. We argue for cognitive penetration based on recent empirical evidence demonstrating contextual and top-down influences on early visual processes. On the basis of a perceptual model, we propose different types of cognitive penetration depending on the processing level on which the penetration happens and depending on where the penetrating influence comes from. Our proposal has two consequences: (1) the traditional controversy on whether cognitive penetration occurs or not is ill posed, and (2) a clear-cut perception-cognition boundary cannot be maintained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Percutaneous penetration studies for risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartorelli, Vittorio; Andersen, Helle Raun; Angerer, Jürgen

    2000-01-01

    . In order to predict the systemic risk of dermally absorbed chemicals and to enable agencies to set safety standards, data is needed on the rates of percutaneous penetration of important chemicals. Standardization of in vitro tests and comparison of their results with the in vivo data could produce...... internationally accepted penetration rates and/or absorption percentages very useful for regulatory toxicology. The work of the Percutaneous Penetration Subgroup of EC Dermal Exposure Network has been focussed on the standardization and validation of in vitro experiments, necessary to obtain internationally...... accepted penetration rates for regulatory purposes. The members of the Subgroup analyzed the guidelines on percutaneous penetration in vitro studies presented by various organizations and suggested a standardization of in vitro models for percutaneous penetration taking into account their individual...

  17. Ethical hacking and penetration testing guide

    CERN Document Server

    Baloch, Rafay

    2014-01-01

    Requiring no prior hacking experience, Ethical Hacking and Penetration Testing Guide supplies a complete introduction to the steps required to complete a penetration test, or ethical hack, from beginning to end. You will learn how to properly utilize and interpret the results of modern-day hacking tools, which are required to complete a penetration test. The book covers a wide range of tools, including Backtrack Linux, Google reconnaissance, MetaGooFil, dig, Nmap, Nessus, Metasploit, Fast Track Autopwn, Netcat, and Hacker Defender rootkit. Supplying a simple and clean explanation of how to effectively utilize these tools, it details a four-step methodology for conducting an effective penetration test or hack.Providing an accessible introduction to penetration testing and hacking, the book supplies you with a fundamental understanding of offensive security. After completing the book you will be prepared to take on in-depth and advanced topics in hacking and penetration testing. The book walks you through each ...

  18. Initial response of a rock penetrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longcope, D.B.; Grady, D.E.

    1977-12-01

    An analysis based on elastic rod theory is given for the early-time axisymmetric response of pointed penetrators. Results of measurements by laser interferometry of the back surface particle velocity of laboratory scale penetrators impacted by sandstone targets are presented. Values of the initial pressure on the penetrator tip are determined which give good agreement between the analytical and experimental results. These initial tip pressures are found to be approximated by the stress-particle velocity Hugoniot for the target material

  19. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Elliott, J.; Bettencourt, B.; Slawski, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in- place penetration test is practical

  20. Market penetration rates of new energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The market penetration rates of 11 different new energy technologies were studied covering energy production and end-use technologies. The penetration rates were determined by fitting observed market data to an epidemical diffusion model. The analyses show that the exponential penetration rates of new energy technologies may vary from 4 up to over 40%/yr. The corresponding take-over times from a 1% to 50% share of the estimated market potential may vary from less than 10 to 70 years. The lower rate is often associated with larger energy impacts. Short take-over times less than 25 years seem to be mainly associated with end-use technologies. Public policies and subsides have an important effect on the penetration. Some technologies penetrate fast without major support explained by technology maturity and competitive prices, e.g. compact fluorescent lamps show a 24.2%/yr growth rate globally. The penetration rates determined exhibit some uncertainty as penetration has not always proceeded close to saturation. The study indicates a decreasing penetration rate with increasing time or market share. If the market history is short, a temporally decreasing functional form for the penetration rate coefficient could be used to anticipate the probable behavior

  1. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Elliott, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in-place penetration test is practical. 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Tubing For Sampling Hydrazine Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Josh; Taffe, Patricia S.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Wyatt, Jeffrey R.

    1993-01-01

    Report evaluates flexible tubing used for transporting such hypergolic vapors as those of hydrazines for quantitative analysis. Describes experiments in which variety of tubing materials, chosen for their known compatibility with hydrazine, flexibility, and resistance to heat.

  3. Vapor trap for liquid metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T

    1968-05-22

    In a pipe system which transfers liquid metal, inert gas (cover gas) is packed above the surface of the liquid metal to prevent oxidization of the liquid. If the metal vapor is contained in such cover gas, the circulating system of the cover gas is blocked due to condensation of liquid metal inside the system. The present invention relates to an improvement in vapor trap to remove the metal vapor from the cover gas. The trap consists of a cylindrical outer body, an inlet nozzle which is deeply inserted inside the outer body and has a number of holes to inject the cove gas into the body, metal mesh or steel wool which covers the exterior of the nozzle and on which the condensation of the metal gas takes place, and a heater wire hich is wound around the nozzle to prevent condensation of the metal vapor at the inner peripheral side of the mesh.

  4. STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  5. Interfacial Dynamics of Condensing Vapor Bubbles in an Ultrasonic Acoustic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boziuk, Thomas; Smith, Marc; Glezer, Ari

    2016-11-01

    Enhancement of vapor condensation in quiescent subcooled liquid using ultrasonic actuation is investigated experimentally. The vapor bubbles are formed by direct injection from a pressurized steam reservoir through nozzles of varying characteristic diameters, and are advected within an acoustic field of programmable intensity. While kHz-range acoustic actuation typically couples to capillary instability of the vapor-liquid interface, ultrasonic (MHz-range) actuation leads to the formation of a liquid spout that penetrates into the vapor bubble and significantly increases its surface area and therefore condensation rate. Focusing of the ultrasonic beam along the spout leads to ejection of small-scale droplets from that are propelled towards the vapor liquid interface and result in localized acceleration of the condensation. High-speed video of Schlieren images is used to investigate the effects of the ultrasonic actuation on the thermal boundary layer on the liquid side of the vapor-liquid interface and its effect on the condensation rate, and the liquid motion during condensation is investigated using high-magnification PIV measurements. High-speed image processing is used to assess the effect of the actuation on the dynamics and temporal variation in characteristic scale (and condensation rate) of the vapor bubbles.

  6. Influence of jet thrust on penetrator penetration when studying the structure of space object blanket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Fedorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the calculation-and-theory-based research results to examine the possibility for using the jet thrust impulse to increase a penetration depth of high-velocity penetrator modules. Such devices can be used for studies of Earth surface layer composition, and in the nearest future for other Solar system bodies too. Research equipment (sensors and different instruments is housed inside a metal body of the penetrator with a sharpened nose that decreases drag force in soil. It was assumed, that this penetrator is additionally equipped with the pulse jet engine, which is fired at a certain stage of penetrator motion into target.The penetrator is considered as a rigid body of variable mass, which is subjected to drag force and reactive force applied at the moment the engine fires. A drag force was represented with a binomial empirical law, and penetrator nose part was considered to be conical. The jet thrust force was supposed to be constant during its application time. It was in accordance with assumption that mass flow and flow rate of solid propellant combustion products were constant. The amount of propellant in the penetrator was characterized by Tsiolkovsky number Z, which specifies the ratio between the fuel mass and the penetrator structure mass with no fuel.The system of equations to describe the penetrator dynamics was given in dimensionless form using the values aligned with penetration of an equivalent inert penetrator as the time and penetration depth scales. Penetration dynamics of penetrator represented in this form allowed to eliminate the influence of penetrator initial mass and its cross-section diameter on the solution results. The lack of such dependency is convenient for comparing the calculation results since they hold for penetrators of various initial masses and cross-sections.To calculate the penetration a lunar regolith was taken as a soil material. Calculations were carried out for initial velocities of

  7. A review of penetration mechanisms and dynamic properties of tungsten and depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, S.P.; Caligiuri, R.D.; Eiselstein, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Kinetic energy penetrators must posses the best possible combination of hardness, stiffness, strength, and fracture toughness characteristics to be effective against modern armor systems. Over the last decade, depleted uranium (DU) and tungsten alloys have been the materials of choice for kinetic energy penetrators. Du and tungsten perform abut the same against semi-infinite targets, and DU outperforms tungsten penetrators in oblique, spaced array targets, but because of environmental and subsequent cost concerns, effort has focused on improving the performance of tungsten penetrators over the last few years. However, despite recent improvements in material properties, the penetration performance of tungsten still lags behind that of DU. One possible reason is the difference in deformation mechanisms at the leading edge of the penetrator during the penetration process-DU alloys tend to shear band and sharpen as they penetrate the target material, whereas tungsten penetrators tend to mushroom and blunt. As a first step to determine whether shear banding is truly the reason for superior DU performance, a review of the fabrication, high strain-rate properties, and penetration phenomena of penetrators manufactured from both tungsten and DU alloys. Specifically, the effects of composition, processing, and heat treatment on material properties and penetration mechanisms of these alloys are discussed

  8. Melting temperature, vapor density, and vapor pressure of molybdenum pentafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Jr, R F; Douglas, T B [National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. (USA). Inst. for Materials Research

    1977-12-01

    A sample of MoF/sub 5/ was prepared by reaction of MoF/sub 6/(g) and Mo(c). Melting curves of temperature against time established the melting temperature at zero impurity to be 318.85 K, the enthalpy of fusion to be 6.1 kJ mol/sup -1/ (+ - 5 per cent), and the cryoscopic impurity of the sample to be 0.15 mole per cent. In the presence of MoF/sub 6/(g) which was added to suppress disproportionation, the vapor density of MoF/sub 5/ over the liquid was measured by the transpiration method at 343, 363, and 383 K, the total MoF/sub 5/ that evaporated being determined by permanganate titration. The total vapor pressure of MoF/sub 5/ oligomers over the liquid was measured by a simple static method at 373 and 392 K, while melting temperatures were taken alternately to monitor possible contamination of the sample. Although the vapor pressures were adjusted for disproportionation, solution of MoF/sub 6/ in MoF/sub 5/ (1), and wall adsorption of MoF/sub 6/ their percentage uncertainty is probably several times that of the vapor densities. A combination of the two properties indicates the average extent of association of the saturated vapor to be near 2, which is the value for the dimer species (MoF/sub 5/)/sub 2/.

  9. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, W.; Arnold, F.; Stoelinga, M.I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Therefore, penetration testing has thus far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management,

  10. Generic penetration in the retail antidepressant market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventimiglia, Jeffrey; Kalali, Amir H

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we explore the accelerated penetration of generic antidepressants in the United States market following the availability of generic citalopram and sertraline. Analysis suggests that overall, generic penetration into the antidepressant market has grown from approximately 41 percent in January 2004 to over 73 percent in January 2010. Similar trends are uncovered when branded and generic prescriptions are analyzed by specialty.

  11. Quantitative Penetration Testing with Item Response Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    2014-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including

  12. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle

    2013-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including

  13. Chemical Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Drug Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for transdermal administration. The permeation of drug through skin can be enhanced by both chemical penetration enhancement and physical methods. In this review, we have discussed the chemical penetration enhancement technology for transdermal drug delivery as well as the probable mechanisms of action.

  14. MDCT diagnosis of penetrating diaphragm injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodanapally, Uttam K.; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Mirvis, Stuart E.; Sliker, Clint W.; Fleiter, Thorsten R.; Sarada, Kamal; Miller, Lisa A. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Stein, Deborah M. [University of Maryland, Department of Surgery, Shock Trauma Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Alexander, Melvin [National Study Center for Trauma and Emergency Medical Systems, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of multidetector CT (MDCT) in detection of diaphragmatic injury following penetrating trauma. Chest and abdominal CT examinations performed preoperatively in 136 patients after penetrating trauma to the torso with injury trajectory in close proximity to the diaphragm were reviewed by radiologists unaware of surgical findings. Signs associated with diaphragmatic injuries in penetrating trauma were noted. These signs were correlated with surgical diagnoses, and their sensitivity and specificity in assisting the diagnosis were calculated. CT confirmed diaphragmatic injury in 41 of 47 injuries (sensitivity, 87.2%), and an intact diaphragm in 71 of 98 patients (specificity, 72.4%). The overall accuracy of MDCT was 77%. The most accurate sign helping the diagnosis was contiguous injury on either side of the diaphragm in single-entry penetrating trauma (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 82%). Thus MDCT has high sensitivity and good specificity in detecting penetrating diaphragmatic injuries. (orig.)

  15. MDCT diagnosis of penetrating diaphragm injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodanapally, Uttam K.; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Mirvis, Stuart E.; Sliker, Clint W.; Fleiter, Thorsten R.; Sarada, Kamal; Miller, Lisa A.; Stein, Deborah M.; Alexander, Melvin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of multidetector CT (MDCT) in detection of diaphragmatic injury following penetrating trauma. Chest and abdominal CT examinations performed preoperatively in 136 patients after penetrating trauma to the torso with injury trajectory in close proximity to the diaphragm were reviewed by radiologists unaware of surgical findings. Signs associated with diaphragmatic injuries in penetrating trauma were noted. These signs were correlated with surgical diagnoses, and their sensitivity and specificity in assisting the diagnosis were calculated. CT confirmed diaphragmatic injury in 41 of 47 injuries (sensitivity, 87.2%), and an intact diaphragm in 71 of 98 patients (specificity, 72.4%). The overall accuracy of MDCT was 77%. The most accurate sign helping the diagnosis was contiguous injury on either side of the diaphragm in single-entry penetrating trauma (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 82%). Thus MDCT has high sensitivity and good specificity in detecting penetrating diaphragmatic injuries. (orig.)

  16. Peptide-targeted, stimuli-responsive polymersomes for delivering a cancer stemness inhibitor to cancer stem cell microtumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandish, Fataneh; Froberg, James; Borowicz, Pawel; Wilkinson, John C; Choi, Yongki; Mallik, Sanku

    2018-03-01

    Often cancer relapses after an initial response to chemotherapy because of the tumor's heterogeneity and the presence of progenitor stem cells, which can renew. To overcome drug resistance, metastasis, and relapse in cancer, a promising approach is the inhibition of cancer stemness. In this study, the expression of the neuropilin-1 receptor in both pancreatic and prostate cancer stem cells was identified and targeted with a stimuli-responsive, polymeric nanocarrier to deliver a stemness inhibitor (napabucasin) to cancer stem cells. Reduction-sensitive amphiphilic block copolymers PEG 1900 -S-S-PLA 6000 and the N 3 -PEG 1900 -PLA 6000 were synthesized. The tumor penetrating iRGD peptide-hexynoic acid conjugate was linked to the N 3 -PEG 1900 -PLA 6000 polymer via a Cu 2+ catalyzed "Click" reaction. Subsequently, this peptide-polymer conjugate was incorporated into polymersomes for tumor targeting and tissue penetration. We prepared polymersomes containing 85% PEG 1900 -S-S-PLA 6000 , 10% iRGD-polymer conjugate, and 5% DPPE-lissamine rhodamine dye. The iRGD targeted polymersomes encapsulating the cancer stemness inhibitor napabucasin were internalized in both prostate and pancreatic cancer stem cells. The napabucasin encapsulated polymersomes significantly (p < .05) reduced the viability of both prostate and pancreatic cancer stem cells and decreased the stemness protein expression notch-1 and nanog compared to the control and vesicles without any drug. The napabucasin encapsulated polymersome formulations have the potential to lead to a new direction in prostate and pancreatic cancer therapy by penetrating deeply into the tumors, releasing the encapsulated stemness inhibitor, and killing cancer stem cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Transconjunctival penetration of mitomycin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velpandian T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The study was performed to estimate transconjunctival penetration of mitomycin C (MMC to Tenon′s tissue following application over the intact conjunctiva before routine trabeculectomy. Settings and Design: Institution-based case series. Materials and Methods: In 41 eyes of 41 patients, MMC (0.4 mg/ml for 3 min was applied over the intact conjunctiva before beginning trabeculectomy. Tenon′s capsule directly beneath the site of application was excised during trabeculectomy and was homogenized, centrifuged and MMC concentrations were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using stata0 8.0 version software (STATA Corporation, Houston, TX, USA. In this study, P -values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: The average weight of the sample of Tenon′s tissue excised was 5.51 ± 4.42 mg (range: 0.9-17.1 and the average estimated MMC concentration found to be present in Tenon′s tissue using HPLC was 18.67 ± 32.36 x 10−6 moles/kg of the tissue (range: 0.38-197.05 x 10−6 . In 36 of the 41 patients (87.80%, the MMC concentration reached above 2 x 10−6 moles/kg of the tissue concentration required to inhibit human conjunctival fibroblasts. Conclusions: Mitomycin C does permeate into the subconjunctival tissue after supraconjunctival application for 3 min. Application of MMC over the conjunctiva may be a useful alternative to subconjunctival or subscleral application during routine trabeculectomy and as an adjunct for failing blebs.

  18. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  19. Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2004-01-01

    In his influential essay on markets, An essay on framing and overflowing (1998), Michel Callon writes that `the growing complexity of industrialized societies [is] due in large part to the movements of the technosciences, which are causing connections and interdependencies to proliferate'. This p...... and tantalizing than stem cells, in research, in medicine, or as products.......'. This paper is about tech-noscience, and about the proliferation of connections and interdependencies created by it.More specifically, the paper is about stem cells. Biotechnology in general has the power to capture the imagination. Within the field of biotechnology nothing seems more provocative...

  20. Determination of the characteristics of an electric arc plasma contaminated by vapors from insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbaoui, M.; Cheminat, B.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental study at atmospheric pressure carried out on plasma penetrated by vapors from different industrial insulators allowed the showing of the influence of the nature of the insulator upon the characteristics of the electric arc plasma; i.e., an increase of the temperature, electron density, electric field, and extinction velocity of the arc. Measurements have been made spectrometrically and by means of probes

  1. Effect of Maintaining Apical Patency on Irrigant Penetration into the Apical Two Millimeters of Large Root Canals : An In Vivo Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vera, Jorge; Hernandez, Erick M.; Romero, Monica; Arias, Ana; van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Factors such as complex root canal anatomy and the vapor lock phenomenon have been shown to limit the penetration of irrigating solutions into the apical third in both in vivo and in vitro studies involving small and wide canals. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine whether

  2. Miniature Ground Penetrating Radar, CRUX GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon Sam; Carnes, Steven R.; Haldemann, Albert F.; Ulmer, Christopher T.; Ng, Eddie; Arcone, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA instrument development programs (PIDDP 2000-2002, MIPD 2003-2005, ESR and T, 2005) we have been developing miniature ground penetrating radars (GPR) for use in mapping subsurface stratigraphy from planetary rovers for Mars and lunar applications. The Mars GPR is for deeper penetration (up to 50 m depth) into the Martian subsurface at moderate resolution (0.5 m) for a geological characterization. As a part of the CRUX (Construction and Resource Utilization Explorer) instrument suite, the CRUX GPR is optimized for a lunar prospecting application. It will have shallower penetration (5 m depth) with higher resolution (10 cm) for construction operations including ISRU (in-situ resource utilization).

  3. Development of coring, consolidating, subterrene penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, H.D.; Neudecker, J.W.; Cort, G.E.; Turner, W.C.; McFarland, R.D.; Griggs, J.E.

    1976-02-01

    Coring penetrators offer two advantages over full face-melting penetrators, i.e., formation of larger boreholes with no increase in power and the production of glass-lined, structurally undisturbed cores which can be recovered with conventional core-retrieval systems. These cores are of significant value in geological exploratory drilling programs. The initial design details and fabrication features of a 114-mm-diam coring penetrator are discussed; significant factors for design optimization are also presented. Results of laboratory testing are reported and compared with performance predictions, and an initial field trial is described

  4. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2012-08-07

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  5. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  6. Thermal plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberlein, J.; Pfender, E.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal plasmas, with temperatures up to and even exceeding 10 4 K, are capable of producing high density vapor phase precursors for the deposition of relatively thick films. Although this technology is still in its infancy, it will fill the void between the relatively slow deposition processes such as physical vapor deposition and the high rate thermal spray deposition processes. In this chapter, the present state-of-the-art of this field is reviewed with emphasis on the various types of reactors proposed for this emerging technology. Only applications which attracted particular attention, namely diamond and high T c superconducting film deposition, are discussed in greater detail. (orig.)

  7. Why STEM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    The International Technology and Engineering Educators Association (ITEEA) defines STEM as a new transdisciplinary subject in schools that integrates the disciplines of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics into a single course of study. There are three major problems with this definition: There is no consensus in support of the ITEEA…

  8. A Mass Loss Penetration Model to Investigate the Dynamic Response of a Projectile Penetrating Concrete considering Mass Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NianSong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the dynamic response of a projectile penetrating concrete is conducted. The evolutional process of projectile mass loss and the effect of mass loss on penetration resistance are investigated using theoretical methods. A projectile penetration model considering projectile mass loss is established in three stages, namely, cratering phase, mass loss penetration phase, and remainder rigid projectile penetration phase.

  9. Waste Tank Vapor Project: Tank vapor database development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seesing, P.R.; Birn, M.B.; Manke, K.L.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of the Tank Vapor Database (TVD) Development task in FY 1994 was to create a database to store, retrieve, and analyze data collected from the vapor phase of Hanford waste tanks. The data needed to be accessible over the Hanford Local Area Network to users at both Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The data were restricted to results published in cleared reports from the laboratories analyzing vapor samples. Emphasis was placed on ease of access and flexibility of data formatting and reporting mechanisms. Because of time and budget constraints, a Rapid Application Development strategy was adopted by the database development team. An extensive data modeling exercise was conducted to determine the scope of information contained in the database. a A SUN Sparcstation 1000 was procured as the database file server. A multi-user relational database management system, Sybase reg-sign, was chosen to provide the basic data storage and retrieval capabilities. Two packages were chosen for the user interface to the database: DataPrism reg-sign and Business Objects trademark. A prototype database was constructed to provide the Waste Tank Vapor Project's Toxicology task with summarized and detailed information presented at Vapor Conference 4 by WHC, PNL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Oregon Graduate Institute. The prototype was used to develop a list of reported compounds, and the range of values for compounds reported by the analytical laboratories using different sample containers and analysis methodologies. The prototype allowed a panel of toxicology experts to identify carcinogens and compounds whose concentrations were within the reach of regulatory limits. The database and user documentation was made available for general access in September 1994

  10. Update on the Management of High-Risk Penetrating Keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbehdari, Sayena; Rafii, Alireza Baradaran; Yazdanpanah, Ghasem; Hamrah, Pedram; Holland, Edward J; Djalilian, Ali R

    2017-03-01

    In this article, we review the indications and latest management of high-risk penetrating keratoplasty. Despite the immune-privilege status of the cornea, immune-mediated graft rejection still remains the leading cause of corneal graft failure. This is particularly a problem in the high-risk graft recipients, namely patients with previous graft failure due to rejection and those with inflamed and vascularized corneal beds. A number of strategies including both local and systemic immunosuppression are currently used to increase the success rate of high-risk corneal grafts. Moreover, in cases of limbal stem cell deficiency, limbal stem cells transplantation is employed. Corticosteroids are still the top medication for prevention and treatment in cases of corneal graft rejection. Single and combined administration of immunosuppressive agents e.g. tacrolimus, cyclosporine and mycophenolate are promising adjunctive therapies for prolonging graft survival. In the future, cellular and molecular therapies should allow us to achieve immunologic tolerance even in high-risk grafts.

  11. The penetration of aerosols through fine orifices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, I.A.; Latham, L.J.; Ball, M.H.E.; Mitchell, J.P.

    1991-07-01

    A novel experimental technique has been extended to study the migration of gas-borne glass microspheres in the size range from about 1 to 15 μm volume equivalent diameter through orifices with bores and thicknesses in the range from 2 to 100 μm and 12.7 to 509 μm respectively. The penetration of these particles was significant with all orifices greater than 10 μm bore at a constant driving pressure of 100 kPa. However, few particles penetrated the 5 μm bore orifice, while virtually no particles penetrated the 2 μm bore orifice. Particle size distributions determined after penetration through the orifices were very similar to that of the upstream aerosol except when significant attenuation occurred. (author)

  12. Temporary fire sealing of penetrations on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondorp, H.L.

    1981-02-01

    The radiation shielding provided for TFTR for D-D and D-T operation will be penetrated by numerous electrical and mechanical services. Eventually, these penetrations will have to be sealed to provide the required fire resistance, tritium sealability, pressure integrity and radiation attenuation. For the initial hydrogen operation, however, fire sealing of the penetrations in the walls and floor is the primary concern. This report provides a discussion of the required and desirable properties of a temporary seal which can be used to seal these penetrations for the hydrogen operation and then subsequently be removed and replaced as required for the D-D and D-T operations. Several candidate designs are discussed and evaluated and recommendations are made for specific applications

  13. Identifying structural damage with ground penetrating radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistance tomography (ERT) surveys were conducted in an urban environment in an attempt to identify the cause of severe structural damage to a historically significant residential property...

  14. Thyroid Emphysema Following Penetrating Neck Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Karadağ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although traumatic thyroid gland rupture or hemorrhage is usually seen in goitrous glands, injuries of the normal thyroid gland after neck trauma have rarely been described in the literature. We describe a 44-year-old man who presented with thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema (SCE that occurred after penetrating neck trauma. CT images showed complete resolution of thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema at follow-up examination. Neck injuries can be life threatening. After penetrating neck traumas, physicians should consider subtle esophageal or tracheal laceration. Thyroid emphysema can occur as the result of penetrating neck trauma. The mechanism of emphysema of the thyroid parenchyma can be explained by the thyroid gland’s presence in a single visceral compartment that encompasses the larynx, trachea and thyroid gland. We describe an unusual case of thyroid emphysema of a normal thyroid gland following a penetrating neck injury.

  15. Kali Linux wireless penetration testing beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Ramachandran, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    If you are a security professional, pentester, or anyone interested in getting to grips with wireless penetration testing, this is the book for you. Some familiarity with Kali Linux and wireless concepts is beneficial.

  16. Penetration testing protecting networks and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    This book is a preparation guide for the CPTE examination, yet is also a general reference for experienced penetration testers, ethical hackers, auditors, security personnel and anyone else involved in the security of an organization's computer systems.

  17. The penetration of aerosols through fine capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.P.; Edwards, R.T.; Ball, M.H.E.

    1989-10-01

    A novel experimental technique has been developed to study the penetration of aerosol particles ranging from about 1 to 15 μm aerodynamic diameter through capillaries varying from 20 to 80 μm bore and from 10 to 50 mm in length. When the driving pressure was 100 kPa, the penetration of the airborne particles was considerably smaller than expected from a simple comparison of particle diameter with the bore of the capillary. Particle size distributions determined after penetration through the capillaries were in almost all cases similar to the particle size distribution of the aerosol at the capillary entrance. This lack of size-selectivity can be explained in terms of the capillary behaving as a conventional suction-based sampler from a near still (calm) air environment. The resulting particle penetration data are important in assessing the potential for the leakage of aerosols through seals in containers used to transport radioactive materials. (author)

  18. Estimated vapor pressure for WTP process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-01

    Design assumptions during the vacuum refill phase of the Pulsed Jet Mixers (PJMs) in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) equate the vapor pressure of all process streams to that of water when calculating the temperature at which the vacuum refill is reduced or eliminated. WTP design authority asked the authors to assess this assumption by performing calculations on proposed feed slurries to calculate the vapor pressure as a function of temperature. The vapor pressure was estimated for each WTP waste group. The vapor pressure suppression caused by dissolved solids is much greater than the increase caused by organic components such that the vapor pressure for all of the waste group compositions is less than that of pure water. The vapor pressure for each group at 145°F ranges from 81% to 98% of the vapor pressure of water. If desired, the PJM could be operated at higher temperatures for waste groups with high dissolved solids that suppress vapor pressure. The SO4 group with the highest vapor pressure suppression could be operated up to 153°F before reaching the same vapor pressure of water at 145°F. However, most groups would reach equivalent vapor pressure at 147 to 148°F. If any of these waste streams are diluted, the vapor pressure can exceed the vapor pressure of water at mass dilution ratios greater than 10, but the overall effect is less than 0.5%.

  19. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

  20. Low Force Penetration of Icy Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, J. G.; Galloway, G. M.; Zacny, K.

    2016-01-01

    A percussive cone penetrometer measures the strength of granular material by using percussion to deliver mechanical energy into the material. A percussive cone penetrometer was used in this study to penetrate a regolith ice mixture by breaking up ice and decompacting the regolith. As compared to a static cone penetrometer, percussion allows low reaction forces to push a penetrometer probe tip more easily into dry regolith in a low gravity environment from a planetary surface rover or a landed spacecraft. A percussive cone penetrates icy regolith at ice concentrations that a static cone cannot penetrate. In this study, the percussive penetrator was able to penetrate material under 65 N of down-force which could not be penetrated using a static cone under full body weight. This paper discusses using a percussive cone penetrometer to discern changes in the concentration of water-ice in a mixture of lunar regolith simulant and ice to a depth of one meter. The rate of penetration was found to be a function of the ice content and was not significantly affected by the down-force. The test results demonstrate that this method may be ideal for a small platform in a reduced gravity environment. However, there are some cases where the system may not be able to penetrate the icy regolith, and there is some risk of the probe tip becoming stuck so that it cannot be retracted. It is also shown that a percussive cone penetrometer could be used to prospect for water ice in regolith at concentrations as high as 8 by weight.

  1. Vapor generating unit blowdown arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, B.N.

    1978-01-01

    A vapor generating unit having a U-shaped tube bundle is provided with an orificed downcomer shroud and a fluid flow distribution plate between the lower hot and cold leg regions to promote fluid entrained sediment deposition in proximity to an apertured blowdown pipe

  2. In vitro penetration of bleaching agents into the pulp chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Valera, M C; Mancini, M N G

    2004-01-01

    To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures.......To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures....

  3. Hanford soil partitioning and vapor extraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonge, D.; Hossain, A.; Cameron, R.; Ford, H.; Storey, C.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the testing and results of laboratory experiments conducted to assist the carbon tetrachloride soil vapor extraction project operating in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Vapor-phase adsorption and desorption testing was performed using carbon tetrachloride and Hanford Site soils to estimate vapor-soil partitioning and reasonably achievable carbon tetrachloride soil concentrations during active vapor extractions efforts at the 200 West Area. (CCl 4 is used in Pu recovery from aqueous streams.)

  4. Vapor Pressure Data Analysis and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    near 8, 2000, and 200, respectively. The A (or a) value is directly related to vapor pressure and will be greater for high vapor pressure materials...1, (10) where n is the number of data points, Yi is the natural logarithm of the i th experimental vapor pressure value, and Xi is the...VAPOR PRESSURE DATA ANALYSIS AND STATISTICS ECBC-TR-1422 Ann Brozena RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE

  5. A review of penetration mechanisms and dynamic properties of tungsten and depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, S.P.; Caligiuri, R.D.; Eiselstein, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Over the last decade, depleted uranium (DU) and tungsten alloys have been the materials of choice for kinetic energy penetrators. However, despite improvements in mechanical properties in recent years, the penetration performance of tungsten still lags behind that of DU. One possible reason is the difference in deformation mechanisms- DU alloys tend to shear band as they penetrate the target material, whereas tungsten penetrators tend to mushroom. As a first step to determining whether shear banding is truly the reason for superior DU performance, a review and summary of the available information was performed. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of the formulation, high strain- rate properties, and penetration phenomena of penetrators manufactured from both tungsten and DU alloys. Specifically, the effects of composition, processing, and heat treatment on mechanical properties and penetration mechanisms of these alloys are discussed. Penetration data and models for penetration mechanisms (in particular shear banding) are also presented, as well as the applicability of these models and their salient features

  6. Rapid penetration into granular media visualizing the fundamental physics of rapid earth penetration

    CERN Document Server

    Iskander, Magued

    2015-01-01

    Rapid Penetration into Granular Media: Visualizing the Fundamental Physics of Rapid Earth Penetration introduces readers to the variety of methods and techniques used to visualize, observe, and model the rapid penetration of natural and man-made projectiles into earth materials. It provides seasoned practitioners with a standard reference that showcases the topic's most recent developments in research and application. The text compiles the findings of new research developments on the subject, outlines the fundamental physics of rapid penetration into granular media, and assembles a com

  7. How Do Organic Vapors Swell Ultra-Thin PIM-1 Films?

    KAUST Repository

    Ogieglo, Wojciech

    2017-06-22

    Dynamic sorption of ethanol and toluene vapor into ultra-thin supported PIM-1 films down to 6 nm are studied with a combination of in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry and in-situ X-ray reflectivity. Both ethanol and toluene significantly swell the PIM-1 matrix and, at the same time, induce persistent structural relaxations of the frozen-in glassy PIM-1 morphology. For ethanol below 20 nm three effects were identified. First, the swelling magnitude at high vapor pressures is reduced by about 30% as compared to thicker films. Second, at low penetrant activities (below 0.3 p/p0) films below 20 nm are able to absorb slightly more penetrant as compared with thicker films despite similar swelling magnitude. Third, for the ultra-thin films the onset of the dynamic penetrant-induced glass transition Pg has been found to shift to higher values indicating higher resistance to plasticization. All of these effects are consistent with a view where immobilization of the super-glassy PIM-1 at the substrate surface leads to an arrested, even more rigid and plasticization-resistant, yet still very open, microporous structure. PIM-1 in contact with the larger and more condensable toluene shows very complex, heterogeneous swelling dynamics and two distinct penetrant-induced relaxation phenomena, probably associated with the film outer surface and the bulk, are detected. Following the direction of the penetrant\\'s diffusion the surface seems to plasticize earlier than the bulk and the two relaxations remain well separated down to 6 nm film thickness, where they remarkably merge to form just a single relaxation.

  8. Estimating enthalpy of vaporization from vapor pressure using Trouton's rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Matthew; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2007-04-15

    The enthalpy of vaporization of liquids and subcooled liquids at 298 K (delta H(VAP)) is an important parameter in environmental fate assessments that consider spatial and temporal variability in environmental conditions. It has been shown that delta H(VAP)P for non-hydrogen-bonding substances can be estimated from vapor pressure at 298 K (P(L)) using an empirically derived linear relationship. Here, we demonstrate that the relationship between delta H(VAP)and PL is consistent with Trouton's rule and the ClausiusClapeyron equation under the assumption that delta H(VAP) is linearly dependent on temperature between 298 K and the boiling point temperature. Our interpretation based on Trouton's rule substantiates the empirical relationship between delta H(VAP) degree and P(L) degrees for non-hydrogen-bonding chemicals with subcooled liquid vapor pressures ranging over 15 orders of magnitude. We apply the relationship between delta H(VAP) degrees and P(L) degrees to evaluate data reported in literature reviews for several important classes of semivolatile environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorobenzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans and illustrate the temperature dependence of results from a multimedia model presented as a partitioning map. The uncertainty associated with estimating delta H(VAP)degrees from P(L) degrees using this relationship is acceptable for most environmental fate modeling of non-hydrogen-bonding semivolatile organic chemicals.

  9. Deformation analysis of shallow penetration in clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagaseta, C.; Whittle, A. J.; Santagata, M.

    1997-10-01

    A new method of analysis is described for estimating the deformations and strains caused by shallow undrained penetration of piles and caissons in clay. The formulation combines previous analyses for steady, deep penetration, with methods used to compute soil deformations due to near-surface ground loss, and is referred to as the Shallow Strain Path Method (SSPM). Complete analytical solutions for the velocity and strain rates are given for a planar wall, an axisymmetric, closed-ended pile and unplugged, open-ended pile geometries. In these examples, the analyses consider a single source penetrating through the soil at a constant rate, generating a family of penetrometers with rounded tips, referred to as simple wall, pile and tube geometries. Soil deformations and strains are obtained by integrating the velocity and strain rates along the particle paths.The transition from shallow to deep penetration is analysed in detail. Shallow penetration causes heave at the ground surface, while settlements occur only in a thin veneer of material adjacent to the shaft and in a bulb-shaped region around the tip. The size of this region increases with the embedment depth. Deformations inside an open-ended pile/caisson are affected significantly by details of the simple tube wall geometry.

  10. Vapor deposition of tantalum and tantalum compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkula, M.

    1996-01-01

    Tantalum, and many of its compounds, can be deposited as coatings with techniques ranging from pure, thermal chemical vapor deposition to pure physical vapor deposition. This review concentrates on chemical vapor deposition techniques. The paper takes a historical approach. The authors review classical, metal halide-based techniques and current techniques for tantalum chemical vapor deposition. The advantages and limitations of the techniques will be compared. The need for new lower temperature processes and hence new precursor chemicals will be examined and explained. In the last section, they add some speculation as to possible new, low-temperature precursors for tantalum chemical vapor deposition

  11. What Good is Raman Water Vapor Lidar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, David

    2011-01-01

    Raman lidar has been used to quantify water vapor in the atmosphere for various scientific studies including mesoscale meteorology and satellite validation. Now the international networks of NDACC and GRUAN have interest in using Raman water vapor lidar for detecting trends in atmospheric water vapor concentrations. What are the data needs for addressing these very different measurement challenges. We will review briefly the scientific needs for water vapor accuracy for each of these three applications and attempt to translate that into performance specifications for Raman lidar in an effort to address the question in the title of "What good is Raman water vapor Iidar."

  12. High temperature vapors science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hastie, John

    2012-01-01

    High Temperature Vapors: Science and Technology focuses on the relationship of the basic science of high-temperature vapors to some areas of discernible practical importance in modern science and technology. The major high-temperature problem areas selected for discussion include chemical vapor transport and deposition; the vapor phase aspects of corrosion, combustion, and energy systems; and extraterrestrial high-temperature species. This book is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an introduction to the nature of the high-temperature vapor state, the scope and literature of high-temp

  13. Stem cell biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardelli, Silvana

    2010-04-01

    Stem cells contribute to innate healing and harbor a promising role for regenerative medicine. Stem cell banking through long-term storage of different stem cell platforms represents a fundamental source to preserve original features of stem cells for patient-specific clinical applications. Stem cell research and clinical translation constitute fundamental and indivisible modules catalyzed through biobanking activity, generating a return of investment.

  14. Importance Profiles for Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapes, Brian; Chandra, Arunchandra S.; Kuang, Zhiming; Zuidema, Paquita

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by the scientific desire to align observations with quantities of physical interest, we survey how scalar importance functions depend on vertically resolved water vapor. Definitions of importance begin from familiar examples of water mass I m and TOA clear-sky outgoing longwave flux I OLR, in order to establish notation and illustrate graphically how the sensitivity profile or "kernel" depends on whether specific humidity S, relative humidity R, or ln( R) are used as measures of vapor. Then, new results on the sensitivity of convective activity I con to vapor (with implied knock-on effects such as weather prediction skill) are presented. In radiative-convective equilibrium, organized (line-like) convection is much more sensitive to moisture than scattered isotropic convection, but it exists in a drier mean state. The lesson for natural convection may be that organized convection is less susceptible to dryness and can survive and propagate into regions unfavorable for disorganized convection. This counterintuitive interpretive conclusion, with respect to the narrow numerical result behind it, highlights the importance of clarity about what is held constant at what values in sensitivity or susceptibility kernels. Finally, the sensitivities of observable radiance signals I sig for passive remote sensing are considered. While the accuracy of R in the lower free troposphere is crucial for the physical importance scalars, this layer is unfortunately the most difficult to isolate with passive remote sensing: In high emissivity channels, water vapor signals come from too high in the atmosphere (for satellites) or too low (for surface radiometers), while low emissivity channels have poor altitude discrimination and (in the case of satellites) are contaminated by surface emissions. For these reasons, active ranging (LiDAR) is the preferred observing strategy.

  15. Vapor Pressure of Antimony Triiodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-07

    unlimited. iii Contents List of Figures iv 1. Introduction 1 2. Vapor Pressure 1 3. Experiment 3 4. Discussion and Measurements 5 5...SbI3 as a function of temperature ......................... 6 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 1 1. Introduction ...single-crystal thin films of n-type (Bi,Sb)2(Te,Se)3 materials presents new doping challenges because it is a nonequilibrium process. (Bi,Sb)2(Te,Se)3

  16. Sodium vapor charge exchange cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiddleston, H.R.; Fasolo, J.A.; Minette, D.C.; Chrien, R.E.; Frederick, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational sequential charge-exchange ion source yielding a 50 MeV H - current of approximately 8 mA is planned for use with the Argonne 500 MeV booster synchrotron. We report on the progress for development of a sodium vapor charge-exchange cell as part of that planned effort. Design, fabrication, and operating results to date are presented and discussed. (author)

  17. Two methodologies for physical penetration testing using social engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; van Cleeff, A.; Pieters, Wolter; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2010-01-01

    Penetration tests on IT systems are sometimes coupled with physical penetration tests and social engineering. In physical penetration tests where social engineering is allowed, the penetration tester directly interacts with the employees. These interactions are usually based on deception and if not

  18. Opportunities for high wind energy penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, J.O.; Hansen, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Wind power is today a mature technology, which at windy locations, is economically competitive to conventional power generation technologies. This and growing global environmental concerns have led governments to encourage and plan for wind energy development, a typical aim being 10% of electricity...... consumption. The successful operation of the three major power systems of Cape Verde, with a total wind energy penetration of about 15% since December 1994, demonstrates that power systems can be operated with high penetration of wind energy by adding simple control and monitoring systems only. Thorough...... analyses conclude that expanding to even above 15% wind energy penetration in the Cape Verde power systems is economical. Worldwide, numerous locations with favorable wind conditions and power systems similar to the Capeverdean provide good opportunities for installing wind farms and achieving high wind...

  19. WAPTT - Web Application Penetration Testing Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURIC, Z.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Web applications vulnerabilities allow attackers to perform malicious actions that range from gaining unauthorized account access to obtaining sensitive data. The number of reported web application vulnerabilities in last decade is increasing dramatically. The most of vulnerabilities result from improper input validation and sanitization. The most important of these vulnerabilities based on improper input validation and sanitization are: SQL injection (SQLI, Cross-Site Scripting (XSS and Buffer Overflow (BOF. In order to address these vulnerabilities we designed and developed the WAPTT (Web Application Penetration Testing Tool tool - web application penetration testing tool. Unlike other web application penetration testing tools, this tool is modular, and can be easily extended by end-user. In order to improve efficiency of SQLI vulnerability detection, WAPTT uses an efficient algorithm for page similarity detection. The proposed tool showed promising results as compared to six well-known web application scanners in detecting various web application vulnerabilities.

  20. Penetrating power of resonant electromagnetic induction imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Guilizzoni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of revealing the presence and identifying the nature of conductive targets is of central interest in many fields, including security, medicine, industry, archaeology and geophysics. In many applications, these targets are shielded by external materials and thus cannot be directly accessed. Hence, interrogation techniques are required that allow penetration through the shielding materials, in order for the target to be identified. Electromagnetic interrogation techniques represent a powerful solution to this challenge, as they enable penetration through conductive shields. In this work, we demonstrate the power of resonant electromagnetic induction imaging to penetrate through metallic shields (1.5-mm-thick and image targets (having conductivities σ ranging from 0.54 to 59.77 MSm−1 concealed behind them.

  1. Wireless Network Penetration Testing and Security Auditing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shao-Long

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IEEE802.11 wireless wireless networks have security issues that are vulnerable to a variety of attacks. Due to using radio to transport data, attackers can bypass firewalls, sniff sensitive information, intercept packets and send malicious packets. Security auditing and penetration testing is expected to ensure wireless networks security. The contributions of this work are analyzed the vulnerability and types of attacks pertaining to IEEE 802.11 WLAN, performed well known attacks in a laboratory environment to conduct penetration tests to confirm whether our wireless network is hackable or not. WAIDPS is configured as auditing tool to view wireless attacks, such as WEP/WPA/WPA2 cracking, rouge access points, denial of service attack. WAIDPS is designed to detect wireless intrusion with additional features. Penetration testing and auditing will mitigate the risk and threatening to protect WALN.

  2. Penetrating chest injury: A miraculous life salvage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh B Dalavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An unusual penetrating chest injury was caused by high velocity road traffic accident. An 18-year-old had a four wheeler accident and was brought in emergency department with a ′bamboo′ stick on the left side chest exiting through back. After the stabilization of vital parameters, an inter-costal tube drainage was done on the left side. Except the minor brochopleural fistula which healed by 10 th day, his recovery was uneventful. The outcome was consistent with current aggressive management of penetrating chest injuries. Management of penetrating chest injury involving pulmonary trauma is based on three principles. One is stabilization of hemodynamics of patient with proper clinical evaluation. Second, a mere intercostal tube drainage sufficient for majority of the cases. Third, post-operative active as well as passive physiotherapy is necessary for speedy recovery.

  3. Development Of The Nuclear Optical Penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K.; Koike, K.; Imada, Y.

    1984-10-01

    We have developed the nuclear optical penetration to be incorporated in the wall penetration of the shell to introduce a data transmission system using optical fibers into a nuclear power plant with a pressurized water reactor. Radiation-induced coloration in optical glass seriously affects transmission characteristics of optical fibers, whereas it has been revealed that the pure-silica core optical fiber without any dopant in the core has wide applicability in radiation fields thanks to its very low radiation-induced attenuation. The wall penetration of the shell should have airtightness and resistivity to heat, vibration, and pressure, let alone radiation, excellent enough to be invariable in data transmission efficiency even when subjected to severe environmental tests. The sealing modules of this newly developed nuclear optical penetration are hermetically sealed. The gap between the optical fiber rod (100 pm in core diameter and 5 mm in rod diameter) and stainless steel tube is sealed with lamingted glass layer. As the result of He gas leakage test, high airtightness of less than 10 cc/sec was achieved. No thermal deformation of the core was caused by sealing with laminated glass layer, nor was observed transmission loss. Then the sealiing modules were subjected to the irradiation test using 60 Co gamma ray exposure of 2 x 10 rads. Though silica glass layer supporting the fiber rod and sealing glass portion turned blackish purple, transparency of the fiber was not affected. Only less than 0.5 dB of connecting loss was observed at the connecting point with the optical fiber cable. The sealing modules were also found to have resistivity to vibration and pressure as excellent as that of existing nuclear electric penetrations. We expect the nuclear optical fiber penetration will be much effective in improving reliability of data transmission systems using optical fibers in radiation fields.

  4. HMO penetration: has it hurt public hospitals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J P; Grazier, K L

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration within the public hospitals' market area affects the financial performance and viability of these institutions, relative to private hospitals. Hospital- and market-specific measures are examined in a fully interacted model of over 2,300 hospitals in 321 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in 1995. Although hospitals located in markets with higher HMO penetration have lower financial performance as reflected in revenues, expenses and operating margin, public hospitals are not more disadvantaged than other hospitals by managed care.

  5. Operational experience of extreme wind penetrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estanqueiro, Ana [INETI/LNEG - National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisbon (Portugal); Mateus, Carlos B. [Instituto de Meteorologia, Lisboa (Portugal); Pestana, Rui [Redes Energeticas Nacionais (REN), Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports the operational experience from the Portuguese Power System during the 2009/2010 winter months when record wind penerations were observed: the instantaneous wind power penetration peaked at 70% of consumption during no-load periods and the wind energy accounted for more than 50% of the energy consumed for a large period. The regulation measures taken by the TSO are presented in the paper, together with the additional reserves operated for added system security. Information on the overall power system behavior under such extreme long-term wind power penetrations will also be addressed. (org.)

  6. Hybrid treatment of penetrating aortic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, Juan Antonio Herrero; Martins-Romeo, Daniela de Araujo; Escudero, Carlos Caparros; Falcon, Maria del Carmen Prieto; Batista, Vinicius Bianchi; Vazquez, Rosa Maria Lepe

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating atherosclerotic aortic ulcer is a rare entity with poor prognosis in the setting of acute aortic syndrome. In the literature, cases like the present one, located in the aortic arch, starting with chest pain and evolving with dysphonia, are even rarer. The present report emphasizes the role played by computed tomography in the diagnosis of penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer as well as in the differentiation of this condition from other acute aortic syndromes. Additionally, the authors describe a new therapeutic approach represented by a hybrid endovascular surgical procedure for treatment of the disease. (author)

  7. Hybrid treatment of penetrating aortic ulcer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Juan Antonio Herrero; Martins-Romeo, Daniela de Araujo; Escudero, Carlos Caparros; Falcon, Maria del Carmen Prieto; Batista, Vinicius Bianchi, E-mail: jaherrero5@hotmail.com [Unidade de Gestao Clinica (UGC) de Diagnostico por Imagem - Hosppital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Sevilha (Spain); Vazquez, Rosa Maria Lepe [Unit of Radiodiagnosis - Hospital Nuestra Senora de la Merced, Osuna, Sevilha (Spain)

    2015-05-15

    Penetrating atherosclerotic aortic ulcer is a rare entity with poor prognosis in the setting of acute aortic syndrome. In the literature, cases like the present one, located in the aortic arch, starting with chest pain and evolving with dysphonia, are even rarer. The present report emphasizes the role played by computed tomography in the diagnosis of penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer as well as in the differentiation of this condition from other acute aortic syndromes. Additionally, the authors describe a new therapeutic approach represented by a hybrid endovascular surgical procedure for treatment of the disease. (author)

  8. Roentgenologic image of penetrating duodenal bulb ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strunin, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    When studying a series of aimed roentgenograms in patients with peptic ulcer a gas bubble of irregular spherical configuration or two-layer niche were determined near the bulb medial contour. Gas bubble was from 0.5-0.7 to 3.5 cm in diameter. In such cases penetrating ulcers were determined in operations. Along with other signs gas bubble symptom, sometimes two-layer signs may be used for timely and exact roentgenological diagnosis of penetrating duodenal bulb ulcer in peptic ulcer disease

  9. Fractal measures in a deep penetration problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, K.P.N.; Indira, R.; John, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    In the Monte Carlo simulation of a deep penetration problem the parameter, say b in the importance function must be assigned a value b' such that variance is minimum. If b b' the sample mean is still not reliable; but the sample fluctuations would be small and misleading, though the actual fluctuations are quite large. This is because the distribution of transmission has a tail which becomes prominent when b > b'. Considering a model deep penetration problem, and employing exact enumeration techniques, it is shown that in the limit of large biasing the long tailed distribution to the transmission is multifractal. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs

  10. Generic Penetration of the SSRI Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascade, Elisa F; Kalali, Amir H

    2008-04-01

    In this article, we investigate the penetration of generic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the US market and the implications for patient out-of-pocket expense. The data suggest that generic penetration into the SSRI market has grown from approximately nine percent in 2000, the year that the patent for Prozac((R)) expired, to 72 percent in 2007. For December, 2007, the difference in patient out-of-pocket expense for branded vs. generic agents was, on average, $55.42 for patients paying by cash (i.e., they had no prescription drug insurance) and $22.39 for patients with insurance coverage.

  11. Penetrating ocular trauma from trampoline spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokes, David; Siddiqui, Salina; Vize, Colin

    2010-02-01

    The case is presented of a 12-year old boy who sustained severe penetrating ocular trauma while playing on a domestic trampoline. A main spring broke under tension and the hook had struck the eye at high velocity and penetrated the sclera. Primary repair was undertaken but on review it became apparent the eye could not be salvaged. Evisceration was carried out and an orbital implant was placed. Post-operative cosmesis is acceptable. This type of injury has not been reported before. Adult supervision of children on trampolines is recommended to minimise the chance of serious injury.

  12. Application of the results of carbon pellet modeling to the problem of plasma penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahala, L.L.; El Cashlan, A.G.; Gerdin, G.A.; Parks, P.B.

    1990-01-01

    The assumptions of the evaporation model for low-Z pellets interacting with magnetic fusion plasmas developed by P. B. Parks are tested. These assumptions are that the vapor density profile in the region adjacent to the pellet surface, falls off with radial distance as r -α , where 5 zi , is much less than a flow time for the vapor in this same region τ f (i.e. for r zi much-lt τ f , is tested at the sonic radius using the results from atomic physics and the low-Z evaporation model. It is found that indeed τ zi much-lt τ f for plasmas with parameters close to thermonuclear conditions (e.g. TFTR and CIT), but not for those of smaller Tokamaks such as TEXT. The results of pellet penetration calculations for the conditions of the TEXT carbon-pellet injection experiments are presented which show better agreement with experiment if the shielding fraction is calculated at each step of the pellet-penetration calculation, the effect of ionization is ignored, and if the effect of possible uncertainties in the background plasma parameters is included. 14 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Tree root mapping with ground penetrating radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of ground penetrating radar (GPR) for the mapping of near surface tree roots is demonstrated. GPR enables tree roots to be mapped in a non-destructive and cost-effective manner and is therefore a useful prospecting...

  14. Penetration and haptenation of p-phenylenediamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, Laura M.; Scheitza, Simone M.; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Bloemeke, Brunhilde; Blomeke, B.

    Although p-phenylenediamine (PPD) has been recognized as an extreme sensitizer for many years, the exact mechanism of sensitization has not been elucidated yet. Penetration and the ability to bind to proteins are the first two hurdles that an allergen has to overcome to be able to sensitize. This

  15. Mechanical behaviour of pressure vessel head penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faidy, C.; Ternon, F.; Vagner, J.; Vaindirlis, M.

    1994-01-01

    After leaks on Bugey 3 penetrations EdF and Framatome have started a study on the stress corrosion phenomenon of Inconel 600. In this paper, limited to the mechanical aspect, we present an estimation of in service stresses, the experimental program on mockup for visualize the surface stress and the noxiousness of potential cracks. 5 figs., 6 tabs., 5 refs

  16. Standard Penetration Test and Relative Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-02-01

    Se OPSeS Debido a que el agua subterranea granclemente influve la resistencia a suelo, se establecio una relacion empirica entre el nurmero de golpes...de laboratorio ejecutados con un penetr6metro est’tico pequeno. INTRODUCTION One of the main problems encountered in subsoil e’xploration is in situ

  17. Penetration of electronic beams in ionizing media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martiarena, M.L.; Zanete, D.H.; Garibotti, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    It is studied the penetration of an electron beam in an ionizable medium by means of a generalized kinetic equation. This equation is related to elastic collisions, processes of creation and destruction of particles. By integrating numerically the transport equation, it can be evaluated the relative effects of all the processes involved in the evolution of the system. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  18. Penetration of amalgam constituents into dentine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtanus, Johannes D.; Ozcan, Mutlu; Huysmans, Marie-Charlotte D. N. J. M.

    Objectives: Amalgam restorations are replaced by adhesively placed composite resin restorations at an increasing rate. After the removal of amalgam dentine often shows marked dark discoloration that is attributed to the penetration of corrosion products from overlying amalgams. it is questioned

  19. Penetration of amalgam constituents into dentine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtanus, J.D.; Ozcan, M.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Amalgam restorations are replaced by adhesively placed composite resin restorations at an increasing rate. After the removal of amalgam dentine often shows marked dark discoloration that is attributed to the penetration of corrosion products from overlying amalgams. It is questioned

  20. Computed tomographic findings in penetrating peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrazo, B.L.; Halpert, R.D.; Sandler, M.A.; Pearlberg, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Four cases of peptic ulcer penetrating the head of the pancreas were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT). Findings common to 3 cases included (a) an ulcer crater, (b) a sinus tract, and (c) enlargement of the head of the pancreas. Unlike other modalities, the inherent spatial resolution of CT allows a convenient diagnosis of this important complication of peptic ulcer disease

  1. Reduced penetrance in human inherited disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... tant role in cellular senescence, tumorigenesis and in several diseases including type ... between epigenetic DNA modifications and human life span has also been shown .... penetrance mutation that is age dependent especially when compared with the ..... on healthy aging and longevity. Immunity Aging ...

  2. An Experimental Model for Market Penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caren, William L.

    1987-01-01

    A plan for college market penetration that has been successful in increasing the applicant pool for one institution is outlined and discussed. It includes development of performance objectives, a schedule, a promotional plan, market survey, and promotional activities including alumni, media, and other community resources. (MSE)

  3. Percutaneous penetration studies for risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartorelli, Vittorio; Andersen, Helle Raun; Angerer, Jürgen

    2000-01-01

    experiences, literature data and guidelines already in existence. During the meetings of Percutaneous Penetration Subgroup they presented a number of short papers of up to date information on the key issues. The objective was to focus the existing knowledge and the gaps in the knowledge in the field...

  4. Penetration of albendazole sulphoxide into hydatid cysts.

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, D L; Chinnery, J B; Georgiou, G; Stamatakis, G; Golematis, B

    1987-01-01

    The penetration of albendazole sulphoxide, the principal metabolite of albendazole into hydatid cysts (E granulosus) was measured by means of in vitro animal and clinical studies. The drug freely diffuses across the parasitic membranes. Cyst/serum concentrations of 22% were achieved in patients, longer pre-operative therapy produced higher concentrations.

  5. How Do Organic Vapors Swell Ultrathin Films of Polymer of Intrinsic Microporosity PIM-1?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogieglo, Wojciech; Rahimi, Khosorov; Rauer, Sebastian Bernhard; Ghanem, Bader; Ma, Xiaohua; Pinnau, Ingo; Wessling, Matthias

    2017-07-27

    Dynamic sorption of ethanol and toluene vapor into ultrathin supported films of polymer of intrinsic microporosity PIM-1 down to a thickness of 6 nm are studied with a combination of in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry and in situ X-ray reflectivity. Both ethanol and toluene significantly swell the PIM-1 matrix and, at the same time, induce persistent structural relaxations of the frozen-in glassy PIM-1 morphology. For ethanol below 20 nm, three effects were identified. First, the swelling magnitude at high vapor pressures is reduced by about 30% as compared to that of thicker films. Second, at low penetrant activities (below 0.3p/p 0 ), films below 20 nm are able to absorb slightly more penetrant as compared with thicker films despite a similar swelling magnitude. Third, for the ultrathin films, the onset of the dynamic penetrant-induced glass transition P g has been found to shift to higher values, indicating higher resistance to plasticization. All of these effects are consistent with a view where immobilization of the superglassy PIM-1 at the substrate surface leads to an arrested, even more rigid, and plasticization-resistant, yet still very open, microporous structure. PIM-1 in contact with the larger and more condensable toluene shows very complex, heterogeneous swelling dynamics, and two distinct penetrant-induced relaxation phenomena, probably associated with the film outer surface and the bulk, are detected. Following the direction of the penetrant's diffusion, the surface seems to plasticize earlier than the bulk, and the two relaxations remain well separated down to 6 nm film thickness, where they remarkably merge to form just a single relaxation.

  6. The Basics of Hacking and Penetration Testing Ethical Hacking and Penetration Testing Made Easy

    CERN Document Server

    Engebretson, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The Basics of Hacking and Penetration Testing serves as an introduction to the steps required to complete a penetration test or perform an ethical hack. You learn how to properly utilize and interpret the results of modern day hacking tools; which are required to complete a penetration test. Tool coverage will include, Backtrack Linux, Google, Whois, Nmap, Nessus, Metasploit, Netcat, Netbus, and more. A simple and clean explanation of how to utilize these tools will allow you  to gain a solid understanding of each of the four phases and prepare them to take on more in-depth texts and topi

  7. Microwave assisted chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devlin, D.J.; Currier, R.P.; Barbero, R.S.; Espinoza, B.F.; Elliott, N.

    1991-01-01

    A microwave assisted process for production of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. A simple apparatus combining a chemical vapor infiltration reactor with a conventional 700 W multimode oven is described. Microwave induced inverted thermal gradients are exploited with the ultimate goal of reducing processing times on complex shapes. Thermal gradients in stacks of SiC (Nicalon) cloths have been measured using optical thermometry. Initial results on the ''inside out'' deposition of SiC via decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane in hydrogen are presented. Several key processing issues are identified and discussed. 5 refs

  8. Overview of chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Lowden, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is developing into a commercially important method for the fabrication of continuous filament ceramic composites. Current efforts are focused on the development of an improved understanding of the various processes in CVI and its modeling. New approaches to CVI are being explored, including pressure pulse infiltration and microwave heating. Material development is also proceeding with emphasis on improving the oxidation resistance of the interfacial layer between the fiber and matrix. This paper briefly reviews these subjects, indicating the current state of the science and technology.

  9. Development of a Deep-Penetrating, Compact Geothermal Heat Flow System for Robotic Lunar Geophysical Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagihara, Seiichi; Zacny, Kris; Hedlund, Magnus; Taylor, Patrick T.

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal heat flow measurements are a high priority for the future lunar geophysical network missions recommended by the latest Decadal Survey of the National Academy. Geothermal heat flow is obtained as a product of two separate measurements of geothermal gradient and thermal conductivity of the regolith/soil interval penetrated by the instrument. The Apollo 15 and 17 astronauts deployed their heat flow probes down to 1.4-m and 2.3-m depths, respectively, using a rotary-percussive drill. However, recent studies show that the heat flow instrument for a lunar mission should be capable of excavating a 3-m deep hole to avoid the effect of potential long-term changes of the surface thermal environment. For a future robotic geophysical mission, a system that utilizes a rotary/percussive drill would far exceed the limited payload and power capacities of the lander/rover. Therefore, we are currently developing a more compact heat flow system that is capable of 3-m penetration. Because the grains of lunar regolith are cohesive and densely packed, the previously proposed lightweight, internal hammering systems (the so-called moles ) are not likely to achieve the desired deep penetration. The excavation system for our new heat flow instrumentation utilizes a stem which winds out of a pneumatically driven reel and pushes its conical tip into the regolith. Simultaneously, gas jets, emitted from the cone tip, loosen and blow away the soil. Lab tests have demonstrated that this proboscis system has much greater excavation capability than a mole-based heat flow system, while it weighs about the same. Thermal sensors are attached along the stem and at the tip of the penetrating cone. Thermal conductivity is measured at the cone tip with a short (1- to 1.5-cm long) needle sensor containing a resistance temperature detector (RTD) and a heater wire. When it is inserted into the soil, the heater is activated. Thermal conductivity of the soil is obtained from the rate of temperature

  10. A Lithium Vapor Box Divertor Similarity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert A.; Emdee, Eric D.; Goldston, Robert J.; Jaworski, Michael A.; Schwartz, Jacob A.

    2017-10-01

    A lithium vapor box divertor offers an alternate means of managing the extreme power density of divertor plasmas by leveraging gaseous lithium to volumetrically extract power. The vapor box divertor is a baffled slot with liquid lithium coated walls held at temperatures which increase toward the divertor floor. The resulting vapor pressure differential drives gaseous lithium from hotter chambers into cooler ones, where the lithium condenses and returns. A similarity experiment was devised to investigate the advantages offered by a vapor box divertor design. We discuss the design, construction, and early findings of the vapor box divertor experiment including vapor can construction, power transfer calculations, joint integrity tests, and thermocouple data logging. Heat redistribution of an incident plasma-based heat flux from a typical linear plasma device is also presented. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and The Princeton Environmental Institute.

  11. Thermogravimetric measurements of liquid vapor pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Yunhong; Gregson, Christopher M.; Parker, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Rapid determination of vapor pressure by TGA. ► Demonstration of limitations of currently available approaches in literature. ► New model for vapor pressure assessment of small size samples in TGA. ► New model accounts for vapor diffusion and sample geometry and measures vapor pressure normally within 10%. - Abstract: A method was developed using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine the vapor pressure of volatile liquids. This is achieved by measuring the rate of evaporation (mass loss) of a pure liquid contained within a cylindrical pan. The influence of factors like sample geometry and vapor diffusion on evaporation rate are discussed. The measurement can be performed across a wide range of temperature yielding reasonable results up to 10 kPa. This approach may be useful as a rapid and automatable method for measuring the volatility of flavor and fragrance raw materials.

  12. Ion vapor deposition and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, H.; Schulze, D.; Wilberg, R.

    1981-01-01

    Proceeding from the fundamentals of ion vapor deposition the characteristic properties of ion-plated coatings are briefly discussed. Examples are presented of successful applications of ion-plated coatings such as coatings with special electrical and dielectric properties, coatings for corrosion prevention, and coatings for improving the surface properties. It is concluded that ion vapor deposition is an advantageous procedure in addition to vapor deposition. (author)

  13. Radon penetration of concrete slab cracks, joints, pipe penetrations, and sealants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielson, KK; Rogers, VC; Holt, RB; Pugh, TD; Grondzik, WA; deMeijer, RJ

    1997-01-01

    Radon movement through 12 test slabs with different cracks, pipe penetrations, cold joints, masonry blocks, sealants, and tensile stresses characterized the importance of these anomalous structural domains, Diffusive and advective radon transport were measured with steady-state air pressure

  14. Monofilament Vaporization Propulsion (MVP) System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Monofilament Vaporization Propulsion (MVP) is a new propulsion technology targeted at secondary payload applications. It does not compromise on performance while...

  15. Experiences of marijuana-vaporizer users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M; Rooke, Sally E; Copeland, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Using a marijuana vaporizer may have potential harm-reduction advantages on smoking marijuana, in that the user does not inhale smoke. Little research has been published on use of vaporizers. In the first study of individuals using a vaporizer on their own initiative, 96 adults anonymously answered questions about their experiences with a vaporizer and their use of marijuana with tobacco. Users identified 4 advantages to using a vaporizer over smoking marijuana: perceived health benefits, better taste, no smoke smell, and more effect from the same amount of marijuana. Users identified 2 disadvantages: inconvenience of setup and cleaning and the time it takes to get the device operating for each use. Only 2 individuals combined tobacco in the vaporizer mix, whereas 15 combined tobacco with marijuana when they smoked marijuana. Almost all participants intended to continue using a vaporizer. Vaporizers seem to have appeal to marijuana users, who perceive them as having harm-reduction and other benefits. Vaporizers are worthy of experimental research evaluating health-related effects of using them.

  16. Evaluation of Apical Vapor Lock Formation and comparative Evaluation of its Elimination using Three different Techniques: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anand; Deore, Rahul B; Rudagi, Kavitarani; Nanda, Zinnie; Baig, Mirza Osman; Fareez, Md Adil

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was (i) to evaluate the formation of air bubbles in the apical region of root canal (apical vapor lock) during syringe irrigation, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and (ii) comparative evaluation of the elimination of an established vapor lock by EndoActivator, ultrasonics, and manual dynamic agitation (MDA), using CBCT. A total of 60 extracted human single-rooted teeth were equally divided into three groups of 20 teeth each. The samples were decoronated 17 mm from the apex, cleaned, and shaped to size F4 Protaper using 3% sodium hypochlorite. Samples were irrigated with 3% sodium hypochlorite + cesium chloride radiopaque dye, and preoperative CBCT images were obtained. After formation of apical vapor lock in the scanned teeth, EndoActivator (group I), passive ultrasonic irrigation (group II), and MDA with K-file (group III) were performed and the teeth were again placed in CBCT scanner and results analyzed using the chi-square test. The apical vapor lock was formed in all the samples. Out of the 20 teeth in each group, the apical vapor lock was eliminated in 18 samples of EndoActivator group (90%), 16 samples of ultrasonic group (80%), while it was eliminated in 10 samples by MDA (50%). It is concluded that (1) apical vapor lock is consistently formed during endodontic irrigation in closed canal systems and (2) sonic activation performs better than the ultrasonics and MDA in eliminating the apical vapor lock, with statistically significant difference between all the three groups (p < 0.05). The results suggest that the apical vapor lock (dead water zone) is consistently formed during routine endodontic irrigation which impedes irrigant penetration till the working length, thereby leading to inefficient debridement. Hence, to eliminate this vapor lock, techniques, such as sonics or ultrasonics should be used along with the irrigant after shaping and cleaning of the root canal.

  17. Vapor pressures and thermophysical properties of selected hexenols and recommended vapor pressure for hexan-1-ol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štejfa, V.; Fulem, Michal; Růžička, K.; Matějka, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 402, Sep (2015), 18-29 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : alcohols * vapor pressure * heat capacity * ideal - gas thermodynamic properties * vaporization enthalpy Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.846, year: 2015

  18. The penetrating depth analysis of Lunar Penetrating Radar onboard Chang’e-3 rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shu-Guo; Su, Yan; Feng, Jian-Qing; Dai, Shun; Xiao, Yuan; Ding, Chun-Yu; Li, Chun-Lai

    2017-04-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) has successfully been used to acquire a large amount of scientific data during its in-situ detection. The analysis of penetrating depth can help to determine whether the target is within the effective detection range and contribute to distinguishing useful echoes from noise. First, this study introduces two traditional methods, both based on a radar transmission equation, to calculate the penetrating depth. The only difference between the two methods is that the first method adopts system calibration parameters given in the calibration report and the second one uses high-voltage-off radar data. However, some prior knowledge and assumptions are needed in the radar equation and the accuracy of assumptions will directly influence the final results. Therefore, a new method termed the Correlation Coefficient Method (CCM) is provided in this study, which is only based on radar data without any a priori assumptions. The CCM can obtain the penetrating depth according to the different correlation between reflected echoes and noise. To be exact, there is a strong correlation in the useful reflected echoes and a random correlation in the noise between adjacent data traces. In addition, this method can acquire a variable penetrating depth along the profile of the rover, but only one single depth value can be obtained from traditional methods. Through a simulation, the CCM has been verified as an effective method to obtain penetration depth. The comparisons and analysis of the calculation results of these three methods are also implemented in this study. Finally, results show that the ultimate penetrating depth of Channel 1 and the estimated penetrating depth of Channel 2 range from 136.9 m to 165.5 m ({\\varepsilon }r=6.6) and from 13.0 m to 17.5 m ({\\varepsilon }r=2.3), respectively.

  19. Potency of Stem Cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Potency of Stem Cells. Totipotent Stem Cells (Zygote + first 2 divisions). -Can form placenta, embryo, and any cell of the body. Pluripotent (Embryonic Stem Cells). -Can form any cell of the body but can not form placenta, hence no embryo. Multipotent (Adult stem cells).

  20. Prophylactic antibiotics for penetrating abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Martin; Grieve, Andrew

    2013-11-18

    Penetrating abdominal trauma occurs when the peritoneal cavity is breached. Routine laparotomy for penetrating abdominal injuries began in the 1800s, with antibiotics first being used in World War II to combat septic complications associated with these injuries. This practice was marked with a reduction in sepsis-related mortality and morbidity. Whether prophylactic antibiotics are required in the prevention of infective complications following penetrating abdominal trauma is controversial, however, as no randomised placebo controlled trials have been published to date. There has also been debate about the timing of antibiotic prophylaxis. In 1972 Fullen noted a 7% to 11% post-surgical infection rate with pre-operative antibiotics, a 33% to 57% infection rate with intra-operative antibiotic administration and 30% to 70% infection rate with only post-operative antibiotic administration. Current guidelines state there is sufficient class I evidence to support the use of a single pre-operative broad spectrum antibiotic dose, with aerobic and anaerobic cover, and continuation (up to 24 hours) only in the event of a hollow viscus perforation found at exploratory laparotomy. To assess the benefits and harms of prophylactic antibiotics administered for penetrating abdominal injuries for the reduction of the incidence of septic complications, such as septicaemia, intra-abdominal abscesses and wound infections. Searches were not restricted by date, language or publication status. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2013, issue 12 of 12), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (CPCI-S) and PubMed. Searches were last conducted in January 2013. All randomised controlled trials of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma versus no

  1. The contemporary management of penetrating splenic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Regan J; Inaba, Kenji; Okoye, Obi; Pasley, Jason; Teixeira, Pedro G; Esparza, Michael; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2014-09-01

    Selective non-operative management (NOM) is standard of care for clinically stable patients with blunt splenic trauma and expectant management approaches are increasingly utilised in penetrating abdominal trauma, including in the setting of solid organ injury. Despite this evolution of clinical practice, little is known about the safety and efficacy of NOM in penetrating splenic injury. Trauma registry and medical record review identified all consecutive patients presenting to LAC+USC Medical Center with penetrating splenic injury between January 2001 and December 2011. Associated injuries, incidence and nature of operative intervention, local and systemic complications and mortality were determined. During the study period, 225 patients experienced penetrating splenic trauma. The majority (187/225, 83%) underwent emergent laparotomy. Thirty-eight clinically stable patients underwent a deliberate trial of NOM and 24/38 (63%) were ultimately managed without laparotomy. Amongst patients failing NOM, 3/14 (21%) underwent splenectomy while an additional 6/14 (42%) had splenorrhaphy. Hollow viscus injury (HVI) occurred in 21% of all patients failing NOM. Forty percent of all NOM patients had diaphragmatic injury (DI). All patients undergoing delayed laparotomy for HVI or a splenic procedure presented symptomatically within 24h of the initial injury. No deaths occurred in patients undergoing NOM. Although the vast majority of penetrating splenic trauma requires urgent operative management, a group of patients does present without haemodynamic instability, peritonitis or radiologic evidence of hollow viscus injury. Management of these patients is complicated as over half may remain clinically stable and can avoid laparotomy, making them potential candidates for a trial of NOM. HVI is responsible for NOM failure in up to a fifth of these cases and typically presents within 24h of injury. Delayed laparotomy, within this limited time period, did not appear to increase

  2. Enthalpy of vaporization and vapor pressure of whiskey lactone and menthalactone by correlation gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Daniel; Chickos, James

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpies of cis and trans-whiskey lactone have been evaluated. • Enthalpies of vaporization and vapor pressures of (+)-isomintlactone and (−)-mintlactone were also evaluated. • The sublimation enthalpy and corresponding vapor pressure of (+) -isomintlactone at T = 298.15 K is estimated. - Abstract: Enthalpies of vaporization at T = 298.15 K of cis and trans-whiskey lactone have been evaluated by correlation gas chromatography to be (68.4 ± 1.7) kJ·mol −1 and (67.5 ± 1.7) kJ·mol −1 , respectively. The enthalpies of vaporization of isomintlactone and mintlactone also evaluated by correlation gas chromatography have been found to have vaporization enthalpies of (74.2 ± 1.8) kJ·mol −1 and (73.2 ± 1.8) kJ·mol −1 respectively. The vapor pressures for cis and trans-whiskey lactone at T = 298.15 K have been evaluated as (1.5 ± 0.09) Pa and (2.0 ± 0.1) Pa using vapor pressures of a series of lactones as standards. Vapor pressures for isomintlactone and mintlactone were evaluated as (0.26 ± 0.012) Pa and (0.33 ± 0.02) Pa, respectively. Fusion and sublimation enthalpies for (+)-isomintlactone as well as the vapor pressure of the solid have been estimated.

  3. Containment penetration design criteria and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.F.; Rigamonti, G.; Dainora, J.

    1975-01-01

    A rational design criteria is presented which serves as a basis for the design and analysis of containment piping penetrations. The criteria includes the effect of temperature as well as mechanical loads for the full range of plant conditions. With this criteria various penetration flued head designs have been compared and optimization achieved. Sleeve wall dimensions and containment loads have been determined without reference to piping configuration. An interaction theory which allows the implementation of the criteria for the determination of design loads and minimum sleeve wall thickness. The interaction theory developed applies to elastic-perfectly plastic cylinders (pipes and sleeves) and accounts for the simultaneous load resultants of transverse shear force, bending moment, torsional moment, and axial force in addition to internal pipe pressure. Application of the theory developed to the determination of sleeve thickness and containment design loads is presented in detail. (Auth.)

  4. Ureteric transection secondary to penetrating handlebar injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Debbink

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ureteric trauma is rare, occurring in <1% of all traumas. We present a unique case of a 13 year old female who sustained a penetrating abdominal injury from a bicycle handlebar. Upon initial examination there was herniation of bowel through the abdominal wound, so exploratory laparotomy was performed. A serosal injury of the colon and bleeding mesenteric veins were encountered; the retroperitoneum was not explored at that time. Postoperative course was remarkable for a doubling of the serum creatinine, increasing abdominal distention and pain. Computed tomography on postoperative day five demonstrated a large amount of intra-abdominal fluid. The patient was taken for re-exploration. The left ureter was found to be completely transected. It was repaired over a double-J stent. This case demonstrates the need for a high index of suspicion in the diagnosis of ureteric injury. Keywords: Ureter, Bicycle, Handlebar, Penetrating

  5. Corrosion and protection of uranium alloy penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weirick, L.J.; Johnson, H.R.; Dini, J.W.

    1975-06-01

    Penetrators made from either a U--3/4 percent Ti alloy or a U--3/4 percent Mo--3/4 percent Zr--3/4 percent Nb--1/2 percent Ti alloy (''Quad'') corrode mildly in moist air, significantly in moist nitrogen, and severely in salt fog. Adequate protection was provided in moist air and nitrogen by coating with electroplated nickel, electroplated nickel and zinc with a chromate finish, and galvanized zinc with a chromate finish. In salt fog, electroplated nickel offered only temporary protection whereas galvanized zinc and electroplated nickel-zinc provided long-lasting protection. The resistance of uncoated penetrators was affected variously by dissimilar metal couplings. Aluminum protected the Quad alloy and adversely affected the U--3/4 percent Ti alloy, whereas steel enhanced localized corrosion in both. (U.S.)

  6. Eddy current testing with high penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, R.; Kroening, M.

    1999-01-01

    The low-frequency eddy current testing method is used when penetration into very deep layers is required. The achievable penetration depth is determined among other parameters by the lowest testing frequency that can be realised together with the eddy current sensor. When using inductive sensors, the measuring effect declines proportional to the lowering frequency (induction effect). Further reduction of testing frequency requires other types of sensors, as e.g. the GMR (Giant Magnetic Resistance), which achieves a constant measuring sensitivity down to the steady field. The multi-frequency eddy current testing method MFEC 3 of IZFP described here can be operated using three different scanning frequencies at a time. Two variants of eddy current probes are used in this case. Both have an inductive winding at their emitters, of the type of a measuring probe. The receiver end is either also an inductive winding, or a magnetic field-responsive resistance (GMR). (orig./CB) [de

  7. Large scale wind power penetration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnøe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    he Danish electricity generating system prepared to adopt nuclear power in the 1970s, yet has become the world's front runner in wind power with a national plan for 50% wind power penetration by 2020. This paper deploys a sociotechnical perspective to explain the historical transformation...... of "networks of power" via the interactions of politics, the techno-physics of electrons, and the market setting. The Danish case is about how an assemblage of new agencies has reorganized and reshaped society by building a new sociotechnical network. This has rendered developments highly unpredictable...... and highly experimental. The transformation process can be followed through the way successive technical engineering reports have represented the challenges associated with the penetration of wind power. The iteration shows how novel technical phenomena emerge and are assimilated, and how new engineering...

  8. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Manzar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma, al-though there are various reports of blast or gunshot inju-ries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails. In our case, a 30-year-old man presented to neurosur-gery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weak-ness after suicide bomb attack. The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail. Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed with caution to avoid injury to surround-ing normal brain tissue. At 6 months’ follow-up his right-sided power improved to against gravity. Key words: Head injury, penetrating; Bombs; Nails

  9. Optical Sensor for Diverse Organic Vapors at ppm Concentration Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora M. Paolucci

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A broadly responsive optical organic vapor sensor is described that responds to low concentrations of organic vapors without significant interference from water vapor. Responses to several classes of organic vapors are highlighted, and trends within classes are presented. The relationship between molecular properties (vapor pressure, boiling point, polarizability, and refractive index and sensor response are discussed.

  10. Standardization of penetrating radiation testing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, P.A.; Aronson, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Standardization is provided to control system gain of a penetrating radiation testing system by periodically inspecting a reference object in the same manner as the product samples so as to generate a stabilization signal which is compared to a reference signal. The difference, if any, between the stabilization signal and the reference signal is integrated and the integrated signal is used to correct the gain of the system

  11. Market penetration of new energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packey, D.J.

    1993-02-01

    This report examines the characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and, for some, the mathematical formulas of forecasting methods that can be used to forecast the market penetration of renewable energy technologies. Among the methods studied are subjective estimation, market surveys, historical analogy models, cost models, diffusion models, time-series models, and econometric models. Some of these forecasting methods are more effective than others at different developmental stages of new technologies.

  12. Intrauterine Devices Penetrated and Migrated: CT Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia Restrepo, Jorge; Lopez, Juan Esteban; Aldana Sepulveda, Natalia; Ruiz Zabaleta, Tania; Mazzaro Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine devices have been used for over 40 years, and they constitute the most widely accepted method of contraception among women because of the low rates of complications and low cost. Although uncommon, with the growing use of multidetector CT penetrated and migrated intrauterine devices have become a more common incidental finding. In some cases, intrauterine devices migrate to adjacent viscera, in particular the bladder and bowel and may give rise to symptoms. Consequently tomographic localization and characterization are essential for treatment planning.

  13. Models of fast-electron penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, D.J.; Raisis, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    We introduce multiple scattering models of charged-particle penetration which are based on the previous analyses of Yang and Perry. Our development removes the main limitations of the Fermi-Eyges approach while retaining its considerable potential as a theory which is useful for applied work. We illustrate key predictions with sample calculations that are of particular interest in therapeutic applications, 5-20 MeV electrons incident on water. 8 refs., 5 figs

  14. Thyroid Emphysema Following Penetrating Neck Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Karadağ, Demet; Doner, Egemen; Adapınar, Baki

    2014-01-01

    Although traumatic thyroid gland rupture or hemorrhage is usually seen in goitrous glands, injuries of the normal thyroid gland after neck trauma have rarely been described in the literature. We describe a 44-year-old man who presented with thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema (SCE) that occurred after penetrating neck trauma. CT images showed complete resolution of thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema at follow-up examination. Neck injuries can be life threatening. After pene...

  15. Penetrating spinal injuries and their management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Penetrating spinal trauma due to missile/gunshot injuries has been well reported in the literature and has remained the domain of military warfare more often. Civic society′s recent upsurge in gunshot injuries has created a dilemma for the treating neurosurgeon in many ways as their management has always involved certain debatable and controversial issues. Both conservative and surgical management of penetrating spinal injuries (PSI have been practiced widely. The chief neurosurgical concern in these types of firearm injuries is the degree of damage sustained during the bullet traversing through the neural tissue and the after-effects of the same in long term. We had an interesting case of a penetrating bullet injury to cervical spine at C2 vertebral level. He was operated and the bullets were removed from posterior midline approach. Usually, the management of such cases differs from region to region depending on the preference of the surgeon but still certain common principles are followed world over. Thus, we realized the need to review the literature regarding spinal injuries with special emphasis on PSI and to study the recent guidelines for their treatment in light of our case.

  16. Spanish RPV head penetrations. Regulatory status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueras, J.M.; Colino, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents the actual status of inspection results on the Spanish PWR RPV CRD head penetrations (CRDH's), after two years of a whole program of inspections in all affected plants. Actual situation of penetrations pertaining to ALMARAZ 1 and 2, ASCO 1 and 2 and VANDELLOS 2 NPP's show any damage in those CRDH's inspected in 1993 and 1994 (roughly 20 out of 65 CRDH's at each unit). The paper presents a summary of CRDH characteristics, inspection methods and results obtained in each plant. TRILLO NPP has a different CRDH design (KWU-SIEMENS type) and for that reason is not considered an affected plant nor has conducted any inspection up to now. JOSE CABRERA (ZORITA) NPP has shown extensive damage, both in the lower side (weldment to the vessel) and in the upper free span area, near bimetallic weldment to SS 304, in active and nonactive penetrations and also in the vent nozzle. The paper comments extensively on the CRDH materials general data, root-cause analysis and structural analysis of degraded zones, inspection results, repair actions and other additional actions applied up to now. Finally, the paper deals with the regulatory actions taken by CSN on this topic, both for those NPP's actually non affected by the IGSCC phenomenon in the RPV CRDH's and for the specific safety case of ZORITA NPP. (author)

  17. Cutaneous mucormycosis secondary to penetrative trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Bilal; Kent, Stephen; Wall, Daryl

    2016-07-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare but serious sequelae of penetrating trauma [1-5]. In spite of aggressive management, mortality remains high due to dissemination of infection. We completed a review of literature to determine the most optimal treatment of cutaneous mucormycosis which occurs secondary to penetrating trauma. We completed a review regarding the management of mucormycosis in trauma patients. We selected a total of 36 reports, of which 18 were case-based, for review. Surgical debridement is a primary predictor of improved outcomes in the treatment of mucormycosis [3,6,7]. Anti-fungal therapy, especially lipid soluble formulation of Amphotericin B, is helpful as an adjunct or when surgical debridement has been maximally achieved. Further research is needed to fully evaluate the impact of topical dressings; negative pressure wound therapy is helpful. An aggressive and early surgical approach, even at the expense of disfigurement, is necessary to reduce mortality in the setting of cutaneous mucormycosis that results from penetrating trauma [4,8,9]. Anti-fungal therapy and negative pressure wound therapy are formidable adjuncts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Deep penetration of light into biotissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Edward D.; Wilson, James D.; Zharov, Vladimir P.; Lowery, Curtis L.

    2001-07-01

    The results of a study of deep (several centimeters) light penetration into biological tissue are presented in order to estimate its significance to potentially photosensitive structures and processes including the fetal eyes. In order to accomplish this goal, samples of various tissues (fat, muscle, and uterus) from surgical patients and autopsies were examined with a double integrating sphere arrangement to determine their optical properties. The results were implemented in a Monte Carlo modeling program. Next, optical fiber probes were inserted into the uterus and abdominal wall of patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures. The fibers were couples to a photomultiplier tube with intervening filters allowing measurements of light penetration at various wavelengths. To determine the feasibility of stimulation in utero, a xenon lamp and waveguide were used to transilluminate the abdomen of several labor patients. Light in the range of 630 to 670 nm where the eye sensitivity and penetration depth are well matched, will likely provide the best chance of visual stimulation. Fetal heart rate, fetal movement, and fetal magnetoencephalography (SQUID) and electroencephalography (EEG) were observed in different studies to determine if stimulation has occurred. Since internal organs and the fetus are completely dark adapted, the amount of light required to simulate in our opinion could be on the order of 10(superscript -8 Watts.

  19. Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material

    KAUST Repository

    Kouraytem, Nadia; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Marston, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between delta = 0.5D(0) and delta = 7D(0), which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H = h + delta, as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [d(s) similar to O(30) mu m] were added to the larger particles [d(l) similar to O(200 - 500) mu m], with a size ratio, epsilon = d(l)/d(s), larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.

  20. Penetrating chest wound of the foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Wandaogo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumas of the foetus caused by stabbings are rare but actually life-threatening for both the foetus and the mother. We report a case of penetrating chest wound on a baby taken from the obstetrics unit to the paediatric surgical department. His mother was assaulted by his father, a mentally sick person with no appropriate follow-up. The foetus did not show any sign of vital distress. Surgical exploration of the wound has revealed a section of the 10 th rib, a laceration of the pleura and a tearing of the diaphragm. A phrenorraphy and a pleural drainage were performed. The new-born and its mother were released from hospital after 5 days and the clinical control and X-ray checks 6 months later showed nothing abnormal. We insisted a medical, psychiatric follow-up be initiated for the father. As regards pregnant women with penetrating wounds, the mortality rate of the foetus is 80%. The odds are good for our newborn due to the mild injuries and good professional collaboration of the medical staff. Penetrating transuterine wounds of the foetus can be very serious. The health care needed should include many fields due to the mother and the foetus′ lesions extreme polymorphism. In our case, it could have prevented by a good psychiatric followed up of the offender.

  1. Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material

    KAUST Repository

    Kouraytem, N.

    2016-11-07

    We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between delta = 0.5D(0) and delta = 7D(0), which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H = h + delta, as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [d(s) similar to O(30) mu m] were added to the larger particles [d(l) similar to O(200 - 500) mu m], with a size ratio, epsilon = d(l)/d(s), larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.

  2. CNS penetration of ART in HIV-infected children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hof, Malon; Blokhuis, Charlotte; Cohen, Sophie; Scherpbier, Henriette J.; Wit, Ferdinand W. N. M.; Pistorius, M. C. M.; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Teunissen, Charlotte E.; Mathot, Ron A. A.; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2018-01-01

    Background: Paediatric data on CNS penetration of antiretroviral drugs are scarce. Objectives: To evaluate CNS penetration of antiretroviral drugs in HIV-infected children and explore associations with neurocognitive function. Patients and methods: Antiretroviral drug levels were measured in paired

  3. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985 the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for the internationally competitive production of uranium separative work. The economic basis for this decision is considered, with an indicated of the constraints placed on the process figures of merit and the process laser system. We then trace an atom through a generic AVLIS separator and give examples of the physical steps encountered, the models used to describe the process physics, the fundamental parameters involved, and the role of diagnostic laser measurements

  4. SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY: REFERENCE HANDBOOK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems are being used in Increasing numbers because of the many advantages these systems hold over other soil treatment technologies. SVE systems appear to be simple in design and operation, yet the fundamentals governing subsurface vapor transport ar...

  5. Mechanics of gas-vapor bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, Yue; Zhang, Yuhang; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Most bubbles contain a mixture of vapor and incondensible gases. While the limit cases of pure vapor and pure gas bubbles are well studied, much less is known about the more realistic case of a mixture. The bubble contents continuously change due to the combined effects of evaporation and

  6. Vapor Pressures of Several Commercially Used Alkanolamines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klepacova, Katarina; Huttenhuis, Patrick J. G.; Derks, Peter W. J.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Klepáčová, Katarína

    For the design of acid gas treating processes, vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data must be available of the solvents to be applied. In this study the vapor pressures of seven frequently industrially used alkanolamines (diethanolamine, N-methylethanolamine, N,N-dimethylethanolamine,

  7. Recommended Vapor Pressure of Solid Naphthalen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, K.; Fulem, Michal; Růžička, V.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, - (2005), s. 1956-1970 ISSN 0021-9568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : solid naphthalene * vapor pressure * enthalpy of vaporization * enthalpy of fusion Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.610, year: 2005

  8. Effect of granosan vapors on mitosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lishenko, N P; Lishenko, I D

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of granosan on the germination of vetch seeds. Vetch seeds were stored from 4-6 days in ethyl mercuric chloride vapors. Results indicated that the vapors caused a sharp decrease in germination and caused chromosomal aberrations during the anaphase.

  9. Condensation of vapor bubble in subcooled pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, K.; Koiwa, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Ueno, I.

    2017-02-01

    We focus on condensation process of vapor bubble exposed to a pooled liquid of subcooled conditions. Two different geometries are employed in the present research; one is the evaporation on the heated surface, that is, subcooled pool boiling, and the other the injection of vapor into the subcooled pool. The test fluid is water, and all series of the experiments are conducted under the atmospheric pressure condition. The degree of subcooling is ranged from 10 to 40 K. Through the boiling experiment, unique phenomenon known as microbubble emission boiling (MEB) is introduced; this phenomenon realizes heat flux about 10 times higher than the critical heat flux. Condensation of the vapor bubble is the key phenomenon to supply ambient cold liquid to the heated surface. In order to understand the condensing process in the MEB, we prepare vapor in the vapor generator instead of the evaporation on the heated surface, and inject the vapor to expose the vapor bubble to the subcooled liquid. Special attention is paid to the dynamics of the vapor bubble detected by the high-speed video camera, and on the enhancement of the heat transfer due to the variation of interface area driven by the condensation.

  10. 40 CFR 796.1950 - Vapor pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL FATE TESTING GUIDELINES Physical and Chemical Properties § 796.1950 Vapor pressure. (a.... In addition, chemicals that are likely to be gases at ambient temperatures and which have low water... gases until the measured vapor pressure is constant, a process called “degassing.” Impurities more...

  11. Risk assessment of metal vapor arcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Monika C. (Inventor); Leidecker, Henning W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method for assessing metal vapor arcing risk for a component is provided. The method comprises acquiring a current variable value associated with an operation of the component; comparing the current variable value with a threshold value for the variable; evaluating compared variable data to determine the metal vapor arcing risk in the component; and generating a risk assessment status for the component.

  12. Penetration Testing Curriculum Development in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengcheng Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As both the frequency and the severity of network breaches have increased in recent years, it is essential that cybersecurity is incorporated into the core of business operations. Evidence from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2012 indicates that there is, and will continue to be, a severe shortage of cybersecurity professionals nationwide throughout the next decade. To fill this job shortage we need a workforce with strong hands-on experience in the latest technologies and software tools to catch up with the rapid evolution of network technologies. It is vital that the IT professionals possess up-to-date technical skills and think and act one step ahead of the cyber criminals who are constantly probing and exploring system vulnerabilities. There is no perfect security mechanism that can defeat all the cyber-attacks; the traditional defensive security mechanism will eventually fail to the pervasive zero-day attacks. However, there are steps to follow to reduce an organization’s vulnerability to cyber-attacks and to mitigate damages. Active security tests of the network from a cyber-criminal’s perspective can identify system vulnerabilities that may lead to future breaches. “If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. But if you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of hundred battles” (Sun, 2013. Penetration testing is a discipline within cybersecurity that focuses on identifying and exploiting the vulnerabilities of a network, eventually obtaining access to the critical business information. The pentesters, the security professionals who perform penetration testing, or ethical hackers, break the triad of information security - Confidentiality, Integrity, and Accountability (CIA - as if they were a cyber-criminal. The purpose of ethical hacking or penetration testing is to know what the “enemy” can do and then generate a

  13. Water vapor weathering of Taurus-Littrow orange soil - A pore-structure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenhead, D. A.; Mikhail, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    A pore-volume analysis was performed on water vapor adsorption data previously obtained on a fresh sample of Taurus-Littrow orange soil, and the analysis was repeated on the same sample after its exposure to moist air for a period of approximately six months. The results indicate that exposure of an outgassed sample to high relative pressures of water vapor can result in the formation of substantial micropore structure, the precise amount being dependent on the sample pretreatment, particularly the outgassing temperature. Micropore formation is explained in terms of water penetration into surface defects. In contrast, long-term exposure to moist air at low relative pressures appears to reverse the process with the elimination of micropores and enlargement of mesopores possibly through surface diffusion of metastable adsorbent material. The results are considered with reference to the storage of lunar samples.

  14. NASA Experiment on Tropospheric-Stratospheric Water Vapor Transport in the Intertropical Convergence Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William A.

    1982-01-01

    The following six papers report preliminary results obtained from a field experiment designed to study the role of tropical cumulo-nimbus clouds in the transfer of water vapor from the troposphere to the stratosphere over the region of Panama. The measurements were made utilizing special NOAA enhanced IR satellite images, radiosonde-ozonesondes and a NASA U-2 aircraft carrying. nine experiments. The experiments were provided by a group of NASA, NOAA, industry, and university scientists. Measurements included atmospheric humidity, air and cloud top temperatures, atmospheric tracer constituents, cloud particle characteristics and cloud morphology. The aircraft made a total of eleven flights from August 30 through September 18, 1980, from Howard Air Force Base, Panama; the pilots obtained horizontal and vertical profiles in and near convectively active regions and flew around and over cumulo-nimbus towers and through the extended anvils in the stratosphere. Cumulo-nimbus clouds in the tropics appear to play an important role in upward water vapor transport and may represent the principal source influencing the stratospheric water vapor budget. The clouds provide strong vertical circulation in the troposphere, mixing surface air and its trace materials (water vapor, CFM's sulfur compounds, etc.) quickly up to the tropopause. It is usually assumed that large scale mean motions or eddy scale motions transport the trace materials through the tropopause and into the stratosphere where they are further dispersed and react with other stratospheric constituents. The important step between the troposphere and stratosphere for water vapor appears to depend upon the processes occurring at or near the tropopause at the tops of the cumulo-nimbus towers. Several processes have been sugested: (1) The highest towers penetrate the tropopause and carry water in the form of small ice particles directly into the stratosphere. (2) Water vapor from the tops of the cumulonimbus clouds is

  15. Water Vapor Diffusion and Adsorption of Sandstones: Influence of Rock Texture and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Keppert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The term sandstone is used for wide range of rocks containing quartz clasts which can be cemented by secondary precipitated quartz or calcite; moreover the space between clasts can be filled by matrix. These facts result in existence of numerous rocks having highly various properties. Sandstones have been used as construction materials due to their good accessibility and workability. Since most of sandstones are porous, water vapor can penetrate through sandstone constructions. The rate of water vapor diffusion, as well as the vapor sorption isotherm, was determined for range of sandstone types. The diffusion resistance factor was found to be dependent on the total porosity of sandstone but the sorption behavior was strongly influenced by nature of the particular sandstone; the specific surface area of stone and presence of clay matrix are determining its sorption isotherm. The published data enable estimating (i diffusion resistance factor of a sandstone via knowledge of its total porosity and (ii the sorption isotherm via knowledge of the stone’s nature and specific surface area. This approach can significantly reduce the time necessary to acquire vapor-related properties of a sandstone.

  16. 40 CFR 1065.365 - Nonmethane cutter penetration fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fractions. 1065.365 Section 1065.365 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Measurements § 1065.365 Nonmethane cutter penetration fractions. (a) Scope and frequency. If you use a FID... penetration fractions of methane, PFCH4, and ethane, PF C2H6. As detailed in this section, these penetration...

  17. Building blocks for ionic liquids: Vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpies of 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N.; Portnova, Svetlana V.; Verevkin, Sergey P.; Skrzypczak, Andrzej; Schubert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We measured vapor pressures of the 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles by transpiration method. → Variations on the alkyl chain length n were C 3 , C 5 -C 7 , and C 9 -C 10 . → Enthalpies of vaporization were derived from (p, T) dependencies. → Enthalpies of vaporization at 298.15 K were linear dependent on the chain length. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of the linear 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles with the alkyl chain C 3 , C 5 -C 7 , and C 9 -C 10 have been measured by the transpiration method. The molar enthalpies of vaporization Δ l g H m of these compounds were derived from the temperature dependencies of vapor pressures. A linear correlation of enthalpies of vaporization Δ l g H m (298.15 K) of the 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles with the chain length has been found.

  18. Cutaneous Uptake of 14C-HD Vapor by the Hairless Guinea Pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    guinea pig (HGP) is used by our laboratory to model the human cutaneous response to sulfur mustard (HD) exposure. We have determined the HD content in the skin of HOP after 7-minute exposures to vapors saturated with a mixture of HD and 14C-HD. Concentration/time (C1) values in the range of 2 mg/sq cm/min were determined by counting skin 14C disintegrations per minute (dpm) in animals euthanized immediately after exposure. These values are similar to human penetration rates obtained by other investigators. A direct relationship between C1 and relative humidity was

  19. Diffusion of radioactively tagged penetrants through rubbery polymers. II. Dependence on molecular length of penetrant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, C.K.; Ferry, J.D.; Fetters, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    The diffusion of radioactively tagged n-hexadecane, n-dotriacontane, and a polybutadiene oligomer with molecular weight 1600 has been studied in 12 rubbery polymers. Diffusion coefficients were obtained from the theory for the thin smear method: for n-hexadecane and for n-dotriacontane (with one exception), in the form appropriate for a completely miscible polymer-penetrant pair, and for the oligomer in the form appropriate for slow entry of the pentrant across the penetrant-polymer interface. For the four flexible linear penetrants, n-dodecane, n-hexadecane, n-dotriacontane, and oligomer, the ratios of diffusion coefficients (or translational friction coefficients) are nearly the same in every polymer. It is concluded that these penetrants travel with similar segmentwise motions, although that is not the case with bulkier, more rigid penetrants. For the three normal paraffins, the friction coefficient is approximately proportional to molecular weight, but that for the oligomer is smaller than would be predicted on this basis

  20. Penetration Testing Professional Ethics: a conceptual model and taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Pierce

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In an environment where commercial software is continually patched to correct security flaws, penetration testing can provide organisations with a realistic assessment of their security posture. Penetration testing uses the same principles as criminal hackers to penetrate corporate networks and thereby verify the presence of software vulnerabilities. Network administrators can use the results of a penetration test to correct flaws and improve overall security. The use of hacking techniques, however, raises several ethical questions that centre on the integrity of the tester to maintain professional distance and uphold the profession. This paper discusses the ethics of penetration testing and presents our conceptual model and revised taxonomy.

  1. Assessing the credibility of diverting through containment penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, J.N.; Swindle, D.W. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A viable approach has been developed for identifying those containment penetrations in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant which are credible diversion routes. The approach is based upon systematic engineering and design analyses and is applied to each type of penetration to determine which penetrations could be utilized to divert nuclear material from a reprocessing facility. The approach is described and the results of an application are discussed. In addition, the concept of credibility is developed and discussed. For a typical reprocessing plant design, the number of penetrations determined to be credible without process or piping modifications was approx. 16% of the penetrations originally identified

  2. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  3. Simulating barrier penetration during combat. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Laquil, P. III.

    1980-04-01

    A computer program, BARS, simulates combat between an adversary group attempting to hijack special nuclear material and escort personnel attempting to protect it. BARS is designed to investigate how various combat strategies and levels of performance affect the time required to penetrate barriers (armor, deterrent systems, etc.) against forcible entry. A Monte Carlo code, BARS uses a game theoretic approach to allocate the attacking and defending forces. Combat suppression is simulated using a stochastic state-transition model for the behavior of individuals under combat stress. The BARS program was developed as part of the overall combat modelling effort of the transportation safeguards program

  4. A medium energy neutron deep penetration experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amian, W.; Cloth, P.; Druecke, V.; Filges, D.; Paul, N.; Schaal, H.

    1986-11-01

    A deep penetration experiment conducted at the Los Alamos WNR facility's Spallation Neutron Target is compared with calculations using intra-nuclear-cascade and S N -transport codes installed at KFA-IRE. In the experiment medium energy reactions induced by neutrons between 15 MeV and about 150 MeV inside a quasi infinite slab of iron have been measured using copper foil monitors. Details of the experimental procedure and the theoretical methods are described. A comparison of absolute reaction rates for both experimentally and theoretically derived reactions is given. The present knowledge of the corresponding monitor reaction cross sections is discussed. (orig.)

  5. Income Inequality and Transnational Corporate Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Beer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether the positive association between national income inequality and transnational corporate penetration found previously by Bornschier and Chase-Dunn (1985 and others circa the late 1960s still holds for the mid-l980s. Both methodological and theoretical problems of earlier studies are discussed and solutions are offered. Economic development, political-institutional and regional variables are also included inthe analyses. While further research is warranted, the results provide support for a World-System/Dependency perspective in understanding income inequality cross-nationally.

  6. Premium Efficiency Motors And Market Penetration Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhaddadi, Mohamed; Olivier, Guy

    2010-09-15

    This paper illustrates the induced enormous energy saving potential, permitted by using high-efficiency motors. Furthermore, the most important barriers to larger high-efficiency motors utilization are identified, and some incentives recommendations are given to overcome identified impediments. The authors consider that there is a strong case to enhance incentives policies for larger market penetration. The US Energy Policy Act and the Canadian Energy Efficient Act have lead to North American leadership on motor efficiency implementation. North America is not on the leading edge for energy saving and conservation. Motor efficiency is an exception that should be at least maintained.

  7. Hacking with Kali practical penetration testing techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Broad, James

    2013-01-01

    Hacking with Kali introduces you the most current distribution of the de facto standard tool for Linux pen testing. Starting with use of the Kali live CD and progressing through installation on hard drives, thumb drives and SD cards, author James Broad walks you through creating a custom version of the Kali live distribution. You'll learn how to configure networking components, storage devices and system services such as DHCP and web services. Once you're familiar with the basic components of the software, you'll learn how to use Kali through the phases of the penetration testing lifecycle

  8. Penetration of relativistic heavy ions through matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidenberger, C.; Geissel, H.

    1997-07-01

    New heavy-ion accelerators covering the relativistic and ultra-relativistic energy regime allow to study atomic collisions with bare and few-electron projectiles. High-resolution magnetic spectrometers are used for precise stopping-power and energy-loss straggling measurements. Refined theories beyond the Born approximation have been developed and are confirmed by experiments. This paper summarizes the large progress in the understanding of relativistic heavy-ion penetration through matter, which has been achieved in the last few years. (orig.)

  9. Penetrating the markets: biomass and commercial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidl, J.

    1999-01-01

    Although biomass accounts for a significant proportion of renewable energy in Europe, its market penetration could be increased if certain barriers can be surmounted. Some of those barriers are identified and suggestions made as to how they may be overcome through improved 'distribution' in various sectors. To integrate biomass into the electricity distribution system, the commercial distribution of liquid biofuels, and in the commercial distribution of biomass in the heat sector, certain rewards and penalties could be introduced and these are discussed. The low temperature heat market is seen as very important for the further development of bioenergy in Europe. (UK)

  10. Neutron streaming studies along JET shielding penetrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatelatos, Ion E.; Vasilopoulou, Theodora; Batistoni, Paola; Obryk, Barbara; Popovichev, Sergey; Naish, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Neutronic benchmark experiments are carried out at JET aiming to assess the neutronic codes and data used in ITER analysis. Among other activities, experiments are performed in order to validate neutron streaming simulations along long penetrations in the JET shielding configuration. In this work, neutron streaming calculations along the JET personnel entrance maze are presented. Simulations were performed using the MCNP code for Deuterium-Deuterium and Deuterium- Tritium plasma sources. The results of the simulations were compared against experimental data obtained using thermoluminescence detectors and activation foils.

  11. Mastering Kali Linux for advanced penetration testing

    CERN Document Server

    Beggs, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the kill chain approach to penetration testing, and then focuses on using Kali Linux to provide examples of how this methodology is applied in the real world. After describing the underlying concepts, step-by-step examples are provided that use selected tools to demonstrate the techniques. If you are an IT professional or a security consultant who wants to maximize the success of your network testing using some of the advanced features of Kali Linux, then this book is for you. This book will teach you how to become an expert in the pre-engagement, management,

  12. Market penetration of natural gas in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, R.; Wirl, F.

    1992-01-01

    The strategy of restricting natural gas to noble uses (directive of EEC and endorsed by the IEA) impeded gas expansion despite substantial upward revisions in the assessment of available resources. However, increasing environmental concern slowly but gradually undermines this strategy because natural gas serves as a substitute for costly abatement. This article discusses the prospect of future natural gas consumption considering economic and ecological facts as well as strategic and political considerations. In fact, we argue that inconsistent political interventions first seriously lowered gas penetration but now favor its use

  13. Kali Linux assuring security by penetration testing

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Shakeel; Allen, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Written as an interactive tutorial, this book covers the core of Kali Linux with real-world examples and step-by-step instructions to provide professional guidelines and recommendations for you. The book is designed in a simple and intuitive manner that allows you to explore the whole Kali Linux testing process or study parts of it individually.If you are an IT security professional who has a basic knowledge of Unix/Linux operating systems, including an awareness of information security factors, and want to use Kali Linux for penetration testing, then this book is for you.

  14. Water vapor retrieval over many surface types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.C.; Johnson, J.

    1996-04-01

    In this paper we present a study of of the water vapor retrieval for many natural surface types which would be valuable for multi-spectral instruments using the existing Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio (CIBR) for the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature. An atmospheric code (6S) and 562 spectra were used to compute the top of the atmosphere radiance near the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature in steps of 2.5 nm as a function of precipitable water (PW). We derive a novel technique called ``Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption`` (APDA) and show that APDA performs better than the CIBR over many surface types.

  15. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of uranium for alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez V, M. L.; Rios M, C.; Ramirez O, J.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F.

    2015-09-01

    The uranium determination through radiometric techniques as alpha spectrometry requires for its proper analysis, preparation methods of the source to analyze and procedures for the deposit of this on a surface or substrate. Given the characteristics of alpha particles (small penetration distance and great loss of energy during their journey or its interaction with the matter), is important to ensure that the prepared sources are thin, to avoid problems of self-absorption. The routine methods used for this are the cathodic electro deposition and the direct evaporation, among others. In this paper the use of technique of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for the preparation of uranium sources is investigated; because by this, is possible to obtain thin films (much thinner than those resulting from electro deposition or evaporation) on a substrate and comprises reacting a precursor with a gas, which in turn serves as a carrier of the reaction products to achieve deposition. Preliminary results of the chemical vapor deposition of uranium are presented, synthesizing and using as precursor molecule the uranyl acetylacetonate, using oxygen as carrier gas for the deposition reaction on a glass substrate. The uranium films obtained were found suitable for alpha spectrometry. The variables taken into account were the precursor sublimation temperatures and deposition temperature, the reaction time and the type and flow of carrier gas. Of the investigated conditions, two depositions with encouraging results that can serve as reference for further work to improve the technique presented here were selected. Alpha spectra obtained for these depositions and the characterization of the representative samples by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are also presented. (Author)

  16. Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Graft-versus-host disease: A potential risk when stem cells come from donors If you receive a transplant ... medications and blood products into your body. Collecting stem cells for transplant If a transplant using your own ...

  17. Stem Cell Information: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... here Home » Glossary Back to top Glossary Adult stem cell Astrocyte Blastocoel Blastocyst Bone marrow stromal cells Bone ...

  18. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Yvonne; Simon, Rüdiger

    2005-01-01

    Stem cells are required to support the indeterminate growth style of plants. Meristems are a plants stem cell niches that foster stem cell survival and the production of descendants destined for differentiation. In shoot meristems, stem cell fate is decided at the populational level. The size of the stem cell domain at the meristem tip depends on signals that are exchanged with cells of the organizing centre underneath. In root meristems, individual stem cells are controlled by direct interaction with cells of the quiescent centre that lie in the immediate neighbourhood. Analysis of the interactions and signaling processes in the stem cell niches has delivered some insights into the molecules that are involved and revealed that the two major niches for plant stem cells are more similar than anticipated.

  19. Ultraviolet and visible light penetration of epidermis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggset, G.; Kavli, G.; Volden, G.; Krokan, H.

    1984-01-01

    Light penetration in untanned skin and skin tanned with UVB (middlewave ultraviolet light) or PUVA (Psoralen photochemotherapy) was compared. Transmission at different wavelengths was measured through sheets of intact epidermis isolated by a suction blister technique. Thick epidermis was collected from a newly formed palmar friction bulla. For these studies a monochromator was used and the range of wavelengths examined was 280-700 nm. The transmission was considerably lower in tanned skin and the difference was most pronounced in the UV range. In the UVB range (290-320 nm), transmission was 13-43% for untanned epidermis, 8-12% for UVB tanned and slightly lower for PUVA tanned epidermis. At wavelengths below 325 nm only a few per cent of light penetrate through thick palmar epidermis. Both UVB and PUVA induce increased melanin content and thickening of the epidermis. Our results indicate that melanin is the most efficient protection against UVA while thickening of epidermis may be as important as the increased melanin content for the protection of living basal cells against the harmful UVB rays. (Auth)

  20. Penetrating eye injuries from writing instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly SP

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Simon P Kelly, Graham MB ReevesThe Royal Bolton Hospital, Bolton, UKPurpose: To consider the potential for ocular injury from writing implements by presenting four such cases, and to consider the incidence of such eye injuries from analysis of a national trauma database.Methods: The Home and Leisure Accident Surveillance System was searched for records of eye injuries from writing instruments to provide UK estimates of such injuries. Four patients with ocular penetrating injury from pens or pencils (especially when caused by children, and examined by the authors, are described which illustrate mechanisms of injury.Results: It is estimated that around 748 ocular pen injuries and 892 ocular pencil injuries of undetermined severity occurred annually in the UK during the database surveillance period 2000–2002. No eye injuries from swords, including toy swords and fencing foils, were reported.Conclusion: Ocular perforation sometimes occur from writing instruments that are thrown in the community, especially by children. Implications for policy and prevention are discussed. Non-specialists should have a low threshold for referring patients with eye injuries if suspicious of ocular penetration, even where caused by everyday objects, such as writing instruments.Keywords: eye injury, eye, children, mechanism, writing instruments, prevention

  1. High-Penetration Photovoltaic Planning Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, David Wenzhong [Alternative Power Innovations, LLC, Broomfield, CO (United States); Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-24

    The main objective of this report is to provide an overview of select U.S. utility methodologies for performing high-penetration photovoltaic (HPPV) system planning and impact studies. This report covers the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's orders related to photovoltaic (PV) power system interconnection, particularly the interconnection processes for the Large Generation Interconnection Procedures and Small Generation Interconnection Procedures. In addition, it includes U.S. state interconnection standards and procedures. The procedures used by these regulatory bodies consider the impacts of HPPV power plants on the networks. Technical interconnection requirements for HPPV voltage regulation include aspects of power monitoring, grounding, synchronization, connection to the overall distribution system, back-feeds, disconnecting means, abnormal operating conditions, and power quality. This report provides a summary of mitigation strategies to minimize the impact of HPPV. Recommendations and revisions to the standards may take place as the penetration level of renewables on the grid increases and new technologies develop in future years.

  2. Coulomb explosion of large penetrating molecular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, H.E.; Thieberger, P.

    1981-01-01

    The main purpose of these Coulomb explosion measurements is to determine what kind of structure these and other complex molecules may have and also to determine what other special phenomena may come into play as these complex molecules pass through matter. Although the first preliminary measurements involving the Coulomb explosion of these molecules was reported at this workshop last year, the results are briefly summarized before going on to the more recent measurements obtained with a completely new kind of detector system. This new image intensifier detector system, coupled with a microcomputer, has proven to be a valuable tool in the study of the Coulomb explosion of complex molecules that penetrate matter. In the future, with some additional improvements in the system, and much better statistics for most of the molecules studied to date, it is expected that much new information will be gained about the structure of many kinds of complex molecular ions including the special effects that may be encountered when these fast molecular ions penetrate matter

  3. Penetration of magnetic fields into plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtson, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    A pulsed plasma experiment was constructed to study the penetration of a fast-rising magnetic pulse into an initially unmagnetized, weakly ionized plasma of density 10 11 to 10 13 cm -3 . Magnetic probe data was analyzed using a magnetohydrodynamic approach to obtain detailed information about the dynamics of the penetration mechanism. In particular it is possible to obtain the local resistivity and thus the collision frequency from this data. These collision frequencies compare favorably with theoretical estimates of turbulent collision frequencies. The data indicates that sufficient energy is absorbed to heat the bulk of the plasma to temeratures in excess of 1 keV. A differential rotation of a collisionless theta-pinch column during implosion has been observed and explained by a model in which the driving mechanism is the off-diagonal element p/sub r theta/ of the pressure tensor. Rotational motion was detected by directional probes and spectroscopic techniques. Experimental data were modeled by a one-dimensional hybrid code which included ionization and charge exchange of protons with neutral H atoms

  4. Mass transfer from penetrations in waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Sastre, C.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that localized corrosion of a relatively small area of a waste container may impair the containment function to such an extent that larger releases may be possible than from the bare waste form. This would take place when a large number of holes coexist on the container while their concentration fields do not interact significantly with each other. After performing a steady state analysis of the release from a hole, it is shown that much fewer independent holes can coexist on a container surface than previously estimated. The calculated radionuclide release from multiple independent holes must be changed accordingly. Previous analyses did not proceed to a correct application of the linear superposition principle. This resulted in unacceptable physical conclusions and undue strain on the performance assessment necessary for a container licensing procedure. The paper also analyzes the steady state release from penetrations of finite length and whose concentration fields interact with one another. The predicted release from these penetrations is lower than the previously calculated release from holes of zero thickness. It is concluded here that the steady-state release from multiple holes on a waste container can not exceed the release from the bare waste form and that multiple perforations need not be a serious liability to container performance. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. Creative Teaching in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Vikki; Hains-Wesson, Rachael; Young, Karen

    2018-01-01

    If Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines in higher education are to retain students, there needs to be a shift towards teaching in more enriching and interesting ways. Creative teaching needs to become more prominent in STEM. This article presents a study that defines creative teaching in the STEM context and…

  6. Point of net vapor generation and vapor void fraction in subcooled boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, P.; Zuber, N.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis is presented directed at predicting the point of net vapor generation and vapor void fraction in subcooled boiling. It is shown that the point of net vapor generation depends upon local conditions--thermal and fluid dynamic. Thus, at low mass flow rates the net vapor generation is determined by thermal conditions, whereas at high mass flow rates the phenomenon is hydrodynamically controlled. Simple criteria are derived which can be used to predict these local conditions for net vapor generation. These criteria are used to determine the vapor void fraction is subcooled boiling. Comparison between the results predicted by this analysis and experimental data presently available shows good agreement for wide range of operating conditions, fluids and geometries. (U.S.)

  7. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of uranium for alpha spectrometry; Deposicion quimica de vapor (CVD) de uranio para espectrometria alfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez V, M. L.; Rios M, C.; Ramirez O, J.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F., E-mail: luisalawliet@gmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The uranium determination through radiometric techniques as alpha spectrometry requires for its proper analysis, preparation methods of the source to analyze and procedures for the deposit of this on a surface or substrate. Given the characteristics of alpha particles (small penetration distance and great loss of energy during their journey or its interaction with the matter), is important to ensure that the prepared sources are thin, to avoid problems of self-absorption. The routine methods used for this are the cathodic electro deposition and the direct evaporation, among others. In this paper the use of technique of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for the preparation of uranium sources is investigated; because by this, is possible to obtain thin films (much thinner than those resulting from electro deposition or evaporation) on a substrate and comprises reacting a precursor with a gas, which in turn serves as a carrier of the reaction products to achieve deposition. Preliminary results of the chemical vapor deposition of uranium are presented, synthesizing and using as precursor molecule the uranyl acetylacetonate, using oxygen as carrier gas for the deposition reaction on a glass substrate. The uranium films obtained were found suitable for alpha spectrometry. The variables taken into account were the precursor sublimation temperatures and deposition temperature, the reaction time and the type and flow of carrier gas. Of the investigated conditions, two depositions with encouraging results that can serve as reference for further work to improve the technique presented here were selected. Alpha spectra obtained for these depositions and the characterization of the representative samples by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are also presented. (Author)

  8. Stylet penetration of Cacopsylla pyri; an electrical penetration graph (EPG) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Civolani, S.; Leis, M.; Grandi, G.; Garzo, E.; Pasqualini, E.; Musacchi, S.; Chicca, M.; Castaldelli, G.; Rossie, M.; Tjallingii, W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed information on plant penetration activities by pear psylla Cacopsylla pyri L. (Hemiptera Psyllidae) is essential to study phytoplasma transmission of “Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri” responsible of pear decline disease (PD) and to trace and evaluate resistant traits in new pear tree selections

  9. Long-rod penetration: the transition zone between rigid and hydrodynamic penetration modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-feng Lou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-rod penetration in a wide range of velocity means that the initial impact velocity varies in a range from tens of meters per second to several kilometers per second. The long rods maintain rigid state when the impact velocity is low, the nose of rod deforms and even is blunted when the velocity gets higher, and the nose erodes and fails to lead to the consumption of long projectile when the velocity is very high due to instantaneous high pressure. That is, from low velocity to high velocity, the projectile undergoes rigid rods, deforming non-erosive rods, and erosive rods. Because of the complicated changes of the projectile, no well-established theoretical model and numerical simulation have been used to study the transition zone. Based on the analysis of penetration behavior in the transition zone, a phenomenological model to describe target resistance and a formula to calculate penetration depth in transition zone are proposed, and a method to obtain the boundary velocity of transition zone is determined. A combined theoretical analysis model for three response regions is built by analyzing the characteristics in these regions. The penetration depth predicted by this combined model is in good agreement with experimental result.

  10. GOES WATER VAPOR TRANSPORT V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOES Water Vapor Transport CD contains nineteen months of geostationary satellite-derived products from the GOES-8 satellite spanning the 1987-1988 El Nino...

  11. Vaporization of Samarium trichloride studied by thermogravimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel, Marcelo R.; Pasquevich, Daniel M.

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, the vaporization reaction of SmCl 3 (l) obtained from the 'in situ' reaction of Sm 2 O 3 (s) and Cl 2 (g)-C(s) was studied by thermogravimetry under controlled atmosphere. The effects of both the temperature between 825 C degrees and 950 C degrees and the total flow gas on the vaporization rate of the following reaction: SmCl 3 (l) = SmCl 3 (g) were analyzed. The vaporization rate of the process was found to be independent of then total gas flow rate and highly dependent on the temperature. E ap calculation led to a value of 240 ± 10 kJ.mol -1 . A comparison between this value and that of the molar enthalpy of vaporization allow to the conclusion that the reaction occur in conditions near to equilibrium. The SmCl 3 identity was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). (author)

  12. Perspective: Highly stable vapor-deposited glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    This article describes recent progress in understanding highly stable glasses prepared by physical vapor deposition and provides perspective on further research directions for the field. For a given molecule, vapor-deposited glasses can have higher density and lower enthalpy than any glass that can be prepared by the more traditional route of cooling a liquid, and such glasses also exhibit greatly enhanced kinetic stability. Because vapor-deposited glasses can approach the bottom of the amorphous part of the potential energy landscape, they provide insights into the properties expected for the "ideal glass." Connections between vapor-deposited glasses, liquid-cooled glasses, and deeply supercooled liquids are explored. The generality of stable glass formation for organic molecules is discussed along with the prospects for stable glasses of other types of materials.

  13. Fundamentals of Friction and Vapor Phase Lubrication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gellman, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This is the final report for the three year research program on "Fundamentals of Friction and Vapor Phase Lubrication" conducted at Carnegie Mellon with support from AFOSR grant number F49630-01-1-0069...

  14. GOES WATER VAPOR TRANSPORT V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOES Water Vapor Transport CD contains nineteen months of geostationary satellite-derived products spanning the 1987/1988 El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO)...

  15. Drag Reduction by Leidenfrost Vapor Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Marston, Jeremy O.; Chan, Derek Y. C.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2011-01-01

    , we show that such vapor layers can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by over 85%. These results appear to approach the ultimate limit of drag reduction possible by different methods based on gas-layer lubrication and can stimulate the development

  16. DMSP SSMT/2 - Atmospheric Water Vapor Profiler

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SSM/T-2 sensor is a five channel, total power microwave radiometer with three channels situated symmetrically about the 183.31 GHz water vapor resonance line and...

  17. 78 FR 42595 - Marine Vapor Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... revise the substance As noted in the NPRM, the changes in this section were of this section. intended... the vapor-moving device, as recommended by CTAC in 1997 to maintain a minimum size of non-flammable...

  18. A technique to depress desflurane vapor pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Robert J; Pypendop, Bruno H

    2006-09-01

    To determine whether the vapor pressure of desflurane could be decreased by using a solvent to reduce the anesthetic molar fraction in a solution (Raoult's Law). We hypothesized that such an anesthetic mixture could produce anesthesia using a nonprecision vaporizer instead of an agent-specific, electronically controlled, temperature and pressure compensated vaporizer currently required for desflurane administration. One healthy adult female dog. Propylene glycol was used as a solvent for desflurane, and the physical characteristics of this mixture were evaluated at various molar concentrations and temperatures. Using a circle system with a breathing bag attached at the patient end and a mechanical ventilator to simulate respiration, an in-circuit, nonprecision vaporizer containing 40% desflurane and 60% propylene glycol achieved an 11.5% +/- 1.0% circuit desflurane concentration with a 5.2 +/- 0.4 (0 = off, 10 = maximum) vaporizer setting. This experiment was repeated with a dog attached to the breathing circuit under spontaneous ventilation with a fresh gas flow of 0.5 L minute(-1). Anesthesia was maintained for over 2 hours at a mean vaporizer setting of 6.2 +/- 0.4, yielding mean inspired and end-tidal desflurane concentrations of 8.7% +/- 0.5% and 7.9% +/- 0.7%, respectively. Rather than alter physical properties of vaporizers to suit a particular anesthetic agent, this study demonstrates that it is also possible to alter physical properties of anesthetic agents to suit a particular vaporizer. However, propylene glycol may not prove an ideal solvent for desflurane because of its instability in solution and substantial-positive deviation from Raoult's Law.

  19. Metal Vapor Arcing Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Monika C.; Leidecker, Henning W.

    2010-01-01

    The Tin Whisker Metal Vapor Arcing Risk Assessment Tool has been designed to evaluate the risk of metal vapor arcing and to help facilitate a decision toward a researched risk disposition. Users can evaluate a system without having to open up the hardware. This process allows for investigating components at risk rather than spending time and money analyzing every component. The tool points to a risk level and provides direction for appropriate action and documentation.

  20. Medicaid HMO penetration and its mix: did increased penetration affect physician participation in urban markets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, E Kathleen; Herring, Bradley

    2008-02-01

    To use changes in Medicaid health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration across markets over time to test for effects on the extent of Medicaid participation among physicians and to test for differences in the effects of increased use of commercial versus Medicaid-dominant plans within the market. The nationally representative Community Tracking Study's Physician Survey for three periods (1996-1997, 1998-1999, and 2000-2001) on 29,866 physicians combined with Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and InterStudy data. Market-level estimates of Medicaid HMO penetration are used to test for (1) any participation in Medicaid and (2) the degree to which physicians have an "open" (i.e., nonlimited) practice accepting new Medicaid patients. Models account for physician, firm, and local characteristics, Medicaid relative payment levels adjusted for geographic variation in practice costs, and market-level fixed effects. There is a positive effect of increases in commercial Medicaid HMO penetration on the odds of accepting new Medicaid patients among all physicians, and in particular, among office-based physicians. In contrast, there is no effect, positive or negative, from expanding the penetration of Medicaid-dominant HMO plans within the market. Increases in cost-adjusted Medicaid fees, relative to Medicare levels, were associated with increases in the odds of participation and of physicians having an "open" Medicaid practice. Provider characteristics that consistently lower participation among all physicians include being older, board certified, a U.S. graduate and a solo practitioner. The effects of Medicaid HMO penetration on physician participation vary by the type of plan. If states are able to attract and retain commercial plans, participation by office-based physicians is likely to increase in a way that opens existing practices to more new Medicaid patients. Other policy variables that affect participation include the presence of a federally

  1. A heated vapor cell unit for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock in atomic rubidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Daniel J; Hughes, Ifan G; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L

    2007-09-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D(2) transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field and cell temperature. For the weaker transitions both the amplitude and gradient of the signal are increased by an order of magnitude.

  2. A heated vapor cell unit for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock in atomic rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarron, Daniel J.; Hughes, Ifan G.; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L.

    2007-01-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D 2 transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field and cell temperature. For the weaker transitions both the amplitude and gradient of the signal are increased by an order of magnitude

  3. Vapor Explosions with Subcooled Freon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.E.; Fauske, Hans K.; McUmber, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    Explosive vapor formation accompanied by destructive shock waves, can be produced when two liquids, at much different temperatures, are brought into intimate contact. A proposed analytical model states that the interface temperature upon contact between the two liquid systems, gust be greater than or equal to the spontaneous nucleation temperature of that liquid-liquid system and that the thermal boundary layer must be sufficiently developed to support a critical size cavity. For time scales greater than 10-12 sec, the interface temperature upon contact of two semi-infinite masses, with constant thermal properties, can be related to the initial liquid temperatures. The spontaneous nucleation behavior at the interface can either be heterogeneous or homogeneous in nature. In either case, the critical size cavities, which initiate the vaporization process, are produced by local density fluctuations within the cold liquid. For homogeneous conditions, the two liquids present a well-wetted system and the vapor embryos are produced entirely within the cold liquid. For heterogeneous conditions, which result from poor, or imperfect wetting, at the liquid-liquid interface, the critical sized cavities are created at the interface at somewhat lower temperatures. A sequence of experiments, using Freon-22 and water, Freon-22 and mineral oil, and Freon-12 and mineral oil have been performed to test this spontaneous nucleation premise. For Freon-22 at its normal boiling point, the interface temperature of the water must be at least 77 deg. C before the interface temperature equals or exceeds the minimum homogeneous nucleation value of 54 deg. C and 84 deg. C before the interface temperature equals 60 deg. C where the homogeneous nucleation rate becomes truly explosive. The Freon-water test demonstrated explosive interactions for water temperatures considerably lower than this value and this was attributed to the heterogeneous nucleation characteristics of that particular system

  4. Effect of impact angle on vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Peter H.

    1996-09-01

    Impacts into easily vaporized targets such as dry ice and carbonates generate a rapidly expanding vapor cloud. Laboratory experiments performed in a tenuous atmosphere allow deriving the internal energy of this cloud through well-established and tested theoretical descriptions. A second set of experiments under near-vacuum conditions provides a second measure of energy as the internal energy converts to kinetic energy of expansion. The resulting data allow deriving the vaporized mass as a function of impact angle and velocity. Although peak shock pressures decrease with decreasing impact angle (referenced to horizontal), the amount of impact-generated vapor is found to increase and is derived from the upper surface. Moreover, the temperature of the vapor cloud appears to decrease with decreasing angle. These unexpected results are proposed to reflect the increasing roles of shear heating and downrange hypervelocity ricochet impacts created during oblique impacts. The shallow provenance, low temperature, and trajectory of such vapor have implications for larger-scale events, including enhancement of atmospheric and biospheric stress by oblique terrestrial impacts and impact recycling of the early atmosphere of Mars.

  5. Improving Outcomes Following Penetrating Colon Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Preston R.; Fabian, Timothy C.; Croce, Martin A.; Magnotti, Louis J.; Elizabeth Pritchard, F.; Minard, Gayle; Stewart, Ronald M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction During World War II, failure to treat penetrating colon injuries with diversion could result in court martial. Based on this wartime experience, colostomy for civilian colon wounds became the standard of care for the next 4 decades. Previous work from our institution demonstrated that primary repair was the optimal management for nondestructive colon wounds. Optimal management of destructive wounds requiring resection remains controversial. To address this issue, we performed a study that demonstrated risk factors (pre or intraoperative transfusion requirement of more than 6 units of packed red blood cells, significant comorbid diseases) that were associated with a suture line failure rate of 14%, and of whom 33% died. Based on these outcomes, a clinical pathway for management of destructive colon wounds was developed. The results of the implementation of this pathway are the focus of this report. Methods Patients with penetrating colon injury were identified from the registry of a level I trauma center over a 5-year period. Records were reviewed for demographics, injury characteristics, and outcome. Patients with nondestructive injuries underwent primary repair. Patients with destructive wounds but no comorbidities or large transfusion requirement underwent resection and anastomosis, while patients with destructive wounds and significant medical illness or transfusion requirements of more than 6 units/blood received end colostomy. The current patients (CP) were compared to the previous study (PS) to determine the impact of the clinical pathway. Outcomes examined included colon related mortality and morbidity (suture line leak and abscess). Results Over a 5.5-year period, 231 patients had penetrating colon wounds. 209 survived more 24 hours and comprise the study population. Primary repair was performed on 153 (73%) patients, and 56 patients had destructive injuries (27%). Of these, 40 (71%) had resection and anastomosis and 16 (29%) had diversion

  6. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  7. Stem Cell Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dah-Jiun; Miller, Andrew D; Southard, Teresa L; Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea; Ellenson, Lora H; Nikitin, Alexander Yu

    2018-01-24

    Rapid advances in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine have opened new opportunities for better understanding disease pathogenesis and the development of new diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment approaches. Many stem cell niches are well defined anatomically, thereby allowing their routine pathological evaluation during disease initiation and progression. Evaluation of the consequences of genetic manipulations in stem cells and investigation of the roles of stem cells in regenerative medicine and pathogenesis of various diseases such as cancer require significant expertise in pathology for accurate interpretation of novel findings. Therefore, there is an urgent need for developing stem cell pathology as a discipline to facilitate stem cell research and regenerative medicine. This review provides examples of anatomically defined niches suitable for evaluation by diagnostic pathologists, describes neoplastic lesions associated with them, and discusses further directions of stem cell pathology.

  8. Civil engineering applications of ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Pajewski, Lara

    2015-01-01

    This book, based on Transport and Urban Development COST Action TU1208, presents the most advanced applications of ground penetrating radar (GPR) in a civil engineering context, with documentation of instrumentation, methods, and results. It explains clearly how GPR can be employed for the surveying of critical transport infrastructure, such as roads, pavements, bridges, and tunnels, and for the sensing and mapping of underground utilities and voids. Detailed attention is also devoted to use of GPR in the inspection of geological structures and of construction materials and structures, including reinforced concrete, steel reinforcing bars, and pre/post-tensioned stressing ducts. Advanced methods for solution of electromagnetic scattering problems and new data processing techniques are also presented. Readers will come to appreciate that GPR is a safe, advanced, nondestructive, and noninvasive imaging technique that can be effectively used for the inspection of composite structures and the performance of diagn...

  9. Cephalic Tetanus from Penetrating Orbital Wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloïse Guyennet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus is a neurologic disorder caused by tetanospasmin, a protein toxin elaborated by Clostridium tetani. Cephalic tetanus is a localized form of the disease causing trismus and dysfunction of cranial nerves. We report the case of a man who presented with facial trauma, complete ophthalmoplegia, exophthalmos, areactive mydriasis, and periorbital hematoma. An orbital CT revealed air bubbles in the right orbital apex. The patient was given a tetanus toxoid booster and antibiotherapy. After extraction of a wooden foreign body, the patient developed right facial nerve palsy, disorders of swallowing, contralateral III cranial nerve palsy, and trismus. Only one case of cephalic tetanus from penetrating orbital wound has been reported in literature 20 years ago. When a patient presents with an orbital wound with ophthalmoplegia and signs of anaerobic infection, cephalic tetanus should be ruled out.

  10. Penetration enhancer: monoethylether of diethylene glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.; Kassai, Z.; Bohacik, L.; Bezek, S.; Hadcrafft, J.; Falson-Rieg, F.

    1999-01-01

    The monoethylether of diethylene glycol (Transcutol), an excellent solubilising agent, has been suggested as a penetration enhancer compatible with trans-dermal drug delivery systems. Using the abdominal skin of 5 day old rats and Franz-type diffusion cells the following topics were studied in this contribution: (1) Flux of Transcutol, labelled with [Ethyl- 14 C]-ether, across an intact skin model, (2) Changes in properties of the skin barrier after stripping with adhesive tape, and (3) Changes in flux of Transcutol when mixed with different co-solvents. The flux from pure solvent in donor compartment reached around 50 μg cm -2 hr -1 across the intact skin horny layer, whilst after 12 strips the flux increased about 200 times. In the presence of propylene glycol dipelargonate, the flux over 2 mg cm -2 hr -1 across non stripped skin was achieved. (authors)

  11. Penetrating Stab Wound of the Right Ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onursal Buğra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 18 years old male patient was admitted to our emergency unit with a penetrating stab wound to the right ventricle. A stab wound to the right ventricle was found to be 3 cm in diameter. The bleeding was controlled by insertion of a Foley catheter and inflation of the balloon. The stab wound had transected distal acute marginal side ofthe right coronary artery. A successful repair was performed with the use of a foley catheter and application of the Medtronic Octopus Tissue Stabilization System. The wound was closed with pledgeted mattress sutures. The distal acute marginal side of the right coronary artery was ligated. In this presentation, the surgical intervention method was reported and followed by a discussion of emergency surgical procedures of the heart.

  12. Automatic control of oscillatory penetration apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucon, Peter A

    2015-01-06

    A system and method for controlling an oscillatory penetration apparatus. An embodiment is a system and method for controlling a sonic drill having a displacement and an operating range and operating at a phase difference, said sonic drill comprising a push-pull piston and eccentrics, said method comprising: operating the push-pull piston at an initial push-pull force while the eccentrics are operated at a plurality of different operating frequencies within the operating range of the sonic drill and measuring the displacement at each operating frequency; determining an efficient operating frequency for the material being drilled and operating the eccentrics at said efficient operating frequency; determining the phase difference at which the sonic drill is operating; and if the phase difference is not substantially equal to minus ninety degrees, operating the push-pull piston at another push-pull force.

  13. Fluorescent Penetrant INSPECTION—CLEANING Study Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, D.; Brasche, L.

    2009-03-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) is widely used in the aviation industry and other industries for surface-breaking crack detection. As with all inspection methods, adherence to the process parameters is critical to the successful detection of defects. There is variety of lubricants and surface coatings used in the aviation industry which must be removed prior to FPI. Before the FPI process begins, components are cleaned using a variety of cleaning methods which are selected based on the alloy and the soil types which must be removed. It is also important that the cleaning process not adversely affect the FPI process. From the first three phases of this project it has been found that a hot water rinse can aid in the detection process when using this nondestructive method.

  14. Market penetration of energy supply technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condap, R. J.

    1980-03-01

    Techniques to incorporate the concepts of profit-induced growth and risk aversion into policy-oriented optimization models of the domestic energy sector are examined. After reviewing the pertinent market penetration literature, simple mathematical programs in which the introduction of new energy technologies is constrained primarily by the reinvestment of profits are formulated. The main results involve the convergence behavior of technology production levels under various assumptions about the form of the energy demand function. Next, profitability growth constraints are embedded in a full-scale model of U.S. energy-economy interactions. A rapidly convergent algorithm is developed to utilize optimal shadow prices in the computation of profitability for individual technologies. Allowance is made for additional policy variables such as government funding and taxation. The result is an optimal deployment schedule for current and future energy technologies which is consistent with the sector's ability to finance capacity expansion.

  15. Convective penetration in a young sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Jane; Baraffe, Isabelle; Goffrey, Tom; MUSIC developers group

    2018-01-01

    To interpret the high-quality data produced from recent space-missions it is necessary to study convection under realistic stellar conditions. We describe the multi-dimensional, time implicit, fully compressible, hydrodynamic, implicit large eddy simulation code MUSIC. We use MUSIC to study convection during an early stage in the evolution of our sun where the convection zone covers approximately half of the solar radius. This model of the young sun possesses a realistic stratification in density, temperature, and luminosity. We approach convection in a stellar context using extreme value theory and derive a new model for convective penetration, targeted for one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations. This model provides a scenario that can explain the observed lithium abundance in the sun and in solar-like stars at a range of ages.

  16. Modeling of Oblique Penetration into Geologic Targets Using Cavity Expansion Penetrator Loading with Target free-Surface Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joe; Longcope, Donald B.; Tabbara, Mazen R.

    1999-05-03

    A procedure has been developed to represent the loading on a penetrator and its motion during oblique penetration into geologic media. The penetrator is modeled with the explicit dynamics, finite element computer program PRONTO 3D and the coupled pressure on the penetrator is given in a new loading option based on a separate cavity expansion (CE) solution that accounts for the pressure-reduction from a nearby target free surface. The free-surface influ- ence distance is selected in a predictive manner by considering the pressure to expand a spherical cavity in a finite radius sphere of the target material. The CE/PRONTO 3D procedure allows a detailed description of the penetrator for predicting shock environments or structural failure dur- ing the entire penetration event and is sufficiently rapid to be used in design optimization. It has been evaluated by comparing its results with data from two field tests of a full-scale penetrator into frozen soil at an impact angles of 49.6 and 52.5 degrees from the horizontal. The measured penetrator rotations were 24 and 22 degrees, respectively. In the simulation, the rotation was21 degrees and predominately resulted from the pressure reduction of the free surface. Good agree- ment was also found for the penetration depth and axial and lateral acceleration at two locations in the penetrator.

  17. Forestry applications of ground-penetrating radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo, H.; Perez-Gracia, V.; Novo, A.; Armesto, J.

    2010-07-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical and close-range remote sensing technique based on the use of radar pulses to obtain cross-section images of underground features. This method is characterized by the transmission of an electromagnetic short length pulse (1-2 ns), presenting a centre frequency ranging from 10 MHz to 2.5 GHz. The principles of GPR operation are based on the ability of low frequency radar waves to penetrate into a non-conductive medium, usually subsoil, but also walls, concrete or wood. Those waves are detected after suffering a reflection in electromagnetic discontinuities of the propagation medium. Therefore, this is a suitable method to study changes in those physical properties, and also to characterize different mediums and the reflective targets providing information about their physical properties. The aim of this work is to describe and demonstrate different applications of GPR in forestry, showing the obtained results together with their interpretation. Firstly, in this paper, it is illustrated how GPR is able to map shallow bedrock, subsoil stratigraphy and also to estimate shallow water table depth. Secondly, different tree trunks as well as dry timber are analyzed, evaluating the different radar data obtained in each particular case, and observing differences in their electromagnetic properties related to the GPR response. Finally, several measurements were taken in order to analyze the use of GPR to detect tree root systems using polarimetric techniques, being possible to detect medium and big size roots, together with groups of small roots. (Author) 39 refs.

  18. Neurosurgical Management of Nonmissile Penetrating Cranial Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Holanda, Luciano Ferreira; Pereira, Benedito Jamilson A; Holanda, Rafael Rodrigues; Neto, José Targino; de Holanda, Carlos Vanderlei M; Giudicissi Filho, Miguel; de Oliveira, Nathalia Ribeiro Cunha; de Oliveira, Jean G

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to present a case series of nonmissile penetrating (NMP) injuries and to establish a workflow for an uncommon mechanism of traumatic head injury through the analysis of each case, classification of the type of lesion, management, and outcome score at follow-up. From January 1991 to December 2008, 36,000 patients presenting with traumatic brain injury (TBI) were admitted in the Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital Antônio Targino, Campina Grande-PB, Brazil. From these patients, 11 presenting with lesions caused by NMP objects were selected. Among the 11 patients, 9 were men and 2 were women. Their ages ranged from 7 to 74 years old (mean age ± SD, 29.1 ± 22.99 years). All patients underwent neuroradiologic evaluation. The entry point was classified as natural (orbit) or artificial (skull transfixation), and we also divided the patients presenting with secondary parenchymal or vascular damage from those presenting with only lesions caused by the primary penetration into the cranium and meninges. All patients were neurosurgically treated with removal of the foreign body through craniotomy, except the patient whose object (pen) was removed without craniotomy with local anesthesia. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on admission was a statistically significant factor on prognosis, and any patient who presented with a GCS score of 15 evolved satisfactorily, and there were no deaths in this group of patients (P = 0.04). TBIs caused by NMP objects are unusual and caused by aggression, self-inflicted harm (in the case of psychiatric patients), and accident. The foreign body may enter into the skull through a natural hole (orbit, nose, mouth, or ear) or crosses the skull, causing a fracture and creating an artificial hole. Preoperative neuroradiologic assessment is paramount for the correct neurosurgical approach. The main prognostic factor for these patients is the GCS score at admission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Topological properties of the limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minggang; Vilela, André L. M.; Du, Ruijin; Zhao, Longfeng; Dong, Gaogao; Tian, Lixin; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-05-01

    The limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph algorithm was recently introduced to map time series in complex networks. In this work, we extend this algorithm to create a directed-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph and an image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph. We define two algorithms and provide theoretical results on the topological properties of these graphs associated with different types of real-value series. We perform several numerical simulations to check the accuracy of our theoretical results. Finally, we present an application of the directed-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph to measure real-value time series irreversibility and an application of the image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph that discriminates noise from chaos. We also propose a method to measure the systematic risk using the image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph, and the empirical results show the effectiveness of our proposed algorithms.

  20. Crack growth rates in vessel head penetration materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Briceno, D.; Lapena, J.; Blazquez, F.

    1994-01-01

    The cracks detected in reactor vessel head penetrations in certain European plants have been attributed to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC). The penetrations in question are made from Inconel 600. The susceptibility of this alloy to PWSCC has been widely studied in relation to use of this material for steam generator tubes. When the first reactor vessel head penetration cracks were detected, most of the available data on crack propagation rates were from test specimens made from steam generator tubes and tested under conditions that questioned the validity of these data for assessment of the evolution of cracks in penetrations. For this reason, the scope of the Spanish Research Project on the Inspection and Repair of PWR reactor vessel head penetrations included the acquisition of data on crack propagation rates in Inconel 600, representative of the materials used for vessel head penetrations. (authors). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 6 refs

  1. Cracking and delamination of vapor-deposited tantalum films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R.M.; Duan, J.Z.; Liu, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on tantalum films which begin to crack and spall during vapor deposition on glass at a thickness of 180 nm. Islands and ribbons, 10 - 30 μm in size, delaminate by crack growth along the Ta/glass interface for several μm after which the crack penetrates into the glass to a depth of 0.5 - 1 μm and complete spalling occurs. X-ray diffraction showed that about 50% of the original bct, β-tantalum, phase had transformed to the bcc α-Ta phase. When Ta was deposited on glass that was first covered with 52 nm of copper, spalling was observed to begin at a thickness of 105 nm. In this case, the film first cracks and then peels along the Cu/glass interface and curls into scrolls indicating the presence of a small stress gradient. X-ray diffraction of the as-deposited film, and electron diffraction of ion-milled flakes, showed that the Ta films deposited on Cu-coated glass almost completely transform to bcc α-Ta. The critical thickness for delamination along the Cu/glass interface is about 1/2 that for cracking in the glass substrate when an intermediate layer of Cu is not present. All of the above findings are in good agreement with previous observations on Cr films

  2. Experimental investigation of heating phenomena in linac mechanical interfaces due to RF field penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, M.V.; Reid, D.W.; Potter, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    In a high duty-factor, high-current, drift-tube linear accelerator, a critical interface exists between the drift-tube stem and the tank wall. This interface must provide vacuum integrity and RF continuity, while simultaneously allowing alignment flexibility. Because of past difficulties with RF heating of vacuum bellows and RF joints encountered by others, a paucity of available information, and the high reliability requirement for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) accelerator, a program was initiated to study the problem. Because RF heating is the common failure mode, an attempt was made to find a correlation between the drift-tube-stem/linac-tank interface geometry and RF field penetration from the tank into the interface region. Experiments were performed at 80 MHz on an RF structure designed to simulate the conditions to which a drift-tube stem and vacuum bellows are exposed in a drift-tube linac. Additional testing was performed on a 367-MHz model of the FMIT prototype drift-tube linac. Experimental results, and a method to predict excessive RF heating, is presented. An experimentally tested solution to the problem is discussed

  3. Vehicle effects on human stratum corneum absorption and skin penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Alissa; Jung, Eui-Chang; Zhu, Hanjiang; Zou, Ying; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of three vehicles-ethanol (EtOH), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and isopropyl myristate (IPM)-on stratum corneum (SC) absorption and diffusion of the [ 14 C]-model compounds benzoic acid and butenafine hydrochloride to better understand the transport pathways of chemicals passing through and resident in SC. Following application of topical formulations to human dermatomed skin for 30 min, penetration flux was observed for 24 h post dosing, using an in vitro flow-through skin diffusion system. Skin absorption and penetration was compared to the chemical-SC (intact, delipidized, or SC lipid film) binding levels. A significant vehicle effect was observed for chemical skin penetration and SC absorption. IPA resulted in the greatest levels of intact SC/SC lipid absorption, skin penetration, and total skin absorption/penetration of benzoic acid, followed by IPM and EtOH, respectively. For intact SC absorption and total skin absorption/penetration of butenafine, the vehicle that demonstrated the highest level of sorption/penetration was EtOH, followed by IPA and IPM, respectively. The percent doses of butenafine that were absorbed in SC lipid film and penetrated through skin in 24 h were greatest for IPA, followed by EtOH and IPM, respectively. The vehicle effect was consistent between intact SC absorption and total chemical skin absorption and penetration, as well as SC lipid absorption and chemical penetration through skin, suggesting intercellular transport as a main pathway of skin penetration for model chemicals. These results suggest the potential to predict vehicle effects on skin permeability with simple SC absorption assays. As decontamination was applied 30 min after chemical exposure, significant vehicle effects on chemical SC partitioning and percutaneous penetration also suggest that skin decontamination efficiency is vehicle dependent, and an effective decontamination method should act on chemical solutes in the lipid domain.

  4. Effects of magnetic shear on current penetration in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pengyun; Wang Long

    2001-01-01

    The penetrations of the parallel and perpendicular components of plasma currents are interrelated to each other due to the existence of magnetic shear in a tokamak configuration. Effects of the shear on the penetration of Fourier components of toroidal plasma current are analysed in a cylindrical column model. The current penetration is obviously strengthened by the shear for a bell-bike conductivity profile and low safety factor and low aspect ratio

  5. Microstructural observations on the terminal penetration of long rod projectile

    OpenAIRE

    Krushna Kumbhar; P. Ponguru Senthil; A.K. Gogia

    2017-01-01

    Present study focuses on the terminal penetration of tungsten heavy alloy (WHA) long rod penetrator impacted against armour steel at an impact velocity of 1600 m/s. The residual penetrator and armour steel target recovered after the ballistic test have been characterized using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). Metallurgical changes in target steel and WHA remnant have been analysed. Large shear stresses and shear localization have...

  6. Penetration Testing dan Analisis Kemanan Web Paud Dikmas

    OpenAIRE

    Giffari, Abizar

    2018-01-01

    Sebuah instansi atau perusahaan tentunya mempunyai data penting yang tersimpan dalam sebuah sistem database yang kuat dan aman untuk menghindari ancaman pencurian data dari pihak luar. Untuk mengukur sejauh mana tingkat keamanan yang dibuat, diperlukan sebuah metode pengetesan yang disebut Penetration Testing. Penetration Testing memungkinkan kita untuk dapat menentukan sejauh mana tingkat keamanan sistem yang di test. Penetration Testing juga memungkinkan kita menyerang sistem layaknya attac...

  7. Building virtual pentesting labs for advanced penetration testing

    CERN Document Server

    Cardwell, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Written in an easy-to-follow approach using hands-on examples, this book helps you create virtual environments for advanced penetration testing, enabling you to build a multi-layered architecture to include firewalls, IDS/IPS, web application firewalls, and endpoint protection, which is essential in the penetration testing world. If you are a penetration tester, security consultant, security test engineer, or analyst who wants to practice and perfect penetration testing skills by building virtual pen testing labs in varying industry scenarios, this is the book for you. This book is ideal if yo

  8. The market penetration of energy-efficiency programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, L.

    1990-04-01

    The focus of this report is on one source of resource planning uncertainty: the expected market penetration of DSM (Demand Site Management) programs. Its purpose is to help refine planning assumptions and reduce uncertainty about the market penetration of utility DSM programs by: (1) investigating concepts and definitions of market penetration, (2) reviewing data that characterize patterns of variation (including ranges, averages and maximum levels) in program participation rates, (3) identifying the factors that affect participation, and (4) reviewing the structure and data requirements of models that forecast market penetration. 84 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. Hacking and penetration testing with low power devices

    CERN Document Server

    Polstra, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Hacking and Penetration Testing with Low Power Devices shows you how to perform penetration tests using small, low-powered devices that are easily hidden and may be battery-powered. It shows how to use an army of devices, costing less than you might spend on a laptop, from distances of a mile or more. Hacking and Penetration Testing with Low Power Devices shows how to use devices running a version of The Deck, a full-featured penetration testing and forensics Linux distribution, and can run for days or weeks on batteries due to their low power consumption. Author Philip Polstra shows how to

  10. Characterization of nuclear reactor containment penetrations. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bump, T.R.; Seidensticker, R.W.; Shackelford, M.A.; Gambhir, V.K.; McLennan, G.L.

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes the survey work conducted by Argonne National Laboratory on the design and details of major penetrations in 22 nuclear power plants. The survey includes all containment types and materials in current use. It also includes details of all types of penetrations (except for electrical penetration assemblies and valves) and the seals and gaskets used in them. The report provides a test matrix for testing major penetrations and for testing seals and gaskets in order to evaluate their leakage potential under severe accident conditions

  11. Prevention of serious impurity penetration into water-steam circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgmann, F.; Bursik, A.; Flunkert, F.; Nieder, R.

    1977-01-01

    In consequence of reports from several power Plants concerning heavy damages due to penetrations of impurities into the water-steam circuit, the VGB Sub-Committee 'Water Chemistry in Thermal Power Plants' has established a working group to check-up how serious impurity penetration can be avoided. The lecture describes possible danger points. Suitable technical arrangements for the avoidance of penetrations, and possibilities for monitoring will be discussed. Penetration of impurities cannot be avoided with absolute reliability, even when the recommended arrangements and usual monitoring are realized. Additional measures for the protection of water steam circuits will be suggested. (orig.) [de

  12. Quasi-relativistic effects in barrier-penetration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anchishkin, D.V.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of a particle tunneling through the potential barrier is solved within quasi-relativistic Schroedinger equation. It is shown that the subbarrier relativistic effects give a significant addition to penetration coefficient when some relations between parameters of the barrier and mass of a tunneling particle are satisfied. For instance an account of these effects for penetration of low energy π + -mesons through Coulomb barrier of the 298 U nuclei would give the increasing of penetration coefficient to 30 percent as compared to the nonrelativistic one. Also we give the criteria under which the contribution of the ''under barrier relativism'' to penetration coefficient becomes essential. 3 refs.; 6 figs. (author)

  13. Operating methods to remove the excess of penetrant in surface. Preponderant and characteristic part of water for water washable penetrants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubosc, P.

    1985-01-01

    Penetrant use for quality control, although very well known (nuclear, space industries, offshore platforms) is often poorly practiced. This is largely due to a lack of understanding by the users the way that the different components of the system (penetrants, solvents, emulsifiers, and developers) function. In this talk, we shall explain a particular characteristic that the manufacturers of reputable penetrant seek to build into their water washable penetrants. It is a viscosity curve which has the function of keeping water in a well defined form. We show why the form of the curve is crucial, which reaction between water and penetrant it corresponds to, and we deduce the practical consequences of bringing into play procedures for removing excess penetrant with or without water [fr

  14. Double ionization chamber survey meter for the separate measurement of penetrating and non-penetrating dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    The full capabilities of an advanced 8-bit microprocessor have been utilized in construction of a wide range, multiplexing survey meter based on dual electrometers and ionization chambers. The ionization chambers are constructed of modular conducting and non-conducting parts in such a way that the angular dependence for measurement of beta radiation is controlled by design. Display functions for the high range instrument include logarithmic or linear analog display, digital display of rate or dose, SI or English units, optionally for either total, penetrating, or non-penetrating dose. The instrument is presently configured to operate in the range 0.1 R/hr to 50,000 R/hr in support of the requirements of Regulatory Guide 19.7

  15. A Simple Experiment for Determining Vapor Pressure and Enthalpy of Vaporization of Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Gerald S.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory procedures, calculations, and sample results are described for a freshman chemistry experiment in which the Clausius-Clapeyron equation is introduced as a means of describing the variation of vapor pressure with temperature and for determining enthalpy of vaporization. (Author/SK)

  16. Vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of oil of catnip by correlation gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Daniel; Gobble, Chase; Chickos, James

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Vaporization enthalpies of the nepetalactones from oil of catnip have been evaluated. • Vapor pressures from T = (298.15 to 350) K have been evaluated. • Oil of catnip has a vapor pressure similar to DEET at T = 298.15 K. - Abstract: The vaporization enthalpy and vapor pressure of the two nepetalactones found in Nepeta cataria have been evaluated by correlation gas chromatography. Vaporization enthalpies at T = 298.15 K of {(68.0 ± 1.9) and (69.4 ± 1.9)} kJ ⋅ mol"−"1 have been derived for the minor diastereomer, (4aS,7S,7aS)-nepetalactone, and major one, (4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactone, respectively. Vapor pressures also at T = 298.15 K of p = (1.2 ± 0.04) Pa and (0.91 ± 0.03) Pa have been evaluated for the minor and the major stereoisomer. In addition to being of interest because of the remarkable effect it has on various felids, oil of catnip is also quite effective in repelling mosquitoes, comparable to diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). The vapor pressures evaluated in this work suggest that the two stereoisomers have similar volatility to DEET at ambient temperatures.

  17. Vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of a series of the linear aliphatic aldehydes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Verevkin, S. P.; Krasnykh, E. L.; Vasiltsova, T. V.; Koutek, Bohumír; Doubský, Jan; Heintz, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 206, - (2003), s. 331-339 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : aldehydes * vapor pressure * enthalpy of vaporization Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.165, year: 2003

  18. Vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpy of codlemone by correlation gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Shannon M.; Harris, Harold H.; Chickos, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The vaporization enthalpy of codlemone has been evaluated. • The vapor pressure of codlemone has been evaluated from T = (298.15 to T b ) K. • Vapor pressures for the 1-alkanols standards are available from T = (298.15 to 500) K. - Abstract: The vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy of codlemone (trans, trans 8,10-dodecadien-1-ol), the female sex hormone of the codling moth is evaluated by correlation gas chromatography using a series of saturated primary alcohols as standards. A vaporization enthalpy of (92.3 ± 2.6) kJ · mol −1 and a vapor pressure, p/Pa = (0.083 ± 0.012) were evaluated at T = 298.15 K. An equation for the evaluation of vapor pressure from ambient temperature to boiling has been derived by correlation for codlemone. The calculated boiling temperature of T B = 389 K at p = 267 Pa is within the temperature range reported in the literature. A normal boiling temperature of T B = (549.1 ± 0.1) K is also estimated by extrapolation

  19. Evidence of a sewer vapor transport pathway at the USEPA vapor intrusion research duplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of sewer lines as preferential pathways for vapor intrusion is poorly understood. Although the importance of sewer lines for volatile organic compound (VOC) transport has been documented at a small number of sites with vapor intrusion, sewer lines are not routinely sampl...

  20. Penetration, Post-penetration Development, and Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Cucumis melo var. texanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faske, T R

    2013-03-01

    Cucumis melo var. texanus, a wild melon commonly found in the southern United States and two accessions, Burleson Co. and MX 1230, expressed resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in preliminary experiments. To characterize the mechanism of resistance, we evaluated root penetration, post-penetration development, reproduction, and emigration of M. incognita on these two accessions of C. melo var. texanus. Additionally, we evaluated 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus for their reaction against M. incognita in a greenhouse experiment. Fewer (P ≤ 0.05) J2 penetrated the root system of C. melo var. texanus accessions (Burleson Co. and MX 1230) and C. metuliferus (PI 482452) (resistant control), 7 days after inoculation (DAI) than in C. melo 'Hales Best Jumbo' (susceptible control). A delayed (P ≤ 0.05) rate of nematode development was observed at 7, 14, and 21 DAI that contributed to lower (P ≤ 0.05) egg production on both accessions and C. metuliferus compared with C. melo. Though J2 emigration was observed on all Cucumis genotypes a higher (P ≤ 0.05) rate of J2 emigration was observed from 3 to 6 DAI on accession Burleson Co. and C. metuliferus than on C. melo. The 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus varied relative to their reaction to M. incognita with eight supporting similar levels of nematode reproduction to that of C. metuliferus. Cucumis melo var. texanus may be a useful source of resistance against root-knot nematode in melon.

  1. Water vapor profiling using microwave radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. R.; Wilheit, T. T.

    1988-01-01

    Water vapor is one of the most important constituents in the Earth's atmosphere. Its spatial and temporal variations affect a wide spectrum of meteorological phenomena ranging from the formation of clouds to the development of severe storms. The passive microwave technique offers an excellent means for water vapor measurements. It can provide both day and night coverage under most cloud conditions. Two water vapor absorption features, at 22 and 183 GHz, were explored in the past years. The line strengths of these features differ by nearly two orders of magnitude. As a consequence, the techniques and the final products of water vapor measurements are also quite different. The research effort in the past few years was to improve and extend the retrieval algorithm to the measurements of water vapor profiles under cloudy conditions. In addition, the retrieval of total precipitable water using 183 GHz measurements, but in a manner analogous to the use of 22 GHz measurements, to increase measurement sensitivity for atmospheres of very low moisture content was also explored.

  2. Control of sodium vapor transport in annuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, G.E.; Bohringer, A.P.

    1983-11-01

    The method used to control sodium vapor transport in the annuli of various components at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is a downward purge of the annuli with high purity argon. The purge rates for the FFTF were selected by calculating the gas velocity required to overcome thermal convection transport in the annuli. To evaluate the effectiveness of the gas purge, laboratory apparatus was fabricated which simulated selected annuli in the FFTF In-Vessel Handling Machine (IVHM) and the Instrument Tree (IT) annuli. Tests were conducted at temperatures similar to FFTF conditions. Gas purge rates ranged from zero to 130% of FFTF flow rates. Test results show the effectiveness of a high purity gas purge in decreasing the accumulation of sodium vapor deposits in an annulus. The presence of water vapor and oxygen in the purge gas increased the sodium deposition rate by a factor of three over other tests usig high purity argon. The presence of a vapor control collar used in the IT annulus was shown to be beneficial for controlling vapor transport into the upper region of the annulus

  3. Vapor pressure and thermodynamics of beryllium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinehart, G.H.; Behrens, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    The vapor pressure of beryllium carbide has been measured over the temperature range 1388 to 1763 K using Knudsen-effusion mass spectrometry. Vaporization occurs incongruently according to the reaction Be 2 C(s) = 2Be(g) + C(s). The equilibrium vapor pressure above the mixture of Be 2 C and C over the experimental temperature range is (R/J K -1 mol -1 )ln(p/Pa) = -(3.610 +- 0.009) x 10 5 (K/T) + (221.43 +- 1.06). The third-law enthalpy change for the above reaction obtained from the present vapor pressures is ΔH 0 (298.15 K) = (740.5 +- 0.1) kJ mol -1 . The corresponding second-law result is ΔH 0 (298.15 K) = (732.0 +- 1.8) kJ mol -1 . The enthalpy of formation for Be 2 C(s) calculated from the present third-law vaporization enthalpy and the enthalpy of formation of Be(g) is ΔH 0 sub(f)(298.15 K) = -(92.5 +- 15.7) kJ mol -1 . (author)

  4. Vapor pumps and gas-driven machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillet, R.

    1991-01-01

    The vapor pump, patented in 1979 by Gaz de France, is an additional mass and heat exchanger which uses the combustion air of fuel-burning machines as an additional cold source. This cold source is preheated and, above all, humidified before reaching the burner, by means of the residual sensible and latent heat in the combustion products of the fuel-burning process. This final exchanger thus makes it possible, in many cases, to recover all the gross calorific value of natural gas, even when the combustion products leave the process at a wet temperature greater than 60 0 C, the maximum dew point of the products of normal combustion. Another significant advantage of the vapor pump being worth highlighting is the selective recycling of water vapor by the vapor pump which reduces the adiabatic combustion temperature and the oxygen concentration in the combustion air, two factors which lead to considerable reductions in nitrogen oxides formation, hence limiting atmospheric pollution. Alongside a wide range of configurations which make advantageous use of the vapor pump in association with gas-driven machines and processes, including gas turbines, a number of boiler plant installations are also presented [fr

  5. Distribution of tropical tropospheric water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, De-Zheng; Lindzen, Richard S.

    1993-01-01

    Utilizing a conceptual model for tropical convection and observational data for water vapor, the maintenance of the vertical distribution of the tropical tropospheric water vapor is discussed. While deep convection induces large-scale subsidence that constrains the turbulent downgradient mixing to within the convective boundary layer and effectively dries the troposphere through downward advection, it also pumps hydrometeors into the upper troposphere, whose subsequent evaporation appears to be the major source of moisture for the large-scale subsiding motion. The development of upper-level clouds and precipitation from these clouds may also act to dry the outflow, thus explaining the low relative humidity near the tropopause. A one-dimensional model is developed to simulate the mean vertical structure of water vapor in the tropical troposphere. It is also shown that the horizontal variation of water vapor in the tropical troposphere above the trade-wind boundary layer can be explained by the variation of a moisture source that is proportional to the amount of upper-level clouds. Implications for the nature of water vapor feedback in global warming are discussed.

  6. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Silicate Vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Costa, Gustavo C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Silicates are a common class of materials that are often exposed to high temperatures. The behavior of these materials needs to be understood for applications as high temperature coatings in material science as well as the constituents of lava for geological considerations. The vaporization behavior of these materials is an important aspect of their high temperature behavior and it also provides fundamental thermodynamic data. The application of Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) to silicates is discussed. There are several special considerations for silicates. The first is selection of an appropriate cell material, which is either nearly inert or has well-understood interactions with the silicate. The second consideration is proper measurement of the low vapor pressures. This can be circumvented by using a reducing agent to boost the vapor pressure without changing the solid composition or by working at very high temperatures. The third consideration deals with kinetic barriers to vaporization. The measurement of these barriers, as encompassed in a vaporization coefficient, is discussed. Current measured data of rare earth silicates for high temperature coating applications are discussed. In addition, data on magnesium-iron-silicates (olivine) are presented and discussed.

  7. Ground Penetrating Radar Technologies in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochanin, Gennadiy P.; Masalov, Sergey A.

    2014-05-01

    Transient electromagnetic fields are of great interest in Ukraine. The following topics are studied by research teams, with high-level achievements all over the world: (i) Ultra-Wide Band/Short-pulse radar techniques (IRE and LLC "Transient Technologies", for more information please visit http://applied.ire.kharkov.ua/radar%20systems_their%20components%20and%20relevant%20technologies_e.html and http://viy.ua); (ii) Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) with stepped frequency sounding signals (IRE); (iii) Continuous-Wave (CW) radar with phase-shift keying signals (IRE); and (iv) Radio-wave interference investigation (Scientific and Technical Centre of The Subsurface Investigation, http://geophysics.ua). GPR applications are mainly in search works, for example GPR is often used to search for treasures. It is also used to identify leaks and diffusion of petroleum in soil, in storage areas, as well as for fault location of pipelines. Furthermore, GPR is used for the localization of underground utilities and for diagnostics of the technical state of hydro dams. Deeper GPR probing was performed to identify landslides in Crimea. Rescue radar with CW signal was designed in IRE to search for living people trapped under the rubble of collapsed buildings. The fourth version of this radar has been recently created, showing higher stability and noise immunity. Radio-wave interference investigation allows studying the soil down to tens of meters. It is possible to identify areas with increased conductivity (moisture) of the soil. LLC "Transient Technologies" is currently working with Shevchenko Kyiv University on a cooperation program in which the construction of a test site is one of the planned tasks. In the framework of this program, a GPR with a 300 MHz antenna was handed to the geological Faculty of the University. Employees of "Transient Technologies" held introductory lectures with a practical demonstration for students majoring in geophysics. The authors participated to GPR

  8. Modeling of Oblique Penetration into Geologic Targets Using Cavity Expansion Penetrator Loading with Target free-Surface Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joe; Longcope, Donald B.; Tabbara, Mazen R.

    1999-06-01

    A procedure has been developed to represent the loading on a penetrator and its motion during oblique penetration into geologic media. The penetrator is modeled with the explicit dynamics, finite element computer program PRONTO 3D and the coupled pressure on the penetrator is given in a new loading option based on a separate cavity expansion (CE) solution that accounts for the pressure reduction from a nearby target free surface. The free-surface influence distance is selected in a predictive manner by considering the pressure to expand a spherical cavity in a finite radius sphere of the target material. The CE/PRONTO 3D procedure allows a detailed description of the penetrator for predicting shock environments or structural failure during the entire penetra- tion event and is sufficiently rapid to be used in design optimization. It has been evaluated by comparing its results with data from two field tests of a full-scale penetrator into frozen soil at an impact angles of 49.6 and 52.5 degrees from the horizontal. The measured penetrator rotations were 24 and 22 degrees, respectively. In the simulation, the rotation was 21 degrees and predom- inately resulted from the pressure reduction of the free surface. Good agreement was also found for the penetration depth and axial and lateral acceleration at two locations in the penetrator.

  9. A Numerical Investigation of Vapor Intrusion — the Dynamic Response of Contaminant Vapors to Rainfall Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. government and various agencies have published guidelines for field investigation of vapor intrusion, most of which suggest soil gas sampling as an integral part of the investigation. Contaminant soil gas data are often relatively more stable than indoor air vapor concentration measurements, but meteorological conditions might influence soil gas values. Although a few field and numerical studies have considered some temporal effects on soil gas vapor transport, a full explanation of the contaminant vapor concentration response to rainfall events is not available. This manuscript seeks to demonstrate the effects on soil vapor transport during and after different rainfall events, by applying a coupled numerical model of fluid flow and vapor transport. Both a single rainfall event and seasonal rainfall events were modeled. For the single rainfall event models, the vapor response process could be divided into three steps: namely, infiltration, water redistribution, and establishment of a water lens atop the groundwater source. In the infiltration step, rainfall intensity was found to determine the speed of the wetting front and wash-out effect on the vapor. The passage of the wetting front led to an increase of the vapor concentration in both the infiltration and water redistribution steps and this effect is noted at soil probes located 1 m below the ground surface. When the mixing of groundwater with infiltrated water was not allowed, a clean water lens accumulated above the groundwater source and led to a capping effect which can reduce diffusion rates of contaminant from the source. Seasonal rainfall with short time intervals involved superposition of the individual rainfall events. This modeling results indicated that for relatively deeper soil that the infiltration wetting front could not flood, the effects were damped out in less than a month after rain; while in the long term (years), possible formation of a water lens played a larger role in

  10. Global Collaborative STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meabh Kelly, Susan; Smith, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Global Collaborative STEM Education, as the name suggests, simultaneously supports two sets of knowledge and skills. The first set is STEM -- science, technology, engineering and math. The other set of content knowledge and skills is that of global collaboration. Successful global partnerships require awareness of one's own culture, the biases embedded within that culture, as well as developing awareness of the collaborators' culture. Workforce skills fostered include open-mindedness, perseverance when faced with obstacles, and resourceful use of technological "bridges" to facilitate and sustain communication. In respect for the 2016 GIFT Workshop focus, Global Collaborative STEM Education projects dedicated to astronomy research will be presented. The projects represent different benchmarks within the Global Collaborative STEM Education continuum, culminating in an astronomy research experience that fully reflects how the global STEM workforce collaborates. To facilitate wider engagement in Global Collaborative STEM Education, project summaries, classroom resources and contact information for established international collaborative astronomy research projects will be disseminated.

  11. Dental pulp stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashri, N. Y.; Ajlan, S. A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from...... an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors....

  12. Auxiliary Electrodes for Chromium Vapor Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergus, Jeffrey; Shahzad, Moaiz; Britt, Tommy

    2018-05-15

    Measurement of chromia-containing vapors in solid oxide fuel cell systems is useful for monitoring and addressing cell degradation caused by oxidation of the chomia scale formed on alloys for interconnects and balance-of-plant components. One approach to measuring chromium is to use a solid electrolyte with an auxiliary electrode that relates the partial pressure of the chromium containing species to the mobile species in the electrolyte. One example is YCrO3 which can equilibrate with the chromium containing vapor and yttrium in yttria stabilized zirconia to establish an oxygen activity. Another is Na2CrO4 which can equilibrate with the chromium-containing vapor to establish a sodium activity.

  13. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit water vapor radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukamto, L. M.; Cooley, T. W.; Janssen, M. A.; Parks, G. S.

    1991-01-01

    A proof of concept Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR) is under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). WVR's are used to remotely sense water vapor and cloud liquid water in the atmosphere and are valuable for meteorological applications as well as for determination of signal path delays due to water vapor in the atmosphere. The high cost and large size of existing WVR instruments motivate the development of miniature MMIC WVR's, which have great potential for low cost mass production. The miniaturization of WVR components allows large scale deployment of WVR's for Earth environment and meteorological applications. Small WVR's can also result in improved thermal stability, resulting in improved calibration stability. Described here is the design and fabrication of a 31.4 GHz MMIC radiometer as one channel of a thermally stable WVR as a means of assessing MMIC technology feasibility.

  14. Numerical modeling of a vaporizing multicomponent droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megaridis, C. M.; Sirignano, W. A.

    The fundamental processes governing the energy, mass, and momentum exchange between the liquid and gas phases of vaporizing, multicomponent liquid droplets have been investigated. The axisymmetric configuration under consideration consists of an isolated multicomponent droplet vaporizing in a convective environment. The model considers different volatilities of the liquid components, variable liquid properties due to variation of the species concentrations, and non-Fickian multicomponent gaseous diffusion. The bicomponent droplet model was employed to examine the commonly used assumptions of unity Lewis number in the liquid phase and Fickian gaseous diffusion. It is found that the droplet drag coefficients, the vaporization rates, and the related transfer numbers are not influenced by the above assumptions in a significant way.

  15. Integrative STEM Education Defined

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    “My work with integrative STEM education began in 1990 with the NSF-funded Technology, Science, Mathematics Integration Project… By 2008, I was convinced “STEM Education” was (and always would be) a hopelessly ambiguous phrase, and therefore felt we absolutely needed to rename our “STEM Education” graduate program and develop a tight operational definition of the central idea underlying our program, in hopes of preventing the sort of hopeless ambiguity that ruined the term “STEM education” fr...

  16. Stem Cells and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliakos, George

    2017-02-01

    The article is a presentation at the 4th Conference of ESAAM, which took place on October 30-31, 2015, in Athens, Greece. Its purpose was not to cover all aspects of cellular aging but to share with the audience of the Conference, in a 15-minute presentation, current knowledge about the rejuvenating and repairing somatic stem cells that are distinct from other stem cell types (such as embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells), emphasize that our body in old age cannot take advantage of these rejuvenating cells, and provide some examples of novel experimental stem cell applications in the field of rejuvenation and antiaging biomedical research.

  17. Skin Penetration Enhancement by Natural Oils for Dihydroquercetin Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čižinauskas, Vytis; Elie, Nicolas; Brunelle, Alain; Briedis, Vitalis

    2017-09-12

    Natural oils are commonly used in topical pharmaceutical formulations as emulsifiers, stabilizers or solubility enhancers. They are presented as safe and inert components, mainly used for formulation purposes. It is confirmed that natural oils can affect the skin penetration of various substances. Fatty acids are mainly responsible for this effect. Current understanding lacks reliable scientific data on penetration of natural oils into the skin and their skin penetration enhancement potential. In the current study, fatty acid content analysis was used to determine the principal fatty acids in soybean, olive, avocado, sea-buckthorn pulp, raspberry seed and coconut oils. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry bioimaging was used to determine the distribution of these fatty acids in human skin ex vivo after application of the oils. Skin penetration enhancement ratios were determined for a perspective antioxidant compound dihydroquercetin. The results demonstrated skin penetration of fatty acids from all oils tested. Only soybean and olive oils significantly increased the skin distribution of dihydroquercetin and can be used as skin penetration enhancers. However, no correlation can be determined between the fatty acids' composition and skin penetration enhancement using currently available methodological approaches. This indicates that potential chemical penetration enhancement should be evaluated during formulation of topically applied products containing natural oils.

  18. Penetration of varnishes into demineralized root dentine in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, J; Duschner, H; Ruben, JL

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the penetration of three different varnishes employed in caries prevention (Duraphat(R), Fluor Protector(R) and Cervitec(R)) into demineralized dentine is quantified using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results show that the varnish penetration into lesions about 85 mu m in

  19. HMO penetration and the geographic mobility of practicing physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsky, D; Kletke, P R; Wozniak, G D; Escarce, J J

    2000-09-01

    In this study, we assessed the influence of changes in health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration on the probability that established patient care physicians relocated their practices or left patient care altogether. For physicians who relocated their practices, we also assessed the impact of HMO penetration on their destination choices. We found that larger increases in HMO penetration decreased the probability that medical/surgical specialists in early career stayed in patient care in the same market, but had no impact on generalists, hospital-based specialists, or mid career medical/surgical specialists. We also found that physicians who relocated their practices were much more likely to choose destination markets with the same level of HMO penetration or lower HMO penetration compared with their origin markets than they were to choose destination markets with higher HMO penetration. The largely negligible impact of changes in HMO penetration on established physicians' decisions to relocate their practices or leave patient care is consistent with high relocation and switching costs. Relocating physicians' attraction to destination markets with the same level of HMO penetration as their origin markets suggests that, while physicians' styles of medical practice may adapt to changes in market conditions, learning new practice styles is costly.

  20. 46 CFR 174.225 - Hull penetrations and shell connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull penetrations and shell connections. 174.225 Section 174.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... § 174.225 Hull penetrations and shell connections. Each overboard discharge and shell connection except...

  1. Experience With The Management Of unusual Penetrating Chest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presentation shows how a victim of fall from height in the bush can sustain a penetrating chest injury on a dry stick of a shrub. Applications on the principles of management of penetrating chest injury is needed despite the grotesque clinical appearance. [Jnl College of Medicine Vol.7(1) 2002: 40-42] ...

  2. Two methodologies for physical penetration testing using social engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; Pieters, Wolter; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2009-01-01

    During a penetration test on the physical security of an organization, if social engineering is used, the penetration tester directly interacts with the employees. These interactions are usually based on deception and if not done properly can upset the employees, violate their privacy or damage

  3. Gastroscopic treatment of gastric band penetrating the gastric wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, Per; Fonnest, G

    1999-01-01

    Gastric wall penetration of a gastric band after operation for morbid obesity is a well known late complication. The treatment is usually reoperation. In this case report we show that a band penetrating the gastric wall can be successfully treated by gastroscopic operation. This technique is more...

  4. A Study on Factors Affecting Airborne LiDAR Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses data from different periods, areas and parameters of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging surveys to understand the factors that influence airborne LiDAR penetration rate. A discussion is presented on the relationships between these factors and LiDAR penetration rate. The results show that the flight height above ground level (AGL does not have any relationship with the penetration rate. There are some factors that should have larger influence. For example, the laser is affected by a wet ground surface by reducing the number of return echoes. The field of view (FOV has a slightly negative correlation with the penetration rate, which indicates that the laser incidence angle close to zero should achieve the best penetration. The vegetation cover rate also shows a negative correlation with the penetration rate, thus bare ground and reduced vegetation in the aftermath of a typhoon also cause high penetration rate. More return echoes could be extracted from the full-waveform system, thereby effectively improving the penetration rate. This study shows that full-waveform LiDAR is an effective method for increasing the number of surface reflected echoes. This study suggests avoiding LiDAR survey employment directly following precipitation to prevent laser echo reduction.

  5. Replica scale modelling of long rod tank penetrators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diederen, A.M.; Hoeneveld, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments and simulations have been conducted using scale size tungsten alloy penetrators at ordnance velocity against an oblique plate array consisting of an inert sandwich and a base armour. The penetrators are made from 2 types of tungsten alloy with different tensile strength. Two scale sizes

  6. Penetrating abdominal injuries in adults seen at two teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the pattern and management outcome of penetrating abdominal injuries (PAI) in the two main teaching hospitals in Ghana. Study Design: A prospective ... Conclusion: Stab wounds are the main penetrating abdominal injuries seen mostly among young male adults in Ghana. Management was by a ...

  7. The Impact of IPv6 on Penetration Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottow, Christiaan; van Vliet, Frank; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Pras, Aiko

    In this paper we discuss the impact the use of IPv6 has on remote penetration testing of servers and web applications. Several modifications to the penetration testing process are proposed to accommodate IPv6. Among these modifications are ways of performing fragmentation attacks, host discovery and

  8. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory (extended version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Therefore, penetration testing has thus far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management,

  9. An explosive acoustic telemetry system for seabed penetrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, G.C.; Hickerson, J.

    1988-04-01

    This report discusses the design and past applications of an explosive acoustic telemetry system (EATS) for gathering and transmitting data from seabed penetrators. The system was first fielded in 1982 and has since been used to measure penetrator performance on three other occasions. Descriptions are given of the mechanical hardware, system electronics, and software.

  10. Impact of adult atopic dermatitis on topical drug penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Ortiz, Patricia; Hansen, Steen H; Shah, Vinod P

    2009-01-01

    Appropriate methodologies for the determination of drug penetration in diseased skin have not yet been established. The aim of this study was to determine the cutaneous penetration of a metronidazole cream formulation in atopic dermatitis, employing dermal microdialysis and tape strip sampling...

  11. Penetrating abdominal injury cases admitted in University of Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of penetrating abdominal injuries especially through gunshot injuries is on the increase and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in our community. Control measures and ways of reducing morbidity and mortality are suggested. Keywords: penetrating abdominal injuries, gun shot injuries. Annals of ...

  12. Penetration of asbestos fibers in respirator filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yung-Sung; Pearson, S.D.; Rohrbacher, K.D.; Yeh, Hsu-Chi.

    1994-01-01

    Currently, the health risks associated with asbestos have restricted its use and created a growing asbestos abatement industry with a need for respirator filters that are effective for worker protection. The main purpose of this project is to determine the influence of fiber size, electrostatic charge, and flow rate on the penetration of asbestos fibers in respirator filter cartridges. The study includes four types of filters each tested at two flow rates: the AO-R57A, a dual cartridge HEPA filter tested at 16 and 42.5 L/min; the MSA-S, a dust and mist filter tested at 16 and 42.5 L/min; the MSA-A power filter tested at 32 and 85 L/min; and the 3M-8710, a low-efficiency disposable face mask filter tested at 32 and 85 L/min. The three types of asbestos fibers used (amosite, crocidolite, and chrysotile) ranged in length from 0.04-0.5 μm and in aspect ratio (ratio of length to diameter) from 3 to 60. The fibers were used in both charged and neutralized forms. The results from amosite fibers are reported here

  13. Investigating hydrocarbon contamination using ground penetrating radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roest, P.B. van der; Brasser, D.J.S.; Wagebaert, A.P.J.; Stam, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    The increasing costs of remediating contaminated sites has stimulated research for cost reducing techniques in soil investigation and clean-up techniques. Under the traditional approach soil borings and groundwater wells are used to investigate contaminated soil. These are useful tools to determine the amount and characteristics of the contamination, but they are inefficient and costly in providing information on the location and extent of contamination as they only give information on one point. This often leads to uncertainty in estimating clean-up costs or, even worse, to unsuccessful clean-ups. MAP Environmental Research has developed a technology using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) in combination with in-house developed software to locate and define the extent of hydrocarbon contamination. With this technology, the quality of site investigation is increased while costs are reduced. Since 1994 MAP has been improving its technology and has applied it to over 100 projects, which all have been checked afterwards by conventional drilling. This paper gives some general characteristics of the method and presents a case study. The emphasis of this paper lies on the practical application of GPR to hydrocarbon contamination detection

  14. Penetrative convection at high Rayleigh numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppaladoddi, Srikanth; Wettlaufer, John S.

    2018-04-01

    We study penetrative convection of a fluid confined between two horizontal plates, the temperatures of which are such that a temperature of maximum density lies between them. The range of Rayleigh numbers studied is Ra=[0.01 ,4 ]106,108 and the Prandtl numbers are Pr=1 and 11.6. An evolution equation for the growth of the convecting region is obtained through an integral energy balance. We identify a new nondimensional parameter, Λ , which is the ratio of temperature difference between the stable and unstable regions of the flow; larger values of Λ denote increased stability of the upper stable layer. We study the effects of Λ on the flow field using well-resolved lattice Boltzmann simulations and show that the characteristics of the flow depend sensitively upon it. For the range Λ = , we find that for a fixed Ra the Nusselt number, Nu, increases with decreasing Λ . We also investigate the effects of Λ on the vertical variation of convective heat flux and the Brunt-Väisälä frequency. Our results clearly indicate that in the limit Λ →0 the problem reduces to that of the classical Rayleigh-Bénard convection.

  15. Spontaneous wound dehiscence after penetrating keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Foroutan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous wound separation may be developed even months after suture removal especially in the context of long-term corticosteroid therapy. A 68-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our cornea clinic with spontaneous wound dehiscence after her third penetrating keratoplasty (PKP which was performed three years ago. An Ahmed glaucoma valve (New World Medical, Ranchos Cucamonga, CA was inserted ten months after the third PKP, which successfully controlled intraocular pressure (IOP. At the examination, the last sutures were removed eight months ago and she was using flourometholone 0.1 % (Sina Darou, Tehran, Iran with a dose of once a day. There was one quadrant of wound dehiscence from 8 to 11 o`clock associated with anterior wound gape and severe corneal edema. Resuturing was performed for the patient. At the one month examination, the corneal edema was resolved and best corrected visual acuity was 20/200 mainly due to previous glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Caution about the prolonged use of corticosteroids is necessary. Topical immunosuppressives could be a promising choice in this field.

  16. Adsorption of polymer chains at penetrable interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimchuk, I. V.; Sommer, J.-U.; Gerasimchuk, V. S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the problem of adsorption (localization) of polymer chains in the system of two penetrable interfaces within the mean-field approximation. The saturation of the polymer system in the limit case of zero bulk concentration is studied. We find the exact solution of this mean-field polymer adsorption problem that opens the possibility to treat various localization problems for polymer chains in such environments using appropriate boundary conditions. The exact solution is controlled by a single scaling variable that describes the coupling between the interfaces due to the polymer chains. We obtain a nonmonotonic behavior of the amount of adsorbed polymers as a function of the distance between the interfaces. This leads to a high-energy and a low-energy phase for the double layer with respect to the amount of polymers localized. At the saturation point, we find the total energy of the system and determine the force acting between the interfaces to be strictly attractive and to monotonically decay to zero when the interface distance increases.

  17. Interpretation of the lime column penetration test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liyanapathirana, D S; Kelly, R B

    2010-01-01

    Dry soil mix (DSM) columns are used to reduce the settlement and to improve the stability of embankments constructed on soft clays. During construction the shear strength of the columns needs to be confirmed for compliance with technical assumptions. A specialized blade shaped penetrometer known as the lime column probe, has been developed for testing DSM columns. This test can be carried out as a pull out resistance test (PORT) or a push in resistance test (PIRT). The test is considered to be more representative of average column shear strength than methods that test only a limited area of the column. Both PORT and PIRT tests require empirical correlations of measured resistance to an absolute measure of shear strength, in a similar manner to the cone penetration test. In this paper, finite element method is used to assess the probe factor, N, for the PORT test. Due to the large soil deformations around the probe, an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) based finite element formulation has been used. Variation of N with rigidity index and the friction at the probe-soil interface are investigated to establish a range for the probe factor.

  18. Penetration of tritium into the Tropical Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine, R.A.; Peterson, W.H.; Ostlund, H.G.

    1987-01-01

    The persistence of subsurface tritium maxima coincident with the Equatorial Currents is used to show that advection along isopycnals by the mean wind-driven circulation is the dominant process in the at most 14-year time scale for the penetration of high northern latitude water to the equator (above 26.2 sigma-theta). Ventilation of the equatorial Pacific thermocline from the north contrasts sharply with the equatorial Atlantic thermocline which is ventilated from the south. The most striking manifestation of the North Pacific circulation is evidenced by a tritium maximum and salinity minimum at the equator between 145 0 and 125 0 W located above 25.6 sigma-theta. It shows that regardless of time of sampling the easter/central equator has received the highest latitude water, probably as a consequence of recirculation by the Equatorial Currents. Between the same meridians there is a tritium maximum on and north of the equator at the surface, which is interpreted as an expression of upwelling. Its coincidence with the cool tongue (Wyrtki) provides direct evidence that the upwelling process plays a dominant role in its maintenance on a decadal time scale

  19. Secondhand Exposure to Vapors From Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czogala, Jan; Fidelus, Bartlomiej; Zielinska-Danch, Wioleta; Travers, Mark J.; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are designed to generate inhalable nicotine aerosol (vapor). When an e-cigarette user takes a puff, the nicotine solution is heated and the vapor is taken into lungs. Although no sidestream vapor is generated between puffs, some of the mainstream vapor is exhaled by e-cigarette user. The aim of this study was to evaluate the secondhand exposure to nicotine and other tobacco-related toxicants from e-cigarettes. Materials and Methods: We measured selected airborne markers of secondhand exposure: nicotine, aerosol particles (PM2.5), carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an exposure chamber. We generated e-cigarette vapor from 3 various brands of e-cigarette using a smoking machine and controlled exposure conditions. We also compared secondhand exposure with e-cigarette vapor and tobacco smoke generated by 5 dual users. Results: The study showed that e-cigarettes are a source of secondhand exposure to nicotine but not to combustion toxicants. The air concentrations of nicotine emitted by various brands of e-cigarettes ranged from 0.82 to 6.23 µg/m3. The average concentration of nicotine resulting from smoking tobacco cigarettes was 10 times higher than from e-cigarettes (31.60±6.91 vs. 3.32±2.49 µg/m3, respectively; p = .0081). Conclusions: Using an e-cigarette in indoor environments may involuntarily expose nonusers to nicotine but not to toxic tobacco-specific combustion products. More research is needed to evaluate health consequences of secondhand exposure to nicotine, especially among vulnerable populations, including children, pregnant women, and people with cardiovascular conditions. PMID:24336346

  20. Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Story, M.S.

    1994-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program has developed, in cooperation with Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory, the equipment and expertise to characterize gases and vapors in the high-level radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. This capability has been demonstrated by the characterization of the tank 241-C-103 headspace. This tank headspace is the first, and for many reasons is expected to be the most problematic, that will be characterized (Osborne 1992). Results from the most recent and comprehensive sampling event, sample job 7B, are presented for the purpose of providing scientific bases for resolution of vapor issues associated with tank 241-C-103. This report is based on the work of Clauss et al. 1994, Jenkins et al. 1994, Ligotke et al. 1994, Mahon et al. 1994, and Rasmussen and Einfeld 1994. No attempt has been made in this report to evaluate the implications of the data presented, such as the potential impact of headspace gases and vapors to tank farm workers health. That and other issues will be addressed elsewhere. Key to the resolution of worker health issues is the quantitation of compounds of toxicological concern. The Toxicology Review Panel, a panel of Pacific Northwest Laboratory experts in various areas, of toxicology, has chosen 19 previously identified compounds as being of potential toxicological concern. During sample job 7B, the sampling and analytical methodology was validated for this preliminary list of compounds of toxicological concern. Validation was performed according to guidance provided by the Tank Vapor Conference Committee, a group of analytical chemists from academic institutions and national laboratories assembled and commissioned by the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program

  1. Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Story, M.S. [Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc. Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program has developed, in cooperation with Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory, the equipment and expertise to characterize gases and vapors in the high-level radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. This capability has been demonstrated by the characterization of the tank 241-C-103 headspace. This tank headspace is the first, and for many reasons is expected to be the most problematic, that will be characterized (Osborne 1992). Results from the most recent and comprehensive sampling event, sample job 7B, are presented for the purpose of providing scientific bases for resolution of vapor issues associated with tank 241-C-103. This report is based on the work of Clauss et al. 1994, Jenkins et al. 1994, Ligotke et al. 1994, Mahon et al. 1994, and Rasmussen and Einfeld 1994. No attempt has been made in this report to evaluate the implications of the data presented, such as the potential impact of headspace gases and vapors to tank farm workers health. That and other issues will be addressed elsewhere. Key to the resolution of worker health issues is the quantitation of compounds of toxicological concern. The Toxicology Review Panel, a panel of Pacific Northwest Laboratory experts in various areas, of toxicology, has chosen 19 previously identified compounds as being of potential toxicological concern. During sample job 7B, the sampling and analytical methodology was validated for this preliminary list of compounds of toxicological concern. Validation was performed according to guidance provided by the Tank Vapor Conference Committee, a group of analytical chemists from academic institutions and national laboratories assembled and commissioned by the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program.

  2. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

  3. Detection of water vapor on Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, H. P.; Fink, U.; Treffers, R.; Gautier, T. N., III

    1975-01-01

    High-altitude (12.4 km) spectroscopic observations of Jupiter at 5 microns from the NASA 91.5 cm airborne infrared telescope have revealed 14 absorptions assigned to the rotation-vibration spectrum of water vapor. Preliminary analysis indicates a mixing ratio about 1 millionth for the vapor phase of water. Estimates of temperature (greater than about 300 K) and pressure (less than 20 atm) suggest observation of water deep in Jupiter's hot spots responsible for its 5 micron flux. Model-atmosphere calculations based on radiative-transfer theory may change these initial estimates and provide a better physical picture of Jupiter's atmosphere below the visible cloud tops.

  4. Vapor deposition in basaltic stalactites, Kilauea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, A. K.; Mohrig, D. C.; Welday, E. E.

    Basaltic stalacties suspended from the ceiling of a large lava tube at Kilauea, Hawaii, have totally enclosed vesicles whose walls are covered with euhedral FeTi oxide and silicate crystals. The walls of the vesicles and the exterior surfaces of stalactites are Fe and Ti enriched and Si depleted compared to common basalt. Minerals in vesicles have surface ornamentations on crystal faces which include alkali-enriched, aluminosilicate glass(?) hemispheres. No sulfide-, chloride-, fluoride-, phosphate- or carbonate-bearing minerals are present. Minerals in the stalactites must have formed by deposition from an iron oxide-rich vapor phase produced by the partial melting and vaporization of wall rocks in the tube.

  5. Flammability characteristics of combustible gases and vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabetakis, M. G. [Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1964-05-01

    This is a summary of the available limit of flammability, autoignition and burning-rate data for more than 200 combustible gases and vapors in air and other oxidants, as well as of empirical rules and graphs that can be used to predict similar data for thousands of other combustibles under a variety of environmental conditions. Spec$c data are presented on the paraffinic, unsaturated, aromatic, and alicyclic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, and sulfur compounds, and an assortment of fuels, fuel blends, hydraulic fluids, engine oils, and miscellaneous combustible gases and vapors.

  6. Laser vapor phase deposition of semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlov, N.V.; Luk' ianchuk, B.S.; Sisakian, E.V.; Shafeev, G.A.

    1987-06-01

    The pyrolytic effect of IR laser radiation is investigated with reference to the initiation and control of the vapor phase deposition of semiconductor films. By selecting the gas mixture composition and laser emission parameters, it is possible to control the deposition and crystal formation processes on the surface of semiconductors, with the main control action achieved due to the nonadiabatic kinetics of reactions in the gas phase and high temperatures in the laser heating zone. This control mechanism is demonstrated experimentally during the laser vapor deposition of germanium and silicon films from tetrachlorides on single-crystal Si and Ge substrates. 5 references.

  7. The vertical distribution of Mars water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of observations made from the Viking 1 Orbiter indicates that the water vapor over the Viking 1 landing site is uniformly mixed with the atmosphere and not concentrated near the surface. The analysis incorporates the effects of atmospheric scattering and explains why previous earth-based observations showed a strong diurnal variation in water content. It also explains the lack of an early morning fog and removes the necessity of daily exchange of large amounts of water between the surface and the atmosphere. A water vapor volume mixing ratio of 1.5 x 10 to the -4th is inferred for the Viking 1 site in late summer.

  8. Drag Reduction by Leidenfrost Vapor Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2011-05-23

    We demonstrate and quantify a highly effective drag reduction technique that exploits the Leidenfrost effect to create a continuous and robust lubricating vapor layer on the surface of a heated solid sphere moving in a liquid. Using high-speed video, we show that such vapor layers can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by over 85%. These results appear to approach the ultimate limit of drag reduction possible by different methods based on gas-layer lubrication and can stimulate the development of related energy saving technologies.

  9. Low temperature vapor phase digestion of graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Robert A.

    2017-04-18

    A method for digestion and gasification of graphite for removal from an underlying surface is described. The method can be utilized to remove graphite remnants of a formation process from the formed metal piece in a cleaning process. The method can be particularly beneficial in cleaning castings formed with graphite molding materials. The method can utilize vaporous nitric acid (HNO.sub.3) or vaporous HNO.sub.3 with air/oxygen to digest the graphite at conditions that can avoid damage to the underlying surface.

  10. Standard practice for liquid penetrant examination for general industry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for penetrant examination of materials. Penetrant testing is a nondestructive testing method for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, shrinkage, laminations, through leaks, or lack of fusion and is applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance testing. It can be effectively used in the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, ferrous and nonferrous metals, and of nonmetallic materials such as nonporous glazed or fully densified ceramics, as well as certain nonporous plastics, and glass. 1.2 This practice also provides a reference: 1.2.1 By which a liquid penetrant examination process recommended or required by individual organizations can be reviewed to ascertain its applicability and completeness. 1.2.2 For use in the preparation of process specifications and procedures dealing with the liquid penetrant testing of parts and materials. Agreement by the customer requesting penetrant inspection is strongly rec...

  11. Evaporation and skin penetration characteristics of mosquito repellent formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifenrath, W.G.; Hawkins, G.S.; Kurtz, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Formulations of the mosquito repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) in combination with a variety of additives were developed to control repellent evaporation and percutaneous penetration. Deet was also formulated with the repellent dimethyl phthalate to study the interaction of the two compounds on the skin. The evaporation and penetration processes were evaluated on whole and split-thickness pig skin using radiolabeled repellents with an in vitro apparatus. Under essentially still air and air flow conditions, one of the deet formulations resulted in significantly reduced total evaporation and percutaneous penetration of deet as compared to unformulated repellent. When deet and dimethyl phthalate were combined, neither repellent affected the total amount of evaporation and penetration of the other compound. However, initial percutaneous penetration and evaporation rates were slightly less and decayed less rapidly than when both chemicals were tested separately at the same dose. These results indicated a degree of competition of the two compounds for the same avenues of loss

  12. Separation of aromatics by vapor permeation through solvent swollen membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, A.; Adachi, K.; Feng, Y. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)

    1995-12-20

    A vapor permeation process for aromatics separation from a hydrocarbon mixture was studied by means of the simultaneous permeation of dimethylsulfoxide vapor as an agent for membrane swelling and preferential permeation of aromatics. The separation performance of the process was demonstrated by a polyvinylalcohol membrane for mixed vapors of benzene/cyclohexane, xylene/octane and a model gasoline. The aromatic vapors preferentially permeated from these mixed vapor feeds. The separation factor was over 10. The separation mechanism of the process mainly depends on the relative salability of the vapors between aromatics and other hydrocarbons in dimethylsulfoxide. 14 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  13. The stem factor challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, M.J.; Steele, R. Jr.; DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D.

    1994-01-01

    One of the most important challenges that still needs to be met in the effort to understand the operation of motor-operated, rising-stem valves is the ability to determine stem factor throughout the valve's load range. The stem factor represents the conversion of operator torque to stem thrust. Determining the stem factor is important because some motor-operated valves (MOVs) cannot be tested in the plant at design basis conditions. The ability of these valves to perform their design basis function (typically, to operate against specified flow and pressure loads) must be ensured by analytical methods or by extrapolating from the results of tests conducted at lower loads. Because the stem factor tends to vary in response to friction and lubrication phenomena that occur during loading and wedging, analytical methods and extrapolation methods have been difficult to develop and implement. Early investigations into variability in the stem factor tended to look only at the tip of the iceberg; they focused on what was happening at torque switch trip, which usually occurs at full wedging. In most stems, the stem factor is better (lower) in the wedging transient than before wedging, so working with torque switch trip data alone led many early researchers to false conclusions about the relationship between stem factor and load. However, research at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has taken a closer look at what happens during the running portion of the closing stroke along with the wedging portion. This shift in focus is important, because functional failure of a valve typically consists of a failure to isolate flow, not a failure to achieve full wedging. Thus, the stem factor that must be determined for a valve's design basis closing requirements is the one that corresponds with the running load before wedging

  14. Donating Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print this page My Cart Donating peripheral blood stem cells Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is a nonsurgical procedure to collect ... Donating bone marrow Donor experiences videos Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is one of two methods of ...

  15. Stem Cell Transplants (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth / For Teens / Stem Cell Transplants What's ... Take to Recover? Coping Print What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every ...

  16. A Local Propagation for Vapor Explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, M.; Bankoff, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    Explosive boiling, defined as energy transfer leading to formation of vapor rapidly enough to produce large shock waves, has been widely studied in a number of contexts. Depending upon the nature and temperatures of the liquids and mode of contacting, large-scale mixing and explosive vaporization may occur, or alternatively, only relatively non-energetic, film-type boiling may exist. The key difference is whether a mechanism is operative for increasing the liquid-liquid interfacial area in a time scale consistent with the formation of a detonation wave. Small drops of a cold volatile liquid were dropped onto a free surface of a hot, non-volatile liquid. The critical Weber number for coalescence is obtained from the envelope of the film boiling region. Markedly different behavior for the two hot liquids is observed. A 'splash' theory for local propagation of vapor explosions in spontaneously nucleating liquid-liquid systems is now formulated. After a random contact is made, explosive growth and coalescence of the vapor bubbles occurs as soon as the surrounding pressure is relieved, resulting in a high-pressure vapor layer at the liquid-liquid contact area. This amounts to an impact pressure applied to the free surface, with a resulting velocity distribution obtained from potential flow theory. The peak pressure predictions are. consistent with data for Freon-oil mixing, but further evaluation will await additional experimental data. Nevertheless, the current inference is that a UO 2 -Na vapor explosion in a reactor environment cannot be visualized. In conclusion: The propagation model presented here differs in some details from that of Henry and Fauske, although both are consistent with some peak pressure data obtained by Henry, et al. Clearly, additional experimental information is needed for further evaluation of these theories. Nevertheless, it should be emphasized that even at this time a number of important observations concerning the requirements for a vapor

  17. Magnetometry and Ground-Penetrating Radar Studies in the Sihuas Valley, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnicki, E.; Papadimitrios, K.; Bank, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Quillcapampa la Antigua site in Peru's Sihuas Valley is a settlement from Peru's Middle Horizon (600-100 A.D.). Archaeological interest in the area stems from the question of whether ancient civilizations were able to have extensive state control of distant groups, or whether state influence occurred through less direct ties (e.g., marriage, religion, or trade). Our geophysical surveys are preliminary to archaeological digging in the area. Ground-penetrating radar and magnetometry attempt to locate areas of interest for focused archaeological excavation, characterize the design of architectural remains and burial mounds in the area, and allow archaeologists to interpret the amount of influence the Wari civilization had on the local residents.

  18. In vitro generation of motor neuron precursors from mouse embryonic stem cells using mesoporous nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Bennett, Alfonso E; König, Niclas; Abrahamsson, Ninnie

    2014-01-01

    nanoparticles could be effective for stem cell differentiation in vitro. Materials & methods: We used a mouse embryonic stem cell line expressing green fluorescent protein under the promoter for the MN-specific gene Hb9 to visualize the level of MN differentiation. The differentiation of stem cells......Aim: Stem cell-derived motor neurons (MNs) are utilized to develop replacement strategies for spinal cord disorders. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells into MN precursors involves factors and their repeated administration. We investigated if delivery of factors loaded into mesoporous...... was evaluated by expression of MN-specific transcription factors monitored by quantitative real-time PCR reactions and immunocytochemistry. Results: Mesoporous nanoparticles have strong affiliation to the embryoid bodies, penetrate inside the embryoid bodies and come in contact with differentiating cells...

  19. Consistent constitutive modeling of metallic target penetration using empirical, analytical, and numerical penetration models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John (Jack P. Riegel III

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Historically, there has been little correlation between the material properties used in (1 empirical formulae, (2 analytical formulations, and (3 numerical models. The various regressions and models may each provide excellent agreement for the depth of penetration into semi-infinite targets. But the input parameters for the empirically based procedures may have little in common with either the analytical model or the numerical model. This paper builds on previous work by Riegel and Anderson (2014 to show how the Effective Flow Stress (EFS strength model, based on empirical data, can be used as the average flow stress in the analytical Walker–Anderson Penetration model (WAPEN (Anderson and Walker, 1991 and how the same value may be utilized as an effective von Mises yield strength in numerical hydrocode simulations to predict the depth of penetration for eroding projectiles at impact velocities in the mechanical response regime of the materials. The method has the benefit of allowing the three techniques (empirical, analytical, and numerical to work in tandem. The empirical method can be used for many shot line calculations, but more advanced analytical or numerical models can be employed when necessary to address specific geometries such as edge effects or layering that are not treated by the simpler methods. Developing complete constitutive relationships for a material can be costly. If the only concern is depth of penetration, such a level of detail may not be required. The effective flow stress can be determined from a small set of depth of penetration experiments in many cases, especially for long penetrators such as the L/D = 10 ones considered here, making it a very practical approach. In the process of performing this effort, the authors considered numerical simulations by other researchers based on the same set of experimental data that the authors used for their empirical and analytical assessment. The goals were to establish a

  20. Additive Neuroprotective Effect of Borneol with Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Ischemic Stroke in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Guang Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous stem cell transplantation initiates neuroprotection related to the secretion of trophic factor. Borneol, a potential herbal neuroprotective agent, is a penetration enhancer. Here, we aimed to investigate whether they have additive neuroprotective effect on cerebral ischemia. Borneol was given to mice by gavage 3 days before middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO induction until the day when the mice were sacrificed. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs were intravenously injected at 24 h after MCAO induction. Neurological deficits, infarct volume, cell death, and neurogenesis were evaluated. Combined use of MSCs and borneol could more effectively reduce infarction volume and cell apoptosis, enhance neurogenesis, and improve the functional recovery than that of MSCs alone. The findings showed that combined use of borneol and stem cells provided additive neuroprotective effect on cerebral ischemia. However, the supposed effect of borneol on the improved MSC penetration still needs further direct evidence.

  1. Knudsen cell vaporization of rare earth nitrides: enthalpy of vaporization of HoN098

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.C.; Clark, N.J.

    1975-01-01

    The enthalpy of vaporization of HoN 0 . 98 was measured by the weight-loss Knudsen cell technique using Motzfeldt-Whitman extrapolations to zero orifice area. A third-law enthalpy of vaporization of HoN 0 . 98 of 155.9 +- 5 kcal mole -1 was obtained compared to a second-law value of 162.0 +- 5 kcal mole -1 . Similar measurements on the nitrides of samarium, erbium, and ytterbium gave third-law enthalpies of vaporization of 126.8 +-- 5 kcal mole -1 ; 159.6 +- 5 kcal mole -1 , and 121.0 +- 5 kcal mole -1 , respectively. 7 tables

  2. Collapsing criteria for vapor film around solid spheres as a fundamental stage leading to vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freud, Roy; Harari, Ronen; Sher, Eran

    2009-01-01

    Following a partial fuel-melting accident, a Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) can result with the fragmentation of the melt into tiny droplets. A vapor film is then formed between the melt fragments and the coolant, while preventing a contact between them. Triggering, propagation and expansion typically follow the premixing stage. In the triggering stage, vapor film collapse around one or several of the fragments occurs. This collapse can be the result of fragments cooling, a sort of mechanical force, or by any other means. When the vapor film collapses and the coolant re-establishes contact with the dry surface of the hot melt, it may lead to a very rapid and rather violent boiling. In the propagation stage the shock wave front leads to stripping of the films surrounding adjacent droplets which enhance the fragmentation and the process escalates. During this process a large quantity of liquid vaporizes and its expansion can result in destructive mechanical damage to the surrounding structures. This multiphase thermal detonation in which high pressure shock wave is formed is regarded as 'vapor explosion'. The film boiling and its possible collapse is a fundamental stage leading to vapor explosion. If the interaction of the melt and the coolant does not result in a film boiling, no explosion occurs. Many studies have been devoted to determine the minimum temperature and heat flux that is required to maintain a film boiling. The present experimental study examines the minimum temperature that is required to maintain a film boiling around metal spheres immersed into a liquid (subcooled distilled water) reservoir. In order to simulate fuel fragments that are small in dimension and has mirror-like surface, small spheres coated with anti-oxidation layer were used. The heat flux from the spheres was calculated from the sphere's temperature profiles and the sphere's properties. The vapor film collapse was associated with a sharp rise of the heat flux during the cooling

  3. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    This dissertation examines the influence that economic and technological factors have on the penetration of biodiesel and ethanol into the transportation fuels market. This dissertation focuses on four aspects. The first involves the influence of fossil fuel prices, because biofuels are substitutes and have to compete in price. The second involves biofuel manufacturing technology, principally the feedstock-to-biofuel conversion rates, and the biofuel manufacturing costs. The third involves prices for greenhouse gas offsets. The fourth involves the agricultural commodity markets for feedstocks, and biofuel byproducts. This dissertation uses the Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model-Greenhouse Gas (FASOM-GHG) to quantitatively examine these issues and calculates equilibrium prices and quantities, given market interactions, fossil fuel prices, carbon dioxide equivalent prices, government biofuel subsidies, technological improvement, and crop yield gains. The results indicate that for the ranges studied, gasoline prices have a major impact on aggregate ethanol production but only at low prices. At higher prices, one runs into a capacity constraint that limits expansion on the capacity of ethanol production. Aggregate biodiesel production is highly responsive to gasoline prices and increases over time. (Diesel fuel price is proportional to the gasoline price). Carbon dioxide equivalent prices expand the biodiesel industry, but have no impact on ethanol aggregate production when gasoline prices are high again because of refinery capacity expansion. Improvement of crop yields shows a similar pattern, expanding ethanol production when the gasoline price is low and expanding biodiesel. Technological improvement, where biorefinery production costs decrease over time, had minimal impact on aggregate ethanol and biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government subsidies have a large expansionary impact on aggregate biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government

  4. Severe accident testing of electrical penetration assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.

    1989-11-01

    This report describes the results of tests conducted on three different designs of full-size electrical penetration assemblies (EPAs) that are used in the containment buildings of nuclear power plants. The objective of the tests was to evaluate the behavior of the EPAs under simulated severe accident conditions using steam at elevated temperature and pressure. Leakage, temperature, and cable insulation resistance were monitored throughout the tests. Nuclear-qualified EPAs were produced from D. G. O'Brien, Westinghouse, and Conax. Severe-accident-sequence analysis was used to generate the severe accident conditions (SAC) for a large dry pressurized-water reactor (PWR), a boiling-water reactor (BWR) Mark I drywell, and a BWR Mark III wetwell. Based on a survey conducted by Sandia, each EPA was matched with the severe accident conditions for a specific reactor type. This included the type of containment that a particular EPA design was used in most frequently. Thus, the D. G. O'Brien EPA was chosen for the PWR SAC test, the Westinghouse was chosen for the Mark III test, and the Conax was chosen for the Mark I test. The EPAs were radiation and thermal aged to simulate the effects of a 40-year service life and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) before the SAC tests were conducted. The design, test preparations, conduct of the severe accident test, experimental results, posttest observations, and conclusions about the integrity and electrical performance of each EPA tested in this program are described in this report. In general, the leak integrity of the EPAs tested in this program was not compromised by severe accident loads. However, there was significant degradation in the insulation resistance of the cables, which could affect the electrical performance of equipment and devices inside containment at some point during the progression of a severe accident. 10 refs., 165 figs., 16 tabs

  5. Colorectal cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Paul; Platell, Cameron

    2009-10-01

    Somatic stem cells reside at the base of the crypts throughout the colonic mucosa. These cells are essential for the normal regeneration of the colonic epithelium. The stem cells reside within a special 'niche' comprised of intestinal sub-epithelial myofibroblasts that tightly control their function. It has been postulated that mutations within these adult colonic stem cells may induce neoplastic changes. Such cells can then dissociate from the epithelium and travel into the mesenchyme and thus form invasive cancers. This theory is based on the observation that within a colon cancer, less than 1% of the neoplastic cells have the ability to regenerate the tumour. It is this group of cells that exhibits characteristics of colonic stem cells. Although anti-neoplastic agents can induce remissions by inhibiting cell division, the stem cells appear to be remarkably resistant to both standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These stem cells may therefore persist after treatment and form the nucleus for cancer recurrence. Hence, future treatment modalities should focus specifically on controlling the cancer stem cells. In this review, we discuss the biology of normal and malignant colonic stem cells.

  6. Aneuploidy in stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Martinez, Jorge; Bakker, Bjorn; Schukken, Klaske M; Simon, Judith E; Foijer, Floris

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine as well as for engineering of model systems to study diseases and develop new drugs. The discovery of protocols that allow for generating induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) from somatic cells has brought this promise steps closer to

  7. Dazlin' pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be isolated from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocyst embryos and differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro. However, despite their similar origin, mouse embryonic stem cells represent a more naïve ICM-like pluripotent state whereas human

  8. Cancer stem cells revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batlle, Eduard; Clevers, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) concept was proposed four decades ago, and states that tumor growth, analogous to the renewal of healthy tissues, is fueled by small numbers of dedicated stem cells. It has gradually become clear that many tumors harbor CSCs in dedicated niches, and yet their

  9. The Hidden STEM Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Workers in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) fields play a direct role in driving economic growth. Yet, because of how the STEM economy has been defined, policymakers have mainly focused on supporting workers with at least a bachelor's (BA) degree, overlooking a strong potential workforce of those with less than a BA. This report…

  10. Solvent-vapor-assisted imprint lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voicu, Nicoleta E.; Ludwigs, Sabine; Crossland, Edward J. W.; Andrew, Piers; Steiner, Ullrich

    2007-01-01

    Sub-micrometer features are replicated into high-molecular-weight polymer resists by using solvent-assisted nanoimprint lithography (see figure). By swelling the polymer in a controlled solvent-vapor atmosphere, millibar pressures and ambient temperatures are sufficient to achieve high-fidelity

  11. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    CERN Document Server

    Olivares, I E

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the sup 6 LiD sub 2 and the sup 7 LiD sub 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  12. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, I.E.; Rojas, C.

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the 6 LiD 2 and the 7 LiD 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  13. Resonant second harmonic generation in potassium vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.; Mullin, C.S.; Shen, Y.R.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1995-06-01

    Picosecond pulses are used to study resonant second harmonic generation in potassium vapor. Although the process is both microscopically and macroscopically forbidden, it can readily be observed. The results can be quantitatively understood by a multiphoton-ionization-initiated, dc-field-induced, coherent transient model

  14. Vapor Bubbles in Flow and Acoustic Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosperetti, Andrea; Hao, Yue; Sadhal, S.S

    2002-01-01

    A review of several aspects of the interaction of bubbles with acoustic and flow fields is presented. The focus of the paper is on bubbles in hot liquids, in which the bubble contains mostly vapor, with little or no permanent gas. The topics covered include the effect of translation on condensation

  15. A FGGE water vapor wind data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tod R.; Hayden, Christopher M.

    1985-01-01

    It has been recognized for some time that water vapor structure visible in infrared imagery offers a potential for obtaining motion vectors when several images are considered in sequence (Fischer et al., 1981). A study evaluating water vapor winds obtained from the VISSR atmospheric sounder (Stewart et al., 1985) has confirmed the viability of the approach. More recently, 20 data sets have been produced from METEOSAT water vapor imagery for the FGGE period of 10-25 November 1979. Where possible, two data sets were prepared for each day at 0000 and 1200 GMT and compared with rawinsondes over Europe, Africa, and aircraft observations over the oceans. Procedures for obtaining winds were, in general, similar to the earlier study. Motions were detected both by a single pixel tracking and a cross correlation method by using three images individually separated by one hour. A height assignment was determined by matching the measured brightness temperature to the temperature structure represented by the FGGE-IIIB analyses. Results show that the METEOSAT water vapor winds provide uniform horizontal coverage of mid-level flow over the globe with good accuracy.

  16. External fuel vaporization study, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szetela, E. J.; Chiappetta, L.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted to evaluate the effect of variations in fuel properties on the design of an external fuel vaporizaton system. The fuel properties that were considered included thermal stability, critical temperature, enthalpy a critical conditions, volatility, and viscosity. The design parameters that were evaluated included vaporizer weight and the impact on engine requirement such as maintenance, transient response, performance, and altitude relight. The baseline fuel properties were those of Jet A. The variation in thermal stability was taken as the thermal stability variation for Experimental Referee Broad Specification (ERBS) fuel. The results of the analysis indicate that a change in thermal stability equivalent to that of ERBS would increase the vaporization system weight by 20 percent, decrease oprating time between cleaning by 40 percent and make altitude relight more difficult. An increase in fuel critical temperature of 39 K would require a 40 percent increase in vaporization system weight. The assumed increase in enthalpy and volatility would also increase vaporizer weight by 40 percent and make altitude relight extremely difficult. The variation in fuel viscosity would have a negligible effect on the design parameters.

  17. Atomic-vapor-laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.I.

    1982-10-01

    This paper gives a brief history of the scientific considerations leading to the development of laser isotope separation (LIS) processes. The close relationship of LIS to the broader field of laser-induced chemical processes is evaluated in terms of physical criteria to achieve an efficient production process. Atomic-vapor LIS processes under development at Livermore are reviwed. 8 figures

  18. Fractional condensation of biomass pyrolysis vapors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik; Garcia Perez, M.; Wang, Zhouhong; Oudenhoven, Stijn; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria; Kersten, Sascha R.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the possibilities to steer the composition and, thus, the quality of pyrolysis liquids by the reactor temperature and the pyrolysis vapor condenser temperature. Pine wood was pyrolyzed in a 1 kg/h fluidized-bed pyrolysis reactor operated at 330 or 480 °C. The

  19. 75 FR 65151 - Marine Vapor Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... Classification UFL Upper flammable limit USCG U.S. Coast Guard VCS Vapor control system VOC Volatile organic... transfer substance to new Subpart P, beginning with 33 CFR 154.2000, to facilitate the substantive changes... that guidance. Limit requirements for flame arresters or flame screens to the flammable, combustible...

  20. Covering sources of toxic vapors with foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aue, W. P.; Guidetti, F.

    2009-01-01

    In a case of chemical terrorism, first responders might well be confronted with a liquid source of toxic vapor which keeps spreading out its hazardous contents. With foam as an efficient and simple means, such a source could be covered up in seconds and the spread of vapors mitigated drastically. Once covered, the source could then wait for a longer time to be removed carefully and professionally by a decontamination team. In order to find foams useful for covering up toxic vapor sources, a large set of measurements has been performed in order to answer the following questions: - Which foams could be used for this purpose? - How thick should the foam cover be? - For how long would such a foam cover be effective? - Could the practical application of foam cause a spread of the toxic chemical? The toxic vapors sources included GB, GD and HD. Among the foams were 10 fire fighter foams (e.g. AFFF, protein) and the aqueous decontamination foam CASCAD. Small scale experiments showed that CASCAD is best suited for covering a toxic source; a 10 cm layer of it covers and decontaminates GB. The large scale experiments confirmed that any fire fighter foam is a suitable cover for a longer or shorter period.(author)

  1. Similarities and differences in vapor explosion criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronenberg, A.W.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of recent ideas pertaining to vapor explosion criteria indicates that in general sense, a consensus of opinion is emerging on the conditions applicable to explosive vaporization. Experimental and theoretical work has lead a number of investigators to the formulation of such conditions which are quite similar in many respects, although the quantitative details of the model formulation of such conditions are somewhat different. All model concepts are consistent in that an initial period of stable film boiling, separating molten fuel from coolant, is considered necessary (at least for large-scale interactions and efficient intermixing), with subsequent breakdown of film boiling due to pressure and/or thermal effects, followed by intimate fuel-coolant contact and a rapid vaporization process which is sufficient to cause shock pressurization. Although differences arise as to the conditions for and the energetics associated with film boiling destabilization and the mode and energetics of fragmentation and intermixing. However, the principal area of difference seems to be the question of what constitutes the requisite condition(s) for rapid vapor production to cause shock pressurization

  2. HYDROCARBON VAPOR DIFFUSION IN INTACT CORE SLEEVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diffusion of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (TMP) and 2,2,5-trimethylhexane (TMH) vapors put of residually contaminated sandy soil from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) field research site at Traverse City, Michigan, was measured and modeled. The headspace of an intact ...

  3. Multicomponent droplet vaporization in a convecting environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megaridis, C.M.; Sirignano, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper a parametric study of the fundamental exchange processes for energy, mass and momentum between the liquid and gas phases of multicomponent liquid vaporizing droplets is presented. The model, which examines an isolated, vaporizing, multicomponent droplet in an axisymmetric, convecting environment, considers the different volatilities of the liquid components, the alteration of the liquid-phase properties due to the spatial/temporal variations of the species concentrations and also the effects of multicomponent diffusion. In addition, the model accounts for variable thermophysical properties, surface blowing and droplet surface regression due to vaporization, transient droplet heating with internal liquid circulation, and finally droplet deceleration with respect to the free flow due to drag. The numerical calculation employs finite-difference techniques and an iterative solution procedure that provides time-varying spatially-resolved data for both phases. The effects of initial droplet composition, ambient temperature, initial Reynolds number (based on droplet diameter), and volatility differential between the two liquid components are investigated for a liquid droplet consisting of two components with very different volatilities. It is found that mixtures with higher concentration of the less volatile substance actually vaporize faster on account of intrinsically higher liquid heating rates

  4. Terahertz radiation in alkali vapor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xuan; Zhang, X.-C.

    2014-01-01

    By taking advantage of low ionization potentials of alkali atoms, we demonstrate terahertz wave generation from cesium and rubidium vapor plasmas with an amplitude nearly one order of magnitude larger than that from nitrogen gas at low pressure (0.02–0.5 Torr). The observed phenomena are explained by the numerical modeling based upon electron tunneling ionization

  5. Vapor pressure of selected organic iodides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fulem, M.; Růžička, K.; Morávek, P.; Pangrác, Jiří; Hulicius, Eduard; Kozyrkin, B.; Shatunov, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 11 (2010), 4780-4784 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0217 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : vapor pressure * static method * organic iodides Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.089, year : 2010

  6. Containment penetration design and analysis by finite element methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.F.; Rigamonti, G.; Dainora, J.

    1975-01-01

    Containment penetration designs which provide complete support to process piping containing high pressure and high temperature fluids and which do not employ cooling coils, require special provisions to sustain loadings associated with normal/abnormal conditions and to limit maximum temperature transmitted to the containment concrete wall. In order to accomodate piping loads and fluid temperatures within code and regulatory limitations, the containment penetration designs require careful analysis of two critical regions: 1) the portion of the penetration sleeve which is exposed to containment ambient conditions and 2) the portion of the penetration which connects the sleeve to process piping (flued head). Analytical models using finite element representation of process piping, penetration flued head, and exposed sleeve were employed to investigate the penetration assembly design. By application of flexible multi-step analyses, different penetration configurations were evaluated to determine the effects of key design parameters. Among the parameters studied were flued head angles with the process piping, sleeve length and wall thickness. Special designs employing fins welded to the sleeve to further lower the temperature at the concrete wall interface were also investigated and fin geometry effects reported. (Auth.)

  7. Analysis of 178 penetrating stomach and small bowel injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Ali; Teixeira, Pedro G R; Inaba, Kenji; Brown, Carlos; Browder, Timothy; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2008-03-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs), such as wound infection, fascial dehiscence, and intraabdominal abscess, commonly occur following penetrating abdominal trauma. However, most of the literature involves penetrating colon injuries. There are few reports describing complications following penetrating stomach and small bowel injuries. Based on the hypothesis that SSIs are commonly found following penetrating stomach and small bowel trauma, a prospective observational study was performed at an academic Level I trauma center from March 1, 2004 until August 31, 2006. The subjects were patients who had sustained a penetrating injury to the stomach or small bowel. Patients were followed for the development of an SSI, defined as wound infection, fascial dehiscence, or intraabdominal abscess. A total of 178 patients were admitted with penetrating stomach or small bowel injuries over the 29-month period. There were 121 (68%) gunshot injuries and 57 (32%) stab wounds. Associated intraabdominal injuries occurred in 74% of patients. Overall, SSIs occurred in 20% of cases. Risk factors for SSI included associated duodenal or colon injury, whereas time to operating room, blood loss, and type and duration of antibiotic use were not. When associated colon injuries were excluded, SSIs occurred in 16% of patients with gastric injuries and 13% of those with small bowel injuries. SSIs commonly follow penetrating stomach and small bowel trauma. Risk factors for SSI include associated duodenal or colon injury. Delay to operating room, blood loss, and type and length of antibiotic prophylaxis were not associated with an increased risk of SSI.

  8. Evaporation Limited Radial Capillary Penetration in Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingchao; Wu, Jian; Gan, Yixiang; Hanaor, Dorian A H; Chen, C Q

    2016-09-27

    The capillary penetration of fluids in thin porous layers is of fundamental interest in nature and various industrial applications. When capillary flows occur in porous media, the extent of penetration is known to increase with the square root of time following the Lucas-Washburn law. In practice, volatile liquid evaporates at the surface of porous media, which restricts penetration to a limited region. In this work, on the basis of Darcy's law and mass conservation, a general theoretical model is developed for the evaporation-limited radial capillary penetration in porous media. The presented model predicts that evaporation decreases the rate of fluid penetration and limits it to a critical radius. Furthermore, we construct a unified phase diagram that describes the limited penetration in an annular porous medium, in which the boundaries of outward and inward liquid are predicted quantitatively. It is expected that the proposed theoretical model will advance the understanding of penetration dynamics in porous media and facilitate the design of engineered porous architectures.

  9. Water Penetration through a Superhydrophobic Mesh During a Drop Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seunggeol; Sen, Prosenjit; Nam, Youngsuk; Lee, Choongyeop

    2017-01-01

    When a water drop impacts a mesh having submillimeter pores, a part of the drop penetrates through the mesh if the impact velocity is sufficiently large. Here we show that different surface wettability, i.e., hydrophobicity and superhydrophobicity, leads to different water penetration dynamics on a mesh during drop impact. We show, despite the water repellence of a superhydrophobic surface, that water can penetrate a superhydrophobic mesh more easily (i.e., at a lower impact velocity) over a hydrophobic mesh via a penetration mechanism unique to a superhydrophobic mesh. On a superhydrophobic mesh, the water penetration can occur during the drop recoil stage, which appears at a lower impact velocity than the critical impact velocity for water penetration right upon impact. We propose that this unique water penetration on a superhydrophobic mesh can be attributed to the combination of the hydrodynamic focusing and the momentum transfer from the water drop when it is about to bounce off the surface, at which point the water drop retrieves most of its kinetic energy due to the negligible friction on superhydrophobic surfaces.

  10. Vaporization of fault water during seismic slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianye; Niemeijer, André R.; Fokker, Peter A.

    2017-06-01

    Laboratory and numerical studies, as well as field observations, indicate that phase transitions of pore water might be an important process in large earthquakes. We present a model of the thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical processes, including a two-phase mixture model to incorporate the phase transitions of pore water, occurring during fast slip (i.e., a natural earthquake) in order to investigate the effects of vaporization on the coseismic slip. Using parameters from typical natural faults, our modeling shows that vaporization can indeed occur at the shallow depths of an earthquake, irrespective of the wide variability of the parameters involved (sliding velocity, friction coefficient, gouge permeability and porosity, and shear-induced dilatancy). Due to the fast kinetics, water vaporization can cause a rapid slip weakening even when the hydrological conditions of the fault zone are not favorable for thermal pressurization, e.g., when permeability is high. At the same time, the latent heat associated with the phase transition causes the temperature rise in the slip zone to be buffered. Our parametric analyses reveal that the amount of frictional work is the principal factor controlling the onset and activity of vaporization and that it can easily be achieved in earthquakes. Our study shows that coseismic pore fluid vaporization might have played important roles at shallow depths of large earthquakes by enhancing slip weakening and buffering the temperature rise. The combined effects may provide an alternative explanation for the fact that low-temperature anomalies were measured in the slip zones at shallow depths of large earthquakes.

  11. The vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of M-xylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberg, S J; Seiler, F A; Bechtold, W E; Eidson, A F

    1988-12-01

    We measured the vapor pressure of m-xylene over the temperature range 273 to 293 deg K with a single-sided capacitance manometer. The enthalpy of vaporization was 42.2 {+-} 0.1 (SE) kj/ g{center_dot}mol. Combining our own data with previously published data, we recommend using the values 42.0, 40.6, and 39.1 ({+-} 0.1) (SE) kjg{center_dot}mol for the enthalpy of vaporization of m-xylene at 300, 340, and 380 deg. K, respectively, and a value for the change in heat capacity on vaporization ({delta}Cpdeg.) of 35 {+-} 3 (SE) J/g{center_dot}mol{center_dot}K over the temperature range studied. (author)

  12. The vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of M-xylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothenberg, S.J.; Seiler, F.A.; Bechtold, W.E.; Eidson, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    We measured the vapor pressure of m-xylene over the temperature range 273 to 293 deg K with a single-sided capacitance manometer. The enthalpy of vaporization was 42.2 ± 0.1 (SE) kj/ g·mol. Combining our own data with previously published data, we recommend using the values 42.0, 40.6, and 39.1 (± 0.1) (SE) kjg·mol for the enthalpy of vaporization of m-xylene at 300, 340, and 380 deg. K, respectively, and a value for the change in heat capacity on vaporization (ΔCpdeg.) of 35 ± 3 (SE) J/g·mol·K over the temperature range studied. (author)

  13. 46 CFR 182.480 - Flammable vapor detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.480 Flammable vapor... permit calibration in a vapor free atmosphere. (g) Electrical connections, wiring, and components for a...

  14. Ammonia IR Absorbance Measurements with an Equilibrium Vapor Cell

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Field, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Infrared (IR) absorbance spectra were acquired for 18 ammonia vapor pressures. The vapor pressures were generated with 15 gravimetrically prepared aqueous solutions and three commercial aqueous solutions using a dynamic method I.E...

  15. Water vapor movement in freezing aggregate base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to 1) measure the extent to which water vapor movement results in : water accumulation in freezing base materials; 2) evaluate the effect of soil stabilization on water vapor movement : in freezing base materials;...

  16. Importance Of Penetration Testing For Legacy Operating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poorvi Bhatt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Penetration testing is very important technique to find vulnerabilities in commercial networks. There are various techniques for ethical hacking via penetration testing. This report explains a white hat hacker approach of penetration testing. I have performed this test on private network where three PCs are connected through LAN via switch and without firewall. This network is not connected with Internet. All the PCs have windows operating system. The attacker host has windows server 2003 with Service Pack1 second host has windows XP with Service Pack 2 and third host has windows 2000 with service pack 4.

  17. Conducting network penetration and espionage in a global environment

    CERN Document Server

    Middleton, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    When it's all said and done, penetration testing remains the most effective way to identify security vulnerabilities in computer networks. Conducting Network Penetration and Espionage in a Global Environment provides detailed guidance on how to perform effective penetration testing of computer networks-using free, open source, and commercially available tools, including Backtrack, Metasploit, Wireshark, Nmap, Netcat, and Nessus. It also considers exploits and other programs using Python, PERL, BASH, PHP, Ruby, and Windows PowerShell.The book taps into Bruce Middleton's decades of experience wi

  18. Magnetic field penetration into superconductors with sharp edges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhilichev, Yuriy N.

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic field and surface currents induced within a superconductor are calculated assuming the field penetrates in it near sharp corners. Rounding the corners is used to keep the field less than a critical value. Analytical formulas for a corner radius are given for a wire of the rectangular cross-section and a cylinder in the external magnetic field. A boundary integral method is used to calculate the boundary of the Meissner domain when the external field penetrates deep into the superconductor. The effect of degree of penetration on the magnetic moment of superconducting cylinders and wires is discussed

  19. Bionanomaterials and Bioinspired Nanostructures for Selective Vapor Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    agricultural crops. To meet the requirements for these and other demanding applications, new sensing approaches with improved sensor selectivity are required...of these vapors with key side- chain amino acids. DNT-binding peptide receptors were further conjugated to an oligo(ethylene glycol) hydrogel for vapor...coefficient for DNT over TNT vapor. Vapor-phase binding performance was attributed to the ability of the oligo(ethylene glycol) hydrogel to maintain the

  20. What is a stem cell?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Jonathan M W

    2018-05-15

    The historical roots of the stem cell concept are traced with respect to its usage in embryology and in hematology. The modern consensus definition of stem cells, comprising both pluripotent stem cells in culture and tissue-specific stem cells in vivo, is explained and explored. Methods for identifying stem cells are discussed with respect to cell surface markers, telomerase, label retention and transplantability, and properties of the stem cell niche are explored. The CreER method for identifying stem cells in vivo is explained, as is evidence in favor of a stochastic rather than an obligate asymmetric form of cell division. In conclusion, it is found that stem cells do not possess any unique and specific molecular markers; and stem cell behavior depends on the environment of the cell as well as the stem cell's intrinsic qualities. Furthermore, the stochastic mode of division implies that stem cell behavior is a property of a cell population not of an individual cell. In this sense, stem cells do not exist in isolation but only as a part of multicellular system. This article is categorized under: Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Tissue Stem Cells and Niches Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Methods and Principles Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Environmental Control of Stem Cells. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Tracking an atmospheric river in a warmer climate: from water vapor to economic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Francina; Dall'erba, Sandy; Huang, Shuyi; Avelino, Andre; Mehran, Ali; Hu, Huancui; Schmidt, Arthur; Schick, Lawrence; Lettenmaier, Dennis

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) account for more than 75 % of heavy precipitation events and nearly all of the extreme flooding events along the Olympic Mountains and western Cascade Mountains of western Washington state. In a warmer climate, ARs in this region are projected to become more frequent and intense, primarily due to increases in atmospheric water vapor. However, it is unclear how the changes in water vapor transport will affect regional flooding and associated economic impacts. In this work we present an integrated modeling system to quantify the atmospheric-hydrologic-hydraulic and economic impacts of the December 2007 AR event that impacted the Chehalis River basin in western Washington. We use the modeling system to project impacts under a hypothetical scenario in which the same December 2007 event occurs in a warmer climate. This method allows us to incorporate different types of uncertainty, including (a) alternative future radiative forcings, (b) different responses of the climate system to future radiative forcings and (c) different responses of the surface hydrologic system. In the warming scenario, AR integrated vapor transport increases; however, these changes do not translate into generalized increases in precipitation throughout the basin. The changes in precipitation translate into spatially heterogeneous changes in sub-basin runoff and increased streamflow along the entire Chehalis main stem. Economic losses due to stock damages increase moderately, but losses in terms of business interruption are significant. Our integrated modeling tool provides communities in the Chehalis region with a range of possible future physical and economic impacts associated with AR flooding.

  2. DSMC simulations of vapor transport toward development of the lithium vapor box divertor concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagoe, Christopher; Schwartz, Jacob; Goldston, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The lithium vapor divertor box concept attempts to achieve volumetric dissipation of the high heat efflux from a fusion power system. The vapor extracts the heat of the incoming plasma by ionization and radiation, while remaining localized in the vapor box due to differential pumping based on rapid condensation. Preliminary calculations with lithium vapor at densities appropriate for an NSTX-U-scale machine give Knudsen numbers between 0.01 and 1, outside both the range of continuum fluid dynamics and of collisionless Monte Carlo. The direct-simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, however, can simulate rarefied gas flows in this regime. Using the solver contained in the OpenFOAM package, pressure-driven flows of water vapor will be analyzed. The use of water vapor in the relevant range of Knudsen number allows for a flexible similarity experiment to verify the reliability of the code before moving to tests with lithium. The simulation geometry consists of chains of boxes on a temperature gradient, connected by slots with widths that are a representative fraction of the dimensions of the box. We expect choked flow, sonic shocks, and order-of-magnitude pressure and density drops from box to box, but this expectation will be tested in the simulation and then experiment. This work is supported by the Princeton Environmental Institute.

  3. 40 CFR 52.255 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.255... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.255 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) “Gasoline” means any petroleum distillate having a Reid vapor pressure of 4 pounds or greater...

  4. 40 CFR 52.787 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.787... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.787 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) Gasoline means any petroleum distillate having a Reid vapor pressure of 4 pounds or greater...

  5. 21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a device intended for use during surgery to contain or remove...

  6. Review of literature on the asymmetric collapse of vapor bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremd, R.; Froehlich, G.

    1977-06-01

    This report contains a review of literature on the asymmetric collape of vapor bubbles by cavitation with special consideration to vapor explosions. Two numerical models, which describe the collapse of cavities in the neighbourhood of a solid surface, are presented. Moreover experimental results for this case are provided. Propositions to apply the numerical models to vapor explosions are made. (orig.) [de

  7. The separation of hydrocarbons from waste vapor streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behling, R.D.; Ohlrogge, K.; Peinemann, K.V.; Kyburz, E.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbon vapors generated from industrial processes dispersed into air are contributing factors for the creation of photochemical smog. The separation of hydrocarbon vapor by means of membranes is in case of some applications a technically simple and economic process. A membrane vapor separation process with a following treatment of the retentate by catalytic incineration is introduced in this paper

  8. Recommended vapor pressures for thiophene, sulfolane, and dimethyl sulfoxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fulem, Michal; Růžička, K.; Růžička, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 303, č. 2 (2011), s. 205-216 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : thiophene sulfolane * dimethyl sulfoxide * vapor pressure * heat capacity * vaporization enthalpy * recommended vapor pressure equation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.139, year: 2011

  9. 33 CFR 154.826 - Vapor compressors and blowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Excessive shaft bearing temperature. (d) If a centrifugal compressor, fan, or lobe blower handles vapor in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vapor compressors and blowers....826 Vapor compressors and blowers. (a) Each inlet and outlet to a compressor or blower which handles...

  10. The vaporization enthalpy and vapor pressure of S (+)-methamphetamine at T = 298.15 K by correlation gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, Melissa; Gobble, Chase; Chickos, James

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The vaporization enthalpy of (d)-methamphetamine was measured. • The vapor pressure of (d)-methamphetamine as a function of temperature was evaluated. • The vapor pressure of 4-benzylpiperidine as a function of temperature was evaluated. - Abstract: The vaporization enthalpy and vapor pressure of S (+)-methamphetamine is evaluated by correlation-gas chromatography. A vaporization enthalpy of (58.7 ± 4.3) kJ · mol −1 and a vapor pressure, p = (38 ± 9) Pa has been obtained using a variety of secondary aliphatic amines as standards. In addition, equations describing the vapor pressure temperature dependence are provided for standards and S (+)-methamphetamine covering the temperature range from T = 298.15 K to the boiling temperature. Boiling temperatures are reproduced within an interval of 8 K or less

  11. Manipulation of Cell Cycle and Chromatin Configuration by Means of Cell-Penetrating Geminin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Ohno

    Full Text Available Geminin regulates chromatin remodeling and DNA replication licensing which play an important role in regulating cellular proliferation and differentiation. Transcription of the Geminin gene is regulated via an E2F-responsive region, while the protein is being closely regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Our objective was to directly transduce Geminin protein into cells. Recombinant cell-penetrating Geminin (CP-Geminin was generated by fusing Geminin with a membrane translocating motif from FGF4 and was efficiently incorporated into NIH 3T3 cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The withdrawal study indicated that incorporated CP-Geminin was quickly reduced after removal from medium. We confirmed CP-Geminin was imported into the nucleus after incorporation and also that the incorporated CP-Geminin directly interacted with Cdt1 or Brahma/Brg1 as the same manner as Geminin. We further demonstrated that incorporated CP-Geminin suppressed S-phase progression of the cell cycle and reduced nuclease accessibility in the chromatin, probably through suppression of chromatin remodeling, indicating that CP-Geminin constitutes a novel tool for controlling chromatin configuration and the cell cycle. Since Geminin has been shown to be involved in regulation of stem cells and cancer cells, CP-Geminin is expected to be useful for elucidating the role of Geminin in stem cells and cancer cells, and for manipulating their activity.

  12. Temperature dependences of saturated vapor pressure and the enthalpy of vaporization of n-pentyl esters of dicarboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnova, S. V.; Krasnykh, E. L.; Levanova, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    The saturated vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of n-pentyl esters of linear C2-C6 dicarboxylic acids are determined by the transpiration method in the temperature range of 309.2-361.2 K. The dependences of enthalpies of vaporization on the number of carbon atoms in the molecule and on the retention indices have been determined. The predictive capabilities of the existing calculation schemes for estimation of enthalpy of vaporization of the studied compounds have been analyzed.

  13. Safety considerations of laser related penetration in LCTR central power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botts, T.E.; Chan, C.K.; Ullman, A.Z.

    1976-01-01

    The following topics are briefly described: (1) requirements for optical penetration performance, (2) failure sequences in LCTR optical penetrations, (3) thermal stress in optical penetrations, and (4) nonlinear optical effects

  14. Analysis of the Noneroding Penetration of Tungsten Alloy Long Rods into Aluminum Targets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Segletes, Steven

    2003-01-01

    .... the eroding-penetration regimes. Conventional one-dimensional penetration analysis reveals that the noneroding datum is wholly consistent with the notion of treating the rod as if it penetrated in a rigid-body fashion, possessing...

  15. Long term pavement performance computed parameter : frost penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    As the pavement design process moves toward mechanistic-empirical techniques, knowledge of seasonal changes in pavement structural characteristics becomes critical. Specifically, frost penetration information is necessary for determining the effect o...

  16. Penetration analysis of projectile with inclined concrete target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim S.B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents numerical analysis result of projectile penetration with concrete target. We applied dynamic material properties of 4340 steels, aluminium and explosive for projectile body. Dynamic material properties were measured with static tensile testing machine and Hopkinson pressure bar tests. Moreover, we used three concrete damage models included in LS-DYNA 3D, such as SOIL_CONCRETE, CSCM (cap model with smooth interaction and CONCRETE_DAMAGE (K&C concrete models. Strain rate effect for concrete material is important to predict the fracture deformation and shape of concrete, and penetration depth for projectiles. CONCRETE_DAMAGE model with strain rate effect also applied to penetration analysis. Analysis result with CSCM model shows good agreement with penetration experimental data. The projectile trace and fracture shapes of concrete target were compared with experimental data.

  17. Management of Penetrating Spinal Cord Injuries in a Non Spinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of Penetrating Spinal Cord Injuries in a Non Spinal Centre: Experience at Enugu, Nigeria. ... The thoracic spine{9(41%)}was most often involved. ... Five (23%) patients with injury at cervical level died from respiratory failure.

  18. colour-flow ultrasound in the detection of penetrating vascular

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VASCULAR INJURIES OF THE NECK. Peter Corr ... in patients with penetrating neck injuries. 5 IIfr Mal ... study of the aortic arch, carotid and vertebral artery was performed as .... that may require endovascular treatment, for example vertebral.

  19. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Soil Penetration Resistance of Recultivated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadorozhnaya Galina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines changes in the spatial distribution of soil penetration resistance in ordinary chernozem (Calcic Chernozem and in the recultivated soil in 2012 and 2014. The measurements were carried out in the field using an Eijkelkamp penetrometer on a regular grid. The depth of measurement was 50 cm, the interval was 5 cm. The indices of variation of soil penetration resistance in space and time have been determined. The degree of spatial dependence of soil penetration resistance has been determined layer by layer. The nature of temporal dynamics of soil penetration resistance of chernozem and technical soil has been described. A significant positive relationship of the structure of chernozem in the two years of the research has been shown. Significant correlations between the data of different years in the technical soil were found to be mostly negative.

  20. Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacogenetic, and Other Factors Influencing CNS Penetration of Antiretrovirals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta Nwamaka Nwogu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological complications associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are a matter of great concern. While antiretroviral (ARV drugs are the cornerstone of HIV treatment and typically produce neurological benefit, some ARV drugs have limited CNS penetration while others have been associated with neurotoxicity. CNS penetration is a function of several factors including sieving role of blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers and activity of innate drug transporters. Other factors are related to pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of the specific ARV agent or mediated by drug interactions, local inflammation, and blood flow. In this review, we provide an overview of the various factors influencing CNS penetration of ARV drugs with an emphasis on those commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa. We also summarize some key associations between ARV drug penetration, CNS efficacy, and neurotoxicity.

  1. Ground penetrating radar evaluation of new pavement density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this project was to map pavement surface density variations using dielectric : measurements from ground penetrating radar (GPR). The work was carried out as part of an : Asphalt Intelligent Compaction demonstration project on SR 539 ...

  2. 119 Research Article Resistance to European Penetration into Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-22

    Jun 22, 2017 ... Many Africans resisted the imperialist penetration while some people welcomed them at the initial stage but ... slave trade was abolished and replaced by peaceful trade in the ... they started manifesting imperialist designs.

  3. Penetration analysis of projectile with inclined concrete target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. B.; Kim, H. W.; Yoo, Y. H.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents numerical analysis result of projectile penetration with concrete target. We applied dynamic material properties of 4340 steels, aluminium and explosive for projectile body. Dynamic material properties were measured with static tensile testing machine and Hopkinson pressure bar tests. Moreover, we used three concrete damage models included in LS-DYNA 3D, such as SOIL_CONCRETE, CSCM (cap model with smooth interaction) and CONCRETE_DAMAGE (K&C concrete) models. Strain rate effect for concrete material is important to predict the fracture deformation and shape of concrete, and penetration depth for projectiles. CONCRETE_DAMAGE model with strain rate effect also applied to penetration analysis. Analysis result with CSCM model shows good agreement with penetration experimental data. The projectile trace and fracture shapes of concrete target were compared with experimental data.

  4. Conditions for plasmoid penetration across abrupt magnetic barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenning, Nils; Hurtig, Tomas; Raadu, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    The penetration of plasma clouds, or plasmoids, across abrupt magnetic barriers (of the scale less than a few ion gyro radii, using the plasmoid directed velocity) is studied. The insight gained earlier, from detailed experimental and computer simulation investigations of a case study, is generalized into other parameter regimes. It is concluded for what parameters a plasmoid should be expected to penetrate the magnetic barrier through self-polarization, penetrate through magnetic expulsion, or be rejected from the barrier. The scaling parameters are n e , v 0 , B perpendicular , m i , T i , and the width w of the plasmoid. The scaling is based on a model for strongly driven, nonlinear magnetic field diffusion into a plasma which is a generalization of the earlier laboratory findings. The results are applied to experiments earlier reported in the literature, and also to the proposed application of impulsive penetration of plasmoids from the solar wind into the Earth's magnetosphere

  5. Penetration of magnetic field in ferromagnetic transformer sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, R; Ziolkowski, M

    1981-01-12

    The paper deals with the penetration of magnetic field in a ferromagnetic transformer sheet. The flux-density distribution is computed using Galerkin's procedure. The different boundary conditions and the nonlinear B/H characteristic is taken into account.

  6. Lateral Tension-Induced Penetration of Particles into a Liposome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Shigyou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is important that we understand the mechanism of the penetration of particles into a living cell to achieve advances in bionanotechnology, such as for treatment, visualization within a cell, and genetic modification. Although there have been many studies on the application of functional particles to cells, the basic mechanism of penetration across a biological membrane is still poorly understood. Here we used a model membrane system to demonstrate that lateral membrane tension drives particle penetration across a lipid bilayer. After the application of osmotic pressure, fully wrapped particles on a liposome surface were found to enter the liposome. We discuss the mechanism of the tension-induced penetration in terms of narrow constriction of the membrane at the neck part. The present findings are expected to provide insight into the application of particles to biological systems.

  7. Review of Power System Stability with High Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Rui; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    analyzing methods and stability improvement approaches. With increasing wind power penetration, system balancing and the reduced inertia may cause a big threaten for stable operation of power systems. To mitigate or eliminate the wind impacts for high wind penetration systems, although the practical......This paper presents an overview of researches on power system stability with high wind power penetration including analyzing methods and improvement approaches. Power system stability issues can be classified diversely according to different considerations. Each classified issue has special...... and reliable choices currently are the strong outside connections or sufficient reserve capacity constructions, many novel theories and approaches are invented to investigate the stability issues, looking forward to an extra-high penetration or totally renewable resource based power systems. These analyzing...

  8. Penetration of stimuli of fish skin for Acanthostomum brauni cercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski de Nuñez, M; Haas, W

    1991-02-01

    The cercaria of Acanthostomum brauni penetrates the skin of its fish host in response to a combination of two chemical signals from the fish skin surface: free fatty acids and a macro-molecular mucus component. The latter seems to be a protein, as the penetration-stimulating activity of fish skin surface mucus is eliminated by digestion with proteinase, but not by digestion with glycosidases, nor by a removal of glycosaminoglycans. These penetration-stimulating host signals differ from the glycoproteins that stimulate the attachment of A. brauni cercariae to the host and also from the macromolecular fish host signals which have been found to stimulate the attachment and penetration by Opisthorchis viverrini cercariae.

  9. Simple Amides of Oleanolic Acid as Effective Penetration Enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk-Cwynar, Barbara; Partyka, Danuta; Zaprutko, Lucjusz

    2015-01-01

    Transdermal transport is now becoming one of the most convenient and safe pathways for drug delivery. In some cases it is necessary to use skin penetration enhancers in order to allow for the transdermal transport of drugs that are otherwise insufficiently skin-permeable. A series of oleanolic acid amides as potential transdermal penetration enhancers was formed by multistep synthesis and the synthesis of all newly prepared compounds is presented. The synthetized amides of oleanolic acid were tested for their in vitro penetration promoter activity. The above activity was evaluated by means of using the Fürst method. The relationships between the chemical structure of the studied compounds and penetration activity are presented. PMID:26010090

  10. Medicaid Managed Care Penetration Rates and Expansion Enr...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicaid managed care penetration rates and expansion enrollment by state charts are composed annually by the Data and System Group (DSG) of the Centers for...

  11. Mastering wireless penetration testing for highly secured environments

    CERN Document Server

    Johns, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for security professionals who want to enhance their wireless penetration testing skills and knowledge. Since this book covers advanced techniques, you will need some previous experience in computer security and networking.

  12. Measurements of current penetration during PDX discharge start-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhofer, D.D.; Goldston, R.J.; Kaita, R.; Cavallo, A.; Grek, B.; Johnson, D.; McCune, D.C.; McGuire, K.; White, R.B.

    1984-11-01

    The current penetration phase of PDX discharges is examined. The Fast Ion Diagnostic Experiment has been used to measure the temporal evolution of the central q (r/a < 0.4), and to show the effect of magnetic perturbations on fast ions. During plasma current penetration, a series of magnetic perturbations was observed in the plasma. If the current was rising rapidly, the perturbations were accompanied by increases in β/sub theta/ + l/sub i//2 and decreases in the loop voltage, suggesting a rapid penetration of the plasma current. When the plasma current was rising slowly, a series of minor disruptions occurred. These were accompanied by decreases in β/sub theta/ + l/sub i//2 and the loop voltage, and increases in the plasma current. During this phase, current penetration may be enhanced by the change in the resistivity profile which accompanies the disruption

  13. Microstructural observations on the terminal penetration of long rod projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krushna Kumbhar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Present study focuses on the terminal penetration of tungsten heavy alloy (WHA long rod penetrator impacted against armour steel at an impact velocity of 1600 m/s. The residual penetrator and armour steel target recovered after the ballistic test have been characterized using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA. Metallurgical changes in target steel and WHA remnant have been analysed. Large shear stresses and shear localization have resulted in local failure and formation of erosion products. Severe plastic deformation acts as precursor for formation of adiabatic shear band (ASB induced cracks in target steel. Recovered WHA penetrator remnant also exhibits severe plastic deformation forming localized shear bands, ASB induced cracks and shock induced cracks.

  14. Competition and mobile penetration in sub-Saharan Africa | Belayeh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saharan African (SSA) countries between 2000 and 2006. We examine both the impact of introducing competition and the role of intensity of competition on mobile penetration in these countries. Different specifications with different measures of ...

  15. Modelling skin penetration using the Laplace transform technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anissimov, Y G; Watkinson, A

    2013-01-01

    The Laplace transform is a convenient mathematical tool for solving ordinary and partial differential equations. The application of this technique to problems arising in drug penetration through the skin is reviewed in this paper. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Aerial electrostatic spray deposition and canopy penetration in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray deposition on abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces along with canopy penetration are essential for insect control and foliage defoliation in cotton production agriculture. Researchers have reported that electrostatically charged sprays have increased spray deposit onto these surfaces under widel...

  17. Simple amides of oleanolic acid as effective penetration enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk-Cwynar, Barbara; Partyka, Danuta; Zaprutko, Lucjusz

    2015-01-01

    Transdermal transport is now becoming one of the most convenient and safe pathways for drug delivery. In some cases it is necessary to use skin penetration enhancers in order to allow for the transdermal transport of drugs that are otherwise insufficiently skin-permeable. A series of oleanolic acid amides as potential transdermal penetration enhancers was formed by multistep synthesis and the synthesis of all newly prepared compounds is presented. The synthetized amides of oleanolic acid were tested for their in vitro penetration promoter activity. The above activity was evaluated by means of using the Fürst method. The relationships between the chemical structure of the studied compounds and penetration activity are presented.

  18. Age-related percutaneous penetration part 1: skin factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, S; Meier-Davis, S R; Cayme, B; Shudo, J; Maibach, H I

    2012-05-01

    Changes in the skin that occur in the elderly may put them at increased risk for altered percutaneous penetration from pharmacotherapy along with potential adverse effects. Skin factors that may have a role in age-related percutaneous penetration include blood flow, pH, skin thickness, hair and pore density, and the content and structure of proteins, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), water, and lipids. Each factor is examined as a function of increasing age along with its potential impact on percutaneous penetration. Additionally, topical drugs that successfully overcome the barrier function of the skin can still fall victim to cutaneous metabolism, thereby producing metabolites that may have increased or decreased activity. This overview discusses the current data and highlights the importance of further studies to evaluate the impact of skin factors in age-related percutaneous penetration.

  19. Endodontic sealers: Intratubular penetration and permeability to Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bortolini Maria Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : Evaluate in vitro the intratubular penetration and permeability of endodontic sealers in teeth contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods : Human canines were filled with AHPlus ® , Endo CPM-sealer ® or EndoRez ® sealers. To evaluate permeability, the coronary portion of each tooth was contaminated with E. faecalis, then the apical portion was immersed in brain heart infusion (BHI broth, and medium turbidity was observed for thirty days. Scanning electron microscope (SEM was used to evaluate the intratubular penetration of each sealer at the cervical, middle, and apical thirds of the tooth. Results : Only one tooth from the Endo CPM-sealer ® group presented broth contamination. EndoRez ® showed increased intratubular penetration compared to AHPlus ® and Endo CPM-sealer ® . Conclusions : Endo CPM-sealer ® showed greater permeability to E. faecalis and EndoRez ® showed increased intratubular penetration.

  20. Civilian Penetrating Gunshot Injury to the Neurocranium in Enugu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons ... Table 1: Clinicodemographic profile of civilian penetrating gunshot neurocranial injuries ... (*Armed robbery, cultists, terrorism). [Downloaded free from ...

  1. A numerical investigation of vapor intrusion--the dynamic response of contaminant vapors to rainfall events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G; Suuberg, Eric M

    2012-10-15

    The U.S. government and various agencies have published guidelines for field investigation of vapor intrusion, most of which suggest soil gas sampling as an integral part of the investigation. Contaminant soil gas data are often relatively more stable than indoor air vapor concentration measurements, but meteorological conditions might influence soil gas values. Although a few field and numerical studies have considered some temporal effects on soil gas vapor transport, a full explanation of the contaminant vapor concentration response to rainfall events is not available. This manuscript seeks to demonstrate the effects on soil vapor transport during and after different rainfall events, by applying a coupled numerical model of fluid flow and vapor transport. Both a single rainfall event and seasonal rainfall events were modeled. For the single rainfall event models, the vapor response process could be divided into three steps: namely, infiltration, water redistribution, and establishment of a water lens atop the groundwater source. In the infiltration step, rainfall intensity was found to determine the speed of the wetting front and wash-out effect on the vapor. The passage of the wetting front led to an increase of the vapor concentration in both the infiltration and water redistribution steps and this effect is noted at soil probes located 1m below the ground surface. When the mixing of groundwater with infiltrated water was not allowed, a clean water lens accumulated above the groundwater source and led to a capping effect which can reduce diffusion rates of contaminant from the source. Seasonal rainfall with short time intervals involved superposition of the individual rainfall events. This modeling results indicated that for relatively deeper soil that the infiltration wetting front could not flood, the effects were damped out in less than a month after rain; while in the long term (years), possible formation of a water lens played a larger role in determining

  2. Containment penetration design and analysis by finite element methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.F.; Rigamonti, G.; Dainora, J.

    1975-01-01

    Containment penetration designs which provide complete support to process piping containing high pressure and high temperature fluids and which do not employ cooling coils, require special provisions to sustain loadings associated with normal/abnormal conditions and to limit maximum temperature transmitted to the containment concrete wall. In order to accommodate piping imposed loads and fluid temperatures within code and regulatory limitations, the containment penetration designs require careful analysis of two critical regions: the portion of the penetration sleeve which is exposed to containment ambient conditions and the portion of the penetration which connects the sleeve to process piping (flued head). The length and thickness of the sleeve must be designed to provide maximum heat dissipation to the atmosphere and minimum heat conduction through the sleeve to meet concrete temperature limitations. The sleeve must have the capability to transmit the postulated piping loads to concrete embedments in the containment shell. The penetration flued head design must be strong enough to transfer high mechanical loads and be flexible enough to accommodate the thermal stresses generated by the high temperature fluid. Analytical models using finite element representations of process piping, penetration flued head, and exposed sleeve were employed to investigate the penetration assembly design. By application of flexible multi-step analyses, different penetration configurations were evaluated to determine the effects of key design parameters. Among the parameters studied were flued head profiles, flued head angles with the process piping, sleeve length and wall thickness. Special designs employing fins welded to the sleeve to lower the temperature at the concrete wall interface were investigated and fin geometry effects reported

  3. Life insurance density and penetration: panel data analysis across countries

    OpenAIRE

    Urbanavičiūtė, Greta

    2016-01-01

    Life Insurance Density and Penetration: Panel Data Analysis Across Countries This bachelor thesis examines two key indicators in the life insurance market: density and penetration. The main purpose is to analyse which factors have the biggest impact on these two indicators in 39 countries around the world. Panel data models, which represent the collected data best, were created. This paper examines the latest public data available in 39 countries, including the Baltic States, and new signific...

  4. Pulsed lower-hybrid wave penetration in reactor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.; Bonoli, P.T.; Porkolab, M.; Rognlien, T.D.

    1989-01-01

    Providing lower-hybrid power in short, intense (GW) pulses allows enhanced wave penetration in reactor-grade plasmas. We examine nonlinear absorption, ray propagation, and parametric instability of the intense pulses. We find that simultaneously achieving good penetration while avoiding parametric instabilities is possible, but imposes restrictions on the peak power density, pulse duration, and/or r.f. spot shape. In particular, power launched in narrow strips, elongated along the field direction, is desired

  5. Modelling of spray evaporation and penetration for alternative fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Azami, M. H.; Savill, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this work is on the modelling of evaporation and spray penetration for alternative fuels. The extension model approach is presented and validated for alternative fuels, namely, Kerosene (KE), Ethanol (ETH), Methanol (MTH), Microalgae biofuel (MA), Jatropha biofuel (JA), and Camelina biofuel (CA). The results for atomization and spray penetration are shown in a time variant condition. Comparisons have been made to visualize the transient behaviour of these fuels. The vapour pressu...

  6. Chronic Disease Prevalence and Medicare Advantage Market Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Steven W. Howard; Stephanie Lazarus Bernell; Faizan M. Casim; Jennifer Wilmott; Lindsey Pearson; Caitlin M. Byler; Zidong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    By March 2015, 30% of all Medicare beneficiaries were enrolled in Medicare Advantage (MA) plans. Research to date has not explored the impacts of MA market penetration on individual or population health outcomes. The primary objective of this study is to examine the relationships between MA market penetration and the beneficiary?s portfolio of cardiometabolic diagnoses. This study uses 2004 to 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Household Component data to construct an aggregate inde...

  7. Generic penetration in the retail atypical antipsychotic market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenderts, Susan; Kalali, Amir H; Buckley, Peter

    2010-03-01

    In this article, we explore the penetration of generic atypical antipsychotics in the United States market before and after the availability of generic risperidone in July 2008. Analysis suggests that, overall, generic penetration into the atypical antipsychotic market has grown from approximately three percent in January 2008 to more than 25 percent in December 2009. Similar trends are uncovered when branded and generic prescriptions are analyzed by specialty.

  8. Solar energy market penetration models - Science or number mysticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, E. H., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The forecast market potential of a solar technology is an important factor determining its R&D funding. Since solar energy market penetration models are the method used to forecast market potential, they have a pivotal role in a solar technology's development. This paper critiques the applicability of the most common solar energy market penetration models. It is argued that the assumptions underlying the foundations of rigorously developed models, or the absence of a reasonable foundation for the remaining models, restrict their applicability.

  9. Penetration of charged particles through ordered isotropic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmund, P.

    1977-01-01

    A brief summary of some new results on fluctuation phenomena in particle penetration is presented. The results include collision statistics, positive and negative correlations and a framework for the treatment of cumulative effects in particle penetration. Incorporation of projectile and target states in the description and energy-loss straggling are discussed. Small-angle multiple scattering is considered and a comment made on ionic charge states. (B.R.H.)

  10. The impact of mobile phone penetration on African inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu Simplice

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to complement theoretical and qualitative literature with empirical evidence on the income-redistributive effect of mobile phone penetration in 52 African countries. Design/methodology/approach – Robust Ordinary Least Squares and Two Stage Least Squares empirical strategies are employed. Findings – The findings suggest that mobile penetration is pro-poor, as it has a positive income equality effect. Social implications – 'Mobile phone'-oriented poverty reduc...

  11. How has Mobile Phone Penetration Stimulated Financial Development in Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A, Asongu

    2012-01-01

    In the first macroeconomic empirical assessment of the relationship between mobile phones and finance, this paper examines the correlations between mobile phone penetration and financial development using two conflicting definitions of the financial system in the financial development literature. With the traditional IFS (2008) definition, mobile phone penetration has a negative correlation with traditional financial intermediary dynamics of depth, activity and size. However, when a previous...

  12. Videofluoroscopic Predictors of Penetration-Aspiration in Parkinson's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argolo, Natalie; Sampaio, Marília; Pinho, Patrícia; Melo, Ailton; Nóbrega, Ana Caline

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients show a high prevalence of swallowing disorders and tracheal aspiration of food. The videofluoroscopic study of swallowing (VFSS) allows clinicians to visualize the visuoperceptual and temporal parameters associated with swallowing disorders in an attempt to predict aspiration risk. However, this subject remains understudied in PD populations. Our aim was to identify the predictors of penetration-aspiration in PD patients using the VFSS. Consecutive patients were evaluated using VFSS with different consistencies and volumes of food. A speech-language pathologist measured the type of intra-oral bolus organization, loss of bolus control, bolus location at the initiation of the pharyngeal swallow, the presence of multiple swallows, piecemeal deglutition, bolus residue in the pharyngeal recesses and temporal measures. Scores ≥3 on the penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) indicated the occurrence of penetration-aspiration. Using logistic marginal regression, we found that residue in the vallecula, residue in the upper esophageal sphincter and piecemeal deglutition were associated with penetration-aspiration (odds ratio (OR) = 4.09, 2.87 and 3.83; P = 0.0040, 0.0071 and 0.0009, respectively). Penetration/aspiration occurred only with fluids (both of thin and thick consistency), and no significant differences were observed between fluid types or food volumes. The mechanisms underlying dysphagia and penetration/aspiration in PD patients and indications for further studies are discussed.

  13. Chronic Disease Prevalence and Medicare Advantage Market Penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernell, Stephanie Lazarus; Casim, Faizan M.; Wilmott, Jennifer; Pearson, Lindsey; Byler, Caitlin M.; Zhang, Zidong

    2015-01-01

    By March 2015, 30% of all Medicare beneficiaries were enrolled in Medicare Advantage (MA) plans. Research to date has not explored the impacts of MA market penetration on individual or population health outcomes. The primary objective of this study is to examine the relationships between MA market penetration and the beneficiary’s portfolio of cardiometabolic diagnoses. This study uses 2004 to 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Household Component data to construct an aggregate index that captures multiple diagnoses in one outcome measure (Chronic Disease Severity Index [CDSI]). The MEPS data for 8089 Medicare beneficiaries are merged with MA market penetration data from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Ordinary least squares regressions are run with SAS 9.3 to model the effects of MA market penetration on CDSI. The results suggest that each percentage increase in MA market penetration is associated with a greater than 2-point decline in CDSI (lower burden of cardiometabolic chronic disease). Spill-over effects may be driving improvements in the cardiometabolic health of beneficiary populations in counties with elevated levels of MA market penetration. PMID:28462266

  14. Chronic Disease Prevalence and Medicare Advantage Market Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W. Howard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available By March 2015, 30% of all Medicare beneficiaries were enrolled in Medicare Advantage (MA plans. Research to date has not explored the impacts of MA market penetration on individual or population health outcomes. The primary objective of this study is to examine the relationships between MA market penetration and the beneficiary’s portfolio of cardiometabolic diagnoses. This study uses 2004 to 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS Household Component data to construct an aggregate index that captures multiple diagnoses in one outcome measure (Chronic Disease Severity Index [CDSI]. The MEPS data for 8089 Medicare beneficiaries are merged with MA market penetration data from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS. Ordinary least squares regressions are run with SAS 9.3 to model the effects of MA market penetration on CDSI. The results suggest that each percentage increase in MA market penetration is associated with a greater than 2-point decline in CDSI (lower burden of cardiometabolic chronic disease. Spill-over effects may be driving improvements in the cardiometabolic health of beneficiary populations in counties with elevated levels of MA market penetration.

  15. Recursive Monte Carlo method for deep-penetration problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, M.; Greenspan, E.

    1980-01-01

    The Recursive Monte Carlo (RMC) method developed for estimating importance function distributions in deep-penetration problems is described. Unique features of the method, including the ability to infer the importance function distribution pertaining to many detectors from, essentially, a single M.C. run and the ability to use the history tape created for a representative region to calculate the importance function in identical regions, are illustrated. The RMC method is applied to the solution of two realistic deep-penetration problems - a concrete shield problem and a Tokamak major penetration problem. It is found that the RMC method can provide the importance function distributions, required for importance sampling, with accuracy that is suitable for an efficient solution of the deep-penetration problems considered. The use of the RMC method improved, by one to three orders of magnitude, the solution efficiency of the two deep-penetration problems considered: a concrete shield problem and a Tokamak major penetration problem. 8 figures, 4 tables

  16. Mass spectrometric study of Nd2S3 vaporization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenochka, B.V.

    1987-01-01

    The authors conduct a mass-spectrometric study of neodymium(III) sulfide vaporization. The chemical composition of the samples was stoichiometric and the samples were vaporized from tantalum effusion cells. When the vapor over Nd 2 S 3 is ionized by electrons the mass spectra shows monovalent cations of Nd, S, NdS, and NdO. The enthalpy of vaporization if Nd atoms from Nd 2 S 3 at average experimental temperatures and the standard enthalpy of reaction is shown. Also presented is the enthalpy of vaporization of NdS molecules from Nd 2 S 3 at average experimental temperatures and the standard enthalpy of reaction

  17. Cumulus convection and the terrestrial water-vapor distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Leo J.

    1988-01-01

    Cumulus convection plays a significant role in determining the structure of the terrestrial water vapor field. Cumulus convection acts directly on the moisture field by condensing and precipitating water vapor and by redistributing water vapor through cumulus induced eddy circulations. The mechanisms by which cumulus convection influences the terrestrial water vapor distribution is outlined. Calculations using a theory due to Kuo is used to illustrate the mechanisms by which cumulus convection works. Understanding of these processes greatly aids the ability of researchers to interpret the seasonal and spatial distribution of atmospheric water vapor by providing information on the nature of sources and sinks and the global circulation.

  18. Liquid-liquid contact in vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, A.

    1978-08-01

    The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This phenomenon is called a vapor explosion. One method of producing intimate, liquid-liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. The report describes experiments in which cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials

  19. Thermodynamics of the vaporization of uranium tetrabromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Z.; Prasad, R.; Venugopal, P.V.; Roy, K.N.; Sood, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    Vapour pressures of solid and liquid uranium tetrabromide have been measured in the temperature range of 696 to 805 K and 805 to 1003 K respectively by transpiration and evaporation-temperature techniques. The vapour pressures obtained by the two techniques are in good agreement and have been combined to give the reported vapour-pressure equations for solid and liquid uranium tetrabromide. The melting temperature, the normal boiling temperature, the standard enthalpy of vaporization ΔH 0 (vap, 298.15 K), and the standard entropy of vaporization ΔS 0 (vap, 298.15 K) are reported. The enthalpy of fusion ΔH 0 (fus, 802 K) is also reported. The thermodynamic quantities from the present study are compared with those in the literature and critically analysed. (author)

  20. Vaporization of structural materials in severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Vaporized structural materials form the bulk of aerosol particles that can transport fission products in severe LWR accidents. As part of the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a model has been developed based on a mass transport coefficient to describe the transport of materials from the surface of a molten pool. In many accident scenarios, the coefficient can be calculated from existing correlations for mass transfer by natural convection. Data from SASCHA fuel melting tests (Karlsruhe, Germany) show that the partial pressures of many of the melt components (Fe, Cr, Co, Mn, Sn) required for the model can be calculated from the vapor pressures of the pure species and Raoult's law. These calculations indicate much lower aerosol concentrations than reported in previous studies